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Sample records for alteration zones underlying

  1. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF

  2. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF

  3. Epigenetic alterations underlying autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Karami, Jafar; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Malekshahi, Zahra; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in genetic explorations have extended our understanding through discovery of genetic patterns subjected to autoimmune diseases (AID). Genetics, on the contrary, has not answered all the conundrums to describe a comprehensive explanation of causal mechanisms of disease etiopathology with regard to the function of environment, sex, or aging. The other side of the coin, epigenetics which is defined by gene manifestation modification without DNA sequence alteration, reportedly has come in to provide new insights towards disease apprehension through bridging the genetics and environmental factors. New investigations in genetic and environmental contributing factors for autoimmunity provide new explanation whereby the interactions between genetic elements and epigenetic modifications signed by environmental agents may be responsible for autoimmune disease initiation and perpetuation. It is aimed through this article to review recent progress attempting to reveal how epigenetics associates with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  4. Swash Zone Response under Various Wave Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Baldock, Tom; Contestabile, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    The modelling of swash zone (SZ) sediment transport and the resulting morphodynamics have been areas of active research over the last decade. However, many details are still to be understood, whose knowledge will be greatly advanced by the collection of high-quality data under the controlled large......-scale laboratory conditions. The research describes tests carried out in the large wave flume of the Maritime Engineering Laboratory at Catalonia University of Technology, to investigate the SZ under the storm conditions. Its main aim was to compare beach-profile responses for monochromatic waves, monochromatic...

  5. Plant cells in vitro under altered gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D O

    1998-07-01

    Establishing the role of gravity in plant requires information about how gravity regulates the metabolism of individual cells. Plant cells and tissues in vitro are valuable models for such purpose. Disrupted intercellular relations in such models have allowed to elucidate both the gravity role in non-specialised to gravity plant cells and the correlative relation role of an intact plant organism. The data obtained from non-numerous space and clinostat experiments with plant cells in vitro have demonstrated that their metabolism is sensitive to g-environment. The most experiments have shown a decrease in the biomass production and cell proliferation of spaceflight samples compared with ground controls, although there is study reporting of increased biomass production in an anise suspension culture and D. carota crown gall tissue culture. At the same time, results of experiments with single carrot cells and tomato callus culture demonstrated similarities in differentiation process in microgravity and in ground controls. Noted ultrastructural arrangement in cells, especially mitochondria and plastids, have been related to altered energy load and functions of organelles in microgravity, as well as changes in the lipid peroxidation and the content of malonic dyaldehyde in a haplopappus tissue culture under altered gravity supposed with modification of membrane structural-functional state. This article focuses on growth aspects of the cultured cells in microgravity and under clinostat conditions and considers those aspects that require further analysis.

  6. Extraction of Mineral Alteration Zone from ETM+ Data in Northwestern Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhifang; Zhang Yujun; Cheng Qiuming; Chen Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Alteration is regarded as significant information for mineral exploration. In this study, ETM+ remote sensing data are used for recognizing and extracting alteration zones in northwestern Yunnan (云南), China. The principal component analysis (PCA) of ETM+ bands 1, 4, 5, and 7 was employed for OH- alteration extractions. The PCA of ETM+ bands 1, 3, 4, and 5 was used for extracting Fe2+ (Fe3+) alterations. Interfering factors, such as vegetation, snow, and shadows, were masked. Alteration components were defined in the principal components (PCs) by the contributions of their diagnostic spectral bands. The zones of alteration identified from remote sensing were analyzed in detail along with geological surveys and field verification. The results show that the OH" alteration is a main indicator of K-feldspar, phyllic, and prophilized alterations. These alterations are closely related to porphyry copper deposits. The Fe2+ (Fe3+) alteration indicates pyritization, which is mainly related to hydrothermal or skarn type polymetallic deposits.

  7. Genesis of hydrothermal alterations using stable isotope geochemistry in Takestan area (Tarom zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Taghipou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal alteration processes are extensively took place on volcanic and pyroclstics of Takestan area. Existence of abundant, deep fracturing and subvolcanic intrusions are enhanced extend hydrothermal alteration zones. The following alteration zones are determined: propylitic, argillic, advanced argillic and sillicic. There are outcropped and widespread in different size and limit. Formation of siliceous sinter, silicified tuffs with preserved primary sedimentary layering including pure mineralized alunite patches are most outstanding. Quartz, sussoritic plagioclase, chlorite, sericite and alunite are main mineral constituents in the volcanics. On the basis of geochemical data volcanic rocks are rhyolite, dacite, andesite, andesitic-basalt and basalt in composition. Acid-sulfate zone is the type of alteration in Tarom area and alunite is an index mineral of this zone. Results of 18O, D and 34S stable isotope geochemistry on altered minerals (muscovite, kaolinite and alunite, revealed that alteration fluids are magmatic in origin.

  8. Effect of alteration zones on water quality: A case study from Biga Peninsula, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Alper; Gündüz, Orhan

    2010-01-01

    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration can be found in the Çan volcanics of Biga Peninsula, northwest Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from the boundary between fractured aquifer (silicified zone) and impervious boundary (argillic zone). This study focuses on two such springs in KirazlI area (KirazlI and Balaban springs) with a distinct quality pattern. Accordingly, field parameters (temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity...

  9. Uranium redistribution under oxidizing conditions in Oklo natural reactor zone 2, Gabon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, H.; Ohnuki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Murakami, T. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Gauthier-Lafaye, F. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Geochemie de la Surface

    1995-12-31

    This mineralogical study was completed to elucidate the relationships between uranium distribution and alteration products of the host rock of natural reactor zone clays just below the reactor core. Uraninite is preserved without any alteration in the reactor core. Uranium minerals are found to be present in the fractures in the reactor zone clays associated with iron-mineral veins, galena and Ti-bearing minerals. Uranium, for which the phases could not be identified, occurs in iron-mineral veins and the iron-mineral rim of pyrite grains in the reactor zone clays. Uranium is not associated with granular iron minerals occurring in the illite matrix of the reactor zone clays. The degree of crystallinity and uranium content of the three iron-bearing alteration products suggest that they formed under different conditions; the granular iron minerals, under alteration conditions where uranium was not mobilized while the iron-mineral veins and the iron-mineral rim of pyrite, under conditions in which uranium is mobilized after the formation of the granular iron minerals.

  10. Magma storage under Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, J.; Neave, D.; Hartley, M. E.; Edmonds, M.; Thordarson, T.; Morgan, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland is defined by a number of volcanic systems and large basaltic eruptions occur both through central volcanoes (e.g. Grímsvötn) and on associated fissure rows (e.g. Laki, Eldgjá). We have collected a large quantity of micro-analytical data from a number of EVZ eruptions, with the aim of identifying common processes that occur in the premonitory stages of significant volcanic events. Here, we focus on the AD 1783 Laki event, the early postglacial Saksunarvatn tephra and the sub-glacially erupted Skuggafjöll tindar and for each of these eruptions we have >100 olivine-hosted or plagioclase-hosted melt inclusion analyses for major, trace and volatile elements. These large datasets are vital for understanding the history of melt evolution in the plumbing system of basaltic volcanoes. Diverse trace element compositions in melt inclusions hosted in primitive macrocrysts (i.e. Fo>84, An>84) indicate that the mantle melts supplied to the plumbing system of EVZ eruptions are highly variable in composition. Concurrent mixing and crystallisation of these melts occurs in crustal magma bodies. The levels of the deepest of these magma bodies are not well constrained by EVZ petrology, with only a handful of high-CO2 melt inclusions from Laki providing evidence for magma supply from >5 kbar. In contrast, the volatile contents of melt inclusions in evolved macrocrysts, which are close to equilibrium with the carrier liquids, indicate that final depths of inclusion entrapment are 0.5-2 kbar. The major element composition of the matrix glasses shows that the final pressure of equilibration between the melt and its macrocryst phases also occurred at 0.5-2 kbar. The relationship between these pressures and seismic/geodetic estimates of chamber depths needs to be carefully evaluated. The melt inclusion and macrocryst compositional record indicates that injection of porphyritic, gas-rich primitive melt into evolved/enriched and degassed shallow

  11. GEOCHEMICAL KINETIC SIMULATION ON WALL—ROCK ALTERATION ZONING IN THE BAOBAN GOLD FIELD,SOUTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志峰; 杨丽清; 等

    1994-01-01

    The Baoban gold field,located in the area of Hainan Island ,South China ,bears three gold de-posits :Tuwaishan ,Baoban ,and Erjia ,which belong to the wall-rock alteration type.In terms of the petrography data,four alteration zones can be recognized from the ore-vein outwards(1)the silicification zone;(2)the sericitization zone;(3)the chloritization zone;and (4)the calcitization zone.The geochemical kinetic simulation was carried out on sericitization and chloritization .Results of the study showed that the formation of the alteration zones is connected with the properties of hydrothermal fluids:the initial concentration of Al (O H)3,the diffusion coefficient and the velocity of fluid flow.The alteration zones in this field are the result of multiple interaction between hydrothermal fluids and wall rocks.

  12. Mapping advanced argillic alteration zones with ASTER and Hyperion data in the Andes Mountains of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yuddy; Goïta, Kalifa; Péloquin, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion hyperspectral sensor datasets to detect advanced argillic minerals. The spectral signatures of some alteration clay minerals, such as dickite and alunite, have similar absorption features; thus separating them using multispectral satellite images is a complex challenge. However, Hyperion with its fine spectral bands has potential for good separability of features. The Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm was used in this study to map three advanced argillic alteration minerals (alunite, kaolinite, and dickite) in a known alteration zone in the Peruvian Andes. The results from ASTER and Hyperion were analyzed, compared, and validated using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer field spectrometer. The alterations corresponding to kaolinite and alunite were detected with both ASTER and Hyperion (80% to 84% accuracy). However, the dickite mineral was identified only with Hyperion (82% accuracy).

  13. Microbial reduction of hexavalent chromium under vadose zone conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Douglas S; Brockman, Fred J; Bowman, Robert S; Kieft, Thomas L

    2003-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a common contaminant associated with nuclear reactors and fuel processing. Improper disposal at facilities in and and semiarid regions has contaminated underlying vadose zones and aquifers. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential for immobilizing Cr(VI) using a native microbial community to reduce soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III) under conditions similar to those in the vadose zone, and to evaluate the potential for enhancing biological Cr(VI) reduction through nutrient addition. Batch microcosm and unsaturated flow column experiments were performed. Native microbial communities in subsurface sediments with no prior Cr(VI) exposure were shown to be capable of Cr(VI) reduction. In both the batch and column experiments, Cr(VI) reduction and loss from the aqueous phase were enhanced by adding high levels of both nitrate (NO3-) and organic C (molasses). Nutrient amendments resulted in up to 87% reduction of the initial 67 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) in an unsaturated batch experiment. Molasses and nitrate additions to 15 cm long unsaturated flow columns receiving 65 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) resulted in microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of 10% of the Cr during a 45-d experiment. All of the immobilized Cr was in the form of Cr(III), as shown by XANES analysis. This suggests that biostimulation of microbial Cr(VI) reduction in vadose zones by nutrient amendment is a promising strategy, and that immobilization of close to 100% of Cr contamination could be achieved in a thick vadose zone with longer flow paths and longer contact times than in this experiment.

  14. Microbial reduction of hexavalent Chromium under vadose zone conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D S.(unknown); Brockman, Fred J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bowman, Robert (VISITORS); Kieft, Thomas L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium[Cr(VI)] is a common constituent of wastes associated with nuclear reactor operation and fuel processing. Improper disposal at facilities in arid and semi-arid regions has led to contamination of underlying vadose zones and aquifers. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential for immobilizing Cr(VI) contamination using a native microbial community to reduce soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III) under conditions similar to those found in the vadose zone, and to evaluate the potential for enhancing biological reduction of Cr(VI) through the addition of nutrients. Batch microcosm and unsaturated flow column experiments were performed. Native microbial communities in subsurface sediments with no prior Cr(VI) exposure were shown to be capable of Cr(VI) reduction. In both the batch and column experiments, Cr(VI) reduction and loss from the aqueous phase were enhanced by adding high levels of both nitrate (NO3-) and organic carbon (molasses). Nutrient amendments resulted in up to 87% Cr(VI) reduction in unsaturated batch experiments. Molasses and nitrate additions to 15-cm length unsaturated flow columns receiving 65 mg L-1 Cr(VI) resulted in microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of 10% of the Cr during a 45-day experiment. All of the immobilized Cr was in the form of Cr (III), as shown by XANES analysis. This suggests that biostimulation of microbial Cr(VI) reduction in vadose zones by nutrient amendment is a promising strategy; and that immobilization of close to 100% of Cr contamination could be achieved in a thick vadose zone with longer flow paths and longer contact times than in this experiment.

  15. Effect of alteration zones on water quality: a case study from Biga Peninsula, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan

    2010-04-01

    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration can be found in the Can volcanics of Biga Peninsula, northwest Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from the boundary between fractured aquifer (silicified zone) and impervious boundary (argillic zone). This study focuses on two such springs in Kirazli area (Kirazli and Balaban springs) with a distinct quality pattern. Accordingly, field parameters (temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity), major anion and cation (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, and sulfate), heavy metals (aluminum, arsenic, barium, chromium, cobalt, cupper, iron, lithium, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc), and isotopes (oxygen-18, deuterium, and tritium) were determined in water samples taken from these springs during 2005 through 2007. The chemical analyses showed that aluminum concentrations were found to be two orders of magnitude greater in Kirazli waters (mean value 13813.25 microg/L). The levels of this element exceeded the maximum allowable limits given in national and international standards for drinking-water quality. In addition, Balaban and Kirazli springs are >55 years old according to their tritium levels; Kirazli spring is older than Balaban spring. Kirazli spring is also more enriched than Balaban spring based in oxygen-18 and deuterium values. Furthermore, Kirazli spring water has been in contact with altered rocks longer than Balaban spring water, according to its relatively high chloride and electrical conductivity values.

  16. Characterizing the altered zone at Yucca Mountain: The beginning of a testing strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesnut, D.A.

    1992-01-08

    The concept of a disturbed zone surrounding the mined openings of a potential geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste was introduced by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a region to be excluded for determining groundwater travel time to the accessible environment, but to be included for determining the impact of underground construction and radioactive decay heat on groundwater movement and radionuclide transport for total system performance analysis. This paper explores both the regulatory and technical necessity for characterizing and modeling a larger region -- the altered zone -- within which the temperature is increased significantly by heat from the high-level waste. Particular attention is given to addressing the effects of heterogeneity on groundwater flux and travel time, showing how these effects might be modeled simply on a macroscopic scale, and outlining its parameters. The effect of uncertainty in the parameter values on the performance of a potential repository can then be easily handled by probabilistic analysis.

  17. The Activity of Major Faults and the Hydrothermal Alteration Zone at Tianchi Volcano of Changbaishan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mingjun; Gu Menglin; Sun Zhenguo; Wei Haiquan; Jin Bolu

    2004-01-01

    It is found by field investigation that the near horizontal top surface of the brown or brick-red hydrothermal alteration zone varies obviously in elevation at different sections of the same layer on the caldera's inner wall of Tianchi, with that at the north section near the Tianwen Peak about 110 m higher than that at the south near the Jiangjun Peak in Korea. The top surface of the hydrothermal alteration zone can be taken as key horizon to tectonic movement. The difference indicates that the total uplift height of the NW wall of the Liudaogou-TianchiJingfengshan fault, the principal fault trending NE at Tianchi, is bigger than that of the SE wall ever since the occurrence of hydrothermal alteration. This also explains why the topography in the northwest side of Tianchi is steeper and with more developed river system than in the southeast. The uplifting of the northeastern wall is bigger than that of the southwest along the principal NW-trend fault, namely, the Baishanzhen-Tianchi-Jince fault. It is observed from characters of hydrothermal alteration and the palaeoresiduum, that the recent vertical movement rate along the principal NE-trend fault is larger than that of the principal NW-trend fault. The two faults intersect at Tianchi, dividing the volcano into 4 blocks, with the uplift magnitudes decreasing successively in the order of the north, the west, the east and the south block. The biggest uplift of the north block corresponds well to the shallow magma batch in the north of Tianchi observed by DSS and telluric electromagnetic sounding, and etc.and they may be related with the causes.

  18. Alteration of coffinite under reducing and oxidizing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Pointeau, Veronique; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2010-05-01

    Coffinite, USiO4, is a one of the two naturally occurring actinide silicates (second is thorite, ThSiO4) studied to elucidate the alteration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under reducing conditions in a Si-rich environment. In order to understand the stability of coffinite under different redox condition in natural systems, we have investigated coffinite the Grants Uranium Belt, New Mexico, USA (reducing and oxidizing conditions) utilizing a variety of electron microbeam techniques. Fine-grained coffinite (≤10 μm) from Woodrow Mine coexists with carbonate-fluorapatite (CFAp) and (Ca,Sr)-(meta)autunite (M-Aut). It precipitated under reducing conditions replacing CFAp, pyrite and aluminosilicates. Electron-microprobe analyses (EMPA) of coffinite indicate limited incorporation of P2O5 and CaO, below 2.7 and 3.0 wt.%, respectively, into the coffinite structure during replacement of CFAp. The chemical formula of coffinite is (U0.95±0.09Ca0.15±0.02)Σ1.10±0.1(Si0.84±0.08P0.06±0.02)Σ0.90±0.08. Analysis by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) revealed that coffinite initially formed as crystals as large as 100 nm at the edges of altered CFAp. Subsequently, infiltration of (Na,Ba,Sr)-rich oxidizing fluids into fractures resulted in precipitation of Sr-rich M-Aut (up to 4 wt.% of SrO) at the expense of coffinite and CFAp. High-resolution TEM reveals that Na-rich fluids caused a distortion of the ideal coffinite structure and stabilized amorphous domains that formed due to alpha-decay event radiation damage. Subsequently, the Na-enriched amorphous areas of coffinite were preferentially altered, and secondary porosity formed at the scale of ~1 μm. Porosity also was formed during alteration of CFAp to M-Aut, which facilitated the migration of oxidizing fluids over distances of ~150 μm into CFAp, as evidenced by precipitation of M-Aut. These results show that micro-scale dissolution of apatite can create conditions

  19. Myopic decisions under negative emotions correlate with altered time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shuchen; Cheng, Lu; Fan, Ying; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have obtained inconsistent findings about emotional influence on inter-temporal choice (IC). In the present study, we first examined the effect of temporary emotional priming induced by affective pictures in a trial-to-trial paradigm on IC. The results showed that negative priming resulted in much higher percentages of trials during which smaller-but-sooner reward (SS%) were chosen compared with positive and neutral priming. Next, we attempted to explore the possible mechanisms underlying such emotional effects. When participants performed a time reproduction task, mean reaction times in negative priming condition were significantly shorter than those in the other two emotional contexts, which indicated that negative emotional priming led to overestimation of time. Moreover, such overestimation was negatively correlated with performance in the IC task. In contrast, temporary changes of emotional contexts did not alter performances in a Go/NoGo task (including commission errors and omission errors). In sum, our present findings suggested that myopic decisions under negative emotions were associated with altered time perception but not response inhibition.

  20. Myopic decisions under negative emotions correlate with altered time perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchen eGuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have obtained inconsistent findings about emotional influence on inter-temporal choice. In the present study, we first examined the effect of temporary emotional priming induced by affective pictures in a trial-to-trial paradigm on inter-temporal choice. The results showed that negative priming resulted in much higher percentages of trials during which smaller-but-sooner rewards (SS% were chosen compared with positive and neutral priming. Next, we attempted to explore the possible mechanisms underlying such emotional effects. When participants performed a time reproduction task, mean reaction times in negative priming conditions were significantly shorter than those in the other two emotional contexts, which indicated that negative emotional priming led to overestimation of time. Moreover, such overestimation was negatively correlated with performance in the inter-temporal choice task. In contrast, temporary changes of emotional contexts did not alter performances in a Go/NoGo task (including commission errors and omission errors. In sum, our present findings suggested that myopic decisions under negative emotions were associated with altered time perception but not response inhibition.

  1. Gold-silver mining districts, alteration zones, and paleolandforms in the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2015-09-25

    The Bodie Hills is a ~40 by ~30 kilometer volcanic field that straddles the California-Nevada state boundary between Mono Lake and the East Walker River. Three precious metal mining districts and nine alteration zones are delineated in Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic and Mesozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks that comprise the volcanic field. Cumulative production from the mining districts, Bodie, Aurora, and Masonic, is 3.4 million ounces of gold and 28 million ounces of silver. Small amounts of mercury were produced from the Potato Peak, Paramount-Bald Peak, and Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zones; a native sulfur resource in the Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zone has been identified by drilling. There are no known mineral resources in the other six alteration zones, Red Wash-East Walker River, East Brawley Peak, Sawtooth Ridge, Aurora Canyon, Four Corners, and Spring Peak. The mining districts and alteration zones formed between 13.4 and 8.1 Ma in predominantly ~15–9 Ma volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills volcanic field. Ages of hydrothermal minerals in the districts and zones are the same as, or somewhat younger than, the ages of volcanic host rocks.

  2. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  3. Deoxygenation alters bacterial diversity and community composition in the ocean's largest oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, J Michael; Carolan, Molly T

    2013-01-01

    Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have a central role in biogeochemical cycles and are expanding as a consequence of climate change, yet how deoxygenation will affect the microbial communities that control these cycles is unclear. Here we sample across dissolved oxygen gradients in the oceans' largest OMZ and show that bacterial richness displays a unimodal pattern with decreasing dissolved oxygen, reaching maximum values on the edge of the OMZ and decreasing within it. Rare groups on the OMZ margin are abundant at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, including sulphur-cycling Chromatiales, for which 16S rRNA was amplified from extracted RNA. Microbial species distribution models accurately replicate community patterns based on multivariate environmental data, demonstrate likely changes in distributions and diversity in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean, and highlight the sensitivity of key bacterial groups to deoxygenation. Through these mechanisms, OMZ expansion may alter microbial composition, competition, diversity and function, all of which have implications for biogeochemical cycling in OMZs.

  4. Computational Hemodynamic Simulation of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim. Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan

    2003-01-01

    A computational hemodynamics approach is presented to simulate the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Numerical techniques relevant to hemodynamics issues are introduced to non-Newtonian modeling for flow characteristics governed by red blood cells, distensible wall motion due to the heart pulse, and capillary bed modeling for outflow boundary conditions. Gravitational body force terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effects of gravity on internal flows. Six-type gravity benchmark problems are originally presented to provide the fundamental understanding of gravitational effects on the human circulatory system. For code validation, computed results are compared with steady and unsteady experimental data for non-Newtonian flows in a carotid bifurcation model and a curved circular tube, respectively. This computational approach is then applied to the blood circulation in the human brain as a target problem. A three-dimensional, idealized Circle of Willis configuration is developed with minor arteries truncated based on anatomical data. Demonstrated is not only the mechanism of the collateral circulation but also the effects of gravity on the distensible wall motion and resultant flow patterns.

  5. Mapping of Gold Mineralization Alteration Zones in Central Eastern Desert Egypt using Spectral Angular Mapper and Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, E.; Fagin, T.; El Alfy, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Central Eastern Desert (CED), Egypt has long history of gold exploration and exploitation. In this study, we integrated Spectral Angular Mapper (SAM) technique and aeromagnetic data to map the gold mineralization associated within alteration zones in CED. The spectral reflectance curves of five main alteration minerals (Hematite, Illite, Kaolinite, Chlorite, and Quartz) were utilized as end members in the SAM supervised classification of ETM+ data. Each alteration mineral type was represented as a binary image that overlaid together to obtain single primary alteration map in CED. The possible pathways for the alteration migration was defined based on the subsurface and surface lineation features. For the subsurface lineation, Euler deconvolution filter was applied on the aeromagnetic data to locate the deep-seated faults. The surface lineation and shear zones were extracted from ETM+ data and used together with the subsurface lineation map to obtain a structural map. Layer intersection and fuzzy membership operation were applied for the entire datasets to identify the possible sites of alteration zones. Several GPS readings were taken from the field areas around the gold mine sites, and used as validation points for our primary results.

  6. Identifying the Distribution of Alteration Zone Using Very Low Frequency Method in Candi Gedong Songo, Ungaran, Semarang, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfianto, A. D.; Sari, D. P.; Almas, S. A.; Kurniawan, W. S.; Ambariani, S. G.; Suyanto, I.

    2016-09-01

    The alteration zone could be a key link and a proof to know where the paleo heat source was previously located. An electromagnetic survey to identify and to map the lateral and vertical distribution of alteration zone had been done at geothermal area Candi Gedong Songo, Ungaran, Central Java, from 9th - 19th of June 2014, using VLF method. The survey consisted of 6 profiles, with NW - SE direction, which were located nearby the fumaroles spots and then went down to the observed alteration zone. Each profile was 600 m long and the distance between each profile was 20 m. The space between each measurement point of a profile was 20 m. In this study, tilt and ellipticity data with frequency of 19.8 kHz (Japan) and 24 kHz (Panama) were used. First, the data was processed to get the cross features anomaly between tilt and ellipticity data on the chart. Then, the derivative fraser and the relative current density pseudosection were also made to support the cross features anomaly. The interpretation of this data was done qualitatively using fraser and relative current density pseudosection. The result shows that the alteration zone gives high response of conductivity compared to its surrounding area. This is supported by the anomaly cross features between tilt and ellipticity data on the chart, also by high value of fraser and relative current density. Thus, the alteration zone are located in meter 150 - 250 in V1 and V2 profiles, also in meter 180 - 250 in V5 and V6 profiles. This result indicates that the ancient heat source was previously located nearby the fumaroles area and it is physically shown by the presence of sulphuric clay mineral content at the alteration surface area.

  7. A study on the prediction of ARD generation in the hydrothermal alteration zone, in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, G.; Cheong, Y.; Ji, S.; Park, S.

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to predict acid rock drainage (ARD) generation in the hydrothermal alteration zone in the vicinity of the Busan, Korea. Recently serious water quality problems have been happening at the large- scale construction areas including the hydrothermal alteration zone. Therefore, it is important to predict the ARD vulnerability for sustainable development. To decrease the potential hazard due to the ARD in the proposed development areas, it is necessary to secure the database for the ARD in the potential vulnerable areas and to develop the most suitable ARD reduction technologies. The eighty-three samples were collected based on the grid net which was divided at a regular interval on the geological map to minimize spatial bias in the sampling process. The mineralogical analysis for the study area revealed that pyrite was present in the several areas of pyrophylite mineralization and andesite. Then samples were treated by static test such as Acid Base Accounting (ABA) and etc. pH1:2 and EC1:2 ranged from 2.27 to 7.9 and 1.89 to 648 ¥ìS/cm, respectively. The Maximum Potential Acidity (MPA) of samples ranged from 0.0009 to 71.298 kg H2SO4/t. Through the plot result of NAPP versus NAGpH, rock samples could be classified into two categories; Potential Acid Forming (PAF) rock and Non-Acid Forming (NAF) rock. Seven samples (eight percent of those tested) were classified as the PAF. Samples of rocks with high Sulfur content display the Net Acid Generation (NAGpH) values below 4.5. Results of the ABA tests indicated that the MPA value reached up to 71.30kg H2SO4/t and maximum Acid Neutralising Capacity (ANC) was 106.4kg H2SO4/t. The plot result of total Sulfur content and the ANC data, collected at the residential area, showed the possibility of the ARD occurrence in this area. The results of this study are expected to provide a fundamental and useful database to the future researches and actions related to the preservation of water quality and the

  8. Hydrothermal Alteration Zoning and Kinetic Process of Mineral-Water Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣华; 胡书敏; 苏艳丰

    2002-01-01

    This study reports the kinetic experimental results of albite in water and in KCl solution at 22 MPa in the temperature range of 25 to 400(C. Kinetic experiments have been carried out in an open flow-through reaction system (packed bed reactor). Albite dissolution is always incongruent in water at most temperatures, but becomes congruent at 300(C (close to the critical point 374(C). At temperatures from 25 to 300(C, the incongruent dissolution of albite is reflected by the fact that sodium and aluminum are easily dissolved into water; from 300 to 400(C it is reflected by silicon being more easily dissolved in water than Al and Na. Maximum albite dissolution rates in the flow hydrothermal systems have been repeatedly observed at 300(C, independent of flow rates.The kinetic experiments of albite dissolution in a KCl aqueous solution (0.1 mol KCl) indicate that the dissolution rate of albite increases with increasing temperature. Maximum silicon release rates of albite have been observed at 400(C, while maximum aluminum release rates of albite at 374(C. The reaction rates of albite also depend on the potassium concentration in the aqueous solution.These results can be used to interpret the mechanism for forming hydrothermal alteration. The kinetic experiments of mineral-aqueous solutions interactions in the hydrothermal system from 25 to 400(C and at 22 MPa indicate that the formation of the feldspar-mica-kaolinite zoning occurring in some ore deposits may depend not only on the mineral stability but also on the kinetics of feldspar hydration, which is affected by the water property variation when crossing the critical point.

  9. Mapping Weak, Altered Zones and Perched Water With Aerogeophysical Measurements at Mount Adams, Washington: Implications for Volcanic Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C. A.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Anderson, E. D.; Horton, R.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken stratovolcanoes. This increases the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to destructive debris flows. Evaluating the hazards associated with such alteration is difficult, because alteration has been mapped on few active volcanoes and the distribution and intensity of subsurface alteration and location of perched water tables are largely unknown on any active volcano. At Mount Adams, some Holocene debris flows contain abundant hydrothermal minerals derived from collapse of an altered edifice. Intense hydrothermal alteration can significantly reduce the resistivity (from hundreds to tens ohm-m) and magnetization of volcanic rocks. These changes can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements and visualized in 3D. 100 m is the greatest depth that the lowest frequency electromagnetic data could penetrate into the low resistivity, altered zones; outside the altered zones, the depth of penetration was up to 300 m. Total-field magnetic data can detect magnetization variations to several thousand meters depth. Electromagnetic and magnetic data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses of hydrothermally altered rock in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. We identify steep cliffs at the western edge of this zone as the likely source for future large debris flows. Water, and perhaps melted ice, is needed as a lubricant to transform debris avalanches into lahars. Therefore, knowing the distribution of both is important for hazard assessments. Over the low resistivity summit, the electromagnetic data detected ice with a thickness of 0 to about 80 m and an estimated volume of up to 0.1 km3. Over resistive ridges ice thicknesses could not be determined. The electromagnetic data also identified perched water tables in the brecciated core of the upper 300 m of the volcano

  10. Ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in Porcellio scaber under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znidaršič, Nada; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana

    2003-04-01

    Cellular ultrastructure varies in accordance with physiological processes, also reflecting responses to environmental stress factors. Ultrastructural changes of the hepatopancreatic cells in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber exposed to sublethal concentrations of zinc or cadmium in their food were identified by transmission electron microscopy. The exclusive structural characteristic of the hepatopancreas of animals exposed to metal-dosed food was grain-like electrondense deposits (EDD) observed in the intercellular spaces and in vesicles of B cells. In addition, hepatopancreatic cells of metal-exposed animals displayed non-specific, stress-indicating alterations such as cellular disintegration, the reduction of energetic reserves (lipid droplets, glycogen), electron dense cytoplasm, ultrastructural alterations of granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER), the Golgi complex and mitochondria.

  11. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-02-21

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel and the UO{sub 2+x}, in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO{sub 2+x}, to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements.

  12. Mechanical Alterations Associated with Repeated Treadmill Sprinting under Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocherie, Franck; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Racinais, Sébastien; Millet, Grégoire P.; Périard, Julien D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Examine the mechanical alterations associated with repeated treadmill sprinting performed in HOT (38°C) and CON (25°C) conditions. Methods Eleven recreationally active males performed a 30-min warm-up followed by three sets of five 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery and 3-min between sets in each environment. Constant-velocity running for 1-min at 10 and 20 km.h-1 was also performed prior to and following sprinting. Results Mean skin (37.2±0.7 vs. 32.7±0.8°C; P<0.001) and core (38.9±0.2 vs. 38.8±0.3°C; P<0.05) temperatures, together with thermal comfort (P<0.001) were higher following repeated sprinting in HOT vs. CON. Step frequency and vertical stiffness were lower (-2.6±1.6% and -5.5±5.5%; both P<0.001) and contact time (+3.2±2.4%; P<0.01) higher in HOT for the mean of sets 1–3 compared to CON. Running distance per sprint decreased from set 1 to 3 (-7.0±6.4%; P<0.001), with a tendency for shorter distance covered in HOT vs. CON (-2.7±3.4%; P = 0.06). Mean vertical (-2.6±5.5%; P<0.01), horizontal (-9.1±4.4%; P<0.001) and resultant ground reaction forces (-3.0±2.8%; P<0.01) along with vertical stiffness (-12.9±2.3%; P<0.001) and leg stiffness (-8.4±2.7%; P<0.01) decreased from set 1 to 3, independently of conditions. Propulsive power decreased from set 1 to 3 (-16.9±2.4%; P<0.001), with lower propulsive power values in set 2 (-6.6%; P<0.05) in HOT vs. CON. No changes in constant-velocity running patterns occurred between conditions, or from pre-to-post repeated-sprint exercise. Conclusions Thermal strain alters step frequency and vertical stiffness during repeated sprinting; however without exacerbating mechanical alterations. The absence of changes in constant-velocity running patterns suggests a strong link between fatigue-induced velocity decrements during sprinting and mechanical alterations. PMID:28146582

  13. 75 FR 64708 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 75 under Alternative Site Framework; Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...; Phoenix, AZ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U...; Whereas, the City of Phoenix, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 75, submitted an application to the Board (FTZ... Maricopa County and portions of Pinal and Yavapai Counties, Arizona, within and adjacent to the...

  14. Mid-crustal shear zone development under retrograde conditions: pressure-temperature-fluid constraints from the Kuckaus Mylonite Zone, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Johann F. A.; Fagereng, Åke; Thomas, Sukey A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The Kuckaus Mylonite Zone (KMZ) forms part of the larger Marshall Rocks-Pofadder shear zone system, a 550 km-long, crustal-scale strike-slip shear zone system that is localized in high-grade granitoid gneisses and migmatites of the Namaqua Metamorphic Complex. Shearing along the KMZ occurred ca. 40 Ma after peak granulite-facies metamorphism during a discrete tectonic event and affected the granulites that had remained at depth since peak metamorphism. Isolated lenses of metamafic rocks within the shear zone allow the P-T-fluid conditions under which shearing occurred to be quantified. These lenses consist of an unsheared core that preserves relict granulite-facies textures and is mantled by a schistose collar and mylonitic envelope that formed during shearing. All three metamafic textural varieties contain the same amphibolite-facies mineral assemblage, from which calculated pseudosections constrain the P-T conditions of deformation at 2.7-4.2 kbar and 450-480 °C, indicating that deformation occurred at mid-crustal depths through predominantly viscous flow. Calculated T-MH2O diagrams show that the mineral assemblages were fluid saturated and that lithologies within the KMZ must have been rehydrated from an external source and retrogressed during shearing. Given that the KMZ is localized in strongly dehydrated granulites, the fluid must have been derived from an external source, with fluid flow allowed by local dilation and increased permeability within the shear zone. The absence of pervasive hydrothermal fractures or precipitates indicates that, even though the KMZ was fluid bearing, the fluid/rock ratio and fluid pressure remained low. In addition, the fluid could not have contributed to shear zone initiation, as an existing zone of enhanced permeability is required for fluid infiltration. We propose that, following initiation, fluid infiltration caused a positive feedback that allowed weakening and continued strain localization. Therefore, the main

  15. Simulation of Local Blood Flow in Human Brain under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the altered gravitational forces, specific shapes and connections of arteries in the brain vary in the human population (Cebral et al., 2000; Ferrandez et al., 2002). Considering the geometric variations, pulsatile unsteadiness, and moving walls, computational approach in analyzing altered blood circulation will offer an economical alternative to experiments. This paper presents a computational approach for modeling the local blood flow through the human brain under altered gravity. This computational approach has been verified through steady and unsteady experimental measurements and then applied to the unsteady blood flows through a carotid bifurcation model and an idealized Circle of Willis (COW) configuration under altered gravity conditions.

  16. Long-term hydrocephalus alters the cytoarchitecture of the adult subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Ordoñez, Tania; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Rigamonti, Daniele; García-Verdugo, Jose M; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    Hydrocephalus can develop secondarily to a disturbance in production, flow and/or absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Experimental models of hydrocephalus, especially subacute and chronic hydrocephalus, are few and limited, and the effects of hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of long-term obstructive hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone, which is the neurogenic niche lining the lateral ventricles. We developed a new method to induce hydrocephalus by obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius in the mouse brain, thus simulating aqueductal stenosis in humans. In 120-day-old rodents (n=18 per group), the degree of ventricular dilatation and cellular composition of the subventricular zone were studied by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. In adult patients (age>18years), the sizes of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule were analyzed by magnetic resonance images obtained from patients with and without aqueductal stenosis (n=25 per group). Mice with 60-day hydrocephalus had a reduced number of Ki67+ and doublecortin+cells on immunofluorescence, as well as decreased number of neural progenitors and neuroblasts in the subventricular zone on electron microscopy analysis as compared to non-hydrocephalic mice. Remarkably, a number of extracellular matrix structures (fractones) contacting the ventricular lumen and blood vessels were also observed around the subventricular zone in mice with hydrocephalus. In humans, the widths of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule in patients with aqueductal stenosis were significantly smaller than age and gender-matched patients without aqueductal stenosis. In summary, supratentorial hydrocephalus reduces the proliferation rate of neural progenitors and modifies the cytoarchitecture and extracellular matrix compounds of the subventricular zone. In humans, this similar process reduces the subventricular

  17. Histochemical evidences on the chronological alterations of the hypertrophic zone of mandibular condylar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Kazi Sazzad; Amizuka, Norio; Ikeda, Nobuyki; Nozawa-Inoue, Kayoko; Suzuki, Akiko; Li, Minqi; Takeuchi, Kiichi; Aita, Megumi; Kawano, Yoshiro; Hoshino, Masaaki; Oda, Kimimitsu; Takagi, Ritsuo; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2005-08-15

    The hypertrophic chondrocytes lack the ability to proliferate, thus permitting matrix mineralization as well as vascular invasion from the bone in both the mandibular condyle and the epiphyseal cartilage. This study attempted to verify whether the histological appearance of the hypertrophic chondrocytes is in a steady state during postnatal development of the mouse mandibular condyle. Type X collagen immunohistochemistry apparently distinguished the fibrous layer described previously as the "articular zone," "articular layer," and "resting zone" from the hypertrophic zone. Interestingly, the ratio of the type X collagen-positive hypertrophic zone in the entire condyle seemed higher in the early stages but decreased in the later stages. Some apparently compacted cells in the hypertrophic zone showed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreaction, indicating the potential for cell proliferation at the early stages. As the mice matured, in contrast, they further enlarged and assumed typical features of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Apoptotic cells were also discernible in the hypertrophic zone at the early but not later stages. Consistent with morphological configurations of hypertrophic chondrocytes, immunoreactions for alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and type I collagen were prominent at the later stage, but not the early stage. Cartilaginous matrices demonstrated scattered patches of mineralization at the early stage, but increased in their volume and connectivity at the later stage. Thus, the spatial and temporal occurrence of these immunoreactions as well as apoptosis likely reflect the prematurity of hypertrophying cells at the early stage, and imply a physiological relevance during the early development of the mandibular condyles.

  18. Gastrointestinal morphological alterations in obese rats kept under hypercaloric diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento RC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Raphael Castiglioni Nascimento, Haryanne Mabel, Bruna Nunes Queiroz, Roberta ParesqueDepartamento de Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, ES, BrazilAbstract: Hypercaloric diets have been successfully used as experimental models of obesity. This work compared morphological characteristics of inferior gastrointestinal organs. The experiment lasted 10 weeks, during which the rats' food consumption, body weight, distance between the mouth and neck, distance between mouth and neck, distance between neck and tail, and abdominal circumference were evaluated weekly. After the sacrifice of the rats, 20 variables referring to inferior gastrointestinal morphology were assessed. The results comprised descriptive statistics of the data, analysis of main components, linear correlation, and t-tests. Significant differences were found between the two groups for the variables of abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal fat, ratio between retroperitoneal fat/animal weight, stomach weight, ratio between animal weight/intestine weight and mesentery/animal weight, length of small intestine, length of large intestine, and lateral line of the cecum. The data allow us to state that a hypercaloric diet can be responsible an increase in fat in the abdominal cavity as well as gastrointestinal morphological alterations, principally in stomach development. Keywords: gastrointestinal morphology; hypercaloric diet; diet-induced obesity

  19. Altered Decision-Making under Risk in Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Navas

    Full Text Available The negative consequences of energy dense foods are well known, yet people increasingly make unhealthy food choices leading to obesity (i.e., risky decisions. The aims of this study were: [1] to compare performance in decision-making tasks under risk and under ambiguity between individuals with obesity, overweight and normal weight; [2] to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI and decision-making, and the degree to which these associations are modulated by reward sensitivity.Seventy-nine adults were recruited and classified in three groups according to their BMI: obesity, overweight and normal-weight. Groups were similar in terms of age, education and socio-economic status, and were screened for comorbid medical and mental health conditions. Decision-making under risk was measured via the Wheel of Fortune Task (WoFT and decision-making under ambiguity via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. Reward sensitivity was indicated by the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ.Individuals with obesity made riskier choices in the WoFT, specifically in choices with an expected value close to zero and in the propensity to risk index. No differences were found in IGT performance or SPSRQ scores. BMI was associated with risk-taking (WoFT performance, independently of reward sensitivity.Obesity is linked to a propensity to make risky decisions in experimental conditions analogous to everyday food choices.

  20. Altered Decision-Making under Risk in Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Juan F.; Vilar-López, Raquel; Perales, José C.; Steward, Trevor; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background The negative consequences of energy dense foods are well known, yet people increasingly make unhealthy food choices leading to obesity (i.e., risky decisions). The aims of this study were: [1] to compare performance in decision-making tasks under risk and under ambiguity between individuals with obesity, overweight and normal weight; [2] to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and decision-making, and the degree to which these associations are modulated by reward sensitivity. Methods Seventy-nine adults were recruited and classified in three groups according to their BMI: obesity, overweight and normal-weight. Groups were similar in terms of age, education and socio-economic status, and were screened for comorbid medical and mental health conditions. Decision-making under risk was measured via the Wheel of Fortune Task (WoFT) and decision-making under ambiguity via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Reward sensitivity was indicated by the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Results Individuals with obesity made riskier choices in the WoFT, specifically in choices with an expected value close to zero and in the propensity to risk index. No differences were found in IGT performance or SPSRQ scores. BMI was associated with risk-taking (WoFT performance), independently of reward sensitivity. Conclusions Obesity is linked to a propensity to make risky decisions in experimental conditions analogous to everyday food choices. PMID:27257888

  1. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioboo, Carmen [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); O' Connor, Jose Enrique [Laboratorio de Citomica, Unidad Mixta de Investigacion CIPF-UVEG, Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Avda. Autopista del Saler, 16, 46013 Valencia (Spain); Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, Angeles, E-mail: cid@udc.es [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-09-14

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  2. Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkael Symmonds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that

  3. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.

    1996-01-01

    Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640??C) and low-temperature (375??C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375??C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640??C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375??C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides (magnetite

  4. Fixed points of contractive and Geraghty contraction mappings under the influence of altering distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. R. Sastry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove the existence of fixed points of contractive and Geraghty contraction maps in complete metric spaces under the influence of altering distances. Our results extend and generalize some of the known results.

  5. Assessment of Lateral Driving Stability of Automobiles Passing by the Pylon Zone under Cross Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Dalei Wang; Airong Chen

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the reason of lateral instability of automobile passing by the pylon zone of cablesupported bridge under cross wind, a new evaluation method of lateral driving stability of automobile considering alternative cross wind is established based on multi-objective driving stability criteria and subjective assessment. Typical driving control process and dynamic response of automobile passing by the pylon zone is given by numerical simulation based on steering wheel fixed-control ...

  6. 76 FR 11161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is consistent with Sec. 679.23(g)(1), which... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National... under the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program....

  7. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Register, November 9, 1993 (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National... under the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program....

  8. Microbial functional diversity alters the structure and sensitivity of oxygen deficient zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Justin; Weber, Thomas; Deutsch, Curtis

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) below the ocean surface regulate marine productivity by removing bioavailable nitrogen (N). A complex microbial community mediates N loss, but the interplay of its diverse metabolisms is poorly understood. We present an ecosystem model of the North Pacific ODZ that reproduces observed chemical distributions yet predicts different ODZ structure, rates, and climatic sensitivity compared to traditional geochemical models. An emergent lower O2 limit for aerobic nitrification lies below the upper O2 threshold for anaerobic denitrification, creating a zone of microbial coexistence that causes a larger ODZ but slower total rates of N loss. The O2-dependent competition for the intermediate nitrite produces gradients in its oxidation versus reduction, anammox versus heterotrophic denitrification, and the net ecological stoichiometry of N loss. The latter effect implies that an externally driven ODZ expansion should favor communities that more efficiently remove N, increasing the sensitivity of the N cycle to climate change.

  9. 75 FR 72801 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 152 Under Alternative Site Framework Burns Harbor, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 152 Under Alternative Site Framework Burns Harbor, IN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19...

  10. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Understand Formation of the Stimson Sedimentary Unit and Altered Fracture Zones at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Ming, D. W.; Peretyazhko, T.; Rampe, E. B.

    2017-01-01

    Water flowing through sediments at Gale Crater, Mars created environments that were likely habitable, and sampled basin-wide hydrological systems. However, many questions remain about these environments and the fluids that generated them. Measurements taken by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity of multiple fracture zones can help constrain the environments that formed them because they can be compared to nearby associated parent material (Figure 1). For example, measurements of altered fracture zones from the target Greenhorn in the Stimson sandstone can be compared to parent material measured in the nearby Big Sky target, allowing constraints to be placed on the alteration conditions that formed the Greenhorn target from the Big Sky target. Similarly, CheMin measurements of the powdered transport modeling of 1) the formation of the Big Sky target from a Rocknest eolian deposit-like parent material, and 2) the formation of the Greenhorn target from the Big Sky target. This work allows us to test the relationships between the targets and the characteristics of the aqueous conditions that formed the Greenhorn target from the Big Sky target, and the Big Sky target from a Rocknest eolian deposit-like parent material.

  11. Altered speeds and trajectories of neurons migrating in the ventricular and subventricular zones of the reeler neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Joanne M; Tait, Karen J; Johnston, Leigh A; Hammond, Vicki E; Kalloniatis, Michael; Tan, Seong-Seng

    2011-05-01

    The Reelin signaling pathway is essential for proper cortical development, but it is unclear to whether Reelin function is primarily important for cortical layering or neuron migration. It has been proposed that Reelin is perhaps required only for somal translocation but not glial-dependent locomotion. This implies that the location of neurons responding to Reelin is restricted to the outer regions of the cortical plate (CP). To determine whether Reelin is required for migration outside of the CP, we used time-lapse imaging to track the behavior of cells undergoing locomotion in the germinal zones. We focused on the migratory activity in the ventricular/subventricular zones where the first transition of bipolar to multipolar migration occurs and where functional Reelin receptors are known to be expressed. Despite Reelin loss, neurons had no difficulty in undergoing radial migration and indeed displayed greater migratory speed. Additionally, compared with the wild-type, reeler neurons displayed altered trajectories with greater deviation from a radial path. These results suggest that Reelin loss has early consequences for migration in the germinal zones that are portrayed as defective radial trajectories and migratory speeds. Together, these abnormalities can give rise to the increased cell dispersion observed in the reeler cortex.

  12. Distributions of Irritative Zones Are Related to Individual Alterations of Resting-State Networks in Focal Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinchen Song

    Full Text Available Alterations in the connectivity patterns of the fMRI-based resting-state networks (RSNs have been reported in several types of epilepsies. Evidence pointed out these alterations might be associated with the genesis and propagation of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs. IEDs also evoke blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD responses, which have been used to delineate irritative zones during preoperative work-up. Therefore, one may expect a relationship between the topology of the IED-evoked BOLD response network and the altered spatial patterns of the RSNs. In this study, we used EEG recordings and fMRI data obtained simultaneously from a chronic model of focal epilepsy in Wistar rats to verify our hypothesis. We found that IED-evoked BOLD response networks comprise both cortical and subcortical structures with a rat-dependent topology. In all rats, IEDs evoke both activation and deactivation types of BOLD responses. Using a Granger causality method, we found that in many cases areas with BOLD deactivation have directed influences on areas with activation (p<0.05. We were able to predict topological properties (i.e., focal/diffused, unilateral/bilateral of the IED-evoked BOLD response network by performing hierarchical clustering analysis on major spatial features of the RSNs. All these results suggest that IEDs and disruptions in the RSNs found previously in humans may be different manifestations of the same transient events, probably reflecting altered consciousness. In our opinion, the shutdown of specific nodes of the default mode network may cause uncontrollable excitability in other functionally connected brain areas. We conclude that IED-evoked BOLD responses (i.e., activation and deactivation and alterations of RSNs are intrinsically related, and speculate that an understanding of their interplay is necessary to discriminate focal epileptogenesis and network propagation phenomena across different brain modules via hub

  13. Discrimination of uranium alteration zones in selected areas by use of LANDSAT MSS imagery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, C.L.; Procter-Gregg, H.D.

    1977-02-01

    The surface alteration halos of fifty known uranium occurrences in the Western United States have been analyzed to determine spectral signatures in imagery acquired by the LANDSAT Multi-Spectral Scanner. The deposits included veins and metasediments in the northeast of Washington, batholitic districts in the northwest of Idaho, veins and intrusives in a portion of the Colorado Front Range and sedimentary deposits on the Colorado Plateau. Image analysis employed an analog hybrid video processing system composed of a light table, vidicon camera, image analyzer and color output monitor. A complete description of the theory and methodology is provided in the report.

  14. Nutritional responses to soil drying and rewetting cycles under partial root-zone drying irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Liu, Fulai

    2017-01-01

    signaling that regulates stomatal aperture. PRI induced soil DRW cycles and more soil water dynamics in the root zone enhance soil nutrient mineralization process and thus increase the bioavailability of soil nutrients, resulting in improved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake, in which soil microbial...... processes play a key role. Studies investigating how soil DRW cycles and water dynamics under PRI on nutrient transport in soil solution, soil microbe mediated P transformation, interactions between phytohormones and nutrient uptake, root morphological and architectural traits for nutrient acquisition...... and their bioavailability. Partial root-zone drying irrigation (PRI) irrigates half of the soil zone, while the other half is allowed to dry, and the two halves is alternately irrigated. PRI outweighs conventional deficit irrigation in further improving water use efficiency (WUE) by enhancing the root-to-shoot chemical...

  15. Diagenetic alteration of iron and phosphorus records below the sulfate-methane-transition-zone in Black Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Kraal, Peter; Jilbert, Tom; Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The sediments of the Black Sea are characterized by vast deposits of iron oxide-rich lake sediments below the current marine sediments. The lake sediments were deposited until ca. 9000 years ago when the former giant lake became connected to the Mediterranean Sea through post-glacial sea level rise. The subsequent downward diffusion of marine sulfate into the methane-bearing lake sediments has led to a multitude of diagenetic reactions in the sulfate-methane-transition zone (SMTZ), including anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate. While the cycles of sulfur, methane and iron in the SMTZ have been extensively studied (e.g. Jorgensen et al., 2004), relatively little is known about the diagenetic alterations of the sediment record occurring directly below the SMTZ. Here, we combine detailed geochemical analyses of the sediment and pore water with multicomponent diagenetic modeling to study the diagenetic alterations below the SMTZ at two sites in the Black Sea. We focus on the dynamics of iron and phosphorus and demonstrate that downward sulfidization leads to dissolution of Fe-oxide bound P, Fe-carbonate and vivianite in the lake sediments. Below the sulfidization front, downward diffusing phosphate is bound again in vivianite. Trends in total sediment P with depth are significantly altered highlighting that diagenesis may strongly overprint burial records of P below a lake-marine transition. We also demonstrate that cryptic sulfur cycling cannot explain the observed release of dissolved Fe below the SMTZ. Instead, we suggest that organoclastic Fe-oxide reduction and/or AOM coupled to the reduction of Fe-oxides are the key processes explaining the high concentrations of dissolved Fe at depth in the sediment. Reference Jørgensen, B. B., Böttcher, M. E., Lüschen, H., Neretin, L. N. and Volkov, I. I.: Anaerobic methane oxidation and a deep H2S sink generate isotopically heavy sulfides in Black Sea sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68(9), 2095-2118, 2004.

  16. Molecular aspects of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma : genetic alterations underlying clinical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Maria Sophia van (Marloes)

    2012-01-01

    The research described in the thesis is focused at identifying molecular aberrations contributing to the pathogenesis of CTCL. In search for differences in chromosomal alterations underlying the different clinical behavior and prognosis of patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (Sz

  17. Alteration of the biomass composition of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis under various amounts of limited phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos

    2012-07-01

    In this study the biomass composition alteration of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis under various amounts of limited phosphorus is studied. It was observed that the alteration of the compounds of the biomass occurred gradually as the phosphorus became limited. Carbohydrates and lipids increased from about 9% up to 65% and from about 4.9% up to 7.5%, respectively, while proteins decreased from about 46.5% to 25% as the phosphorus became limited. The increasing of carbohydrates and lipids in addition to the decrease of proteins resulted to an increase of the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio from about 4.6 to 12.2.

  18. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui') in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may indicate the

  19. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui' Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Dbara

    Full Text Available The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs and improving water use efficiency (WUE. Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui' in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may

  20. Solids behavior in dilute zone of a CFB riser under turbulent conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdelghafour Zaabout; Herré Bournot; René Occelli; Abdeslam Draoui

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of the solid phase in the upper zone of a circulating fluidized bed riser was studied using a phase Doppler anemometer,Glass particles of mean diameter 107 μm and superficial gas velocities Ug covering the turbulent and the beginning of the fast fluidization regime were investigated.Three static bed heights were tested.Ascending and descending particles were found co-existing under all operating conditions tested,and at all measurement locations.Superficial gas velocity proved/happened to have a larger effect on descending particles at the wall and on ascending particles in the central region.Transversal particle velocities in both directions (toward the center and toward the wall) behaved relatively equivalently,with only slight difference observed at the wall.However,observation of the number of particles moving in either transversal direction showed a change in bed structure when increasing Ug.Furthermore,a balance was constantly observed between the core zone and the annulus zone where the mutual mass transfer between these two zones occurred continuously.Transition from a slow to a fast particle motion was accompanied by a transition to high levels of velocity fluctuations,and was found corresponding to the appearance of significant solid particle flow rate.

  1. [Simulation of soil water dynamics in triploid Populus tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ben-Ye; Jia, Li-Ming; Wang, Ye; Li, Guang-De

    2011-01-01

    Based on the observed data of triploid Populus tomentosa root distribution, a one-dimensional root water uptake model was proposed. Taking the root water uptake into account, the soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation was simulated by using HYDRUS model, and the results were validated with field experiment. Besides, the HYDRUS model was used to study the effects of various irrigation technique parameters on soil wetting patterns. The RMAE for the simulated soil water content by the end of irrigation and approximately 24 h later was 7.8% and 6.0%, and the RMSE was 0.036 and 0.026 cm3 x cm(-3), respectively, illustrating that the HYDRUS model performed well in simulating the short-term soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under drip irrigation, and the root water uptake model was reasonable. Comparing with 2 and 4 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and continuous irrigation, both the 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and the pulsed irrigation with water applied intermittently in 30 min periods could increase the volume of wetted soil and reduce deep percolation. It was concluded that the combination of 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and pulsed irrigation should be the first choice when applying drip irrigation to triploid P. tomentosa root zone at the experiment site.

