WorldWideScience

Sample records for alteration shift patterns

  1. Compounded effects of climate change and habitat alteration shift patterns of butterfly diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forister, Matthew L; McCall, Andrew C; Sanders, Nathan J; Fordyce, James A; Thorne, James H; O'Brien, Joshua; Waetjen, David P; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2010-02-02

    Climate change and habitat destruction have been linked to global declines in vertebrate biodiversity, including mammals, amphibians, birds, and fishes. However, invertebrates make up the vast majority of global species richness, and the combined effects of climate change and land use on invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here we present 35 years of data on 159 species of butterflies from 10 sites along an elevational gradient spanning 0-2,775 m in a biodiversity hotspot, the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Northern California. Species richness has declined at half of the sites, with the most severe reductions at the lowest elevations, where habitat destruction is greatest. At higher elevations, we observed clear upward shifts in the elevational ranges of species, consistent with the influence of global warming. Taken together, these long-term data reveal the interacting negative effects of human-induced changes on both the climate and habitat available to butterfly species in California. Furthermore, the decline of ruderal, disturbance-associated species indicates that the traditional focus of conservation efforts on more specialized and less dispersive species should be broadened to include entire faunas when estimating and predicting the effects of pervasive stressors.

  2. Temperature Shift Alters DNA Methylation and Histone Modification Patterns in Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a1 Gene in Species with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuiko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The environment surrounding the embryos has a profound impact on the developmental process and phenotypic outcomes of the organism. In species with temperature-dependent sex determination, gonadal sex is determined by the incubation temperature of the eggs. A mechanistic link between temperature and transcriptional regulation of developmental genes, however, remains elusive. In this study, we examine the changes in DNA methylation and histone modification patterns of the aromatase (cyp19a1 gene in embryonic gonads of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta subjected to a temperature shift during development. Shifting embryos from a male-producing temperature (MPT to a female-producing temperature (FPT at the beginning of the temperature-sensitive period (TSP resulted in an increase in aromatase mRNA expression while a shift from FPT to MPT resulted in decreased expression. DNA methylation levels at CpG sites in the promoter of the aromatase gene were high (70-90% at the beginning of TSP, but decreased in embryos that were incubated at constant FPT and those shifted from MPT to the FPT. This decrease in methylation in the promoter inversely correlated with the expected increase in aromatase expression at the FPT. The active demethylation under the FPT was especially prominent at the CpG site upstream of the gonad-specific TATA box at the beginning of TSP and spread downstream of the gene including exon1 as the gonad development progressed. In embryos incubated at FPT, the promoter region was also labeled by canonical transcriptional activation markers, H3K4me3 and RNA polymerase II. A transcriptional repression marker, H3K27me3, was observed in temperature-shifted gonads of both temperature groups, but was not maintained throughout the development in either group. Our findings suggest that DNA hypomethylation and H3K4me3 modification at the aromatase promoter may be a primary mechanism that releases a transcriptional block of aromatase to

  3. On the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1982-01-01

    The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined

  4. Shift in genomic RNA patterns of human rotaviruses isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotalvirus-positive specimens from 322 infants and young children submitted to private patl1ology laboratories were analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the viral RNA. A predominance of long RNA profiles occurred and a temporal shift in the genomic patterns was identified. An epidemic of the classic shorter ...

  5. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent......-based modelling, and relying on empirical data from fieldwork and observations for parameterization of variables, the level of clustering in agricultural fields observed around a study village is reproduced. Agents in the model act to maximize labour productivity, which is based on potential yield and labour...... costs associated with fencing of fields, and are faced with physical constraints. The simulation results are compared with land-cover data obtained from remote sensing. Comparisons are made on patterns as detected visually and using the mean nearest-neighbour ratio. Baseline simulation outputs show high...

  6. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Yoon

    Full Text Available In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA, body temperature (BT, blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42% of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  7. Common Visual Pattern Discovery via Nonlinear Mean Shift Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linbo; Tang, Dong; Guo, Yanwen; Do, Minh N

    2015-12-01

    Discovering common visual patterns (CVPs) from two images is a challenging task due to the geometric and photometric deformations as well as noises and clutters. The problem is generally boiled down to recovering correspondences of local invariant features, and the conventionally addressed by graph-based quadratic optimization approaches, which often suffer from high computational cost. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach by viewing the problem from a novel perspective. In particular, we consider each CVP as a common object in two images with a group of coherently deformed local regions. A geometric space with matrix Lie group structure is constructed by stacking up transformations estimated from initially appearance-matched local interest region pairs. This is followed by a mean shift clustering stage to group together those close transformations in the space. Joining regions associated with transformations of the same group together within each input image forms two large regions sharing similar geometric configuration, which naturally leads to a CVP. To account for the non-Euclidean nature of the matrix Lie group, mean shift vectors are derived in the corresponding Lie algebra vector space with a newly provided effective distance measure. Extensive experiments on single and multiple common object discovery tasks as well as near-duplicate image retrieval verify the robustness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  8. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.

    2012-01-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  9. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Gacon, C.; Jennum, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Light plays an important role in the synchronization of the internal biological clock and the environmental day/night pattern. Thus, absence of vision is often associated with both increases in reported sleep disturbances and incidence of free-running circadian rhythms. In this study we...... parameters of sleep and wake, including episodes of rest, day-time and night-time sleep periods, and the number of awakenings throughout sleep. A measure of sleep efficiency was derived from these measures for each night-time sleep episode. We also examined complementary measures of sleep quality, using...... the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and chronotype, using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Although no group differences were found when averaging over the entire recording period, we found a greater variability throughout the 30-days in both sleep efficiency and timing of the night-time sleep...

  10. A shift in referral patterns for HIV/AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Phillip O; Savageau, Judith A; Baldor, Robert A

    2008-02-01

    With the rapid development (and complex prescribing patterns) of drugs for HIV/AIDS care, it is challenging for physicians to keep current. We conducted a follow-up study to a 1994 cohort study to see how care and referral patterns have changed over the last decade. In this study, we examined how family physicians in Massachusetts were caring for their HIV-infected patients, and to see whether FPs were referring more patients to specialists for care compared with a decade ago. We designed a cross-sectional survey as an 11-year follow-up to a previous study. It was mailed in 2005 to the active membership of the Massachusetts Academy of Family Physicians. Compared with the cohort of 1994, the number of HIV+ patients in individual practices remained about the same, but the number of practices with no AIDS patients was significantly higher. 85.3% of FPs noted that they were more likely to refer HIV/AIDS patients immediately compared with their own practice patterns a decade ago. In this study, 39.0% of current respondents referred HIV+ patients immediately, 57.0% co-managed patients, and 4.1% managed these patients alone (the data for the 1994 cohort was 7.0%, 45.8%, and 47.2%, respectively; P<.0001). Similar changes were seen in regard to care patterns for AIDS patients. Among the current cohort, 61.7% reported that they referred patients immediately, compared with only 18.3% in 1994; 36.8% noted that they co-managed these patients (vs 74.3% in 1994); and only 1.5% reported that they managed these patients alone (vs 7.4% in 1994; P<.0001). A significant shift amongst FPs with regard to their referral patterns for patients with HIV/AIDS has occurred over the last decade. The community health center has emerged as a resource for patients with HIV/AIDS. Funding for specific training programs on HIV/AIDS care should be targeted to community health centers.

  11. Challenge: Getting Residential Users to Shift Their Electricity Usage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Rasmussen, Mia Kruse

    2015-01-01

    Increased renewable electricity production, coupled with emerging sectors of electricity consumption such as electric vehicles, has led to the desire to shift the times of the day electricity is consumed to better match generation. Different methods have been proposed to shift residential electri...

  12. Altered circadian rhythm and metabolic gene profile in rats subjected to advanced light phase shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Herrero

    Full Text Available The circadian clock regulates metabolic homeostasis and its disruption predisposes to obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the effect of phase shifts on metabolism is not completely understood. We examined whether alterations in the circadian rhythm caused by phase shifts induce metabolic changes in crucial genes that would predispose to obesity. Three-month-old rats were maintained on a standard diet under lighting conditions with chronic phase shifts consisting of advances, delays or advances plus delays. Serum leptin, insulin and glucose levels decreased only in rats subjected to advances. The expression of the clock gene Bmal 1 increased in the hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT and liver of the advanced group compared to control rats. The advanced group showed an increase in hypothalamic AgRP and NPY mRNA, and their lipid metabolism gene profile was altered in liver, WAT and BAT. WAT showed an increase in inflammation and ER stress and brown adipocytes suffered a brown-to-white transformation and decreased UCP-1 expression. Our results indicate that chronic phase advances lead to significant changes in neuropeptides, lipid metabolism, inflammation and ER stress gene profile in metabolically relevant tissues such as the hypothalamus, liver, WAT and BAT. This highlights a link between alteration of the circadian rhythm and metabolism at the transcriptional level.

  13. Nutrition and health in hotel staff on different shift patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, R; Süße, T; Spitzer, S; Hunger, B; Rudolf, M

    2015-08-01

    Limited research is available that examines the nutritional behaviour and health of hotel staff working alternating and regular shifts. To analyse the nutritional behaviour and health of employees working in alternating and regular shifts. The study used an ex post facto cross-sectional analysis to compare the nutritional behaviour and health parameters of workers with alternating shifts and regular shift workers. Nutritional behaviour was assessed with the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Body dimensions (body mass index, waist hip ratio, fat mass and active cell mass), metabolic values (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol and low- and high-density lipoprotein), diseases and health complaints were included as health parameters. Participants worked in alternating (n = 53) and regular shifts (n = 97). The average age of subjects was 35 ± 10 years. There was no significant difference in nutritional behaviour, most surveyed body dimensions or metabolic values between the two groups. However, alternating shift workers had significantly lower fat mass and higher active cell mass but nevertheless reported more pronounced health complaints. Sex and age were also confirmed as influencing the surveyed parameters. Shift-dependent nutritional problems were not conspicuously apparent in this sample of hotel industry workers. Health parameters did not show significantly negative attributes for alternating shift workers. Conceivably, both groups could have the same level of knowledge on the health effects of nutrition and comparable opportunities to apply this. Further studies on nutritional and health behaviour in the hotel industry are necessary in order to create validated screening programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Transcriptomic alterations during ageing reflect the shift from cancer to degenerative diseases in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramillo Irizar, Peer; Schäuble, Sascha; Esser, Daniela; Groth, Marco; Frahm, Christiane; Priebe, Steffen; Baumgart, Mario; Hartmann, Nils; Marthandan, Shiva; Menzel, Uwe; Müller, Julia; Schmidt, Silvio; Ast, Volker; Caliebe, Amke; König, Rainer; Krawczak, Michael; Ristow, Michael; Schuster, Stefan; Cellerino, Alessandro; Diekmann, Stephan; Englert, Christoph; Hemmerich, Peter; Sühnel, Jürgen; Guthke, Reinhard; Witte, Otto W; Platzer, Matthias; Ruppin, Eytan; Kaleta, Christoph

    2018-01-30

    Disease epidemiology during ageing shows a transition from cancer to degenerative chronic disorders as dominant contributors to mortality in the old. Nevertheless, it has remained unclear to what extent molecular signatures of ageing reflect this phenomenon. Here we report on the identification of a conserved transcriptomic signature of ageing based on gene expression data from four vertebrate species across four tissues. We find that ageing-associated transcriptomic changes follow trajectories similar to the transcriptional alterations observed in degenerative ageing diseases but are in opposite direction to the transcriptomic alterations observed in cancer. We confirm the existence of a similar antagonism on the genomic level, where a majority of shared risk alleles which increase the risk of cancer decrease the risk of chronic degenerative disorders and vice versa. These results reveal a fundamental trade-off between cancer and degenerative ageing diseases that sheds light on the pronounced shift in their epidemiology during ageing.

  15. Identifying changing patterns of reservoir operating rules under various inflow alteration scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Maoyuan; Liu, Pan; Guo, Shenglian; Gui, Ziling; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Lihua

    2017-06-01

    Operating rules are important in the long-term operation of reservoirs for its capability of coping with inflow uncertainty. The characteristics of inflow vary as a result of climate change and human activities, and using stationary operating rules would lead to inefficient reservoir operation. This study focuses on identifying changing patterns of operating rules under various inflow alteration scenarios. Two simulation methods, the simple adjustment method (SAM) and the stochastic reconstruction method (SRM), are used to generate three inflow alteration scenarios: shifts of mean, coefficient of variation (CV), and seasonality. A deterministic reservoir optimization model is established and then resolved using discrete differential dynamic programming algorithm. Finally, the operating rules under each scenario are derived using the linear fitting method. China's Three Gorges Reservoir is used as a case study. The results show that the SAM and SRM produce similar operating rules, which are sensitive to inflow changes during refill and drawdown periods. It is shown that (1) the increase (decrease) of inflow mean changes the operating rules, resulting in the increase (decrease) of the water releases while the shift of CV has little impact on operating rules; (2) the seasonality changes operating rules in opposite directions during refill and drawdown periods; (3) the changing patterns of operating rules would be superimposed by the superposition of various inflow alteration scenarios whereas the effects might be not obvious. These findings are helpful for adaptive operation of reservoirs under changing environment.

  16. Habitat-specific differences alter traditional biogeographic patterns of life history in a climate-change induced range expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Megan E.; Griffen, Blaine D.

    2017-01-01

    Range shifts and expansions resulting from global climate change have the potential to create novel communities with unique plant-animal interactions. Organisms expanding their range into novel biotic and abiotic environments may encounter selection pressures that alter traditional biogeographic patterns of life history traits. Here, we used field surveys to examine latitudinal patterns of life history traits in a broadly distributed ectotherm (mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii) that has rece...

  17. Facial and dental alterations according to the breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    RETAMOSO, Luciana Borges; KNOP, Luégya Amorin Henriques; GUARIZA FILHO, Odilon; TANAKA, Orlando Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy in the literature about possible interaction of the respiratory mode with the facial and dental structures. Objectives The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment of the changes in facial and dental structures in Angle’s Class II, division 1 malocclusion individuals, divided according to the respiratory pattern (predominantly nasal or mouth), at two distinct moments of craniofacial development. Material and Methods Pogonium and nose measurements were made on the lateral cephalometric tracings (LS’-Pog’, LS’-B’, B’-Pog’, Pog’-PogTeg’, Line NB, Pog-NB, N'-Prn, Prn-NPog, N-Prn-Sn, Prn-Sn-LS). Dental measurements were made on the plaster models (distances between the tips of the canine cusps and the tips of mesial cusps of the first molars) of 40 individuals aged 10 to 14 years (moment 1) and 13 to 16 years (moment 2), 23 being nose breathers (NB) and 17 being predominantly mouth breathers (MB). Results The Student’s-t test and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were applied to indicate differences between the mean values of these variables according to the moments and/or respiratory mode. Conclusions There were alterations in the facial measurements, without interference of the breathing pattern. However, the breathing pattern influenced dental alterations. PMID:21552720

  18. The impact of rotating shift work on eating patterns and self-reported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rotating shift work on eating patterns and self-reported health of nurses. Twenty-four female nurses on irregular rotating shift work were randomly selected from among medical personnel at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi. Controls were 22 nurses ...

  19. Social, Spatial and Legislative Strategy to Shift Urban Mobility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branea, Ana-Maria; Gaman, Marius; Badescu, Stefana

    2017-10-01

    A city’s predominant transportation mode is crucial in determining its type of urban tissue. A denser and more compact urban development is generated through pedestrian, bicycle and public transit while car based developments tend to be dispersed, characterized by unsustainable low densities. However, a clear implementation strategy eludes many urban planning practitioners and public administrations, thus highlighting the need for further research. Following an international trend, Timisoara’s mobility strategy over the past two decades, has been to accommodate an ever-increasing number of vehicles on its underdeveloped infrastructure at the expense of green areas, pedestrian lanes and even travel-turned-parking lanes. Despite the latest, slight, shift towards inner city urban development only 11% of the proposed Urban Mobility Strategy’s policies are not centred on cars. Through a 15 criteria analysis of the main means of transportation, pedestrian, bicycle, public transit and car, the authors determined the most sustainable and efficient mode based on the distance - duration relationship as being bicycles, for a city of Timisoara’s size and characteristics. Yet, the city’s infrastructure scored poorly on safety and comfort due to its incoherence and numerous dysfunctionalities. To better illustrate and understand Timisoara’s current state and proposed mobility strategy, the authors undertook a comparative analysis of Timisoara’s and Utrecht’s bike lane infrastructure. Similarities in size and number of inhabitants were only secondary selection criteria compared to Utrecht’s aspiring to model status. The aim of this study is to present the long term, multi-tier implementation strategy proposed to reorient Timisoara’s urban development towards a more compact, sustainable typology. Comprising social-educational, spatial and legislative objectives the strategy aspires to modify local behaviour towards and perception of alternative modes of

  20. Reservoir-induced Alterations in Flood Seasonality: Patterns, Processes, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeshu, G. W.; Li, H. Y.; Yigzaw, W.; Hejazi, M. I.; Tang, J.; Demissie, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Reservoirs are by far the most significant human activities that are imposing hydrologic alterations, specifically related to extreme flow conditions. This study presents the effects of reservoir regulation on flood seasonality in different hydrologic and climate settings across the contiguous United States. The data employed consists of reservoir information from the National Inventory of Dams (NID) and Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database along with USGS stream flow data for pre- and post-impoundment periods. A new flood seasonality index was developed with circular statistics to reveal any significant shifts in flood timing between pre- and post-impoundments periods at each USGS station. Reservoir Impact Index (RII) was developed as a function of storage capacity and mean annual streamflow to quantify the regulation effects of reservoirs on flood seasonality. Process understanding of how reservoir regulation affects flow seasonality was analyzed based on RII using simple but physically-based reservoir models with different degrees of complexity, e.g., simple linear and hedging models. Results indicate that the shift in seasonality of annual maximum flood (AMF) at downstream generally increases with increasing RII, given that reservoir has enough storage to regulate the flood. The process modeling results also imply that reservoir state prior to the occurrence of AMF, antecedent climatic patterns and catchment state affect the shift in AMF arrival at downstream. These findings will help improve the ability to examine issues connected to flood frequency characteristics including nutrient delivery, sediment load and stream temperature shifts at downstream of dams.

  1. Diet alters performance and transcription patterns in Oedaleus asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Whitman, Douglas W; Ma, Jingchuan; McNeill, Mark Richard; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-01-01

    We reared Oedaleus asiaticus grasshoppers under four different single-plant diets to examine the relationships among diet, performance, stress, and transcription patterns. Grasshoppers fed only Artemisia frigida (Asteraceae) were stressed, as indicated by their lower growth, size, development, and survival, in comparison to grasshoppers fed on any of three grasses, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Leymus chinensis, or Stipa krylovii (all Poaceae). We then used transcriptome analysis to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus were altered by feeding on these diets. Nymphs fed A. frigida had the largest variation in gene expression profiles with a total of 299 genes significantly up- or down-regulated compared to those feeding on the three grasses: down-regulated genes included those involved in cuticle biosynthesis, DNA replication, biosynthesis and metabolism of nutrition. The up-regulated genes included stress-resistant and detoxifying enzymes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis also showed that feeding on A. frigida could down-regulate biosynthesis and metabolism related pathways, and up-regulate stress-resistant and detoxification terms and pathways. Our results show that diet significantly altered gene-expression, and that unfavorable, stressful diets induce more transcriptional changes than favorable diets. Altered gene-expression represents phenotypic plasticity, and many such changes appear to be evolved, adaptive responses. The ease and regularity by which individuals shift phenotypes via altered transcription suggests that populations consist not of similar, fixed phenotypes, but of a collection of ever-changing, divergent phenotypes.

  2. Alterations of Plasma lipid profile patterns in oral leukoplakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, N; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rajesh, Amudala; Babu, P Ravisekhar; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is associated initially by the presence of pre-malignant lesions or pre-malignant conditions. Oral Leukoplakia is one of the best-known pre-malignant lesions in the oral cavity that have the highest rate of malignant transformation. Numerous studies have shown an altered lipid profile in various cancers including head and neck cancers. An inverse relationship between plasma lipid profiles has been seen in oral cancer and pre-cancerous subjects. The present study evaluated the plasma lipid profiles in oral leukoplakia and controls. Materials & Methods: This study was done in department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sibar dental College and Konacc diagnostics. 30 patients were included in the study (15 patients with oral leukoplakia (histo-pathologically proven) and 15 patients for comparison of results as controls). Patients with cardiovascular diseases, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, acute hepatitis and nephrosis were excluded from the sample and lipid profile assay was done by fully automated biochemistry analyser (EM–360). Paired-t and Scheffe tests were used to find statistical significance between two groups. Results: The plasma lipid levels were estimated in between the two groups by arithmetic mean along with standard deviation. The lipid parameters included were Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Triglycerides. The lipid parameters of the patients in between the two groups were compared and analysed. Conclusion: In this study TC, HDL, LDL, Triglyceride level analysis showed slightly lower levels in oral leukoplakia patients than that of the controls. Higher VLDL levels were observed in leukoplakia than the control group. How to cite the article: Mahesh N, Rahamthullah SA, Naidu GM, Rajesh A, Babu PR, Reddy JM. Alterations of Plasma lipid profile patterns in oral leukoplakia. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):78-84. PMID:24653608

  3. Shift in diurnal feeding patterns in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K W; Greenwood, C E

    2001-11-01

    Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are highly susceptible to weight loss and malnutrition, which, to date, have not been associated with decreased food consumption. The current study examined food intake patterns and how they change in relation to body mass index (BMI), behavioral function, and cognitive status in institutionalized seniors with AD. Twenty-one consecutive days of investigator-weighed food intake collections were conducted on 25 subjects with likely AD residing at a home for the aged. All subjects maintained the ability to self-feed. Eighty-eight percent of participants did not meet targeted energy needs, including an estimated 37% prevalence of protein inadequacy. Subjects with increased behavioral difficulties, based on the London Psychogeriatric Rating Scale, had reduced meal-related intakes that were highly associated with decreased energy consumption at dinner. With behavioral changes, particularly increased mental disorganization and confusion, there was a shift in circadian eating patterns such that the greatest proportion of daily energy was consumed at breakfast. Individuals with low BMIs tended to be those with more behavioral difficulties, such that BMI was also associated with the shift in overall eating patterns. Changes in behavioral function in seniors with AD result in a circadian shift in intake patterns with the preponderance of calories consumed at breakfast in those with increased behavioral difficulties. This shift in eating patterns associates both with poor overall intake and poor BMI.

  4. Shift of biome patterns due to simulated climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claussen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The variability of simulated equilibrium-response patterns of biomes caused by simulated climate variability and climate shift is analysed. This investigation is based on various realisations of simulated present-day climate and climate shift. It has been found that the difference between biomes computed from three 10-year climatologies and from the corresponding 30-year climatology, simulated by the Hamburg climate model at T21 resolution, amounts to approximately 6% of the total land area, Antarctica excluded. This difference is mainly due to differences in annual moisture availability and winter temperatures. When intercomparing biomes from the 10-year climatologies a 10% difference is seen, but there is no unique difference pattern. In contrast to the interdecadal variability, the shift of conditions favorable for biomes due to a shift in climate in the next 100 years, caused by an increase in sea-surface temperatures and atmospheric CO 2 , reveals a unique trend pattern. It turns out that the strongest and most significant signal is the north-east shift of conditions for boreal biomes. This signal is caused by an increase of annual temperature sums as well as mean temperatures of the coldest and warmest months. Trends in annual moisture availability are of secondary importance globally. Regionally, a decrease in water availability affects biomes in Central and East Europe and an increase of water availability leads to a potential increase in tropical rain forest. In total, all differences amount to roughly 30% of the total land surface, Antarctica excluded. (orig./KW)

  5. Working irregular shift patterns is associated with functional constipation among healthy trainee nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The circadian system has a role in regulating gastrointestinal physiology. Perturbation of this system is associated with gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. Shiftwork and poor sleep quality are associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders among many professional groups. This study compared bowel habits between trainee nurses with regular and irregular patterns of shiftwork. Male and female nursing students, enrolled on the first year (regular shifts; n=49 and the fourth year (irregular shifts, n=48 of a nursing degree course were surveyed. Questionnaires were used to assess functional diarrhea and constipation over a three month period. The prevalence of functional constipation among regular shift workers was lower than that found among irregular shift workers; 31.3% and 61.2%, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups in relation to the prevalence of diarrhea. This suggests an association between shiftwork and functional constipation, but not with functional diarrhea.

  6. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasseljen Ottar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM, conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173 were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal, and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6 for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6 for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1 for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a

  7. Reconfigurable optical differential phase-shift-keying pattern recognition based on incoherent photonic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Antonio; Ashrafi, Reza; Park, Yongwoo; Azaña, José

    2011-11-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate asynchronous optical differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK) pattern recognition using a fully reconfigurable technique. The proposed method uses optical phase-to-bipolar intensity conversion through all-optical differentiation in conjunction with an incoherent time-spectrum convolution system where the pattern to be recognized is implemented directly in the spectral domain through optical amplitude-only linear filtering. Full reconfigurability in terms of bit rate, pattern sequence, and pattern length is achieved using electronically programmable optical filters. We demonstrate dynamically switching recognition of different 64 bit patterns in a continuous 12 Gb/s DPSK pseudorandom optical bit stream with contrast ratio up to 3.8 dB.

  8. Climate change effects on plant biomass alter dominance patterns and community evenness in an experimental old-field ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Campany, Courtney E [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Souza, Lara [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric and climatic change can alter plant biomass production and plant community composition. However, we know little about how climate change-induced alterations in biomass production affect plant community composition. To better understand how climate change will alter both individual plant species and community biomass we manipulated atmospheric [CO2], air temperature and precipitation in a constructed old-field ecosystem. Specifically, we compared the responses of dominant and subdominant species to our treatments, and explored how changes in plant dominance patterns alter community evenness over two years. Our study resulted in four major findings: 1) All treatments, elevated [CO2], warming and increased precipitation, increased plant biomass and the effects were additive rather than interactive, 2) Plant species differed in their response to the treatments, resulting in shifts in the proportional biomass of individual species, which altered the plant community composition; however, the plant community response was largely driven by the responses of the dominant species, 3) Precipitation explained most of the variation in plant community composition among treatments, and 4) Changes in precipitation caused a shift in the dominant species proportional biomass that resulted in higher community evenness in the dry relative to wet treatments. Interestingly, compositional and evenness responses of the subdominant community to the treatments did not always follow the responses of the whole plant community. Our data suggest that changes in plant dominance patterns and community evenness are an important part of community responses to climate change, and generally, that compositional shifts can have important consequences for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems.

  9. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  10. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Leong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant–pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  11. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Yen Le, T.T.; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Velde, Gerard van der; Leuven, Rob S.E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. - Highlights: • Invading quagga mussels often displace existing zebra mussels. • Interspecies difference in metal concentration may alter exposure of predators. • Zebra and quagga mussel soft tissue were analysed for metal concentrations. • Generally, quagga mussels contained lower concentrations of metals. • A dominance shift to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predators. - A shift in dominance from zebra mussels to invading quagga mussels may reduce the transfer of metals to predator species

  12. Alteration in eating habits among shift workers of a poultry processing plant in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Elisângela da Silva; Canuto, Raquel; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Busnello, Fernanda Michelin; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between shift work and the eatinghabits of workers was investigated in a slaughterhouse in southern Brazil. It involved a cross-sectional study with 1,206 workers of both sexes between 18 and 50 years of age. A standardized questionnaire was used to gather demographic, socioeconomic, work shift and eating habit information. The shift of work was categorized into daytime and nighttime, based on the starting and ending times of the shift. The eating habits of workers were evaluated as follows: number and type of meals eaten during the 24 hours of a normal day, the inappropriateness of the hoursof these meals and the dietaryrisk score. This was built on the risk score of the weekly consumption of 13 food items. After adjusting for potential confounders, non-Caucasian and younger male workers were more likely to manifest eating risk habits. Nighttimeshift workers consumed ahigher number of meals/day with greater inappropriateness of meal times than daytimeshift workers. The night shift can negatively influence the eating habits of workers of that shift.

  13. Altered diurnal pattern of steroid hormones in relation to various behaviors, external factors and pathologies: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collomp, K; Baillot, A; Forget, H; Coquerel, A; Rieth, N; Vibarel-Rebot, N

    2016-10-01

    The adrenal and gonadal stress steroids [i.e., cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] have gathered considerable attention in the last few decades due to their very broad physiological and psychological actions. Their diurnal patterns have become a particular focus following new data implicating altered diurnal hormone patterns in various endocrine, behavioral and cardiovascular risk profiles. In this review of the current literature, we present a brief overview of the altered diurnal patterns of these hormones that may occur in relation to chronic stress, nutritional behaviors, physical exercise, drugs and sleep deprivation/shift. We also present data on the altered diurnal hormone patterns implicated in cardiometabolic and psychiatric/neurologic diseases, cancer and other complex pathologies. We consider the occasionally discrepant results of the studies, and summarize the current knowledge in this new field of interest, underlining the potential effects on both biological and psychological functioning, and assess the implications of these effects. Last, we conclude with some practical considerations and perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Shifting Patterns of BMI and Skinfold Fatness among US Children: 1985/87 vs. 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has been recognized as a major public health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine specific shifting patterns of BMI and skinfold fatness across different age and sex groups between 1985/87 and 2012. Methods: The data of 9,366 children aged 8-15 years from two nationally representative surveys, i.e., 1985/87 National Children and Youth Fitness Study I & II and 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey, were analyzed. Specifically, changes of BMI-based obesity prevalence and shifting patterns of BMI, height, weight, skinfold body fat percentage (skinfold-fat%, subscapular skinfold, and triceps skinfold from 1985/87 to 2012 were estimated by age and sex using the 1985/87 quartiles as the baseline. Results: Significantly increased obesity prevalence were reconfirmed for both boys (12.12%, P <.001 and girls (3.53%, P <.001 from 1985/87 to 2012. Except for height, all other measures in 2012 experienced an unbalanced shifting pattern, mainly from other quartiles into the 4th quartile of 1985/87. Conclusion: The shifting of both boys’ and girls’ BMI and skinfold-fat% were all concentrated in the 4th quartile of 1985/87, indicating not only that there was a significant increase in BMI and skinfold-fat% in the U.S. children from 1985/87 to 2012, but also into the overweight and obese subgroups, which serves as a serious warning for childhood obesity epidemic and public health.

  15. Study of association between beverage consumption pattern and lipid profile in shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Saadat, Saeed; Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Shirali, Saeed

    The circadian system influences on health and metabolic function that can cause raising some risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Few studies have examined data that incorporate the full complexity of daily beverage intake pattern on lipid profiles. The purpose of this study was to investigate relation between daily water and beverage intake of adults working in day or shift work and lipid profile. Total beverages intake was estimated in shift and administrative staff of Ahvaz International Airport, Iran. Forty five male, aged 25-55 years, attending this institute were invited to participate in this study. They completed a three-day food records and all participants were measured plasma lipid profiles. Forty one of participants completed all aspects of the study. Two clusters were emerged, labeled descriptively as Conventional including "high Sugar-sweetened drinkers" and "low sugar drinkers". The highest intake of water was in cluster 1 (1170.9ml/day) even this amount is much less than the daily recommended amounts. There were significant differences in triglyceride levels among day and night shift workers. According to the results, there is inadequacy of water and high sugar beverage intake among the shift workers which it is a potential risk of some related chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome with high triglyceride level in the future. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coarse dark patterning functionally constrains adaptive shifts from aposematism to crypsis in strawberry poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarnström, Anna; Rudh, Andreas; Edström, Torkel; Ödeen, Anders; Løvlie, Hanne; Tullberg, Birgitta S

    2014-10-01

    Ecological specialization often requires tight coevolution of several traits, which may constrain future evolutionary pathways and make species more prone to extinction. Aposematism and crypsis represent two specialized adaptations to avoid predation. We tested whether the combined effects of color and pattern on prey conspicuousness functionally constrain or facilitate shifts between these two adaptations. We combined data from 17 natural populations of strawberry poison frogs, Oophaga pumilio with an experimental approach using digitalized images of frogs and chickens as predators. We show that bright coloration often co-occurs with coarse patterning among the natural populations. Dull green frogs with coarse patterning are rare in nature but in the experiment they were as easily detected as bright red frogs suggesting that this trait combination represents a transient evolutionary state toward aposematism. Hence, a gain of either bright color or coarse patterning leads to conspicuousness, but a transition back to crypsis would be functionally constrained in populations with both bright color and coarse patterning by requiring simultaneous changes in two traits. Thus, populations (or species) signaling aposematism by conspicuous color should be less likely to face an evolutionary dead end and more likely to radiate than populations with both conspicuous color and coarse patterning. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Pattern segmentation with activity dependent natural frequency shift and sub-threshold resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrahman, E; Zochowski, M

    2015-03-09

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying distributed pattern formation in brain networks and its content driven dynamical segmentation is an area of intense study. We investigate a theoretical mechanism for selective activation of diverse neural populations that is based on dynamically shifting cellular resonances in functionally or structurally coupled networks. We specifically show that sub-threshold neuronal depolarization from synaptic coupling or external input can shift neurons into and out of resonance with specific bands of existing extracellular oscillations, and this can act as a dynamic readout mechanism during information storage and retrieval. We find that this mechanism is robust and suggest it as a general coding strategy that can be applied to any network with oscillatory nodes.