  2. The constructed catchment Chicken Creek as Critical Zone Observatory under transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Werner; Schaaf, Wolfgang; Elmer, Michael; Hinz, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The constructed catchment Chicken Creek was established in 2005 as an experimental landscape laboratory for ecosystem research. The 6 ha area with clearly defined horizontal as well as vertical boundary conditions was left for an unrestricted primary succession. All Critical Zone elements are represented at this site, which allows the study of most processes occurring at the interface of bio-, pedo-, geo- and hydrosphere. It provides outstanding opportunities for investigating interactions and feedbacks between different evolving compartments during ecosystem development. The catchment is extensively instrumented since 2005 in order to detect transition stages of the ecosystem. Data recorded with a high spatial and temporal resolution include hydrological, geomorphological, pedological, limnological as well as biological parameters. In contrast to other Critical Zone Observatories, this site offers the unique situation of an early stage ecosystem with highly dynamic system properties. The first years of development were characterized by a fast formation of geomorphological structures due to massive erosion processes at the initially non-vegetated surface. Hydrological processes led to the establishment of a local groundwater body within 5 years. In the following years the influence of biological structures like vegetation patterns gained an increasing importance. Feedbacks between developing vegetation and e.g. hydrological features became more and more dominant. As a result, different phases of ecosystem development could be distinguished until now. This observatory offers manifold possibilities to identify and disentangle complex interactions between Critical Zone processes in situ under natural conditions. The originally low complexity of the system is growing with time facilitating the identification of influences of newly developing structures on system functions. Thus, it is possible to study effects of small-scale processes on the whole system at the

  3. Human-water interactions in Myanmar's Dry Zone under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    -hydrologic (discharge, sediment load, river biology), climatic (precipitation, temperature, evaporation) and anthropologic (water use, water management, dam projects) aspects. We identified key study sites in the Dry Zone, in order to assess and study the interplays, dependencies and feedbacks within the human-water system. First results based on meteorological data sets and literature survey indicate, that the central Dry Zone is affected by increasing interannual rainfall variability. Additionally, human impacts in this region are increasing due to numerous pumping (both river and groundwater) activities which will possibly alter water availability, river ecology and hydraulic processes in the near future. At the current state, the main course of the Ayeyarwady River is still unregulated but several larger dam projects are in the planning phase in the central area which will also impact the rich river biodiversity as well as the society. Our research will contribute to understand human-water-climate interactions in Myanmar's central Dry Zone with possible transferability to other large river basins in Asia.

  4. Assessment of Lateral Driving Stability of Automobiles Passing by the Pylon Zone under Cross Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalei Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the reason of lateral instability of automobile passing by the pylon zone of cablesupported bridge under cross wind, a new evaluation method of lateral driving stability of automobile considering alternative cross wind is established based on multi-objective driving stability criteria and subjective assessment. Typical driving control process and dynamic response of automobile passing by the pylon zone is given by numerical simulation based on steering wheel fixed-control model and straight driving ideal-driver model. Finally, taking a medium-size commercial bus as an example, the reason of its lateral instability is interpreted and the influence of cross wind speed and driving speed on its lateral driving stability is shown by parameter study.

  5. Long Indian Slab in the Mantle Transition Zone Under Eastern Tibet: Evidence from Teleseismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, J.; Zhao, D.; Zha, X.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new 3-D P-wave velocity model of the upper mantle under eastern Tibet determined from 113,831 high-quality teleseismic arrival-time data. Our data are hand-picked from seismograms of 784 teleseismic events (30o-90o) with magnitudes of 5.2 or greater. These events were recorded by 21 portable seismic stations deployed in Yunnan during April 2010 to July 2011 and 259 permanent stations of Chinese provincial seismic networks during September 2008 to December 2011 in the study region. Our results provide new insights into the mantle structure and dynamics of eastern Tibet. High-velocity (high-V) anomalies are revealed down to 200 km depth under stable cratonic regions, such as Sichuan basin, Ordos and Alashan blocks. Prominent low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are revealed in the upper mantle under the Kunlun-Qinling fold zone, Songpan-Ganzi, Qiangtang, Lahsa, and Chuan-Dian diamond blocks, suggesting that the eastward moving low-V materials are obstructed by Sichuan basin, Ordos and Alashan blocks, and they could be extruded through the Qinling fold zone and the Chuan-Dian block to eastern China. In addition, the extent and thickness of these low-V anomalies are well correlated with the surface topography, suggesting that uplift of eastern Tibet is closely related to the low-V anomalies which may reflect hot materials and have strong buoyancy. In the mantle transition zone, broad high-V anomalies are visible from the Burma arc northward to the Kunlun fault and eastward to the Xiaojiang fault, which extend for a total of approximately 700 km. The high-V anomalies are connected upward to the Wadati-Benioff seismic zone beneath the Burma arc. These results suggest that the Indian slab has subducted horizontally for a long distance in the mantle transition zone after it descended into the mantle, and its deep dehydration has contributed to forming the low-V anomalies in the big mantle wedge above the slab. Our present results shed new light on the formation and

  6. 78 FR 44523 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 122 Under Alternative Site Framework; Corpus Christi, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...; Corpus Christi, Texas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... establishment or reorganization of zones; Whereas, the Port of Corpus Christi Authority, grantee of Foreign..., Kleberg and Bee Counties, Texas, within and adjacent to the Corpus Christi Customs and Border...

  7. 78 FR 1197 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 8 Under Alternative Site Framework; Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Framework; Toledo, OH Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... establishment or reorganization of zones; Whereas, the Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, grantee of Foreign..., Lucas and Defiance Counties, Ohio, in and adjacent to the Toledo- Sandusky Customs and Border...

  8. Exchange rate and interest rate distribution and volatility under the Portuguese target zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portugal Duarte António

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the exchange rate and interest rate distribution and volatility under the participation of the Portuguese economy in the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM of the European Monetary System (EMS based on some of the main predictions of the target zone literature. Portugal adopted this exchange rate target zone from April 6 1992 until December 31 1998. During this period, the exchange rate distribution reveals that the majority of the observations lie close to the central parity, thus rejecting one of the key predictions of the Paul Krugman (1991 model. The analysis of the data also shows that exchange rate volatility tended to increase as the exchange rate approached the edges of the band, contrary to the predictions of the basic model. Interest rate differential volatility, on the other hand, seemed to behave in line with theoretical predictions. This suggests an increase in the credibility of monetary policy, allowing us to conclude that the adoption of a target zone has contributed decisively to the creation of the macroeconomic stability conditions necessary for the participation in the European Monetary Union (EMU. The Portuguese integration process should therefore be considered as an example to be followed by other small open economies in transition to the euro area.

  9. Differentiation potentials of perivascular cells in the bone tissue remodeling zones under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Katkova, Olena

    Adaptive remodeling processes in the skeleton bones occur in the close topographical interconnection with blood capillaries followed by perivascular cells. Radioautographic studies with 3Н- thymidine (Kimmel D.B., Fee W.S., 1980; Rodionova N.V., 1989, 2006) has shown that in osteogenesis zones there is sequential differentiation process of the perivascular cells into osteogenic ones. Using electron microscopy and cytochemistry we studied perivsacular cells in metaphysis of the rats femoral bones under conditions of modeling microgravity (28 days duration) and in femoral bonеs metaphyses of rats flown on board of the space laboratory (Spacelab - 2) It was revealed that population of the perivascular cells is not homogeneous in adaptive zones of the remodeling in both control and test groups (lowering support loading). This population comprises adjacent to endothelium little differentiated forms and isolated cells with differentiation features (specific volume of rough endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasm is increased). Majority of the perivascular cells in the control group reveals reaction to alkaline phosphatase (marker of the osteogenic differentiation). In little differentiated cells this reaction is registered in nucleolus, nucleous and cytoplasm. In differentiating cells activity of the alkaline phosphatase is also detected on the outer surface of the cellular membrane. Unlike the control group in the bones of animals under microgravitaty reaction to the alkaline phosphatase is registered not for all cells of perivascular population. Part of the differentiating perivascular cells does not contain a product of the reaction. There is also visible trend of individual alkaline phosphatase containing perivascular cells amounts decrease (i.e. osteogenic cells-precursors). Under microgravity some little differentiated perivascular cells reveal destruction signs. Found decrease trend of the alkaline phosphatase containing cells (i.e. osteogenic cells) number in

  10. Selective depletion of Mac-1-expressing microglia in rat subventricular zone does not alter neurogenic response early after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Ursula; Mine, Yutaka; Kokaia, Zaal; Ekdahl, Christine T; Lindvall, Olle

    2011-06-01

    Ischemic stroke induces migration of newly formed neuroblasts, generated by neural stem cells in the adult rat subventricular zone (SVZ), towards the injured striatum where they differentiate into mature neurons. Stroke also leads to accumulation of microglia in the SVZ but their role for neurogenesis is unclear. Here we developed a method for selective depletion of the macrophage antigen complex-1 (Mac-1)-expressing microglia population in the SVZ by intraventricular injection of the immunotoxin Mac-1-saporin in rats. We found that the vast majority of Mac-1+ cells were Iba-1+ microglia. The Mac-1+ population was heterogeneous and included both a small proliferative pool of cells, which was not affected by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and a larger subpopulation that changed morphologically into a semi-activated state in response to the insult. This subpopulation did not increase its expression of the phagocytic marker ED1 but exhibited high levels of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2), associated with alternative microglia activation. A minor portion of the SVZ Mac-1+ cells originated from the blood early after stroke, but this macrophage population became much more substantial at later stages. Almost 80% reduction of Mac-1-expressing microglia, caused by Mac-1 saporin delivered just before and at 1 week after MCAO, did not alter the numbers of newly formed neuroblasts in the striatum or their migratory distance. These findings indicate that the Mac-1-expressing microglia in the SVZ do not play a major role either for the number of neuroblasts which exit the SVZ or their migration in the striatum early following stroke.

  11. Fluids preserved in variably altered graphitic pelitic schists in the Dufferin Lake Zone, south-central Athabasca Basin, Canada: implications for graphite loss and uranium deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Marjolaine; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Ansdell, Kevin; Annesley, Irvine R.; Kotzer, Tom; Jiricka, Dan; Cuney, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Athabasca Basin (Canada) contains the highest grade unconformity-type uranium deposits in the world. Underlying the Athabasca Group sedimentary rocks of the Dufferin Lake Zone are variably graphitic, pelitic schists (VGPS), altered to chlorite and hematite (Red/Green Zone: RGZ). They were locally bleached near the unconformity during paleoweathering and/or later fluid interaction. Overall, graphite was lost from the RGZ and the bleached zone relative to the original VGPS. Fluid inclusions were examined in different generations of quartz veins, using microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy, to characterize and compare the different fluids that interacted with the RGZ and the VGPS. In the VGPS, CH4-, and N2-rich fluid inclusions, which homogenize into the vapor phase between -100 and -74 °C, and -152 and -125 °C, respectively, and CO2-rich fluid inclusions, homogenizing either into vapor or liquid between 20 and 28 °C, are present. Carbonic fluids could be the result of the breakdown of graphite to CH4 + CO2, whereas N2-rich fluid is interpreted to be the result of breakdown of feldspars/micas to NH4 ++N2. In the RGZ, the presence of fluid inclusions with low ice melting temperature (-38 to -16 °C) reflect the presence of CaCl2, and fluid inclusions with halite daughter minerals that dissolve between 190 and 240 °C indicate the presence of highly saline fluids. These fluids are interpreted to be derived from the Athabasca Basin. The circulation of carbonic fluids and brines occurred during two different events related to different P-T conditions of trapping. The carbonic fluids interacted with basement rocks during retrograde metamorphism of the basement rocks before deposition of the Athabasca Basin, whereas the brines circulated after the deposition of the Athabasca Basin. These latter fluids are similar to brines related to uranium mineralization at McArthur River and thus, in addition to possibly being related to graphite depletion in the RGZ, they could

  12. An integrated multi-omics study revealed metabolic alterations underlying the effects of coffee consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shoko; Saito, Kenji; Jia, Huijuan; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have indicated that coffee consumption may reduce the risks of developing obesity and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms of these effects are poorly understood. Our previous study revealed the changes on gene expression profiles in the livers of C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet containing three types of coffee (caffeinated, decaffeinated and green unroasted coffee), using DNA microarrays. The results revealed remarkable alterations in lipid metabolism-related molecules which may be involved in the anti-obesity effects of coffee. We conducted the present study to further elucidate the metabolic alterations underlying the effects of coffee consumption through comprehensive proteomic and metabolomic analyses. Proteomics revealed an up-regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (a key enzyme in the TCA cycle) and its related proteins, suggesting increased energy generation. The metabolomics showed an up-regulation of metabolites involved in the urea cycle, with which the transcriptome data were highly consistent, indicating accelerated energy expenditure. The TCA cycle and the urea cycle are likely be accelerated in a concerted manner, since they are directly connected by mutually providing each other's intermediates. The up-regulation of these pathways might result in a metabolic shift causing increased ATP turnover, which is related to the alterations of lipid metabolism. This mechanism may play an important part in the suppressive effects of coffee consumption on obesity, inflammation, and hepatosteatosis. This study newly revealed global metabolic alterations induced by coffee intake, providing significant insights into the association between coffee intake and the prevention of type 2 diabetes, utilizing the benefits of multi-omics analyses.

  13. An integrated multi-omics study revealed metabolic alterations underlying the effects of coffee consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Takahashi

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have indicated that coffee consumption may reduce the risks of developing obesity and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms of these effects are poorly understood. Our previous study revealed the changes on gene expression profiles in the livers of C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet containing three types of coffee (caffeinated, decaffeinated and green unroasted coffee, using DNA microarrays. The results revealed remarkable alterations in lipid metabolism-related molecules which may be involved in the anti-obesity effects of coffee. We conducted the present study to further elucidate the metabolic alterations underlying the effects of coffee consumption through comprehensive proteomic and metabolomic analyses. Proteomics revealed an up-regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (a key enzyme in the TCA cycle and its related proteins, suggesting increased energy generation. The metabolomics showed an up-regulation of metabolites involved in the urea cycle, with which the transcriptome data were highly consistent, indicating accelerated energy expenditure. The TCA cycle and the urea cycle are likely be accelerated in a concerted manner, since they are directly connected by mutually providing each other's intermediates. The up-regulation of these pathways might result in a metabolic shift causing increased ATP turnover, which is related to the alterations of lipid metabolism. This mechanism may play an important part in the suppressive effects of coffee consumption on obesity, inflammation, and hepatosteatosis. This study newly revealed global metabolic alterations induced by coffee intake, providing significant insights into the association between coffee intake and the prevention of type 2 diabetes, utilizing the benefits of multi-omics analyses.

  14. 75 FR 69621 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, CA; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...-Trade Zone 50--Long Beach, CA; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under Alternative Site Framework...)--909 East Colon Street, Wilmington; Site 2 (1,844 acres)-- California Commerce Center, Ontario; Site...

  15. 76 FR 771 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 14 Under Alternative Site Framework; Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Framework; Little Rock, AR Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... White Counties, Arkansas, within and adjacent to the Little Rock Customs and Border ] Protection port...

  16. Changes in the population of perivascular cells in the bone tissue remodeling zones under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkova, Olena; Rodionova, Natalia; Shevel, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Microgravity and long-term hypokinesia induce reduction both in bone mass and mineral saturation, which can lead to the development of osteoporosis and osteopenia. (Oganov, 2003). Reorganizations and adaptive remodeling processes in the skeleton bones occur in the topographical interconnection with blood capillaries and perivascular cells. Radioautographic studies with 3H- thymidine (Kimmel, Fee, 1980; Rodionova, 1989, 2006) have shown that in osteogenesis zones there is sequential differentiation process of the perivascular cells into osteogenic. Hence the study of populations of perivascular stromal cells in areas of destructive changes is actual. Perivascular cells from metaphysis of the rat femoral bones under conditions of modeling microgravity were studied using electron microscopy and cytochemistry (hindlimb unloading, 28 days duration) and biosatellite «Bion-M1» (duration of flight from April 19 till May 19, 2013 on C57, black mice). It was revealed that both control and test groups populations of the perivascular cells are not homogeneous in remodeling adaptive zones. These populations comprise of adjacent to endothelium poorly differentiated forms and isolated cells with signs of differentiation (specific increased volume of rough endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasm). Majority of the perivascular cells in the control group (modeling microgravity) reveals reaction to alkaline phosphatase (marker of the osteogenic differentiation). In poorly differentiated cells this reaction is registered in nucleolus, nucleous and cytoplasm. In differentiating cells activity of the alkaline phosphatase is also detected on the outer surface of the cellular membrane. Unlike the control group in the bones of experimental animals reaction to the alkaline phosphatase is registered not in all cells of perivascular population. Part of the differentiating perivascular cells does not contain a product of the reaction. Under microgravity some poorly differentiated perivascular

  17. Gene expression patterns underlying parasite-induced alterations in host behaviour and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeyer, Barbara; Mazur, Johanna; Beros, Sara; Lerp, Hannes; Binder, Harald; Foitzik, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Many parasites manipulate their hosts' phenotype. In particular, parasites with complex life cycles take control of their intermediate hosts' behaviour and life history to increase transmission to their definitive host. The proximate mechanisms underlying these parasite-induced alterations are poorly understood. The cestode Anomotaenia brevis affects the behaviour, life history and morphology of parasitized Temnothorax nylanderi ants and indirectly of their unparasitized nestmates. To gain insights on how parasites alter host phenotypes, we contrast brain gene expression patterns of T. nylanderi workers parasitized with the cestode, their unparasitized nestmates and unparasitized workers from unparasitized colonies. Over 400 differentially expressed genes between the three groups were identified, with most uniquely expressed genes detected in parasitized workers. Among these are genes that can be linked to the increased lifespan of parasitized workers. Furthermore, many muscle (functionality) genes are downregulated in these workers, potentially causing the observed muscular deformations and their inactive behaviour. Alterations in lifespan and activity could be adaptive for the parasite by increasing the likelihood that infected workers residing in acorns are eaten by their definitive host, a woodpecker. Our transcriptome analysis reveals numerous gene expression changes in parasitized workers and their uninfected nestmates and indicates possible routes of parasite manipulation. Although causality still needs to be established, parasite-induced alterations in lifespan and host behaviour appear to be partly explained by morphological muscle atrophy instead of central nervous system interference, which is often the core of behavioural regulation. Results of this study will shed light upon the molecular basis of antagonistic species interactions.

  18. Study on animals‘ femur blood flow alteration under inadequate decompression with 133Xe isotope washout method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuShao-Ning; TiaoWu-Xun; 等

    1998-01-01

    Animals' regional femur blood(F) alteration was studied under an inadequate decompression by using the inhaled isotope 133Xe washout method.Results showed that the average F on left and right side of minipigs' femur decreased from 15.4±1.8 and 16.9±2.0mg/(100g.min)(before exposure)to 10±1.8and 11.1±1.6mg(100mg.min)(after expposure for 1.5h under the pressure of 0.5 MPa and then decompression to normal with the rate of 0.03-0.04MPa/min)respectively;the blood flow of hematopoietic marrow tissues(f1) on both sides also decreased from 19.3±2.0 and 22.1±1.9ml(100mg.min)to 13.9±1.4 and 13.8±1.0ml(100mg.min).The exact same alteration also happened in the experiment on New Zealand rabbits.It indicates that inadequate decompression in hyperbaric exposure can give rise to decrease animals' one blood flow and insufficient bone blood supply serves as one of the reasons for causing decompressive osteonecrosis.

  19. Grid-wide subdaily hydrologic alteration under massive wind power penetration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J; Olivares, M A; Palma-Behnke, R

    2015-05-01

    Hydropeaking operations can severely degrade ecosystems. As variable renewable sources (e.g. wind power) are integrated into a power grid, fluctuations in the generation-demand balance are expected to increase. In this context, compensating technologies, notably hydropower reservoir plants, could operate in a stronger peaking scheme. This issue calls for an integrated modeling of the entire power system, including not only hydropower reservoirs, but also all other plants. A novel methodology to study the link between the short-term variability of renewable energies and the subdaily hydrologic alteration, due to hydropower reservoir operations is presented. Grid operations under selected wind power portfolios are simulated using a short-term hydro-thermal coordination tool. The resulting turbined flows by relevant reservoir plants are then compared in terms of the Richard-Baker flashiness index to both the baseline and the natural flow regime. Those are then analyzed in order to: i) detect if there is a significant change in the degree of subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) due to a larger wind penetration, and ii) identify which rivers are most affected. The proposed scheme is applied to Chile's Central Interconnect System (SIC) for scenarios up to 15% of wind energy penetration. Results show a major degree of SDHA under the baseline as compared to the natural regime. As wind power increases, so does the SDHA in two important rivers. This suggests a need for further ecological studies in those rivers, along with an analysis of operational constraints to limit the SDHA.

  20. Alterations of mineral elements in osteoblast during differentiation under hypo, moderate and high static magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Ding, Chong; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Static magnetic fields (SMFs) can enhance the ability of bone formation by osteoblast and is a potential physical therapy to bone disorders and the maintenance of bone health. But, the mechanism is not clear yet. Certain mineral elements including macro and trace elements are essential for normal bone metabolism. Deficiency of these elements can cause severe bone disorders including osteoporosis. However, there are few reports regarding the role of mineral elements in the regulation of bone formation under SMFs. In this study, hypomagnetic field (HyMF) of 500 nT, moderate SMF (MMF) of 0.2 T, and high SMF (HiMF) of 16 T were used to investigate the effects of SMFs on mineral element (calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc) alteration of MC3T3-E1 cells during osteoblast mineralization. The results showed that osteoblasts in differentiation accumulated more mineral elements than non-differentiated cell cultures. Furthermore, HyMF reduced osteoblast differentiation but did not affect mineral elements levels compared with control of geomagnetic field. MMF decreased osteoblast differentiation with elevated iron content. HiMF enhanced osteoblast differentiation and increased all the mineral contents except copper. It is suggested that the altered potential of osteoblast differentiation under SMFs may partially due to the involvement of different mineral elements.

  1. Gamma ray spectrometry for recognition of hydrothermal alteration zones related to a low sulfidation epithermal gold mineralization (eastern Pontides, NE Türkiye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Nafiz; Akaryalı, Enver

    2015-11-01

    This study presents an interpretation of radiospectrometric and magnetic data of Arzular mineralization site, which is one of the best examples for epithermal gold deposits located in the southern zone of the Eastern Pontides (NE Türkiye). Potassium is generally the most useful pathfinder element for gold mineralization zones because of its high level in altered rock surrounding the deposits. Where gold is hosted within quartz veins, typically the vein is low in the radioelements, but the hydrothermally altered host rocks will usually have a distinct radioelement signature useful for exploration. In this study, magnetic, susceptibility and radiospectrometric survey data radiometric signatures associated with the host rocks favorable for the mineralization, enhancing techniques such as the ratio maps as well as potassium (%K), equivalent thorium (eTh ppm) and equivalent uranium (eU ppm) maps were utilized. Our analysis showed that the gold mineralization associated with the alteration is significantly related to increase in potassium, due to adularia, a low T K-feldspar, and decreases in uranium and thorium due to the hydrothermal alteration and magmatic intrusion processes during the regional tectonic activities.

  2. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea ‘var. Chetoui’) in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: ‘control’ plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; ‘PRD100’ were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; ‘PRD50’ were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; ‘rain-fed’ plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during ‘off-years’ may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation

  3. Changes in the properties of solonetzic soil complexes in the dry steppe zone under anthropogenic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, I. N.; Novikova, A. F.

    2016-05-01

    Long-term studies of changes in the properties of solonetzic soil complexes of the dry steppe zone under anthropogenic impacts (deep plowing, surface leveling, irrigation, and post-irrigation use) have been performed on the Privolzhskaya sand ridge and the Khvalyn and Ergeni plains. The natural morphology of solonetzic soils was strongly disturbed during their deep ameliorative plowing. At present, the soil cover consists of solonetzic agrozems (Sodic Protosalic Cambisols (Loamic, Aric, Protocalcic)), textural (clay-illuvial) calcareous agrozems (Eutric Cambisols (Loamic, Aric, Protocalcic)), agrosolonetzes (Endocalcaric Luvisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Protosodic), agrochestnut soils (Eutric Cambisols (Siltic, Aric)), and meadowchestnut soils (Haplic Kastanozems). No features attesting to the restoration of the initial profile of solonetzes have been found. The dynamics of soluble salts and exchangeable sodium differ in the agrosolonetzes and solonetzic agrozems. A rise in pH values takes place in the middle part of the soil profiles on the Khvalyn and Ergeni plains.

  4. Auxin Transport and Ribosome Biogenesis Mutant/Reporter Lines to Study Plant Cell Growth and Proliferation under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Miguel A.; Manzano, Ana I.; van Loon, Jack JWA.; Saez-Vasquez, Julio; Carnero-Diaz, Eugenie; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F. J.

    2013-02-01

    We tested different Arabidopsis thaliana strains to check their availability for space use in the International Space Station (ISS). We used mutants and reporter gene strains affecting factors of cell proliferation and cell growth, to check variations induced by an altered gravity vector. Seedlings were grown either in a Random Positioning Machine (RPM), under simulated microgravity (μg), or in a Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC), under hypergravity (2g). A combination of the two devices (μgRPM+LDC) was also used. Under all gravity alterations, seedling roots were longer than in control 1g conditions, while the levels of the nucleolar protein nucleolin were depleted. Alterations in the pattern of expression of PIN2, an auxin transporter, and of cyclin B1, a cell cycle regulator, were shown. All these alterations are compatible with previous space data, so the use of these strains will be useful in the next experiments in ISS, under real microgravity.

  5. Response to recharge variation of thin rainwater lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeman, S.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Leijnse, A.; Louw, de P.G.B.; Maas, C.

    2012-01-01

    In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not co

  6. 75 FR 26198 - Foreign-Trade Zone 152 - Burns Harbor, Indiana, Application for Reorganization under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 152 - Burns Harbor, Indiana, Application for Reorganization...-purpose zone currently consists of six sites in the Burns Harbor/Gary, Indiana area: Site 1: (533,288 sq...); Site 2: (441 acres) within the Port of Indiana/Burns International Harbor, Burns Harbor (Porter...

  7. Growth of common brackish marsh macrophytes under altered hydrology and salinity regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Biagas, Janelda M.; Allain, Larry K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal marsh plants are increasingly subject to physicochemical stressors under rising sea levels, and the maintenance of marsh ecological functions can depend on the ability of individual species and communities to tolerate or adapt to altered conditions. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to identify hydrology and salinity effects on growth of three common brackish marsh macrophytes of coastal Florida, USA: Distichlis spicata, Juncus roemerianus, and Spartina bakeri. The species were potted as monocultures and exposed to three salinities (0, 15, or 28 psu) and two hydrologic conditions (saturated, tidal) over 22 months. Final stem density of J. roemerianus and S. bakeri did not differ among treatments. In D. spicata, however, stem density was lowest at 28 psu and lower in tidal compared to saturated conditions. Mean stem height of all species was lowest at 28 psu. Aboveground biomass of J. roemerianus was not affected by the treatments, but in D. spicata andS. bakeri it was lowest at 28 psu. Results indicated that J. roemerianus was the most adaptable species and may, therefore, be more resilient to climate-change driven stressors. However, plant-plant interactions such as interspecific competition and facilitation can alter the response of individual species to environmental factors.

  8. Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [CO2] under phosphorus stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Ahmad, Altaf; Jain, Vanita; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric [CO2] has increased substantially in recent decades and will continue to do so, whereas the availability of phosphorus (P) is limited and unlikely to increase in the future. P is a non-renewable resource, and it is essential to every form of life. P is a key plant nutrient controlling the responsiveness of photosynthesis to [CO2]. Increases in [CO2] typically results in increased biomass through stimulation of net photosynthesis, and hence enhance the demand for P uptake. However, most soils contain low concentrations of available P. Therefore, low P is one of the major growth-limiting factors for plants in many agricultural and natural ecosystems. The adaptive responses of plants to [CO2] and P availability encompass alterations at morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In general low P reduces growth, whereas high [CO2] enhances it particularly in C3 plants. Photosynthetic capacity is often enhanced under high [CO2] with sufficient P supply through modulation of enzyme activities involved in carbon fixation such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). However, high [CO2] with low P availability results in enhanced dry matter partitioning towards roots. Alterations in below-ground processes including root morphology, exudation and mycorrhizal association are influenced by [CO2] and P availability. Under high P availability, elevated [CO2] improves the uptake of P from soil. In contrast, under low P availability, high [CO2] mainly improves the efficiency with which plants produce biomass per unit P. At molecular level, the spatio-temporal regulation of genes involved in plant adaptation to low P and high [CO2] has been studied individually in various plant species. Genome-wide expression profiling of high [CO2] grown plants revealed hormonal regulation of biomass accumulation through complex transcriptional networks. Similarly, differential transcriptional regulatory networks are involved in P

  9. Assessment on the Vulnerability of Mangrove Ecosystems in the Guangxi Coastal Zone under Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise caused by global climate change will have significant impacts on coastal zone. The mangrove ecosystems occur at the intertidal zone in tropical and subtropical coasts and are particularly sensitive to sea level rise. To study the responses of mangrove ecosystems to sea level rise, assess the impacts of sea level rise on mangrove ecosystem and formulate the feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisites for securing the coastal ecosystems. In this research, taking the mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Guangxi province, China as a case study, the potential impacts of sea level rise on the mangrove ecosystems were analyzed by adopting the SPRC (Source-Pathway- Receptor- Consequence) model. An index system for vulnerability assessment on coastal mangrove ecosystems under sea level rise was worked out, in which rate of sea level rise, subsidence/uplift rate, habitat elevation, daily inundation duration, intertidal slope and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators according to the IPCC definition of vulnerability, i.e. the aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. A quantitatively spatial assessment method based on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. The vulnerability assessment based on the sea-level rise rates of the present trend and IPCC A1F1 scenario were performed for three sets of projections of short-term (2030s), mid-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results showed at the present trend of sea level rise rate of 0.27 cm/a, the mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Guangxi was within the EVI score of 0 in the projections of 2030s, 2050s and 2100s, respectively. As the sedimentation and land uplift could offset the rate of sea level rise and the impact of sea level rise on habitats/species of mangrove ecosystems was negligible. While at the A1F1 scenario with a sea level rise rate of 0

  10. Rehabilitative Therapies Differentially Alter Proliferation and Survival of Glial Cell Populations in the Perilesional Zone of Cortical Infarcts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SILKE KEINER; FANNY WURM; ALBRECHT KUNZE; OTTO W. WITTE; CHRISTOPH REDECKER

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitative therapies after stroke are designed to improve remodeling of neuronal circuits and to promote functional recovery. Only very little is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms. In particular, the effects of rehabilitative training on glial cells, which play an important role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, are only poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of rehabilitative therapies on proliferation and survival of distinct glial populations in the perilesional area of photochemically induced focal ischemic infarcts in the forelimb sensorimotor cortex in rats. Immediately after the infarct,one group of animals housed in standard cages received daily sessions of skilled reaching training of the impaired forelimb; a second group was transferred to an enriched environment, whereas a third control group remained in standard cages without further treatment. Functional recovery was assessed in a sensorimotor walking task. To label proliferating cells, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered from day 2 until day 6 postinfarct. Proliferation and survival of astrocytes, microglia/macrophages, and immature and mature oligodendrocytes in the perilesional zone were immunocytochemically quantified at day 10 and 42. Using this approach, we demonstrate that enriched environment and reaching training both significantly improve functional recovery of the impaired forelimb. Furthermore,these therapies strongly reduce the proliferation of microglia/macrophages in the perilesional zone, and daily training of the impaired forelimb significantly increased the survival of newly generated astrocytes. Our data, therefore,demonstrate that rehabilitative therapies after cortical infarcts not only improve the functional recovery but also significantly influence the glial response in the perilesional zone.%卒中后的康复治疗能改善神经环路的重塑,促进功能恢复.但人们对其潜在的细胞分子机制却知之甚少.特别是康

  11. Evolution of the fracture process zone in high-strength concrete under different loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cámara M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For cementitious materials, the inelastic zone around a crack tip is termed as fracture process zone (FPZ and dominated by complicated mechanism, such as microcracking, crack deflection, bridging, crack face friction, crack tip blunting by voids, crack branching, and so on. Due to the length of the FPZ is related with the characteristic length of the cementitious materials, the size, extent and location of the FPZ has been the object of countless research efforts for several decades. For instance, Cedolin et al. [1] have used an optical method based on the moiré interferometry to determine FPZ in concrete. Castro-Montero et al. [2] have applied the method of holographic interferometry to mortar to study the extension of the FPZ. The advantage of the interferometry method is that the complete FPZ can be directly observed on the surface of the sample. Swartz et al. [3] has adopted the dye penetration technique to illustrate the changing patterns observed as the crack progress from the tensile side to the compression side of the beam. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE is also an experimental technique well suited for monitoring fracture process. Haidar et al. [4] and Maji et al. [5] have studied the relation between acoustic emission characteristics and the properties of the FPZ. Compared with the extensive research on properties of the FPZ under quasi-static loading conditions, much less information is available on its dynamic characterization, especially for high-strength concrete (HSC. This paper presents the very recent results of an experimental program aimed at disclosing the loading rate effect on the size and velocity of the (FPZ in HSC. Eighteen three-point bending specimens were conducted under a wide range of loading rates from from 10-4 mm/s to 103 mm/s using either a servo-hydraulic machine or a self-designed drop-weight impact device. The beam dimensions were 100 mm 100 mm in cross section, and 420 mm in length. The initial notch

  12. Thermomechanical cohesive zone models for analysis of composites failure under thermal gradients and transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattiangadi, Ashwin A.

    A numerical framework to study multi-physics problem involving coupled thermomechanical analyses for cracks is outlined. Using a thermomechanical cohesive zone model (TM-CZM), load transfer behavior is coupled to heat conduction across a crack. Non-linear effects due to coupling between the mechanical and thermal problem occur through the conductance-separation response between crack faces as well as through the temperature dependence of material constants of the CZM. The TM-CZM is implemented in a convenient framework within the finite element method and applied in the study of: (i) interface crack growth; (ii) crack bridging; and (iii) photo-thermal imaging. Interface fracture in a thermal protection system (TPS) under transient monotonic and cyclic thermal loading is studied using the new TM-CZM and an analytical model. TPS includes an oxidation protection coating (OPC) on a carbon-carbon (C-C) composite substrate. The description of the load transfer behavior uses a traction-separation law with an internal residual property variable that determines the extent of damage caused by mechanical separation. Temperature dependence is incorporated, such that the interfacial strength and therefore the tractions decrease with temperature. The description of thermal transport includes an accurate representation of breakdown of interface conductance with increase in separation. The current state of interface failure, the presence of gas entrapped in the crack as well as radiative heat transfer determines the crack conductance. Coupling between thermal-mechanical analyses affects the interface crack initiation and growth behavior. An analytical model is presented for the uncoupled thermal-mechanical problem to calculate temperature fields and energy release rates. The TM-CZM is also applied in the study of bridged delamination cracks in composite laminates loaded under a temperature gradient. A micromechanism based bridging law is used for load transfer coupled to heat

  13. ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN CREATINE CONCENTRATIONS UNDER LONG-TERM SOCIAL ISOLATION (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshoridze, N; Kuchukashvili, Z; Menabde, K; Lekiashvili, Sh; Koshoridze, M

    2016-02-01

    Stress represents one of the main problems of modern humanity. This study was done for understanding more clearly alterations in creatine content of the brain under psycho-emotional stress induced by long-term social isolation. It was shown that under 30 days social isolation creatine amount in the brain was arisen, while decreasing concentrations of synthesizing enzymes (AGAT, GAMT) and creatine transporter protein (CrT). Another important point was that such changes were accompanied by down-regulation of creatine kinase (CK), therefore the enzyme's concentration was lowered. In addition, it was observed that content of phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP were also reduced, thus indicating down-regulation of energy metabolism of brain that is really a crucial point for its normal functioning. To sum up the results it can be underlined that long-term social isolation has negative influence on energy metabolism of brain; and as a result reduce ATP content, while increase of free creatine concentration, supposedly maintaining maximal balance for ATP amount, but here must be also noted that up-regulated oxidative pathways might have impact on blood brain barrier, resulting on its permeability.

  14. Interaction Between Magma Fluids and Lithosphere Rocks Under Crest Zone of MAR: Mineralogical and Petrophysical Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, V. N.; Mazurov, M. P.; Mysov, V. M.

    2004-12-01

    Using numerical and physical experiments dynamics of mass-change in the lithosphere under the zones joining rift valleys of MAR and transform faults was modeled. `Black smokers', methane gas flows, and bubbly carbon deposits, as products of hydrocarbon condensation, present in these zones. Numerical experiments were completed using flow-reactor scheme of PC Selector Win for gas flows of compositions: C (0.1-4), O (0-2), H (0.5-4), Cl (0.05-0.5), F (0.01-1), S (0.01-0.1), and N (0.02-0.1). Weight fraction of gas mixture in rocks was 1.5-0.01%, P from 45-10 kbar to 30-100 bar, T=1200-400° C. The fluid-rock interaction time was t=1-100 steps. Density change for new-formed rock in the lithosphere profile was estimated by virtual mineral composition recounting for each time step. Verification of physicochemical model was carried out by comparison of changed rocks and numerically obtained condensates, as well as minerals and solid, gas and liquid carbon phases, obtained experimentally using the equipment to study catalytic conversion of synthesis-gas flow (H2=65%, CO=34.8%, N2=0.2% vol.). It was shown that above the boiling boundary of basic liquids a field of convective mass transfer should form in the lithosphere. This field includes a number of zones of initial rock change with regions of solid phase depleting and condensing. The ranges of rock composition change due to `reduced' and oxidized' gas mixtures were studied. The density change for ultra-basic rock in the lithosphere is related to spatial and time change of oxygen potential, which current values at the beginning of the interaction process are buffering by rocks, and then - by the values at the system input. In the case when reduced gas mixtures exist, an oxidation roll is forming in the flow, for oxidized mixtures - a reduction roll. At the fluid output at the sea bottom their composition is the most oxidized. When fluids and initial rocks of the lithosphere interact, changed rock mixtures of anomalously

  15. Alteration of forest succession and carbon cycling under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam D; Dietze, Michael C; DeLucia, Evan H; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J

    2016-01-01

    Regenerating forests influence the global carbon (C) cycle, and understanding how climate change will affect patterns of regeneration and C storage is necessary to predict the rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) increase in future decades. While experimental elevation of CO2 has revealed that young forests respond with increased productivity, there remains considerable uncertainty as to how the long-term dynamics of forest regrowth are shaped by elevated CO2 (eCO2 ). Here, we use the mechanistic size- and age- structured Ecosystem Demography model to investigate the effects of CO2 enrichment on forest regeneration, using data from the Duke Forest Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment, a forest chronosequence, and an eddy-covariance tower for model parameterization and evaluation. We find that the dynamics of forest regeneration are accelerated, and stands consistently hit a variety of developmental benchmarks earlier under eCO2 . Because responses to eCO2 varied by plant functional type, successional pathways, and mature forest composition differed under eCO2 , with mid- and late-successional hardwood functional types experiencing greater increases in biomass compared to early-successional functional types and the pine canopy. Over the simulation period, eCO2 led to an increase in total ecosystem C storage of 9.7 Mg C ha(-1) . Model predictions of mature forest biomass and ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2 and H2 O were sensitive to assumptions about nitrogen limitation; both the magnitude and persistence of the ecosystem response to eCO2 were reduced under N limitation. In summary, our simulations demonstrate that eCO2 can result in a general acceleration of forest regeneration while altering the course of successional change and having a lasting impact on forest ecosystems.

  16. Pinot noir wine volatile and anthocyanin composition under different levels of vine fruit zone leaf removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui; Skinkis, Patricia A; Qian, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of fruit zone leaf removal on volatile and anthocyanin compositions of Pinot noir wine were investigated over two growing seasons. Wine volatiles were analyzed by multiple techniques, including headspace solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS), headspace-GC-FID (HS-GC-FID) and stir bar sorptive extraction-GC-MS (SBSE-GC-MS). Fruit zone leaf removal affected the concentration of many grape-derived volatile compounds such as terpene alcohols and C13-norisoprenoids in wine, although the degree of impact depended on the vintage year and severity of leaf removal. Fruit zone leaf removal resulted in greater concentrations of linalool, α-terpineol and β-damascenone but had no impact on other terpene alcohols or β-ionone. Fruit zone leaf removal had no consistent impact on C6 alcohols, volatile phenols, lactones, fermentation-derived alcohols, acids, or most esters. Fruit zone leaf removal increased anthocyanins in final wine.

  17. Simulated potential and water-limited yields of cocoa under different agro-ecological zones in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabawi, A.G.M.; Gerritsma, W.

    2009-01-01

    The yield of cocoa under potential and water-limited production levels in different agro-ecological zones was simulated using cocoa model CASE2. For both production levels, the yield was simulated using five years of elirnatic data (1991-1995) and plant data of three-year-old plant. The results show

  18. 76 FR 16726 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, WI; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... the zone under the alternative site framework (ASF) adopted by the Board (74 FR 1170, 1/ 12/09 (correction 74 FR 3987, 1/22/09); 75 FR 71069-71070, 11/22/10). The ASF is an option for grantees for the... was approved by the Board on September 29, 1978 (Board Order 136, 43 FR 46887, 10/11/1978)...

  19. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was issued: ER29AP09.118...

  20. Real-time monitoring of nitrate transport in the deep vadose zone under a crop field - implications for groundwater protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkeltaub, Tuvia; Kurtzman, Daniel; Dahan, Ofer

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate is considered the most common non-point pollutant in groundwater. It is often attributed to agricultural management, when excess application of nitrogen fertilizer leaches below the root zone and is eventually transported as nitrate through the unsaturated zone to the water table. A lag time of years to decades between processes occurring in the root zone and their final imprint on groundwater quality prevents proper decision-making on land use and groundwater-resource management. This study implemented the vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) under a commercial crop field. Data obtained by the VMS for 6 years allowed, for the first time known to us, a unique detailed tracking of water percolation and nitrate migration from the surface through the entire vadose zone to the water table at 18.5 m depth. A nitrate concentration time series, which varied with time and depth, revealed - in real time - a major pulse of nitrate mass propagating down through the vadose zone from the root zone toward the water table. Analysis of stable nitrate isotopes indicated that manure is the prevalent source of nitrate in the deep vadose zone and that nitrogen transformation processes have little effect on nitrate isotopic signature. The total nitrogen mass calculations emphasized the nitrate mass migration towards the water table. Furthermore, the simulated pore-water velocity through analytical solution of the convection-dispersion equation shows that nitrate migration time from land surface to groundwater is relatively rapid, approximately 5.9 years. Ultimately, agricultural land uses, which are constrained to high nitrogen application rates and coarse soil texture, are prone to inducing substantial nitrate leaching.

  1. Growth, survival and bone alterations in Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae under different rearing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roque Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is a neotropical freshwater fish. It is one of the most important species farmed in areas of the Parana and Paraguay Rivers basins. The effects of different rearing protocols on growth, survival and incidence of skeletal malformations in pacu larvae were analyzed. A total of six experimental treatments were considered, consisting of: a semi-intensive larviculture (LS in ponds; intensive larviculture (LIn in laboratory (both LS and LIn until 60 days of life; and mixed larviculture, with 20 days of semi-intensive larviculture into cages in ponds after 14 (L1, 21 (L2, 33 (L3 or 40 (L4 days of laboratory larviculture. At the end of the experimental period, LSlarvae showed higher growth rate, with average weight values (2.28g and total length (TL-48.20mm statistically higher than the rest (P1 to L4 treatments showed intermediate growth values, without differences between them (P>0.05, while LIn presented the lowest growth (PS, that presented a significantly lower value (17.5%, PIn and L1 presented the lowest incidence. In no case, visible morphological alterations were found. This study shows that prolonging pacu rearing under laboratory conditions at high densities improves temporal availability and survival of juvenile without affecting growth or subsequent osteological development of fish.

  2. Shifting phenology and abundance under experimental warming alters trophic relationships and plant reproductive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinzhan; Reich, Peter B; Li, Guoyong; Sun, Shucun

    2011-06-01

    Phenological mismatches due to climate change may have important ecological consequences. In a three-year study, phenological shifts due to experimental warming markedly altered trophic relationships between plants and insect herbivores, causing a dramatic decline of reproductive capacity for one of the plant species. In a Tibetan meadow, the gentian (Gentiana formosa) typically flowers after the peak larva density of a noctuid moth (Melanchra pisi) that primarily feeds on a dominant forb (anemone, Anemone trullifolia var. linearis). However, artificial warming of approximately 1.5 degrees C advanced gentian flower phenology and anemone vegetative phenology by a week, but delayed moth larvae emergence by two weeks. The warming increased larval density 10-fold, but decreased anemone density by 30%. The phenological and density shifts under warmed conditions resulted in the insect larvae feeding substantially on the gentian flowers and ovules; there was approximately 100-fold more damage in warmed than in unwarmed chambers. This radically increased trophic connection reduced gentian plant reproduction and likely contributed to its reduced abundance in the warmed chambers.

  3. Numerical Models of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity: Brain Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim

    2003-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain

  4. An empirical exploration of the world oil price under the target zone model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linghui Tang; Shawkat Hammoudeh [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Lebow College of Business

    2002-11-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of the world oil price based on the first-generation target zone model. Using anecdotal data during the period of 1988-1999, we found that OPEC has tried to maintain a weak target zone regime for the oil price. Our econometric tests suggest that the movement of the oil price is not only manipulated by actual and substantial interventions by OPEC but also tempered by market participants' expectations of interventions. As a consequence, the non-linear model based on the target zone theory has very good forecasting ability when the oil price approaches the upper or lower limit of the band. (author)

  5. An empirical exploration of the world oil price under the target zone model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Linghui; Hammoudeh, Shawkat [Department of Economics and International Business, Lebow College of Business, Drexel University, 19104 Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2002-11-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of the world oil price based on the first-generation target zone model. Using anecdotal data during the period of 1988-1999, we found that OPEC has tried to maintain a weak target zone regime for the oil price. Our econometric tests suggest that the movement of the oil price is not only manipulated by actual and substantial interventions by OPEC but also tempered by market participants' expectations of interventions. As a consequence, the non-linear model based on the target zone theory has very good forecasting ability when the oil price approaches the upper or lower limit of the band.

  6. The evolution of root-zone moisture capacities after deforestation: a step towards hydrological predictions under change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijzink, Remko; Hutton, Christopher; Pechlivanidis, Ilias; Capell, René; Arheimer, Berit; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei; Wagener, Thorsten; McGuire, Kevin; Savenije, Hubert; Hrachowitz, Markus

    2016-12-01

    The core component of many hydrological systems, the moisture storage capacity available to vegetation, is impossible to observe directly at the catchment scale and is typically treated as a calibration parameter or obtained from a priori available soil characteristics combined with estimates of rooting depth. Often this parameter is considered to remain constant in time. Using long-term data (30-40 years) from three experimental catchments that underwent significant land cover change, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) the root-zone storage capacity significantly changes after deforestation, (2) changes in the root-zone storage capacity can to a large extent explain post-treatment changes to the hydrological regimes and that (3) a time-dynamic formulation of the root-zone storage can improve the performance of a hydrological model.A recently introduced method to estimate catchment-scale root-zone storage capacities based on climate data (i.e. observed rainfall and an estimate of transpiration) was used to reproduce the temporal evolution of root-zone storage capacity under change. Briefly, the maximum deficit that arises from the difference between cumulative daily precipitation and transpiration can be considered as a proxy for root-zone storage capacity. This value was compared to the value obtained from four different conceptual hydrological models that were calibrated for consecutive 2-year windows.It was found that water-balance-derived root-zone storage capacities were similar to the values obtained from calibration of the hydrological models. A sharp decline in root-zone storage capacity was observed after deforestation, followed by a gradual recovery, for two of the three catchments. Trend analysis suggested hydrological recovery periods between 5 and 13 years after deforestation. In a proof-of-concept analysis, one of the hydrological models was adapted to allow dynamically changing root-zone storage capacities, following the observed changes due to

  7. Species-specific fine root biomass distribution alters competition in mixed forests under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Christopher; Gutsch, Martin; Lasch, Petra; Suckow, Felicitas; Sterck, Frank; Mohren, Frits

    2010-05-01

    The importance of mixed forests in European silviculture has increased due to forest conversion policies and multifunctional forest management. Concurrently, evidences for substantial impacts of climate change on forest ecosystems accumulate. Projected drier and warmer conditions alter the water relations of tree species, their growth and ultimately their inter-specific competition in mixed stands. Process-based models are scientific tools to study the impact of climate change on and to deepen the understanding of the functioning of these systems based on ecological mechanisms. They allow for long-term, stand-level studies of forest dynamics which could only be addressed with great difficulty in an experimental or empirical setup. We used the process-based forest model 4C to simulate inter-specific competition in mixed stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Common beech (Fagus sylvatica) as well as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Sessile / Pedunculate oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) under a) historical climate for model verification and b) under climate change scenario realizations of the climate model STAR 2.0 in Brandenburg, Germany. Some of the climate change scenario realizations feature a substantially drier and warmer summer climate which decreases the climatic water balance during the growing season. We assumed species-specific fine root biomass distributions which feature broadleaved fine roots in deeper soil layers and coniferous fine roots in upper soil layers according to several root excavation studies from mixed stands. The stands themselves were constructed from yield tables of the contributing species. The model verification provided good results for the basal area predictions under the historical climate. Under climate change, the number of days when the tree water demand exceeded the soil water supply was higher for the coniferous species than for broadleaved species. Furthermore, after 45 simulation years the basal area

  8. Response to recharge variation of thin lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalized lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an analytical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase, and increase of recharge frequency causes decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the center of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens

  9. Response to recharge variation of thin rainwater lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eeman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalised lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an empirical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase and the increase of recharge frequency causes a decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the centre of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens

  10. Altered patterns of gene expression underlying the enhanced immunogenicity of radiation-attenuated schistosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P Dillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosome cercariae only elicit high levels of protective immunity against a challenge infection if they are optimally attenuated by exposure to ionising radiation that truncates their migration in the lungs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the altered phenotype of the irradiated parasite that primes for protection have yet to be identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used a custom microarray comprising probes derived from lung-stage parasites to compare patterns of gene expression in schistosomula derived from normal and irradiated cercariae. These were transformed in vitro and cultured for four, seven, and ten days to correspond in development to the priming parasites, before RNA extraction. At these late times after the radiation insult, transcript suppression was the principal feature of the irradiated larvae. Individual gene analysis revealed that only seven were significantly down-regulated in the irradiated versus normal larvae at the three time-points; notably, four of the protein products are present in the tegument or associated with its membranes, perhaps indicating a perturbed function. Grouping of transcripts using Gene Ontology (GO and subsequent Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA proved more informative in teasing out subtle differences. Deficiencies in signalling pathways involving G-protein-coupled receptors suggest the parasite is less able to sense its environment. Reduction of cytoskeleton transcripts could indicate compromised structure which, coupled with a paucity of neuroreceptor transcripts, may mean the parasite is also unable to respond correctly to external stimuli. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transcriptional differences observed are concordant with the known extended transit of attenuated parasites through skin-draining lymph nodes and the lungs: prolonged priming of the immune system by the parasite, rather than over-expression of novel antigens, could thus

  11. Spatial structuring of an evolving life-history strategy under altered environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Jens C; Kennedy, Brian P; Chittaro, Paul M; Zabel, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    Human disturbances to ecosystems have created challenges to populations worldwide, forcing them to respond phenotypically in ways that increase their fitness under current conditions. One approach to examining population responses to disturbance in species with complex life histories is to study species that exhibit spatial patterns in their phenotypic response across populations or demes. In this study, we investigate a threatened population of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River of Idaho, in which a significant fraction of the juvenile population have been shown to exhibit a yearling out-migration strategy which had not previously been thought to exist. It has been suggested that dam-related environmental changes may have altered the selective pressures experienced by out-migrating fall chinook, driving evolution of a later and more selectively advantageous migration strategy. Using isotopic analysis of otoliths from returning adult spawners, we reconstructed the locations of individual fish at three major juvenile life stages to determine if the representation of the yearling life history was geographically structured within the population. We reconstructed juvenile locations for natal, rearing and overwintering life stages in each of the major spawning areas in the basin. Our results indicate that the yearling life-history strategy is predominantly represented within one of the main spawning regions, the Clearwater River, rather than being distributed throughout the basin. Previous studies have shown the Clearwater River to have cooler temperatures, later hatch dates, and later outmigration of juveniles, indicating a link between environment and expression of the yearling life history. Our data suggest that this new yearling life history may be disproportionally represented in returning adult spawners, indicating selection for this life history within the population.

  12. Vadose-zone moisture dynamics under radiation boundary conditions during a drying process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩江波; 周志芳; 傅志敏; 王锦国

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the soil moisture dynamics during a drying process, a soil column experiment is conducted in the laboratory, followed by the numerical modeling with consideration of the coupled liquid water, water vapor and heat transport in the vadose zone. Results show that there are three distinct subzones above the water table according to the temporally dynamic variation of the water content profiles. Zone 1 sees a decrease in the water contents in the upper profiles (0 m-0.05 m) due to a negative net water flux in this zone where the upward isothermal water vapor flux becomes the main flow mechanism in the soils. In contrast, the water content within Zone 2 in the depth ranging from 0.05 m to 0.37 m sees an apparent increase over time, resulting from the positive net thermal water-vapor and isothermal liquid-water fluxes into this layer. Zone 3 (0.37 m-0.65 m) also sees an apparent decrease in the water content since the isothermal liquid water flux carries the liquid water either upward out of this region for vaporization or downward to the water table as a recharge to the groundwater.

  13. Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicca, S.; Bahn, M.; Estiarte, M.

    2014-01-01

    dependencies of SCE. Hence, the most justified answer to the question of whether current moisture responses of SCE can be extrapolated to predict SCE under altered precipitation regimes is 'no' - as based on the most reliable data sets available. We strongly recommend that future experiments focus more...

  14. Fixed points of generalized Geraghty contractions in partially ordered metric spaces under the influence of altering distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. R. Sastry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove the existence and uniqueness of fixed points of generalized Geraghty contractions in partially ordered complete metric spaces under the influence of altering distances. Our results extend and generalize some of the known results.

  15. Characteristics and laws of MODS coupling relation in arid zone under global change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ranghui; ZHANG Huizhi; HUANG Qing

    2006-01-01

    Global change has influenced the distribution pattern and spatio-temporal changes of resources in arid zone, and has restrained the land use and land cover change, which is shown by water-heat state, landscape structure, climate effect, and human activities. The above-mentioned characteristics have a close coupling relation with the mountain-oasisdesert system (MODS). The climate in Central Asia arid zone is warm and wet, which is different from that in northern China which takes a tendency of aridity, and the mechanism has restricted the characteristics and laws of MODS. Systematic interface characteristics and process, especially the formation,transformation and consumption laws of water resource reflect directly MODS's response to global change in arid zone. Spatio-temporal pattern, dynamic change, scale change and coupling mode of MODS reflect the ecology mechanism between the systems and within the systems.

  16. Assessing Regional Scale Variability in Extreme Value Statistics Under Altered Climate Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsell, Nathaniel [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Mechem, David [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Ma, Chunsheng [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Recent studies have suggested that low-frequency modes of climate variability can significantly influence regional climate. The climatology associated with extreme events has been shown to be particularly sensitive. This has profound implications for droughts, heat waves, and food production. We propose to examine regional climate simulations conducted over the continental United States by applying a recently developed technique which combines wavelet multi–resolution analysis with information theory metrics. This research is motivated by two fundamental questions concerning the spatial and temporal structure of extreme events. These questions are 1) what temporal scales of the extreme value distributions are most sensitive to alteration by low-frequency climate forcings and 2) what is the nature of the spatial structure of variation in these timescales? The primary objective is to assess to what extent information theory metrics can be useful in characterizing the nature of extreme weather phenomena. Specifically, we hypothesize that (1) changes in the nature of extreme events will impact the temporal probability density functions and that information theory metrics will be sensitive these changes and (2) via a wavelet multi–resolution analysis, we will be able to characterize the relative contribution of different timescales on the stochastic nature of extreme events. In order to address these hypotheses, we propose a unique combination of an established regional climate modeling approach and advanced statistical techniques to assess the effects of low-frequency modes on climate extremes over North America. The behavior of climate extremes in RCM simulations for the 20th century will be compared with statistics calculated from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). This effort will serve to establish the baseline behavior of climate extremes, the

  17. The swimming speed alteration of two freshwater rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Asplanchna brightwelli under dimethoate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiu; Wang, Zhiliang; Li, Guoping; Guo, Ruixin

    2014-01-01

    Two common freshwater rotifer species Brachionus calyciflorus and Asplanchna brightwelli were employed as test organisms to investigate the toxic effects of the widely used organophosphate pesticide, dimethoate. The swimming angular speed and linear speed alteration of two rotifers were evaluated under the toxic stress in four concentrations (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 mg L(-1)). For B. calyciflorus, the rotifer swimming angular speed and linear speed were both adversely affected as a function of the toxicant concentrations. After a 2h exposure, the angular speeds at four concentrations were 39.37, 30.74, 26.68 and 23.96° s(-1), 65.30%, 50.98%, 44.25% and 39.74% of that of the control, respectively, while the mean linear speed decreased from 194.80 to 91.85×10(-3) mm s(-1), which was 70.12%, 48.14%, 34.02% and 33.06% of that of the control (277.82×10(-3) mm s(-1)), respectively. The pesticide also significantly inhibited the swimming angular speed of A. brightwelli. After a 2h exposure, the angular speeds of this rotifer at four concentrations were 39.37, 30.74, 26.68 and 23.96° s(-1), only 22.99%, 17.16%, 16.21% and 13.63% of that of the control (170.80° s(-1)), respectively. Compared with the results of B. calyciflorus, A. brightwelli was more sensitive on the swimming angular speed when exposed to the toxicant. It implied that A. brightwelli should be an alternative candidate model species about the toxicities of aquatic pollutants. In addition, when the rotifer A. brightwelli was exposed to four pesticide concentrations, the swimming linear speed displayed symptoms of hormesis, characterized by the conversion of low-concentration stimulate to high-concentration inhibition. Our results show that dimethoate had a significant effect on swimming of freshwater rotifers.

  18. The Legality of Foreign Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Jing

    2012-01-01

    During negotiations for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), military activities in another state's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) were a point of contention. Currently, the issue remains controversial in state practice. UNCLOS attempts to balance the differing interests of c

  19. Root zone salinity and sodicity under seasonal rainfall due to feedback of decreasing hydraulic conductivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Shah, S.H.H.; Vervoort, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil sodicity, where the soil cation exchange complex is occupied for a significant fraction by Na+, may lead to vulnerability to soil structure deterioration. With a root zone flow and salt transport model, we modeled the feedback effects of salt concentration (C) and exchangeable sodium percentage

  20. SEM Analysis of the Interfacial Transition Zone between Cement-Glass Powder Paste and Aggregate of Mortar under Microwave Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Kong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of microwave curing on the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone of mortar prepared with a composite binder containing glass powder and to explain the mechanism of microwave curing on the improvement of compressive strength, in this study, the compressive strength of mortar under microwave curing was compared against mortar cured using (a normal curing at 20 ± 1 °C with relative humidity (RH > 90%; (b steam curing at 40 °C for 10 h; and (c steam curing at 80 °C for 4 h. The microstructure of the interfacial transition zone of mortar under the four curing regimes was analyzed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that the improvement of the compressive strength of mortar under microwave curing can be attributed to the amelioration of the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone. The hydration degree of cement is accelerated by the thermal effect of microwave curing and Na+ partially dissolved from the fine glass powder to form more reticular calcium silicate hydrate, which connects the aggregate, calcium hydroxide, and non-hydrated cement and glass powder into a denser integral structure. In addition, a more stable triangular structure of calcium hydroxide contributes to the improvement of compressive strength.

  1. Alteration mechanisms of UOX spent fuel under water; Mecanismes d'alteration sous eau du combustible irradie de type UOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzeau, B

    2008-06-15

    The mechanisms of spent fuel alteration in aqueous media need to be understood on the assumption of a direct disposal of the assemblies in a geological formation or for long duration storage in pool. This work is a contribution to the study of the effects of the alpha and/or beta/gamma radiolysis of water on the oxidation and the dissolution of the UO{sub 2} matrix of UOX spent fuel. The effects of the alpha radiolysis, predominant in geological disposal conditions, were quantified by using samples of UO{sub 2} doped with plutonium. The leaching experiments highlighted two types of control for the matrix alteration according to the alpha activity. The first is based on the radiolytic oxidation of the surface and leads to a continuous release of uranium in solution whereas the second is based on a control by the solubility of uranium. An activity threshold, between 18 MBq.g{sup -1} and 33 MBq.g{sup -1}, was defined in a carbonated water. The value of this threshold is dependent on the experimental conditions and the presence or not of electro-active species such as hydrogen in the system. The effects of the alpha/beta/gamma radiolysis in relation with the storage conditions were also quantified. The experimental data obtained on spent fuel indicate that the alteration rate of the matrix based on the behaviour of tracer elements (caesium and strontium) reached a maximum value of some mg.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}, even under very oxidizing conditions. The solubility of uranium and the nature of the secondary phases depend however on the extent of the oxidizing conditions. (author)

  2. In situ Raman study of dissolved CaCO3 minerals under subduction zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facq, S.; Daniel, I.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The fate and the characteristics of the Earth's deep carbon reservoirs are still not well understood [1]. The connection between the surficial and the deep-Earth carbon cycles occurs at subduction zones where carbon is transported into the mantle and where hydrous silicates and carbonate minerals break down releasing H2O and C-species in fluids associated with mantle metasomatism and the generation of arc volcanism [2]. In order to obtain mass balance between recycling and burial in the deep mantle, the study of the dissolution of CaCO3 minerals in equilibrium with aqueous fluids under mantle conditions is crucial. We report a novel integrated experimental and theoretical study of the equilibration of CaCO3 minerals with aqueous solutions (pure water or NaCl solutions) at high pressures and temperatures (0.5 to 8 GPa and 250 to 500 °C). The fluid speciation was studied using in situ Raman spectroscopy coupled to an externally heated membrane type DAC equipped with 500 μm pure synthetic diamond anvils. In a typical experiment, the aqueous fluid and a calcite crystal [3] were loaded in a rhenium gasket. The pressure was determined from the calibrated shift of the carbonate υ1 symmetric stretching mode of aragonite and the temperature measured with a K-type thermocouple. Raman spectra were recorded using a Labram HR800 Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin-Yvon) coupled to a Spectra Physics Ar+ laser. At equilibrium with an aragonite crystal, the Raman data show that bicarbonate is the most abundant species in low-pressure fluids (below 4 GPa) whereas carbonate becomes progressively dominant at higher pressure. After correction from their Raman cross-sections [4], the relative amounts of dissolved carbonate and bicarbonate were estimated from the areas of the Raman bands of the carbonate and bicarbonate ions (υ1 and υ5 symmetric stretching modes, respectively). The presence of sodium chloride influences the speciation by extending the pressure field where the

  3. Molecular alteration of marine dissolved organic matter under experimental hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hansen, Christian T.; Goldhammer, Tobias; Bach, Wolfgang; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a large (660 Pg) pool of reduced carbon that is subject to thermal alteration in hydrothermal systems and sedimentary basins. In natural high-temperature hydrothermal systems, DOM is almost completely removed, but the mechanism and temperature dependence of this removal have not been studied to date. We investigated molecular-level changes to DOM that was solid-phase extracted (SPE-DOM) from the deep ocean of the North Pacific Ocean. This complex molecular mixture was experimentally exposed to temperatures between 100 and 380 °C over the course of two weeks in artificial seawater, and was then characterised on a molecular level via ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Almost 93% of SPE-DOM was removed by the treatment at 380 °C, and this removal was accompanied by a consistent pattern of SPE-DOM alteration across the temperatures studied. Higher molecular weight and more oxygen rich compounds were preferentially removed, suggesting that decarboxylation and dehydration of carboxylic acid and alcohol groups are the most rapid degradation mechanisms. Nitrogen containing compounds followed the same overall trends as those containing just C, H and O up to 300 °C. Above this temperature, the most highly altered samples contained very little of the original character of marine DOM, instead being mainly composed of very low intensity N- and S- containing molecules with a high H/C ratio (>1.5). Our results suggest that abiotic hydrothermal alteration of SPE-DOM may already occur at temperatures above 68 °C. Our experiments were conducted without a sedimentary or mineral phase, and demonstrate that profound molecular alteration and almost complete removal of marine SPE-DOM requires nothing more than heating in a seawater matrix.

  4. Altered Carbon Isotope Discrimination of C3 Plants Under Very High pCO2 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, R. J.; Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.

    2009-12-01

    Various modeling and proxy-based reconstructions of atmospheric pCO2 levels for the last 120 Ma have estimated RCO2 as high as 12x for the Early Cretaceous, generally decreasing into the Cenozoic, and decreasing further into the Quaternary. Multiple ecological studies to assess the effect of elevated CO2 on plant biomass and δ13C value have been spurred on by recent increases in greenhouse gases, however these studies typically grow plants under only slightly elevated CO2 levels (i.e., the twenty foremost studies published since 1990 involved 550 to 750 ppm pCO2, which equals RCO2 = 1.4 to 1.9x). In order to recreate the highest pCO2 environments of the last 120 Ma, we grew radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in growth chambers that maintained controlled environmental conditions and pCO2 levels ranging from ~5 to 11x that of today’s atmosphere (1791 to 4200 ppm); upon harvest we measured total biomass and stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13Cplant) in both above and below ground plant tissue. Unlike the 1:1 relationship between stable isotopes of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Catm) and δ13Cplant observed at lower pCO2 levels (i.e., RCO2 = 1x to 3x; Jahren et al., 2008), the δ13Cplant of biomass grown at more elevated RCO2 was dependent upon δ13Catm according to the linear relationship: δ13Cplant = 1.9(δ13Cplant) - 12.2 ‰ (r2 = 0.71). Concomitantly, we see a highly significant (p sativus L. from -27.0 to -28.0 ‰ at RCO2 = 5x to 11x, respectively. We will discuss possible mechanisms for changing isotope discrimination at very high pCO2 levels that may not be operative at lower concentrations. For example, we noted a striking reduction in the variability of biomass between plants grown at the same (very high) level of pCO2. This variability (calculated as the standard deviation of the log-transformed biomass data after Poorter and Garnier, 1996) decreased by 37 % (above-ground) and 48 % (below-ground) for plants grown at RCO2 > 5x compared to plants grown at RCO2 = 1x to 3x

  5. Tissue biochemical alterations of Cyprinus carpio exposed to commercial herbicide containing clomazone under rice-field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Roberta; Moraes, Bibiana Silveira; Loro, Vania Lucia; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Sartori, Gerson Meneghetti Sarzi; Clasen, Bárbara; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Marchesan, Enio; Zanella, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate toxicological responses of Cyprinus carpio exposed to the commercial herbicide clomazone (500 mg l(-1)). Fish were exposed to 0.5 mg l(-1) of the formulated herbicide for 7, 30, and 90 days. Fish were exposed to clomazone in field conditions (7, 30, or 90 days trapped in submersed cages together with rice crops) and in laboratory conditions where the fish were placed in 45-l tanks with tap water only for 7 days. Fish exposed for 7, 30, or 90 days showed no alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity under field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, decreased muscle AChE activity was observed only after 7 days of exposure. During the same evaluation period (7 days), oxidative stress parameters changed under both field and laboratory conditions; however, metabolic parameters were altered only under field conditions. Disorders in oxidative stress parameters and metabolism were evident in different tissues up to day 90 after treatment. These overall results show that AChE activity changed only under laboratory conditions. Oxidative stress, along with metabolic parameters, may be good indicators of herbicide contamination in C. carpio under rice-field conditions.

  6. Mineralogical Zonation of Wall-Rock Alteration in Jiaodong Gold Province, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Mineralogical zonation of wall-rock alterations in Mesozoic granitoids is summarized from 18 gold deposits in Jiaodong gold province on the Asian mobile continental margin of the west circum-Pacific rim. This paper deals with wall-rock alterations developed around gold mineralizations of the quartz-vein type in granitoids and the wall-rock alteration type in granitoid-basement contacts alongMesozoic fault zones trending mostly NNE-SSW and NE-SW. Five alteration zones are distinguished from host rock to ore zone, namely the chloritization and sericitization zone, the hematitization-rutilization and microclinization zone, the quartz-sericitization zone, the pyrite-quartz-sericitization zone and the pyrite-silicification zone. The former two are outer zones marked by incomplete alteration of first mafic and then felsic minerals of the granitoids, while the later three are inner zones marked by complete alteration of both mafic and felsic minerals of the granitoids leading to retrogressive sericitization and progressive silicification with participation of ore elements. The whole process proceeds under dynamometamorphism with high fugacity of volatiles. Wall-rock alteration is the intermediate link between unaltered host rock and ore mineralization both in time and space. Development of the alteration zonation and its mineral composition controls genetic type of mineralization, size and grade of the deposit and location of the ore zones.

  7. Controlled Environments Enable Adaptive Management in Aquatic Ecosystems Under Altered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are impacted by altered environment conditions resulting from climate, drought, and land use changes. Gaps in the science knowledge base regarding plant community response to these novel and rapid changes limit both science understanding and management of ecosystems. We describe how CE Technologies have enabled the rapid supply of gap-filling science, development of ecosystem simulation models, and remote sensing assessment tools to provide science-informed, adaptive management methods in the impacted aquatic ecosystem of the California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The Delta is the hub for California's water, supplying Southern California agriculture and urban communities as well as the San Francisco Bay area. The changes in environmental conditions including temperature, light, and water quality and associated expansion of invasive aquatic plants negatively impact water distribution and ecology of the San Francisco Bay/Delta complex. CE technologies define changes in resource use efficiencies, photosynthetic productivity, evapotranspiration, phenology, reproductive strategies, and spectral reflectance modifications in native and invasive species in response to altered conditions. We will discuss how the CE technologies play an enabling role in filling knowledge gaps regarding plant response to altered environments, parameterization and validation of ecosystem models, development of satellite-based, remote sensing tools, and operational management strategies.

  8. Characterization of standard and oxygenated float zone Si diodes under radiotherapy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casati, M. [INFN Firenze and Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, University of Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: marta.casati@unifi.it; Bruzzi, M. [INFN Firenze and Dipartimento di Energetica, University of Florence (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [INFN Firenze and Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, University of Florence (Italy); Menichelli, D. [INFN Firenze and Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, University of Florence (Italy); Scaringella, M. [INFN Firenze and Dipartimento di Energetica, University of Florence (Italy); Piemonte, C. [ITC-IRST, MIS Division, Povo, Trento (Italy); Fretwurst, E. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg D-22761 (Germany)

    2005-10-21

    The dosimetric response of silicon diodes made from high resistivity float zone (FZ) and diffusion oxygenated FZ (DOFZ) silicon has been studied with a {sup 60}Co clinical radiotherapy gamma source. To investigate the changes in sensitivity with the accumulated dose, the diodes have been exposed to doses of {sup 137}Cs gamma-rays up to 6 kGy. As expected, Si diodes showed a degradation in the signal response with the accumulated dose due to the formation of radiation-induced defects acting as lifetime killers. Nonetheless, the DOFZ Si diode appeared to be moderately radiation harder than the standard FZ sample, with a decay of sensitivity less pronounced.

  9. Formation of the preheated zone ahead of a propagating flame and the mechanism underlying the deflagration-to-detonation transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, M. A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Ivanov, A.; Matsukov, I.

    2009-01-01

    The Letter presents analytical, numerical and experimental studies of the mechanism underlying the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT). Insight into how, when, and where DDT occurs is obtained by analyzing analytically and by means of multidimensional numerical simulations dynamics of a flame accelerating in a tube with no-slip walls. It is shown that the deflagration-to-detonation transition exhibits three separate stages of evolution corroborating majority experimental observations. During the first stage flame accelerates and generates shocks far ahead of the flame front. During the second stage the flame slows down, shocks are formed in the immediate proximity of the flame front and the preheated zone ahead of the flame front is created. The third stage is self-restructuring of the steep temperature profile within the flame, formation of a reactivity gradient and the actual formation of the detonation wave itself. The mechanism for the detonation wave formation, given an appropriate formation of the preheated zone, seems to be universal and involves a reactivity gradient formed from the initially steep flame temperature profile in the presence of the preheated zone. The developed theory and numerical simulations are found to be well consistent with extensive experiments of the DDT in hydrogen-oxygen and ethylene-oxygen mixtures in tubes with smooth and rough walls.

  10. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress.

  11. Numerical modelling of the plasticity of Ringwoodite under transition zone conditions in the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterbex, S.; Carrez, P.; Gouriet, K.; Cordier, P.

    2013-12-01

    (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 ringwoodite spinel, a high-pressure polymorph of the main upper mantle constituent olivine, is considered to be the weakest phase in the lower half of the transition zone, generally a confined region between 410-660 km depth in the Earth's mantle which couples the upper and lower mantle. It is therefore believed to be an important phase in subducting slabs from 510-660 km depth. Knowledge of ductile deformation mechanisms of ringwoodite may therefore provide a framework for a better understanding of solid-state flow within the transition zone over which the viscosity is thought to increase rapidly. The glide of linear defects or dislocations in a crystal is one of the effective mechanisms responsible for creep of mantle minerals such as ringwoodite. A description of the core structures of the active dislocations is essentiel to obtain information about the dislocation mobility and hence the rate of deformation controlled by glide. Computer simulations at the atomic-scale are used to investigate the structure and properties of dislocation cores of Mg2SiO4 ringwoodite at a pressure of 20 GPa1. This approach is a good alternative to study intracrystalline plasticity since experimental study is more than challanging at the pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth's transition zone. The Peierls2-Nabarro3-Galerkin approach is used to understand and predict the plastic properties of Mg2SiO4 ringwoodite at 20 GPa4. In this semi-continuum model, the dislocation is described as a distribution of infinitesimal mismatches across the assumed glide planes. Ballancing the elastic forces within the crystal with the non-elastic interaction forces across the glide plane provide information about the localization of the planar core. The non-elastic forces across the glide plane can be deduced from atomic scale density functional theory based calculations of generalized stacking fault surfaces, which are energy landscapes due to the general stacking of one half of

  12. Comprehensive assessment on dynamic roof instability under fractured rock mass conditions in the excavation disturbed zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-ping Lai; Fen-hua Ren; Yong-ping Wu; Mei-feng Cai

    2009-01-01

    The damage process of fractured rock mass showed that the fracture in rocks induced roof collapse in Yangchangwan Coal Mine,China.The rock mass was particularly weak and fractured.There occurred 6 large-scale dynamical roof falls in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with the collapsing volume of 216 m3.First,the field detailed geological environment,regional seismic dy-namics,and dynamic instability of roadways were generally investigated.Second,the field multiple-index monitoring measurements for detecting the deep delamination of the roof,convergence deformation,bolt-cable load,acoustic emission (AE) characteristic pa-rameters,total AE events,AE energy-releasing rate,rock mass fracture,and damage were arranged.Finally,according to the time-space-strength relations,a quantitative assessment of the influence of rock-mass damage on the dynamic roof instability was accomplished.

  13. Numerical modeling of surf zone dynamics under weakly plunging breakers with SPH method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Christos V.; Memos, Constantine D.; Krestenitis, Yannis N.

    2016-02-01

    The wave breaking of weak plungers over a relatively mild slope is investigated in this paper. Numerical modeling aspects are studied, concerning the propagation and breaking of shore-normal, nonlinear and regular waves. The two-dimensional (2-D) kinematics and dynamics (fluctuating flow features and large 2-D eddies) of the wave-induced flow on a vertical cross-section over the entire surf zone are simulated with the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The academic 'open source' code SPHysics v.2 is employed and the viscosity treatment is based on a Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) approach, similarly to the Large Eddy Simulations (LES) concept. Thorough analysis of the turbulent flow scales determines the necessary refinement of the spatial resolution. The initial particle discretization reaches down to the demarcation point between integral turbulence length scales and Taylor micro-scales. A convolution-type integration method is implemented for the transformation of scattered Lagrangian particle data to Eulerian values at fixed gauges. A heuristic technique of ensemble-averaging is used for the discrimination of the fluctuating flow components from coherent structures and ordered wave motion. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data give encouraging results for several wave features. The wave-induced mean flows are simulated plausibly, and even the 'streaming' effect near the bed is reproduced. The recurring vorticity patterns are derived, and coherent 2-D structures inside the surf zone are identified. Fourier spectral analysis of velocities reveals isotropy of 2-D fluctuating dynamics up to rather high frequencies in shear intensified regions. The simulated Reynolds stresses follow patterns that define the characteristic mechanism of wave breaking for weak plungers. Persisting discrepancies at the incipient breaking region confirm the need for fine, massively 'parallel' 3-D SPS-SPH simulations.

  14. Altered neuronal excitability underlies impaired hippocampal function in an animal model of psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGrüter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosis is accompanied by severe attentional deficits, and impairments in associational-memory processing and sensory information processing that are ascribed to dysfunctions in prefrontal and hippocampal function. Disruptions of glutamatergic signalling may underlie these alterations: Antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR results in similar molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioural changes in rodents and/or humans as those that occur in psychosis, raising the question as to whether changes in glutamatergic transmission may be intrinsic to the pathophysiology of the disease. In an animal model of psychosis that comprises treatment with the irreversible NMDAR-antagonist, MK801, we explored the cellular mechanisms that may underlie hippocampal dysfunction in psychosis. MK801-treatment resulted in a profound loss of hippocampal LTP that was evident 4 weeks after treatment. Whereas neuronal expression of the immediate early gene, Arc, was enhanced in the hippocampus by spatial learning in controls, MK801-treated animals failed to show activity-dependent increases in Arc expression. By contrast, a significant increase in basal Arc expression in the absence of learning was evident compared to controls. Paired-pulse facilitation was increased at the 40 ms interval indicating that NMDAR and/or fast GABAergic-mediated neurotransmission was disrupted. In line with this, MK801-treatment resulted in a significant decrease in GABA(A, and increase in GABA(B-receptor-expression in PFC, along with a significant increase of GABA(B- and NMDAR-GluN2B expression in the dentate gyrus. NMDAR-GluN1 or GluN2A subunit expression was unchanged. These data suggest that in psychosis, deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory may be caused by a loss of hippocampal LTP that arises through enhanced hippocampal neuronal excitability, altered GluN2B and GABA receptor expression and an uncoupling of the hippocampus-prefrontal cortex circuitry.

  15. Altered neuronal excitability underlies impaired hippocampal function in an animal model of psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Thomas; Wiescholleck, Valentina; Dubovyk, Valentyna; Aliane, Verena; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Psychosis is accompanied by severe attentional deficits, and impairments in associational-memory processing and sensory information processing that are ascribed to dysfunctions in prefrontal and hippocampal function. Disruptions of glutamatergic signaling may underlie these alterations: Antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) results in similar molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioral changes in rodents and/or humans as those that occur in psychosis, raising the question as to whether changes in glutamatergic transmission may be intrinsic to the pathophysiology of the disease. In an animal model of psychosis that comprises treatment with the irreversible NMDAR-antagonist, MK801, we explored the cellular mechanisms that may underlie hippocampal dysfunction in psychosis. MK801-treatment resulted in a profound loss of hippocampal LTP that was evident 4 weeks after treatment. Whereas neuronal expression of the immediate early gene, Arc, was enhanced in the hippocampus by spatial learning in controls, MK801-treated animals failed to show activity-dependent increases in Arc expression. By contrast, a significant increase in basal Arc expression in the absence of learning was evident compared to controls. Paired-pulse (PP) facilitation was increased at the 40 ms interval indicating that NMDAR and/or fast GABAergic-mediated neurotransmission was disrupted. In line with this, MK801-treatment resulted in a significant decrease in GABA(A), and increase in GABA(B)-receptor-expression in PFC, along with a significant increase of GABA(B)- and NMDAR-GluN2B expression in the dentate gyrus. NMDAR-GluN1 or GluN2A subunit expression was unchanged. These data suggest that in psychosis, deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory may be caused by a loss of hippocampal LTP that arises through enhanced hippocampal neuronal excitability, altered GluN2B and GABA receptor expression and an uncoupling of the hippocampus-prefrontal cortex circuitry. PMID:26042007

  16. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied.

  17. Parasitological Indices of Malaria Transmission in Children under Fifteen Years in Two Ecoepidemiological Zones in Southwestern Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaré, Ibrahim; Coulibaly, Sanata; Namountougou, Moussa; Paré-Toé, Léa; Ouédraogo, Anicet Georges; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Foy, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty years after the latest publications performed on the parasitological indices of malaria transmission in northwest of the second city of Burkina Faso, it was important to update the epidemiological profile of malaria in children under the age of 15 years. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the parasitological parameters of malaria transmission by season, area, and age in the two zones (rice and savanna) in the northwest of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Overall, the results showed that there was no significant difference in the parasitological indices of malaria transmission within children under fifteen years between the rice site and the savannah site and whatever the season (P > 0.05). The profound environmental modifications that occurred in the rice zone would have led to changes in vector behavior and consequently to changes in the epidemiological profile of malaria, contrary to the results obtained since the last publications. An entomological study correlated with this study is therefore necessary for effective decision-making for the malaria control in both areas. Future research must now focus on the impact that these profound environmental modifications of rice area are having on malaria control in Burkina Faso.

  18. The Processes of Location Study for Developing Economic Zones under Public Private Partnership Model: Country Study on Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudul Alam

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the complexity in defining the boundary, the concept of Economic Zones (EZ has been evolved as a way forward for the government of the developing countries for enhancing the national trade. Similarly the recent phenomenon of widespread Public Private Partnership (PPP practices especially in infrastructure sector is also providing a window to develop many of such economic zones through PPP model as EZ typically is capital intensive. Bangladesh has discrete success both under PPP and EZ regime. However, developing EZ under PPP model has few commercial complexities as both the public and private sector need to bear some roles and obligations one of which is selection of appropriate location for EZ development. The location study for PPP EZ development therefore receives paramount attention both from developer and lenders perspective. Such location study generally is not typical project site study by nature; rather it is more economic concentrated. This paper will try to identify the factors that are essential to consider for conducting these location studies based on the examples of Bangladesh. The paper will also identify the appropriate methods and approaches required for successful EZ development through PPP.

  19. Osseous skeletal material and fish scales in marine sediments under the oxygen minimum zone off northern and central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milessi, Andrés C.; Sellanes, Javier; Gallardo, Víctor A.; Lange, Carina B.

    2005-08-01

    The significance of whale falls for the study of the biogeography, evolution and biodiversity of deep-sea biota has been recently recognized by international programs since large carcasses are known to give rise to biogenic chemosynthetic ecosystems. However, the plain accumulation of smaller bone material in the shallower settings of the continental shelf and upper slope under the hypoxic conditions of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), has received much less attention. Here we describe new findings of skeletal material and fish scales in marine sediments under the OMZ off northern and central Chile which, combined with previous reports for the study area, lead us to suggest the existence of a band in the benthos of accumulation of bones and scales extending at least twenty degrees in latitude (18-38° S). Future studies should focus on the characterization of biotic communities living upon these resources in order to elucidate their peculiarities and importance in the Eastern South Pacific.

  20. Changes of vessel-cells complex in zones of adaptive remodeling of the bone tissue under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N.; Oganov, V.; Nosova, L.

    The development and differentiation of osteogenic cells in organism happen in closely topographical and functional connection with blood capillaries. We formerly proofed, that small-differentiated cells, which are in the population of perivascular cells are osteogenic cells -precursors . At the present time it is actually to clear up, how these biostructures react on conditions of less of biomechanical load on skeleton bones. We researched peculiarities of blood-bed structure and perivascular cells in metaphises of thighbones and tibial bones in rats, which were onboard the American space station SLS-2 and in experiments of modeling hypokinesia. There were used methods of cytochemistry, histology and electron microscopy. We established, that under the support and functional load decreasing in zones of bones adaptive remodeling, comparatively to control, on histosections the own volume of sinusoid capillaries reduces. The small vessels prevail here. The spaces of sinusoid capillaries are limited by 1 2 cells of the endothelia. Endotheliocytes in- general have the typical ultrastructure. Basal membranes are expressed not-distinctly. Perivascular cells don't create the unbroken layer. The population of these cells is not-homogeneous. It includes enclosed to endothelia small-differentiated forms and separating cells with sings of fibroblastic differentiation (the own volume of rough endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasm induces). The part of these cells reacts on the alkaline phosphatase (the marker of the osteogenic differentiation). Under the conditions of support load decreasing (especially under the microgravity) there is a tendency to reducing of separating osteogenic cells number. We noted the priority of differentiating fibroblasts. It leads to further development in zones of bone remodeling of hearths of fibrous tissue, that doesn't mineralize. The obtained data are seen as one of mechanisms of osteoporosis and osteopenia development under the deficite of support

  1. Properties of Plasma Membrane from Pea Root Seedlings under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D.; Baranenko, V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Kurylenko, I.; Chyzhykova, O.; Dubovoy, V.

    In this study, the properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plasma membrane were examined to determine how the membrane structure and functions are regulated in response to clinorotation (2 rev/min) conditions. Membrane preparations enriched by plasma membrane vesicles were obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning from 6-day seedling roots. The specific characteristics of H^+-ATPase, lípid composition and peroxidation intensity as well as fluidity of lipid bilayer were analysed. ATP hydrolytic activity was inhibited by ortovanadate and was insensitive to aside and nitrate in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from both clinorotated and control seedlings. Plasma membrane vesicles from clinorotated seedlings in comparison to controls were characterised by increase in the total lipid/protein ratio, ATP hydrolytic activity and intensifying of lipid peroxidation. Sitosterol and campesterol were the predominant free sterol species. Clinorotated seedlings contained a slightly higher level of unsaturated fatty acid than controls. Plasma membrane vesicles were labelled with pyrene and fluorescence originating from monomeric (I_M) molecules and excimeric (I_E) aggregates were measured. The calculated I_E/I_M values were higher in clinorotated seedlings compared with controls reflecting the reduction in membrane microviscosity. The involvement of the changes in plasma membrane lipid content and composition, fluidity and H^+-ATPase activity in response of pea seedlings to altered gravity is discussed.

  2. Gridded population projections for the coastal zone under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkens, Jan-Ludolf; Reimann, Lena; Hinkel, Jochen; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.

    2016-10-01

    Existing quantifications of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) used for climate impact assessment do not account for subnational population dynamics such as coastward-migration that can be critical for coastal impact assessment. This paper extends the SSPs by developing spatial projections of global coastal population distribution for the five basic SSPs. Based on a series of coastal migration drivers we develop coastal narratives for each SSP. These narratives account for differences in coastal and inland population developments in urban and rural areas. To spatially distribute population, we use the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) national population and urbanisation projections and employ country-specific growth rates, which differ for coastal and inland as well as for urban and rural regions, to project coastal population for each SSP. These rates are derived from spatial analysis of historical population data and adjusted for each SSP based on the coastal narratives. Our results show that, compared to the year 2000 (638 million), the population living in the Low Elevated Coastal Zone (LECZ) increases by 58% to 71% until 2050 and exceeds one billion in all SSPs. By the end of the 21st century, global coastal population declines to 830-907 million in all SSPs except for SSP3, where coastal population growth continues and reaches 1.184 billion. Overall, the population living in the LECZ is higher by 85 to 239 million compared to the original IIASA projections. Asia expects the highest absolute growth (238-303 million), Africa the highest relative growth (153% to 218%). Our results highlight regions where high coastal population growth is expected and will therefore face an increased exposure to coastal flooding.

  3. Transitions in Land Use Architecture under Multiple Human Driving Forces in a Semi-Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Ouedraogo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect the main shifts in land-use architecture and assess the factors behind the changes in typical tropical semi-arid land in Burkina Faso. Three sets of time-series LANDSAT data over a 23-year period were used to detect land use changes and their underpinning drivers in multifunctional but vulnerable ecologies. Group discussions in selected villages were organized for mapping output interpretation and collection of essential drivers of change as perceived by local populations. Results revealed profound changes and transitions during the study period. During the last decade, shrub and wood savannahs exhibited high net changes (39% and −37% respectively with a weak net positive change for cropland (only 2%, while cropland and shrub savannah exhibited high swap (8% and 16%. This suggests that the area of cropland remained almost unchanged but was subject to relocation, wood savannah decreased drastically, and shrub savannah increased exponentially. Cropland exhibited a null net persistence while shrub and wood savannahs exhibited positive and negative net persistence (1.91 and −10.24, respectively, indicating that there is movement toward agricultural intensification and wood savannah tended to disappear to the benefit of shrub savannah. Local people are aware of the changes that have occurred and support the idea that illegal wood cutting and farming are inappropriate farming practices associated with immigration; absence of alternative cash generation sources, overgrazing and increasing demand for wood energy are driving the changes in their ecosystems. Policies that integrate restoration and conservation of natural ecosystems and promote sustainable agroforestry practices in the study zone are highly recommended.

  4. 77 FR 15995 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ...) by the Industrial Development Board of Blount County and the Cities of Alcoa and Maryville, Tennessee.... The proposed service area is within and adjacent to the Knoxville U.S. Customs and Border Protection... magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits that generally apply to sites under the ASF, and...

  5. Dynamics of soil water content under different tillage systems in agro-pastural eco-zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of soil water content under different tillage systems was studied throughout the growing period of oat (Arena sativa L.).The treatments included tillage system (zero tillage,minimum tillage,and conventional tillage),residue cover (with and without cover),and crop rotation (continuous cropping and crop rotation).The results indicated that soil water content and crop water use efficiency were improved under zero tillage with cover.When crop stubble was removed,soil water content under zero tillage was reduced,especially in the surface soil layer.Compared to conventional tillage,minimum tillage increased soil water content and its storage,either with cover or without cover.For all the three tillage treatments,soil water content with cover was significantly higher than that of without cover.Furthermore,soil water content and crop water use efficiency under crop rotation was consistently higher than continuous cropping.Therefore,it is concluded that minimum tillage with cover is the optimum management system in this area.At present,however,a combination of crop rotation and minimum tillage is a viable option,since there are not enough crop residues available for cover of land.

  6. [Effects of exogenous spermidine on Cucumis sativus L. seedlings photosynthesis under root zone hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wang, Suping; Guo, Shirong; Sun, Yanjun

    2006-09-01

    With water culture, this paper studied the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), apparent quantum yield (phi c), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of cucumber seedlings tinder hypoxia stress. The results showed that the Pn decreased gradually under hypoxia stress, and reached the minimum 10 days after by 63. 33% of the control. Compared with that of hypoxia-stressed plants, the Pn after 10 days application of exogenous Spd increased 1.25 times. A negative correlation (R2 = 0.4730 - 0.7118) was found between Pn and Ci. Gs and Tr changed in wider ranges, which decreased under hypoxia-stress, but increased under hypoxia-stress plus exogenous Spd application. There was a significant positive correlation between Gs and Tr (R2 = 0.7821 - 0.9458), but these two parameters had no significant correlation with Pn; Hypoxia stress induced a decrease of phi c and CE by 63.01% and 72.33%, respectively, while hypoxia stress plus exogenous Spd application made phi c and CE increase by 23% and 14%, respectively. The photo-inhibition of cucumber seedlings under hypoxia stress was mainly caused by non-stomatal limitation, while exogenous Spd alleviated the hypoxia stress by repairing photosynthesis system.

  7. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.

    2012-01-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  8. Comprehensive analysis of temporal alterations in cellular proteome of Bacillus subtilis under curcumin treatment.

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    Panga Jaipal Reddy

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a natural dietary compound with antimicrobial activity against various gram positive and negative bacteria. This study aims to investigate the proteome level alterations in Bacillus subtilis due to curcumin treatment and identification of its molecular/cellular targets to understand the mechanism of action. We have performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of B. subtilis AH75 strain at different time intervals of curcumin treatment (20, 60 and 120 min after the drug exposure, three replicates to compare the protein expression profiles using two complementary quantitative proteomic techniques, 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive longitudinal investigation describing the effect of curcumin treatment on B. subtilis proteome. The proteomics analysis revealed several interesting targets such UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase 1, putative septation protein SpoVG and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit. Further, in silico pathway analysis using DAVID and KOBAS has revealed modulation of pathways related to the fatty acid metabolism and cell wall synthesis, which are crucial for cell viability. Our findings revealed that curcumin treatment lead to inhibition of the cell wall and fatty acid synthesis in addition to differential expression of many crucial proteins involved in modulation of bacterial metabolism. Findings obtained from proteomics analysis were further validated using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC assay for respiratory activity, resazurin assay for metabolic activity and membrane integrity assay by potassium and inorganic phosphate leakage measurement. The gene expression analysis of selected cell wall biosynthesis enzymes has strengthened the proteomics findings and indicated the major effect of curcumin on cell division.

  9. Hydrologic regime alteration of a Mediterranean catchment under climate change projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Haykel; Benabdallah, Sihem; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Herrmann, Frank; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2014-05-01

    Most of the climate models projections for the Mediterranean basin have showed that the region will likely to experience a general tendency towards drier climate conditions with decreases in total precipitation, increases in temperature, alterations in the rainfall extreme events and droughts frequency (IPCC, 2007; Giorgi and Lionello, 2008; López-Moreno et al., 2011). The region is already suffering from water resources scarcity and vulnerability which are expected to amplify in the next century (Ludwig et al., 2011; Schneider et al., 2013). Therefore, assessing the impact of climate change on the hydrologic regime of Mediterranean catchments is with a major concern not only to scientist but also to water resources policy makers and general public. However, most of the climate change impact studies focus on the flow regime on global or regional scale rather than on the catchment scale which is more useful and more appropriate to guide practical mitigation and adaptation policy. This is because hydro-climate modeling at the local scale is confronted to the variability in climate, topography, geology, lack of observations and anthropogenic activities within the catchment. Furthermore, it is well recognized that hydrological and climate models forecasts are always affected with uncertainty making the assessment of climate change impact on Mediterranean catchment hydrology more challenging. This work aims to assess the impact of climate change on a Mediterranean catchment located in North Africa (the Chiba catchment in northeast Tunisia) through a conjunctive use of physically based hydrological model (SWAT) driven with four climate models*. Quantification of the impact of climate change has been conducted by means of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (Richter et al., 1996) which are also ecologically meaningful. By comparing changes in these indicators in the reference period (1971-2000) to the projected ones in the future (2041-2070), it was possible to draw

  10. Low Root Zone Temperature Exacerbates the Ion Imbalance and Photosynthesis Inhibition and Induces Antioxidant Responses in Tomato Plants Under Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; YANG Jing; ZHU Biao; ZHU Zhu-jun

    2014-01-01

    The combined effects of salinity with low root zone temperature (RZT) on plant growth and photosynthesis were studied in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. The plants were exposed to two different root zone temperatures (28/20°C, 12/8°C, day/night temperature) in combination with two NaCl levels (0 and 100 mmol L-1). After 2 wk of treatment, K+and Na+ concentration, leaf photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll lfuorescence and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities were measured. Salinity signiifcantly decreased plant biomass, net photosynthesis rate, actual quantum yield of photosynthesis and concentration of K+, but remarkably increased the concentration of Na+. These effects were more pronounced when the salinity treatments were combined with the treatment of low RZT conditions. Either salinity or low RZT individually did not affect maximal efifciency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), while a combination of these two stresses decreased Fv/Fm considerably, indicating that the photo-damage occurred under such conditions. Non-photochemical quenching was increased by salt stress in accompany with the enhancement of the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, in contrast, this was not the case with low RZT applied individually. Salinity stress individually increased the activities of SOD, APX, GPOD and GR, and decreased the activities of DHAR. Due to the interactive effects of salinity with low RZT, these ifve enzyme activities increased sharply in the combined stressed plants. These results indicate that low RZT exacerbates the ion imbalance, PSII damage and photosynthesis inhibition in tomato plants under salinity. In response to the oxidative stress under salinity in combination with low RZT, the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, APX, GPOD, DHAR and GR were clearly enhanced in tomato plants.

  11. Evaluation of Geochemical Fracture Conductivity Alterations in Shale under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonjic, M.; Olabode, A.

    2015-12-01

    In large scale subsurface injection of carbondioxide as obtainable in carbon sequestration programs and in environmentally friendly hydraulic fracturing processes (using supercritical CO2), rock-fluid interaction can affect reservoir and seal rocks properties which are essential in monitoring the progress of these operations. The mineralogical components of sedimentary rocks are geochemically active particularly under enormous earth stresses. While geomechanical properties such as rock stiffness, Poisson's ratio and fracture geometry largely govern fluid flow characteristics in deep fractured formations, the effect of mineralization can lead to flow impedance in the presence of favorable geochemical and thermodynamic conditions. Experimental works which employed the use of analytical tools such as ICP-OES, XRD, SEM/EDS, TOC and BET techniques in investigating diagenetic and micro-structural properties of crushed shale caprock/CO2-brine system concluded that net precipitation reaction processes can affect the distribution of petrophysical nanopores in the shale as a result of rock-fluid interactions. Simulation results previously reported, suggest that influx-induced mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within clay-based sedimentary rocks can continuously close micro-fracture networks, though injection pressure and effective-stress transformation first rapidly expand these fractures. This experimental modelling research investigated the impact of in-situ geochemical precipitation on conductivity of fractures under geomechanical stress conditions. Conductivity is measured as differential-pressure drop equivalence, using a pressure pulse-decay liquid permeametry/core flooding system, as geochemically saturated-fluid is transported through composite cores with embedded micro-tubings that mimic fractures. The reactive fluid is generated from crushed shale rocks of known mineralogical composition when flooded with aqueous CO2 at elevated temperature and pressure

  12. Alterations in 'water yield' associated with land use changes under different precipitation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatyn, Shani; Ramati, Efrat; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rotenberg, Eyal; Tas, Eran; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Changes in rainfall regimes and land cover results in complex alterations in plant water use and in ecosystem water balance, which are not well quantified. This results in poor estimates of the 'water yield' (WY; the difference between precipitation, P, input and evapotranspiration, ET, losses), which provides the water available for runoff and re-charge, and ultimately also for human consumption. The objective of this study was to examine the interactions between the effects of land use change (from sparse shrubland to pine forest) on ecosystem WY, and changes in the precipitation regime (from humid Mediterranean to semi-arid conditions). We hypothesized that the forestation increased ET and reduced WY, but this impact diminishes with decreasing precipitation. We used a new approach centered on a custom-built mobile laboratory of eddy co-variance measurements deployed on a campaign basis (about two weeks per site repeated along the seasonal cycle), that allowed us to measure ecosystem-scale ET together with carbon and energy fluxes and meteorological parameters. Measurements were carried out between the years of 2012-2015 in three paired sites of Pinus halepensis forests and adjacent non-forest ecosystems along the rainfall gradient in Israel, from 755 to 290 mm in annual precipitation. Annual ET was estimated from the campaigns results based on multiple regression analyses with meteorological parameters (relative humidity, RH, temperature, T, and global radiation, Rg) from local meteorological stations that provided continuous data records. The results indicated that decrease in annual precipitation by a factor of ~2.5, resulted in decrease in ET by a factor of 2.4 from 685 mm, with WY=210 mm, in the humid forest, to 290 mm, with WY= 0 mm, in the dry forest. In the non-forest ecosystems ET showed relatively small decrease (by a factor of 1.3) from 285 mm, with WY=460 mm, to 220 mm, with WY=95 mm. The differences 'Forest-shrubland' in ET decreased from 400 mm to

  13. Left ventricular mechanoenergetics under altered coronary perfusion in guinea pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, T; Takaki, M; Fujii, W; Matsubara, H; Suga, H

    1995-01-01

    Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) is well known to affect left ventricular (LV) mechanoenergetics (Gregg's phenomenon). The garden hose effect via the Frank-Starling mechanism caused by coronary distension has long been considered to be the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon. However, recent studies have revealed a close correlation between CPP and the excitation-contraction coupling in myocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanoenergetic aspects of Gregg's phenomenon by the ventricular contractility (Emax) dependency of the myocardial oxygen consumption (VO2)-total mechanical energy (PVA, systolic pressure-volume area) relationship. Experiments were performed in the excised, cross-circulated guinea pig heart preparation. The protocol consisted of LV volume loading (VOL run), changing coronary perfusion pressure at a fixed LV volume (CPP run) and intracoronary calcium (Ca) infusion also at the same LV volume (Ca run). In all seven hearts, we obtained a linear VO2-PVA relation in VOL run. The VO2-PVA relations in CPP and Ca runs, which equally enhanced Emax, were highly linear and had no significant difference in their slopes, both significantly steeper than in VOL run. These findings suggest no significant difference in the oxygen cost of Emax between CPP and Ca runs. The enhanced LV mechanoenergetics under increasing CPP is characterized by increases in the VO2 component primarily for the excitation-contraction coupling to a greater degree than expected from the mechanical (garden hose) effect.

  14. Soil Erosion under Different Land Use Types and Zones of Jinsha River Basin in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zisheng; LIANG Luohui

    2004-01-01

    Severe soil erosion in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River has been regarded as a major environmental problem. The on-site impact of soil erosion on agricultural production and the off-site impact on floods and sedimentation in Yangtze Rive are well known. A quantitative assessment of soil erosion intensity is still scanty for developing appropriate soil erosion control measures for different land use types and zones in this region. This article constructs a localized USLE and estimates the average soil loss in the Jinsha River Region in Yunnan Province, one of the priority areas for soil erosion control in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River. The estimation is done under different land uses and zones in this basin. The estimation shows that while soil erosion in the cultivated land is the most severe, 36~40% of the garden and forest land suffers from soil erosion of various degrees due to lack of ground cover and other factors. Soil erosion in the pasture is modest when the ground cover is well maintained. It also confirmed that terracing can reduce soil erosion intensity significantly on the cultivated land. Research findings suggest that sufficient attention must be paid to regeneration of the ground cover in reforestation programs. In addition to mass reforestation efforts, restoration of grassland and terracing of the cultivated land should also play an important role in erosion control.

  15. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Charlie Y; Manning, Sara A; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J; Samuels, Amanda N; Sniegowski, Paul D; Goulian, Mark; Kohli, Rahul M

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role in

  16. Tissue specific responses alter the biomass accumulation in wheat under gradual and sudden salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumurtaci A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one the major limiting environmental factors which has negative side effects on crop production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the gradual and sudden salt stress effects on biomass accumulation associated with whole plant development in three different tissues of two wheat species ( Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under hydroponic conditions in the long term. Considering the effects of sudden and gradual stress for biomass accumulation, while importance of salinity x genotype interaction for fresh weights was 5%, association for salinity x tissue type was found as 1% important. Interestingly, root branching and development of lateral roots were much more negatively affected by gradual stress rather than sudden salt application. Our results demonstrated that root and leaf were both critical tissues to test the salt tolerance by physiologically but sheath tissue might be used as an alternative source of variation for solving the interactions between root and leaves in wheat.

  17. Soil Fertility Status under Different Tree Cropping System in a Southwestern Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement O. OGUNKUNLE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tree cropping has been known to bring about changes in edaphic component among other components of the ecosystem through their interactions with the soil and soil faunas. Premised on this, this study assessed the effects of sole cropping of teak and intercropping of cocoa and kola on the soil fertility status. The study was carried out using stratified-randomed sampling technique for the study plots in all the sampling sites. Three sampling sites consisting of four (4-4oo m2 sampling plots each were established in which vegetation and some soil parameters were assessed. Results analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of leaves decomposition of cocoa and kola improved the organic matter content of the soil under the cocoa/kola site. Considerable improvement in soil fertility was enjoyed in the cocoa/kola site due to the large girth sizes and basal area of trees present in the cocoa/kola site while soil under the sole cropping of teak was impoverished. The degradation effects was due to the high rate of nutrient uptake of the teak, organic matter content was high in the forest site (9.12% and cocoa/kola site (7.34 while the least was in the teak site (3.04%. A very strong correlation existed between organic matter content and some vegetation parameters.

  18. Developmental alterations and osmoregulatory physiology of a larval anuran under osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mestre, I; Tejedo, M; Ramayo, E; Estepa, J

    2004-01-01

    Water salinity represents an environmental stress for many species. Amphibians are particularly sensitive because they are generally poor osmoregulators, and most species are completely absent from brackish and saline environments. We experimentally examined the effect of different salinity levels on larvae of the toad Bufo calamita L., a species that occupies freshwater ponds but can also breed in brackish ponds. Two independent experiments are reported here. In both experiments, tadpoles under saline conditions (ranging between 85 and 200 mOsm) showed a slower developmental rate, metamorphosing between 4 and 9 d later than the controls. Bufo calamita tadpoles reared in brackish water increased their osmolality and solute concentration (mainly sodium and chloride), decreased their levels of glucose, and decreased the total protein content, all measured from whole-animal extracts. Although most larval anurans are strictly ammoniotelic until the completion of metamorphosis, a few species exposed to dehydrating environments have evolved the ability to use urea as an osmolyte during the larval phase. The data presented here reveal that although B. calamita seems to be yet another exception to the rule of larval strict ammoniotelism, the tadpoles are not able to use urea as an osmolyte and rely on sodium-chloride balance instead. Preliminary immunoassays of thyroid hormone content suggest a possible decrease in hormone levels induced in water salinity conditions that correlate with a decreased developmental rate.

  19. Foraging behavior under starvation conditions is altered via photosynthesis by the marine gastropod, Elysia clarki.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Middlebrooks

    Full Text Available It has been well documented that nutritional state can influence the foraging behavior of animals. However, photosynthetic animals, those capable of both heterotrophy and symbiotic photosynthesis, may have a delayed behavioral response due to their ability to photosynthesize. To test this hypothesis we subjected groups of the kleptoplastic sea slug, Elysia clarki, to a gradient of starvation treatments of 4, 8, and 12 weeks plus a satiated control. Compared to the control group, slugs starved 8 and 12 weeks displayed a significant increase in the proportion of slugs feeding and a significant decrease in photosynthetic capability, as measured in maximum quantum yield and [chl a]. The 4 week group, however, showed no significant difference in feeding behavior or in the metrics of photosynthesis compared to the control. This suggests that photosynthesis in E. clarki, thought to be linked to horizontally-transferred algal genes, delays a behavioral response to starvation. This is the first demonstration of a link between photosynthetic capability in an animal and a modification of foraging behavior under conditions of starvation.

  20. Varying responses of insect herbivores to altered plant chemistry under organic and conventional treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Joanna T; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Pope, Tom W; Wright, Denis J; Leather, Simon R; Hadley, Paul; Rossiter, John T; van Emden, Helmut F; Poppy, Guy M

    2010-03-07

    The hypothesis that plants supplied with organic fertilizers are better defended against insect herbivores than those supplied with synthetic fertilizers was tested over two field seasons. Organic and synthetic fertilizer treatments at two nitrogen concentrations were supplied to Brassica plants, and their effects on the abundance of herbivore species and plant chemistry were assessed. The organic treatments also differed in fertilizer type: a green manure was used for the low-nitrogen treatment, while the high-nitrogen treatment contained green and animal manures. Two aphid species showed different responses to fertilizers: the Brassica specialist Brevicoryne brassicae was more abundant on organically fertilized plants, while the generalist Myzus persicae had higher populations on synthetically fertilized plants. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (a crucifer specialist) was more abundant on synthetically fertilized plants and preferred to oviposit on these plants. Glucosinolate concentrations were up to three times greater on plants grown in the organic treatments, while foliar nitrogen was maximized on plants under the higher of the synthetic fertilizer treatments. The varying response of herbivore species to these strong differences in plant chemistry demonstrates that hypotheses on defence in organically grown crops have over-simplified the response of phytophagous insects.

  1. Genetic deletion of fibroblast growth factor 14 recapitulates phenotypic alterations underlying cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, T K; Alshammari, M A; Nenov, M N; Hoxha, E; Cambiaghi, M; Marcinno, A; James, T F; Singh, P; Labate, D; Li, J; Meltzer, H Y; Sacchetti, B; Tempia, F; Laezza, F

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing is highly dependent on the functional integrity of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) interneurons in the brain. These cells regulate excitability and synaptic plasticity of principal neurons balancing the excitatory/inhibitory tone of cortical networks. Reduced function of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and disruption of GABAergic synapses in the cortical circuitry result in desynchronized network activity associated with cognitive impairment across many psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. However, the mechanisms underlying these complex phenotypes are still poorly understood. Here we show that in animal models, genetic deletion of fibroblast growth factor 14 (Fgf14), a regulator of neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission, leads to loss of PV interneurons in the CA1 hippocampal region, a critical area for cognitive function. Strikingly, this cellular phenotype associates with decreased expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) and also coincides with disrupted CA1 inhibitory circuitry, reduced in vivo gamma frequency oscillations and impaired working memory. Bioinformatics analysis of schizophrenia transcriptomics revealed functional co-clustering of FGF14 and genes enriched within the GABAergic pathway along with correlatively decreased expression of FGF14, PVALB, GAD67 and VGAT in the disease context. These results indicate that Fgf14−/− mice recapitulate salient molecular, cellular, functional and behavioral features associated with human cognitive impairment, and FGF14 loss of function might be associated with the biology of complex brain disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:27163207

  2. Alteration of certain soil microbiological and biochemical indices of a paddy soil under anthropogenic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AbidSubhani; 廖明; 黄昌勇; 谢正苗

    2002-01-01

    A 21-day laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of pesticides (insecticide, herbicide, fungicide) on paddy field soil health under omatrolld moisture (flooded soil) and tem-perature (25℃ ) environment. The electron system (ETS)/Dehydrogenase activity showed negative correlation with pesticides concentrations, decreased with increase of pesticide ooncentration. The higher doses (5 to 10 times field rates) of pesticides significantly inhibited ETS activity, while lower rates failed to produce any significant reducing effect on the control. The toxicity of pesticides in decreasing the ETS activity was in the order: insectidde > fungicide > herbicide, irrespective of their rates of application. The pasticides increased the soil phenol content, which increased with increasing concentration of agrochemicals. The pesticide applieatkm did not produce any significant change in soil protein content. The response of biomamess phospholipid content was nearly similar to that of ETS activity. The phospholipid content decreased with the addition of pesficides in the order insecfidde > furgicide > herbicide and the maidty was in the order: 10 FR (field rate) > 5FR> 1.0 FR > 0.5 FR >control.

  3. Alteration of a human intestinal microbiota under extreme life environment in the Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Touyama, Mutsumi; Yamada, Shin; Yamazaki, Takashi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota (HIM) settles from birth and continues to change phenotype by some factors (e.g. host's diet) throughout life. However, the effect of extreme life environment on human HIM composition is not well known. To understand HIM fluctuation under extreme life environment in humans, fecal samples were collected from six Japanese men on a long Antarctic expedition. They explored Antarctica for 3 months and collected their fecal samples at once-monthly intervals. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, the composition of HIM in six subjects was investigated. Three subjects presented restoration of HIM after the expedition compared versus before and during the expedition. Two thirds samples collected during the expedition belonged to the same cluster in dendrogram. However, all through the expedition, T-RFLP patterns showed interindividual variability. Especially, Bifidobacterium spp. showed a tendency to decrease during and restore after the expedition. A reduction of Bifidobacterium spp. was observed in five subjects the first 1 month of the expedition. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which is thought to proliferate during emotional stress, significantly decreased in one subject, indicating that other factors in addition to emotional stress may affect the composition of HIM in this study. These findings could be helpful to understand the effect of extreme life environment on HIM.

  4. Perturbation of the Secondary Structure of the Scrapie Prion Protein Under Conditions that Alter Infectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasset, Maria; Baldwin, Michael A.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    1993-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) generates PrP 27-30, which polymerizes into amyloid. By attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, PrP 27-30 polymers contained 54% β-sheet, 25% α-helix, 10% turns, and 11% random coil; dispersion into detergent-lipid-protein-complexes preserved infectivity and secondary structure. Almost 60% of the β-sheet was low-frequency infrared-absorbing, reflecting intermolecular aggregation. Decreased low-frequency β-sheet and increased turn content were found after SDS/PAGE, which disassembled the amyloid polymers, denatured PrP 27-30, and diminished scrapie infectivity. Acid-induced transitions were reversible, whereas alkali produced an irreversible transition centered at pH 10 under conditions that diminished infectivity. Whether PrPSc synthesis involves a transition in the secondary structure of one or more domains of the cellular prion protein from α-helical, random coil, or turn into β-sheet remains to be established.

  5. Alteration of certain soil microbiological and biochemical indices of a paddy soil under anthropogenic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A 21-day laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investiga t e the impact of pesticides (insecticide, herbicide, fungicide) on paddy field so il health under controlled moisture (flooded soil) and temperature (25 ℃) envir onment. The electron transport system (ETS)/Dehydrogenase activity showed negati ve correlation with pesticides concentrations, decreased with increase of pesti cide concentration. The higher doses(5 to 10 times field rates) of pesticides si gnificantly inhibited ETS activity, while lower rates failed to produce any sign ificant reducing effect on the control. The toxicity of pesticides in decreasing the ETS activity was in the order: insecticide > fungicide > herbicide, irrespe ctive of their rates of application. The pesticides increased the soil phenol co ntent, which increased with increasing concentration of agrochemicals. The pesti cide application did not produce any significant change in soil protein content. The response of biomass phospholipid content was nearly similar to that of ETS activity. The phospholipid content decreased with the addition of pesticides in the order insecticide > fungicide > herbicide and the toxicity was in the order: 10 FR (field rate) > 5 FR > 1.0 FR > 0.5 FR > control.