  18. Altered doppler flow patterns in cirrhosis patients: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpour, Pooya; Lall, Chandana; Houshyar, Roozbeh; Helmy, Mohammad; Yang, Albert; Ward, Garrett; Goodwin, Scott C. [Dept. of Radiology, University of California Irvine, Orange (United States); Choi, Joon Il [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Doppler ultrasonography of the hepatic vasculature is an integral part of evaluating precirrhotic and cirrhotic patients. While the reversal of the portal venous flow is a well-recognized phenomenon, other flow patterns, although not as easily understood, may play an important role in assessing the disease status. This article discusses the different characteristic flow patterns observed from the portal vein, hepatic artery, and hepatic vein in patients with liver cirrhosis or related complications and procedures. Knowledge of these different flow patterns provides additional information that may reinforce the diagnosis of cirrhosis, help in staging, and offer prognostic information for determining the direction of therapy. Doppler ultrasonography is invaluable when liver transplantation is being considered and aids in the diagnosis of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

  19. [Comparative study of sleep patterns in nurses working day and night shifts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo

    2002-08-01

    To compare sleep patterns in nurses working day and night shifts in a hospital in Campinas (SP), Brazil. Fifty-nine nurses between 23 and 59 years of age participated in the study. For day shift workers, the pattern of nocturnal sleep was examined; for night shift workers, nocturnal and diurnal sleep patterns were examined. During 1 week, participants filled out a sleep diary right after waking up. The following items were assessed: time going to bed, falling asleep, and waking up; sleep latency; duration in hours of nocturnal and diurnal sleep; naps; quality of sleep; mode of waking up; and comparison between the sleep recorded in the diary with the usual sleep. Personal and professional information was also collected. Day shift workers went to bed at 23h36min, and night workers at 23h52min (P > 0.05). The nurses working a day schedule woke up earlier (7h3min) than those working a night schedule when they slept at night (8h30min) (P alcohol consumption. We verified the use of antihypertensives, diuretics, and analgesics. The present findings are similar to those previously described in the literature. Night shift nurses should be able to take naps to compensate for the sleep deficit accrued when they work at night. ResumoObjetivo: Comparar os padrões de sono de enfermeiros dos turnos diurno e noturno em um hospital de Campinas (SP), Brasil. Métodos: Participaram 59 enfermeiros entre 23 e 59 anos. Para os enfermeiros do dia, analisou-se o sono noturno, e, para os da noite, os sonos diurno e noturno. Os informantes preencheram um diário do sono durante 1 semana, ao acordar. Foram analisados hora de ir deitar, de dormir, e de acordar; latência do sono; horas de sono noturno e diurno; cochilos; qualidade do sono; modo de acordar; e comparação do sono registrado no diário com o sono habitual. Também foram coletadas informações pessoais e profissionais. Resultados: O grupo diurno ia dormir às 23h36min e o grupo noturno, às 23h52min (P consumo de

  20. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan; Yen Le, T T; Bij de Vaate, Abraham; van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2015-08-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Standing economy: does the heterogeneity in the energy cost of posture maintenance reside in differential patterns of spontaneous weight-shifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Chan, Jennifer L; Fares, Elie-Jacques; Berkachy, Redina; Jacquet, Philippe; Isacco, Laurie; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G

    2017-04-01

    Due to sedentarity-associated disease risks, there is much interest in methods to increase low-intensity physical activity. In this context, it is widely assumed that altering posture allocation can modify energy expenditure (EE) to impact body-weight regulation and health. However, we have recently shown the existence of two distinct phenotypes pertaining to the energy cost of standing-with most individuals having no sustained increase in EE during steady-state standing relative to sitting comfortably. Here, we investigated whether these distinct phenotypes are related to the presence/absence of spontaneous "weight-shifting", i.e. the redistribution of body-weight from one foot to the other. Using indirect calorimetry to measure EE in young adults during sitting and 10 min of steady-state standing, we examined: (i) heterogeneity in EE during standing (n = 36); (ii) EE and spontaneous weight-shifting patterns (n = 18); (iii) EE during spontaneous weight-shifting versus experimentally induced weight-shifting (n = 7), and; (iv) EE during spontaneous weight-shifting versus intermittent leg/body displacement (n = 6). Despite heterogeneity in EE response to steady-state standing, no differences were found in the amount or pattern of spontaneous weight-shifting between the two phenotypes. Whilst experimentally induced weight-shifting resulted in a mean EE increase of only 11% (range: 0-25%), intermittent leg/body displacement increased EE to >1.5 METs in all participants. Although the variability in spontaneous weight-shifting signatures between individuals does not appear to underlie heterogeneity in the energy cost of standing posture maintenance, these studies underscore the fact that leg/body displacement, rather than standing posture alone, is needed to increase EE above the currently defined sedentary threshold.

  2. Three-dimensional shift-invariant pattern recognition in digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ning; Halliwell, Neil A.; Coupland, Jeremy M.

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of shift-invariant pattern recognition applied to holographic images reconstructed digitally from holographic microscopes. It is shown that the sequential application of a 2D filter to plane-by-plane reconstructions of an optical field is exactly equivalent to the application of a more general filter with a 3D impulse response. We show that any 3D filter with arbitrary impulse response can be implemented in this way. The process is illustrated (in 3D) by filtering a holographic image of different sized glass spheres suspended in water.

  3. Warming Alters the Size Spectrum and Shifts the Distribution of Biomass in Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Body size is one of the key determinants of community structure. The relationship between abundance and body size can explain how community biomass is partitioned among the biota of an ecosystem. We used an aquatic mesocosm experiment to determine how warming of ~4?C would affect the body size, biomass and taxonomic structure of planktonic communities. We found that warming increased the steepness of the slope of the community size spectrum, primarily by altering the phyto...

  4. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  5. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh Dang-Vu

    Full Text Available Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD, during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation.Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers.During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls.Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness.

  6. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Zadra, Antonio; Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Petit, Dominique; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD), during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation. Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers. During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls. Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness.

  7. Shifting fire regimes alter soil carbon and nutrient storage at the global scale: historical trends and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, A.; Ahlström, A.; Randerson, J. T.; Nieradzik, L. P.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Shifting fire frequencies are predicted to have large effects on carbon storage in ecosystems as the balance between biomass combustion during burning and carbon sequestration during plant re-growth changes. Although fire has little direct effect on soil pools, fire-driven changes in the growth and turnover of plant biomass may alter soil pools by changing soil inputs over long timescales. However, whether fire generally changes soils and the magnitude that these changes may contribute to the carbon balance globally are unknown. To test how fire frequency affects ecosystem carbon storage, we utilize a new dataset from 48 sites distributed globally that have manipulated fire frequencies for 30 years, on average, to empirically estimate shifts in soil carbon and nutrients. We then evaluate the ability of multiple dynamic global vegetation models to simulate realistic responses of soil carbon and nutrient storage to changes in fire frequency, and use these models to quantify the effect of fire on soil pools at the global scale. We find that fire frequency drives changes in soil carbon and nitrogen across grassland, savanna, and forest ecosystems globally. Changes occur over decadal timescales, such that significant effects emerge after 20 years, but continue to accumulate even after 65 years of altered fire frequencies. Models vary substantially in their ability to capture changes in soils, but particular models accurately simulate the broad decadal trends. Simulations estimate that increased fire frequencies produce losses of soil carbon amounting to 40% of the losses in plant biomass carbon, on average, when there are persistent alterations of fire frequencies. Moreover, nitrogen losses from fire are estimated to suppress net primary productivity by 10%, which is equivalent in magnitude to 20% of the total carbon emitted from combustion of plant biomass.

  8. Elucidation of the substitution pattern of 9,10-anthraquinones through the chemical shifts of peri-hydroxyl protons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schripsema, Jan; Danigno, Denise

    1996-01-01

    In 9,10-anthraquinones the chemical shift of a peri-hydroxyl proton is affected by the substituents in the other benzenoid ring. These effects are additive. They are useful for the determination of substitution patterns and have been used to revise the structures of six previously reported...... anthraquinones containing methoxyl, hydroxyl, methylenedioxy and beta-methyl substituents. Because the chemical shifts of the other protons are hardly affected by substitutions in the other ring, the characteristic chemical shifts for a wide variety of substitution patterns could be derived....

  9. Multiple effects of circadian dysfunction induced by photoperiod shifts: alterations in context memory and food metabolism in the same subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert J; Zelinski, Erin L; Keeley, Robin J; Sutherland, Dylan; Fehr, Leah; Hong, Nancy S

    2013-06-13

    Humans exposed to shiftwork conditions have been reported to have increased susceptibility to various health problems including various forms of dementia, cancer, heart disease, and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The present experiments assessed the effects of circadian disruption on learning and memory function and various food related processes including diet consumption rates, food metabolism, and changes in body weight. These experiments utilized a novel variant of the conditioned place preference task (CPP) that is normally used to assess Pavlovian associative learning and memory processes produced via repeated context-reward pairings. For the present experiments, the standard CPP paradigm was modified in that both contexts were paired with food, but the dietary constituents of the food were different. In particular, we were interested in whether rats could differentiate between two types of carbohydrates, simple (dextrose) and complex (starch). Consumption rates for each type of carbohydrate were measured throughout training. A test of context preference without the food present was also conducted. At the end of behavioral testing, a fasting glucose test and a glucose challenge test were administered. Chronic photoperiod shifting resulted in impaired context learning and memory processes thought to be mediated by a neural circuit centered on the hippocampus. The results also showed that preferences for the different carbohydrate diets were altered in rats experiencing photoperiod shifting in that they maintained an initial preference for the simple carbohydrate throughout training. Lastly, photoperiod shifting resulted in changes in fasting blood glucose levels and elicited weight gain. These results show that chronic photoperiod shifting, which likely resulted in circadian dysfunction, impairs multiple functions of the brain and/or body in the same individual. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dengue fever in Pakistan: a paradigm shift; changing epidemiology and clinical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Zahra; Ahmad, Farina Zia; Mahmood, Asif; Waseem, Tariq; Shafiq, Irfan; Raza, Tanzeem; Qazi, Javaria; Siddique, Nasir; Humayun, Malik Asif

    2015-11-01

    Dengue fever has huge public health implications and affects over 100 million people worldwide. This review pictures the current situation of Dengue in Pakistan and presents a review of published literature. Pakistan has seen recurrent epidemics of Dengue Fever recently. Unfortunately, these epidemics are becoming more severe in their clinical manifestation. Pakistan experienced large epidemics of dengue fever during 2008, 2010 and 2011 affecting thousands of people and claiming hundreds of deaths. A comparison of data during these epidemics indicates a shift from mild to a more severe disease, which could be interpreted as an epidemiologic transition pattern in the country. Expansion of Dengue in Pakistan seems to be multifactorial, including the climate change, frequent natural disasters, vector resistance to insecticides and lack of resources. This highlights the need for rigorous vector control. Continuing education of primary care physicians is crucial for early appropriate management to reduce mortality. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  11. Patterns of youth tobacco and polytobacco usage: The shift to alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.

  12. Patterns of shift in ADC distributions in abdominal tumours during chemotherapy - feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Kirsteen; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Histopathology Department, London (United Kingdom); Anderson, John [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Oncology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) relates to tissue cellularity, and change in ADC during chemotherapy may be a promising tool for assessing oncological response. To investigate the feasibility of measuring changes in ADC distribution in solid abdominal and pelvic paediatric tumours during chemotherapy, and to assess patterns of change. Consecutive children were included in a prospective observational study. ADC maps were calculated at presentation and following chemotherapy from a diffusion-sensitised sequence. ADC distribution in the whole tumour, excluding areas of low or absent gadolinium-enhancement, was investigated. Change during chemotherapy was assessed for each patient individually. Histopathological slices from the resected specimens were reviewed. There were seven children (nine tumours) included in the study. ADC in all except one deviated from a normal distribution. All tumours changed their ADC distribution during chemotherapy. Median ADC increased in all upper abdominal tumours, but more in tumours with histopathologically good or marked response to chemotherapy. Seven out of nine tumours attained a wider ADC distribution, the remaining two showed little chemotherapy response. ADC distribution changes during chemotherapy in childhood abdominal tumours are measurable. Distinct patterns of shift can be observed and ADC change is therefore promising as a noninvasive biomarker for therapy response. (orig.)

  13. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Leong and Roderick. Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and ...

  14. Alternated phase-shift mask for 45nm node contact holes patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Pietro; Capetti, Gianfranco; Catarisano, Chiara; D'Angelo, Fabrizio; Vaccaro, Alessandro

    2006-03-01

    Among other memory products FLASHes are becoming a technology driver in term of design rules aggressiveness for dense structures. Upcoming revisions of ITRS roadmap forecast 45nm technology node introduction for FLASHes one year ahead (2006) compared to DRAMs (2007). In this scenario the basic development of 45nm process requires patterned samples starting from the end of 2005. Waiting for hyper high NA ArF immersion tools availability, different RET solutions based on the existing lithography platforms have been evaluated with the aim to provide patterned samples for process modules development. Our paper is focused on 45nm node contact holes, certainly considered one of the most challenging layers in the technology assessment: various RET strategies will be briefly discussed and particular attention will be dedicated to alternating phase shift mask option. Strong PSM approach has been already proposed in the past as viable solution for 65nm node contact holes patterning using ArF tools; here we discuss problems related to its extension down to 45nm node (with dry equipments), in ultra low k I regime and close to the physical limit of 0.25 k I. The paper addresses main challenges related to the application of an alt PSM approach to a full chip FLASH design, suggesting possible solutions for assist features generation and phase assignment. Different strategies to compensate for the well known phase imbalance phenomena have been selected by using fully rigorous 3D optical simulations. Finally preliminary printing test will be shown. Lithography performances (Minimum resolution, Process window, contact profile) will be compared with conventional RET techniques.

  15. Phase retrieval from the phase-shift moiré fringe patterns in simultaneous dual-wavelength interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinlong; Gao, Zhishan; Bie, Shuyou; Dou, Yimeng; Ni, Ruihu; Yuan, Qun

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneous dual-wavelength interferometry (SDWI) could extend the measured range of each single-wavelength interferometry. The moiré fringe generated in SDWI indirectly represents the information of the measured long synthetic-wavelength ({λ }{{S}}) phase, thus the phase demodulation is rather arduous. To address this issue, we present a method to convert the moiré fringe pattern into a synthetic-wavelength interferogram (moiré to synthetic-wavelength, MTS). After the square of the moiré fringe pattern in the MTS method, the additive moiré pattern is turned into a multiplicative one. And the synthetic-wavelength interferogram could be obtained by a low-pass filtering in spectrum of the multiplicative moiré fringe pattern. Therefore, when the dual-wavelength interferometer is implemented with the π/2 phase shift at {λ }{{S}}, a sequence of synthetic-wavelength phase-shift interferograms with π/2 phase shift could be obtained after the MTS method processing on the captured moiré fringe patterns. And then the synthetic-wavelength phase could be retrieved by the conventional phase-shift algorithm. Compared with other methods in SDWI, the proposed MTS approach could reduce the restriction of the phase shift and frame numbers for the adoption of the conventional phase-shift algorithm. Following, numerical simulations are executed to evaluate the performance of the MTS method in processing time, frames of interferograms and the phase shift error compensation. And the necessary linear carrier for MTS method is less than 0.11 times of the traditional dual-wavelength spatial-domain Fourier transform method. Finally, the deviations for MTS method in experiment are 0.97% for a step with the height of 7.8 μm and 1.11% for a Fresnel lens with the step height of 6.2328 μm.

  16. Computational tool for phase-shift calculation in an interference pattern by fringe displacements based on a skeletonized image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Pico-Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript an algorithm based on a graphic user interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB for an automatic phase-shifting estimation between two digitalized interferograms is presented. The proposed algorithm finds the midpoint locus of the dark and bright interference fringes in two skeletonized fringe patterns and relates their displacements with the corresponding phase-shift. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed GUI, its application to simulated and experimental interference patterns will be shown. The viability of this GUI makes it a helpful and easy-to-use computational tool for educational or research purposes in optical phenomena for undergraduate or graduate studies in the field of physics.

  17. Nursing frequency alters circadian patterns of mammary gene expression in lactating mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milking frequency impacts lactation in dairy cattle and in rodent models of lactation. The role of circadian gene expression in this process is unknown. The hypothesis tested was that changing nursing frequency alters the circadian patterns of mammary gene expression. Mid-lactation CD1 mice were stu...

  18. The Effects of Fatigue From Overnight Shifts on Radiology Search Patterns and Diagnostic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tarek N; Zygmont, Matthew E; Peterson, Ryan; Theriot, David; Shekhani, Haris; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Krupinski, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of overnight shifts (ONS) on radiologist fatigue, visual search pattern, and diagnostic performance. This experimental study was approved by the institutional review board. Twelve radiologists (five faculty members and seven residents) each completed two sessions: one during a normal workday ("not fatigued") and another in the morning after an ONS ("fatigued"). Each radiologist completed the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory. During each session, radiologists viewed 20 bone radiographs consisting of normal and abnormal findings. Viewing time, diagnostic confidence, and eye-tracking data were recorded. Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory results demonstrated worsening in all five variables (lack of energy, physical exertion, physical discomfort, lack of motivation, and sleepiness) after ONS (P radiologists were more fatigued with worse diagnostic performance, a 45% increase in view time per case, a 60% increase in total gaze fixations, and a 34% increase in time to fixate on the fracture. The effects of fatigue were more pronounced in residents. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Effective and Novel Neural Network Ensemble for Shift Pattern Detection in Control Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Barghash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition in control charts is critical to make a balance between discovering faults as early as possible and reducing the number of false alarms. This work is devoted to designing a multistage neural network ensemble that achieves this balance which reduces rework and scrape without reducing productivity. The ensemble under focus is composed of a series of neural network stages and a series of decision points. Initially, this work compared using multidecision points and single-decision point on the performance of the ANN which showed that multidecision points are highly preferable to single-decision points. This work also tested the effect of population percentages on the ANN and used this to optimize the ANN’s performance. Also this work used optimized and nonoptimized ANNs in an ensemble and proved that using nonoptimized ANN may reduce the performance of the ensemble. The ensemble that used only optimized ANNs has improved performance over individual ANNs and three-sigma level rule. In that respect using the designed ensemble can help in reducing the number of false stops and increasing productivity. It also can be used to discover even small shifts in the mean as early as possible.

  20. Shiftworking families: parents' working schedule and sleep patterns of adolescents attending school in two shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka Radoševic-Vidacek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore whether parents' engagement in shift work affects the sleep habits of their adolescent children who attend school in two shifts. METHODS: The data were drawn from an extensive survey of sleep and daytime functioning of adolescents attending school one week in the morning and the other in the afternoon. The participants were 1,386 elementary and high school students (11-18 years old whose parents were both employed. The data were analyzed using MANOVA, with parents' work schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school as between-subject factors. RESULTS: Parents' working schedule significantly affected the sleep patterns of high school adolescents. When attending school in the morning, adolescents whose parents were both day workers woke up somewhat later than adolescents with one shiftworking parent. In addition, they slept longer than adolescents whose parents were both shift workers. On weekends, adolescents whose parents both worked during the day went to bed earlier than adolescents whose parents were both shiftworkers. They also had smaller bedtime delay on weekends with respect to both morning and afternoon shifts than adolescents for whom one or both parents worked shifts. A significant interaction between parents' working schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school was found for sleep extension on weekends after afternoon shift school. CONCLUSIONS: Parental involvement in shift work has negative effects on the sleep of high school adolescents. It contributes to earlier wake-up time and shorter sleep in a week when adolescents attend school in the morning, as well as to greater bedtime irregularity.OBJETIVO: Investigar se a ocupação de pais com o trabalho em turnos interfere nos hábitos de sono dos filhos adolescentes que freqüentam a escola em dois períodos distintos. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados em uma extensa pesquisa sobre sono e atividades diurnas de adolescentes que freqüentavam a escola no

  1. Monitoring of the sleep patterns of shift workers in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Shimizu, Takako; Kuratomi, Yushiro; Suto, Sachiko; Kanai, Tomoe; Nishime, Akemi; Nakano, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    The effect of shift schedules on the amount of sleep that workers receive is an important factor in workplace health and safety as well as the employees' overall quality of life. The objective of this study is to compare sleep period among workers engaging in each of the three-shift work. The amount of sleep (sleep period) that male workers with rotating shift schedules received was measured using accelerometers. The mean age of the 16 male workers enrolled in this study was 54.3 years (one standard deviation, 6.7 years). Thirteen participants ranged in age from 51 to 60 years of age, and the other three participants were 32, 48, and 50 years old. Work shifts were rotated on a weekly basis and were categorized into three periods: shift-1 (8:00 to 17:00), shift-2 (15:00 to 23:50), and shift-3 (23:30 to 8:15). Each work week consisted of 5 days. No significant differences were observed in the mean sleep period for each of the three shifts. However, the sleep periods during shift-1 or shift-2 tended to be longer than that obtained during shift-3. No effect of age on the length of the sleep period was observed. Rotating shift-work did not affect the amount of sleep that workers obtained. However, a comparison with previous study results suggests that morning shifts (starting at 6 AM) and day shifts (starting at 8 AM) may have different effects on sleep time.

  2. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP). However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions. Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist-antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation pattern correlated significantly with the degree of spasticity. This study confirmed the occurrence of altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with CP during cycling on a recumbent ergometer. There is a need to develop feedback systems that can inform patients and therapists of an incorrect muscle activation during cycling and support the training of a more physiological activation

  3. Changes in wind pattern alter albatross distribution and life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Louzao, Maite; de Grissac, Sophie; Delord, Karine

    2012-01-13

    Westerly winds in the Southern Ocean have increased in intensity and moved poleward. Using long-term demographic and foraging records, we show that foraging range in wandering albatrosses has shifted poleward in conjunction with these changes in wind pattern, while their rates of travel and flight speeds have increased. Consequently, the duration of foraging trips has decreased, breeding success has improved, and birds have increased in mass by more than 1 kilogram. These positive consequences of climate change may be temporary if patterns of wind in the southern westerlies follow predicted climate change scenarios. This study stresses the importance of foraging performance as the key link between environmental changes and population processes.

  4. Total error shift patterns for daily CT on rails image-guided radiotherapy to the prostate bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Helvecio C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the daily total error shift patterns on post-prostatectomy patients undergoing image guided radiotherapy (IGRT with a diagnostic quality computer tomography (CT on rails system. Methods A total of 17 consecutive post-prostatectomy patients receiving adjuvant or salvage IMRT using CT-on-rails IGRT were analyzed. The prostate bed's daily total error shifts were evaluated for a total of 661 CT scans. Results In the right-left, cranial-caudal, and posterior-anterior directions, 11.5%, 9.2%, and 6.5% of the 661 scans required no position adjustments; 75.3%, 66.1%, and 56.8% required a shift of 1 - 5 mm; 11.5%, 20.9%, and 31.2% required a shift of 6 - 10 mm; and 1.7%, 3.8%, and 5.5% required a shift of more than 10 mm, respectively. There was evidence of correlation between the x and y, x and z, and y and z axes in 3, 3, and 3 of 17 patients, respectively. Univariate (ANOVA analysis showed that the total error pattern was random in the x, y, and z axis for 10, 5, and 2 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Multivariate (MANOVA analysis showed that the (x,y, (x,z, (y,z, and (x, y, z total error pattern was random in 5, 1, 1, and 1 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Conclusions The overall daily total error shift pattern for these 17 patients simulated with an empty bladder, and treated with CT on rails IGRT was predominantly systematic. Despite this, the temporal vector trends showed complex behaviors and unpredictable changes in magnitude and direction. These findings highlight the importance of using daily IGRT in post-prostatectomy patients.

  5. Shifting dominance of riparian Populus and Tamarix along gradients of flow alteration in western North American rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David M; Poff, N LeRoy

    2010-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima is a naturalized, nonnative plant species which has become widespread along riparian corridors throughout the western United States. We test the hypothesis that the distribution and success of Tamarix result from human modification of river-flow regimes. We conducted a natural experiment in eight ecoregions in arid and semiarid portions of the western United States, measuring Tamarix and native Populus recruitment and abundance at 64 sites along 13 perennial rivers spanning a range of altered flow regimes. We quantified biologically relevant attributes of flow alteration as an integrated measure (the index of flow modification, IFM), which was then used to explain between-site variation in abundance and recruitment of native and nonnative riparian plant species. We found the likelihood of successful recruitment of Tamarix to be highest along unregulated river reaches and to remain high across a gradient of regulated flows. Recruitment probability for Populus, in contrast, was highest under free-flowing conditions and declined abruptly under even slight flow modification (IFM > 0.1). Adult Tamarix was most abundant at intermediate levels of IFM. Populus abundance declined sharply with modest flow regulation (IFM > 0.2) and was not present at the most flow-regulated sites. Dominance of Tamarix was highest along rivers with the most altered flow regimes. At the 16 least regulated sites, Tamarix and Populus were equally abundant. Given observed patterns of Tamarix recruitment and abundance, we infer that Tamarix would likely have naturalized, spread, and established widely in riparian communities in the absence of dam construction, diversions, and flow regulation in western North America. However, Tamarix dominance over native species would likely be less extensive in the absence of human alteration of river-flow regimes. Restoration that combines active mechanical removal of established stands of Tamarix with a program of flow releases conducive to

  6. Shifting patterns of Aedes aegypti fine scale spatial clustering in Iquitos, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve LaCon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1 quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2 determine overlap between clusters, (3 quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4 quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels.Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [p<0.05] high mosquito abundance were calculated for each of the 9 entomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study.Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically high levels of transmission may be more effective than

  7. Shifting Patterns of Aedes aegypti Fine Scale Spatial Clustering in Iquitos, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCon, Genevieve; Morrison, Amy C.; Astete, Helvio; Stoddard, Steven T.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Elder, John P.; Halsey, Eric S.; Scott, Thomas W.; Kitron, Uriel; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1) quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2) determine overlap between clusters, (3) quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4) quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels. Methodologies/Principal Findings Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [p<0.05] high mosquito abundance) were calculated for each of the 9 entomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters) and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study. Conclusions/Significance Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically

  8. Sleep patterns in air traffic controllers working rapidly rotating shifts : a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This study was part of a research program in shift work and fatigue in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment. The purpose of the study was to investigate three different shift schedules in use at ATC facilities with respect to potential disruptio...

  9. Cumulative-Phase-Alteration of Galactic-Light Passing Through the Cosmic-Microwave-Background: A New Mechanism for Some Observed Spectral-Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tank H. K.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, whole of the measured “cosmological-red-shift ” is interpreted as due to the “metric-expansion-of-space”; so for the required “closer -density” of the universe, we need twenty times more mass-energy than the visible baryonic-matter contained in the universe. This paper proposes a new mechanism, which can account for good per- centage of the red-shift in the extra-galactic-light, greatly reducing the requirement of dark matter-energy. Also, this mechanism can cause a new kin d of blue-shift reported here, and their observational evidences. These spectral-s hifts are proposed to result due to cumulative phase-alteration of extra-galactic-light b ecause of vector-addition of: (i electric-field of extra-galactic-light and (ii that of the cosmic-microwave-background (CMB. Since the center-frequency of CMB is much lower than extra-galactic-light, the cumulative-phase-alteration results in red -shift, observed as an additional contribu- tor to the measured “cosmological red-shift”; and since the center-frequency of CMB is higher than the radio-frequency-signals used to measure velocity of space-probes like: Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, the cum ulative-phase-alteration re- sulted in blue-shift, leading to the interpretation of deceleration of these space-probes. While the galactic-light experiences the red-shift, and th e ranging-signals of the space- probes experience blue -shift, they are comparable in magnitude, providing a supportive- evidence for the new mechanism proposed here. More confirmative-experiments for this new mechanism are also proposed.

  10. Radiation-induced alterations in murine lymphocyte homing patterns. I. Radiolabeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, D.A.; Feldbush, T.L.; Evans, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    In vitro x-irradiation of 51 Cr-labeled spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, or thymus cells was found to alter their subsequent in vivo distribution significantly in syngeneic BDF 1 mice. Irradiated cells demonstrated an increased distribution to the liver and a significantly lower retention in the lungs. Cells going to the lymph nodes or Peyer's patches showed a significant exposure-dependent decrease in homing following irradiation. Irradiated lymph node cells homed in greater numbers to the spleen and bone marrow, while irradiated cells from other sources showed no preferential distribution to the same tissues. Sampling host tissues at various times after irradiation and injection did not demonstrate any return to normal patterns of distribution. The alterations in lymphocyte homing observed after in vitro irradiation appear to be due to the elimination of a selective population of lymphocytes or membrane alterations of viable cells, and the detection of these homing changes is in turn dependent upon the relative numbers of various lymphoid subpopulations which are obtained from different cell sources. Radiation-induced alterations in the normal homing patterns of lymphoid cells may thus be of considerable importance in the evaluation of subsequent functional assays in recipient animals

  11. Embryo cell allocation patterns are not altered by biopsy but can be linked with further development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda-Rincon, L P; Islam, N; Marsters, P; Campbell, B K; Beaujean, N; Maalouf, W E

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that first embryo cleavage can be related with the embryonic-abembryonic axis at blastocyst stage in mice. Thus, cells of the 2-cell embryo might be already biased to form the inner cell mass or trophectoderm. This study was conducted to observe the possible effects of embryo biopsy on cell allocation patterns during embryo preimplantation in two different mouse strains and the effects of these patterns on further development. First, one blastomere of the 2-cell embryo was injected with a lipophilic tracer and cell allocation patterns were observed at blastocyst stage. Blastocysts were classified into orthogonal, deviant or random pattern. For the first experiment, embryos were biopsied at 8-cell stage and total cell counts (TCC) were annotated. Furthermore, non-biopsied blastocysts were transferred into foster mothers. Then, pups and their organs were weighed two weeks after birth. Random pattern was significantly recurrent (≈60%), against orthogonal (patterns among groups. These patterns were not affected by biopsy procedure. However, TCC on deviant embryos were reduced after biopsy. Moreover, no differences were found between patterns for implantation rates, litter size, live offspring and organ weights (lungs, liver, pancreas and spleen). However, deviant pups presented heavier hearts and orthogonal pups presented lighter kidneys among the group. In conclusion, these results suggest that single blastomere removal does not disturb cell allocation patterns during pre-implantation. Nonetheless, the results suggest that embryos following different cell allocation patterns present different coping mechanisms against in vitro manipulations and further development might be altered. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  12. Altering the pattern of panretinal photocoagulation: could the visual field for driving be preserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, N

    1999-08-01

    To identify the area of retina required to provide the visual field for driving and to investigate whether the pattern of panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy could be altered to avoid treatment in this area whilst leaving the total number of burns constant. A mathematical model of the emmetropic eye is used to calculate retinal dimensions corresponding to different angles of visual field. These are used to define retinal regions that correspond to the UK DVLC visual field criteria and regions that lie outside this area. Further calculation estimates the number of laser burns applied within these regions for both 500 microns and 200 microns diameter spot sizes and various burn spacings. Modelling of the number of burns applied in the normal pattern of PRP agrees with the number required to control proliferative retinopathy. Reducing burn spacing or extending treatment up to the ora serrata allows application of sufficient burns to control the disease without encroaching on areas of the retina that provide the driving field. It is theoretically possible to alter the pattern of PRP to avoid treatment in retinal areas concerned with the driving visual field whilst leaving the total number of burns constant. This suggests that a clinical trial of such a pattern PRP could be performed to assess adequate control of proliferative retinopathy along with preservation of the visual field required for driving.