  6. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Kasbohm, J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Geological Dep.

    2002-02-01

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m{sup 3} and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible

  7. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Development of Fracture Process Zone (FPZ) in Rocks under Cyclic and Static Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamgosar, M.; Erarslan, N.

    2016-03-01

    The development of fracture process zones (FPZ) in the Cracked Chevron Notched Brazilian Disc (CCNBD) monsonite and Brisbane tuff specimens was investigated to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of brittle rocks under static and various cyclic loadings. An FPZ is a region that involves different types of damage around the pre-existing and/or stress-induced crack tips in engineering materials. This highly damaged area includes micro- and meso-cracks, which emerge prior to the main fracture growth or extension and ultimately coalescence to macrofractures, leading to the failure. The experiments and numerical simulations were designed for this study to investigate the following features of FPZ in rocks: (1) ligament connections and (2) microcracking and its coalescence in FPZ. A Computed Tomography (CT) scan technique was also used to investigate the FPZ behaviour in selected rock specimens. The CT scan results showed that the fracturing velocity is entirely dependent on the appropriate amount of fracture energy absorbed in rock specimens due to the change of frequency and amplitudes of the dynamic loading. Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) was used to compute the displacements, tensile stress distribution and plastic energy dissipation around the propagating crack tip in FPZ. One of the most important observations, the shape of FPZ and its extension around the crack tip, was made using numerical and experimental results, which supported the CT scan results. When the static rupture and the cyclic rupture were compared, the main differences are twofold: (1) the number of fragments produced is much greater under cyclic loading than under static loading, and (2) intergranular cracks are formed due to particle breakage under cyclic loading compared with smooth and bright cracks along cleavage planes under static loading.

  8. Study on Mixed Spectra of Alteration Zones in Porphyry Copper Deposits Based on the Hapke and Shkuratov Models%基于Hapke和Shkuratov模型的斑岩铜矿蚀变带混合波谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代晶晶; 李庆亭

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:Spectral mixture models for minerals play an important role in extraction of alteration information.The Hapke and Shkuratov models are two important non-linear spectral mixture models.This paper analyzes the characteristics of these two models,and puts forward a new method for simulating mixed spectral of mineral assemblages and rocks based on them.And we simulate the spectra of typical mineral assemblages of the alteration zones (potassic,phyllic,argillic and propylitic zones),taking the alteration zones in porphyry copper deposits as examples.The results can provide a theoretical basis for studies of alteration zones in porphyry copper deposits.%矿物光谱混合模型研究对于蚀变带蚀变矿物的信息提取具有重要意义.本文基于目前两种主流的非线性光谱混合模型Hapke和Shkuratov模型,通过对两者特性的对比分析,提出了一种综合利用这两种模型进行矿物或岩石光谱混合模拟的思路,并针对斑岩型铜矿典型蚀变分带现象,进行钾化带、绢英岩化带、泥化带、青磐岩化带等典型蚀变带矿物组合光谱的模拟实验.本研究提取结果可以为斑岩铜矿蚀变带研究提供理论依据.

  9. Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicca, S.; Bahn, M.; Estiarte, M.;

    2014-01-01

    to fluctuations in soil temperature and soil water content can be used to predict SCE under altered rainfall patterns. Of the 58 experiments for which we gathered SCE data, 20 were discarded because either too few data were available or inconsistencies precluded their incorporation in the analyses. The 38...... remaining experiments were used to test the hypothesis that a model parameterized with data from the control plots (using soil temperature and water content as predictor variables) could adequately predict SCE measured in the manipulated treatment. Only for 7 of these 38 experiments was this hypothesis...... rejected. Importantly, these were the experiments with the most reliable data sets, i.e., those providing high-frequency measurements of SCE. Regression tree analysis demonstrated that our hypothesis could be rejected only for experiments with measurement intervals of less than 11 days...

  10. Foundation treatment for the alteration zones of underground powerhouse at Langyashan pumped storage power station%琅琊山抽水蓄能电站地下厂房蚀变岩带基础处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜成海; 王阳雪

    2013-01-01

    Steep dip thin limestone and granodiorite alteration zone were developed as the foundation of underground powerhouse at Langyashan pumped storage power station. The alteration zones distributed randomly and argillation as well as disintegration would occur as contact of water. Aiming at heteroge-neous rock foundation with limestone and granodiorite alteration zone, the method of whole rigidity box structure was adopted to solve the problem of insufficient carrying capacity and uneven settlement of the foundation. The result showed that it was of good effect and worthy reference.%琅琊山抽水蓄能电站地下厂房地基陡倾角薄层灰岩与花岗闪长蚀变岩带相间发育,其中蚀变岩带随机分布,遇水崩解泥化,强度较低。针对灰岩与蚀变岩相间的不均一岩性地基,采用整体刚性箱型基础结构,成功解决了地下厂房基础承载能力和不均匀沉降变形问题,为机组长期安全稳定运行奠定了基础,取得了良好的经济效益和社会效益。

  11. [Characteristics of soil organic carbon and enzyme activities in soil aggregates under different vegetation zones on the Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ma, Rui-ping; An, Shao-shan; Zeng, Quan-chao; Li, Ya-yun

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the distribution characteristics of organic carbon of different forms and the active enzymes in soil aggregates with different particle sizes, soil samples were chosen from forest zone, forest-grass zone and grass zone in the Yanhe watershed of Loess Plateau to study the content of organic carbon, easily oxidized carbon, and humus carbon, and the activities of cellulase, β-D-glucosidase, sucrose, urease and peroxidase, as well as the relations between the soil aggregates carbon and its components with the active soil enzymes were also analyzed. It was showed that the content of organic carbon and its components were in order of forest zone > grass zone > forest-grass zone, and the contents of three forms of organic carbon were the highest in the diameter group of 0.25-2 mm. The content of organic carbon and its components, as well as the activities of soil enzymes were higher in the soil layer of 0-10 cm than those in the 10-20 cm soil layer of different vegetation zones. The activities of cellulase, β-D-glucosidase, sucrose and urease were in order of forest zone > grass zone > forest-grass zone. The peroxidase activity was in order of forest zone > forest-grass zone > grass zone. The activities of various soil enzymes increased with the decreasing soil particle diameter in the three vegetation zones. The activities of cellulose, peroxidase, sucrose and urease had significant positive correlations with the contents of various forms of organic carbon in the soil aggregates.

  12. Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vicca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a key component of the carbon cycle, soil CO2 efflux (SCE is being increasingly studied to improve our mechanistic understanding of this important carbon flux. Predicting ecosystem responses to climate change often depends on extrapolation of current relationships between ecosystem processes and their climatic drivers to conditions not yet experienced by the ecosystem. This raises the question to what extent these relationships remain unaltered beyond the current climatic window for which observations are available to constrain the relationships. Here, we evaluate whether current responses of SCE to fluctuations in soil temperature and soil water content can be used to predict SCE under altered rainfall patterns. Of the 58 experiments for which we gathered SCE data, 20 were discarded because either too few data were available, or inconsistencies precluded their incorporation in the analyses. The 38 remaining experiments were used to test the hypothesis that a model parameterized with data from the control plots (using soil temperature and water content as predictor variables could adequately predict SCE measured in the manipulated treatment. Only for seven of these 38 experiments, this hypothesis was rejected. Importantly, these were the experiments with the most reliable datasets, i.e., those providing high-frequency measurements of SCE. Accordingly, regression tree analysis demonstrated that measurement frequency was crucial; our hypothesis could be rejected only for experiments with measurement intervals of less than 11 days, and was not rejected for any of the 24 experiments with larger measurement intervals. This highlights the importance of high-frequency measurements when studying effects of altered precipitation on SCE, probably because infrequent measurement schemes have insufficient capacity to detect shifts in the climate-dependencies of SCE. We strongly recommend that future experiments focus more strongly on establishing response

  13. Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: Paragenesis and stable isotope constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lena V.S.; Xavier, R.P.; Carvalho, E.R.; Hitzman, M.W.; Johnson, C.A.; Souza, Filho C.R.; Torresi, I.

    2008-01-01

    The Sossego iron oxide–copper–gold deposit (245 Mt @ 1.1% Cu, 0.28 g/t Au) in the Carajás Mineral Province of Brazil consists of two major groups of orebodies (Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano and Sossego–Curral) with distinct alteration assemblages that are separated from each other by a major high angle fault. The deposit is located along a regional WNW–ESE-striking shear zone that defines the contact between metavolcano–sedimentary units of the ∼2.76 Ga Itacaiúnas Supergroup and tonalitic to trondhjemitic gneisses and migmatites of the ∼2.8 Ga Xingu Complex. The deposit is hosted by granite, granophyric granite, gabbro, and felsic metavolcanic rocks. The Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano orebodies have undergone regional sodic (albite–hematite) alteration and later sodic–calcic (actinolite-rich) alteration associated with the formation of massive magnetite–(apatite) bodies. Both these alteration assemblages display ductile to ductile–brittle fabrics. They are cut by spatially restricted zones of potassic (biotite and potassium feldspar) alteration that grades outward to chlorite-rich assemblages. The Sossego–Curral orebodies contain weakly developed early albitic alteration and very poorly developed subsequent calcic–sodic alteration. These orebodies contain well-developed potassic alteration assemblages that were formed during brittle deformation that resulted in the formation of breccia bodies. Breccia matrix commonly displays coarse mineral infill suggestive of growth into open space. Sulfides in both groups of deposits were precipitated first with potassic alteration and more importantly with a later assemblage of calcite–quartz–epidote–chlorite. In the Sequeirinho orebodies, sulfides range from undeformed to deformed; sulfides in the Sossego–Curral orebodies are undeformed. Very late, weakly mineralized hydrolytic alteration is present in the Sossego/Currral orebodies. The sulfide assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite with

  14. Prenatal drug exposure to illicit drugs alters working memory-related brain activity and underlying network properties in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Julie B; Riggins, Tracy; Liang, Xia; Gallen, Courtney; Kurup, Pradeep K; Ross, Thomas J; Black, Maureen M; Nair, Prasanna; Salmeron, Betty Jo

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of effects of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) on brain functioning during adolescence is poorly understood. We explored neural activation to a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) versus a control task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in adolescents with PDE and a community comparison group (CC) of non-exposed adolescents. We applied graph theory metrics to resting state data using a network of nodes derived from the VSWM task activation map to further explore connectivity underlying WM functioning. Participants (ages 12-15 years) included 47 adolescents (27 PDE and 20 CC). All analyses controlled for potentially confounding differences in birth characteristics and postnatal environment. Significant group by task differences in brain activation emerged in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6) with the CC group, but not the PDE group, activating this region during VSWM. The PDE group deactivated the culmen, whereas the CC group activated it during the VSWM task. The CC group demonstrated a significant relation between reaction time and culmen activation, not present in the PDE group. The network analysis underlying VSWM performance showed that PDE group had lower global efficiency than the CC group and a trend level reduction in local efficiency. The network node corresponding to the BA 6 group by task interaction showed reduced nodal efficiency and fewer direct connections to other nodes in the network. These results suggest that adolescence reveals altered neural functioning related to response planning that may reflect less efficient network functioning in youth with PDE.

  15. cDNA microarray reveals the alterations of cytoskeleton-related genes in osteoblast under high magneto-gravitational environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Airong Qian; Shengmeng Di; Xiang Gao; Wei Zhang; Zongcheng Tian; Jingbao Li; Lifang Hu; Pengfei Yang; Dachuan Yin; Peng Shang

    2009-01-01

    The diamagnetic levitation as a novel ground-based model for simulating a reduced gravity environment has been widely applied in many fields.In this study,a special designed superconducting magnet,which can produce three apparent gravity levels (0,1,and 2 g),namely high magneto-gravitational environment (HMGE),was used to simulate space gravity environment.The effects of HMGE on osteoblast gene expression profile were investigated by microarray.Genes sensitive to diamagnetic levitation environment (0 g),gravity changes,and high magnetic field changes were sorted on the basis of typical cell func-tions.Cytoskeleton,as an intracellular load-bearing struc-ture,plays an important role in gravity perception.Therefore,13 cytoskeleton-related genes were chosen according to the results of microarray analysis,and the expressions of these genes were found to be altered under HMGE by real-time PCR.Based on the PCR results,the expressions of WASF2 (WAS protein family,member 2),WIPFI (WAS/WASL interacting protein family,member 1),paxillin:and talin 1 were further identified by western blot assay.Results indicated that WASF2 and WIPF1 were more sensitive to altered gravity levels,and talin 1 and paxillin were sensitive to both magnetic field and gravity changes.Our findings demonstrated that HMGE can affect osteoblast gene expression profile and cytoskele-ton-related genes expression.The identification of mechanosensitive genes may enhance our understandings to the mechanism of bone loss induced by microgravity and may provide some potential targets for preventing and treating bone loss or osteoporosis.

  16. Geochemical modelling of the weathering zone of the 'Mina Fe' U deposit (Spain): A natural analogue for nuclear spent fuel alteration and stability processes in radwaste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, D. [AMPHOS XXI Consulting S.L., Passeig de Rubi, 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: david.arcos@amphos21.com; Perez del Villar, L. [CIEMAT, Dpto.de Medio Ambiente, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bruno, J.; Domenech, C. [AMPHOS XXI Consulting S.L., Passeig de Rubi, 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The 'Mina Fe' U deposit (Salamanca, Spain) has been studied in the context of Enresa's programme for U-mine sites restoration and also as a natural analogue for processes in high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) geological disposal. The investigations encompassed an array of geoscience disciplines, such as structural geology, mineralogy, hydrogeology and elemental and isotopic geochemistry and hydrogeochemistry of the site. Based on the obtained results, a conceptual mineralogical and geochemical model was performed integrating the main geochemical processes occurring at the site: the interaction between oxidised and slightly acidic water with pyrite, pitchblende, calcite and dolomite, as essential minerals of the U fracture-filling mineralisation, and hydroxyapatite from the host rock, as the main source of P. This conceptual model has been tested in a systematic numerical model, which includes the main kinetic (pyrite and pitchblende dissolution) and equilibrium processes (carbonate mineral dissolution, and goethite, schoepite and autunite secondary precipitation). The results obtained from the reactive-transport model satisfactorily agree with the conceptual model previously established. The assumption of the precipitation of coffinite as a secondary mineral in the system cannot be correctly evaluated due to the lack of hydrochemical data from the reducing zone of the site and valid thermodynamic and kinetic data for this hydrated U(IV)-silicate. This precipitation can also be hampered by the probable existence of dissolved U(IV)-organic matter and/or uranyl carbonate complexes, which are thermodynamically stable under the alkaline and reducing conditions that prevail in the reducing zone of the system. Finally, the intense downwards oxic and acidic alteration in the upper part of the system is of no relevance for the performance assessment of a HLNW disposal. However, the acidic and oxidised conditions are quickly buffered to neutral-alkaline and

  17. 77 FR 43048 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Application for Reorganization and Expansion Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 8--Toledo, OH; Application for Reorganization and Expansion...) Board (the Board) by the Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, grantee of FTZ 8, requesting authority to...: Site 1 (332 acres)--Port of Toledo Complex, Toledo; Site 2 (337 acres)--Toledo Express Airport, 11311...

  18. Alteration of Basaltic Glass to Mg/Fe-Smectite under Acidic Conditions: A Potential Smectite Formation Mechanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyazhko, Tanya; Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    Phyllosilicates of the smectite group including Mg- and Fe-saponite and Fe(III)-rich nontronite have been identified on Mars. Smectites are believed to be formed under neutral to alkaline conditions that prevailed on early Mars. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of smectite and carbonate deposits in Noachian terrain on Mars. However, smectite may have formed under mildly acidic conditions. Abundant smectite formations have been detected as layered deposits hundreds of meters thick in intracrater depositional fans and plains sediments, while no large deposits of carbonates are found. Development of mildly acidic conditions at early Mars might allow formation of smectite but inhibit widespread carbonate precipitation. Little is known regarding the mechanisms of smectite formation from basaltic glass under acidic conditions. The objective of this study was to test a hypothesis that Mars-analogue basaltic glass alters to smectite minerals under acidic conditions (pH 4). The effects of Mg and Fe concentrations and temperature on smectite formation from basaltic glass were evaluated. Phyllosilicate synthesis was performed in batch reactors (Parr acid digestion vessel) under reducing hydrothermal conditions at 200 C and 100 C. Synthetic basaltic glass with a composition similar to that of the Gusev crater rock Adirondack (Ground surface APXS measurement) was used in these experiments. Basaltic glass was prepared by melting and quenching procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the synthesized glass was composed of olivine, magnetite and X-ray amorphous phase. Samples were prepared by mixing 250 mg Adirondack with 0.1 M acetic acid (final pH 4). In order to study influence of Mg concentration on smectite formation, experiments were performed with addition of 0, 1 and 10 mM MgCl2. After 1, 7 and 14 day incubations the solution composition was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the altered glass and formed

  19. Ventilation rates and activity levels of juvenile jumbo squid under metabolic suppression in the oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Pegado, Maria R; Seibel, Brad A; Rosa, Rui

    2013-02-01

    The Humboldt (jumbo) squid, Dosidicus gigas, is a part-time resident of the permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and, thereby, it encounters oxygen levels below its critical oxygen partial pressure. To better understand the ventilatory mechanisms that accompany the process of metabolic suppression in these top oceanic predators, we exposed juvenile D. gigas to the oxygen levels found in the OMZ (1% O(2), 1 kPa, 10 °C) and measured metabolic rate, activity cycling patterns, swimming mode, escape jet (burst) frequency, mantle contraction frequency and strength, stroke volume and oxygen extraction efficiency. In normoxia, metabolic rate varied between 14 and 29 μmol O(2) g(-1) wet mass h(-1), depending on the level of activity. The mantle contraction frequency and strength were linearly correlated and increased significantly with activity level. Additionally, an increase in stroke volume and ventilatory volume per minute was observed, followed by a mantle hyperinflation process during high activity periods. Squid metabolic rate dropped more than 75% during exposure to hypoxia. Maximum metabolic rate was not achieved under such conditions and the metabolic scope was significantly decreased. Hypoxia changed the relationship between mantle contraction strength and frequency from linear to polynomial with increasing activity, indicating that, under hypoxic conditions, the jumbo squid primarily increases the strength of mantle contraction and does not regulate its frequency. Under hypoxia, jumbo squid also showed a larger inflation period (reduced contraction frequency) and decreased relaxed mantle diameter (shortened diffusion pathway), which optimize oxygen extraction efficiency (up to 82%/34%, without/with consideration of 60% potential skin respiration). Additionally, they breathe 'deeply', with more powerful contractions and enhanced stroke volume. This deep-breathing behavior allows them to display a stable ventilatory volume per

  20. Differential cloning of novel intestine-specific genes whose expression is altered under conditions of villus atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodin, R A; Meng, S; Shei, A

    1995-07-01

    Atrophy of the small intestinal villi occurs in a variety of disease states and is associated with diarrhea, malabsorption, and impaired barrier function. We have previously demonstrated that villus atrophy is associated with an increase in lactase and a decrease in intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene expression. Given these changes in enterocyte phenotype with villus atrophy, we speculated that there may be other intestine-specific genes whose expression is altered as a function of epithelial growth state. We have employed two molecular techniques in order to identify and clone complementary DNAs (cDNA) which are differentially expressed in atrophic compared to normal small intestinal mucosa. In differential cDNA library (+/-) screening, duplicate filters of a normal jejunal cDNA library are hybridized with radiolabeled cDNA probes from either atrophic or control tissues. Comparisons of the intensities of hybridized clones allows for the identification of differentially expressed gene products. In the mRNA differential display system, RT-PCR is used to randomly amplify mRNA species. Similar to cDNA library screening, comparisons of radiolabeled bands on a polyacrylamide sequencing gel allow for the identification of differentially expressed genes. Using these methods, we have identified a novel cDNA, called D9, which appears to be expressed exclusively in the intestinal mucosa. Northern analyses have confirmed that the expression of the D9 mRNA is dramatically decreased under conditions of villus atrophy, suggesting an underlying relationship with epithelial growth state. DNA sequence analysis (GenBank) reveals no identity to previously cloned genes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Presynaptic transporter-mediated release of glutamate evoked by the protonophore FCCP increases under altered gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, T. A.; Krisanova, N. V.

    2008-12-01

    High-affinity Na +-dependent glutamate transporters of the plasma membrane mediate the glutamate uptake into neurons, and thus maintain low levels of extracellular glutamate in the synaptic cleft. The study focused on the release of glutamate by reversal of Na +-dependent glutamate transporters from rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) under conditions of centrifuge-induced hypergravity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed similarity in the size and cytoplasmic granularity between synaptosomal preparations obtained from control and G-loaded animals (10 G, 1 h). The release of cytosolic L-[ 14C]glutamate from synaptosomes was evaluated using the protonophore FCCP, which dissipated synaptic vesicle proton gradient, thus synaptic vesicles were not able to keep glutamate inside and the latter enriched cytosol. FCCP per se induced the greater release of L-[ 14C]glutamate in hypergravity as compared to control (4.8 ± 1.0% and 8.0 ± 1.0% of total label). Exocytotic release of L-[ 14C]glutamate evoked by depolarization was reduced down to zero after FCCP application under both conditions studied. Depolarization stimulated release of cytosolic L-[ 14C]glutamate from synaptosomes preliminary treated with FCCP was considerably increased from 27.0 ± 2.2% of total label in control to 35.0 ± 2.3% in hypergravity. Non-transportable inhibitor of glutamate transporter DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate was found to significantly inhibit high-KCl and FCCP-stimulated release of L-[ 14C]glutamate, confirming the release by reversal of glutamate transporters. The enhancement of transporter-mediated release of glutamate in hypergravity was found to result at least partially from the inhibition of the activity of Na/K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of synaptosomes. We suggested that hypergravity-induced alteration in transporter-mediated release of glutamate indicated hypoxic injury of neurons.

  2. The Development of Learning Resource for the Saleng Community under the Bridge of Zone 1 Entitled “How to Repair Electrical Appliances”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpapatsorn Princhankol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to develop a learning resource for the Saleng community under the bridge of zone 1 entitled “How to Repair Electrical Appliances” in order to determine the quality of learning community and to examine the satisfaction of the sampling group which was chosen using specified sampling method. The tools used in this study consisted of 1 learning resource for the Saleng community under the bridge of zone 1 entitled “How to Repair Electrical Appliances”, including video clips, posters, leaflets, and exhibitions; 2 the quality assessment forms; and 3 the satisfaction evaluation form. According to the quality assessment of the learning resource for the Saleng community under the bridge of zone 1 by the panel of 6 experts, the mean score for the quality in terms of contents was 4.83 with S.D. of 0.29, or at a very good level. As for the quality in terms of media, the mean score was 4.47 with S.D. of .63, or at a good level. Afterwards, the learning resource for the Saleng community under the bridge of zone 1 entitled “How to Repair Electrical Appliances” was used by the sampling group of 30 persons. The satisfaction towards the learning resource was 4.71 with S.D. of .64, or at the highest level. It could be concluded that the learning resource for the Saleng community under the bridge of zone 1 entitled “How to Repair Electrical Appliances” can be used as a practical instructional tool for the community.

  3. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  4. Differential gene regulation under altered gravity conditions in follicular thyroid cancer cells: relationship between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulbrich, C.; Pietsch, J.; Grosse, J.; Wehland, M.; Schulz, H.; Saar, K.; Hübner, N.; Hauslage, J.; Hemmersbach, R.; Braun, M.; van Loon, J.; Vagt, N.; Egli, M.; Richter, P.; Einspanier, R.; Sharbati, S.; Baltz, T.; Infanger, M.; Ma, X.; Grimm, D.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and cytoskeletal proteins form a dynamic network interacting with signalling molecules as an adaptive response to altered gravity. An important issue is the exact differentiation between real microgravity responses of the cells or cellular reactions

  5. [The influence of acute hypoxia on motility of rats in the open field test under the conditions of an altered photoperiod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopova, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    The influence of acute hypoxia on the motility of rats under the conditions of an altered photoperiod in the open field test was studied. Thus, keeping the animals in constant darkness after the modeling of acute hypoxia leads to the depression of locomotive and exploratory components of the behavior. At the same time the animals that were kept under the conditions of constant light show a change in the correlation between the components of motility after the action of hypoxia.

  6. Temporal variation on environmental variables and pollution indicators in marine sediments under sea Salmon farming cages in protected and exposed zones in the Chilean inland Southern Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Mauricio A

    2016-12-15

    The impacts of any activity on marine ecosystems will depend on the characteristics of the receptor medium and its resilience to external pressures. Salmon farming industry develops along a constant gradient of hydrodynamic conditions in the south of Chile. However, the influence of the hydrodynamic characteristics (weak or strong) on the impacts of intensive salmon farming is still poorly understood. This one year study evaluates the impacts of salmon farming on the marine sediments of both protected and exposed marine zones differing in their hydrodynamic characteristics. Six physico-chemical, five biological variables and seven indexes of marine sediments status were evaluated under the salmon farming cages and control sites. Our results identified a few key variables and indexes necessary to accurately evaluate the salmon farming impacts on both protected and exposed zones. Interestingly, the ranking of importance of the variables and the temporality of the observed changes, varied depending on the hydrodynamic characteristics. Biological variables (nematodes abundance) and environmental indexes (Simpson's dominance, Shannon's diversity and Pielou evenness) are the first to reflect detrimental impacts under the salmon farming cages. Then the physico-chemical variables such as redox, sulphurs and phosphorus in both zones also show detrimental impacts. Based on the present results we propose that the hydrodynamic regime is an important driver of the magnitude and temporality of the effects of salmon farming on marine sediments. The variables and indexes that best reflect the effects of salmon farming, in both protected and exposed zones, are also described.

  7. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant

  8. Prediction of Root Zone Soil Moisture using Remote Sensing Products and In-Situ Observation under Climate Change Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G.; Panda, R. K.; Mohanty, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prediction of root zone soil moisture status at field level is vital for developing efficient agricultural water management schemes. In this study, root zone soil moisture was estimated across the Rana watershed in Eastern India, by assimilation of near-surface soil moisture estimate from SMOS satellite into a physically-based Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant (SWAP) model. An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) technique coupled with SWAP model was used for assimilating the satellite soil moisture observation at different spatial scales. The universal triangle concept and artificial intelligence techniques were applied to disaggregate the SMOS satellite monitored near-surface soil moisture at a 40 km resolution to finer scale (1 km resolution), using higher spatial resolution of MODIS derived vegetation indices (NDVI) and land surface temperature (Ts). The disaggregated surface soil moisture were compared to ground-based measurements in diverse landscape using portable impedance probe and gravimetric samples. Simulated root zone soil moisture were compared with continuous soil moisture profile measurements at three monitoring stations. In addition, the impact of projected climate change on root zone soil moisture were also evaluated. The climate change projections of rainfall were analyzed for the Rana watershed from statistically downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCMs). The long-term root zone soil moisture dynamics were estimated by including a rainfall generator of likely scenarios. The predicted long term root zone soil moisture status at finer scale can help in developing efficient agricultural water management schemes to increase crop production, which lead to enhance the water use efficiency.

  9. 75 FR 17125 - Foreign-Trade Zone 113-Ellis County, Texas, Application for Reorganization under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... May 14, 2010. Submissions (original and one electronic copy) shall be addressed to the Board's Executive Secretary at: Foreign-Trade Zones Board, U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 2111, 1401...

  10. Frictional behaviour of megathrust fault gouges under in-situ subduction zone conditions (Utrecht Studies in Earth Sciences 033)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, S.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Subduction zone megathrusts generate the largest earthquakes and tsunamis known. Understanding and modelling “seismogenesis” on such faults requires an understanding of the frictional processes that control nucleation and propagation of seismic slip. However, experimental data on the frictional beha

  11. 77 FR 59891 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 107 Under Alternative Site Framework, Polk County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Board adopted the alternative site framework (ASF) (74 FR 1170, 01/12/09; correction 74 FR 3987, 01/22/09; 75 FR 71069-71070, 11/22/10) as an option for the establishment or reorganization of zones...; Whereas, notice inviting public comment was given in the Federal Register (77 FR 8805-8806, 2/15/2012)...

  12. La zona de alteración Arroyo La Chilca-Zanjón del Buitre, bloque de San Rafael, Mendoza The Arroyo La Chilca-Zanjón del Buitre alteration zone, San Rafael Massif, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Rubinstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La zona de alteración Arroyo La Chilca-Zanjón del Buitre está ubicada en el bloque de San Rafael (35°24'8" S; 68°19'25,8" O, Mendoza. Estudios previos definieron preliminarmente que corresponde a un sistema de tipo pórfro cuprífero vinculado genéticamente al magmatismo gondwánico. Esta área de alteración se desarrolla en una secuencia compuesta por brechas ignimbríticas e ignimbritas traquiandesíticas con intercalaciones de areniscas tobáceas y coladas andesíticas a las que intruyen cuerpos subvolcánicos andesíticos y traquiandesítico-dacíticos. La litología de la secuencia volcánica así como sus características geoquímicas confirman su correlación con la sección inferior del ciclo magmático Choiyoi (Pérmico inferior. El área de alteración presenta una zona potásica con una asociación compuesta por feldespato potásico-cuarzo-magnetita. A ésta se superpone alteración fílica con una asociación de cuarzo-muscovita-pirita-(rutilo acompañada por venillas de cuarzo-pirita. Por último se reconoce una carbonatización tardía. En las proximidades de la zona de alteración aforan vetillas con mineralización de pirita-calcopirita-galena-esfalerita en ganga de cuarzo. La geoquímica de metales indica moderadas anomalías de Ag y Au y pequeñas anomalías de Cu, Mo, Pb y Zn. El análisis estadístico permite definir la existencia de un pulso mineralizante de Cu-Mo y un segundo pulso de Mo reconocido solamente en Zanjón del Buitre. Asimismo se definen dos pulsos de Zn, uno de los cuales estaría genéticamente vinculado al Cu.The Arroyo La Chilca-Zanjón del Buitre alteration zone is located in the San Rafael Massif (35°24'8" S; 68°19'25,8" W, Mendoza. Previous works defined preliminary this deposit as a porphyry copper system genetically linked to the gondwanan magmatism. This alteration zone is hosted by a sequence composed of ignimbritic breccias and ignimbrites of trachyandesitic composition with interbedded

  13. Integrated approach to assessing streamflow and precipitation alterations under environmental change: Application in the Niger River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbegnon Clement Sohoulande Djebou

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Over the period 1961–2012, I conduct a change point analysis of the streamflow and report two sub-periods 1961–1982 and 1983–2012. A comparison of precipitation and streamflow during these two time-slices shows meaningful changes. I describe a Kernel density analysis of streamflow and yield a probabilistic estimate of discharge anomalies along the river. Later, I evaluate seasonal trends of precipitation and streamflow. The analyses bring out critical alterations in time and space. However, these alterations seem to foreshadow critical environmental degradations occurring across the watershed. I consider LAI series derived from MODIS images, then I examine and discuss trends in land-cover dynamics in relation with the patterns in precipitation and streamflow. This late analytical step yields a holistic picture of the ongoing alterations in the Niger River Basin. Finally, I emphasize suggestions, valuable for a comprehensive water resources and environment management.

  14. Are Advecting Processes in the Vadose Zone of the Albuquerque Basin Altering the Conductive Heat Transfer Signal From Surface Temperature Change ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Temperature measurements ( T logs ) in the deep vadose zone ( about 60m to 120m depth ) of the Albuquerque Basin have been repeated over the past year at four piezometer nests. The measurements were made with a very fast time response thermistor, which allowed data to be taken every meter going down hole. This depth resolution of temperature data permits a rather detailed observation of the thermal regime in the vadose zone. At one site ( Lincoln Middle School ) the temperature profile below 20m clearly shows a conductive profile resulting from surface temperature change due to urbanization and nearby ( about 10m ) asphalt pavement. At the other three sites the cause of non-linearity in the T log is less certain. Temperature records suggest about 1 deg C increase in near surface air temperature over the past thirty years at the Albuquerque airport; although this data may also be affected by urbanization. The Tome and 98th Street sites are being approached by paved roads and urbanization. At the Tome site expressions representing horizontal advection are the statistically preferred fit to the T log from about 25m to 58m ( F statistic ). At the 98th Street site an expression representing a surface temperature step best fits the T log from 20m to about 75m; however, the temperature step (about 1 deg C to 2 deg C, 3 to 15 yr ago ) is variable between logs, and the profile of the T log with abrupt discontinuities may suggest other than just conductive heat transfer. The fourth piezometer nest at the Mesa del Sol site is the most remote of the sites considered, with as little nearby surface disturbance as might be expected for a drilling location. At depths between 30m and 70m the expressions representing surface temperature change, horizontal advection, and vertical advection, all fit the T log reasonably well. The temperature step expression suggests about 1 deg C to 1.8 deg C surface temperature increase about 13 yr to 28 yr ago. Deeper in the vadose zone, from about

  15. Progress of Radioactive Waste Treatment Technology:Study on Alteration of Simulated HLW Glass under Simulated Geological Disposal Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA; Xiao-hui; WANG; Lei; YOU; Xin-feng; ZHENG; Wen-jun; YANG; Lin-yue; LI; Yu-song; ZHENG; Yu; LI; Teng; ZHANG; Zhen-tao

    2015-01-01

    1/200 scale simulated disposal experimental device was set up in 2013 and operated from 2014,in which ground water penetrated host rock,buffer materials,container materials and simulated HLW glass.The leaching velocity,alteration of HLW glass and corrosion of container materials were investigated.Moreover,temperature,host rock,

  16. Soybean seed phenol, lignin, and isoflavones and sugars composition are altered by Foliar Boron application in soybean under water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research showed that foliar boron (B) fertilizer at flowering or seed-fill growth stages altered seed protein, oil, and fatty acids. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B fertilizer on seed phenolics (phenol, lignin, and isoflavones) and sugars concentrat...

  17. Selenium in groundwater and its contribution towards daily dietary Se intake under different hydrogeological zones of Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Karaj S.; Dhillon, Surjit K.

    2016-02-01

    More than 750 groundwater samples collected from different hydrological zones of Punjab state in India were analysed for selenium and some quality parameters to determine suitability of groundwater for irrigation and drinking purpose. Selenium content varied from 0.01 to 35.6 μg L-1. Average Se content in groundwater was the highest in Northeastern Siwalik foothill zone (NSFZ) followed by Central zone (CZ) and Southwestern zone (SWZ). Majority of the water samples contained water contained >20 μg Se L-1 which is considered unsuitable for irrigation of crops. On the basis of pH, 42% of the samples were unfit for drinking in SWZ, 41% in CZ and 6% in NSFZ. Only in SWZ, 24% of the samples with high total dissolved salts were unfit for drinking and 18% unfit for irrigation purpose due to high EC. Selenium content in groundwater was inversely related to depth of water and the degree of relationship was higher for NSFZ (r = -0.342∗∗) followed by CZ (r = -0.157∗) and SWZ (r = -0.126∗). Depending on the amount of water consumed from 2 to 5 L, average Se intake varied from 1.66 to 6.39 μg d-1 and its contribution towards the recommended daily Se allowance ranged from 3.0% to 11.6% for women and 2.4% to 9.1% for men. Among the grain samples, 94% of wheat and 46% of rice contained Se above the deficiency limit of 100 μg kg-1. Thus, the residents in the study area primarily consuming wheat grains and drinking groundwater are getting adequate supply of Se. Among the materials tested for decreasing Se from drinking waters, scrap iron fillings showed potential for commercial use.

  18. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ABSORPTION OF MINERAL NUTRIENT IN TOMATO PLANTS UNDER VARIOUS ROOT ZONE TEMPERATURE AND LIGHT CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosobrukhov, A. A.; Bagnavets, E. A.; Semenova, N. A.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of various light and temperature regimes in the root zone on the light stage of photosynthesis, gas exchange, growth processes and absorption of mineral nutrients by tomato plants were studied. Optimum temperatures for dry matter accumulation and absorption of mineral nutrients were found to be shifted when the irradiation condition were changed. A shift of optimum temperatures for dry matter accumulation and absorption of mineral nutrients was found to be due to a change in irradiatio...

  19. Design parameters of a non-air-conditioned cinema hall for thermal comfort under arid-zone climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, G.N. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies); Lugani, N. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies); Singh, A.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies)

    1993-01-01

    In this communication, a design of a cinema hall suitable for climatic conditions in an arid zone has been presented. The various cooling techniques, namely evaporative cooling, wind tower, ventilation/infiltration and natural cooling, have been incorporated in the design to achieve thermal comfort during the period of operation. The design parameters have been optimized on the basis of numerical computations after establishing an energy balance for each component of a cinema hall. It is observed that cooling treatment, i.e., a wind tower with a cooling pool on the roof provides reasonable thermal comfort inside the enclosure. (orig.)

  20. Hydrothermal alteration zones and present reservoir conditions: an approach to define production zones at the eastern portion of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Zonas de alteracion hidrotermal y condiciones actuales del yacimiento: un enfoque para determinar zonas productoras al oriente del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Hernandez, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: juan.camacho02@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Geological factors are as essential for locating new wells as they are for defining the production zones of these wells. At the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), one of the most important geological factors is identification of the hydrothermal alteration zones (ZAH). These are divided into silica and epidote mineralogical zones (ZMSE), without CaCO{sub 3}, and silica and epidote mineralogical transition zones (ZTMSE), with CaCO{sub 3}. It has been observed that the continuous variation of reservoir thermodynamic conditions (temperature, pressure and enthalpy) is due mainly to the exploitation of geothermal resources. The presence of new thermodynamic conditions recorded at the reservoir has led to the re-location of production wells originally located during the drilling campaign of 2004 to 2006. At the geological sections on the eastern part of the CGCP, adjustments made to the well completions lie on the limits between the ZMSE and ZTMSE zones. In turn, this is related to the current, superior, thermodynamic reservoir conditions. Based on this, a new geologic approach is proposed to define possible production zones for new wells, relating the ZAH zones to current thermodynamic reservoir conditions. [Spanish] Los factores geologicos son determinantes, tanto para establecer nuevos sitios de perforacion como para determinar el intervalo productor de un pozo nuevo. En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP) una de los factores mas importantes es la determinacion de las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal (ZAH) que se dividen en dos: zona mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZMSE), sin presencia de CaCO{sub 3}, y zona de transicion mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZTMSE), con presencia de CaCO{sub 3}. Por otra parte, tambien se ha constatado que la continua variacion de las condiciones termodinamicas del yacimiento (temperatura, presion y entalpia) es originada en buena medida por la explotacion del recurso geotermico. La ocurrencia de nuevas condiciones

  1. Numerical Modeling of Frictional Stress in the Contact Zone of Direct Extrusion of Aluminum Alloys under Starved Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, P.; Pandey, R. K.; Nath, Y.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate numerically frictional stress in the contact zone at the die/billet interface in the direct extrusion of aluminum alloys considering starved lubricated conditions. In the modeling, both the inlet and work zones have been investigated by coupled solution of the governing equations. The influences of the billet material's strain hardening and its heating due to the plastic deformation are accounted for in the numerical computation. The frictional shear stress at the die/billet interface is computed using three different lubricating oils. Numerical results have been presented herein for the various operating parameters viz. starvation factor ( ψ = 0.2-0.6), lubricants' viscosities ( η 0 = 0.05 Pa s-0.2 Pa s), semi die angle ( β = 10°-20°), and material parameter ( G = 0.56-2.25). It has been observed that the frictional stress increases with an increase in the severity of the lubricant's starvation for the given values of semi-die angle, extrusion speed, and material parameter.

  2. Delayed development and lifespan extension as features of metabolic lifestyle alteration in C. elegans under dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J; Udranszky, Ingrid A; Kozak, Elena; Sunga, June; Kim, Stuart K; Jacobson, Lewis A; Conley, Catharine A

    2006-10-01

    Studies of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans have almost exclusively utilized growth on a bacterial diet. Such culturing presents a challenge to automation of experimentation and introduces bacterial metabolism as a secondary concern in drug and environmental toxicology studies. Axenic cultivation of C. elegans can avoid these problems, yet past work suggests that axenic growth is unhealthy for C. elegans. Here we employ a chemically defined liquid medium to culture C. elegans and find development slows, fecundity declines, lifespan increases, lipid and protein stores decrease, and gene expression changes relative to that on a bacterial diet. These changes do not appear to be random pathologies associated with malnutrition, as there are no developmental delays associated with starvation, such as L1 or dauer diapause. Additionally, development and reproductive period are fixed percentages of lifespan regardless of diet, suggesting that these alterations are adaptive. We propose that C. elegans can exist as a healthy animal with at least two distinct adult life histories. One life history maximizes the intrinsic rate of population increase, the other maximizes the efficiency of exploitation of the carrying capacity of the environment. Microarray analysis reveals increased transcript levels of daf-16 and downstream targets and past experiments demonstrate that DAF-16 (FOXO) acting on downstream targets can influence all of the phenotypes we see altered in maintenance medium. Thus, life history alteration in response to diet may be modulated by DAF-16. Our observations introduce a powerful system for automation of experimentation on healthy C. elegans and for systematic analysis of the profound impact of diet on animal physiology.

  3. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs.

  4. Design and laboratory testing of a chamber device to measure total flux of volatile organic compounds from the unsaturated zone under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Smith, James A.

    2004-11-01

    To determine if an aquifer contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has potential for natural remediation, all natural processes affecting the fate and transport of VOCs in the subsurface must be identified and quantified. This research addresses the quantification of air-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) leaving the unsaturated zone soil gas and entering the atmosphere—including the additional flux provided by advective soil-gas movement induced by barometric pumping. A simple and easy-to-use device for measuring VOC flux under natural conditions is presented. The vertical flux chamber (VFC) was designed using numerical simulations and evaluated in the laboratory. Mass-balance numerical simulations based on continuously stirred tank reactor equations (CSTR) provided information on flux measurement performance of several sampling configurations with the final chamber configuration measuring greater than 96% of model-simulated fluxes. A laboratory device was constructed to evaluate the flux chamber under both diffusion-only and advection-plus-diffusion transport conditions. The flux chamber measured an average of 82% of 15 diffusion-only fluxes and an average of 95% of 15 additional advection-plus-diffusion flux experiments. The vertical flux chamber has the capability of providing reliable measurement of VOC flux from the unsaturated zone under both diffusion and advection transport conditions.

  5. Orexin-A and Endocannabinoid Activation of the Descending Antinociceptive Pathway Underlies Altered Pain Perception in Leptin Signaling Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristino, Luigia; Luongo, Livio; Imperatore, Roberta; Boccella, Serena; Becker, Thorsten; Morello, Giovanna; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Busetto, Giuseppe; Maione, Sabatino; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Pain perception can become altered in individuals with eating disorders and obesity for reasons that have not been fully elucidated. We show that leptin deficiency in ob/ob mice, or leptin insensitivity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, are accompanied by elevated orexin-A (OX-A) levels and orexin receptor-1 (OX1-R)-dependent elevation of the levels of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). In ob/ob mice, these alterations result in the following: (i) increased excitability of OX1-R-expressing vlPAG output neurons and subsequent increased OFF and decreased ON cell activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla, as assessed by patch clamp and in vivo electrophysiology; and (ii) analgesia, in both healthy and neuropathic mice. In HFD mice, instead, analgesia is only unmasked following leptin receptor antagonism. We propose that OX-A/endocannabinoid cross talk in the descending antinociceptive pathway might partly underlie increased pain thresholds in conditions associated with impaired leptin signaling.

  6. Improved plant nitrogen nutrition contributes to higher water use efficiency in tomatoes under alternate partial root-zone irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effects of partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) and deficit irrigation (DI) on stomatal conductance (gs), nitrogen accumulation and distribution in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants were investigated in a split-root pot experiment. Results showed that both PRI and DI saved 25......% water and led to 10.0% and 17.5% decreases in dry biomass, respectively, compared with the fully irrigated (FI) controls. Consequently, water use efficiency (WUE) was increased by 18.6% and 10.8% in the PRI and DI plants, respectively. The highest WUE in the PRI plants was associated with the highest...... carbon isotope composition (δ13C), indicating that the improvement of WUE might have been a result of long-term optimisation of stomatal control over gas exchange. The constantly higher xylem sap ABA concentration in PRI compared with DI plants was seemingly responsible for the greater control over...

  7. Assessment of Excavation Broken Zone around Gateways under Various Geological Conditions: A Case Study in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To study common failure characteristics of gateways, a total of 55 typical gateways at coal mines, in Sichuan Province, China, were selected for investigating the rules of broken widths based on the ground-penetrating radar (GPR technique and numerical model. Results indicated that the broken width values around the gateways were larger than 1.5 m, and those in the roof and high side wall were larger than those in the low side wall, as a whole. The width values had close relationships with the thickness of the coal seam and immediate roof, angle of the coal seam, and depth of the gateways. Furthermore, combined with the plastic zone of numerical models in 3-Dimensional Distinct Element Code (3DEC and the broken width, we obtained the excavation broken zone (EBZ cross-section diagram for each gateway and determined that the EBZ appeared to have a basically elliptical shape—with the long axis along the seam inclination direction and the short axis along the vertical direction of the rock layer—and that this elliptical shape was only slightly affected by the gateway cross-section shape. It was observed that the failure extent was greater in the seam inclination direction than in the vertical direction of the rock layer. Obviously, the gateways presented asymmetric failure characteristics and implied that an asymmetric support system should be provided when using bolts, cables, and shotcrete combined with steel mesh and steel belts. Such a support system could improve material parameters and form a combined arch structure in surrounding rocks, with arch crown and arch springing thicknesses that are larger in the roof and high side wall.

  8. Large multicellular filamentous bacteria under the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern South Pacific: a forgotten biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Victor Ariel; Espinoza, Carola

    2007-09-01

    In the soft reduced sediments of the continental shelf, below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eastern South Pacific (ESP), peculiar microbial communities have been disclosed which include a variety of large prokaryotes, protists and small metazoans. Dominant among the prokaryotes are large multi-cellular filamentous bacteria which, according to their size range, are roughly divided into megabacteria and macrobacteria. The former group is made up of a few species of Gamma Proteobacteria of the genera Thioploca and Beggiatoa and the second group includes a diversity of phenotypes. Protists include ciliates, flagellates, and foraminifers and the metazoans are mostly nematodes and small polychaetes. A significant similarity has been found in the exploitation of the area/volume relationship among these large bacteria and their fossil analog forms as described from pre-Cambrian rocks. For the same reason, the latter have mostly been referred to as algae or cyanobacteria in the literature. The presence of these seemingly ancient bacteria in the sediments of the oxygen minimum zones of the ESP, one of the most productive but also ecologically most inefficient marine ecosystems of the world, suggests that such setting must have prevailed throughout the geological history of the planet allowing for their survival and further that it might be considered an analog of Proterozoic ocean conditions. These non-cyanobacterial communities offer an alternative hypothesis to students of the evolution of life on Earth and may be of special interest to astrobiologists looking for life or traces of life in terrestrial or extraterrestrial environments since these do not necessarily imply a photosynthesis-based metabolism.

  9. Cryolithic zone and Arctic shelf under conditions of climate changes as exemplified by the Kara Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodzher, T.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2011, a number of interdisciplinary surveys were carried out in the Lower Yenisei River, the Kara Sea shelf. Comprehensive analysis of the environmental state revealed no significant anthropogenic effect on atmosphere and water bodies in the Kara sector of the Arctic. Morphotype diversity of cysts of chrysophycean algae were for the first time studied in water and bottom sediments in the mixing zone of marine and river waters. A collection was composed from 100 strains of organotrophic psychrotolerant microorganisms with different level of activity. There was recorded a great variety of spore forming microorganisms of the genus Bacillus tolerant to extreme natural conditions. Distribution patterns of organic material were determined in the coastal-shelf zone of the Kara Sea. Shores composed of glacial complex contributed a large amount of organic carbon (2-3%) to the seas. Concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen in sediments depended on type of sediments and sedimentation conditions. Concentration ratio Corg/Norg and isotopic ratio 13C/12C demonstrated that contribution of terrigenous component to organic matter of sediments decreased towards the open sea. Comprehensive survey of 7 thermokarst lakes (from 66.6° to 72.7° N) showed that these lakes are low-mineralised (30-80 mg/l) with high oxygen content (9-11 mgO/l). Degradation of permafrost for the past 170 years was reconstructed using results of analyses of chemical and biological composition of bottom sediments in thermokarst lakes. Degradation process of permafrost causing the formation of these lakes started in the 1930-60s. Beginning from the 1950s, this process accelerated followed by temperature maxima with the time lag of 5-7 years. These reconstructions of paleogeographic conditions of the past based on studies of thermokarst Arctic lakes appeared to be prospective and require further investigations. This work was supported by RAS Presidium, Programme No. 21, Project No. 21.7.

  10. Formation of Complex Amino Acid Precursors in Simulated Primitive Atmosphere and Their Alteration under Simulated Submarine Hydrothermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Kurihara, Hironari; Hirako, Tomoaki; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Takano, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka

    Since late 1970's a great number of submarine hydrothermal systems (SHSs) has been dis-covered, and they are considered possible sites of chemical evolution and generation of life on the Earth since their discovery in late 1970s. A number of experiments simulating the con-ditions of SHSs were conducted, and abiotic production and polymerization of amino acids were reported. Free amino acids were frequently used as starting materials to examine possible organic reactions in the simulation experiments. In our early studies, not free amino acids but complex amino acids precursors with large molecular weights were formed abiotically from simulated primitive Earth atmosphere (a mixture of CO, N2 and H2 O) (Takano et al., 2004). Such complex organics (hereafter referred as to CNWs) should have been delivered to SHSs in Primitive Ocean, where they were subjected to further alteration. We examined possible alteration of the complex organics in high-temperature high-pressure environments by the su-percritical water flow reactor (SCWFR) (Islam et al.. 2003) and an autoclave. CNWs were quite hydrophilic compounds whose molecular weights were ca. 3000. After heating 573 K for 2 min in the SCWFR, aggregates of organics were formed, which were separated from aque-ous solution with a Nucleopore filter (pore size: 200 nm). We propose the following scenario of chemical evolution: (1) Complex organics including amino acid precursors were formed in primitive atmosphere and/or extraterrestrial environments, (ii) they were delivered to primor-dial SHSs, (iii) hydrothermal alteration occurred in SHSs to give organic aggregates, (iv) quite primitive molecular systems with subtle biological functions were generated in the competition among such aggregates. References: Islam, Md. N., Kaneko, T., and Kobayashi, K (2003). Reactions of Amino Acids with a Newly ConstructedSupercritical Water Flow Reactor Simulating Submarine Hydrothermal Systems. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 76, 1171. Takano, Y

  11. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  12. 76 FR 30099 - Foreign-Trade Zone 161-Sedgwick County, KS; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Street North, Wichita. The grantee's proposed service area under the ASF would be Butler, Harvey, Mc... Assembly Facility, 1000 Commerce Street, Hutchinson (Reno County). Because the ASF only pertains...

  13. Nitrogen dynamics in the soil-plant system under deficit and partial root-zone drying irrigation strategies in potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    . In 2005, FI and PRD2 were investigated, where FI plants received 100% of evaporative demands, while PRD2 plants received 70% water of FI at each irrigation event after tuber initiation. In 2006, besides FI and PRD2 treatments, DI and PRDI receiving 70% water of FI during the whole season were also studied....... Crop N uptake and residual NH (4)-N and NO3-N to a depth of 0-50 cm, at 10 cm intervals were analyzed. For both years, the PRD2 treatment resulted in 30% water saving and maintained yield as compared with the FI treatment, while when investigated in 2006 only, DI and PRDI treatments resulted...... for FI, which was not significant however. In the late season, reflectance vegetation index and leaf area index for the water saving treatments were higher than for the FI treatment. For both years the PRD2 treatment had the lowest residual N content in the root zone. We conclude that: (1...

  14. Sodium arsenite mediated immuno-disruption through alteration of transcription profile of cytokines in chicken splenocytes under in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhashree; Pan, Diganta; Bera, Asit Kumar; Rana, Tanmoy; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Bandyapadyay, Subhasis; De, Sumanta; Sreevatsava, V; Bhattacharya, Somnath; Das, Subrata Kumar; Bandyopadhayay, Sandip

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To understand the ecotoxicological effects of arsenic in environment, it is essential to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health, particularly on the immune response. We investigated the effects of inorganic arsenic (iAs) on the immune response of chicken splenocytes. Both 1 and 10 mM concentrations of sodium arsenite treatment significantly reduced (Ptreatment also revealed time dependent differences. Relative quantification of expression of IFNγ and IL2 revealed that both genes were significantly down regulated (P<0.001) at both concentrations at each time point. iNOS gene was rapidly down regulated in splenocytes at 24 h at the high doses of As treated splenocyte, a gradual decreasing trend at low doses. Down regulation of IL-2 gene expression in response to As was further evidenced by a significant reduction (P<0.001) in the release of IL-2 into the splenocyte culture medium. We suggest that arsenic, a potent immunotoxic agent, modulates non-specific immune responses and alters the expression of cytokines in a dose and time dependent manner.

  15. Growth under elevated air temperature alters secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y H; Jia, X; Wang, W K; Liu, T; Huang, S P; Yang, M Y

    2016-09-15

    Plant secondary metabolites play a pivotal role in growth regulation, antioxidant activity, pigment development, and other processes. As the global climate changes, increasing atmospheric temperatures and contamination of soil by heavy metals co-occur in natural ecosystems, which alters the pH of rhizosphere soil and influences the bioavailability and mobility of metals. Elevated temperatures in combination with heavy metals are expected to affect plant secondary metabolites, but this issue has not been extensively examined. Here, we investigated secondary metabolites in Robiniapseudoacacia seedlings exposed to elevated temperatures using a passive warming device in combination with Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils. Heavy metals significantly stimulated the accumulation of saponins, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in leaves and stems; alkaloid compounds increased in leaves and decreased in stems, and condensed tannins fluctuated. Elevated temperatures, alone and in combination with Cd and Pb, caused increases in secondary metabolites in the plant tissues. Phenolic compounds showed the greatest changes among the secondary metabolites and significant interactive effects of temperature and metals were observed. These results suggest that slightly elevated temperature could enhance protective and defense mechanisms of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to heavy metals by stimulating the production of secondary metabolites.

  16. Hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of a weld simulated X70 heat affected zone under H{sub 2} pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro, A., E-mail: antonio.alvaro@ntnu.no [Department of Engineering Design and Materials, NTNU, 7456 Trondheim (Norway); Olden, V. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, 7456 Trondheim (Norway); Macadre, A. [Kyushu University, WPI-I2CNER (World Premier Institute – International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research) (Japan); Akselsen, Odd Magne [Department of Engineering Design and Materials, NTNU, 7456 Trondheim (Norway); SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, 7456 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-03-01

    The present paper deals with hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility of a weld thermal simulated heat affected zone of X70 structural steel in high pressure hydrogen gas at 20 °C. Fracture mechanics Single Edge Notched Tension tests at various hydrogen pressures (0.1, 0.6, 10 and 40 MPa H{sub 2}) have been carried out. The HE susceptibility was quantified through the measurement of the fracture toughness K{sub Q} and J (the effect of hydrogen pressure was addressed through linear load increase conditions till failure was obtained). The results show that hydrogen causes a strong decrease in the fracture toughness with increasing hydrogen pressure. The critical hydrogen pressure for the onset of HE was observed to fall between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa. These results were supported by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) investigations of the fracture surfaces which showed a clear shift in the fracture mode at 0.6 MPa H{sub 2}. Moreover, constant load tests were carried out in order to investigate the influence of hydrogen exposure time. The results imply that fracture always occurs within 8 h and that longer time to failure is related to stronger toughness reduction. This effect is more pronounced for test at 40 MPa than at 0.6 MPa hydrogen pressure levels. 3D Finite Element calculations of hydrogen diffusion have been performed and the results are discussed in relation to the experiments, in order to attempt to identify the hydrogen populations (diffusible or trapped) which act predominantly on the embrittlement of the material.

  17. 76 FR 61667 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-West Tennessee Area Under Alternative Site Framework; Application Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ..., adjacent to the Memphis Customs and Border Protection (CBP) port of entry, under the alternative site... International Trade Development Corporation, Board Order 904, July 2, 1997); FTZ 262, Southaven, Mississippi... allows for the possible exemption of one magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits that generally...