  13. North Atlantic atmospheric and ocean inter-annual variability over the past fifty years - Dominant patterns and decadal shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Tristan; Demirov, Entcho; Zhu, Jieshun; Yashayaev, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The atmosphere and ocean of the North Atlantic have undergone significant changes in the past century. To understand these changes, their mechanisms, and their regional implications requires a quantitative understanding of processes in the coupled ocean and atmosphere system. Central to this understanding is the role played by the dominant patterns of ocean and atmospheric variability which define coherent variations in physical characteristics over large areas. Cluster analysis is used in this article to identify the patterns of the North Atlantic atmospheric variability in the subseasonal and interannual spectral intervals. Four dominant subseasonal weather regimes are defined using Bayesian Gaussian mixture models. All correlation patterns of the Sea Level Pressure (SLP) anomalies with the membership probability time series for the weather regimes show similarities with the dipole structure typical for the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The SLP patterns of two of the regimes represent the opposite phases NAO+ and NAO-. The two other weather regimes, the Atlantic Ridge (AR) and Scandinavian-Greenland dipole (SG), have dipole spatial structures with the northern and southern centers of action shifted with respect to the NAO pattern. These two patterns define blocking structures over Scandinavia and near the southern tip of Greenland, respectively. The storm tracks typical for the four regimes resemble the well known paths for positive/negative phases of NAO for the NAO+/NAO- weather regimes, and paths influenced by blocking off the south Greenland tip for AR and over Scandinavia for SG. The correlation patterns of momentum and heat fluxes to the ocean for the four regimes have tripole structures with positive (warm) downward heat flux anomalies over the Subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) for the NAO- and the AR and negative heat flux anomalies over the SPNA for the NAO+. The downward heat flux anomalies associated with the SG are negative over the Labrador Sea and

  14. Altered movement patterns and muscular activity during single and double leg squats in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Trulsson, Anna; Miller, Michael; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Gummesson, Christina; Garwicz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury often show altered movement patterns, suggested to be partly due to impaired sensorimotor control. Here, we therefore aimed to assess muscular activity during movements often used in ACL-rehabilitation and to characterize associations between deviations in muscular activity and specific altered movement patterns, using and further exploring the previously developed Test for substitution Patterns (TSP). Methods Sixteen partici...

  15. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves-Pinto A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Alves-Pinto,1,* Tobias Blumenstein,1,* Varvara Turova,1 Renée Lampe1,2 1Research Unit of the Buhl-Strohmaier Foundation for Cerebral Palsy and Paediatric Neuroorthopaedics, Orthopaedic Department, Klinikum rechts der Isar, 2Markus Würth Professorship, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP. However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility.Methods: Electromyographic (EMG recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions.Results: Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation

  16. Learning alters the tuning of functional magnetic resonance imaging patterns for visual forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Meeson, Alan; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2010-10-20

    Learning is thought to facilitate the recognition of objects by optimizing the tuning of visual neurons to behaviorally relevant features. However, the learning mechanisms that shape neural selectivity for visual forms in the human brain remain essentially unknown. Here, we combine behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements to test the mechanisms that mediate enhanced behavioral sensitivity in the discrimination of visual forms after training. In particular, we used high-resolution fMRI and multivoxel pattern classification methods to investigate fine learning-dependent changes in neural preference for global forms. We measured the observers' choices when discriminating between concentric and radial patterns presented in noise before and after training. Similarly, we measured the choices of a pattern classifier when predicting each stimulus from fMRI activity. Comparing the performance of human observers and classifiers demonstrated that learning alters the observers' sensitivity to visual forms and the tuning of fMRI activation patterns in visual areas selective for task-relevant features. In particular, training on low-signal stimuli enhanced the amplitude but reduced the width of pattern-based tuning functions in higher dorsal and ventral visual areas. Thus, our findings suggest that learning of visual patterns is implemented by enhancing the response to the preferred stimulus category and reducing the response to nonpreferred stimuli in higher extrastriate visual cortex.

  17. Role stress and career satisfaction among registered nurses by work shift patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Amy J; Scott, Linda D

    2003-06-01

    This study examined the variation in role stress and career satisfaction among hospital-based registered nurses (RNs) by shift length. Many hospitals have reorganized care delivery into 12-hour work shifts to improve RN recruitment, retention, and cost effectiveness. Yet little is known about the effects of 12-hour shifts on RN role stress and career satisfaction. As an unprecedented RN shortage approaches, factors that contribute to satisfying and healthy practice environments must be identified. This study used a descriptive cross-sectional research design. Five hundred RNs were randomly selected to receive a mailed questionnaire packet. Initial findings indicate RNs working 12-hour shifts were younger, less experienced, and more stressed than colleagues working 8-hour shifts. When differences in nursing experience were controlled, similar RN stress levels were found. Although overall career satisfaction was comparable between groups, significant differences were found in the areas of salary and professional status. Pay, autonomy, and professional status were the most important determinants of career satisfaction for all RN participants. These findings suggest that RNs may experience greater professional fulfillment when strategies are implemented that promote autonomous practice environments, provide financial incentives, and recognize professional status. Proactive decision-making may avert RN disillusionment and avoid other negative consequences that impact quality of care.

  18. Changes in gluteal muscle forces with alteration of footstrike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Charles Nathan; Kernozek, Thomas W; Gheidi, Naghmeh

    2017-10-01

    Gait retraining is a common form of treatment for running related injuries. Proximal factors at the hip have been postulated as having a role in the development of running related injuries. How altering footstrike affects hip muscles forces and kinematics has not been described. Thus, we aimed to quantify differences in hip muscle forces and hip kinematics that may occur when healthy runners are instructed to alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rear-foot strike to a forefoot strike. This may gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of running related lower extremity injury. Twenty-five healthy female runners completed a minimum of 10 running trials in a controlled laboratory setting under rear-foot strike and instructed forefoot strike conditions. Kinetic and kinematic data were used in an inverse dynamic based static optimization to estimate individual muscle forces during running. Within subject differences were investigated using a repeated measures multi-variate analysis of variance. Peak gluteus medius and minimus and hamstring forces were reduced while peak gluteus maximus force was increased when running with an instructed forefoot strike pattern. Peak hip adduction, hip internal rotation, and heel-COM distance were also reduced. Therefore, instructing habitual rearfoot strike runners to run with a forefoot strike pattern resulted in changes in peak gluteal and hamstring muscle forces and hip kinematics. These changes may be beneficial to the development and treatment of running related lower extremity injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Earthquake impacts on microcrustacean communities inhabiting groundwater-fed springs alter species-abundance distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone; Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Galassi, Diana M P

    2018-01-24

    Earthquakes are important natural events, yet their impacts on animal communities are poorly known. Understanding earthquake impacts on groundwater communities is essential to assess their resilience and hence to perform conservation actions. We investigated how a 6.3 M w earthquake that occurred in 2009 altered the community structure (diversity, evenness, dominance, species abundance distributions and beta-diversity) of microcrustaceans (Crustacea Copepoda) inhabiting springs fed by the Gran Sasso Aquifer (Central Italy). Sampling was done in low-discharge (1997), high-discharge (2005), and post-seismic (2012) hydrological years. Stygobites (obligate groundwater species) and non-stygobites (non-obligate groundwater species) showed different patterns. A high-water discharge in 2005 altered abundance patterns of non-stygobites. The earthquake re-established former abundance patterns. Stygobites were less affected by high-water discharge in 2005, and showed strong increases in diversity and evenness after the earthquake. This effect was due to the fact that the earthquake induced a strong population decline of previously dominant stygobites (especially of Nitocrella pescei) in the aquifer, and subsequently at the main spring outlets, thus allowing a more equitable species-abundance distribution. These results highlight the importance of considering species ecology to understand the effects of a significant earthquake event on animal communities.

  20. Time allocation shifts and pollutant exposure due to traffic congestion: an analysis using the national human activity pattern survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart A

    2009-10-15

    Traffic congestion increases air pollutant exposures of commuters and urban populations due to the increased time spent in traffic and the increased vehicular emissions that occur in congestion, especially "stop-and-go" traffic. Increased time in traffic also decreases time in other microenvironments, a trade-off that has not been considered in previous time activity pattern (TAP) analyses conducted for exposure assessment purposes. This research investigates changes in time allocations and exposures that result from traffic congestion. Time shifts were derived using data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), which was aggregated to nine microenvironments (six indoor locations, two outdoor locations and one transport location). After imputing missing values, handling outliers, and conducting other quality checks, these data were stratified by respondent age, employment status and period (weekday/weekend). Trade-offs or time-shift coefficients between time spent in vehicles and the eight other microenvironments were then estimated using robust regression. For children and retirees, congestion primarily reduced the time spent at home; for older children and working adults, congestion shifted the time spent at home as well as time in schools, public buildings, and other indoor environments. Changes in benzene and PM(2.5) exposure were estimated for the current average travel delay in the U.S. (9 min day(-1)) and other scenarios using the estimated time shifts coefficients, concentrations in key microenvironments derived from the literature, and a probabilistic analysis. Changes in exposures depended on the duration of the congestion and the pollutant. For example, a 30 min day(-1) travel delay was determined to account for 21+/-12% of current exposure to benzene and 14+/-8% of PM(2.5) exposure. The time allocation shifts and the dynamic approach to TAPs improve estimates of exposure impacts from congestion and other recurring events.

  1. Global patterns in the vulnerability of ecosystems to vegetation shifts due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Ronald P. Neilson; James M. Lenihan; Raymond J. Drapek

    2010-01-01

    Climate change threatens to shift vegetation, disrupting ecosystems and damaging human well-being. Field observations in boreal, temperate and tropical ecosystems have detected biome changes in the 20th century, yet a lack of spatial data on vulnerability hinders organizations that manage natural resources from identifying priority areas for adaptation measures. We...

  2. From Coffee to Tea: Shifting Patterns of Consumption in Qajar Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Rudi

    1996-01-01

    Traces the changes in consumer habits for tea and coffee in Iran from the early 15th century (introduction of the beverages) to the late 19th century. Consumption often was tied to regional differentiation and social stratification. Shifting trade routes, especially those involving Russia and England also produced changes. (MJP)

  3. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R; Lindeman, Peter V; Lovich, Jeffrey E

    2015-06-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves.

  4. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lindeman, Peter V.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves.

  5. Tonic noradrenergic activity modulates explorative behavior and attentional set shifting: Evidence from pupillometry and gaze pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajkossy, Péter; Szőllősi, Ágnes; Demeter, Gyula; Racsmány, Mihály

    2017-12-01

    A constant task for every living organism is to decide whether to exploit rewards associated with current behavior or to explore the environment for more rewarding options. Current empirical evidence indicates that exploitation is related to phasic whereas exploration is related to tonic firing mode of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. In humans, this exploration-exploitation trade-off is subserved by the ability to flexibly switch attention between task-related and task-irrelevant information. Here, we investigated whether this function, called attentional set shifting, is related to exploration and tonic noradrenergic discharge. We measured pretrial baseline pupil dilation, proved to be strongly correlated with the activity of the locus coeruleus, while human participants took part in well-known tasks of attentional set shifting. Study 1 used the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, whereas in Study 2, the Intra/Extradimensional Set Shifting Task was used. Both tasks require participants to choose between different compound stimuli based on feedback provided for their previous decisions. During the task, stimulus-reward contingencies change periodically, thus participants are repeatedly required to reassess which stimulus features are relevant (i.e., they shift their attentional set). Our results showed that baseline pupil diameter steadily decreased when the stimulus-reward contingencies were stable, whereas they suddenly increased when these contingencies changed. Analysis of looking patterns also confirmed the presence of exploratory behavior during attentional set shifting. Thus, our results suggest that tonic firing mode of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus is implicated in attentional set shifting, as it regulates the amount of exploration. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Effects of runway shift and stay rules on rats' serial pattern learning in the T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jerome; Westlake, Kimberly; Szelest, Izabela

    2004-11-01

    Rats received three-trial series on a T-maze consisting of extended visually distinct left-black and right-striped side runways. During the first phase of training, when allowed to select baited runways within these series, they predominantly alternated their choices. During the second phase, rats received forced-choice serial pattern training of series consisting of two rewarded (R) trials and one nonrewarded (N) trial in two fixed orders, RRN and RNR. In Experiment 1, the rats in the runway shift rule group always received the second R trial when forced down a runway opposite that on the preceding trial in the series and the N trial when forced down the same runway. The rats in the runway stay rule group always received the second R trial when forced down the same runway and the N trial when forced down the opposite runway. In Experiment 2, each rat was conditionally trained with both runway outcome rules as determined by the central alley lighting and the type of food in the side alleys. The rats took longer to reduce their running speed on the N trial within each sequence under the runway stay rule than under the runway shift rule. They also took longer to acquire serial pattern responding for the RNR than for the RRN series only under the runway stay rule condition. When subsequently reexposed to series of free-choice trials on the final phase, rats maintained spontaneous alternating choice patterns under the runway shift rule conditions but either seldom alternated their choices (Experiment 1) or greatly reduced choice alternations (Experiment 2) under the runway stay rule condition. We discussed these effects in terms of rats' natural foraging strategies and as a factor that interacts with other within- and between-series variables that affect serial pattern behavior.

  7. Shift- and scale-invariant pattern recognition using morphological fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qu; Lei, Liang; Wang, Bo; Chen, Li; Zhou, Jinyun

    2010-10-01

    A shift- and scale-invariant version of morphological fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation (MFJTC) is proposed in this paper, which we call shift- and scale-invariant MFJTC (SIMFJTC). SIMFJTC is combination of MFJTC and conventional radial harmonic filter (RHF). Using computer simulation, we compare the output results of SIMFJTC with those of morphological radial harmonic correlation (MRHC) and SDF-based FPFJTC when input scene is corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise and cluttered background. Our results show that SIMFJTC has higher discriminability and displays better stability against salt-and-pepper noise and cluttered background. Moreover, scale-invariance of SIMFJTC is much stricter than MRHC and SDF-based FPFJTC.

  8. A Study on Optimal Pattern and Leader Shift of Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Hiroyasu

    The aerodynamics of formation flight are studied by modeling wings using a horseshoe vortex. During flight in formation, wings receive upwash created by other wings, and the required power consequently decreases. The leading wing in a V formation receives less benefit, while in a U formation, the power reduction rate remains identical over all wings. In long-distance flights, the U formation is optimal. However, when the process of shifting the leader position in a V formation is considered, as is often observed in actual bird flocks in long-distance flights, the power reduction rates of all wings converge into the same value after several shifts. This value is identical to that of the U formation.

  9. Does exposure to new transport infrastructure result in modal shifts? Patterns of change in commute mode choices in a four-year quasi-experimental cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Eva; Harshfield, Amelia; Panter, Jenna; Mackett, Roger; Ogilvie, David

    2017-09-01

    Intervention studies suggest that changing the built environment may encourage a modal shift from car travel towards active travel. However, little is known about the detail of patterns of changes in travel behaviour. Adult commuters working in Cambridge (UK) completed annual questionnaires between 2009 and 2012. Commuting was assessed using a validated seven-day travel-to-work record. The intervention consisted of the opening of a guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in 2011. Exposure to the intervention was defined as the negative of the square root of the shortest road distance from home to the busway. We investigated the association between exposure to the intervention and specific modal shifts and patterns of change, along with individual mode choice patterns over the entire four-year period. Five groups of patterns of change were found in our in-depth explorations: (1) no change, (2) a full modal shift, (3) a partial modal shift, (4) non-stable but patterned behaviour, and (5) complicated or apparently random patterns. A minority of participants had a directed change of either a full modal shift or, more commonly, a partial modal shift, whereas a large proportion showed a highly variable pattern. No significant associations were found between exposure to the intervention and specific modal shifts or patterns of change. Our analyses revealed a large diversity in (changes in) travel behaviour patterns over time, and showed that the intervention did not result in one specific pattern of behaviour change or produce only full modal shifts. These insights are important for improving the measurement of travel behaviour, improving our understanding of how changes in travel behaviour patterns occur, and fully capturing the potential impacts of interventions.