  18. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; Malcolm Matamoros, Priscila; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-12-01

    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed their leaves at moderate VPD were then transferred for 4 days to low VPD (M→L). Part of the M→L-plants were sprayed with ABA (abscisic acid) during exposure to L. L-plants showed bigger stomata, larger pore area, thinner leaves and less spongy cells compared with M-plants. Stomatal morphology (except aperture) and leaf anatomy of the M→L-plants were almost similar to the M-plants, while their transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were identical to that of L-plants. The stomatal response to ABA was lost in L-plants, but also after 1-day exposure of M-plants to low VPD. The level of foliar ABA sharply decreased within 1-day exposure to L, while the level of ABA-GE (ABA-glucose ester) was not affected. Spraying ABA during the exposure to L prevented loss of stomatal closing response thereafter. The effect of low VPD was largely depending on exposure time: the stomatal responsiveness to ABA was lost after 1-day exposure to low VPD, while the responsiveness to desiccation was gradually lost during 4-day exposure to low VPD. Leaf anatomical and stomatal morphological alterations due to low VPD were not the main cause of loss of stomatal closure response to closing stimuli.

  19. Histological alterations under metal exposure in gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L. from Topolnitsa Reservoir (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Еlenka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topolnitsa Reservoir is located in a region of Bulgaria rich in copper mines where intensive mining has been ongoing for several decades. General data on the ecological status of the reservoir and the effects of metal on fish is relatively scarce. The first aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of six metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in water samples and in the gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.. The second objective was to examine gill structure and determine the severity of histological alteration as a result of metal exposure. Surface water and fish gill samples were collected in spring, summer and autumn in 2012 and metal and histological analyses were performed. Metal concentrations in the water samples varied, but only Cu concentrations were determined in all three seasons and they were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The gill metal concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05 than in the water. Examination of gill structure revealed the presence of proliferative and degenerative changes, as well as changes in the blood vessels. Histological lesions were similar in their severity in all three seasons. This study provides the first information about metal effects on the morphology of European perch gills from Topolnitsa Reservoir. It can be concluded that the metal contamination of the Topolnitsa Reservoir and fish is chronic and that it can negatively affect the structure and function of fish gills. As metals display a tendency to accumulate in fish gills, their effects are expected to become more severe with time, as they affect gill functions.

  20. Biostimulation of anaerobic BTEX biodegradation under fermentative methanogenic conditions at source-zone groundwater contaminated with a biodiesel blend (B20).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Débora Toledo; da Silva, Márcio Luis Busi; Chiaranda, Helen Simone; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2013-06-01

    Field experiments were conducted to assess the potential for anaerobic biostimulation to enhance BTEX biodegradation under fermentative methanogenic conditions in groundwater impacted by a biodiesel blend (B20, consisting of 20 % v/v biodiesel and 80 % v/v diesel). B20 (100 L) was released at each of two plots through an area of 1 m(2) that was excavated down to the water table, 1.6 m below ground surface. One release was biostimulated with ammonium acetate, which was added weekly through injection wells near the source zone over 15 months. The other release was not biostimulated and served as a baseline control simulating natural attenuation. Ammonium acetate addition stimulated the development of strongly anaerobic conditions, as indicated by near-saturation methane concentrations. BTEX removal began within 8 months in the biostimulated source zone, but not in the natural attenuation control, where BTEX concentrations were still increasing (due to source dissolution) 2 years after the release. Phylogenetic analysis using quantitative PCR indicated an increase in concentration and relative abundance of Archaea (Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota), Geobacteraceae (Geobacter and Pelobacter spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfuromusa, and Desulfuromonas) in the biostimulated plot relative to the control. Apparently, biostimulation fortuitously enhanced the growth of putative anaerobic BTEX degraders and associated commensal microorganisms that consume acetate and H2, and enhance the thermodynamic feasibility of BTEX fermentation. This is the first field study to suggest that anaerobic-methanogenic biostimulation could enhance source zone bioremediation of groundwater aquifers impacted by biodiesel blends.

  1. Tradeoffs between Maize Silage Yield and Nitrate Leaching in a Mediterranean Nitrate-Vulnerable Zone under Current and Projected Climate Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Giola, Pietro; Dumont, Benjamin; Migliorati, Massimiliano De Antoni; Cammarano, Davide; Pruneddu, Giovanni; Giunta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer's field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under future climate scenarios generated by twenty nine different global circulation models, and iii) identify the management system that best minimizes NO3- leaching and maximizes yield under projected future climate conditions. A field experiment (maize-triticale rotation) was conducted in a nitrate vulnerable zone on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy to evaluate N management strategies that include urea fertilization (NMIN), conventional fertilization with dairy slurry and urea (CONV), and no fertilization (N0). An ensemble of 29 global circulation models (GCM) was used to simulate different climate scenarios for two Representative Circulation Pathways (RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and evaluate potential nitrate leaching and biomass production in this region over the next 50 years. Data collected from two growing seasons showed that the SALUS model adequately simulated both nitrate leaching and crop yield, with a relative error that ranged between 0.4% and 13%. Nitrate losses under RCP8.5 were lower than under RCP6.0 only for NMIN. Accordingly, levels of plant N uptake, N use efficiency and biomass production were higher under RCP8.5 than RCP6.0. Simulations under both RCP scenarios indicated that the NMIN treatment demonstrated both the highest biomass production and NO3- losses. The newly proposed best management practice (BMP), developed from crop N uptake data, was identified as the optimal N fertilizer management practice since it minimized NO3- leaching and maximized biomass production over the

  2. Tradeoffs between Maize Silage Yield and Nitrate Leaching in a Mediterranean Nitrate-Vulnerable Zone under Current and Projected Climate Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Giola, Pietro; Dumont, Benjamin; Migliorati, Massimiliano De Antoni; Cammarano, Davide; Pruneddu, Giovanni; Giunta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer’s field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under future climate scenarios generated by twenty nine different global circulation models, and iii) identify the management system that best minimizes NO3- leaching and maximizes yield under projected future climate conditions. A field experiment (maize-triticale rotation) was conducted in a nitrate vulnerable zone on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy to evaluate N management strategies that include urea fertilization (NMIN), conventional fertilization with dairy slurry and urea (CONV), and no fertilization (N0). An ensemble of 29 global circulation models (GCM) was used to simulate different climate scenarios for two Representative Circulation Pathways (RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and evaluate potential nitrate leaching and biomass production in this region over the next 50 years. Data collected from two growing seasons showed that the SALUS model adequately simulated both nitrate leaching and crop yield, with a relative error that ranged between 0.4% and 13%. Nitrate losses under RCP8.5 were lower than under RCP6.0 only for NMIN. Accordingly, levels of plant N uptake, N use efficiency and biomass production were higher under RCP8.5 than RCP6.0. Simulations under both RCP scenarios indicated that the NMIN treatment demonstrated both the highest biomass production and NO3- losses. The newly proposed best management practice (BMP), developed from crop N uptake data, was identified as the optimal N fertilizer management practice since it minimized NO3- leaching and maximized biomass production over

  3. Fractal dimension as a measure of altered actin cytoskeleton in MC3T3-E1 cells under simulated microgravity using 3-D/2-D clinostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, A R; Li, D; Han, J; Gao, X; Di, S M; Zhang, W; Hu, L F; Shang, Peng

    2012-05-01

    Osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, respond to various mechanical forces, such as stretch and fluid shear force in essentially similar ways. The cytoskeleton, as the load-bearing architecture of the cell, is sensitive to altered inertial forces. Disruption of the cytoskeleton will result in alteration of cellular structure and function. However, it is difficult to quantitatively illustrate cytoskeletal rearrangement because of the complexity of cytoskeletal structure. Usually, the morphological changes in actin organization caused by external stimulus are basically descriptive. In this study, fractal dimensions (D) analysis was used to quantify the morphological changes in the actin cytoskeleton of osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) under simulated microgravity using 3-D/2-D clinostats. The ImageJ software was used to count the fractal dimension of actin cytoskeleton by box-counting methods. Real-time PCR and immunofluroscent assays were used to further confirm the results obtained by fractal dimension analysis. The results showed significant decreases in D value of actin cytoskeleton, β-actin mRNA expression, and the mean fluorescence intensity of F-actin in osteoblast-like cells after 24 or 48 h of incubation under 3-D/2-D clinorotation condition compared with control. The findings indicate that 3-D/2-D clinorotation affects both actin cytoskeleton architecture and mRNA expression, and fractal may be a promising approach for quantitative analysis of the changes in cytoskeleton in different environments.

  4. Soil ni.trogen transformations varied with plant community under Nanchang urban forests in mid-subtropical zone of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Wen; CHEN Fu-sheng; HU Xiao-fei; YU Ming-quan; FENG Xue

    2011-01-01

    Soil N transformations using the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)closed-top tube in situ incubation method were studied in Nanchang urban forests of the mid-subtropical region of China m different monthsof 2007.Four plots of 20 m × 20 m were established in four different plant communities that represented typical successional stages of forest development including shrubs,coniferous forest,mixed forest and broadleaved forest.Average concentrations of soil NH4+-N fiom January to December were not different among the four plant communities.The concentrations of soil NO3-N and mineral N,and the annual rates of ammonification,nitrification and net N-mineralization under the early successional shrub community and coniferous forest were generally lower than that of the late successional mixed and broad-leaved forests (p<0.05).Similar differences among the plant communities were also shown in the relative nitrification index (NH4+-N/NO3-N) and relative nitrification intensity (nitrification rate/net N-mineralization rate).The annual net N-mineralization rate was increased from younger to older plant communities,from 15.1 and 41.4 kg·ha-1·a-1 under the shrubs and coniferous forest communities to 98.0 and 112.9 kg·ha-1·a-1 under the mixed and broad-leaved forests,respectively.Moreover,the high annual nitrification rates (50-70 kg·ha-1·a-1) and its end product,NO3-N (2.4-3.8mg·kg-1),under older plant communities could increase the potential risk of N loss.Additionally,the temporal patterns of the different soil N variables mentioned above varied with different plant community due to the combined affects of natural biological processes associated with forest maturation and urbanization.Our results indicated that urban forests arc moving towards a state of"N saturation" (extremely nitrification rate and NO3-N content) as they mature.

  5. Regularity of the Damage of Altered Rock’ s Mechanical Properties Under Water-Rock Interaction%水岩作用下蚀变岩力学性质损伤规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛传星; 秦哲; 冯佰研; 付厚利

    2016-01-01

    In order to research the effect of water level fluctuation on the mechanical properties of slope rock at al -tered zones , we carried out uniaxial compression test on rock samples from open-pit slope in Cangshang under dif-ferent saturation-dehydration cycles .Moreover , we established the function which describes the variation pattern of mechanical properties of altered rock under water-rock interaction .We also analyzed the influence of circulating times on the mechanical properties of altered rock through introducing the concept of damage rate .Besides , the damage mechanism of water-rock interaction on altered rocks was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) .The result indicated that the mechanical properties of altered rocks were obviously weakened by water -rock interaction , and with the increase of water-rock interaction , the phenomenon was more obvious;with the increase of circulating times, the elasticity modulus decayed rapidly while the peak intensity was decaying continuously .As the degree of alteration and fragmentation increased , the degree of damage increased regarding the water-rock interac-tion to the mechanical properties of rock , and after fifteen saturation-dehydration cycles , the damage rate of elastic-ity modulus reached 60%, while that of peak intensity was 45%.%为了研究水位升降对蚀变带边坡岩石力学性质的影响,选取仓上露天金矿坑边坡蚀变岩样,进行了不同饱水-失水循环次数的单轴压缩试验。建立了函数关系描述蚀变岩力学性质在水岩作用下的变化规律,引入损伤率的概念分析了循环次数对蚀变岩力学性质的影响,并利用电镜扫描技术从微观角度分析了水岩作用对蚀变岩的损伤机理。结果表明:水岩作用对蚀变岩的力学性质有明显的弱化现象,且水岩作用越强,弱化现象越明显;不同循环次数下,蚀变岩弹性模量随循环次数增加衰减迅速,峰值强度呈

  6. Alteration of proteins and pigments influence the function of photosystem I under iron deficiency from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Yadavalli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron is an essential micronutrient for all organisms because it is a component of enzyme cofactors that catalyze redox reactions in fundamental metabolic processes. Even though iron is abundant on earth, it is often present in the insoluble ferric [Fe (III] state, leaving many surface environments Fe-limited. The haploid green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is used as a model organism for studying eukaryotic photosynthesis. This study explores structural and functional changes in PSI-LHCI supercomplexes under Fe deficiency as the eukaryotic photosynthetic apparatus adapts to Fe deficiency. RESULTS: 77K emission spectra and sucrose density gradient data show that PSI and LHCI subunits are affected under iron deficiency conditions. The visible circular dichroism (CD spectra associated with strongly-coupled chlorophyll dimers increases in intensity. The change in CD signals of pigments originates from the modification of interactions between pigment molecules. Evidence from sucrose gradients and non-denaturing (green gels indicates that PSI-LHCI levels were reduced after cells were grown for 72 h in Fe-deficient medium. Ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy suggests that red-shifted pigments in the PSI-LHCI antenna were lost during Fe stress. Further, denaturing gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis reveals that levels of the PSI subunits PsaC and PsaD decreased, while PsaE was completely absent after Fe stress. The light harvesting complexes were also susceptible to iron deficiency, with Lhca1 and Lhca9 showing the most dramatic decreases. These changes in the number and composition of PSI-LHCI supercomplexes may be caused by reactive oxygen species, which increase under Fe deficiency conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Fe deficiency induces rapid reduction of the levels of photosynthetic pigments due to a decrease in chlorophyll synthesis. Chlorophyll is important not only as a light-harvesting pigment, but also has a structural role

  7. [Malnutrition and health status of children under five years old in the suburban zone of Niamey, Niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, H; Banos, M T; Garba, D

    1995-01-01

    In June 1992 prior to a community-based screening campaign for malnourished children, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in a semi-urban area located ten kilometers from Niamey, the capital city of Niger. Nutritional data gathered from a representative sample of children under the age of 5 years were compared to corresponding data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Acute malnutrition among children under six months was 8%. In the sample as a whole, the rates acute and chronic malnutrition were 17.7% (13.4-22.0) and 28.7% (23.4-33.9) respectively with 4% accuracy. These rates were similar to those of a previous regional study made in 1990. Nutritional status was related to the identity of the caretaker. Mothers had a mean of 4.07 living children and 0.99 dead children. The study indicated a child mortality rate of 181 (136-225) per thousand. The primary anamnestic causes of death were diarrhea and measles. Malnutrition was the fifth cause of death. Twenty-two percent of children screened had been sick in the month preceding the study. Low cure rates of the malnourished at the nutritional center of Niamey (7.42%) and high level of chronic malnutrition underline the need for solutions better suited to semi-urban areas.

  8. Simulation of Delamination Propagation in Composites Under High-Cycle Fatigue by Means of Cohesive-Zone Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon, Albert; Costa, Josep; Camanho, Pedro P.; Davila, Carlos G.

    2006-01-01

    A damage model for the simulation of delamination propagation under high-cycle fatigue loading is proposed. The basis for the formulation is a cohesive law that links fracture and damage mechanics to establish the evolution of the damage variable in terms of the crack growth rate dA/dN. The damage state is obtained as a function of the loading conditions as well as the experimentally-determined coefficients of the Paris Law crack propagation rates for the material. It is shown that by using the constitutive fatigue damage model in a structural analysis, experimental results can be reproduced without the need of additional model-specific curve-fitting parameters.

  9. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast.

  10. Alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content in pea leaves under long-term drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Ilhami; Öztürk, Lokman; Demir, Yavuz; Unlükara, Ali; Kurunç, Ahmet; Düzdemir, Oral

    2014-09-01

    The effects of long-term drought stress on chlorophyll, proline, protein and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, malondialdehyde (MDA) in terms of lipid peroxidation and on the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POX; EC 1.11.1.7) in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field conditions. Chlorophyll and protein contents in leaves decreased significantly with increased drought stress. The proline content increased markedly under water deficit. MDA amounts were elevated as a result of water shortage, whereas H(2)O(2) content changed slightly in pea leaves exposed to drought stress. Drought stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POX but slightly changed the activity of APX. We conclude that in field conditions, long-term water shortage increased the susceptibility to drought in peas.

  11. Altered expression and activities of enzymes involved in thiamine diphosphate biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under oxidative and osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Ewa; Kujda, Marta; Wolak, Natalia; Kozik, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    Thiamine diphosphate (TDP) serves as a cofactor for enzymes engaged in pivotal carbohydrate metabolic pathways, which are known to be modulated under stress conditions to ensure the cell survival. Recent reports have proven a protective role of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) in the response of plants to abiotic stress. This work aimed at verifying a hypothesis that also baker's yeast, which can synthesize thiamine de novo similarly to plants and bacteria, adjust thiamine metabolism to adverse environmental conditions. Our analyses on the gene expression and enzymatic activity levels generally showed an increased production of thiamine biosynthesis enzymes (THI4 and THI6/THI6), a TDP synthesizing enzyme (THI80/THI80) and a TDP-requiring enzyme, transketolase (TKL1/TKL) by yeast subjected to oxidative (1 mM hydrogen peroxide) and osmotic (1 M sorbitol) stress. However, these effects differed in magnitude, depending on yeast growth phase and presence of thiamine in growth medium. A mutant thi4Δ with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress exhibited enhanced TDP biosynthesis as compared with the wild-type strain. Similar tendencies were observed in mutants yap1Δ and hog1Δ defective in the signaling pathways of the defense against oxidative and osmotic stress, respectively, suggesting that thiamine metabolism can partly compensate damages of yeast general defense systems.

  12. Chronic but not acute antidepresant treatment alters serum zinc/copper ratio under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlyniec, K; Ostachowicz, B; Krakowska, A; Reczynski, W; Opoka, W; Nowak, G

    2014-10-01

    Depression is the leading psychiatric disorder with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinical studies report lower serum zinc in depressed patients, suggesting a strong link between zinc and mood disorders. Also copper as an antagonistic element to zinc seems to play a role in depression, where elevated concentration is observed. In the present study we investigated serum copper and zinc concentration after acute or chronic antidepressant (AD) treatment under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions. Zinc deficiency in mice was induced by a special diet administered for 6 weeks (zinc adequate diet - ZnA, contains 33.5 mgZn/kg; zinc deficient diet - ZnD, contains 0.2 mgZn/kg). Animals received acute or chronically saline (control), imipramine, escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion. To evaluate changes in serum copper and zinc concentrations the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was performed. In ZnD animals serum zinc level was reduced after acute ADs treatment (similarly to vehicle treatment), however, as demonstrated in the previous study after chronic ADs administration no differences between both ZnA and ZnD groups were observed. Acute ADs in ZnD animals caused different changes in serum copper concentration with no changes after chronic ADs treatment. The calculated serum Zn/Cu ratio is reduced in ZnD animals (compared to ZnA subjects) treated with saline (acutely or chronically) and in animals treated acutely with ADs. However, chronic treatment with ADs normalized (by escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion) or increased (by imipramine) this Zn/Cu ratio. Observed in this study normalization of serum Zn/Cu ratio in depression-like conditions by chronic (but not acute) antidepressants suggest that this ratio may be consider as a marker of depression or treatment efficacy.

  13. Measuring Total Flux of Organic Vapors From the Unsaturated Zone Under Natural Conditions: Design, Laboratory and Field Testing of a Flux Chamber Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, F. D.; Choi, J.; Smith, J. A.

    2002-05-01

    A simple, easy-to-use, and inexpensive device for measuring VOC flux under natural conditions was designed and tested both in a controlled laboratory environment and in a natural field setting. The chamber consists of a stainless-steel right circular cylinder open on one end with a flexible, impermeable membrane allowing for chamber expansion and contraction. Air is pumped from inside the chamber through activated carbon traps and returned to the chamber maintaining a net zero pressure gradient from the inside to the outside of the chamber. The traps are analyzed using thermal desorption/GC-FID and the mass of contaminant is divided by the product of the sampled area and sample time to give VOC flux measured by the chamber. Design parameters for the chamber were selected using continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR)-equation based modeling under step, sinusoidal and transport-model simulation flux inputs. Laboratory testing of the flux chamber under both diffusion and advection dominated conditions was performed in a device constructed to simulate unsaturated zone transport. Aqueous trichloroethene (TCE) solution was pumped through the bottom of a steel drum inside which 50-cm of fine sand was suspended. For diffusion-dominated transport experiments, the chamber was installed in the sand at the top of the simulator and operated in the same manner as would occur in the field. The flux measurement of the chamber was then compared to flux prediction based on measured linear concentration data from the simulator and Fick's law. Advective transport is initiated in the vadose zone simulator by flowing humidified, pressurized air into an input port in the bottom of the simulator below the suspended porous media. Soil-gas velocity is calculated by dividing the airflow input by the surface area of the simulator. Flux was measured with the chamber and compared to flux predicted using airflow and concentration data from the simulator. Results from both the diffusion-only and

  14. Strain partitioning into dry and wet zones and the formation of Ca-rich myrmekite in syntectonic syenites: A case for melt-assisted dissolution-replacement creep under granulite facies conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni, G. B.; Bitencourt, M. F.; Nardi, L. V. S.

    2016-10-01

    The formation of Ca-rich myrmekites is described in syntectonic syenites crystallized and progressively deformed under granulite facies conditions. The syenites are found in high- and low-strain zones where microstructure and mineral composition are compared. Heterogeneously distributed water-rich, late-magmatic liquids were responsible for strain partitioning into dry and wet high-strain zones at outcrop scale, where contrasting deformation mechanisms are reported. In dry high-strain zones K-feldspar and clinopyroxene are recrystallized under high-T conditions. In wet high-strain zones, the de-stabilization of clinopyroxene and pervasive replacement of relatively undeformed K-feldspar porphyroclasts by myrmekite and subordinate micrographic intergrowths indicate dissolution-replacement creep as the main deformation mechanism. The reworking of these intergrowths is observed and is considered to contribute significantly to the development of the mylonitic foliation and banding. A model is proposed for strain partitioning relating a positive feedback between myrmekite-forming reaction, continuous inflow of late-magmatic liquids and dissolution-replacement creep in the wet zone at the expenses of original mineralogy preserved in the dry zones. Melt-assisted dissolution-replacement creep in syntectonic environments under granulite-facies conditions may extend the field of operation of dissolution-replacement creep, changing significantly the rheology of the lower continental crust.

  15. Hydrothermal alteration in oceanic ridge volcanics: A detailed study at the Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, W.I.; Perfit, M.R.; Josnasson, I.R.; Smith, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field is composed of altered oceanic crust and extinct hydrothermal vents within the eastern Galapagos Rift between 85??49???W and 85??55???W. The discharge zone of the hydrothermal system is revealed along scarps, thus providing an opportunity to examine the uppermost mineralized, and highly altered interior parts of the crust. Altered rocks collected in situ by the submersible ALVIN show complex concentric alteration zones. Microsamples of individual zones have been analysed for major/minor, trace elements, and strontium isotopes in order to describe the complex compositional details of the hydrothermal alteration. Interlayered chlorite-smectite and chlorite with disequilibrium compositions dominate the secondary mineralogy as replacement phases of primary glass and acicular pyroxene. Phenocrysts and matrix grains of plagioclase are unaffected during alteration. Using a modification of the Gresens' equation we demonstrate that the trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively immobile, and calculate degrees of enrichment and depletion in other elements. Strontium isotopic ratios increase as Sr concentrations decrease from least-altered cores to most-altered rims and cross-cutting veins in individual samples, and can be modeled by open system behaviour under low fluid-rock ratio (< 10) conditions following a period of lower-temperature weathering of volcanics within the rift zone. The complex patterns of element enrichment and depletion and strontium isotope variations indicate mixing between pristine seawater and ascending hot fluids to produce a compositional spectrum of fluids. The precipitation of base-metal sulfides beneath the seafloor is probably a result of fluid mixing and cooling. If, as suggested here, the discharge zone alteration occurred under relatively low fluid-rock ratios, then this shallow region must play an important role in determining the exit composition of vent fluids in marine hydrothermal systems

  16. Chemical signals and their regulations on the plant growth and water use efficiency of cotton seedlings under partial root-zone drying and different nitrogen applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenrao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial root-zone drying during irrigation (PRD has been shown effective in enhancing plant water use efficiency (WUE, however, the roles of chemical signals from root and shoot that are involved and the possible interactions affected by nitrogen nutrition are not clear. Pot-grown cotton (Gossypium spp. seedlings were treated with three levels of N fertilization and PRD. The concentrations of nitrate (NO3−, abscisic acid (ABA and the pH value of leaf and root xylem saps, biomass and WUE were measured. Results showed that PRD plants produced larger biomass and higher WUE than non-PRD plants, with significant changes in leaf xylem ABA, leaf and root xylem NO3− concentrations and pH values, under heterogeneous soil moisture conditions. Simultaneously, high-N treated plants displayed larger changes in leaf xylem ABA and higher root xylem NO3− concentrations, than in the medium- or low-N treated plants. However, the WUE of plants in the low-N treatment was higher than that of those in the high- and medium-N treatments. PRD and nitrogen levels respectively induced signaling responses of ABA/NO3− and pH in leaf or root xylem to affect WUE and biomass under different watering levels, although significant interactions of PRD and nitrogen levels were found when these signal molecules responded to soil drying. We conclude that these signaling chemicals are regulated by interaction of PRD and nitrogen status to regulate stomatal behavior, either directly or indirectly, and thus increase PRD plant WUE under less irrigation.

  17. Drying/rewetting cycles of the soil under alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation reduce carbon and nitrogen retention in the soil-plant systems of potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yanqi; Yan, Fei; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    Dry/wet cycles of soil may stimulate mineralization of soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) leading to increased N bioavailability to plants but potentially also increased C and N losses. We investigated the effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) and deficit irrigation (DI) on C and N...... for five weeks. For each N rate, the PRD and DI plants received a same amount of water, which allowed re-filling one half of the PRD pots close to full water holding capacity. The results showed that plant dry biomass, plant water use, and water use efficiency were increased with increasing N....... However, owing to substantial decreases of C and N contents in the soil, the amounts of C and N retained in the soil–plant systems were lower in PRD than in DI. Although the C gain in the soil–plant systems of potato was positive due to production of plant biomass, the dry/wet cycles of the soil under...

  18. Response of Nine Cultivars of Pepper (Capsicum spp. to Infection by Four Viruses under Natural Field Conditions in the Coastal Savanna Zone of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Appiah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the reaction of two local and seven exotic pepper cultivars to four viral diseases in the coastal savanna zone of Ghana. The objective was to evaluate the response of the pepper cultivars to the viruses under natural field conditions. The plants were assessed for symptom severity as well as disease incidence. Symptom expression varied among the cultivars, with severity ranging from 0.5% at 4 Weeks after Transplanting (WAT to 47.2% at 14 WAT. Disease incidence also varied significantly among the cultivars and ranged from 1.1% at 4 WAT to 61.3% at 14 WAT. Enzyme-Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA was performed against PVMV, TMV, CMV and PMMV for each cultivar. The test showed the presence of all four viruses in the leaf extracts, with each cultivar infected by at least one of the four viruses. PVMV and CMV were the predominant viruses identified. Mixed infections of two or more viruses were observed in all the cultivars. TMV was detected in all cultivars except the two hybrids, Sunny F1 and Forever F1, while PMMV was detected in only cv. Legon 18 which had a mixed infection of all four viruses.

  19. Upper Cretaceous to Holocene magmatism and evidence for transient Miocene shallowing of the Andean subduction zone under the northern Neuquén Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Suzanne M.; Burns, W. Matthew; Copeland, Peter; Mancilla, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for a Miocene period of transient shallow subduction under the Neuquén Basin in the Andean backarc, and an intermittent Upper Cretaceous to Holocene frontal arc with a relatively stable magma source and arc-to-trench geometry comes from new 40Ar/39Ar, major- and trace-element, and Sr, Pb, and Nd isotopic data on magmatic rocks from a transect at ∼36°–38°S. Older frontal arc magmas include early Paleogene volcanic rocks erupted after a strong Upper Cretaceous contractional deformation and mid-Eocene lavas erupted from arc centers displaced slightly to the east. Following a gap of some 15 m.y., ca. 26–20 Ma mafic to acidic arc-like magmas erupted in the extensional Cura Mallín intra-arc basin, and alkali olivine basalts with intraplate signatures erupted across the backarc. A major change followed as ca. 20–15 Ma basaltic andesite–dacitic magmas with weak arc signatures and 11.7 Ma Cerro Negro andesites with stronger arc signatures erupted in the near to middle backarc. They were followed by ca. 7.2–4.8 Ma high-K basaltic to dacitic hornblende-bearing magmas with arc-like high field strength element depletion that erupted in the Sierra de Chachahuén, some 500 km east of the trench. The chemistry of these Miocene rocks along with the regional deformational pattern support a transient period of shallow subduction that began at ca. 20 Ma and climaxed near 5 Ma. The subsequent widespread eruption of Pliocene to Pleistocene alkaline magmas with an intraplate chemistry in the Payenia large igneous province signaled a thickening mantle wedge above a steepening subduction zone. A pattern of decreasingly arc-like Pliocene to Holocene backarc lavas in the Tromen region culminated with the eruption of a 0.175 ± 0.025 Ma mafic andesite. The northwest-trending Cortaderas lineament, which generally marks the southern limit of Neogene backarc magmatism, is considered to mark the southern boundary of the transient shallow subduction zone.

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine combination in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria among children under five years of age in three ecological zones in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuaku Benjamin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, artemether - lumefantrine (AL and dihydroartemisinin - piperaquine (DHAP were added to artesunate - amodiaquine (AS-AQ as first-line drugs for uncomplicated malaria in Ghana. The introduction of new drugs calls for continuous monitoring of these drugs to provide timely information on trends of their efficacy and safety to enhance timely evidence-based decision making by the National Malaria Control Programme. In this regard, the therapeutic efficacy of AL was monitored from September 2010 to April 2011 in four sentinel sites representing the three main ecological zones of the country. Methods The study was a one-arm prospective evaluation of clinical and parasitological responses to directly observed treatment for uncomplicated malaria among children aged 6 months to 59 months using the 2009 WHO protocol for surveillance of anti-malarial drug efficacy. Children recruited into the study received weight-based 20/120 mg AL at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hrs. Parasitaemia levels were assessed on days 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and at any time a study child was brought to the clinic with fever. Results A total of 175 children were enrolled into the study: 56 in the savanna zone, 78 in the forest zone and 41 in the coastal zone. Per-protocol analysis showed that the overall PCR-corrected cure rates on day 14 and day 28 were 96.5% (95% CI: 92.1, 98.6 and 95.4% (95% CI: 90.3, 98.0, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the ecological zones. The 90.4% day-28 cure rate observed in the savannah zone (95% CI: 78.2, 96.4 was significantly the lowest compared with 100% (95% CI: 93.2, 99.9 in the forest zone and 93.8% (95% CI: 77.8, 98.9 in the coastal zone (P = 0.017. Fever and parasite clearance were slower among children enrolled in the savannah zone. Gametocytaemia after day-3 post-treatment was rare in all the zones. Conclusions The study has shown that AL remains efficacious in Ghana with

  1. An Altered Pattern of Myocardial Histopathological and Molecular Changes Underlies the Different Characteristics of Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetic Cardiac Dysfunction

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    Tamás Radovits

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that both types of diabetes mellitus (DM lead to cardiac structural and functional changes. In this study we investigated and compared functional characteristics and underlying subcellular pathological features in rat models of type-1 and type-2 diabetic cardiomyopathy. Type-1 DM was induced by streptozotocin. For type-2 DM, Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats were used. Left ventricular pressure-volume analysis was performed to assess cardiac function. Myocardial nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry, TUNEL assay, hematoxylin-eosin, and Masson’s trichrome staining were performed. mRNA and protein expression were quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Marked systolic dysfunction in type-1 DM was associated with severe nitrooxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis. These pathological features were less pronounced or absent, while cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was comparable in type-2 DM, which was associated with unaltered systolic function and increased diastolic stiffness. mRNA-expression of hypertrophy markers c-fos, c-jun, and β-MHC, as well as pro-apoptotic caspase-12, was elevated in type-1, while it remained unaltered or only slightly increased in type-2 DM. Expression of the profibrotic TGF-β1 was upregulated in type-1 and showed a decrease in type-2 DM. We compared type-1 and type-2 diabetic cardiomyopathy in standard rat models and described an altered pattern of key pathophysiological features in the diabetic heart and corresponding functional consequences.

  2. Changes in soil biological quality under legume- and maize-based farming systems in a humid savanna zone of Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tano Y.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the impact of farming systems on soil status is essential in determining the most relevant for a given agroecological zone. A trial was conducted in a West Africa humid savanna, aiming at assessing the short-term effects of farming systems on soil (0-10 cm organic carbon (SOC content and some soil microbiological properties. A randomized complete block experimental design with three replications, and the following treatments were used: Mucuna pruriens (Mucuna, Pueraria phaseoloides (Pueraria, Lablab purpureus (Lablab, a combination of these three legumes (Mixed-legumes, maize + urea (Maize-U, maize + triple super phosphate (Maize-Sp, maize + urea + triple super phosphate (Maize-USp, fertilizer-free maize continuous cropping (Maize-Tradi. Results indicated that SOC content was improved over time under legume-based systems. The relative increase was the highest with the legume association and Lablab, where SOC varied from 7.5 to 8.6 g.kg-1 (i.e. 14.7% and from 7.2 to 8.3 g.kg-1 (i.e. 15.3% respectively, between the start and the end of the trial. Besides, applying grass and maize residues as mulch on the ground, in association with inorganic fertilizers may be a way of improving SOC content in the short-term. Although legume-based systems exhibited highest values, microbial biomass carbon (MBC did not show any statistical significant differences between treatments. However, soil C mineralization and soil specific respiration were influenced by the farming systems, with higher mean values under legume-based systems (42 ± 7.6 mg C-CO2.g-1 Corg and 0.4 mg C-CO2.g-1 biomass C, respectively, compared to maize continuous cropping systems (33.1 ± 1.6 mg C-CO2.g-1 Corg and 0.3 mg C-CO2.g-1 biomass C, respectively. Thus, these parameters can be used as sensitive indicators of the early changes in soil organic matter quality. The integration of legumes cover crops in farming systems may contribute to improve soil quality that would lead to

  3. Alteration of microbial communities colonizing leaf litter in a temperate woodland stream by growth of trees under conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John J; Bansal, Amit; Winkelman, Jonathan; Janus, Lori R; Hell, Shannon; Wencel, Marie; Belt, Patricia; Kuehn, Kevin A; Rier, Steven T; Tuchman, Nancy C

    2010-08-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO(2) can cause increased carbon fixation and altered foliar chemical composition in a variety of plants, which has the potential to impact forested headwater streams because they are detritus-based ecosystems that rely on leaf litter as their primary source of organic carbon. Fungi and bacteria play key roles in the entry of terrestrial carbon into aquatic food webs, as they decompose leaf litter and serve as a source of nutrition for invertebrate consumers. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in leaf chemistry caused by elevated atmospheric CO(2) would result in changes in the size and composition of microbial communities colonizing leaves in a woodland stream. Three tree species, Populus tremuloides, Salix alba, and Acer saccharum, were grown under ambient (360 ppm) or elevated (720 ppm) CO(2), and their leaves were incubated in a woodland stream. Elevated-CO(2) treatment resulted in significant increases in the phenolic and tannin contents and C/N ratios of leaves. Microbial effects, which occurred only for P. tremuloides leaves, included decreased fungal biomass and decreased bacterial counts. Analysis of fungal and bacterial communities on P. tremuloides leaves via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library sequencing revealed that fungal community composition was mostly unchanged by the elevated-CO(2) treatment, whereas bacterial communities showed a significant shift in composition and a significant increase in diversity. Specific changes in bacterial communities included increased numbers of alphaproteobacterial and cytophaga-flavobacter-bacteroides (CFB) group sequences and decreased numbers of betaproteobacterial and firmicutes sequences, as well as a pronounced decrease in overall gram-positive bacterial sequences.

  4. 展宽段排队溢出状态下区段延误模型研究%Study on Section Delay Model under Widening Zone Queue Overflow Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    为研究过饱和信号交叉口排队溢出状态下单周期通过展宽段车辆的区段延误模型,首先介绍了3大经典延误模型,提出了3大延误模型均未考虑展宽段长度和饱和流率的波动问题.其次,以展宽段为研究对象,在经典延误模型理论的基础上,推导出了展宽段区段延误模型.最后,从公式推导计算和VISSIM仿真两个方面对优化模型和定数理论延误模型进行了对比.结果表明:该模型能够有效地反映展宽段溢出状态下产生的区段延误,可为展宽段的科学设计提供理论基础.%In order to study the section delay model for vehicles passing widening zone in single cycle at oversaturated signalized intersection under queue overflow condition, first, we introduced 3 classical delay models, and put forward none of them considered the widening zone length and the fluctuation of saturation flow rate. Second, taking the widening zone as the research object, we derived the widening zone delay model on the basis of the classical delay model theory. Finally, we compared the optimization model and the fixed number theory based delay model by formula deriving/calculating and VISSIM simulation. The result shows that the proposed model can effectively reflect the section delay in widening zone under queue overflow condition, it can provide a theoretical basis for scientific design of widening zone.

  5. Interpretación de la distribución de elementos de las tierras raras en el basamento alterado de la zona de San Manuel, provincia de Buenos Aires Interpretation of rare earth elements distribution in the altered basement of the San Manuel zone, Buenos Aires province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl R Fernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En las canteras de arcilla ubicadas en las proximidades de la localidad de San Manuel, provincia de Buenos Aires, puede observarse el basamento ígneo-metamórfico (Complejo Buenos Aires notablemente alterado hasta unos 16 m de profundidad por debajo de la cubierta sedimentaria neoproterozoica-cámbrica? (Grupo Sierras Bayas. Los estudios al microscopio y la difracción de rayos X permitieron definir una zonación mineralógica de la alteración, que de arriba hacia abajo comprende: zona de pirofilita-caolinita (desde el nivel de cuarcitas con el que se inicia la serie sedimentaria suprayacente hasta ~5 m, zona de pirofilita-illita (de ~5 m hasta ~ 10 m y zona de cuarzo-illita/sericita en los niveles más profundos. La distribución de los elementos de las tierras taras (ETR normalizados, en el basamento alterado mostraron dos patrones: el patrón 1 con aumento relativo de los elementos de tierras raras pesadas (ETRP respecto a las livianas (ETRL y anomalía positiva en Ce y Eu y el patrón 2, con incremento de las tierras raras livianas respecto a las pesadas y anomalía negativa en Ce. Estos dos patrones se atribuyen a distintos procesos que produjeron los cambios en las rocas del basamento: el patrón 2 a una alteración hidrotermal y el patrón 1 a una alteración meteórica superpuesta que en parte es coincidente con la presencia de caolinita.Near the San Manuel town, in the province of Buenos Aires, it could be observed that the igneous-metamorphic basement (Buenos Aires Complex is notably altered in the clay quarries which had been excavated up to 16 m depth under the Neoproterozoic- Cambrian? sedimentary cover (Sierras Bayas Group. Microscopic and X-ray diffraction studies were used to characterize the mineralogical composition of the altered basement, which shows a vertical zonation that includes: pyrophyllite-kaolinite (up to ~5 m, pyrophyllite-illite (up to ~ 10 m and in the deepest levels of the quarry quartz-illite/sericite zone. In

  6. Morpholithodynamical changes of the beach and the nearshore zone under the impact of submerged breakwaters – a case study (Orłowo Cliff, the Southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kubowicz-Grajewska

    2015-04-01

    Based on the conducted research and analysis, it has been found that the construction has a minor impact on the modification of the shore and nearshore zone morpholithodynamics, which is evidenced by a sinuate shape of the shoreline and a relatively stable cape in the central part of the area, present both before (1966–2005 and after SBWs were built. Furthermore, the progressive abrasion, the lack of significant changes in the morphology and particle size distribution of the beach and the nearshore zone, as well as the fact that those changes are limited only to the immediate surroundings of the submerged breakwaters prove their neutral impact.

  7. A review of possible origins of the uranium 'plume' in the aquifer under the EPIC site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonucci, C.; Van Meir, N.; Courbet, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Roux, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, CEREGE UM34, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Le Gal La Salle, C.; Verdoux, P.; Lancelot, J.C. [Nimes University, Laboratoire de Geochimie Isotopique (GIS), 150 rue George Besse, 30035 Nimes (France); Ruas, A. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, F-30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Bassot, S. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LAME, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bugai, D. [Institute of Geological Sciences, 55-b, Gonchara Str., Kiev 01054 (Ukraine); Levchuk, S.; Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, UIAR NUBiP of Ukraine, Mashinobudivnykiv str. 7, Chabany, Kyiv-Svjatoshin (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    The uniqueness of the Chernobyl accident lies in the fact that so much radioactive material was discharged to the atmosphere as solid fuel particles from the reactor core. Between the 26 April and the 6 May 1986 more than 6 tons of small particles of highly radioactive uranium oxide fuel were discharged to the atmosphere and were responsible for more than 75 % of the radioactive contamination on the ground in the exclusion zone. In 1987, about 800 trenches had been dug in the exclusion zone to prevent re-suspension and to protect workers from contamination. In 1999, the IRSN, in collaboration with IGS and UIAR, equipped trench 22 (CPS) in order to monitor radionuclide migration in the environment (water, soil, plants). At the EPIC site high uranium concentrations were observed in the groundwater downstream from trench 22. We discuss the possible origins of this uranium 'plume'. (authors)

  8. Influence of electromagnetic field intensity on the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization in circulating water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Liang, Yandong; Chen, Si

    2016-09-01

    In this study, changes in the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization was determined through conductivity titration by altering electromagnetic field parameters applied to the circulating water system. The critical conductivity value and metastable zone curves of CaCO3 crystallization were determined under different solution concentrations and electromagnetic field intensities. Experimental results indicate that the effect of the electromagnetic field intensity on the critical conductivity value intensifies with the increase of solution concentration. Moreover, the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization increases with the increase of electromagnetic field intensity within 200 Gs, thereby prolonging the induction period of nucleation.

  9. Unlocking the Sporicidal Potential of Ethanol: Induced Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol against Clostridium difficile and Bacillus Spores under Altered Physical and Chemical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Sunkesula, Venkata C. K.; C., Thriveen Sankar; Setlow, Peter; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to their efficacy and convenience, alcohol-based hand sanitizers have been widely adopted as the primary method of hand hygiene in healthcare settings. However, alcohols lack activity against bacterial spores produced by pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis. We hypothesized that sporicidal activity could be induced in alcohols through alteration of physical or chemical conditions that have been shown to degrade or allow penetration of spore coats. Principal Findings Acidification, alkalinization, and heating of ethanol induced rapid sporicidal activity against C. difficile, and to a lesser extent Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis. The sporicidal activity of acidified ethanol was enhanced by increasing ionic strength and mild elevations in temperature. On skin, sporicidal ethanol formulations were as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing levels of C. difficile spores. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that novel ethanol-based sporicidal hand hygiene formulations can be developed through alteration of physical and chemical conditions. PMID:26177038

  10. Void denuded zone formation for Fe–15Cr–15Ni steel and PNC316 stainless steel under neutron and electron irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekio, Yoshihiro, E-mail: sekio.yoshihiro@jaea.go.jp [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Yamashita, Shinichiro [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Norihito [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido 060-0808 (Japan); Takahashi, Heishichiro [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido 060-0808 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Austenitic stainless steel developed to improve void swelling was used. • Void denuded zone formed near grain boundary can be affected by vacancy mobility. • Vacancy migration energy was estimated from void denuded zone width in the steel. - Abstract: Irradiation-induced void denuded zone (VDZ) formation near grain boundaries was studied to clarify the effects of minor alloying elements on vacancy diffusivity during irradiation in practical PNC316 stainless steel developed for nuclear reactor core materials. The test materials were Fe–15Cr–15Ni steel without additives and PNC316 stainless steel; the latter contains minor alloying elements to improve the void swelling resistance. These steels were neutron-irradiated in the experimental fast reactor JOYO at temperatures from 749 K to 775 K and fast neutron doses of 18–103 dpa, and electron irradiation was also carried out using 1 MeV high voltage electron microscopy at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K and doses up to 14.4 dpa. VDZ formation was analyzed by TEM microstructural observation after irradiation by considering radiation-induced segregation near the grain boundaries. VDZs were formed near random grain boundaries with higher misfit angles in both Fe–15Cr–15Ni and PNC316 steels. The VDZ widths in the PNC316 stainless steel were narrower than those for the Fe–15Cr–15Ni steel for all neutron and electron irradiations. The VDZ width analysis implied that the vacancy diffusivity was reduced in PNC316 stainless steel as a result of interaction of vacancies with minor alloying elements.

  11. Enzymatic activities and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in a soil root zone under heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucwa-Przepióra, Ewa; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Fojcik, Barbara; Chmura, Damian

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the present field study were to examine the soil enzyme activities in the soil root zones of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in different heavy metal contaminated stands. Moreover, the investigations concerned the intensity of root endophytic colonization and metal bioaccumulation in roots and shoots. The investigated Plantago species exhibited an excluder strategy, accumulating higher metal content in the roots than in the shoots. The heavy metal accumulation levels found in the two plantain species in this study were comparable to other plants suggested as phytostabilizers; therefore, the selected Plantago species may be applied in the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated areas. The lower level of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) as well as the higher bioavailability of metals in the root zone soil of the two plantain species were found in an area affected by smelting activity, where organic matter content in the soil was also the smallest. Mycorrhizal colonization on both species in the contaminated area was similar to colonization in non-contaminated stands. However, the lowest arbuscule occurrence and an absence of dark septate endophytes were found in the area affected by the smelting activity. It corresponded with the lowest plant cover observed in this stand. The assessment of enzyme activity, mycorrhizal colonization, and the chemical and physical properties of soils proved to be sensitive to differences between sites and between Plantago species.

  12. New Approach in Translational Medicine: Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW on NF-κB/iNOS Pathway in U937 Cell Line under Altered Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Franceschelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS can exert harmful effects, altering the cellular redox state. Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW produced near the cathode during water electrolysis exhibits high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and an extremely negative redox potential. Several findings indicate that ERW had the ability of a scavenger free radical, which results from hydrogen molecules with a high reducing ability and may participate in the redox regulation of cellular function. We investigated the effect of ERW on H2O2-induced U937 damage by evaluating the modulation of redox cellular state. Western blotting and spectrophotometrical analysis showed that ERW inhibited oxidative stress by restoring the antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Consequently, ERW restores the ability of the glutathione reductase to supply the cell of an important endogenous antioxidant, such as GSH, reversing the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on redox balance of U937 cells. Therefore, this means a reduction of cytotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite via a downregulation of the NF-κB/iNOS pathway and could be used as an antioxidant for preventive and therapeutic application. In conclusion, ERW can protect the cellular redox balance, reducing the risk of several diseases with altered cellular homeostasis such as inflammation.

  13. The Habitable Zone Gallery

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a new service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table with information on the percentage of orbital phase spent within the HZ, planetary effective temperatures, and other basic planetary properties. In addition to the table, we also plot the period and eccentricity of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ. The service includes a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits. Also provided are animations which aid in orbit visualization and provide the changing effective temperature for those planets in eccentric orbits. Here we describe the science motivation, the under-lying calculations, and the structure of the web site.

  14. Evaluation of the impact of various agricultural practices on nitrate leaching under the root zone of potato and sugar beet using the STICS soil-crop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, G; Martínez, M; Antigüedad, I; Launay, M; Sanchez-Pérez, J M; Justes, E

    2008-05-15

    The quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Northern Spain) is characterised by a shallow water table mainly fed by drainage water, and thus constitutes a vulnerable zone in regards to nitrate pollution. Field studies were performed with a potato crop in 1993 and a sugar beet crop in 2002 to evaluate their impact on nitrate leaching. The overall predictive quality of the STICS soil-crop model was first evaluated using field data and then the model was used to analyze dynamically the impacts of different crop management practices on nitrate leaching. The model was evaluated (i) on soil nitrate concentrations at different depths and (ii) on crop yields. The simulated values proved to be in satisfactory agreement with measured values. Nitrate leaching was more pronounced with the potato crop than with the sugar beet experiment due to i) greater precipitation, ii) lower N uptake of the potato crop due to shallow root depth, and iii) a shorter period of growth. The potato experiment showed that excessive irrigation could significantly increase nitrate leaching by increasing both drainage and nitrate concentrations. The different levels of N-fertilization examined in the sugar beet study had no notable effects on nitrate leaching due to its high N uptake capacity. Complementary virtual experiments were carried out using the STICS model. Our study confirmed that in vulnerable zones agricultural practices must be adjusted, that is to say: 1) N-fertilizer should not be applied in autumn before winter crops; 2) crops with low N uptake capacity (e.g. potatoes) should be avoided or should be preceded and followed by nitrogen catch crops or cover crops; 3) the nitrate concentration of irrigation water should be taken into account in calculation of the N-fertilization rate, and 4) N-fertilization must be precisely adjusted in particular for potato crops.

  15. Hydraulic structure of a fault zone at seismogenic depths (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Mittempergher, Silvia; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Garofalo, Paolo; Vho, Alice

    2016-04-01

    The Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps) was exhumed from c. 8 km depth, where it was characterized by seismic activity (pseudotachylytes), but also by hydrous fluid flow (alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and cataclasites). Thanks to glacier-polished outcrops exposing the fault zone over a continuous area > 1 km2, the fault zone architecture has been quantitatively described with an unprecedented detail (Bistacchi 2011, PAGEOPH; Smith 2013, JSG; Mittempergher 2016, this meeting), providing a rich dataset to generate 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models and simulate the fault zone hydraulic properties. Based on field and microstructural evidence, we infer that the opening and closing of fractures resulted in a toggle-switch mechanism for fluid flow during the seismic cycle: higher permeability was obtained in the syn- to early post-seismic period, when the largest number of fractures was (re)opened by off-fault deformation, then permeability dropped due to hydrothermal mineral precipitation and fracture sealing. Since the fracture network that we observe now in the field is the result of the cumulative deformation history of the fault zone, which probably includes thousands of earthquakes, a fundamental parameter that cannot be directly evaluated in the field is the fraction of fractures-faults that were open immediately after a single earthquake. Postseismic permeability has been evaluated in a few cases in the world thanks to seismological evidences of fluid migration along active fault systems. Therefore, we were able to develop a parametric hydraulic model of the GLFZ and calibrate it, varying the fraction of faults/fractures that were open in the postseismic period, to obtain on one side realistic fluid flow and permeability values, and on the other side a flow pattern consistent with the observed alteration/mineralization pattern. The fraction of open fractures is very close to the percolation threshold

  16. Alteration of the exDNA profile in blood serum of LLC-bearing mice under the decrease of tumour invasion potential by bovine pancreatic DNase I treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Evgenyi V.; Kurilshikov, Alexander M.; Patutina, Olga A.; Zenkova, Marina A.

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account recently obtained data indicating the participation of circulating extracellular DNA (exDNA) in tumorigenesis, enzymes with deoxyribonucleic activity have again been considered as potential antitumour and antimetastatic drugs. Previously, using murine Lewis lung carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma A1 tumour models, we have shown the antimetastatic activity of bovine DNase I, which correlates with an increase of DNase activity and a decrease of exDNA concentration in the blood serum of tumour-bearing mice. In this work, using next-generation sequencing on the ABS SOLiD™ 5.500 platform, we performed a search for molecular targets of DNase I by comparing the exDNA profiles of healthy animals, untreated animals with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and those with LLC treated with DNase I. We found that upon DNase I treatment of LLC-bearing mice, together with inhibition of metastasis, a number of strong alterations in the patterns of exDNA were observed. The major differences in exDNA profiles between groups were: i) the level of GC-poor sequences increased during tumour development was reduced to that of healthy mice; ii) levels of sequences corresponding to tumour-associated genes Hmga2, Myc and Jun were reduced in the DNase I-treated group in comparison with non-treated mice; iii) 224 types of tandem repeat over-presented in untreated LLC-bearing mice were significantly reduced after DNase I treatment. The most important result obtained in the work is that DNase I decreased the level of B-subfamily repeats having homology to human ALU repeats, known as markers of carcinogenesis, to the level of healthy animals. Thus, the obtained data lead us to suppose that circulating exDNA plays a role in tumour dissemination, and alteration of multiple molecular targets in the bloodstream by DNase I reduces the invasive potential of tumours. PMID:28222152

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi altered the hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin content in flowers of Hypericum perforatum grown under contrasting P availability in a highly organic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Silvia; Militello, Marcello; Carrubba, Alessandra; Napoli, Edoardo; Saia, Sergio

    2016-12-20

    St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a perennial herb able to produce water-soluble active ingredients (a.i.), mostly in flowers, with a wide range of medicinal and biotechnological uses. However, information about the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to affect its biomass accumulation, flower production, and concentration of a.i. under contrasting nutrient availability is still scarce. In the present experiment, we evaluated the role of AMF on growth, flower production, and concentration of bioactive secondary metabolites (hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin) of H. perforatum under contrasting P availability. AMF stimulated the production of aboveground biomass under low P conditions and increased the production of root biomass. AMF almost halved the number of flowers per plant by means of a reduction of the number of flower-bearing stems per plant under high P availability and through a lower number of flowers per stem in the low-P treatment. Flower hyperforin concentration was 17.5% lower in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. On the contrary, pseudohypericin and hypericin concentrations increased by 166.8 and 279.2%, respectively, with AMF under low P availability, whereas no effect of AMF was found under high P availability. These results have implications for modulating the secondary metabolite production of H. perforatum. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the competition for photosynthates between AMF and flowers at different nutrient availabilities for both plant and AM fungus.

  18. Effect of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazon on the glutamate release from rat brain nerve terminals under altered gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.

    L-glutamate acts within the mammalian central nervous system as the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter and as a potent neurotoxin The balance between these physiological and pathological actions of glutamate is thought to be kept in check by the rapid removal of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft The majority of uptake is mediated by the high-affinity Na -dependent glutamate transporters Depolarization leads to stimulation of glutamate efflux mediated by reversal of the high-affinity glutamate transporters The effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazon FCCP on the glutamate release from isolated nerve terminals rat brain synaptosomes were investigated in control and after centrifuge-induced hypergravity rats were rotated in a long-arm centrifuge at ten-G during one-hour period The treatment of synaptosomes with 1 mu M FCCP during 11 min resulted in the increase in L- 14 C glutamate release by 23 0 pm 2 3 of total accumulated synaptosomal label in control animals and 24 0 pm 2 3 animals subjected to hypergravity FCCP evoked release of L- 14 C glutamate from synaptosomes was not altered in animals exposed to hypergravity as compared to control Glutamate transport is of electrogenic nature and thus depends on the membrane potential The high-KCl stimulated L- 14 C glutamate release in Ca 2 -free media occurred due to reversal of the glutamate transporters Carrier --mediated release of L- 14 C glutamate 6 min slightly increased as a result of

  19. Experience in alteration and claim under BOT project management mode%BOT项目管理模式下的变更索赔工作体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松平

    2012-01-01

    结合自身工作经历,探讨了如何搞好BOT项目管理模式下的索赔工作,分别介绍了BOT项目管理模式下的合同条件和索赔证据的要求及内容,并举例论述了可能引起索赔的各种情况,提出了处理索赔的工作重点,以期指导实践。%Combining with self working experience,this paper explores how to operate claims under BOT project management mode,respectively introduces contract terms and requirements and content of claim evidence under BOT project management mode,and discusses various conditions possibly causing claim,and finally proposes claim treatment points,so as to guide practice.

  20. Alteration of Mancos Shale by synthetic hydrofracturing fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruichak, J. N.; Ilgen, A.; Wang, Y.; Griego, J.; Rodriguez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shale gas produced through hydrofracturing has changed the energy perspective in the United States. Shale gas extraction is complicated by the fast decline in wellbore production, to mitigate which re-stimulation and drilling new wells are required. Our goal is to conduct laboratory experiments that examine methane transport from low-permeability matrices to fracture networks induced by hydraulic fracturing. In particular, we address whether mineralogical alteration of shale by hydrofracturing fluids has an effect on matrix-to-fracture methane transport. We performed a set of laboratory experiments addressing the alteration of Mancos shale by synthetic hydrofracturing fluid at hydrothermal conditions (90 °C). Both powdered shale and shale chips were investigated. Solid characterization was done using bulk and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD, μXRD), and micro-X-ray Fluorescence mapping (µXRF). Analysis of the aqueous samples was done using ion chromatography (IC) for major anions and cations and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) - for trace metals. Our results indicate that calcium, barium, strontium , magnesium, manganese, silica, sodium, chloride and sulfate were released from Mancos shale after reaction with hydrofracturing fluid. Altered zones on shale surface after 2 months of reaction are thin - likely, within a few microns. The XRD patterns normalized to the 100% peak for quartz indicate that the dolomite, calcite, biotite, and kaolinite peaks decrease in intensity relative to the quartz peaks with increased alteration time, indicative of the partial dissolution of these minerals. Understanding mineralogical composition of an altered layer of Mancos shale will provide insight whether methane transport through these zones will be affected compared to the unaltered material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the

  1. [Effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test under conditions of altered photoperiod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopova, I Iu; Zamorskiĭ, I I

    2011-03-01

    The effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei (the nucleus caudatus, globus pallidus. nucleus accumbens. amygdaloid complex) of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test has been studied under conditions of altered photoperiod. It has been shown that constant darkness levels the effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of lipid peroxidation, preserves the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase at a higher level, lowers the activity of glutathione peroxidase. Under light, the sensitivity of basal nuclei neurons to acute hypoxia is enhanced, the latter being reflected in intensification of lipid peroxidation at the expense of increased formation of dien conjugates. The activity of catalase at that considerably exceeds the level of even intact rats in all the structures. It has been established that an altered photoperiod modulates the effect of acute hypoxia on the parameters of rat's activity in the open field, the character of their change depending on the nature of a photophase change.

  2. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  3. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ľ Ambriško; L Pešek

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with an experimental determination of the stretch zone dimensions in the notch tip in thin steel sheets. The stretch zone dimensions depend on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones were observed and measured on three steel grades. Fracture area and stretch zones were analysed by SEM. Stable crack growth was monitored by videoextensometry techniques on CT (Compact Tension) specimens. Specimens were loaded under two loading rates by eccentric tension, whereby the deformation in the notch surrounding area was recorded using a non-contact measurement–videoextensometry technique. Linear relation between the stretch zone dimensions was determined.

  4. Clinical crown lengthening in the esthetic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Paulo M; Melnick, Philip R; Camargo, Luciano M

    2007-07-01

    Periodontal surgical procedures consisting of gingival flaps and osseous recontouring are indicated for crown lengthening of several contiguous teeth in the esthetic zone; both in cases where restorations are required and in cases where no restorations are planned, such as in patients with excessive gingival display due to altered passive eruption. Forced tooth eruption via orthodontic extrusion is the technique of choice when clinical crown lengthening is necessary on isolated teeth in the esthetic zone.

  5. 23 CFR 750.708 - Acceptance of state zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance of state zoning. 750.708 Section 750.708... BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.708 Acceptance of state zoning. (a) 23 U.S.C. 131(d) provide...) further provides, “The States shall have full authority under their own zoning laws to zone areas...

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-H-6:2, 105-H Reactor Ancillary Support Areas, Below-Grade Structures, and Underlying Soils; the 118-H-6:3, 105-H Reactor Fuel Storage Basin and Underlying Soils; The 118-H-6:3 Fuel Storage Basin Deep Zone Side Slope Soils; the 100-H-9, 100-H-10, and 100-H-13 French Drains; the 100-H-11 and 100-H-12 Expansion Box French Drains; and the 100-H-14 and 100-H-31 Surface Contamination Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-06-29

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of removal actions for the 105-H Reactor Ancillary Support Areas, Below-Grade Structures, and Underlying Soils (subsite 118-H-6:2); 105-H Reactor Fuel Storage Basin and Underlying Soils (118-H-6:3); and Fuel Storage Basin Deep Zone Side Slope Soils. This CVP also documents remedial actions for the following seven additional waste sties: French Drain C (100-H-9), French Drain D (100-H-10), Expansion Box French Drain E (100-H-11), Expansion Box French Drain F (100-H-12), French Drain G (100-H-13), Surface Contamination Zone H (100-H-14), and the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Surface Contamination Zone (100-H-31).

  7. State of microbial communities in paleosols buried under kurgans of the desert-steppe zone in the Middle Bronze Age (27th–26th centuries BC) in relation to the dynamics of climate humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Borisov, A. V.; Shishlina, I. I.

    2017-02-01

    The size and structure of microbial pool in light chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetz buried under kurgans of the Middle Bronze Age 4600-4500 years ago (the burial mound heights are 45-173 cm), as well as in recent analogues in the desert-steppe zone (Western Ergeni, Salo-Manych Ridge), have been studied. In paleosol profiles, the living microbial biomass estimated from the content of phospholipids varies from 35 to 258% of the present-day value; the active biomass (responsive to glucose addition) in paleosols is 1‒3 orders of magnitude lower than in recent analogues. The content of soil phospholipids is recalculated to that of microbial carbon, and its share in the total soil organic carbon is determined: it is 4.5-7.0% in recent soils and up to three times higher in the remained organic carbon of paleosols. The stability of microbial communities in the B1 horizon of paleosols is 1.3-2.2 times higher than in the upper horizon; in recent soils, it has a tendency to a decrease. The share of microorganisms feeding on plant residues in the ecological-trophic structure of paleosol microbial communities is higher by 23-35% and their index of oligotrophy is 3-5 times lower than in recent analogues. The size of microbial pool and its structure indicate a significantly higher input of plant residues into soils 4600-4500 years ago than in the recent time, which is related to the increase in atmospheric humidity in the studied zone. However, the occurrence depths of salt accumulations in profiles of the studied soils contradict this supposition. A short-term trend of increase in climate humidity is supposed, as indicated by microbial parameters (the most sensitive soil characteristics) or changes in the annual variation of precipitation (its increase in the warm season) during the construction of the mounds under study.

  8. Changes in non Protein Thiols, some Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Ultrastructural Alteration in Radish Plant (Raphanus sativus L. Grown under Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty days old radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. were exposed to different regimes of lead stress as Pb(NO32 at the following concentrations 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 250 and 500 ppm. The possible generation of oxidative stress, antioxidant metabolism and changes in the chloroplast and cell membrane ultrastructure were investigated. Greater loss of the photosynthetic pigments (Chl. a, Chl. b and total carotenoids were observed especially under 500 ppm lead (Pb. The accumulation of lead in roots and leaves of plant were measured and the results showed that lead accumulation increased with increasing of the metal treatment concentration. An increasing trend was observed in levels of ascorbate and decreasing trend in glutathione. Also, the antioxidant enzymes, viz., guaiacol peroxidase (GPX ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST showed significant variation with the increase in lead stress compared to control (untreated plants. The rapid inducibility of some of these enzymes is useful early and sensitive indicators of heavy metal toxicity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed an increase in the isoenzymes profile of CAT in both leaves and roots. While POD isoenzymes bands prominently increased in leaves and slightly decreased in roots at the higher Pb concentration in the growth media. The ultrastructural studies at selected concentrations; 100 and 500 ppm of Pb showed distortion of the structure and cell membranes in roots. Therefore, the changes in the levels of some antioxidants may play an important role against oxidative injury.

  9. 内蒙古迪彦钦阿木钼矿区热液矿化蚀变分带建模-基于Surpac软件%A Model for Alteration Zoning of Hydrothermal Mineralization Based on Surpae Software for the Diyanqinamu Mo Mine District, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎浩; 黄费新; 孙赫; 赵立群; 张勇; 张昊; 李帅值; 刘方芳; 王嘉上

    2012-01-01

    . Then we set up the altm~d orebody block model,amt delineated rock aheration zones that characterize porphyry de- posits. The alteration zonation in the Diyanqinamu area indicates that the centre of the porphyry mineralization lies in the southeast and southwest of the mine field. It is inferred that the porphyry intrusions could be found beneath the centre of the porphyry internalization. The results in the Diyanqinamu area show that the Gemcom Surpac three-dimensional modeling software can effectively determine the hydrothermal alteration zones and establish mineralization models,interpz~t and locate the indicators directing to the centre of the porphyry mineralization-aheration, and estimate the mineralization center. This study may provide direct evidence for verifying deposit type and has guidance significance to the further exploration.

  10. Age-related alterations of brain network underlying the retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories: An fMRI study using independent component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyang eGe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging has been shown to modulate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and emotion processing. Moreover, previous researches have suggested that aging produces a positivity effect in autobiographical memory. Although a few imaging studies have investigated the neural mechanism of the positivity effect, the neural substrates underlying the positivity effect in emotional autobiographical memory is unclear. To understand the age-related neural changes in emotional autobiographical memory that underlie the positivity effect, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study used the independent component analysis (ICA method to compare brain networks in younger and older adults as they retrieved positive and negative autobiographical events. Compared to their younger counterparts, older adults reported relatively higher positive feelings when retrieving emotional autobiographical events. Imaging data indicated an age-related reversal within the ventromedial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (VMPFC/ACC and the left amygdala of the brain networks that were engaged in the retrieval of autobiographical events with different valence. The retrieval of negative events compared to positive events induced stronger activity in the VMPFC/ACC and weaker activity in the amygdala for the older adults, whereas the younger adults showed a reversed pattern. Moreover, activity in the VMPFC/ACC within the task-related networks showed a negative correlation with the emotional valence intensity. These results may suggest that the positivity effect in older adults’ autobiographical memories is potentially due to age-related changes in controlled emotional processing implemented by the VMPFC/ACC-amygdala circuit.

  11. Study of Pudong New Area Development Under the Background of Free Trade Zone Industry Spillover Effect%自贸区产业外溢背景下的上海浦东新区空间对接研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波

    2014-01-01

    2013年8月,国务院正式批准设立中国(上海)自由贸易试验区。试点一年来,自贸区在产业和政策上的溢出效应逐渐显现,一些服务贸易企业在区内注册后,在区外运营,临近的浙江、江苏等地采取积极举措,着力进行产业对接。浦东新区作为自贸试验区的区域隶属地,是自贸试验区的第一辐射区,如何打造产业外溢承接载体,对接自贸试验区,促进自贸区内外联动,成为浦东新区下一步发展的重要课题。在分析自贸试验区产业外溢现状和外溢机理的基础上,借鉴阿联酋迪拜、韩国仁川等自贸区产业外溢经验,根据浦东新区生产力格局,探讨浦东新区各片区对接自贸试验区的对策和重点。%The Central Government official y approved the establishment of China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone in August, 2013. The spil over effect of FTA in industry and the policy has started to show gradual y in the past year. Some service trade enterprises registered in the zone and operated outside the zone. Neighboring provinces such as Zhejiang and Jiangsu took positive measures to focus on industrial docking. Pudong New Area ,where Shanghai FTZ located, is the first radiation area. How to build the industry spillover carrier, dock with the Shanghai FTZ and promote the FTA internal and external linkage, become an important subject in the Pudong New Area’s future development. Based on the analysis of Shanghai FTZ’s spillover mechanism and status quo as well as the comparing of international cases such as the United Arab Emirates Dubai FTA and Inchon Korea FTA, this paper puts forward two types of spil over spatial patterns-peripheral-type and leap-type. Then it explores Pudong New Area’s load space under FTZ spil over effect according to its productivity pattern.

  12. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Munirathnam; D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; J V Rao; T L Prakash

    2005-06-01

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) show that majority of the impurities are less than the detection limits. Comparatively, zinc is the most difficult impurity element to remove in cadmium matrix by zone refining.

  13. Field test of moisture migration in vadose zone under heterogeneity%非均质条件下河流包气带水分运移的原位试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永涛; 王文科; 肖建英; 杨晓婷

    2012-01-01

    围绕非均质条件下河流包气带水分运移,选择渭河河漫滩开展原位试验.在渭河原位试验点开挖7m×1 m×2.8m的探坑,以一侧剖面为研究面,刨光成垂直平面并对剖面做保护工作,方便观测.在不同层位按不同深度、在不同岩性的层位上打孔,分别安装MP-917时域反射仪与水银压力计,监测含水率及地下水压力势,并采用自制Bauwer渗水仪做持续5d的有压入渗试验,研究非均质条件下河流包气带水分运移规律及人渗速度与水头高度的关系.结果表明,包气带介质含水率分布与包气带结构有关,受岩性渗透系数制约,其中弱透水层的存在阻滞了水分的运移,包气带很难达到饱和,在弱透水层以上形成上层滞水并以非饱和流形式人渗.入渗速度随水层的厚度增大而增大,且入渗速度与水头高度呈对数关系.%The paper is engaged in a field test of moisture migration in vadose zone under the heterogeneous condition in the Weihe(Shaanx-i) flood-plain. The reason why we have chosen the topic is that the evolution of a river may exert serious consequential effects on the groundwater change, the water quality and even the ecological environment along the entire river reach. It is for such purposes, we have dug up some measuring pits as large as 7 m × 1 m×2.8m and taken them as our study profile. For the convenience of observation, we have installed a MP - 917 Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and a mercury manometer to observe the potential pressure and the moisture content in correspondence with the different properties of lithology and depth respectively. And, then, we have done a five-day infiltration test by using our own-made Bauwer Ooze water meter. Though it is difficult to understand the infiltration mechanism for its complexity with the unsaturated zone being heterogeneous with compacted sandwich structure, the field test is comparatively simple about the moisture migration in vadose zone

  14. Integrated ERT and Magnetic Surveys in a Mineralization Zone in Erkowit - Red Sea State - Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Kheiralla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focus on integrated geophysical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT imagesdefinelow resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. The study designates that correlation of magnetic and ERT anomalies with lithology are extremely useful in mineral exploration due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks.

  15. 地下滴灌条件下三倍体毛白杨根区土壤水分动态模拟%Simulation of soil water dynamics in triploid Populus tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席本野; 贾黎明; 王烨; 李广德

    2011-01-01

    Based on the observed data of triploid Populus tomentosa root distribution, a one-dimensional root water uptake model was proposed.Taking the root water uptake into account, the soil water dynamics in triploid P.tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation was simulated by using HYDRUS model, and the results were validated with field experiment.Besides, the HYDRUS model was used to study the effects of various irrigation technique parameters on soil wetting patterns.The RMAE for the simulated soil water content by the end of irrigation and approximately 24 h later was 7.8% and 6.0%, and the RMSE was 0.036 and 0.026 cm3·cm-3, respectively, illustrating that the HYDRUS model performed well in simulating the short-term soil water dynamics in triploid P.tomentosa root zone under drip irrigation, and the root water uptake model was reasonable.Comparing with 2 and 4 L·h-1 of drip discharge and continuous irrigation, both the 1 L · h-1 of drip discharge and the pulsed irrigation with water applied intermittently in 30 min periods could increase the volume of wetted soil and reduce deep percolation.It was concluded that the combination of 1 L · h-1 of drip discharge and pulsed irrigation should be the first choice when applying drip irrigation to triploid P.tomentosa root zone at the experiment site.%在根系分布试验观测的基础上,提出了三倍体毛白杨一维根系吸水模型,在考虑根系吸水情况下利用HYDRUS模型模拟了地下滴灌条件下三倍体毛白杨根区的土壤水分动态,通过田间试验对模型进行验证,并利用HYDRUS研究了不同灌水技术参数对土壤湿润模式的影响.结果表明:在灌溉结束和水分再分布24 h后,土壤含水量模拟结果的相对平均绝对误差(RMAE)分别为7.8%和6.0%,均方根误差(RMSE)分别为0.036和0.026 cm3·cm-3,说明HYDRUS模型能很好地模拟地下滴灌条件下三倍体毛白杨根区的短期土壤水分动态,且所

  16. 干旱胁迫下木薯叶片和离层内源乙烯含量变化%Changes of Endogenous Ethylene in Cassava Leaves and Abscission Zone under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淦; 刘恩世; 于晓玲; 廖文彬; 彭明

    2012-01-01

    利用木薯光系统II(PSII)最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)量化木薯受到干旱胁迫的程度.并测量木薯叶片与离层的内源乙烯在不同程度干旱胁迫下的量.以探讨内源乙烯的产生、Fv/Fm胁的下降速度与木薯抗旱性之间的关系。结果表明,抗旱性越强的品种,Fv/Fm下降速度越慢,内源乙烯上升的时间也越靠后。%To quantify the level of cassava drought stress, cassava Photosystem II (PSII) maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) has been used in this study. At the same time, we measured the content changes of endogenous ethylene in cassava leaves and abscission zones under varying drought stress. We aim to determine by analyzing the present experiment results, the relationships between drought resistance of cassava, the production of endogenous ethylene, and the rate of decline in Fv/Fm value. Our results showed that cassava varieties with later ethylene emission and slowly decreasing Fv/Fm are more tolerant to drought.

  17. Plumes in stellar convection zones

    CERN Document Server

    Zahn, J P

    1999-01-01

    All numerical simulations of compressible convection reveal the presence of strong downwards directed flows. Thanks to helioseismology, such plumes have now been detected also at the top of the solar convection zone, on super- granular scales. Their properties may be crudely described by adopting Taylor's turbulent entrainment hypothesis, whose validity is well established under various conditions. Using this model, one finds that the strong density stratification does not prevent the plumes from traversing the whole convection zone, and that they carry upwards a net energy flux (Rieutord & Zahn 1995). They penetrate to some extent in the adjacent stable region, where they establish a nearly adiabatic stratification. These plumes have a strong impact on the dynamics of stellar convection zones, and they play probably a key role in the dynamo mechanism.

  18. Gold mobility during Palaeoarchaean submarine alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Axel; Pitcairn, Iain; Wilson, Allan

    2017-03-01

    Seafloor alteration provides large amounts of solutes to the hydrosphere. In order to investigate gold mobility during water-rock interaction prior to 3-billion-years ago, low detection limit analysis of Au concentrations was carried out on rocks from marine alteration zones. Stratiform zones recording low-temperature (≤150 °C) seafloor alteration are a characteristic feature of greenstone belts older than 3.0 Ga. Hydrothermal processes were operating on, and immediately below, the seafloor, giving rise to extensive silicification of sub-seafloor volcanic rocks and silicification of seafloor sediments. In order to investigate gold mobility during silicification, unaltered and variably silicified volcanic rocks and associated cherts from Palaeoarchaean greenstone successions (c. 3.4 Ga) of South Africa were analyzed. Results show mobility of gold during silicification of mafic/ultramafic rocks and transfer to the Archaean ocean. Some gold was incorporated into carbonaceous marine sediments overlying the alteration zones. A combination of pervasive silicification, rarity of black shales, and low gold content in komatiites can explain the low mineralization potential of Palaeoarchaean greenstone belts for orogenic gold deposits.

  19. Changes in composition and pore space of sand rocks in the oil water contact zone (section YU1 3-4, Klyuchevskaya area, Tomsk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolivko, N.; Perevertailo, T.; Pavlovec, T.

    2016-09-01

    The article provides an analysis of specific features in changes of rocks in the oil water contact zone. The object of study is the formation YU1 3-4 (J3o1) of Klyuchevskaya oil deposit (West Siberian oil-gas province, Tomsk region). The research data allow the authors to determine vertical zoning of the surface structure and identify the following zones: oil saturation (weak alteration), bitumen-content dissolution, non-bitumen-content dissolution, cementation, including rocks not affected by hydrocarbon deposit. The rocks under investigation are characterized by different changes in composition, pore space, as well as reservoir filtration and volumetric parameters. Detection of irregularity in distribution of void- pore space in oil-water contact zones is of great practical importance. It helps to avoid the errors in differential pressure drawdown and explain the origin of low-resistivity collectors.

  20. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  1. 76 FR 31853 - Safety Zone; Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... it under that Order. The Coast Guard bases this finding on the fact that the safety zone is small in size, short in duration, and maritime traffic will be able to safely transit the area outside of this safety zone. Maritime traffic may also request permission to transit through the zone from the Captain...

  2. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone...

  3. Effects of glacial/post-glacial weathering compared with hydrothermal alteration - implications for matrix diffusion. Results from drillcore studies in porphyritic quartz monzodiorite from Aespoe SE Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, Ove [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Eriksson, Gunda; Sandell, Yvonne [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    in slight dissolution of these minerals. Quartz and K-feldspar have remained almost unaltered. Besides the thin weathered surface rim, slight alteration of plagioclase and increase in porosity is indicated in the 2-3 cm zone below the surface. Decrease of U and Cs concentrations in this zone is then interpreted as being due to leaching/diffusion processes, confined to the Weichselian glaciation (< 100 ka). The 234U/238U is close to unity indicating bulk leaching of U under oxic conditions. The deposition of U in Ya 1192 and leaching of U from BAS 1 are coeval to quaternary glacial, interstadial and interglacial periods during which the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions changed significantly. A main question in performance assessment is whether oxygenated glacial meltwater can penetrate to repository depth (500 m) and modify the redox conditions. The bedrock surface at BAS 1 has certainly been in contact with glacial meltwater as well as meteoric water, resulting in oxidation/ alteration of pyrite, oxidation/mobilisation of U, and probably also desorption/ mobilisation of Cs. In contrast, no signs of oxygenated glacial meltwater influence were found in the YA 1192 core (170 m depth). In fact, the absence of Fe oxyhydroxide but presence of fresh pyrite in the fracture filling and the altered zone at YA 1192 as well as deposition of U are contradictory to interactions with oxidising glacial meltwater from the late glaciations.

  4. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  5. 气候变化背景下我国陆地生态系统固碳增汇分区研究%Study on Carbon Sequestration Increase Zoning of China Terrestrial Ecosystem under Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福军; 郭英; 李倩

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to provide theoretical basis for the ecological system in China to adapt to global climate change as much as possible.[ Method] The response of vegetation NDVI to climate change was applied to study on carbon sequestration increase zoning of Chi-na terrestrial ecosystem.[ Result] The terrestrial ecosystem in China was divided into three regions: Ⅰ warm and humid climate driven type region, including most areas of China, as North China, South China and the northwest of China,Ⅱ warm and dry climate driven type region, mainly distributed in Daxing’an and Xiaoxing’an Mountains, Changbai Mountain in the subarctic region of Northeast China, high altitude are-as, as Qinghai Tibet Plateau alpine region, Tianshan Mountains, Qilian Mountains and Hengduan Mountains,Ⅲcold and humid climate driv-en region, mainly distributed in the eastern part and the northern desert region of Inner Mongolia , the main produce areas of rice in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the tropical semi humid regions of Linzhi, Tibet.[Conclusion] Carbon sequestration increase zoning of China terrestrial ecosystem under climate change with county administrative boundaries as the basic unit can provide reference for regional difference management of ecosystem.%[目的]使我国生态系统尽可能地适应全球性的气候变化。[方法]对陆地植被固碳增汇的区域差异管理进行分区,运用归一化植被指数( NDVI)对气候变化的响应关系,对我国陆地生态系统固碳增汇分区进行研究。[结果]将我国陆地生态系统划分为3个主动适应气候变化固碳增汇区域。Ⅰ气候暖湿化驱动型区,包括华北、华南及西北等大部分区域;Ⅱ气候暖干化驱动型区,主要分布于东北大小兴安岭、长白山等亚寒带地区、青藏高原高寒区域大部、天山、祁连山及横断山脉等高海拔地区;Ⅲ气候冷湿化驱动型区,主要分布于内蒙古东部及北部

  6. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  7. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  8. Tráfego de máquinas agrícolas e alterações de bioporos em área sob pomar de laranja Agricultural machinery traffic and alterations in biopores under an orange orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdjania Veras de Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo micromorfológico permite observar detalhadamente todas as modificações causadas na estrutura e no espaço poroso do solo, impostas pelo cultivo e pelo tráfego de máquinas agrícolas. Este trabalho testou a hipótese de que a compactação causada pelo tráfego de máquinas influi, diferencialmente, na forma e na distribuição das classes de poros, os quais podem ser utilizados como indicadores da qualidade do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e quantificar, por meio de estudos micromorfológicos, as modificações na porosidade oriunda da atividade biológica (bioporos em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo sob pomar de laranja submetido ao tráfego de máquinas. Amostras indeformadas foram coletadas na superfície (0-12 cm de uma área sob pomar de laranja, abrangendo as posições: entrerodado (ER, rodado (R e projeção da copa (PC, utilizado, como testemunha, um perfil sob mata. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento na diversidade de poros está diretamente relacionado com os processos de degradação da estrutura do solo e que o estudo da ocorrência das classes de poros mostrou-se mais eficiente na identificação da compactação do solo em estádios iniciais que os dados de densidade do solo.Soil micromorphological studies enable a detailed observation of the modifications in soil pore structure and space imposed by cultivation and agricultural machinery traffic. This study tested the hypothesis that compaction caused by machinery affects the form and class distribution of pores in a distinct way and that such alterations can be used as soil quality indicators. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and quantify, through micromorphological studies, the modifications in porosity caused by biological activity (biopores in a Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol under an orange orchard subjected to machinery traffic. Undisturbed samples were collected from the surface soil layer (0-12 cm in the following positions: in

  9. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  10. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  11. 北京典型地区灌溉条件下包气带水分运移特征研究%Research on the Characteristics of Water Movement under Irrigation Condition in Vadose Zone in the Typical Area of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖超; 邢国章; 刘凯; 谢振华

    2015-01-01

    以张家湾包气带水盐运移试验场灌溉试验资料为依据,运用土壤水分能量观点,分析了灌溉条件下包气带水分运移特征。试验结果表明,在一定灌溉量下包气带水分运移具有明显的分带特征以及灌溉水明显运移到达的深度;在一定灌溉量条件下,灌溉后地下水位上升微小,灌溉补给地下水量较小,并通过非饱和水流达西定律计算了向下入渗补给量。%Base on the irrigation experiment of moisture and salt content migration of the vadose zones in-situ in the Zhangjiawan area, the paper analyzes the migration characteristics of moisture movement of unsaturated zones from the view of moisture energy. It shows that moisture migration of vadose zones can be roughly divided into three zones and the process of groundwater recharge under irrigation, the deep of the moisture migration. The ground water level rises very low under the condition of irrigation and the irrigation recharge quantity was very little, which was calculated by unsaturated lfow Darcy's law.

  12. Altered mental status and endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elizabeth; Abraham, Michael K

    2014-05-01

    Although the altered mental status is a common presentation in the emergency department, altered mental status caused by endocrine emergencies is rare. The altered patient could have an endocrine cause that can quickly improve with appropriate diagnosis and interventions. When dealing with limited information and an obtunded patient, it is important to have a broad differential diagnosis, pick up on the physical examination findings, and evaluate laboratory abnormalities that could suggest an underlying endocrine emergency. This article outlines the findings and provides a description of altered patients with endocrine emergencies to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department.

  13. Thermal comfort zone study based on equivalent temperature under task air conditioning system%基于等效温度的工位空调环境下热舒适区研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雨婷; 端木琳; 金权

    2016-01-01

    针对工位送风空调形式营造的非均匀热环境,利用等效温度指标对人体的局部和整体热感觉进行了评价。在准办公室环境对受试者进行了人体热反应实验,得到了不同刺激工况下人体各部位的热感觉和等效温度值,对比分析后发现:刺激部位等效温度值与非刺激部位等效温度值出现明显的分离现象;刺激温度和风速是影响刺激部位等效温度值的重要因素。由热感觉投票值与等效温度值的散点图发现,二者有很好的线性关系,通过拟合得到了适用于工位送风非均匀环境的等效温度舒适区范围。%Evaluates the local and overall thermal sensation using equivalent temperature index in the non-uniform thermal environment of task air conditioning system.Conducts the human thermal test in a mockup office, and obtains the data of local sensation and equivalent temperatures under different stimulating conditions.The results show that there is an obvious separation phenomenon between the equivalent temperature of stimulating site and that of non stimulating sites.The air temperature and velocity are the important factors to affect the equivalent temperature of the stimulating site.From the scatter plot, finds a good linear relationship between human thermal sensation vote and equivalent temperature.Obtains the equivalent temperature comfort zone for the non-uniform thermal environment with task air conditioning through the fitting method.

  14. 固定费率下城市出租车拥挤收费模型与算法%Modeling and algorithm of taxicabs' payment for congestion charges in road pricing zone under toll given

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝进城; 帅斌; 孙朝苑; 丁冬

    2013-01-01

    针对出租车自身的特殊性,研究了实施拥挤收费政策过程中出租车是否也应进行拥挤收费.在收费费率已知条件下,采用组合网络均衡模型描述了出租车拥挤收费前后对出行产生、模式划分、流量分配以及出行分布的影响,构建了与之等价的最优化模型,设计了求解模型的启发式算法,比较了对出租车征收拥挤费前后的社会福利变化.算例表明,收费前的社会福利总是明显大于收费后的,并且二者之间的差距随着出行者时间价值(VOT)的增加而减小,随着弹性灵敏参数的增加而增大.这一研究有助于为拥挤收费政策制定者提供科学的决策依据.%This paper investigated the problem of whether taxis should be tolled in the pricing zone when designing congestion pricing scheme by considering the taxi' s characteristic.This paper proposed a combined network equilibrium model formulated as an optimal problem that described the Logit mode choice,traffic assignment,elastic demand and vacant taxi distributions under the toll given.And it presented aheuristic algorithm to solve this problem.It compared the social welfares before and after congestion toll was imposed on taxi.It is concluded that the social welfare of exemption taxis from the congestion pricing considerably outweighs that of charging them.Additionally,the gap which is inversely proportional to travelers' value of time increases with demand sensitivity parameter.The conclusion is thus able to provide some useful policy-relevant results for the regulator.

  15. Aluminum speeds up the hydrothermal alteration of olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, Muriel; Daniel, Isabelle; Pollet-Villard, Marion

    2014-05-01

    The reactivity of ultramafic rocks toward hydrothermal fluids controls chemical fluxes at the interface between the internal and external reservoirs of silicate planets. On Earth, hydration of ultramafic rocks is ubiquitous and operates from deep subduction zones to shallow lithospheric environments where it considerably affects the physical and chemical properties of rocks and can interact with the biosphere. This process also has key emerging societal implications, such as the production of hydrogen as a source of carbon-free energy. To date, the chemical model systems used to reproduce olivine hydrothermal alteration lead to the formation of serpentine with sluggish reaction rates. Although aluminum is common in geological environments and in hydrothermal systems in particular, its role in serpentinization or olivine dissolution has not been investigated under hydrothermal conditions. Nevertheless, abundant Al supply is expected in fluids released from dehydration of metapelites in subduction zones as well as during the hydrothermal alteration of gabbros at mid-ocean ridges. Aluminum was also abundant in primitive environments of both the Earth and Mars, stored in either Al-rich minerals like plagioclase or Al-enriched ultramafic lavas. We have investigated the role of Al on the hydrothermal alteration of olivine in a series of experiments performed in a low-pressure diamond anvil cell while following the reaction progress in situ by optical imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Experiments were run for 4.5 to 7.5 days with two olivine grains reacted in saline water (0.5 molal NaCl) at 200°C and 300°C, and P=200 MPa. After two days, olivine crystals were fully transformed to an aluminous serpentine, also enriched in iron. The presence of Al in the hydrothermal fluid increases the rate of olivine serpentinization by more than one order of magnitude by enhancing olivine solubility and serpentine precipitation. The mechanism responsible for this increased solubility

  16. Alterations in muscular enzymes of horses competing long-distance endurance rides under tropical climate Alterações em enzimas musculares de cavalos em competições de enduro de longa distância em clima tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Teixeira-Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to monitor the alterations of muscle enzymes activity - creatinokinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST - in a group of horses that participated of 70 and 100km distance rides in five competitions of an annual endurance championship under tropical climate. Pre ride levels (U/l were 245.13±9.84 for CK, 496.61±14.76 for LDH, and 328.95±8.65 for AST. When compared to these levels, the results revealed a significant decrease in all enzymes activities in the first moment of the rides. Peak levels, significantly different, were reached, immediately after rides by CK (413.591±50.75; 24 hours post rides by LDH (628.61±33.30; and 48 hours after rides by AST (389.89±16.96. Monitoring of recovery period revealed different behavior among enzymes activities with CK values returning to pre ride values (279.61±23.05 24 hours post rides, while LDH and AST values returned to pre ride values (505.25±33.78 and 359.35±24.90, respectively 72 hours post rides. These data revealed different alterations in concentration of muscular enzymes in endurance horses directly related to the duration of the effort.Estudaram-se as alterações de atividade das enzimas musculares creatino quinase (CK, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e aspartato aminotransferase (AST em um grupo de cavalos que utilizados em provas de enduro de 70 e 100km de distância, em cinco competições. Os valores (U/l basais (antes da largada foram 245,13±9,84 para CK, 496,61±14,76 para LDH e 328,95±8,65 para AST. Todas as atividades das enzimas decresceram no primeiro momento das provas (~30km. Valores de pico, significativamente diferentes, foram alcançados para CK (413,59±50,75 imediatamente após 70km de distância; 24 horas após para LDH (628,61±33,30; e 48 horas após as provas para AST (389,89±16,96. A monitoração do período de recuperação revelou diferente comportamento entre as concentrações enzimáticas com CK retornando aos

  17. Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Weir

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ is developed, to a depth of 25 km, formed from three constant density layers. The upper layer is formed from eruption products. A constant rate of eruption is assumed, which eventually implies a constant rate of extension, and a constant rate of volumetric creation in the middle and bottom layers. Tectonic extension creates volume which can accomodate magmatic intrusions. Spreading models assume this volume is distributed throughout the whole region, perhaps in vertical dykes, whereas rifting models assume the upper crust is thinned and the volume created lies under this upper crust. Bounds on the heat flow from such magmatic intrusions are calculated. Heat flow calculations are performed and some examples are provided which match the present total heat output from the TVZ of about 4200 MW, but these either have extension rates greater than the low values of about 8 ± 4 mm/a being reported from GPS measurements, or else consider extension rates in the TVZ to have varied over time.

  18. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  19. Analysis of Ecological Characteristics of Coastal Zone in Yellow River Delta under Dam Disturbance%人工堤坝影响下的黄河三角洲海岸带生态特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅新; 刘高焕; 黄翀; 刘庆生

    2011-01-01

    In the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta, artificial dams, which were built as a protection against the sea, have important influence on the natural vegetation landscape and the gradient changes of soil properties. In this paper,we aim to research the influence of artificial dams on ecological characteristics of the study area with the support of remote sensing and GIS technology. First, we designed the field investigation program, then extracted coastline and artificial dams from remote sensing images, and finally researched changes of vegetation communities with distance from coastline, the influence of artificial dams on soil environment and the gradient patterns of soil properties under dam disturbance by statistical analysis and gradient analysis. We found that; (I) dam disturbance affected natural vegetation cover and accelerated the forward succession of natural vegetation communities in the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta; (ii) In the area with dams, the trends of the total nitrogen, available phosphorus and total salt in the distance gradient from the coastline were more influenced by dam disturbance. The dams built in different regions and at different times have different influences on soil properties; And (iii) total nitrogen was a linear increasing, but available phosphorus and total salt all showed a linear decrease. The change rates of these three factors in the north were higher than those in the south. After the dam built, the longer the time, the slower the trends of the gradient of this three factors. And the rates of change were lower with the growth over time. About 25 years after the dam built, the change rate was 0. 003, and the trend of total nitrogen was almost stable. The results further explained the reasons of natural vegetation landscape heterogeneity on the distance gradient from the coastline. It also has some instructive significance for the restoration and protection of wetland landscape under the context of the development of

  20. Excavation damaged zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulain, S.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Simonoff, M.; Lavielle, B.; Thomas, B.; Gilabert, E. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., I and 2/CNRS and GdR FORPRO 0788, Nuclear Analytical and Bioenvironmental Chemistry 33 - Gradignan (France); Poulain, S.; Altmann, S.; Lenoir, N.; Barnichon, J.D.; Wileveau, Y.; Lebon, P. [ANDRA - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Le Marrec, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., ISTAB, INRA, UMR Oenologie - ISVV, 33 - Talence (France); Vinsot, A.; Dewonck, S.; Wileveau, Y.; Armand, G.; Cruchaudet, P.; Rebours, H.; Morel, J. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Lab. de Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Lanyon, G.W. [Fracture Systems Ltd, Tregurrian, Ayr, St Ives, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Marschall, P.; Vietor, T. [NAGRA - National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland); Bourdeau, C.; Dedecker, F.; Billaux, D. [ITASCA Consultants, S.A.S., 69 - Ecully (France); Lenoir, N.; Desrues, J.; Viggiani, G.; Besuelle, P. [Laboratoire 3S-R - Sols Solides Structures-Risques, 38 - Grenoble (France); Bornert, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, LMS - Lab. de Mecanique des Solides, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Arson, C.; Gatmiri, B. [CERMES, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France); Gatmiri, B. [University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bernier, F. [ESV EURIDICE GIE - European Underground Research Infrastructure for Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Clay Environment (Belgium); Nussbaum, C.; Mori, O. [Geotechnical Institute Ltd., Fabrique de Chaux, St-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Swisstopo - Federal Office of Topography, Wabern (Switzerland); Schuster, K.; Alheid, H.J. [BGR - Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Lavanchy, J.M.; Croise, J.; Schwarz, R. [Colenco Power Engineering AG, Groundwater Protection and Waste Disposal, Baden (Switzerland)] [and others

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 13 articles dealing with: autochthonous and colonizing microorganisms in argillaceous underground environments (S. Poulain, C. Sergeant, C. Le Marrec, M.H. Vesvres, A. Vinsot, S. Dewonck, M. Simonoff, S. Altmann); the discrete fracture network modelling of the Hg-a experiment at the Mont Terri rock Laboratory (G.W. Lanyon, P. Marschall, T. Vietor); the discrete modelling of drift behaviour in the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL, France (C. Bourdeau, F. Dedecker, D. Billaux); the fracturing in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite under triaxial compression studied by X-ray microtomography (N. Lenoir, J. Desrues, G. Viggiani, P. Besuelle, M. Bornert, J.D. Barnichon); a general review of the damage models for the EDZ creation (C. Arson, B. Gatmiri); similarities in the Hydro-Mechanical response of Callovo-Oxfordian clay and Boom clay during gallery excavation (Y. Wileveau, F. Bernier); the different geometries of the EDZ fracture networks in the Mont Terri and Meuse/Haute-Marne rock laboratories: Structural approach (C. Nussbaum, Y. Wileveau, P. Bossart, A. Moeri, G. Armand); the characterisation of the Excavation-Damaged Zone in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (G. Armand, P. Lebon, M. Cruchaudet, H. Rebours, J. Morel, Y. Wileveau); the EDZ characterisation with ultrasonic interval velocity measurements in the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL, performed between depth of 85 m and 504 m (K. Schuster, H.J. Alheid); the clay formation at the Meuse Haute Marne URL: evaluation of the impact of resin filled slots on flow paths characteristics within the EDZ (J.M. Lavanchy, J. Croise, R. Schwarz, G. Armand, M. Cruchaudet); the characterisation and evolution of EDZ by extraction and analyse of noble gases in pore waters in the Meuse/Haute Marne URL site (B. Lavielle, B. Thomas, E. Gilabert); in-situ gas test for the characterisation of Excavation Disturbed Zone at the Meuse/Haute Marne URL (H. Shao, K. Schuster, J. Soennke, V. Braeuer); and the flow and reactive

  1. Simulating nitrogen transport and transformation through urban riparian zones using a particle-tracking approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z.; Welty, C.; Gold, A. J.; Groffman, P. M.; Kaushal, S.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrate is the most common and mobile form of nitrogen contaminant found in groundwater. Riparian zones, often identified as denitrification hot spots, play an important role in processing nitrate as it moves from uplands to streams through the subsurface. However, in urban areas, where groundwater flow paths may be altered by channel incision, it is not clear how riparian zone denitrification responds to such changes in groundwater flow paths. To quantify the effects of groundwater flow path changes on riparian zone denitrification, we are applying a recently-developed 3D numerical groundwater nitrogen transport model to this problem. Based on an existing particle-tracking code, SLIM-FAST, new components were added using the operator splitting technique to account for biogeochemical reactions. The model was verified with analytical solutions, other numerical codes, and laboratory experimental results. Here we report on application of the model to a hypothetical stream riparian site to evaluate nitrogen transformations under various groundwater flow conditions. The flow field is generated using the 3D groundwater flow code, ParFlow. The particle-tracking code uses the flow field as input and the movement and reactions of the nitrogen species are simulated by the code. Initial model simulation results confirm well-known behavior that as groundwater flow paths pass through DOC-rich riparian zones, higher denitrification rates are obtained. Ongoing simulations are being carried out to quantify the effect of stream downcutting on the denitrification process.

  2. Alterações físicas e químicas em cebolas armazenadas sob refrigeração Chemical and physical alterations in storaged onion genotypes under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleneide Oliveira Melo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulbos de cebolas armazenados sob refrigeração sofrem alterações físicas e químicas. Entretanto a intensidade das alterações depende das condições de armazenamento e cultivar. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar alterações em cebolas das cultivares 'Beta Cristal' e 'Óptima' armazenadas sob refrigeração. Bulbos colhidos no campo experimental da Embrapa Hortaliças - Brasília DF, após cura, foram transportados para o laboratório onde foram selecionados e armazenados a 5±1°C e umidade relativa de 85±5%, durante 60 dias. A cada 10 dias, foram feitas análises de perda de massa, cor (L*, firmeza (N, pungência, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis. Observou-se, durante o armazenamento, nas duas cultivares estudadas, incremento na perda de massa, redução nos teores de sólidos solúveis e na acidez titulável. Houve grande variação na luminosidade dos bulbos durante o armazenamento. Entretanto, após 60 dias, o brilho das cebolas das duas cultivares foi significativamente maior, quando comparado ao início dos experimentos. Houve aumento significativo da firmeza dos bulbos da cultivar 'Óptima'. Ao final do experimento, a pungência foi 6 e 5 vezes maior nas cultivares 'Beta Cristal' e 'Óptima', respectivamente, em relação ao início do período de armazenamento.Storage under low temperatures, immediately after the harvest, is the most used technique to extend the shelf life of different fresh produce. The present work was carried out with the objective of assessing physical and chemical alterations in onions stored under refrigeration. Onions (Allium cepa L. cultivars 'Beta Cristal' and 'Óptima' were harvested at Embrapa Vegetables experimental fields, were cured and taken to the Food Science and Technology Lab where bulbs were selected and stored at 5±1°C and 85±5% relative humidity for 60 days. Every 10 days bulbs wee assessed for dry matter, mass loss (%, brightness, firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids and

  3. Alteraç��es dos atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho submetido a diferentes sistemas de manejo Physical attribute alterations of an Oxisol under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luiz Rodrigues Torres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo do solo pode alterar alguns atributos físicos em relação ao solo não cultivado. Diante disso, neste estudo objetivou-se verificar as alterações provocadas pelos sistemas de uso do solo sobre alguns atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho no Triângulo Mineiro. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: Campo nativo (CN (testemunha; preparo convencional do solo (PC; pastagem irrigada de braquiária sob pastejo rotacionado tipo VoIsin (PT e Semeadura direta (SD. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 4 repetições, onde foram avaliados os seguintes atributos físicos: densidade do solo (Ds, volume total de poros (VTP, microporosidade (MI, macroporosidade (MA, condutividade hidráulica saturada (Kθ, resistência mecânica do solo à penetração (RP e o índice de sensibilidade (Is. Nas áreas sob PC, SD e PT não foram observadas alterações significativas com relação aos atributos físicos avaliados. Para as profundidades avaliadas só ocorreram diferenças significativas entre as profundidades de 0,0 - 0,05 e a de 0,15 a 0,20 m para os parâmetros Ds e VTP. PC, SD, PT e CN apresentaram valores médios de volumes de MA próximos ou superiores daquele considerado ideal (0,33 dm-3dm-3. Apenas no CN não ocorreu valores maiores que 2 MPa. No CN, PC, e SD não ocorreram limitações ao desenvolvimento das culturas até a profundidade de 0,08 m. O Is calculado para os atributos CC e Kθ nos sistemas PC e PT demonstraram o efeito prejudicial desses sistemas de manejo sobre a estrutura do solo, quando comparados ao SD.The cultivation of the soil may alter some physical attributes compared to non cultivated soil. The objective of this study to verify changes caused by land use systems on some physical attributes of an Oxisol in the Triângulo Mineiro. The used treatments were: Native field (CN (control; Conventional preparation of the soil (PC; Irrigated pasture of brachiaria under pasture alternate (PT and Direct tillage

  4. 76 FR 80886 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 26; Makita Corporation of America; (Hand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 26; Makita Corporation... Manufacturing); Buford, GA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as..., Georgia Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 26, has requested manufacturing...

  5. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N. [Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  6. 采动影响下煤层覆岩渗透性变化规律及垂向分带特征%Overburden rock permeability variation and vertical zoning characteristics under the influence of coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王皓; 乔伟; 柴蕊

    2015-01-01

    以孟加拉国Barapukuria煤矿X工作面为试验区,采用井下钻孔分段压水原位测试及相关理论计算方法,研究了工作面回采前后覆岩渗透性变化规律及垂向分带特征。研究结果表明,工作面回采前后,覆岩渗透性变化显著,采后覆岩渗透性具有明显的垂向分带特征。自覆岩导水裂缝带顶部至底部,渗透性呈阶梯状逐渐增大,可细分为弱渗透带、中渗透带和强渗透带。研究结果对煤矿区水文地质参数识别与涌水量预测工作具有指导意义。%In-situ packer tests in underground borehole and related theoretical calculation were conducted to study the overburden rock permeability variation and vertical zoning characteristics before and after coal mining. Work-ing face X in Bangladesh Barapukuria coal mine was chosen as the test area. The research results show that over-burden rock permeability changes significantly and has obvious vertical zoning characteristics after coal mining. From the top to the bottom of fracture zone, rock permeability increases gradually and can be subdivided to weak, medium and strong permeability zones. This conclusion has important guiding significance for hydrogeological parameters identification and water inflow forecast in coal mining area.

  7. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  8. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  9. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  10. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  11. Subventricular zone microglia transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starossom, Sarah C; Imitola, Jaime; Wang, Yue; Cao, Li; Khoury, Samia J

    2011-07-01

    Microglia play an important role in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. There is evidence of microglial diversity with distinct phenotypes exhibiting either neuroprotection and repair or neurotoxicity. However the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this diversity are still unknown. Using a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) we performed transcriptional profiling of isolated subventricular zone microglia from the acute and chronic disease phases of EAE. We found that microglia exhibit disease phase specific gene expression signatures, that correspond to unique gene ontology functions and genomic networks. Our data demonstrate for the first time, distinct transcriptional networks of microglia activation in vivo, that suggests a role as mediators of injury or repair.

  12. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  13. Radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration haloes in albite: implications for alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization and element mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. C.; Chaudhuri, T.

    2016-12-01

    Uraninite, besides occurring in other modes, occurs as inclusions in albite in feldspathic schist in the Bagjata uranium deposits, Singhbhum shear zone, India. The feldspathic schist, considered the product of Na-metasomatism, witnessed multiple hydrothermal events, the signatures of which are preserved in the alteration halo in albite surrounding uraninite. Here we report radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration halo in albite and its various geological implications. Microscopic observation and SRIM/TRIM simulations reveal that the dimension of the alteration halo is dependent collectively on the zone of maximum cumulative α dose that albite was subjected to and by the extent of dissolution of uraninite during alteration. In well-preserved alteration haloes, from uraninite to the unaltered part of albite, the alteration minerals are systematically distributed in different zones; zone-1: K-feldspar; zone-2: chlorite; zone-3: LREE-phase/pyrite/U-Y-silicate. Based on textures of alteration minerals in the alteration microdomain, we propose a generalized Na+➔K+➔H+ alteration sequence, which is in agreement with the regional-scale alteration pattern. Integrating distribution of ore and alteration minerals in the alteration zone and their geochemistry, we further propose multiple events of U, REE, and sulfide mineralization/mobilization in the Bagjata deposit. The alteration process also involved interaction of the hydrothermal fluid with uraninite inclusions resulting in resorption of uraninite, redistribution of elements, including U and Pb, and resetting of isotopic clock. Thus, our study demonstrates that alteration halo is a miniature scale-model of the regional hydrothermal alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization/mobilization. This study further demonstrates that albite is vulnerable to radiation damage and damage-controlled fluid-assisted alteration, which may redistribute metals, including actinides, from radioactive minerals

  14. 中原经济区建设背景下语言服务业问题研究%A Study of Language Services under the Background of the Central Plains Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素勤

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economy and the deepening of the reform in the central plains economic zone,the industry of language service,supported by translation companies,have become gradually vigorous.However,problems upon the features and the professional ethics in language services have exposed while the industry has undergone the rapid growth. The article attains valid data through investigating and analyzing the awareness of language service and professional ethics of translation company staffs,professional translators and teachers and students in translation majors in central plains economic zone.In the end,it concludes the features of language services,the necessity of standardization in professional ethics,and the prospect of language service growth in central plains economic zone.The industry of Language services have been developed rapidly.And firstly in this paper the author analyzed the status of language services in the central plains economic zone;then the characteristics of language services and the professional ethics was expounded.In the end the author prospected the development foreground of language services in the central plains economic zone.%随着中原经济区经济的飞速发展和改革的不断深入,以翻译公司为载体的语言服务业逐渐蓬勃发展壮大,并发展成为语言服务产业。语言服务业获得快速发展的同时,有关语言服务的特点和语言服务的职业道德问题也越来越凸显。通过对中原经济区翻译公司员工、职业译者和高校翻译专业师生的语言服务意识和职业道德意识的调查,得出真实可信的数据,并对这些数据进行分析,总结了语言服务的特点及语言服务职业道德规范化的必要性,并对中原经济区语言服务业的发展前景进行了展望。

  15. Solutions for Groundwater Level in Effected Zone of Soft Ground Under Vacuum Preloading%真空预压影响区地下水位变化的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仪萍; 李剑; 严露

    2011-01-01

    The analytical solution for ground water level changes in affected zone of soft ground with vacuum preloading was investigated by using one-dimensional unsteady seepage flow model. Using average groundwater zero pressure line in reinforced zone as the boundary condintion, solution of one-dimensional unsteady seepage flow model was conducted when reducation of water pressure in drainage boundary was changing over time. An example of the calculation based on the analyticalsolution was given to analyze the influence of permeability coefficient in affected zone and drainage rate in reinforcement area on groundwater level in affected zone. The results show that it is necessary to use unsteady seepage flow model to analysis soft clay that permeability is low and the permeability of soil in affected zone was the main factor to influene groundwater level outside reinforcement area. Drainage flow rate in reinforcement area only influence the time from unsteady seepage flow to steady flow but had less impact on flow range.%基于渗流理论,采用一维非稳定渗流模型,阐述了边界为变水头条件下的真空预压影响区地下水位变化的解析方法.利用加固区平均地下水零压线作为边界条件,推导了排水边界上降深随时间变化的一维非稳定渗流,得出影响区土体中地下水位的变化规律.通过算例,分析了影响区渗透系数以及预压区排水速率等因素对影响区地下水位的影响.结果表明,对于渗透性较低的软黏土而言,采用非稳定渗流分析是必要的,影响区渗透系数是区外地下水位变化的主要因素.预压区排水速率只影响区外渗流趋于稳定的时间,对渗流范围的影响较小.

  16. 46 CFR 170.005 - Vessel alteration or repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel alteration or repair. 170.005 Section 170.005... REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS General Provisions § 170.005 Vessel alteration or repair. (a) Alterations and repairs to inspected vessels must be done— (1) Under the direction of the Officer in...

  17. Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

  18. Root-zone cooling effect of water-cooled seedling bed under different periods and its influences on growth of tomato seedling%水冷苗床不同时段根际降温对番茄幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜利; 张涛; 孙治强

    2015-01-01

    high temperature stress. A new water-cooled seedling bed (WSD) has been proved to be an effective method to lower the root-zone temperature. In order to utilize WSD scientifically, 5 different root-zone cooling periods were designed using the WSD device for root-zone cooling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedling. The 5 different root-zone cooling periods were as follows: M1 (cooling from 7:00 to 11:00), M2 (cooling from 11:00 to 15:00), M3 (cooling from 7:00 to 19:00), M4 (cooling from 19:00 to 7:00) and M5 (cooling all day). Non-cooling seedling bed was used as control. The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling effect of the WSD under 5 different root-zone cooling periods and its effect on the growth of tomato seedling. The root-zone temperature, seedling growth, root morphological traits and physiological characteristics of tomato seedling were tested. The results showed as follows: The root-zone daily mean temperature and daily maximum temperature of tomato seedlings under 5 cooling periods of the WSD were all lower than those under the non-cooled seedling bed (CK) during tomato seedling period. The cooling effect of the WSD was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with cooling duration and cooling period. Compared with cooling during night, mean temperature in the daytime, daily mean temperature and maximum temperature for the treatments cooling during the day time were lowered significantly (P<0.05). Compared with other treatments, the treatment M3 (cooling from 7:00 to 19:00) and M5 (cooling all day) got the best cooling effects. The daily mean root-zone temperatures of tomato seedlings under M3 and M5 were 23.6 and 22.6℃respectively, which were lowered by 3.3 and 4.3℃ respectively compared with CK during tomato seedling period. The daily variation of root-zone temperature of tomato seedlings was affected also by cooling duration and cooling period. Root-zone temperature of treatments cooling during the day time showed a small variation

  19. Automatic detection and classification of damage zone(s) for incorporating in digital image correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudipta; Deb, Debasis

    2016-07-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a technique developed for monitoring surface deformation/displacement of an object under loading conditions. This method is further refined to make it capable of handling discontinuities on the surface of the sample. A damage zone is referred to a surface area fractured and opened in due course of loading. In this study, an algorithm is presented to automatically detect multiple damage zones in deformed image. The algorithm identifies the pixels located inside these zones and eliminate them from FEM-DIC processes. The proposed algorithm is successfully implemented on several damaged samples to estimate displacement fields of an object under loading conditions. This study shows that displacement fields represent the damage conditions reasonably well as compared to regular FEM-DIC technique without considering the damage zones.

  20. Analysis on Ship-to-Air Missile Kill ZoneUnder Ship-Ship Coordinate Air Defense%舰舰协同防空的舰空导弹杀伤区分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚跃亭; 赵建军; 刘林密; 崔伟成

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the coupling kill zone in fleet coordinate air defense quantitatively, the depth and shape of it is studied. The characters of kill zone in single ship air defense is analyzed, the typical formation of fleet air defense is studied, and the hierarchical closed circle theory that hierarchical multi-layer in longitudinal direction and coupled of same order in latitudinal direction is given. According to the zero and none zero airway shortcut, the calculation model of first order coupled kill zone depth is brought forward. And it is extended to higher order. The sensitiveness of spacing interval and azimuth angle to the coupled kill zone depth is simulated. Results show that the model can be instructive.%针对舰艇编队协同防空时的耦合杀伤区形状及纵深等问题进行了研究,以定量地对编队耦合杀伤区进行简化描述.分析了单舰对典型目标的杀伤区特性,探讨了舰艇编队的典型防空队形,研究了纵向上递阶多层次、横向上同阶耦合的"递阶封闭圈原理".以一阶耦合杀伤区为重点,依据攻击目标的不同,将其分成相对航路捷径为零和相对航路捷径均非零两类情况建立了耦合杀伤区纵深的计算模型,并扩展到了高阶耦合的情况.研究了耦合杀伤区与舰舰间距和来袭目标进攻舷角等参数的相互关系以及灵敏度.结果表明建立的模型符合实际,具有一定的指导意义.

  1. LABORATORY STUDY ON DETERIORATION LAW OF ALTERED ROCK UNDER EFFECT OF WATER SATURATION-DEHYDRATION CIRCULATION%饱和-失水循环作用下蚀变岩劣化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅华; 朱燕; 牛传星

    2015-01-01

    为了研究水岩作用对蚀变岩劣化破坏的损伤机理,选取某边坡蚀变岩样为试验对象,对不同饱和-失水次数的蚀变岩进行了岩石力学试验。建立了数学关系式来表达水岩作用对蚀变岩力学性质的劣化规律,借助损伤率的概念分析了循环次数对蚀变岩力学性质的损伤作用。试验结果表明:在水岩作用下蚀变岩的力学性质产生了明显的劣化现象,随着循环次数的增多劣化效果越明显;当岩石的蚀变风化程度相同时,抗拉强度劣化程度最大,弹性模量次之,单轴抗压强度最小;在不同饱和-失水循环次数下,蚀变岩抗拉强度、弹性模量随次数的增加迅速减小,单轴抗压强度出现持续减小的现象;蚀变、风化程度越高的岩石对水岩作用表现出越强的敏感性,随着饱和-失水循环次数的增加,蚀变岩的劣化现象趋于稳定,抗拉强度的损伤率最大达到63%,弹性模量60%,单轴抗压强度48%。%This paper aims to examine the effect of water-rock interaction on mechanical property of altered rock. Rock samples from the slope are selected.Rock mechanics testing is carried out to examine the effect of different saturation-dehydration frequencies.The function is established to describe the variation pattern of mechanical properties of altered rock with the circulating effect.The influence of mechanical properties of altered rock with different circulating times is analyzed,using the concept of damage rate.The project result indicates that the mechanical properties of the altered rocks are obviously weakened by water-rock interaction.With the increase of water-rock interaction,the phenomenon is more obvious.With different circulating times,the tensile strength and the modulus of elasticity decay rapidly while the peak intensity is decaying continuously.When the degree of alteration of all rock has no difference,the degree of deterioration

  2. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  3. Altered gravity influences rDNA and NopA100 localization in nucleoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M. A.; Kordyum, E. L.