  10. Modulation analysis in spatial phase shifting electronic speckle pattern interferometry and application for automated data selection on biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, Sabine; Kemper, Björn; Wernicke, Günther; von Bally, Gert

    2007-02-01

    In electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), for a fast and objective analysis of measurement data which occur with a high repetition rate, an automated data processing is of particular advantage. For this reason, investigations were carried out to determine if the modulation of speckle interferograms can be applied as a quality parameter for the selection of suitable interferogram data for further evaluation e.g. phase unwrapping when spatial phase shifting (SPS) is performed. Six methods for determining the modulation of speckle interferograms are characterised and compared. The applicability of the speckle interferogram modulation as a parameter for mask generation in the unwrapping process of the phase difference is demonstrated by the evaluation of measurement data obtained from experiments with a spatial phase shifting endoscopic ESPI system on a technical surface and on a human gastrectomy specimen.

  11. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  12. Exercise Alters Gait Pattern but Not Knee Load in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ssu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Jia; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Hsiang; Chang, Chao-Chin; Chou, You-Cai; Chen, Li-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Six female patients with bilateral medial knee OA and 6 healthy controls were recruited. Patients with knee OA received a 6-week physiotherapist-supervised and home-based exercise program. Outcome measures, including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and Short Form-36 Health Survey as well as objective biomechanical indices were obtained at baseline and follow-up. After treatment, no significant difference was observed in the knee abductor moment (KAM), lever arm, and ground reaction force. We, however, observed significantly improved pain and physical function as well as altered gait patterns, including a higher hip flexor moment and hip extension angle with a faster walking speed. Although KAM was unchanged, patients with bilateral knee OA showed an improved walking speed and altered the gait pattern after 6 weeks of supervised exercise. This finding suggests that the exercise intervention improves proximal joint mechanics during walking and can be considered for patients with bilateral knee OA. Non-weight-bearing strengthening without external resistance combined with stretching exercise may be an option to improve pain and function in individuals with OA who cannot perform high resistance exercises owing to pain or other reasons.

  13. The impact of shifts in marine biodiversity hotspots on patterns of range evolution: Evidence from the Holocentridae (squirrelfishes and soldierfishes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornburg, Alex; Moore, Jon; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Eytan, Ron I; Near, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    One of the most striking biodiversity patterns is the uneven distribution of marine species richness, with species diversity in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) exceeding all other areas. However, the IAA formed fairly recently, and marine biodiversity hotspots have shifted across nearly half the globe since the Paleogene. Understanding how lineages have responded to shifting biodiversity hotspots represents a necessary historic perspective on the formation and maintenance of global marine biodiversity. Such evolutionary inferences are often challenged by a lack of fossil evidence that provide insights into historic patterns of abundance and diversity. The greatest diversity of squirrelfishes and soldierfishes (Holocentridae) is in the IAA, yet these fishes also represent some of the most numerous fossil taxa in deposits of the former West Tethyan biodiversity hotspot. We reconstruct the pattern of holocentrid range evolution using time-calibrated phylogenies that include most living species and several fossil lineages, demonstrating the importance of including fossil species as terminal taxa in ancestral area reconstructions. Holocentrids exhibit increased range fragmentation following the West Tethyan hotspot collapse. However, rather than originating within the emerging IAA hotspot, the IAA has acted as a reservoir for holocentrid diversity that originated in adjacent regions over deep evolutionary time scales. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Changes in timing of muscle contractions and running economy with altered stride pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connick, Mark J; Li, Francois-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Large alterations to the preferred running stride decrease running economy, and shorter strides increase leg muscle activity. However, the effect of altered strides on the timing of leg muscle activation is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of moderate alterations to the running stride on running economy and the timing of biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GAST) muscle contractions. The preferred stride pattern for eleven trained male runners was measured prior to a separate visit where participants ran for bouts of 5 min whilst synchronising foot contacts to a metronome signal which was tuned to (1) the preferred stride, and (2) frequencies which related to ± 8% and ± 4% of the preferred stride length. Running economy was measured at each stride pattern along with electromyography and three-dimensional kinematics to estimate onset and offset of muscle contractions for each muscle. Running economy was greatest at the preferred stride length. However, a quadratic fit to the data was optimised at a stride which was 2.9% shorter than preferred. Onset and offset of BF and VL muscle contractions occurred earlier with shorter than preferred strides. We detected no changes to the timing of muscle contractions with longer than preferred strides and no changes to GAST muscle contractions. The results suggest that runners optimise running economy with a stride length that is close to, but shorter than, the preferred stride, and that timing of BF and VL muscle contractions change with shorter than preferred strides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Time-sequential observation of spindle and phragmoplast orientation in BY-2 cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Kei H; Yasuhara, Hiroki; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2014-06-18

    Precise division plane determination is essential for plant development. At metaphase, a dense actin microfilament meshwork appears on both sides of the cell center, forming a characteristic cortical actin microfilament twin peak pattern in BY-2 cells. We previously reported a strong correlation between altered cortical actin microfilament patterning and an oblique mitotic spindle orientation, implying that these actin microfilament twin peaks play a role in the regulation of mitotic spindle orientation. In the present study, time-sequential observation was used to reveal the progression from oblique phragmoplast to oblique cell plate orientation in cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning. In contrast to cells with normal actin microfilament twin peaks, oblique phragmoplast reorientation was rarely observed in cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning. These results support the important roles of cortical actin microfilament patterning in division plane orientation.

  16. Shifting post production patterns: exploring changes in New Zealand's seafood processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Christina; Simmons, Glenn; Rees, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the changing nature of New Zealand's seafood companies' production practices. The past 15 years has seen the offshore outsourcing of post-harvest fish gain unprecedented momentum. The growth in offshore processing is a further stage in an increasingly globalised fisheries value chain. Fish is head and gutted, frozen and then transported to processing sites in China where it is thawed, value-added processed and refrozen for export to the original sourcing country or third country markets. Reasons advanced by the industry for this shift in production practices include quota reductions, increasing production costs and the sale of trawlers.

  17. Regime shifts in bistable water-stressed ecosystems due to amplification of stochastic rainfall patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Dentz, Marco; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-05-01

    We develop a framework that casts the point water-vegetation dynamics under stochastic rainfall forcing as a continuous-time random walk (CTRW), which yields an evolution equation for the joint probability density function (PDF) of soil-moisture and biomass. We find regime shifts in the steady-state PDF as a consequence of changes in the rainfall structure, which flips the relative strengths of the system attractors, even for the same mean precipitation. Through an effective potential, we quantify the impact of rainfall variability on ecosystem resilience and conclude that amplified rainfall regimes reduce the resilience of water-stressed ecosystems, even if the mean annual precipitation remains constant.

  18. Long-term Shifting Patterns in Quality of Life After Distal Subtotal Gastrectomy: Preoperative- and Healthy-based Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Soo; Chung, Ho Young; Kwon, Ohkyoung; Yu, Wansik

    2015-06-01

    The study assessed long-term shifting patterns in quality of life (QoL) after distal subtotal gastrectomy relative to an estimated healthy population QoL (HPQoL), and compared them to shifting patterns interpreted in terms of a preoperative QoL baseline. QoL data from 127 gastric cancer patients who underwent open distal subtotal gastrectomy were obtained at the preoperative period and at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months after surgery. QoL data obtained from 127 age- and sex-adjusted healthy individuals were used to estimate HPQoL. The study used the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QoL Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and a gastric cancer module (QLQ-STO22) to assess QoL. Comparisons were made between preoperative-based and healthy-based interpretations of longitudinal QoL shifting patterns. Among the persistently deteriorated QoL variables indicated by the preoperative-based interpretation (physical functioning, role functioning, cognitive functioning, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, diarrhea, dysphagia, eating restrictions, dry mouth, and body image), eating restrictions and body image concerns were the only factors indicated by a healthy-based interpretation. In this interpretation, financial difficulties were evident at the preoperative period and persisted for at least 36 months. When preoperative QoL was used as a baseline, decreased QoL due to financial difficulties was not revealed. Persistent QoL deterioration after distal subtotal gastrectomy is primarily due to financial difficulties, eating restrictions, and body image concerns. Preoperative-based interpretation of postoperative QoL may exaggerate the persistency of reduced QoL and conceal on-going QoL deterioration after surgery.

  19. Shifting Patterns of the Government's Policies for the Internationalization of Korean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kiyong; Kim, Minjung

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of changing patterns since the mid-1990s in the Korean government's policies for internationalizing its higher education system. The study examines the driving forces behind the government's internationalization policies for Korean higher education, how the internationalization process affected…

  20. Initial shifts in nitrogen impact on ecosystem carbon fluxes in an alpine meadow: patterns and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increases in nitrogen (N deposition can greatly stimulate ecosystem net carbon (C sequestration through positive N-induced effects on plant productivity. However, how net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE and its components respond to different N addition rates remains unclear. Using an N addition gradient experiment (six levels: 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 gN m−2 yr−1 in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, we explored the responses of different ecosystem C fluxes to an N addition gradient and revealed mechanisms underlying the dynamic responses. Results showed that NEE, ecosystem respiration (ER, and gross ecosystem production (GEP all increased linearly with N addition rates in the first year of treatment but shifted to N saturation responses in the second year with the highest NEE (−7.77 ± 0.48 µmol m−2 s−1 occurring under an N addition rate of 8 gN m−2 yr−1. The saturation responses of NEE and GEP were caused by N-induced accumulation of standing litter, which limited light availability for plant growth under high N addition. The saturation response of ER was mainly due to an N-induced saturation response of aboveground plant respiration and decreasing soil microbial respiration along the N addition gradient, while decreases in soil microbial respiration under high N addition were caused by N-induced reductions in soil pH. We also found that various components of ER, including aboveground plant respiration, soil respiration, root respiration, and microbial respiration, responded differentially to the N addition gradient. These results reveal temporal dynamics of N impacts and the rapid shift in ecosystem C fluxes from N limitation to N saturation. Our findings bring evidence of short-term initial shifts in responses of ecosystem C fluxes to increases in N deposition, which should be considered when predicting long-term changes in ecosystem net C sequestration.

  1. Optimized phase-shifting masks for high-resolution resist patterning by interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Sascha; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Bahrenberg, Lukas; Lebert, Rainer; Loosen, Peter; Juschkin, Larissa

    2017-10-01

    The EUV laboratory exposure tool (EUV-LET) is a versatile stand-alone resist patterning tool. Main applications are resist characterization for industrial lithography as well as the patterning of high-resolution arrays over large areas as required in research and small-volume production. High-resolution patterns are achieved by interference lithography based on the achromatic Talbot effect. The theoretical resolution limit for achromatic Talbot lithography (ATL) of 10 nm half-pitch (HP) is mainly resist-limited, as long as necessary high-resolution transmission masks can be fabricated. In this paper we focus on the transmission mask fabrication technology with a low number of process steps that allows to maximize yield and offers high flexibility. Diffraction order efficiencies (DOEs) of the masks are optimized to achieve maximal aerial image contrast (MTF) in the achromatic Talbot distance. The developed four-step mask fabrication process of contact-hole masks with HPs of 50 nm, 40 nm and 30 nm over areas of 1 × 1 mm2 is presented. The transmission masks are characterized within the EUV-LET to determine the achievable MTF that can be used for resist patterning and characterization. Based on the carried out in-tool measurements the achievable MTF is 63.7 % and the total diffraction efficiency into the 1st diffraction orders (DOs) is 41.7 % (both for 50-nm-HP masks) which makes the masks perfectly suited for the achromatic Talbot approach. Furthermore, we demonstrate high-resolution patterning down to 28 nm HP describing an effective in-lab tool that can be used at facilities for the characterization of photoresists for the upcoming lithography generations.

  2. Association between the pattern of IGFBP-1 alteration and the glucose/insulin metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedić, O; Masnikosa, R; Lagundžin, D

    2011-05-01

    Little is known on the possible association between impaired glucose/insulin metabolism, the pattern of IGFBP-1 phosphorylation and the complex formation with other serum proteins. In this study, the concentration, isoform, multimer and complex pattern of IGFBP-1 was compared in healthy persons and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or with hypoglycemia. Concentrations of insulin and IGFBP-1 were determined by radioimmunoassay. Metal affinity and immunoaffinity chromatography were used for the separation of molecular forms of IGFBP-1, which were detected by immunoblotting and SELDI. The counter directional change in insulin and IGFBP-1 concentrations, expressed as a factor that takes into consideration the rate of insulin increase and IGFBP-1 decrease after glucose intake was approximately twice more pronounced in patients with diabetes than in healthy and hypoglycemic persons. The alteration in the phosphorylation pattern of IGFBP-1 due to diabetes or hypoglycemia was not observed. IGFBP-1 multimers found in the circulation of patients with diabetes type 2 differed from those detected in the circulation of others: there were 3 molecular forms between 90 and 100 kDa (compared to one in patients with hypoglycemia or 2 in healthy persons), 2 of which were α (2)M-reactive and one not. These results suggest a possible greater involvement of IGF system in glucose regulation in patients with diabetes type 2. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Changes in cytokinins are sufficient to alter developmental patterns of defense metabolites in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brütting, Christoph; Schäfer, Martin; Vanková, Radomíra; Gase, Klaus; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Plant defense metabolites are well known to be regulated developmentally. The optimal defense (OD) theory posits that a tssue's fitness values and probability of attack should determine defense metabolite allocations. Young leaves are expected to provide a larger fitness value to the plant, and therefore their defense allocations should be higher when compared with older leaves. The mechanisms that coordinate development with defense remain unknown and frequently confound tests of the OD theory predictions. Here we demonstrate that cytokinins (CKs) modulate ontogeny-dependent defenses in Nicotiana attenuata. We found that leaf CK levels highly correlate with inducible defense expressions with high levels in young and low levels in older leaves. We genetically manipulated the developmental patterns of two different CK classes by using senescence- and chemically inducible expression of CK biosynthesis genes. Genetically modifying the levels of different CKs in leaves was sufficient to alter ontogenic patterns of defense metabolites. We conclude that the developmental regulation of growth hormones that include CKs plays central roles in connecting development with defense and therefore in establishing optimal patterns of defense allocation in plants. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Shifting patterns of ENSO variability from a 492-year South Pacific coral core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangri, N.; Linsley, B. K.; Mucciarone, D.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Anticipating the impacts of ENSO in a changing climate requires detailed reconstructions of changes in its timing, amplitude, and spatial pattern, as well as attempts to attribute those changes to external forcing or internal variability. A continuous coral δ18O record from American Samoa, in the tropical South Pacific, sheds light on almost five centuries of these changes. We find evidence of internally-driven 50-100 year cycles with broad peaks of high variability punctuated by short transitions of low variability. We see a long, slow trend towards more frequent ENSO events, punctuated by sharp decreases in frequency; the 20th century in particular shows a strong trend towards higher-frequency ENSO. Due to the unique location of American Samoa with respect to ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, we infer changes in the spatial pattern of ENSO. American Samoa currently lies on the ENSO 3.4 nodal line - the boomerang shape that separates waters warmed by El Niño from those that cool. Closer examination reveals that SST around American Samoa displays opposing responses to Eastern and Central Pacific ENSO events. However, this has not always been the case; in the late 19th and early 20th century, SST responded similarly to both flavors of ENSO. We interpret this to mean a geographic narrowing towards the equator of the eastern Pacific El Niño SST anomaly pattern in the first half of the 20th century.

  5. Altered brain perfusion patterns in wakefulness and slow-wave sleep in sleepwalkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Marie-Ève; Baril, Andrée-Ann; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Desautels, Alex; Petit, Dominique; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2018-03-03

    The present study assessed brain perfusion patterns with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during sleepwalkers' post-sleep deprivation slow-wave sleep and resting-state wakefulness. Following a 24-hr period of sleep deprivation, 10 sleepwalkers and 10 sex- and age-matched controls were scanned with a high-resolution SPECT scanner. Participants were injected with99mTc-ECD after 2 minutes of stable slow-wave sleep within their first sleep cycle as well as during resting-state wakefulness, both after a subsequent 24-hr period of sleep deprivation. When compared to controls' brain perfusion patterns during both slow-wave sleep and resting-state wakefulness, sleepwalkers showed reduced regional cerebral perfusion in several bilateral frontal regions, including the superior frontal, middle frontal and medial frontal gyri. Moreover, reduced regional cerebral perfusion was also found in sleepwalkers' left postcentral gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus during slow-wave sleep compared to controls. During resting-state wakefulness compared to controls, reduced cerebral perfusion was also found in parietal and temporal regions of sleepwalkers' left hemisphere while the right parahippocampal gyrus showed increased regional cerebral perfusion. Our results reveal patterns of reduced regional cerebral perfusion in sleepwalkers' frontal and parietal areas when compared to controls, regions previously associated with slow-wave sleep generation and episode occurrence. Additionally, reduced perfusion in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and insula during recovery slow-wave sleep is consistent with clinical features of somnambulistic episodes, including impaired awareness and reduced pain perception. Altered regional cerebral perfusion patterns during sleepwalkers' resting-state wakefulness may be related to daytime functional anomalies in this population.

  6. Using visual feedback distortion to alter coordinated pinching patterns for robotic rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewer Bambi R

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common for individuals with chronic disabilities to continue using the compensatory movement coordination due to entrenched habits, increased perception of task difficulty, or personality variables such as low self-efficacy or a fear of failure. Following our previous work using feedback distortion in a virtual rehabilitation environment to increase strength and range of motion, we address the use of visual feedback distortion environment to alter movement coordination patterns. Methods Fifty-one able-bodied subjects participated in the study. During the experiment, each subject learned to move their index finger and thumb in a particular target pattern while receiving visual feedback. Visual distortion was implemented as a magnification of the error between the thumb and/or index finger position and the desired position. The error reduction profile and the effect of distortion were analyzed by comparing the mean total absolute error and a normalized error that measured performance improvement for each subject as a proportion of the baseline error. Results The results of the study showed that (1 different coordination pattern could be trained with visual feedback and have the new pattern transferred to trials without visual feedback, (2 distorting individual finger at a time allowed different error reduction profile from the controls, and (3 overall learning was not sped up by distorting individual fingers. Conclusion It is important that robotic rehabilitation incorporates multi-limb or finger coordination tasks that are important for activities of daily life in the near future. This study marks the first investigation on multi-finger coordination tasks under visual feedback manipulation.

  7. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-02-01

    The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three studies on N. europaea were compared to achieve a

  8. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  9. Alteration of cerebrovascular haemodynamic patterns due to atrial fibrillation: an in silico investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsoglio, S; Saglietto, A; Anselmino, M; Gaita, F; Ridolfi, L

    2017-04-01

    There has recently been growing evidence that atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is independently associated with the risk of dementia. This represents a very recent frontier with high social impact for the number of individuals involved and for the expected increase in AF incidence in the next 40 years. Although a number of potential haemodynamic processes, such as microembolisms, altered cerebral blood flow, hypoperfusion and microbleeds, arise as connecting links between the two pathologies, the causal mechanisms are far from clear. An in silico approach is proposed that combines in sequence two lumped-parameter schemes, for the cardiovascular system and the cerebral circulation. The systemic arterial pressure is obtained from the cardiovascular system and used as the input for the cerebral circulation, with the aim of studying the role of AF on the cerebral haemodynamics with respect to normal sinus rhythm (NSR), over a 5000 beat recording. In particular, the alteration of the haemodynamic (pressure and flow rate) patterns in the microcirculation during AF is analysed by means of different statistical tools, from correlation coefficients to autocorrelation functions, crossing times, extreme values analysis and multivariate linear regression models. A remarkable signal alteration, such as a reduction in signal correlation (NSR, about 3 s; AF, less than 1 s) and increased probability (up to three to four times higher in AF than in NSR) of extreme value events, emerges for the peripheral brain circulation. The described scenario offers a number of plausible cause-effect mechanisms that might explain the occurrence of critical events and the haemodynamic links relating to AF and dementia. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Impact glass spherules in the Chicxulub K-Pg event bed at Beloc, Haiti: Alteration patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Xenia; Deutsch, Alexander; Berndt, Jasper; Robin, Eric

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated six impact glass spherules from the K-Pg event bed at Beloc, Haiti, using optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe and in situ laser ablation-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; 37 trace elements, spot size 90-35 μm), in order to understand geochemical changes during alteration. The mm-sized glass spherules are partly or totally altered to smectite, but original textural features are preserved. The average trace-element composition of glass matches that one of the upper continental crust. Hints for a "meteoritic component" are lacking (Ni/Cr < 1.3 Pt below detection limit). Compared to this fresh glass, smectites are strongly depleted in trace elements, except for Li, Sc, V, Ni, Ga, Ge, and Ba. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns are flat with subchondritic abundances, related to their very low degree of crystallinity. We observe a positive Eu and a strong negative Ce anomaly; the latter is explained by formation of an organic Ce4+-complex, soluble under reducing conditions. Zr/Hf of glasses and smectites is chondritic to superchondritic (35-40), whereas Nb/Ta in smectite is subchondritic (5-12) compared to Nb/Ta in the glass (~14-18). The low Nb/Ta is due to the low Nb concentrations in the smectite. Using in situ techniques with high spatial resolution, we have documented for the first time the significant changes in diagnostic elemental ratios during alteration of glass spherules. This has to be taken into account in the interpretation of geochemical data of not only impact materials but also volcanic glass, especially if bulk rock methods are used.

  11. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xunheng; Jiao, Yun; Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification

  12. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xunheng [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Jiao, Yun, E-mail: yunjiao@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification.

  13. TGF-β signaling alters the pattern of liver tumorigenesis induced by Pten inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Shelli M.; Carter, Kelly T.; Baek, Ji Yeon; Koszarek, Amanda; Yeh, Matthew M.; Knoblaugh, Sue E.; Grady, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis results from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in liver cells. A common mechanism through which these alterations induce liver cancer is by deregulating signaling pathways. A number of signaling pathways, including the PI3K/PTEN/AKT and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathways have been implicated in normal liver development as well as in cancer formation. In this study, we assessed the effect of the TGF-β signaling pathway on liver tumors induced by Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue) loss. Inactivation of only the TGF-β receptor type II, Tgfbr2, in the mouse liver (Tgfbr2LKO) had no overt phenotype, while inactivation of Pten alone (PtenLKO), resulted in the formation of both hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and cholangiocarcinomas (CC). Interestingly, deletion of both Pten and Tgfbr2 (PtenLKO;Tgfbr2LKO) in the mouse liver resulted in a dramatic shift in tumor type to predominantly CC. Assessment of the PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathway revealed increased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3β in both the PtenLKO and PtenLKO;Tgfbr2LKO mice, suggesting that this pathway is constitutively active regardless of the status of the TGF-β signaling pathway. However, phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase was observed in the liver of all three phenotypes (Tgfbr2LKO, PtenLKO, PtenLKO;Tgfbr2LKO) indicating that the loss of Tgfbr2 and/or Pten leads to an increase in this signaling pathway. Analysis of markers of liver progenitor/stem cells revealed that the loss of TGF-β signaling resulted in increased expression of c-Kit and CD133. Furthermore, in addition to increased c-Kit and CD133, Scf and EpCam expression were also increased in the double knock-out mice. These results suggest that the alteration in tumor types between the PtenLKO mice and PtenLKO;Tgfbr2LKO mice is secondary to the altered regulation of stem cell features induced by the loss of TGF-β signaling. PMID:25132272

  14. Histopathology of 460 liver allografts removed at retransplantation: a shift in disease patterns over 27 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves Souza, Lara; de Martino, Rodrigo Bronze; Sanchez-Fueyo, Alberto; Rela, Mohamed; Dhawan, Anil; O'Grady, John; Heaton, Nigel; Quaglia, Alberto

    2018-02-25

    Approximately 10-19% of liver transplant recipients develop irreversible graft failure requiring retransplantation. We reviewed the histology of failed grafts removed at retransplantation in our centre over 27 years. 276 adults and 118 children underwent retransplantation from 1987-2014, receiving 321 and 139 liver grafts, respectively. We analysed graft histology, recipient demographics, indications for transplantation and retransplantation and time interval to retransplantation. We divided retransplantation in 3 eras: A (1987-1994); B (1995-2001) and C (2002-2014). 3298 adult and 938 paediatric primary liver transplants were conducted in our centre, and 8.4% of adults and 12.6% of children experienced retransplantation. Considering the changes throughout the eras, the proportion of chronic rejection declined, whilst that of unexplained chronic fibrosing hepatitis increased steadily, representing the main reason for retransplantation conducted >10 years after primary transplant in children, and second in adults in the most recent era. This chronic hepatitis of the graft might correspond to a slowly-evolving form of rejection, possibly with a humoral component, associated with progressive graft fibrosis and eventually failure. we observed a shift in histopathology of failed liver grafts, with increasing relevance of chronic idiopathic hepatitis associated with progressive fibrosis and graft failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Spatial Pattern of Altered Flow Regimes on a River Network Using a Distributed Hydrological Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryo, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Saavedra V, Oliver C

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of the spatial variability of natural flow regimes has been less studied than that of the temporal variability, despite its ecological importance for river ecosystems. Here, we aimed to quantify the spatial patterns of flow regime alterations along a river network in the Sagami River, Japan, by estimating river discharge under natural and altered flow conditions. We used a distributed hydrological model, which simulates hydrological processes spatiotemporally, to estimate 20-year daily river discharge along the river network. Then, 33 hydrologic indices (i.e., Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration) were calculated from the simulated discharge to estimate the spatial patterns of their alterations. Some hydrologic indices were relatively well estimated such as the magnitude and timing of maximum flows, monthly median flows, and the frequency of low and high flow pulses. The accuracy was evaluated with correlation analysis (r > 0.4) and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α = 0.05) by comparing these indices calculated from both observed and simulated discharge. The spatial patterns of the flow regime alterations varied depending on the hydrologic indices. For example, both the median flow in August and the frequency of high flow pulses were reduced by the maximum of approximately 70%, but these strongest alterations were detected at different locations (i.e., on the mainstream and the tributary, respectively). These results are likely caused by different operational purposes of multiple water control facilities. The results imply that the evaluation only at discharge gauges is insufficient to capture the alteration of the flow regime. Our findings clearly emphasize the importance of evaluating the spatial pattern of flow regime alteration on a river network where its discharge is affected by multiple water control facilities.

  16. Evaluation of Spatial Pattern of Altered Flow Regimes on a River Network Using a Distributed Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryo, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Saavedra V., Oliver C.

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of the spatial variability of natural flow regimes has been less studied than that of the temporal variability, despite its ecological importance for river ecosystems. Here, we aimed to quantify the spatial patterns of flow regime alterations along a river network in the Sagami River, Japan, by estimating river discharge under natural and altered flow conditions. We used a distributed hydrological model, which simulates hydrological processes spatiotemporally, to estimate 20-year daily river discharge along the river network. Then, 33 hydrologic indices (i.e., Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration) were calculated from the simulated discharge to estimate the spatial patterns of their alterations. Some hydrologic indices were relatively well estimated such as the magnitude and timing of maximum flows, monthly median flows, and the frequency of low and high flow pulses. The accuracy was evaluated with correlation analysis (r > 0.4) and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (α = 0.05) by comparing these indices calculated from both observed and simulated discharge. The spatial patterns of the flow regime alterations varied depending on the hydrologic indices. For example, both the median flow in August and the frequency of high flow pulses were reduced by the maximum of approximately 70%, but these strongest alterations were detected at different locations (i.e., on the mainstream and the tributary, respectively). These results are likely caused by different operational purposes of multiple water control facilities. The results imply that the evaluation only at discharge gauges is insufficient to capture the alteration of the flow regime. Our findings clearly emphasize the importance of evaluating the spatial pattern of flow regime alteration on a river network where its discharge is affected by multiple water control facilities. PMID:26207997

  17. Shifting patterns of mild weather in response to projected radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wiel, Karin; Kapnick, Sarah; Vecchi, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, climate change research has focused on changes in mean climate (e.g. global mean temperature, sea level rise, glacier melt) or change in extreme events (e.g. hurricanes, extreme precipitation, droughts, heat waves, wild fires). Though extreme events have the potential to disrupt society, extreme conditions are rare by definition. In contrast, mild weather occurs frequently and many human activities are built around it. Examples of such activities include football games, dog walks, bike rides, and outdoor weddings, but also activities of direct economic impact, e.g. construction work, infrastructure projects, road or rail transportation, air travel, and landscaping projects. Absence of mild weather impacts society in various way, understanding current and future mild weather is therefore of high scientific interest. We present a global analysis of mild weather based on simple and relatable criteria and we explore changes in mild weather occurrence in response to radiative forcing. A high-resolution global climate model, GFDL HiFLOR, is used to allow for investigation of local features and changes. In response to RCP4.5, we find a slight global mean decrease in the annual number of mild days projected both in the near future (-4 d/yr, 2016-2035) and at the end of this century (-10 d/yr, 2081-2100). Projected regional and seasonal redistributions of mild days are substantially greater. Tropical regions are projected to see large decreases, in the mid-latitudes small increases in the number of mild days are projected. Mediterranean climates are projected to see a shift of mild weather away from the local summer to the shoulder seasons. These changes are larger than the interannual variability of mild weather caused by El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Finally, we use reanalysis data to show an observed global decrease in the recent past, and we verify that these observed regional changes in mild weather resemble the projections.

  18. Stimulation of the human motor cortex alters generalization patterns of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Marko, Mollie K; Pekny, Sarah E; Pastor, Damien; Izawa, Jun; Celnik, Pablo; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-05-11

    It has been hypothesized that the generalization patterns that accompany learning carry the signatures of the neural systems that are engaged in that learning. Reach adaptation in force fields has generalization patterns that suggest primary engagement of a neural system that encodes movements in the intrinsic coordinates of joints and muscles, and lesser engagement of a neural system that encodes movements in the extrinsic coordinates of the task. Among the cortical motor areas, the intrinsic coordinate system is most prominently represented in the primary sensorimotor cortices. Here, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to alter mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and found that when it was applied to the motor cortex, it increased generalization in intrinsic coordinates but not extrinsic coordinates. However, when tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex, it had no effects on learning or generalization in the force field task. The results suggest that during force field adaptation, the component of learning that produces generalization in intrinsic coordinates depends on the plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex.