    Fundamental discovery of gravisensitivity of cells no specified to gravity perception focused increasing attention on an elucidation of the mechanisms involved in altered gravity effects at the cellular and subcellular levels. The nucleolus is the transcription site of rRNA genes as well as the site of processing and initial packaging of their transcripts with ribosomal and nonribosomal proteins. The mechanisms inducing the changes in the subcomponents of the nucleolus that is morphologically defined yet highly dynamic structure are still unknown in detail. To understand the functional organization of the nucleolus as in the control as under altered gravity conditions it is essential to determine both the precise location of rDNA and the proteins playing the key role in rRNA processing. Lepidium sativum seeds were germinated in 1% agar medium on the slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in the stationary conditions. We investigated the root meristematic cells dissected from the seedlings grown in darkness for two days. The investigations were carried out with anti-DNA and anti-NopA100 antibodies labeling as well as with TdT procedure, and immunogold electron microscopy. In the stationary growth conditions, the anti-DNA antibody as well TdT procedure were capable of detecting fibrillar centers (FCs) and the dense fibrillar component (DFC) in the nucleolus. In FCs, gold particles were revealed on the condensed chromatin inclusions, internal fibrils of decondensed rDNA and the transition zone FC-DFC. Quantitatively, FCs appeared 1,5 times more densely labeled than DFC. NopA100 was localized in FCs and in DFC. In FCs, the most of protein was revealed in the transition zone FC-DFC. After a quantitative study, FCs and the transition zone FC-DFC appeared to contain NopA100 1,7 times more than DFC. Under the conditions of altered gravity, quantitative data clearly showed a redistribution of nucleolar DNA and NopA100 between FCs and DFC in comparison with the control. In

  4. Unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog, Chihuahua, Mexico -- Implications for radionuclide mobility at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Chemical and U-Th isotopic data on unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog reveal effects of water-rock interaction and help constrain models of radionuclide release and transport at the site and, by analogy, at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geochemical reaction-path modeling indicates that, under oxidizing conditions, dissolution of uraninite (spent fuel analog) by these waters will lead to eventual schoepite precipitation regardless of initial silica concentration provided that groundwater is not continuously replenished. Thus, less soluble uranyl silicates may not dominate the initial alteration assemblage and keep dissolved U concentrations low. Uranium-series activity ratios are consistent with models of U transport at the site and display varying degrees of leaching versus recoil mobilization. Thorium concentrations may reflect the importance of colloidal transport of low-solubility radionuclides in the unsaturated zone.

  5. Coastal Zone Management Act Boundary for the United States and US Territories as of December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the nation's coastal zone, as defined by the individual states and territories under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972...

  6. ANALYSIS OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS BY PRA TECHNIQUES IN ADAPTIVE VILLAGE OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA UNDER NEW ALLUVIA ZONE OF MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishake Naskar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agro Ecosystem analysis using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA techniques of an adaptive village (Jainpur of New Alluvial Zone of Murshidabad-Jiaganj block in Murshidabad district, West Bengal revealed that the village basically has rice and jute based farming system. The cropping intensity of the village is 233%. Out of 363 household 80% is engaged in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and other allied activities. The land availability per household is 0.40 ha. The villagers are mostly scheduled caste. By snow ball technique major problems were identified .On the basis of bio-physical and socio-economic problems, thrust area were selected. Area specific On Farm Trials (OFT in farmers' were conducted on some researchable issues. Front Line Demonstration (FLD, training programme, health camp, awareness camp and other different extension activities were arranged to mitigate the problems.

  7. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  8. DNS zones revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, van Ward; Pras, Aiko; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Recent research [Pap04b] suggests DNS reliability and performance is not up to the levels it should be due to misconfigurations. This paper checks the configuration of nameserver zones against additional requirements, recommendations and best-practices. It shows that almost one in four domains fails

  9. Hydrothermal surface alteration in the Copahue Geothermal Field (Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, Graciela R.; Mas, Luis C.; Bengochea, Leandro

    1996-01-24

    In the area of the Copahue Geothermal Field, there are five active geothermal manifestations, which mainly consist of fumaroles, hot springs and mud pots. Four of these manifestations are located in Argentina: Las Máquinas, Termas de Copahue, Las Maquinitas and El Anfiteatro, and the fifth on the Chilean side: Chancho Co. All of them present a strong acid sulfate country rock alteration, characterized by the assemblage alunite + kaolinite + quartz + cristobalite + pyrite + sulfur + jarosite, as the result of the base leaching by fluids concentrated in H2SO4 by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam heated environment of H2S released by deeper boiling fluids. Another alteration zone in this area, called COP-2, is a fossil geothermal manifestation which shows characteristics of neutral to alkaline alteration represented mainly by the siliceous sinter superimposed over the acid alteration. The mineralogy and zoning of these alteration zones, and their relation with the hidrothermal solutions and the major structures of the area are analized.

  10. Indoor user zoning and tracking in passive infrared sensing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Pandharipande, A.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of indoor user zoning - identifying occupiedspatial regions by users in a room, and tracking using a grid of passive infrared (PIR) sensors. Under the proposed scheme, quantized levels of analog signal output from pairs of PIR sensors are used todetermine an occupied zone. Vi

  11. Genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer of the exocrine pancreas represents the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the Western population with an average survival after diagnosis of 3 to 6 months and a five-year survival rate under 5%. Our understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis has improved in the last few years due to the development of novel molecular biological techniques. Pancreatic cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from the accumulation of genetic changes in the somatic DNA of normal cells. In this article we describe major genetic alterations of pancreatic cancer, mutations in the proto-oncogene K-RAS and the tumor suppressors INK4A, TP53 and DPC4/SMAD4. The accumulation of these genetic changes leads to a profound disturbance in cell cycle regulation and continuous growth. The knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms will offer new therapeutic and diagnostic options and hopefully improve the outcome of this aggressive disease.

  12. Genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Lena Karapanagiotou; Kostas Syrigos

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating for patients and their relatives as the incidence rate is approximately the same as mortality rate. Only a small percentage, which ranges from 0.4% to 4% of patients who have been given this diagnosis, will be alive at five years. At the time of diagnosis, 80% of pancreatic cancer patients have unresectable or metastatic disease.Moreover, the therapeutic alternatives offered by chemotherapy or radiotherapy are few, if not zero. For all these reasons, there is an imperative need of analyzing and understanding the primitive lesions that lead to invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Molecular pathology of these lesions is the key of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of this cancer and will probably help us in earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic results. This review focuses on medical research on pancreatic cancer models and the underlying genetic alterations.

  13. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  14. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  15. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  16. Influence of aluminum on the hydrothermal alteration rate of olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, M.; Daniel, I.; Pollet-Villard, M.

    2013-12-01

    The reactivity of ultramafic rocks under hydrothermal conditions controls chemical fluxes at the interface between the internal and external reservoirs of silicate planets. On Earth, hydration of ultramafic rocks is ubiquitous and operates from deep subduction zones to shallow lithospheric environments where it considerably affects the physical and chemical properties of rocks and can interact with the biosphere. This process also has key emerging societal implications, such as the production of hydrogen as a source of carbon-free energy. To date, the chemical model systems used to reproduce olivine hydrothermal alteration lead to the formation of serpentine with sluggish reaction rates. Although aluminum is common in geological environments and in hydrothermal systems in particular, its role in serpentinization or olivine dissolution has not been investigated under hydrothermal conditions. Nevertheless, abundant Al supply is expected in fluids released from dehydration of metapelites in subduction zones as well as during the hydrothermal alteration of gabbros at mid-ocean ridges. Aluminum was also abundant in primitive environments of both the Earth and Mars, stored in either Al-rich minerals like plagioclase or Al-enriched ultramafic lavas. We have investigated the role of Al on the hydrothermal alteration of olivine in a series of experiments performed in a low-pressure diamond anvil cell while following the reaction progress in situ by optical imaging and by confocal Raman spectroscopy. Experiments were run for 4.5 to 7.5 days with two olivine grains reacted in saline water (0.5 molal NaCl) at 200°C and 300°C, and P=200 MPa. After two days, olivine crystals were fully transformed to an aluminous serpentine, also enriched in iron. The very fast precipitation of serpentine may inhibit magnetite nucleation here. However, this does not rule out an H2 production since serpentines classically incorporate non negligible amount of ferric iron in their structure. The

  17. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  18. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of carious dentin from transparent zone to normal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Yao, X; Liu, Y W; Wang, Y

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that caries invasion leads to the differentiation of dentin into zones with altered composition, collagen integrity and mineral identity. However, understanding of these changes from the fundamental perspective of molecular structure has been lacking so far. In light of this, the present work aims to utilize Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to directly extract molecular information regarding collagen's and hydroxyapatite's structural changes as dentin transitions from the transparent zone (TZ) into the normal zone (NZ). Unembedded ultrathin dentin films were sectioned from carious teeth, and an FTIR imaging system was used to obtain spatially resolved FTIR spectra. According to the mineral-to-matrix ratio image generated from large-area low-spectral-resolution scan, the TZ, the NZ and the intermediate subtransparent zone (STZ) were identified. High-spectral-resolution spectra were taken from each zone and subsequently examined with regard to mineral content, carbonate distribution, collagen denaturation and carbonate substitution patterns. The integrity of collagen's triple helical structure was also evaluated based on spectra collected from demineralized dentin films of selected teeth. The results support the argument that STZ is the real sclerotic layer, and they corroborate the established knowledge that collagen in TZ is hardly altered and therefore should be reserved for reparative purposes. Moreover, the close resemblance between the STZ and the NZ in terms of carbonate content, and that between the STZ and the TZ in terms of being A-type carbonate-rich, suggest that the mineral that initially occludes dentin tubules is hydroxyapatite newly generated from odontoblastic activities, which is then transformed into whitlockite in the demineralization/remineralization process as caries progresses.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability index (CFD-HSI) modelling as an exploratory tool for assessing passability of riverine migratory challenge zones for fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Chelminski, Michael; Dudley, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed two-dimensional computational fluid hydraulics-habitat suitability index (CFD-HSI) models to identify and qualitatively assess potential zones of shallow water depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five major anadromous fish species in a 2.63-km reach of the main stem Penobscot River, Maine, as a result of a dam removal downstream of the reach. Suitability parameters were based on distribution of fish lengths and body depths and transformed to cruising, maximum sustained and sprint swimming speeds. Zones of potential depth and velocity challenges were calculated based on the hydraulic models; ability of fish to pass a challenge zone was based on the percent of river channel that the contiguous zone spanned and its maximum along-current length. Three river flows (low: 99.1 m3 sec-1; normal: 344.9 m3 sec-1; and high: 792.9 m3 sec-1) were modelled to simulate existing hydraulic conditions and hydraulic conditions simulating removal of a dam at the downstream boundary of the reach. Potential depth challenge zones were nonexistent for all low-flow simulations of existing conditions for deeper-bodied fishes. Increasing flows for existing conditions and removal of the dam under all flow conditions increased the number and size of potential velocity challenge zones, with the effects of zones being more pronounced for smaller species. The two-dimensional CFD-HSI model has utility in demonstrating gross effects of flow and hydraulic alteration, but may not be as precise a predictive tool as a three-dimensional model. Passability of the potential challenge zones cannot be precisely quantified for two-dimensional or three-dimensional models due to untested assumptions and incomplete data on fish swimming performance and behaviours.

  20. Multi-zone cooling/warming garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, Victor S. (Inventor); Leon, Gloria R. (Inventor); Dancisak, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A thermodynamically efficient garment for cooling and/or heating a human body. The thermodynamic efficiency is provided in part by targeting the heat exchange capabilities of the garment to specific areas and/or structures of the human body. The heat exchange garment includes heat exchange zones and one or more non-heat exchange zones, where the heat exchange zones are configured to correspond to one or more high density tissue areas of the human body when the garment is worn. A system including the garment can be used to exchange heat with the adjacent HD tissue areas under the control of a feedback control system. Sensed physiological parameters received by the feedback control system can be used to adjust the characteristics of heat exchange fluid moving within the heat exchange garment.

  1. Denuded Zones, Diffusional Creep, and Grain Boundary Sliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J; Ruano, O A; Sherby, O D

    2001-06-27

    The appearance of denuded zones following low stress creep in particle-containing crystalline materials is both a microstructural prediction and observation often cited as irrefutable evidence for the Nabarro-Herring mechanism of diffusional creep. The denuded zones are predicted to be at grain boundaries that are orthogonal to the direction of the applied stress. Furthermore, their dimensions should account for the accumulated plastic flow. In the present paper, the evidence for such denuded zones is critically examined. These zones have been observed during creep of magnesium, aluminum, and nickel-base alloys. The investigation casts serious doubts on the apparently compelling evidence for the link between denuded zones and diffusional creep. Specifically, denuded zones are clearly observed under conditions that are explicitly not diffusional creep. Additionally, the denuded zones are often found in directions that are not orthogonal to the applied stress. Other mechanisms that can account for the observations of denuded zones are discussed. It is proposed that grain boundary sliding accommodated by slip is the rate-controlling process in the stress range where denuded zones have been observed. It is likely that the denuded zones are created by dissolution of precipitates at grain boundaries that are simultaneously sliding and migrating during creep.

  2. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites - Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla, which was previously called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely reequilibrated. Since mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, it is inferred that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. It is argued that the nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  3. Systematics of hydrothermal alteration at the volcanic-hosted Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) deposit - implications for ore genesis, structure and exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Tobias C.; Jansson, Nils J.; Stephens, Michael B.; Majka, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic, volcanic-hosted Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit was mined for base and precious metals during several centuries, until its closure in 1992. The deposit is located in a 1.9 Ga ore district in the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit, Fennoscandian Shield, south-central Sweden. Both the ores and their host rock underwent polyphase ductile deformation, and metamorphism under amphibolite facies and later retrograde conditions at 1.9-1.8 Ga (Svecokarelian orogenic system). This study has the following aims: (i) Classify styles and intensities of alteration in the hydrothermally altered zone at Falun; (ii) identify precursor rocks to hydrothermally altered rocks and their spatial distribution at the deposit; (iii) evaluate the chemical changes resulting from hydrothermal alteration using mass change calculations; and (iv) assess the pre-metamorphic alteration assemblages accounting for the observed metamorphic mineral associations in the altered rocks at Falun. Results will have implications for both the ore-genetic and structural understanding of the deposit, as well as for local and regional exploration. Metamorphic mineral associations in the altered rocks include biotite-quartz-cordierite-(anthophyllite) and, more proximally, quartz-anthophyllite-(biotite-cordierite/almandine), biotite-cordierite-(anthophyllite) and biotite-almandine-(anthophyllite). The proximal hydrothermally altered zone corresponds to intense chlorite-style alteration. Subordinate dolomite or calcite marble, as well as calc-silicate (tremolite, diopside) rocks are also present at the deposit. Metavolcanic rocks around the deposit are unaltered, weakly sericitized or sodic-altered. Immobile-element (e.g. Zr, TiO2, Al2O3, REE) systematics of the silicate-rich samples at and around the deposit suggest that the precursors to the hydrothermally altered rocks at Falun were predominantly rhyolitic in composition, dacitic rocks being subordinate and mafic-intermediate rocks

  4. 78 FR 63913 - Proposed Priority-Promise Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... number of Department programs and projects that support activities in designated Promise Zones. This... jobs, increasing economic activity, improving educational opportunities, reducing violent crime, and... violent crime. For calendar year 2013, only communities that have previously been granted funds under...

  5. China's Investment Strategy into EU Under the Aftermath of the Crisis of Euro-Zone Sovereignty Debts%欧债危机背景下拓展中国对欧盟投资策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚铃

    2011-01-01

    Expanding the outward direct investment has become the necessity choice of china's economy development. EU, China's fourth largest oversea direct investment destination, only accounts for 3% of china's total oversea investment. There is a substantial potential for china to invest into EU. The outbreak of Euro-zone sovereignty debts has brought the international political and economic patterns into great transformation. It also provides the new eyesight and opportunity for china to enlarge its investment into EU.%进一步扩大对外直接投资已成为我国经济发展的必然选择。欧盟是我国第四大境外直接投资目的地,但我国对欧盟直接投资金额仅略超过全国境外直接投资总额的3%,尚有很大增长潜力。欧元区主权债务危机的爆发,使国际政治经济格局发生深刻演变,更为我国扩大对欧盟投资提供了新的视野和机遇。

  6. The College English Teaching under the Theory of ZPD(zone of proximal development)%最近发展区视角下的大学英语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋萍; 陈媛英

    2011-01-01

    In new syllabus,the purpose of College English teaching is not only to impart students'basic language knowledge,but also to cultivate the development of the independent thinking and the creative capacity.According to this requirement,this paper will investigate the effect of ZPD(zone of proximal development) on College English teaching by analyzing the teaching models and the teaching contents on the basis of ZPD theory.%大学英语教学的目的并非单纯地向学生传授语言基本知识,还要重视培养其独立思考与创新能力的发展。根据这一教学目标,本文试分析最近发展区理论内涵,并在此基础上通过对教学模式和教学内容的分析,来探讨最近发展区理论对大学英语教学的影响。

  7. ZONE OF COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The China-ASEAN Economic Zone is attracting more and more investors from both Southeast Asia and China Compared with other countries that have established free trade areas with ASEAN, China owns millions of unique advantages. Millions, after all, is the quantity of Chinese living in ASEAN countries. "With ties of blood, geography and commerce, business people of Chinese descent can be the best candidates to pro-

  8. Hydrothermal alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA - DDH 1976-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, N.L.; Parry, W.T.

    1977-09-01

    Hot waters of the Roosevelt Thermal Area, Utah, have altered granitic rocks and detritus of the Mineral Range pluton, Utah. Petrographic, x-ray, and chemical methods were used to characterize systematic changes in chemistry and mineralogy. Major alteration zones include: 1) an advanced argillic zone in the upper 30 feet of altered detritus containing alunite, opal, vermiculite, and relic quartz; 2) an argillic zone from 30 feet to 105 feet containing kaolinite, muscovite, and minor alunite; and 3) a propylitic zone from 105 to 200 feet containing muscovite, pyrite, marcasite, montmorillonite, and chlorite in weakly altered quartz monzonite. Comparison of the alternation mineral assemblages with known water chemistry and equilibrium activity diagrams suggests that a simple solution equilibrium model cannot account for the alteration. A model is proposed in which upward moving thermal water supersaturated with respect to quartz and a downward moving cool water undersaturated with respect to quartz produces the observed alteration. An estimate of the heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration was made by calculating reaction enthalpies for alteration reactions at each depth.

  9. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  10. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  11. The uncomfortable comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we achieve the satisfaction of our expectations and anxiety dissolves, we feel as if we were in a comfort zone – safe, complete, free from risks and in peace with ourselves. We might even have a little taste of heaven when we feel that we have fulfilled our duty. And as a fact, scientists are entitled to this kind of reward… but not for too long! In science, to enter a comfort zone can be as pleasant as dangerous. On one hand we may have a safe ground available to develop new modes of reasoning, protocols and theories. And on the other, we may stay stuck in a conventional but fragile ground, missing opportunities to reveal novel secrets or to address edge issues. ... The community of HD researchers seems to have entered a new comfort zone when nanostructures were found in HD. Nanostructures have been raised to the level of ultimate evidence doing away with Avogadro’s limit and leading homeopathy and HD research into mainstream science. We really should enjoy this moment and collect more information about the HD phenomenon. However, we must be wary to not fall into a trap.

  12. 糖尿病状态下P-糖蛋白表达和功能的改变及其临床意义%Alterations in Expression and Function of P-glycoprotein Under Diabetic Condition and Their Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐璐; 刘晓东

    2011-01-01

    糖尿病是由多种原因引起的胰岛素分泌不足以及靶细胞对胰岛素敏感性降低,继而引起糖、蛋白质、脂肪及水电解质代谢异常的一种临床综合征.P-糖蛋白作为药物的外排泵,参与了糖尿病及其并发症的发生发展的全过程.糖尿病所引起的体内环境的变化,会导致各组织中P-糖蛋白功能和表达发生改变,而这种改变义会进一步影响药物治疗的药理毒理效应.因此研究糖尿病状态下各组织中P-糖蛋白功能和表达的改变模式及其机制对于糖尿病及其并发症的治疗具有极其重要的临床意义.%Diabetes is a clinical syndrome which is caused by a variety of reasons for the absolute or relative lack of insulin secretion and reduced insulin sensitivity of target cells,and then causing sugar rising,protein,fat and water electrolyte metabolic disorders. P-glycoprotein, as a drug efflux pump, involves in the whole process of the development of diabetes and its complications. The changes in the environment of body caused by diabetes will lead to the alterations of function and expression of P-glycoprotein in various tissues, which will further affect the pharmacological and toxicological effects of drug. Therefore,it is extremely important for the clinical treatment of diabetes and its complications to study the phenomenon and mechanism of P-glycoprotein alteration in different tissues.

  13. Strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions; Transfert de radioelements en zone non saturee. Etude experimentale et modelisation appliquees au Site Pilote de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szenknect, St

    2003-10-15

    This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)

  14. Stabilization of garnet in metamorphosed altered turbidites near the St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, southeastern British Columbia: Equilibrium and kinetic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, David R. M.; Seitz, JennaLee D.

    2012-03-01

    garnet is a useful indicator mineral ('vector') for hydrothermal alteration associated with base and precious metal mineralization in this region, and potentially in other regions of comparable metamorphic grade. The ideal metamorphic conditions under which garnet is useful in this role are the metapelitic chlorite and biotite zones (greenschist and lower amphibolite facies).

  15. Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Alteration Associated with Cenozoic Intrusion-Hosted Cu-Pb-Zn Mineralization at Tavşanlı Area, Kütahya, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kumral

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene magmatic intrusion in the Tavşanlı zone of the Kütahya-Bolkardağ Belt (KBB in the northwestern region of Turkey is represented by the Eğrigöz granitoids. This paper studies the petrology and geochemistry of hydrothermal alterations associated with the vein-type Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization hosted by this pluton, focusing on the determination of the mass gains and losses of chemical components, which reflect the chemical exchanges between the host rocks and hydrothermal fluids. Vein-type Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization is closely associated with intense hydrothermal alterations within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones that are controlled by NW-SE trending faults cutting through the Eğrigöz granitoids. Paragenetic relationships reveal three stages of mineralization: pre-ore, ore, and supergene. The ore mineralogy typically includes hypogene chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and pyrite, with locally supergene covellite, malachite, and azurite. Wall-rock hypogene hydrothermal alterations include pervasive silicification, sulfidation, sericitization, and selective carbonatization and albitization. These are distributed in three main alteration zones (zone 1: silicified/iron carbonatized alterations ± albite, zone 2: argillic-silicic alterations, and zone 3: phyllic alterations. Based on the gains and losses of mass and volume (calculated by the GEOISO-Windows™ program, zone 1 has a higher mass and volume gain than zones 2 and 3. Non-systematic zonal distributions of alterations are observed in which the silicic-carbonate alterations +/− albitization appeared in zone 1 in the center and the phyllic-argillic alterations appeared in zones 2 and 3, with an increase in base metals (Cu-Pb-Zn in the zone from Cu, Cu-Pb, to Cu-Pb-Zn moving outwards.

  16. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  17. No-fly Zones and China' s Diplomatic Dilemma%No-fly Zones and China' s Diplomatic Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guangcheng

    2012-01-01

    The no-fly zone first appeared in August 1992. After being employed in Iraq, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Libya, it has become a model of United Nations-mandated humanitarian intervention. However, we can see that this kind of intervention under the "humanitarian" banner was not for humanitarian purposes but rather used to force regime change under the authority of the United Nations. Indeed, these no-fly zones,

  18. Ressourcenorientierte Diagnostik im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Trotz der im Alter zunehmenden körperlichen, kognitiven und sozialen Verlusten bleibt das subjektive Wohlbefinden relativ stabil. Dies weist auf die vielen Ressourcen älterer Menschen hin. Dieser Artikel stellt für die klinische Ressourcendiagnostik relevante Verfahren vor und erläutert die zugrunde liegenden Konzepte. Berücksichtigt werden Aktivitäten und Erlebnisse als Ressourcen, emotionale Ressourcen (positiver Affekt, Lebenszufriedenheit, Selbstwerterleben, Lebensqualität), motivationale...

  19. Characteristics of Fault Zones in Volcanic Rocks Near Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II

    2007-11-27

    During 2005 and 2006, the USGS conducted geological studies of fault zones at surface outcrops at the Nevada Test Site. The objectives of these studies were to characterize fault geometry, identify the presence of fault splays, and understand the width and internal architecture of fault zones. Geologic investigations were conducted at surface exposures in upland areas adjacent to Yucca Flat, a basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site; these data serve as control points for the interpretation of the subsurface data collected at Yucca Flat by other USGS scientists. Fault zones in volcanic rocks near Yucca Flat differ in character and width as a result of differences in the degree of welding and alteration of the protolith, and amount of fault offset. Fault-related damage zones tend to scale with fault offset; damage zones associated with large-offset faults (>100 m) are many tens of meters wide, whereas damage zones associated with smaller-offset faults are generally a only a meter or two wide. Zeolitically-altered tuff develops moderate-sized damage zones whereas vitric nonwelded, bedded and airfall tuff have very minor damage zones, often consisting of the fault zone itself as a deformation band, with minor fault effect to the surrounding rock mass. These differences in fault geometry and fault zone architecture in surface analog sites can serve as a guide toward interpretation of high-resolution subsurface geophysical results from Yucca Flat.

  20. Characteristics of Fault Zones in Volcanic Rocks Near Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    During 2005 and 2006, the USGS conducted geological studies of fault zones at surface outcrops at the Nevada Test Site. The objectives of these studies were to characterize fault geometry, identify the presence of fault splays, and understand the width and internal architecture of fault zones. Geologic investigations were conducted at surface exposures in upland areas adjacent to Yucca Flat, a basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site; these data serve as control points for the interpretation of the subsurface data collected at Yucca Flat by other USGS scientists. Fault zones in volcanic rocks near Yucca Flat differ in character and width as a result of differences in the degree of welding and alteration of the protolith, and amount of fault offset. Fault-related damage zones tend to scale with fault offset; damage zones associated with large-offset faults (>100 m) are many tens of meters wide, whereas damage zones associated with smaller-offset faults are generally a only a meter or two wide. Zeolitically-altered tuff develops moderate-sized damage zones whereas vitric nonwelded, bedded and airfall tuff have very minor damage zones, often consisting of the fault zone itself as a deformation band, with minor fault effect to the surrounding rock mass. These differences in fault geometry and fault zone architecture in surface analog sites can serve as a guide toward interpretation of high-resolution subsurface geophysical results from Yucca Flat.

  1. Alteração física e morfológica em solos cultivados sob sistema tradicional de manejo Physical and morphological alterations in cultivated soil under traditional management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Nascimento Soares

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado numa área agrícola situada no município de Bariri (SP, em área cultivada com citros (Citrus sinensis, onde foram estudadas algumas alterações pedológicas decorrentes de um longo período de exploração agrícola com sistema tradicional de manejo do solo. Foi estabelecida uma condição de seqüência topográfica para que pudesse ser avaliada a importância da posição dos solos no relevo sobre as modificações de alguns dos seus atributos físicos. As observações foram realizadas em campo e laboratório, em perfis verticais situados nos terços: superior, médio e inferior da encosta em um Latossolo Vermelho com alguns atributos avaliados estatisticamente por meio de teste de comparação de médias. Houve alterações na densidade do solo e da macroporosidade, principalmente nas posições mais baixas do relevo. Nestas posições, mais argilosas, há preenchimento dos espaços vazios, com a formação de estrutura em blocos, ocorrendo concomitantemente com a estrutura microagregada. Os tratos culturais promoveram grandes alterações na estrutura dos solos, mesmo em camadas relativamente profundas. O estudo ressaltou a importância de observações morfológicas detalhadas dos perfis de solo, em virtude da grande variabilidade dos atributos pedológicos a uma curta distância, sendo observados, num mesmo horizonte do perfil, setores compactados ao lado de bolsões desagregados, o que atesta a necessidade de serem considerados tanto os gradientes verticais (em cada perfil como os laterais (ao longo da toposseqüência no estudo das variações temporais dos parâmetros pedológicos.Some of the pedologic alterations resulting from traditional soil management methods were studied in an area cultivated with citrus (Citrus sinensis in a farm in Bariri County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A toposequence was established to evaluate the effect of the position in the landscape on changes in soil physical

  2. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene DNAPL source zones: source zone architecture versus electron donor availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M.; Kokkinaki, A.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    The persistence of dense-non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface has led practitioners and regulatory agencies to turn towards low-maintenance, low-cost remediation methods. Biological degradation has been suggested as a possible solution, based on the well-proven ability of certain microbial species to break down dissolved chlorinated ethenes under favorable conditions. However, the biodegradation of pure phase chlorinated ethenes is subject to additional constraints: the continuous release of electron acceptor at a rate governed by mass transfer kinetics, and the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of DNAPL source zones which leads to spatially and temporally variable availability of the reactants for reductive dechlorination. In this work, we investigate the relationship between various DNAPL source zone characteristics and reaction kinetics using COMPSIM, a multiphase groundwater model that considers non-equilibrium mass transfer and Monod-type kinetics for reductive dechlorination. Numerical simulations are performed for simple, homogeneous trichloroethene DNAPL source zones to demonstrate the effect of single source zone characteristics, as well as for larger, more realistic heterogeneous source zones. It is shown that source zone size, and mass transfer kinetics may have a decisive effect on the predicted bio-enhancement. Finally, we evaluate the performance of DNAPL bioremediation for realistic, thermodynamically constrained, concentrations of electron donor. Our results indicate that the latter may be the most important limitation for the success of DNAPL bioremediation, leading to reduced bio-enhancement and, in many cases, comparable performance with water flooding.

  3. 以金融自由化为背景的上海自贸区金融改革创新的思考%Financial Innovation in Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone under the Background of Financial Liberalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大器; 肖本华; 殷林森

    2014-01-01

    Financial reforms in Shanghai free trade zone (FTZ) are system innovations of the world’s financial liberalization trend. The “first try” measures, such as promoting the marketization of interest rate and RMB exchange rate, will play a positive role in improving the weakness of financial opening and financial service trade , and making up for the short board effect, so as to better serve the trade as well as facilitate the trade and investment. In order to avoid risk, there should be a border and go step by step, when implementing financial liberalization in China, especially “first try” measures in financial liberalization related areas. Besides, we should optimize the linkage mechanism of financial liberalization in financial center construction, comprehensive reform in Pudong and “first try” policy in Shanghai FTZ financial reform with the “sandwich” thinking.%上海自贸区金融改革是顺应世界金融自由化主流趋势的制度创新,为此推动了利率市场化、汇率市场化等先行先试,对于改进金融开放及金融服务贸易之不足,弥补其短板效应将发挥积极效果,从而更好服务贸易,实现贸易及投资便利化。为规避自由化导致相关的风险,我国金融自由化尤其是自贸区金融自由化相关领域先行先试,应该有边界、循序渐进;要用“三明治”思维优化金融自由化在金融中心建设、浦东综合配套改革、自贸区金融改革先行先试三方面的联动机制。

  4. BSR及其下伏游离气区的分布特征与控制因素%Distributions of BSR and underlying free gas zones and related controlling factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金秀; Richard Davies; 肖佃师; 苗秀青; 张亚念

    2016-01-01

    拟海底反射层(Bottom Simulating Reflector,简称BSR)是水合物底界的地震反射标志,其上部的振幅空白带是含水合物地层的反射特征,下部的高振幅异常区代表了下伏的游离气区(Free Gas Zones,简称FGZs).利用高分辨率三维地震资料,精细描述了毛里塔尼亚滨海地区的BSR和FGZs的地震反射特征及其与周边沉积构造单元的关系.BSR在底辟构造上部出现上拱现象,在靠近峡谷两壁时BSR位置快速变深.据分析,在底辟构造带,沿断裂体系向上运移的热流体改变了此处的水合物稳定条件,导致水合物稳定底界向上变浅.而峡谷对周边沉积物的冷却作用使当地的水合物稳定条件发生与底辟构造带处相反的变化,导致水合物稳定底界向下发生移动,在地震上表现为BSR深度的增加.另外,研究发现BSR和FGZs在流体运移通道较发育的地区,如断层、气烟囱和底辟构造带地区更加发育,证明流体运移体系在该地区对水合物和FGZs的形成具有十分重要的作用,提供了水合物体系的气源供给.

  5. Smartphones and Time Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  6. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  7. Definition and Classification of Low-Resistivity Oil Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuang-lian; LIU Jun-lai; LI Hao; ZHOU Yong-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Although the analysis of the microcosmic mechanism for low-resistivity oil zones in China, the intrinsic relationship between low-resistivity oil zones and geological background is still under-developed.Based on the geology and logging analysis, we redefine low-resistivity oil zones. According to their genesis, low-resistivity oil zones can be distinguished as five different classes: low-resistivity oil zones formed by tectonic settings, by depositional settings, by diagenetic settings, by invaded settings and those which are formed by the compounding geneses respectively. We make the following observations from this study on the definition and classification of low-resistivity oil zones: 1) A low-resistivity oil reservoir has macroscopic and microscopic unity. 2) The genesis of low-resistivity oil zones varies with the type of petroliferous basin. 3) Some low-resistivity oil zones can be forecasted based on the geological study results. 4) The results in this paper suggest that well logging information is generated from two cause mechanisms, the geophysical factors and the geological setting. Future studies on the geological background cause mechanism and the theory of well logging information will enrich the theory of logging geology and improve the ability to forecast oil zones.

  8. 76 FR 50172 - Designation of New Grantee, Foreign-Trade Zone 41, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Designation of New Grantee, Foreign-Trade Zone 41, Milwaukee, WI Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and...

  9. Saltwater upconing zone of influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovovic, Danica; Werner, Adrian D.; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we define and characterize the saltwater upconing zone of influence (SUZI). The SUZI is the region around a pumping well within which significant rise in the saltwater-freshwater interface occurs. While the zone of influence of a pumping well can be clearly defined in terms of hydraulics (e.g., drawdown), the SUZI has not been recognised and characterised, despite its importance for groundwater decision-making in coastal regions. We explore the SUZI under various conditions and compare common methods of investigation using both axisymmetric (1D and 2D vertical cross-section) and 3D simulations of saltwater upconing at the field scale, based on a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. The SUZI was found to be dependent on the relative magnitudes of pumping, regional flow, distance of the well from the coast, and position of the well above the interface, as expected. The three-dimensional coastal setting simulations revealed an asymmetric shape of the lateral extent of the SUZI, which is largest in the direction parallel to the coast. This occurs because the ocean and the inland extent of the seawater wedge limit the propagation of the SUZI perpendicular to the coast. Predictions of the SUZI using the Ghyben-Herzberg approximation, including cases where sloping interfaces occur (i.e., in contrast to the artificiality of horizontal interfaces used in axisymmetric approaches), provide reasonable first approximations of the SUZI. Numerical modelling of dispersive upconing in the 3D inclined interface case is influenced by practical limits to the model domain size and grid resolution. For example, the no-flow boundary condition at 1500 m from the pumping well elongates the SUZI in the direction parallel to the coast. This study extends previous concepts of well interference, which have previously been based on hydraulics only, by introducing the SUZI and characterising its extent, with consideration given to differences in commonly adopted

  10. High resolution imaging of vadose zone transport using surface and crosswell ground penetrating radar methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Kowalsky, Mike B.; Peterson, John E.

    2002-11-05

    To effectively clean up many contaminated sites there is a need for information on heterogeneities at scales ranging from one centimeter to tens of meters, as these features can alter contaminant transport significantly. At the Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site heterogeneities of interest can range from localized phenomena such as silt or gravel lenses, fractures, clastic dikes, to large-scale lithologic discontinuities. In the vadose zone it is critical to understand the parameters controlling flow. These features have been suspected of leading to funneling and fingering, additional physical mechanisms that could alter and possibly accelerate the transport of contaminants to underlying groundwater. For example, it has been observed from the studies to date that over relatively short distances there are heterogeneities in the physical structure of the porous medium and structural differences between repacked soil cores and the field site from which the materials initially came (Raymond and Shdo, 1966). Analysis of cores taken from the vadose zone (i.e., soil surface to water table) has been useful in identifying localized zones of contamination. Unfortunately, these analyses are sparse (limited to a few boreholes) and extremely expensive. The high levels of radioactivity at many of the contaminated sites increase drilling and sample costs and analysis time. Cost of drilling and core analysis for the SX tank farm has exceeded $1M per borehole (50 meter deep) for sampling. The inability to track highly mobile species through the vadose zone highlights an important need: the need for methods to describe the complete vadose zone plume and to determine processes controlling accelerated contamination of groundwater at Hanford. A combination of surface and crosswell (i.e. borehole) geophysical measurements is one means to provide this information. The main questions addressed with the radar methods in this study are: (1) What parts of the vadose zone

  11. Spatio-temporal changes in the genetic structure of the Passerina bunting hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Matthew D; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Although theoretical models predict that the structure of a hybrid zone can change under a variety of scenarios, only a few empirical studies of hybrid zones have unequivocally demonstrated zone movement. These studies are rare because few data sets exist that include repeated, temporally spaced, samples of the same hybrid zone. We analysed mitochondrial DNA haplotype data from samples separated by 40-45 years from across the Passerina amoena (Lazuli Bunting) and Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) hybrid zone to investigate whether the genetic structure of this zone has changed during that interval. Both cline and generalized linear mixed modelling analyses uncovered a significant narrowing and a substantial westward shift of the Passerina bunting hybrid zone, clearly illustrating hybrid zone movement. The cause of the change may be due to a combination of ecological, demographic and behavioural factors. Our results predict that the width of the hybrid zone will continue to narrow over time, a finding consistent with reinforcement theory.

  12. Total Amount Control in Tuwei River Basin Under the Control of Characteristic Parameters of Pollution Zone%基于污染带特征指标控制的秃尾河流域总量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 逄勇; 谢蓉蓉; 王雪; 吴大刚

    2015-01-01

    As the first grade tributary of the Yellow River basin, Tuwei River is significant because it is not only an important water source but also a pollutant receiving river in the basin. It is urgent to carry out researches on total amount controlling in Tuwei River to maintain the water quality. In this paper,the length of pollution mixing zone and pollutant concentration of pollution mixing section were used as the control parameters to quantify the total pollutant amount. A two-dimensional mathematical model of water environment which had been suitably calibrated and validated was applied to simulate 3 different kinds of water environmental situations at different conditions: the current situation without any pollutant reduction, the situation with pollutant reduction proposed by government and the situation with pollutant reduction proposed by experts. The results showed that:1 ) the bed roughness of Tuwei River basin was from 0. 029 to 0. 033 , the degradation coefficient of COD was 0. 10 - 0. 14 d-1 , the degradation coefficient of NH3-N was 0. 09-0. 12 d-1 , and the transverse diffusion coefficient of pollutants was 0. 88 m2/s. 2) it was also found that only the pollution reduction condition proposed by experts could reach the standard with the total amount of NH3-N 0. 185 t/d and COD 1. 25 t/d.%秃尾河作为黄河上游主要一级支流,是陕西省内重要的水源及纳污河段,故开展秃尾河总量控制研究对保护流域内水环境质量及维持西北、华北区域社会经济稳定具有重要意义.提出了以污染混合带长度与污染混合均匀断面水质质量浓度等污染带特征指标作为控制因子来进行污染控制总量确定的方法,并利用已率定验证合理的秃尾河二维水环境数学模型,分别对现状排污方案、区域环评规划排污方案及后续水环境研究专题报告专家推荐削减方案等3套不同方案进行水质模拟,通过对不同方案形成的污染带特征进行分析,

  13. 重复荷载作用下钢筋混凝土锚固端黏结性能试验研究%Test study on bonding performance of reinforced concrete anchorage zone under repeated loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋德稳; 邱洪兴

    2012-01-01

    通过对23个钢筋混凝土试件的静载和重复荷载作用下拔出试验,研究了重复荷载作用下钢筋峰值应变和残余应变、自由端和加载端滑移发展特征,得到了重复荷载作用下黏结应力-滑移滞回曲线变化规律。运用试验测定的钢筋应变,计算了静载和重复荷载作用下锚固端黏结应力分布曲线,总结了重复荷载作用下峰值黏结应力、残余黏结应力变化特征,分析了锚固端黏结应力分布机理。研究结果表明:重复荷载作用后黏结强度并不受重复次数影响;重复荷载作用下,自由端、加载端峰值滑移量和残余滑移量发展均符合疲劳破坏的三阶段特征;当滑移量累积到静载作用下破坏时的峰值滑移量时,发生黏结疲劳破坏;随着重复次数的增加,黏结应力沿锚固长度的分布出现明显的双峰现象,最大黏结应力位于距离加载端和自由端约1/4锚固长度位置处。研究结果可为深入研究混凝土结构疲劳性能提供依据。%23 reinforced concrete Rebar' s peak and residual stress, pull-out specimens were tested under monotonic loading and repeated loading peak slip and residual slip at the loading end and free end were inspected in this test. The bonding stress-slip hysteretic curve was obtained. According to the rebar stress data, the distribution curve in the anchorage was calculated under monotonic loading and repeated loading. Variation characteristics of peak and residual bonding stress under repeated loads were summarized, and bonding stress distribution mechanism was analyzed. Research result shows that bonding strength is not influenced much by repeated loading. The peak slip and residual slip follow the three stage rule of fatigue failure. Bonding fatigue failure occurs when the rebar slippage under repeated loading reaches the maximum slippage under monotonic loading. With the increase of repeating times, the obvious double peak phenomenon was shown in

  14. The Near Zone to Far Zone Transformation (N2F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackfield, Donald T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Poole, Brian R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-11

    N2F is a C/C++ code used to calculate the far zone electromagnetic (EM) field, given E and H near zone field data. The method used by N2F can be found in Ref. 1 and 2. N2F determines the far field EΦ and Eθ in spherical coordinates for near zone data calculated in either Cartesian or Cylindrical geometry.

  15. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  16. Microcirculatory remodeling in marginal zone of duodenal ulcer after bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulayeva О.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate objectively vessels network remodeling in duodenal mucosa after ulcer bleeding the morphometric analysis of marginal ulcer zone biopsies was performed in 32 patients. It was shown that reparation is accompanied with chronic inflammation and acute alteration of microcirculation. Injection hemostasis led to enhancement of microcirculation, development of edema and ischemic alteration of mucosal tissues. Acute neutrophilic infiltration during 1 day was changed on 3 day with granular tissue development and angiogenesis stimulation. Intensification and prolongation of angiogenesis paral-leled with lymphocytes infiltration after 7 days resulted to villi dysmorphogenesis and changes in cellular content of intestinal epithelium.

  17. 信息化条件下海上局部战争减员影响因素指标体系构建%Construction of Index System for Factors Influencing Combat Attrition during Near Shore Zone Sea War-fare under Conditions of Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维佳; 陈国良

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立一套科学、全面适应信息化条件下海战减员影响因素指标体系,为未来打赢信息化条件下海上局部战争,准确合理地预计海战减员人数奠定理论基础。方法运用文献归纳法、专家咨询法、模糊综合判断法,并通过3轮20名专家咨询确定信息化条件下海战减员影响因素及权重。结果经过3轮专家咨询,确立信息化条件下海战减员影响因素指标框架,包括一级指标3个,二级指标10个,三级指标42个。3轮专家咨询的积极系数分别是0.85、0.94、1,可操作性系数0.3342,敏感性系数0.2795,熟悉系数0.79。结论经过专家删除、修改各项指标,构建信息化条件下海战减员影响因素指标体系,可信度较高。%Objective To establish a scientific and comprehensive index system for factors influencing combat attrition during near shore zone sea warfare under conditions of informatization , so as to provide evidence to predict combat attrition during near shore zone sea warfare and win victory .Methods Literature inductive meth-od, Delphi method, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process were used in this research .20 experts were selected to help complete 3 rounds of consultation to determine factors and weights of each index .Results The finally determined indicators were 3 as primary,10 as the second level and 42 as the third.The recovery rates in 3 rounds of question-naire consultation were 85%,94% and 100%, operational coefficient was 0.3342, sensitivity coefficient was 0.2795, familiar coefficient was 0.79.Conclusion The index system for factors influencing combat attrition dur -ing near shore zone sea warfare under conditions of informatization was established after factors were deleted and modified, and the system was reliable.

  18. The alteration of mRNA expression of SOD and GPX genes, and proteins in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) under stress of NaCl and/or ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharby, Hesham F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Fuller, Michael P; Aldhebiani, Amal Y

    2016-11-01

    Five cultivars of tomato having different levels of salt stress tolerance were exposed to different treatments of NaCl (0, 3 and 6 g L(-1)) and ZnO-NPs (0, 15 and 30 mg L(-1)). Treatments with NaCl at both 3 and 6 g L(-1) suppressed the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) genes in all cultivars while plants treated with ZnO-NPs in the presence of NaCl, showed increments in the mRNA expression levels. This indicated that ZnO-NPs had a positive response on plant metabolism under salt stress. Superior expression levels of mRNA were observed in the salt tolerant cultivars, Sandpoint and Edkawy while the lowest level was detected in the salt sensitive cultivar, Anna Aasa. SDS-PAGE showed clear differences in patterns of protein expression among the cultivars. A negative protein marker for salt sensitivity and ZnO-NPs was detected in cv. Anna Aasa at a molecular weight of 19.162 kDa, while the tolerant cultivar Edkawy had two positive markers at molecular weights of 74.991 and 79.735 kDa.

  19. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  20. Hydrothermal Alteration at Lonar Crater, India and Elemental Variations in Impact Crater Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, H. E.; Nelson, M. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Misra, S.; Narasimham, V.

    2005-01-01

    The role of hydrothermal alteration and chemical transport involving impact craters could have occurred on Mars, the poles of Mercury and the Moon, and other small bodies. We are studying terrestrial craters of various sizes in different environments to better understand aqueous alteration and chemical transport processes. The Lonar crater in India (1.8 km diameter) is particularly interesting being the only impact crater in basalt. In January of 2004, during fieldwork in the ejecta blanket around the rim of the Lonar crater we discovered alteration zones not previously described at this crater. The alteration of the ejecta blanket could represent evidence of localized hydrothermal activity. Such activity is consistent with the presence of large amounts of impact melt in the ejecta blanket. Map of one area on the north rim of the crater containing highly altered zones at least 3 m deep is shown.

  1. Zoning should promote public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  2. Work Zone Data Collection Trailer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Work Zone Data Collection Trailer was designed and constructed to enhance data collection and analysis capabilities for the "Evaluating Roadway Construction Work...

  3. The influence of combined magnesium and vanadate administration on the level of some elements in selected rat organs: V-Mg interactions and the role of iron-essential protein (DMT-1) in the mechanism underlying altered tissues iron level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibior, Agnieszka; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Gołębiowska, Dorota; Niedźwiecka, Irmina; Fornal, Emilia

    2014-04-01

    The effect of 12 week co-administration of sodium metavanadate (SMV) and magnesium sulfate (MS) on the levels of some elements in selected rats' organs and an attempt to elucidate a role of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT-1) in the mechanism(s) of the SMV-induced disorders in some tissue Fe homeostasis were studied. SMV taken up separately or in combination with MS may pose a risk of the rise and shortage of the total hepatic and splenic Fe and Cu contents, respectively, cerebral Fe deficiency, splenic Ca deposition, and the hepatic, renal, and cerebral DMT-1 down-regulation. When administered alone, SMV may also cause the decrease in the total renal Fe and Cu contents. A visible protective effect of Mg against the renal and cerebral V accumulation and the decrease in the renal Fe and Cu contents during the SMV-MS co-administration together with our previous findings suggest a beneficial role of Mg at SMV exposure. Further, the SMV-induced fall in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), reported previously, and its correlations with the hepatic, splenic, and cerebral Fe levels allow us to suggest that diminished TIBC could be partly involved in the mechanism(s) responsible for the dramatic redistribution of Fe in those tissues. Finally, DMT-1, which potentially could participate in the hepatic non-transferrin Fe-bound uptake, does not play a significant role in this process indicating the need for studying other Fe transporters to more precisely elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying the hepatic Fe loading in our experimental conditions.

  4. REFITTING OF THE ZONE OF STORAGE, RECUPERATION AND SALES

    CERN Multimedia

    N. RAMA, ST Division

    1999-01-01

    Due to refitting and renovation (installation of automatic barriers and radiation protection, alteration of the main gate), the ZONE OF STORAGE, RECUPERATION AND SALES Building 133 will be closed from 22/10/99 to 02/11/99 inclusive, to allow the different engineering works to take place.For all information, please contact the responsible engineer, Mr N. Rama, ST Division/AA Group, tel. 77799, mobile 1601 07.Thank you for your understanding.

  5. Bread board float zone experiment system for high purity silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A breadboard float zone experimental system has been established at Westech Systems for use by NASA in the float zone experimental area. A used zoner of suitable size and flexibility was acquired and installed with the necessary utilities. Repairs, alignments and modifications were made to provide for dislocation free zoning of silicon. The zoner is capable of studying process parameters used in growing silicon in gravity and is flexible to allow trying of new features that will test concepts of zoning in microgravity. Characterizing the state of the art molten zones of a growing silicon crystal will establish the data base against which improvements of zoning in gravity or growing in microgravity can be compared. 25 mm diameter was chosen as the reference size, since growth in microgravity will be at that diameter or smaller for about the next 6 years. Dislocation free crystals were growtn in the 100 and 111 orientations, using a wide set of growth conditions. The zone shape at one set of conditions was measured, by simultaneously aluminum doping and freezing the zone, lengthwise slabbing and delineating by etching. The whole set of crystals, grown under various conditions, were slabbed, polished and striation etched, revealing the growth interface shape and the periodic and aperiodic natures of the striations.

  6. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo; Poveda, German

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited planets (hereafter InHZ), defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ) depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for ...

  7. Mushy Zone Properties and Castability of Aluminium Foundry Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The growing application and market share of aluminium castings demand better understanding of the mechanisms of defect formation during casting. Although casting is a cost-effective production route, inadequate reproducibility and quality of the cast structure often restrict the utilization of castings. This doctoral thesis aims to (1) determine how the solidification conditions affect the rheological behaviour in the partially solidified state, (2) to measure how alterations in solidification variables influence castability, and (3) to investigate the relationship between mushy zone rheology and castability. The development of mechanical strength in the mushy zone was measured as a function of chemical composition. Measurements of the dendrite coherency point provided accurate determination of the point where the dendrite network is established. The strength measurements confirm that the dendrites are largely independent and free-floating before dendrite coherency. The point and rate of strength development in the subsequently established interdendritic network strongly depend on the size and morphology of the dendrites and fraction solid. The castability investigation was limited to evaluations of fluidity and feeding. Fluidity measurements showed a complex effect of increased grain refinement. Alterations of the concentration and type of main alloying element gave a direct relationship between mushy zone rheology and fluidity. The range of the operating feeding mechanisms during solidification is directly related to the rheological properties of the mushy zone. 251 refs., 77 refs., 25 tabs.

  8. Economic scarcity alters the perception of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosch, Amy R; Amodio, David M

    2014-06-24

    When the economy declines, racial minorities are hit the hardest. Although existing explanations for this effect focus on institutional causes, recent psychological findings suggest that scarcity may also alter perceptions of race in ways that exacerbate discrimination. We tested the hypothesis that economic resource scarcity causes decision makers to perceive African Americans as "Blacker" and that this visual distortion elicits disparities in the allocation of resources. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that scarcity altered perceptions of race, lowering subjects' psychophysical threshold for seeing a mixed-race face as "Black" as opposed to "White." In studies 3 and 4, scarcity led subjects to visualize African American faces as darker and more "stereotypically Black," compared with a control condition. When presented to naïve subjects, face representations produced under scarcity elicited smaller allocations than control-condition representations. Together, these findings introduce a novel perceptual account for the proliferation of racial disparities under economic scarcity.

  9. Molecular Alterations in Sporadic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Alvelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is a frequent endocrine disorder characterized by an excessive autonomous production and release of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid glands. This endocrinopathy may result from the development of a benign lesion (adenoma or hyperplasia or from a carcinoma. Most of the PHPT cases occur sporadically; however, approximately 10% of the patients present a familial form of the disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of sporadic PHPT are incompletely understood, even though somatic alterations in MEN1 gene and CCND1 protein overexpression are frequently observed. The MEN1 gene is mutated in about 30% of the parathyroid tumours and the protooncogene CCND1 is implicated in parathyroid neoplasia by rearrangements, leading to an overexpression of CCND1 protein in parathyroid cells. The aim of this work is to briefly update the molecular alterations underlying sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

  10. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  11. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  12. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Michael S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  13. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-12-17

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca

  14. The concept of the Economic Exclusive Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Patuzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The important and the new concept that brought the third UN Conference of the Law of the Sea was the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ, requested by countries whose coasts are bordering on the oceans, seas, but also in harmony with the interests of countries which have extensive coastline or those with specific geographical features, which have a very narrow coastal zone. On December 10, 1982, nearly 120 countries signed the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, as one of the most significant international conferences. Part V of that Convention (more precisely Articles 55 to 75 provides for an “Exclusive Economic Zone” extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast. If all coastal states thus exercised their jurisdiction over their own EEZ, some 38 million square nautical miles would become their “economic patrimony”. It should be mentioned that the ocean represents 71% of the total surface of the earth and that 32% of that falls under the jurisdiction of coastal states. Consequently inside these economic zones would lie 90% of global fishing, 87% of oil deposits and 10 % of polymetallic nodules. The EEZ provisions have received widespread support and have become an integral part of international practice especially when the Convention of 1982 entered into force, also articles 55 and 86 of the Convention make it clear that the EEZ is not a part of the territorial sea, but it is a zone sui generis, with a statute of its own. Some countries had claimed 200-mile EEZ and other have established a 200- mile Exclusive Fishing Zone (EFZ. The countries benefiting the most from the EEZ concept are in order of the size of their zones: USA, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Canada and Russia. If this concept was to be applied by all coastal Mediterranean States, the entire sea would be covered by EEZs of the littoral countries. The countries of the Mediterranean that would most benefit from the EEZ are Greece, Cyprus, Italy and Malta

  15. Geochemical Characteristics and Significance of Major Elements, Trace Elements and REE in Mineralized Altered Rocks of Large-Scale Tsagaan Suvarga Cu-Mo Porphyry Deposit in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The alteration types of the large-scale Tsagaan Suvarga Cu-Mo porphyry deposit mostly comprise stockwork silicification, argillization, quartz-sericite alteration, K-silicate alteration, and propylitization.The mineralized and altered zones from hydrothermal metallogenic center to the outside successively are Cu-bearing stockwork silicification zone, Cu-bearing argillized zone, Cu-Mo-bearing quartz-sericite alteration zone, Cu-Mo-bearing K-silicate alteration zone, and propylitization zone.The K-silicate alteration occurred in the early phase, quartz-sericite alteration in the medium phase, and argillization and carbonatization (calcite) in the later phase.Ore-bearing-altered rocks are significantly controlled by the structure and fissure zones of different scales, and NE- and NW-trending fissure zones could probably be the migration pathways of the porphyry hydrothermal system.Results in this study indicated that the less the concentrations of REE, LREE, and HREE and the more the extensive fractionation between LREE and HREE, the closer it is to the center circulatory hydrothermal ore-forming and the more extensive silicification.The exponential relationship between the fractionation of LREE and HREE and the intensity of silicification and K-silicate alteration was found in the Cu-Mo deposit studied.The negative Eu anomaly, normal Eu, positive Eu anomaly and obviously positive Eu anomaly are coincident with the enhancement of Na2O and K2O concentrations gradually, which indicated that Eu anomaly would be significantly controlled by the alkaline metasomatism of the circulatory hydrothermal ore-forming system.Therefore, such characteristics as the positive Eu anomaly, the obvious fractionation between LREE and HREE and their related special alteration lithofacies are suggested to be metallogenic prognostic and exploration indications for Tsagaan Suvarga-style porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Mongolia and China.

  16. PRODUCTION OF CHINA'S NEW SOCIAL SPACE IN CITY UNDER "TRANSNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIALISM": A CASE STUDY ON AFRICAN ECONOMIC ZONE IN GUANGZHOU%“跨国商贸主义”下的城市新社会空间生产——对广州非裔经济区的实证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 杜枫

    2012-01-01

    Using the first-hand survey data, this paper examines the formation of African economic zone in Guangzhou, and analyzes its development process, reasons and mechanisms. Transnational entrepreneurialism, a new concept, is used to delineate a new force that appears under the context of booming "made in China," according to which entrepreneurs abroad came to China for business, forming economic zones and new social spaces. With a case study on Guangzhou, it is found that African migrants are mainly foreign traders. During the last decade, they developed an entrepreneurial chain that covers African, Europe, North America, Middle Asia, South-East Asia, and China, through which they migrated to Guangzhou and made a new ethnic zone at Xiaobeilu, Sanyuanli, etc. The ethnic economy in these two areas are growing to be full-fledged, including both logistic companies and trading individuals; the latter depends on the social network established by the former group to practice their transnational business. African economic zones include three circles of social ties: the core is a circle of African traders; the second circle is their communities; and the third circle, so-called China-Africa circle, develops the interactions between Africans and local Chinese. The upsurge of new social space under "transnational entrepreneurialism" not only marks the coming of a new era of intensive-globalization in urban China, but also means both opportunities and challenges for the local government.%文章采用第一手调研资料、通过长期实地调研,揭示“跨国商贸主义”下广州非洲人族裔经济区的生产机制.实证表明,跨国非裔商人的商业迁移链经由非洲到欧洲、北美、中亚、东南亚而后转入中国;随着广州小北、三元里等地非洲人族裔经济区的成熟发展,其生产链逐步成型,主要包括非裔坐贯和非裔行商两大群体;广州非洲人族裔经济区已具有成型的社会网络结构,分为3个圈层:

  17. Dynamic alterations in wellbore cement integrity due to geochemical reactions in CO2-rich environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peilin; Karpyn, Zuleima T.; Li, Li

    2013-07-01

    The interaction between wellbore cement and CO2 has the potential to alter cement properties and form preferential leakage pathways during geological carbon sequestration. This work investigates changes in wellbore cement integrity during continuous flooding of CO2-saturated brine. We created composite cement-sandstone core samples with a continuous gap in the cement zone in order to represent defects such as fractures and voids in wellbore cement. Volumetric and structural changes in the cement zone were monitored and quantified using X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography imaging. During an 8 day dynamic flow-through period, the fracture/void aperture increased significantly, whereas the host sandstone remained unaltered. The void volume increased at a faster rate in the early stage of the flow-through period than it did toward the end of the period. Compared to the apertures close to the core outlet, those located near the core inlet experienced more severe cement degradation, accompanied by a decrease in specific surface area, constituting evidence of a smoothing effect. Contrary to previous observations of the self-healing behavior of cement fractures, the in situ permeability on a parallel experiment increased by a factor of 8 after 10 days of flooding. Findings from this work will provide valuable insights applicable to the development of predictive models and for risk assessment under conditions relevant to CO2 sequestration.

  18. Oryzalin-modified disruption of microtubular cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis thaliana root cells under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Ia.; Shevchenko, G.; Kordyum, E.

    There are data on gravisensitivity of cells not specialized to perceive a gravity vector but the molecular processes by which gravity affects not graviperceptive cells are still unclear Spaceflight experiments show that the microtubule self-organization in vitro is gravity-dependent Confocal microscopic analysis of the microtubule spatial organization under altered gravity with combination of approach drugs that disrupt normal microtubule behavior should give us a better understanding of the possible role of microtubule cytoskeleton in gravisensing on cellular level With this aim we examined influence of horizontal clinorotation 2 rpm on the spatial organization of microtubules in the root cortical and epidermal cells by means of LSM 5 PASCAL Zeiss Germany Microtubules were visualized by using stably transformed line of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a green fluorescent protein-MAP4 fusion protein We inhibited microtubule function applying 5 956 M L oryzalin microtubule inhibitor in control and clinorotated seedlings Preliminary investigations show that cortical microtubule arrays were dense and predominantly transverse to the root long axis in the meristem and distal elongation zone in control and they got oblique direction when rapid cell elongation is finishing In the differentiation zone microtubules reorient with respect to the longitudinal growth axis of cell Under clinorotation cortical microtubules have the same configuration in the meristem central elongation zone and differentiation zone but it is observed appearances of several

  19. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  20. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J., E-mail: p.french@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3000 CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-07

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes.

  1. [Hepatic alterations in patients with dengue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larreal, Yraima; Valero, Nereida; Estévez, Jesús; Reyes, Ivette; Maldonado, Mery; Espina, Luz Marina; Arias, Julia; Meleán, Eddy; Añez, German; Atencio, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    Clinical features of Dengue are very variable due to multiple alterations induced by the virus in the organism. Increased levels of transaminases similar to those produced by the Hepatitis virus have been reported in patients with Dengue from hiperendemic zones in Asia. The objectives of this study were to determine alterations in the liver tests in patients with Dengue and to relate them to the disease, clinically and serologically. Clinical history, hemathological tests serum transaminases (ALT y AST) and bilirubin assays were performed in 62 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis of Dengue. According to clinical features 38.7% of the patients with classical (CD) and hemorrhagic (DHF) forms of Dengue reffered abdominal pain and 2 patients with DHF had ictericia and hepatomegaly. Laboratory test findings showed leucopenia in 72.5% in both forms of Dengue and of patients with DHF severe thrombocytopenia (< 50.000 platelets x mm3), long PT and PPT in 70.9%, 23.0% and 42.3%, respectively. Transaminase values five fold higher than the normal values (p < 0.005) were observed in 36.8% and 74.4% of patients with CD and DHF respectively; AST was predominant in both groups. Our results suggest liver damage during the course of Dengue. A differential diagnosis has to be done between the hepatic involvement of Dengue cases and others viral diseases with hepatic disfunctions.

  2. The timing of embryonic exposure to elevated temperature alters stress endocrinology in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Mast, Andrew D; Luu, Thuyvan H; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of glucocorticoid (GC) release in response to stimuli vary both among individuals and within individuals across their lifetime. While much work has focused on how the prenatal steroid environment can affect GC release, relatively little is known about how environmental parameters, such as incubation temperature affect GCs. We tested the hypothesis that variation and timing of elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone can alter the pattern of GC release. We incubated domestic chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) at the optimal incubation temperature (37.5 °C) or at a slightly higher temperature (+1.1 °C) either early, late, or throughout incubation. At three weeks post-hatch, all birds were (i) exposed to a capture-restraint stress to measure stress-induced GC release (naïve). Three days following the naïve stressor, birds were (ii) exposed to a heat challenge, which was followed the next day by a second capture-restraint stress (post-heat challenge). Regardless of treatment, birds had similar patterns of GC release following the naïve stress series. However, during the post-heat challenge stress series, birds incubated at optimal temperatures increased their peak GC release. In contrast, birds exposed to slightly elevated temperatures for any period of development failed to increase peak GC release, and their specific response varied with timing of exposure to the elevated incubation temperature. Our results demonstrate that subtle variation in the embryonic environment, such as elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone, can impact the pattern of GC release of offspring. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes and the relationship between fitness and environmentally-altered phenotypes.

  3. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to

  4. Characterizing Organic-Liquid Sources in the Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, M. L.; Truex, M.; Mainhagu, J.; Morrison, C.; Oostrom, M.; Carroll, K. C.; Yeh, T.

    2010-12-01

    There are two primary concerns associated with sites that contain contaminant sources located in the vadose zone. First, discharge of contaminant vapor from the vadose-zone source may impact the underlying groundwater. This could contribute to overall risk posed by the site, and delay attainment of groundwater cleanup goals. Second, contaminant vapor from the vadose-zone source may migrate to the land surface and transfer into buildings, thereby causing vapor intrusion. The decision to require remediation of a vadose-zone source zone is typically based on assessing the potential impact of the vadose-zone source on groundwater or vapor intrusion. Concomitantly, setting appropriate vadose-zone remediation goals once the decision is made, as well as evaluating attainment of these remediation goals, requires evaluating these persistent sources in terms of their impact on groundwater remediation goals or vapor-intrusion concerns. These issues are of particular relevance for soil-vapor extraction (SVE), which is the presumptive remedy for vadose-zone systems contaminated by chlorinated solvents. Characterizing the impact of vadose-zone contaminant sources on groundwater or vapor intrusion requires determination of the contaminant mass discharge from the source. A vadose-zone characterization technology is presented that can provide direct measures of vapor-phase contaminant mass discharge, characterize mass-transfer conditions, and provide a higher resolution characterization of the source distribution. This technology is a combination of two recently developed methods (vapor-phase mass discharge method and vapor-phase tomography) and two existing methods (pneumatic tomography and tracer tomography). The technology is designed to be used in a tiered approach that is sensitive to associated cost-benefits, and is responsive to specific requirements of the site. Example applications are presented.

  5. Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF in musician's dystonia (MD and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004. Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with 3 auditory feedback conditions: 1. normal feedback; 2. no feedback; 3. constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are 4 experimental conditions, among them 3 are the same altered auditory feedback as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients’ fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context.

  6. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  7. Evolution of the Median Tectonic Line fault zone, SW Japan, during exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Norio; Kametaka, Masao; Inada, Noriyuki; Miyawaki, Masahiro; Miyakawa, Ayumu; Kameda, Jun; Togo, Tetsuhiro; Fujimoto, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Like many crustal-scale fault zones, the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) fault zone in Japan preserves fault rocks that formed across a broad range of physical conditions. We examined the architecture of the MTL at a large new outcrop in order to understand fault behaviours under different crustal levels. The MTL here strikes almost E-W, dips to the north, and juxtaposes the Sanbagawa metamorphic rocks to the south against the Izumi Group sediments to the north. The fault core consists mainly of Sanbagawa-derived fault gouges. The fault zone can be divided into several structural units, including two slip zones (upper and lower slip zones), where the lower slip zone is more conspicuous. Crosscutting relationships among structures and kinematics indicate that the fault zone records four stages of deformation. Microstructures and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that the four stages of deformation occurred under different temperature conditions. The oldest deformation (stage 1) was widely distributed, and had a top-to-the-east (dextral) sense of slip at deep levels of the seismogenic zone. Deformation with the same sense of slip, then became localised in the lower slip zone (stage 2). Subsequently, the slip direction in the lower slip zone changed to top-to-the-west (sinistral-normal) (stage 3). The final stage of deformation (stage 4) involved top-to-the-north normal faulting along the two slip zones within the shallow crust (near the surface). The widely distributed stage 1 damage zone characterises the deeper part of the seismogenic zone, while the sets of localised principal slip zones and branching faults of stage 4 characterise shallow depths. The fault zone architecture described in this paper leads us to suggest that fault zones display different behaviours at different crustal levels.

  8. The mass balance calculation of hydrothermal alteration in Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit is located 65 km southwest of Rafsanjan in Kerman province. The Sarcheshmeh deposit belongs to the southeastern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (i.e., Dehaj-Sarduyeh zone. Intrusion of Sarcheshmeh granodiorite stock in faulted and thrusted early-Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits, led to mineralization in Miocene. In this research, the mass changes and element mobilities during hydrothermal process of potassic alteration were studied relative to fresh rock from the deeper parts of the plutonic body, phyllic relative to potassic, argillic relative to phyllic and propylitic alteration relative to fresh andesites surrounding the deposit. In the potassic zone, enrichment in Fe2O3 and K2O is so clear, because of increasing Fe coming from biotite alteration and presence of K-feldspar, respectively. Copper and molybdenum enrichments resulted from presence of chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite mineralization in this zone. Enrichment of SiO2 and depletion of CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O in the phyllic zone resulted from leaching of sodium, calcium and magnesium from the aluminosilicate rocks and alteration of K-feldspar to sericite and quartz. In the argillic zone, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O and MnO have also been enriched in which increasing Al2O3 may be from kaolinite and illite formation. Also, enrichment in SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO in propylitic alteration zone can be attributed to the formation of chlorite, epidote and calcite as indicative minerals of this zone.

  9. Mapping and Contact Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Bergur Rønne

    2009-01-01

    En undersøgelse af kortlægningsperspektiver - sted og rum - i Jørgen-Frantz Jacobsens Barbara og William Heinesens De fortabte Spillemænd med afsæt i Bakhtins kronotop-begreb og Foucaults begreb heterotopia. Analysen er koncentreret om konvergensen mellem blikket indefra og udefra og argumenterer...

  10. Formalized morphostructural zoning of the mountain zone of the Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielov, A.M.; Gvishiani, A.D.; Zhidkov, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    A plan is presented for morphostructural zoning of the Andes compiled according to formalized signs for purposes of seismic forecasting. Characteristics are presented for the basic morphostructural subdivisions of the Andes.

  11. INTERACTION OF TRADE AND FINANCIAL LINKAGES IN THE FREE TRADE ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shevchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different models of free trade agreements (FTA and free trade zones (FTZ are considered in the article, argued the complex approach to their structures and results under unstable global economic environment. The typology of the free trade zones models and financial linkages types between countries have been developed. Approaches to the results of the free trade zones have been argued. It has been discovered that for the free trade zones of transitional countries the prevailing are tarde flows concentration whereas financial and investment linkages are acting with developed countries. The main directions of increasing of the financial linkages results in the free trade zones have been discovered.

  12. Chaotic zones around gravitating binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound bodies (a double star, a double black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, in function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the binary periods. The binary's mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present, is also estimated.

  13. Geochemical element mobility during the hydrothermal alteration in the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit represents one of the important copper source and mineral deposits in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Balikesir province, NW Turkey. It considered as a vein-type deposit locally associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones in the main host rock that represented by hornfels, as well as generally related to the shallow intermediate to silicic intrusive Eybek pluton. Based on the field and geologic relationships and types of ore mineral assemblages and the accompanied alteration types, there are two mineralization zones; hypogene (primary) and oxidation/supergene zones are observed associated with three alteration zones; potassic, phyllic, and propylitic zones related to this porphyry deposit. The phyllic and propylitic alterations locally surrounded the potassic alteration. The ore minerals related to the hypogene zone represented by mostly chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, and pyrite with subordinate amount of marcasite, enargite, and gold. On the other hand they include mainly cuprite with chalcopyrite, pyrite and gold as well as hematite and goethite at the oxidation/supergene zone. This study deals with the quantitative calculations of the mass/volume changes (gains and losses) of the major and trace elements during the different episodes of alteration in this porphyry deposit. These mass balance data reveal that the potassic alteration zone that the main Cu- and Mo-enriched zone, has enrichment of K, Si, Fe, and Mg, and depletion of Na referring to replacement of plagioclase and amphibole by K-feldspar, sericite and biotite. While the propylitic alteration that is the main Mo- and Au-enriched zone is accompanied with K and Na depletion with enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, and Ca forming chlorite, epidote, carbonate and pyrite. On the other hand the phyllic alteration that occurred in the outer part around the potassic alteration, characterized by less amount

  14. Diabetic rat testes: morphological and functional alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Esposito, R; Pisanti, F A; Vietri, M T; Galdieri, M

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the histological and molecular alterations in the testes of rats injected with streptozotocin at prepuperal (SPI rats) and adult age (SAI rats) to understand whether diabetes affects testicular tissue with different severity depending on the age in which this pathological condition starts. The testes of diabetic animals showed frequent abnormal histology, and seminiferous epithelium cytoarchitecture appeared altered as well as the occludin distribution pattern. The early occurrence of diabetes increased the percentage of animals with high number of damaged tubules. The interstitial compartment of the testes was clearly hypertrophic in several portions of the organs both in SPI and SAI rats. Interestingly, fully developed Leydig cells were present in all the treated animals although abnormally distributed. Besides the above-described damages, we found a similar decrease in plasma testosterone levels both in SPI and SAI rats. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications, and in our experimental models we found that manganese superoxide dismutase was reduced in diabetic animals. We conclude that in STZ-induced diabetes, the altered spermatogenesis, more severe in SPI animals, is possibly due to the effect of OS on Leydig cell function which could cause the testosterone decrease responsible for the alterations found in the seminiferous epithelium of diabetic animals.

  15. Mechanisms of short-term plasticity at neuromuscular active zones of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallermann, Stefan; Heckmann, Manfred; Kittel, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    During short bursts of neuronal activity, changes in the efficacy of neurotransmitter release are governed primarily by two counteracting processes: (1) Ca2+-dependent elevations of vesicle release probability and (2) depletion of synaptic vesicles. The dynamic interplay of both processes contributes to the expression of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here, we exploited various facets of short-term plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction to dissect these two processes. This enabled us to rigorously analyze different models of synaptic vesicle pools in terms of their size and mobilization properties. Independent of the specific model, we estimate ∼300 readily releasable vesicles with an average release probability of ∼50% in 1 mM extracellular calcium (∼5% in 0.4 mM extracellular calcium) under resting conditions. The models also helped interpreting the altered short-term plasticity of the previously reported mutant of the active zone component Bruchpilot (BRP). Finally, our results were independently confirmed through fluctuation analysis. Our data reveal that the altered short-term plasticity observed in BRP mutants cannot be accounted for by delocalized Ca2+ channels alone and thus suggest an additional role of BRP in short-term plasticity. PMID:20811513

  16. 根系分区交替灌溉条件下水肥供应对番茄中番茄红素含量的影响%Effect of Water-fertilizer Supply on Tomato Lycopene Content under Alternate Subarea Root-zone Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振江; 牛晓丽; 陈思; 代顺冬; 胡田田

    2013-01-01

    This study is to find out the effects of irrigation amount and fertilizer applying quantity of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) lycopene content under alternate subarea root-zone irrigation. Regression model on water and fertilizer factors and tomato lycopene content was established with quadratic orthogonal regressive rotation design with 4 factors by pot experiment. The results showed that if other factors were zero codes, lycopene content in tomato decreased linearly with the increase of irrigation amount, while increased with the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers applying quantity, but it would not change along with the change of potassium fertilizer applying quantity. The interaction between irrigation amount and potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applying quantity presented negative effect on the accumulation of tomato lycopene content. Under the condition of alternate subarea root-zone irrigation, over irrigation was not favorable for the increase of lycopene content in tomato. Rational increase of nitrogen, phosphorus fertilizers applying quantity could effectively increase lycopene content in tomato.%为了解根系分区交替灌溉条件下灌水量和氮、磷、钾肥用量对番茄果实中番茄红素含量的影响,通过盆栽试验,采用四元二次回归正交旋转组合设计,建立了番茄红素含量与水肥因子的数学模型,并对各单一因素的效应及两两因素的耦合效应进行了分析.结果表明,在其他因子为中间水平时,番茄果实中的番茄红素含量,随灌水量的增加呈线性降低趋势,随施氮量与施磷量增加呈开口向上抛物线变化,但不随施钾量而变化.灌水量与施钾量、施氮量与施磷量的交互作用表现为阻碍果实番茄红素的积累.根系分区交替灌溉条件下,灌水量过高不利于番茄红素含量的增加,合理增施氮、磷肥可有效提高果实中番茄红素含量.

  17. Urban Terrain Zone Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    GROUP SUB-GROUP MOUT Urban Geography 13 13 MOBA Structures 15 06 06.07 Combat in Cities 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverie if necessary ind identify by...was introduced by the autbor in conjunction with the development end use of a computer-assisted game (ACABUG) for combat development studies...Activity (TRASANA) under the title of American Canadian Australian British Urban Game . (ACABUG) Urban Terrain Classification System. The claseification

  18. 国家主体功能区战略背景下东北地区城市经济增长的动力与路径——基于城市暂住人口视角%The impetus and path of economic growth for cities in Northeast China under the background of major function zones: From the perspective of urban transient population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正桥; 王良健

    2013-01-01

    经济、人口、资源与环境的协调发展是新型城市化战略的核心,也是国家主体功能区规划的重要内容.鉴于各类主体功能区在东北地区并存,考察其经济增长与城市化开发路径,可为全国提供较好借鉴.以东北地区城市暂住人口为切人点,探讨了城市暂住人口与经济增长相互影响的作用机制,进而构建暂住人口与经济增长联立方程,并使用东北地区34个地级城市的面板数据进行实证分析,考量以暂住人口吸纳与承载能力为标志的城市化潜力与经济增长的动力.研究表明:在国家主体功能区战略背景下,需充分尊重和考虑东北地区各类开发区域与城市的经济、社会、自然与生态状况,应通过中心城市产业结构调整、生态功能区人口迁出等途径进行集中均衡式的城市化开发,积极加快推进基本公共服务均等化和城市内部基础设施完善.%The coordinated development of economy and population, resources and environment is a key point in the urbanization of China, as well as one of the important parts in the planning of major function zones. Since four types of development zones (optimized development zones, key development zones, restricted development zones, non-development zones) co-exist in Northeast China, to study the path and energy for economic growth and urbanization could offer a good reference for the whole nation.This paper, taking the temporary population as the breakthrough point, analyses the mechanism of interaction between economic growth and temporary population, and then constructs a set of simultaneous equations for economic growth and temporary population, using panel data from 34 cities in Northeast China, in order to get a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth and temporary population, which could be regarded as the absorption and bearing capacity of urbanization in this region. This study indicates that under the

  19. Alteration of hyaloclastites in the HSDP 2 Phase 1 Drill Core 1. Description and paragenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Anthony W.; Schiffman, Peter

    2003-05-01

    The core from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project 2 Phase 1 provides a unique opportunity for studying the low-temperature alteration processes affecting basalt in suboceanic-island environments. In hyaloclastites, which make up about one half of the lower 2 km of this core (the portion that accumulated below sea level), these processes have resulted in zones of incipient, smectitic, and palagonitic alteration. The alteration of sideromelane in these hyaloclastites has four distinct outcomes: dissolution, replacement by two different textural varieties of smectite (i.e., reddened and green grain-replacive), and conversion to palagonite. All samples show evidence of the incipient stage of alteration, suggesting that every sample passed through that zone. However, most samples that show palagonitic alteration do not also show evidence of smectitic alteration and vice versa, suggesting these two outcomes represent divergent paths of alteration. Incipient alteration (1080 to 1335 m depth) includes fracturing and mechanical reduction of porosity from 40-45% to about 20-30%; growth of one form of pore-lining smectite; dissolution of sideromelane; and formation of sideromelane-grain replacements consisting of Fe-hydroxide-strained smectite, titaniferous nodules, and tubules. DNA-specific stains and morphological features indicate that tubules are the result of microbial activity. Smectitic alteration (1405 to 1573 m) includes growth of a second variety of pore-lining smectite, pore-filling and grain-replacing smectite, and cements of phillipsite and Ca-silicate minerals. Palagonitic alteration (1573 m to the deepest samples) includes replacement of margins of shards with palagonite and growth of pore-filling chabazite. The porosity is reduced by cementation to less than 4% at 1573 m. Porosity does not decrease further down hole, nor does the thickness of palagonite rims on shards increase through the zone of palagonitic alteration. In these samples, palagonite is not

  20. ShoreZone Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  1. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented.

  2. Offshore Wind Technology Depth Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal bathymetric depth, measured in meters at depth values of: -30, -60, -900 Shallow Zone (0-30m): Technology has been demonstrated on a commercial scale at...

  3. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  4. Development Zones Flourish in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Based on the Beijing Municipal Government's plans for developing the city and neighboring suburbs,and after more than 10 years in development,the Beijing Development Zones have taken shape,each with their own characteristics.

  5. Relating Cohesive Zone Model to Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions required for a cohesive zone model (CZM) to predict a failure load of a cracked structure similar to that obtained by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis are investigated in this paper. This study clarifies why many different phenomenological cohesive laws can produce similar fracture predictions. Analytical results for five cohesive zone models are obtained, using five different cohesive laws that have the same cohesive work rate (CWR-area under the traction-separation curve) but different maximum tractions. The effect of the maximum traction on the predicted cohesive zone length and the remote applied load at fracture is presented. Similar to the small scale yielding condition for an LEFM analysis to be valid. the cohesive zone length also needs to be much smaller than the crack length. This is a necessary condition for a CZM to obtain a fracture prediction equivalent to an LEFM result.

  6. Demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Enghuus, Casper; Petersen, Morten A;

    2015-01-01

    of analgesic drug effects in humans. However, since the methods applied in demarcating the secondary hyperalgesia zone seem inconsistent across studies, we examined the effect of a standardized approach upon the measurement of SHA following a first degree burn injury (BI). NEW METHOD: The study was a two...... presented. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones depends on the developed pressure of the punctate stimulator used....

  7. Theoretical model of the helium zone plate microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Palau, Adrià; Bracco, Gianangelo; Holst, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    Neutral helium microscopy is a new technique currently under development. Its advantages are the low energy, charge neutrality, and inertness of the helium atoms, a potential large depth of field, and the fact that at thermal energies the helium atoms do not penetrate into any solid material. This opens the possibility, among others, for the creation of an instrument that can measure surface topology on the nanoscale, even on surfaces with high aspect ratios. One of the most promising designs for helium microscopy is the zone plate microscope. It consists of a supersonic expansion helium beam collimated by an aperture (skimmer) focused by a Fresnel zone plate onto a sample. The resolution is determined by the focal spot size, which depends on the size of the skimmer, the optics of the system, and the velocity spread of the beam through the chromatic aberrations of the zone plate. An important factor for the optics of the zone plate is the width of the outermost zone, corresponding to the smallest opening in the zone plate. The width of the outermost zone is fabrication limited to around 10 nm with present-day state-of-the-art technology. Due to the high ionization potential of neutral helium atoms, it is difficult to build efficient helium detectors. Therefore, it is crucial to optimize the microscope design to maximize the intensity for a given resolution and width of the outermost zone. Here we present an optimization model for the helium zone plate microscope. Assuming constant resolution and width of the outermost zone, we are able to reduce the problem to a two-variable problem (zone plate radius and object distance) and we show that for a given beam temperature and pressure, there is always a single intensity maximum. We compare our model with the highest-resolution zone plate focusing images published and show that the intensity can be increased seven times. Reducing the width of the outermost zone to 10 nm leads to an increase in intensity of more than 8000

  8. Thermodynamics of Organic Compound Alteration in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, E. L.

    2005-12-01

    Organic compounds enter hydrothermal systems through infiltrating surface waters, zones of microbial productivity in the subsurface, extracts of organic matter in surrounding host rocks, and abiotic synthesis. Owing to variations in pH, oxidation state, composition, temperature, and pressure throughout the changing pathways of fluid migration over the duration of the system, organic compounds from all of these sources are introduced to conditions where their relative stabilities and reactivities can be dramatically transformed. If those transformations were predictable, then the extent to which organic alteration reactions have occurred could be used to reveal flowpaths and histories of hydrothermal systems. Speciation and mass transfer calculations permit some insight into the underlying thermodynamic driving forces that result in organic compound alteration. As an example, the speciation of many geochemist's canonical organic matter: CH2O depends strongly on oxidation state, temperature, and total concentration of dissolved organic matter. Calculations show that at oxidation states buffered by iron-bearing mineral assemblages, organic acids dominate the speciation of CH2O throughout hydrothermal systems, with acetic acid (itself equivalent to 2 CH2O by bulk composition) and propanoic acid generally the most abundant compounds. However, at more reduced conditions, which may prevail in organic-rich iron-poor sediments, the drive is to form ketones and especially alcohols at the expense of organic acids. The distribution of organic carbon among the various members of these compound classes is strongly dependent on the total concentration of dissolved organic matter. As an example, at a bulk concentration equivalent to average dissolved organic matter in seawater (45μm), the dominant alcohols at 100°C are small compounds like ethanol and 1-propanol. In contrast, at a higher bulk concentration of 500μm, there is a drive to shift large percentages of dissolved

  9. The global aftershock zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,

    2014-01-01

    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  10. Discrimination Study on Fluid—Rock Interaction Between Metallogenic and Non—Metallogenic Sections in a Shear Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俊浩; 李建威; 等

    1999-01-01

    Discriminations in a local chemical,fluidal,mechanical and thermal processes in a shear zone will lead to metallogenic differentiation in a local section.This paper,based on the general geological setting of the Shibangou gold deposit in Xixia,Henan,deals with petrological and petrochemical samples of altered rocks in the metallogenic section and of mylonites in the non-metallogenic section of a selected shear zone.The discriminations in fluid-rock interaction and petrological mass balance between altered rocks near the orebody and mylonites in the shear zone are discussed as well.The results show that the petrological volume of altered rocks in the metallogenic section of the shear zone is almost always dilatant and the mylonite volume in the non-metallogenic section is almost always lost.Major elements in altered rocks from the metallogenic section and in mylonites from the non-metallogenic section always show a tendency of being enriched and depleted,respectively.Fluid-rock ratios in the mylonites(Nu=93.68-468.40)are larger than those of the altered rocks(NC(Ⅳ)s=36.11-216.67).The gain and loss of major and trace elements from the altered rocks and mylonites in the shear zone are a composite process to be imported and exported by percolating fluids as well as of the loss and dilatancy of rock volume.

  11. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies.

  12. On the Development of Local Banks in the Central Plains Economic Zone under the Background of Interest Rate Liberalization%利率市场化下中原经济区地方银行发展研究--以河南省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨若谦; 李晓娜; 刘磊

    2015-01-01

    With the implementation of the interest rate liberalization, the local bank gets the good development opportunity. But at the same time, it also faces many risks, such as the interest margin between loans and deposits is narrow, management difficulty of financial liquidity is bigger, credit default, competition is increasing and so on. This paper takes Henan Province as the example to discuss the development strategies of local banks in the central plains economic zone under the background of interest rate liberalization to promote the sustainable development of local Banks.%随着利率市场化的实施,地方银行迎来了大好的发展时机,但同时也面临着存贷款利差空间缩小、资金流动性管理难度大、信用违约、竞争加剧等诸多风险。本文以河南省为例,探讨利率市场化背景下中原经济区地方银行的发展策略,以促进地方银行的可持续发展。

  13. Simulation of rock mass balance of two typical altered rocks in Wulong gold deposit of Liaoning, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wulong gold deposit hosted in granite and fine-grained diorite dikes, is a typical gold deposit of quartz vein type. Granite and fine-grained diorite dikes in the ore deposit were altered by metallogenic fluid.Based on the altered zoning, the samples of petrochemistry were collected and major and trace elements were analyzed systematically. Calculation of rock mass balance shows that the major elements (SiO2, K2 O, P2O5,Fe2 O3) in the two typical altered rocks are clearly added into the altered system, and that trace elements (V,Y, Zr, Ni, Co, Sr) assume an increasing and decreasing tendencies in the altered granite and altered diorite dike, respectively. The fluid/rock ratios are 30.17-181.00 and 115.44-692.67 respectively for altered granite and altered diorite dike, they have profoundly effects on metallogenesis.

  14. 78 FR 36165 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 104; (Expansion of Service Area and Expansion of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 43047, 07/23/12) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 104; (Expansion of Service Area and Expansion of Zone); Under Alternative Site Framework, Savannah, Georgia Pursuant to its...

  15. 78 FR 2952 - Foreign-Trade Zone 3-San Francisco, California; Application for Expansion and Expansion of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... on January 9, 2013. FTZ 3 was approved by the Board on March 10, 1948 (Board Order 12, 13 FR 1459, 3/19/48) and the zone was reorganized under the ASF on October 7, 2010 (Board Order 1718, 75 FR 64708... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 3--San Francisco, California; Application for Expansion...

  16. 77 FR 55455 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 72, Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind Turbine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 72, Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind Turbine Gear Boxes), Yorktown, IN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones..., has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Brevini Wind USA, Inc., within FTZ 72 in...

  17. 77 FR 75609 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 277; Suntech Arizona, Inc. (Solar Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 277; Suntech Arizona, Inc. (Solar Panel Manufacturing); Goodyear, AZ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones... requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Suntech Arizona, Inc., within FTZ 277, in Goodyear,...

  18. Ocean acidification alters fish-jellyfish symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pitt, Kylie A; Rutte, Melchior D; Geertsma, Robbert C

    2016-06-29

    Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral-microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour. The total time that fish (yellowtail scad) spent close to their jellyfish host in a choice arena where they could see and smell their host was approximately three times shorter under future compared with ambient CO2 conditions. Likewise, the mean number of attempts to associate with jellyfish was almost three times lower in CO2-treated compared with control fish, while only 63% (high CO2) versus 86% (control) of all individuals tested initiated an association at all. By contrast, none of three fish species tested were attracted solely to jellyfish olfactory cues under present-day CO2 conditions, suggesting that the altered fish-jellyfish association is not driven by negative effects of ocean acidification on olfaction. Because shelter is not widely available in the open water column and larvae of many (and often commercially important) pelagic species associate with jellyfish for protection against predators, modification of the fish-jellyfish symbiosis might lead to higher mortality and alter species population dynamics, and potentially have flow-on effects for their fisheries.

  19. Genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Chul; Kang, Tae Woong; Lee, Jin Oh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studied the alteration of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. We found that alteration of Rb gene, APC were 33 %, 13 % respectively. But alterations of oncogenes such as myc, ras and mdm2 were rarely found. Our results suggests that HBV may act as oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis instead of oncogenes. 6 figs, 2 tabs. (Author).

  20. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  1. Zone and double zone diagrams in abstract spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reem, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A zone diagram of order $n$ is a relatively new concept which was first defined and studied by T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama. It can be interpreted as a state of equilibrium between $n$ mutually hostile kingdoms. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping. These authors considered the Euclidean plane and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we generalize this concept in various ways. We consider $m$-spaces (a simple generalization of metric spaces) and prove some existence and (non)uniqueness results there. In contrast to previous works, our proofs are based on purely order theoretic arguments. Many explicit examples are given, and some of them illustrate new phenomena which occur in the general case. We also re-interpret zone diagrams as a stable configuration in a certain combinatorial game, and provide an algorithm for finding this configuration in a particular case.

  2. SEMIAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF TUMORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Zagrouba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust method based on the cooperation of fuzzy classification and regions segmentation algorithms, in order to detect the tumoral zone in the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. On one hand, the classification in fuzzy sets is done by the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm (FCM, where a study of its different parameters and its complexity has been previously realised, which led us to improve it. On the other hand, the segmentation in regions is obtained by an hierarchical method through adaptive thresholding. Then, an operator expert selects a germ in the tumoral zone, and the class containing the sick zone is localised in return for the FCM algorithm. Finally, the superposition of the two partitions of the image will determine the sick zone. The originality of our approach is the parallel exploitation of different types of information in the image by the cooperation of two complementary approaches. This allows us to carry out a pertinent approach for the detection of sick zone in MRI images.

  3. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Tsokos, M.D. CONTRACTING...Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) George Tsokos, M.D...a decreased level of disease. Further studies will expand upon these observations better outlining the function of platelets in the injury associated

  4. Feasibility of shoulder use for highway work zone optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Du

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Highway maintenance, often requiring lane closure, is very expensive in terms of the costs associated with transportation agencies (i. e. work zone setups and road users (i. e. delay. Longer work zones tend to increase the user delay but will be efficient because of fewer repeated setups. To increase road capacity and mitigate congestion impact for a short-term work zone, temporary shoulder use may be applied. This study develops an analytical model to optimize work zone length on a multi-lane highway considering time-varying traffic volume and road capacity affected by light condition, heavy vehicle percentage, and lane width. The results can be used to evaluate the work zone impact (i. e. delay and cost and assist engineers/planners to prepare and develop a cost-effective highway maintenance plan. A case study for a highway work zone in New Jersey has been conducted, in which the optimized solution is found. A guideline of using road shoulder under various circumstances is developed.

  5. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.

    1984-01-01

    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  6. Effects of terrestrial buffer zones on amphibians on golf courses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly J Puglis

    Full Text Available A major cause of amphibian declines worldwide is habitat destruction or alteration. Public green spaces, such as golf courses and parks, could serve as safe havens to curb the effects of habitat loss if managed in ways to bolster local amphibian communities. We reared larval Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi and green frogs (Rana clamitans in golf course ponds with and without 1 m terrestrial buffer zones, and released marked cricket frog metamorphs at the golf course ponds they were reared in. Larval survival of both species was affected by the presence of a buffer zone, with increased survival for cricket frogs and decreased survival for green frogs when reared in ponds with buffer zones. No marked cricket frog juveniles were recovered at any golf course pond in the following year, suggesting that most animals died or migrated. In a separate study, we released cricket frogs in a terrestrial pen and allowed them to choose between mown and unmown grass. Cricket frogs had a greater probability of using unmown versus mown grass. Our results suggest that incorporating buffer zones around ponds can offer suitable habitat for some amphibian species and can improve the quality of the aquatic environment for some sensitive local amphibians.

  7. Effects of terrestrial buffer zones on amphibians on golf courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglis, Holly J; Boone, Michelle D

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of amphibian declines worldwide is habitat destruction or alteration. Public green spaces, such as golf courses and parks, could serve as safe havens to curb the effects of habitat loss if managed in ways to bolster local amphibian communities. We reared larval Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) in golf course ponds with and without 1 m terrestrial buffer zones, and released marked cricket frog metamorphs at the golf course ponds they were reared in. Larval survival of both species was affected by the presence of a buffer zone, with increased survival for cricket frogs and decreased survival for green frogs when reared in ponds with buffer zones. No marked cricket frog juveniles were recovered at any golf course pond in the following year, suggesting that most animals died or migrated. In a separate study, we released cricket frogs in a terrestrial pen and allowed them to choose between mown and unmown grass. Cricket frogs had a greater probability of using unmown versus mown grass. Our results suggest that incorporating buffer zones around ponds can offer suitable habitat for some amphibian species and can improve the quality of the aquatic environment for some sensitive local amphibians.

  8. Formation of circumbinary planets in a dead zone

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Rebecca G; Alexander, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Circumbinary planets have been observed at orbital radii where binary perturbations may have significant effects on the gas disk structure, on planetesimal velocity dispersion, and on the coupling between turbulence and planetesimals. Here, we note that the impact of all of these effects on planet formation is qualitatively altered if the circumbinary disk structure is layered, with a non-turbulent midplane layer (dead zone) and strongly turbulent surface layers. For close binaries, we find that the dead zone typically extends from a radius close to the inner disk edge up to a radius of around 10-20 au from the centre of mass of the binary. The peak in the surface density occurs within the dead zone, far from the inner disk edge, close to the snow line, and may act as a trap for aerodynamically coupled solids. We suggest that circumbinary planet formation may be easier near this preferential location than for disks around single stars. However, dead zones around wide binaries are less likely and hence planet ...

  9. Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

    2012-08-10

    Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

  10. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites: Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R.P.; McSween, H.Y. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

    1992-04-01

    A simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla has previously been called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Instead, diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely re-equilibrated. Only the cores of augite grains in Nakhla and Governador Valadares appear to have preserved their original compositions. Mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, suggesting that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. The presence of pigeonite and orthopyroxene overgrowths in Nakhla and Governador Valadares, and of poikilitic orthopyroxene enclosing olivine relicts in Lafayette, indicate substantial late-magmatic reactions. Two-pyroxene geothermometry for Lafayette indicates temperatures around 95C, suggesting subsolidus equilibration as well. The nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  11. 78 FR 41009 - Safety Zone; National Governors Association, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... shore to the point of origin (NAD 83). The second safety zone encompasses all waters and branches of the.... Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks We have analyzed this proposed rule under Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This proposed...

  12. International experimental zone to be created for thermonuclear fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Institute of Plasma Physics (ASIPP) under the CAS Hefei Institutes of Physical Sciences, a Chinese partner in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Program, is going to establish an international experimental zone for thermonuclear fusion in Hefei, capital of east China's Anhui Province. With a total area up to 13 hectares, its work on land acquisition has been completed.

  13. Strontium and oxygen isotopic profiles through 3 km of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust in the Reykjanes Geothermal System, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, N. E.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Program well of opportunity RN-17 was drilled 3 km into a section of hydrothermally altered basaltic crust in the Reykjanes geothermal system in Iceland. The system is located on the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the circulating hydrothermal fluid is modified seawater, making Reykjanes a useful analogue for mid-oceanic ridge hydrothermal systems. Whole rock oxygen isotope ratios range from -0.13 to 3.61‰, which are significantly depleted relative to fresh MORB (5.8±0.2‰). If oxygen isotope exchange between fluid and rock proceeded under equilibrium in a closed system, the bulk of the exchange must have occurred in the presence of a meteoric- as opposed to seawater-derived fluid. The concentrations of Sr in the altered basalt range from well below to well above concentrations in fresh rock, and appear to be strongly correlated with the dominant alteration mineralogy, although there is no correlation with 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios. Whole rock Sr isotopic ratios ranged from 0.70329 in the least altered crystalline basalt, to 0.70609 in the most altered hyaloclastite samples; there is no correlation with depth. Sr isotopic variation in epidote grains measured by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS ranged from 0.70353 to 0.70731. Three depth intervals have distinctive isotopic signatures, at 1000 m, 1350 m, and 2000 m depth, where 87Sr/86Sr ratios are elevated (mean value >0.7050) relative to background levels (mean altered basalt value ~0.7042). These areas are proximal to feed zones, and the 1350 m interval directly overlies the transition from dominantly extrusive to intrusive lithologies. Strontium and oxygen isotope data indicate that the greenschist-altered basalts were in equilibrium with modified hydrothermal fluids at a relatively high mean water/rock mass ratios (generally in the range 1-3), and require the presence of both meteoric- and seawater-derived recharge fluids at various stages in the hydrothermal history.

  14. Fungal symbionts alter plant drought response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worchel, Elise R; Giauque, Hannah E; Kivlin, Stephanie N

    2013-04-01

    Grassland productivity is often primarily limited by water availability, and therefore, grasslands may be especially sensitive to climate change. Fungal symbionts can mediate plant drought response by enhancing drought tolerance and avoidance, but these effects have not been quantified across grass species. We performed a factorial meta-analysis of previously published studies to determine how arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and endophytic fungal symbionts affect growth of grasses under drought. We then examined how the effect of fungal symbionts on plant growth was influenced by biotic (plant photosynthetic pathway) and abiotic (level of drought) factors. We also measured the phylogenetic signal of fungal symbionts on grass growth under control and drought conditions. Under drought conditions, grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than those without mycorrhizal symbionts. The increased growth of grasses conferred from fungal symbionts was greatest at the lowest soil moisture levels. Furthermore, under both drought and control conditions, C3 grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than C3 grasses without symbionts, but the biomass of C4 grasses was not affected by AM fungi. Endophytes did not increase plant biomass overall under any treatment. However, there was a phylogenetically conserved increase in plant biomass in grasses colonized by endophytes. Grasses and their fungal symbionts seem to interact within a context-dependent symbiosis, varying with biotic and abiotic conditions. Because plant-fungal symbioses significantly alter plant drought response, including these responses could improve our ability to predict grassland functioning under global change.

  15. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  16. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  17. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...-0997 New York, NY Security Zones (Part 165).... 9/23/2008 USCG-2008-0998 Puerto Rico Safety Zones (Part...-0358 Puerto Rico Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 5/31/2009 USCG-2009-0360 Cincinnati, OH Safety Zones...-1042 Baton Rouge, LA Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 12/4/2009 USCG-2009-1043 South Padre Island,...

  18. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky, USA: I. Weathering zones defined by mineralogy and major-element composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of chemical and mineralogical changes induced by weathering is valuable information when considering the supply of nutrients and toxic elements from rocks. Here minerals that release and fix major elements during progressive weathering of a bed of Devonian New Albany Shale in eastern Kentucky are documented. Samples were collected from unweathered core (parent shale) and across an outcrop excavated into a hillside 40 year prior to sampling. Quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogical data record progressive shale alteration across the outcrop. Mineral compositional changes reflect subtle alteration processes such as incongruent dissolution and cation exchange. Altered primary minerals include K-feldspars, plagioclase, calcite, pyrite, and chlorite. Secondary minerals include jarosite, gypsum, goethite, amorphous Fe(III) oxides and Fe(II)-Al sulfate salt (efflorescence). The mineralogy in weathered shale defines four weathered intervals on the outcrop-Zones A-C and soil. Alteration of the weakly weathered shale (Zone A) is attributed to the 40-a exposure of the shale. In this zone, pyrite oxidization produces acid that dissolves calcite and attacks chlorite, forming gypsum, jarosite, and minor efflorescent salt. The pre-excavation, active weathering front (Zone B) is where complete pyrite oxidation and alteration of feldspar and organic matter result in increased permeability. Acidic weathering solutions seep through the permeable shale and evaporate on the surface forming abundant efflorescent salt, jarosite and minor goethite. Intensely weathered shale (Zone C) is depleted in feldspars, chlorite, gypsum, jarosite and efflorescent salts, but has retained much of its primary quartz, illite and illite-smectite. Goethite and amorphous FE(III) oxides increase due to hydrolysis of jarosite. Enhanced permeability in this zone is due to a 14% loss of the original mass in parent shale. Denudation rates suggest that characteristics of Zone C

  19. Geometry and subsidence history of the Dead Sea basin: A case for fluid-induced mid-crustal shear zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, U.S.; Flores, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Pull-apart basins are narrow zones of crustal extension bounded by strike-slip faults that can serve as analogs to the early stages of crustal rifting. We use seismic tomography, 2-D ray tracing, gravity modeling, and subsidence analysis to study crustal extension of the Dead Sea basin (DSB), a large and long-lived pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform (DST). The basin gradually shallows southward for 50 km from the only significant transverse normal fault. Stratigraphic relationships there indicate basin elongation with time. The basin is deepest (8-8.5 km) and widest (???15 km) under the Lisan about 40 km north of the transverse fault. Farther north, basin depth is ambiguous, but is 3 km deep immediately north of the lake. The underlying pre-basin sedimentary layer thickens gradually from 2 to 3 km under the southern edge of the DSB to 3-4 km under the northern end of the lake and 5-6 km farther north. Crystalline basement is ???11 km deep under the deepest part of the basin. The upper crust under the basin has lower P wave velocity than in the surrounding regions, which is interpreted to reflect elevated pore fluids there. Within data resolution, the lower crust below ???18 km and the Moho are not affected by basin development. The subsidence rate was several hundreds of m/m.y. since the development of the DST ???17 Ma, similar to other basins along the DST, but subsidence rate has accelerated by an order of magnitude during the Pleistocene, which allowed the accumulation of 4 km of sediment. We propose that the rapid subsidence and perhaps elongation of the DSB are due to the development of inter-connected mid-crustal ductile shear zones caused by alteration of feldspar to muscovite in the presence of pore fluids. This alteration resulted in a significant strength decrease and viscous creep. We propose a similar cause to the enigmatic rapid subsidence of the North Sea at the onset the North Atlantic mantle plume. Thus, we propose that aqueous fluid flux

  20. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  1. Land Governance as Grey Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    demonstrates that in Uganda, the need to maintain the ruling coalition in a clientelist political settlement to build electoral support, and the desire to attract economic investors, constitute political incentives to maintain land governance as a grey zone, even if there is apparent political...

  2. Cerebellar Zones: A Personal History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Voogd (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCerebellar zones were there, of course, before anyone noticed them. Their history is that of young people, unhindered by preconceived ideas, who followed up their observations with available or new techniques. In the 1960s of the last century, the circumstances were fortunate because thr

  3. Building a Subduction Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Bodin, Paul; Bourgeois, Jody; Cashman, Susan; Cowan, Darrel; Creager, Kenneth C.; Crowell, Brendan; Duvall, Alison; Frankel, Arthur; Gonzalez, Frank; Houston, Heidi; Johnson, Paul; Kelsey, Harvey; Miller, Una; Roland, Emily C.; Schmidt, David; Staisch, Lydia; Vidale, John; Wilcock, William; Wirth, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Subduction zones contain many of Earth’s most remarkable geologic structures, from the deepest oceanic trenches to glacier-covered mountains and steaming volcanoes. These environments formed through spectacular events: Nature’s largest earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions are born here.

  4. ShoreZone Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a polyline file of mapped ShoreZone units which correspond with data records found in the Unit, Xshr, BioUnit, and BioBand tables of this...

  5. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  6. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Morton

    2011-01-01

    From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  7. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I., E-mail: iis@gao.spb.ru [Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoje ave. 65, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  8. Priority Education Zones in Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mahadeo Santosh; Gurrib, Mahomed Aniff

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Priority Education Zones project (ZEP) in Mauritius. The original and innovative dimensions of the project are described, together with the difficulties encountered during the setting-up of the ZEP schools. The article covers five main issues: the status of the ZEP project; the minimal conditions for success; the…

  9. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. Free-zone electrophoresis of animal cells. 1: Experiments on cell-cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, P. W.; Hjerten, S.

    1985-01-01

    The electrophoretically migrating zones wasa monitored. The absence of fluid flows in the direction of migration permits direct measurement of electrophoretic velocities of any material. Sedimentation is orthogonal to electrokinetic motion and the effects of particle-particle interaction on electrophoretic mobility is studied by free zone electrophoresis. Fixed erythrocytes at high concentrations, mixtures of fixed erythrocytes from different animal species, and mixtures of cultured human cells were studied in low ionic strength buffers. The electrophoretic velocity of fixed erythrocytes was not altered by increasing cell concentration or by the mixing of erythrocytes from different species. When zones containing cultured human glial cells and neuroblastoma cells are permitted to interact during electrophoresis, altered migration patterns occur. It is found that cell-cell interactions depends upon cell type.

  11. 77 FR 59053 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in the Bering Sea and... sampled, or carry one observer and use a motion-compensated scale to weigh Pacific cod before it is....S. groundfish fisheries of the exclusive economic zone off Alaska under the Fishery Management...

  12. 75 FR 64248 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 196 ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting) Fort Worth, TX Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of... following Order: Whereas, ATC Logistics & Electronics (ATCLE), an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone 196, has... procedures within FTZ 196 on behalf of ATC Logistics & Electronics, as described in the application...

  13. Alterações microbiológicas, de fertilidade e de produtividade do arroz de terras altas em diferentes manejos de solo e água = Microbiological, fertility and productivity alterations in upland rice under different soil and water managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talles Eduardo Borges dos Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de cultivo de arroz predominante no Brasil, o de terras altas, fica na dependência da precipitação pluvial e de sua distribuição. Determinadas práticas ou distúrbios, que atuam sobre o solo, levam a alterações que os microrganismos, por ser sensíveis, podem detectar. O trabalho objetivou estudar as alterações microbiológicas (carbono da biomassa microbiana (CBM e do CO2 (C-CO2 liberado, do quociente metabólico (qCO2 e micorrização, fertilidade do solo e produtividade do arroz de terras altas, cultivado sob diferentes manejos de solo e água. A cultivar utilizada foi a BRS Talento, e o delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em fatorial de três manejos de solo: plantio direto (PD, gradepesada + grade niveladora (GG, escarificador + grade niveladora (EG e três manejos de água: sem irrigação (L0; lâmina 1 (L1, que corresponde à irrigação nas fases reprodutiva e de maturação; e lâmina 2 (L2, que corresponde à irrigação durante todo ciclo. Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares mostram-se sensíveis aos manejos de solo e água. O PD apresentou as maiores médias para MO, Ca, SB e V% e as menores de H + Al. Este manejo acrescido da irrigação, apenas nas fases reprodutiva e de maturação propiciaram resultados satisfatórios para a produtividade e características microbiológicas.In Brazil, the upland rice culture system is predominant, but its water supply depends of precipitation and its distribution. Somepractices or disturbances on soil conditions may cause alterations that can be detected by microorganisms, which are quite sensitive. This experiment was developed to study microbiological alterations (microbial biomass carbon (MBC, released CO2 (C-CO2, metabolic quotient (qCO2 and mycorrhization, as well as alterations in soil fertility and productivity of upland rice, cultivated under different soil and water managements. Cultivar

  14. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2017-03-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  15. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2016-07-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  16. [Neurocutaneous syndrome with hair alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, F

    1997-09-01

    There are multiple neurocutaneous syndromes that may show hair alterations such as the interglabellar peak or 'widow's peak', which is an alteration of the hair implantation, in addition to the genohypotrichosis, hypertrichosis and hair shaft dysplasias. In this chapter we will focus on the latter. Out of the unspecific hair shaft dysplasias the only ones showing neurological alterations are trichorrhexis invaginata, observed in the syndrome of Netherton. Among the specific dysplasias we would like to point out monilethrix, and very especially the moniliform hair syndrome, the trichorrhexis nodosa, the pili torti and trichotiodystrophy. The latter is actually a group of syndromes which associates a series of diverse symptoms that have in common hair brittleness, fertility problems and physical and mental retardation, and they constitute the basic syndrome know as 'BIDS syndrome.

  17. Field guide to hydrothermal alteration in the White River altered area and in the Osceola Mudflow, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Rytuba, James J.; Ashley, Roger P.; Blakely, Richard J.; Vallance, James W.; Newport, Grant R.; Heinemeyer, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    . The morning of the trip will examine the White River altered area, which includes high-level alteration related to a large, early Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal system exposed about 10 km east of Enumclaw, Washington. Here, vuggy silica alteration is being quarried for silica and advanced argillic alteration has been prospected for alunite. Clay-filled fractures and sulfide-rich, fine-grained sedimentary rocks of hydrothermal origin locally are enriched in precious metals. Many hydrothermal features common in high-sulfidation gold-silver deposits and in advanced argillic alteration zones overlying porphyry copper deposits (for example, Gustafson and Hunt, 1975; Hedenquist and others, 2000; Sillitoe, 2000) are exposed, although no economic base or precious metal mineralized rock has been discovered to date. The afternoon will be spent examining two exposures of the Osceola Mudflow along the White River. The Osceola Mudflow contains abundant clasts of altered Quaternary rocks from Mount Rainier that show various types of hydrothermal alteration and hydrothermal features. The mudflow matrix contains abundant hydrothermal clay minerals that added cohesiveness to the debris flow and helped allow it to travel much farther down valley than other, noncohesive debris flows from Mount Rainier (Crandell, 1971; Vallance and Scott, 1997). The White River altered area is the subject of ongoing studies by geoscientists from Weyerhaeuser Company and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The generalized descriptions of the geology, geophysics, alteration, and mineralization presented here represent the preliminary results of this study (Ashley and others, 2003). Additional field, geochemical, geochronologic, and geophysical studies are underway. The Osceola Mudflow and other Holocene debris flows from Mount Rainier also are the subject of ongoing studies by the USGS (for example, Breit and others, 2003; John and others, 2003; Plumlee and others, 2003, Sisson and others, 2003; Vallance and

  18. Lithology and hydrothermal alteration determination from well logs for the Cerro Prieto Wells, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershaghi, I.; Ghaemian, S.; Abdassah, D.

    1981-10-01

    The characteristics of geophysical well logs are compared against the sand-shale series of the sedimentary column of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico. It is shown that the changes in mineralogy of the rocks because of hydrothermal alteration are not easily detectable on the existing logs. However, if the behavior of clay minerals alone is monitored, the onset of the hydrothermally altered zones may be estimated from the well logs. The effective concentration of clay-exchange cations, Q/sub v/, is computed using the data available from conventional well logs. Zones indicating the disappearance of low temperature clays are considered hydrothermally altered formations with moderate to high permeability and temperature, and suitable for completion purposes.

  19. Nucleolar proteins change in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Gonzalez-Camacho, F.; Medina, F. J.

    Discovery of gravisensitivity of cells no specified to gravity perception focused continuous attention on an elucidation of mechanisms involved in altered gravity effects at the different levels of cellular organization A nucleolus is the nuclear domain in which the major portion of ribosome biogenesis takes place This is a basic process for cell vitality beginning with the transcription of rDNA followed by processing newly synthesized pre-rRNA molecules A wide range of nucleolar proteins plays a highly significant role in all stages of biosynthesis of ribosomes Different steps of ribosome biogenesis should respond to various external factors affecting generally the cell metabolism Nevertheless a nucleolus remains not enough studied under the influence of altered environmental conditions For this reason we studied root apices from 2-day old Lepidium sativum seedlings germinated and grown under slow horizontal clinorotation and stationary conditions in darkness The extraction of cell nuclei followed by sequential fractionation of nuclear proteins according to their solubility in buffers of increasing ionic strength was carried out This procedure gave rise to 5 distinct fractions We analyzed nuclear subproteomes of the most soluble fraction called S2 It is actually a functionally significant fraction consisting of ribonucleoproteins actively engaged in pre-rRNA synthesis and processing 2D-electrophoresis of S2 f