  19. Genomic sequence of a mutant strain of Caenorhabditis elegans with an altered recombination pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Marco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The original sequencing and annotation of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome along with recent advances in sequencing technology provide an exceptional opportunity for the genomic analysis of wild-type and mutant strains. Using the Illumina Genome Analyzer, we sequenced the entire genome of Rec-1, a strain that alters the distribution of meiotic crossovers without changing the overall frequency. Rec-1 was derived from ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS-treated strains, one of which had a high level of transposable element mobility. Sequencing of this strain provides an opportunity to examine the consequences on the genome of altering the distribution of meiotic recombination events. Results Using Illumina sequencing and MAQ software, 83% of the base pair sequence reads were aligned to the reference genome available at Wormbase, providing a 21-fold coverage of the genome. Using the software programs MAQ and Slider, we observed 1124 base pair differences between Rec-1 and the reference genome in Wormbase (WS190, and 441 between the mutagenized Rec-1 (BC313 and the wild-type N2 strain (VC2010. The most frequent base-substitution was G:C to A:T, 141 for the entire genome most of which were on chromosomes I or X, 55 and 31 respectively. With this data removed, no obvious pattern in the distribution of the base differences along the chromosomes was apparent. No major chromosomal rearrangements were observed, but additional insertions of transposable elements were detected. There are 11 extra copies of Tc1, and 8 of Tc2 in the Rec-1 genome, most likely the remains of past high-hopper activity in a progenitor strain. Conclusion Our analysis of high-throughput sequencing was able to detect regions of direct repeat sequences, deletions, insertions of transposable elements, and base pair differences. A subset of sequence alterations affecting coding regions were confirmed by an independent approach using oligo array comparative genome

  20. Soil types will alter the response of arable agroecosystems to future rainfall patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, J. G.; Schwarz, T.; Hall, R.; Ziss, E.; von Hohberg und Buchwald, C.; Hösch, J.; Baumgarten, A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional climate change scenarios for eastern Austria (pannonian region) predict fewer but heavier rains during the vegetation period without substantial changes in the total annual amount of rainfall. While many studies investigated the effects of rainfall patterns on ecosystem properties, very little is known on how different soil types might alter ecosystem responses. In order to test this, we conducted an experiment at the AGES lysimeter station using 18 3 m2 lysimeters where we simultaneously manipulated rainfall patterns according to regional climate scenarios (current vs. prognosticated rain) on the three main soil types of the region (sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem and calcic chernozem). Lysimeters were cultivated according to good farming practice using crop varieties and crop rotations typically for the region. Here, we present results of the response of field peas (Pisum sativum) on important agricultural parameters. Lysimeters under progn. rain showed lower crop cover than under curr. rain while soil types had no effect. Total aboveground biomass production (comprising crops plus weeds) was significantly lower under progn. rain; sandy calcaric phaeozem showed the lowest plant biomass. Pea yields under progn. rain were substantially lower than under curr. rain; again, yields under sandy soils were lower than under the other two soil types. Root growth was significantly higher in progn. rain than in curr. rain; there was a trend towards less root growth in the gleyic soils. Mycorrhization of roots was not influenced by soil types, however under progn. rain colonization rates were lower than under curr. rain. Weed establishment and growth was increased under progn. rain in gleyic soils but decreased in the other soil types. Weed biomass was not affected by rainfall, however sandy soils had less weed biomass than the other soil types. Abundance of the insect pest pea moth (Cydia nigricana) was almost twice as high under progn. rain than under curr

  1. Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsch, Susanne; Primicerio, Raul; Fossheim, Maria; Dolgov, Andrey V.; Aschan, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven poleward shifts, leading to changes in species composition and relative abundances, have been recently documented in the Arctic. Among the fastest moving species are boreal generalist fish which are expected to affect arctic marine food web structure and ecosystem functioning substantially. Here, we address structural changes at the food web level induced by poleward shifts via topological network analysis of highly resolved boreal and arctic food webs of the Barents Sea. We detected considerable differences in structural properties and link configuration between the boreal and the arctic food webs, the latter being more modular and less connected. We found that a main characteristic of the boreal fish moving poleward into the arctic region of the Barents Sea is high generalism, a property that increases connectance and reduces modularity in the arctic marine food web. Our results reveal that habitats form natural boundaries for food web modules, and that generalists play an important functional role in coupling pelagic and benthic modules. We posit that these habitat couplers have the potential to promote the transfer of energy and matter between habitats, but also the spread of pertubations, thereby changing arctic marine food web structure considerably with implications for ecosystem dynamics and functioning. PMID:26336179

  2. Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsch, Susanne; Primicerio, Raul; Fossheim, Maria; Dolgov, Andrey V; Aschan, Michaela

    2015-09-07

    Climate-driven poleward shifts, leading to changes in species composition and relative abundances, have been recently documented in the Arctic. Among the fastest moving species are boreal generalist fish which are expected to affect arctic marine food web structure and ecosystem functioning substantially. Here, we address structural changes at the food web level induced by poleward shifts via topological network analysis of highly resolved boreal and arctic food webs of the Barents Sea. We detected considerable differences in structural properties and link configuration between the boreal and the arctic food webs, the latter being more modular and less connected. We found that a main characteristic of the boreal fish moving poleward into the arctic region of the Barents Sea is high generalism, a property that increases connectance and reduces modularity in the arctic marine food web. Our results reveal that habitats form natural boundaries for food web modules, and that generalists play an important functional role in coupling pelagic and benthic modules. We posit that these habitat couplers have the potential to promote the transfer of energy and matter between habitats, but also the spread of pertubations, thereby changing arctic marine food web structure considerably with implications for ecosystem dynamics and functioning. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Animal migration amid shifting patterns of phenology and predation: Lessons from a Yellowstone elk herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Cook, John G.; Cook, Rachel C.; Nelson, Abigail A.; Jimenez, Michael D.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    such seasonal ranges may alter the ecological basis of migratory behavior, representing an important challenge for, and a powerful lens into, the ecology and conservation of migratory taxa.

  4. Hydro-climatological non-stationarity shifts patterns of nutrient delivery to an estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal-Conti, A. L.; Summers, R.; Weaver, D.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2013-08-01

    The influence of hydro-climatological variability on catchment nutrient export was assessed by a retrospective analysis of rainfall, discharge, and total and dissolved nutrient loads for three sub-basins (Serpentine, Murray and Harvey) of the Peel-Harvey catchment, Western Australia. Both, temporal trends and their variability for different hydrological conditions (dry, normal or wet years) were analyzed from 1984 to 2011. Rainfall declined below median values for the study period over the last two decades and runoff decreased significantly in two of the three main rivers. Since Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) loads were strongly correlated with river discharge, nutrient exports decreased. However, when nutrient loads were flow-adjusted, increases in Total P (TP) and Total N (TN) were observed in the Serpentine and Murray rivers respectively, suggesting new sources of TP and TN and that the flow-export relationship is non-stationary. Dissolved Inorganic Phosphorus (DIP), showed a decreasing tendency in the last decade; but the trend in DIN loads is not clear and it appears to show a decreasing trend until 2004 and an increasing trend from 2004, accompanied with large inter-annual variability. The analysis of TP, TN, DIP and DIN in relation to dry and wet years, indicated that there is a significantly higher load in wet years for all three rivers, except for DIP in the Murray sub-catchment, explained by a higher proportion of soils with a higher Phosphorus Retention Index (PRI). Hydrological conditions, specific sub-catchment characteristics (e.g. soil type) and chemical properties of the nutrients altered the degree of nutrient partitioning (defined as dissolved inorganic to total nutrient concentration). For example, DIP increased to more than 50% of TP in wet years in Harvey and Serpentine but not in the Murray sub-catchment due to a higher PRI, while DIN behaved more randomly and did not show a link to discharge or the catchment soil type. We also found a mild

  5. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  6. Shifting patterns of natural variation in the nuclear genome of caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Eleanne; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Datla, Pushpa; Sung, Way; Bergeron, R D; Thomas, W K

    2011-06-16

    Genome wide analysis of variation within a species can reveal the evolution of fundamental biological processes such as mutation, recombination, and natural selection. We compare genome wide sequence differences between two independent isolates of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (CB4856 and CB4858) and the reference genome (N2). The base substitution pattern when comparing N2 against CB4858 reveals a transition over transversion bias (1.32:1) that is not present in CB4856. In CB4856, there is a significant bias in the direction of base substitution. The frequency of A or T bases in N2 that are G or C bases in CB4856 outnumber the opposite frequencies for transitions as well as transversions. These differences were not observed in the N2/CB4858 comparison. Similarly, we observed a strong bias for deletions over insertions in CB4856 (1.44: 1) that is not present in CB4858. In both CB4856 and CB4858, there is a significant correlation between SNP rate and recombination rate on the autosomes but not on the X chromosome. Furthermore, we identified numerous significant hotspots of variation in the CB4856-N2 comparison.In both CB4856 and CB4858, based on a measure of the strength of selection (ka/ks), all the chromosomes are under negative selection and in CB4856, there is no difference in the strength of natural selection in either the autosomes versus X or between any of the chromosomes. By contrast, in CB4858, ka/ks values are smaller in the autosomes than in the X chromosome. In addition, in CB4858, ka/ks values differ between chromosomes. The clear bias of deletions over insertions in CB4856 suggests that either the CB4856 genome is becoming smaller or the N2 genome is getting larger. We hypothesize the hotspots found represent alleles that are shared between CB4856 and CB4858 but not N2. Because the ka/ks ratio in the X chromosome is higher than the autosomes on average in CB4858, purifying selection is reduced on the X chromosome.

  7. Shifting patterns of natural variation in the nuclear genome of caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Kazufusa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide analysis of variation within a species can reveal the evolution of fundamental biological processes such as mutation, recombination, and natural selection. We compare genome wide sequence differences between two independent isolates of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (CB4856 and CB4858 and the reference genome (N2. Results The base substitution pattern when comparing N2 against CB4858 reveals a transition over transversion bias (1.32:1 that is not present in CB4856. In CB4856, there is a significant bias in the direction of base substitution. The frequency of A or T bases in N2 that are G or C bases in CB4856 outnumber the opposite frequencies for transitions as well as transversions. These differences were not observed in the N2/CB4858 comparison. Similarly, we observed a strong bias for deletions over insertions in CB4856 (1.44: 1 that is not present in CB4858. In both CB4856 and CB4858, there is a significant correlation between SNP rate and recombination rate on the autosomes but not on the X chromosome. Furthermore, we identified numerous significant hotspots of variation in the CB4856-N2 comparison. In both CB4856 and CB4858, based on a measure of the strength of selection (ka/ks, all the chromosomes are under negative selection and in CB4856, there is no difference in the strength of natural selection in either the autosomes versus X or between any of the chromosomes. By contrast, in CB4858, ka/ks values are smaller in the autosomes than in the X chromosome. In addition, in CB4858, ka/ks values differ between chromosomes. Conclusions The clear bias of deletions over insertions in CB4856 suggests that either the CB4856 genome is becoming smaller or the N2 genome is getting larger. We hypothesize the hotspots found represent alleles that are shared between CB4856 and CB4858 but not N2. Because the ka/ks ratio in the X chromosome is higher than the autosomes on average in CB4858, purifying selection is

  8. Follow-up trends of parasite community alteration in a marine fish after the Prestige oil-spill: shifting baselines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-del-Olmo, A; Montero, F E; Raga, J A; Fernández, M; Kostadinova, A

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the follow-up trends in the composition and structure of the parasite communities in the marine sparid Boops boops after the Prestige oil-spill. A total of 400 fish comprising 11 seasonal samples was analyzed from three impacted localities on the Atlantic coast of Spain. A large number of parasite species was recovered only after the spill thus suggesting a substantial alteration of the marine food webs. Post-spill communities exhibited higher richness and abundance due to the significant changes in the abundance of the common species, the latter indicating accelerated parasite transmission rates. Multivariate analyses at two nested scales detected a directional trend in parasite community succession towards the pre-spill situation, however, with no full support for community recovery. The state of parasite communities in 2005-2006 may provide the new baseline data which can serve as a framework for quantifying the impact of potential future spills in the region.

  9. Sleep patterns among shift-working flight controllers of the International Space Station: an observational study on the JAXA Flight Control Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koh; Matsumoto, Akiko; Aiba, Tatsuya; Abe, Takashi; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaya; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-09-01

    Flight controllers of the International Space Station (ISS) are engaged in shift work to provide 24-h coverage to support ISS systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) among Japanese ISS flight controllers. A questionnaire study was conducted using the Standard Shiftwork Index to evaluate sleep-related problems and possible associated variables. Among 52 respondents out of 73 flight controllers, 30 subjects were identified as night shift workers who worked 3 or more night shifts per month. Those night shift workers who answered "almost always" to questions about experiencing insomnia or excessive sleepiness in any case of work shifts and days off were classified as having SWSD. Additionally, 7 night shift workers participated in supplemental wrist actigraphy data collection for 7 to 8 days including 3 to 4 days of consecutive night shifts. Fourteen of 30 night shift workers were classified as having SWSD. Significant group differences were observed where the SWSD group felt that night shift work was harder and reported more frequent insomniac symptoms after a night shift. However, no other variables demonstrated remarkable differences between groups. Actigraphy results characterized 5 subjects reporting better perceived adaptation as having regular daytime sleep, for 6 to 9 h in total, between consecutive night shifts. On the other hand, 2 subjects reporting perceived maladaptation revealed different sleep patterns, with longer daytime sleep and large day-to-day variation in daytime sleep between consecutive night shifts, respectively. As the tasks for flight control require high levels of alertness and cognitive function, several characteristics, namely shift-working schedule (2 to 4 consecutive night shifts), very short break time (5 to 10 min/h) during work shifts, and cooperative work with onboard astronauts during the evening/night shift, accounted for increasing

  10. Time-sequential observation of spindle and phragmoplast orientation in BY-2 cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Kojo, Kei H; Yasuhara, Hiroki; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Precise division plane determination is essential for plant development. At metaphase, a dense actin microfilament meshwork appears on both sides of the cell center, forming a characteristic cortical actin microfilament twin peak pattern in BY-2 cells. We previously reported a strong correlation between altered cortical actin microfilament patterning and an oblique mitotic spindle orientation, implying that these actin microfilament twin peaks play a role in the regulation of mitotic spindle ...

  11. Rapid recovery and altered neurochemical dependence of locomotor central pattern generation following lumbar neonatal spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züchner, Mark; Kondratskaya, Elena; Sylte, Camilla B; Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-15

    were two main locomotor frequencies, but injured spinal cords exhibited a shift towards the higher frequency. Injury also altered the neurochemical dependence of locomotor CPG output, such that injured spinal cords, unlike control spinal cords, were incapable of generating low frequency rhythmic coordinated activity in the presence of NMDA and dopamine alone. Thus, the neonatal spinal cord also exhibits remarkable functional recovery after lumbar injuries, but the neurochemical sensitivity of locomotor circuitry is modified in the process. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  12. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xie

    Full Text Available There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  13. A multivariate pattern analysis study of the HIV-related white matter anatomical structural connections alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenchao; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Ruili; Cui, Xinwei; Li, Hongjun; Dong, Enqing; Tian, Jie

    2017-03-01

    It's widely known that HIV infection would cause white matter integrity impairments. Nevertheless, it is still unclear that how the white matter anatomical structural connections are affected by HIV infection. In the current study, we employed a multivariate pattern analysis to explore the HIV-related white matter connections alterations. Forty antiretroviraltherapy- naïve HIV patients and thirty healthy controls were enrolled. Firstly, an Automatic Anatomical Label (AAL) atlas based white matter structural network, a 90 × 90 FA-weighted matrix, was constructed for each subject. Then, the white matter connections deprived from the structural network were entered into a lasso-logistic regression model to perform HIV-control group classification. Using leave one out cross validation, a classification accuracy (ACC) of 90% (P=0.002) and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96 was obtained by the classification model. This result indicated that the white matter anatomical structural connections contributed greatly to HIV-control group classification, providing solid evidence that the white matter connections were affected by HIV infection. Specially, 11 white matter connections were selected in the classification model, mainly crossing the regions of frontal lobe, Cingulum, Hippocampus, and Thalamus, which were reported to be damaged in previous HIV studies. This might suggest that the white matter connections adjacent to the HIV-related impaired regions were prone to be damaged.

  14. Altered sensitization patterns to sweet food stimuli in patients recovered from anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Angela; Simmons, Alan N; Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Frank, Guido K W; McCurdy-McKinnon, Danyale; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-12-30

    Recent studies show that higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) and overeating in bulimia nervosa (BN). The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensitization effects might underlie pathologic eating behavior when a taste stimulus is administered repeatedly. Recovered AN (RAN, n=14) and BN (RBN, n=15) subjects were studied in order to avoid the confounding effects of altered nutritional state. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measured higher-order brain response to repeated tastes of sucrose (caloric) and sucralose (non-caloric). To test sensitization, the neuronal response to the first and second administration was compared. RAN patients demonstrated a decreased sensitization to sucrose in contrast to RBN patients who displayed the opposite pattern, increased sensitization to sucrose. However, the latter was not as pronounced as in healthy control women (n=13). While both eating disorder subgroups showed increased sensitization to sucralose, the healthy controls revealed decreased sensitization. These findings could reflect on a neuronal level the high caloric intake of RBN during binges and the low energy intake for RAN. RAN seem to distinguish between high energy and low energy sweet stimuli while RBN do not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between flat foot condition and gait pattern alterations in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, M; Cimolin, V; Pau, M; Costici, P; Albertini, G

    2014-03-01

    In patients with Down syndrome (DS) one of the most common abnormalities is flat foot which can interfere significantly with normal daily activities, such as gait. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the relationship between the flat foot and the gait alterations in DS children. Twenty-nine patients with DS and 15 non-affected subjects were assessed using 3D Gait Analysis, using an optoelectronic system, force platforms and video recording. The degree of flat foot was assessed using the arch index and kinematic and kinetic parameters were identified and calculated from 3D Gait Analysis for each study participant. Data showed that ankle plantarflexion moment and ankle power during terminal stance were significant to differentiate the patients with and without flat feet: their peak values were significantly lower for the patients with flat foot. In addition, the research for correlation demonstrated that the higher the arch index value, the lower the peak of ankle moment and of the generated ankle power during terminal stance and the minimum of absorbed ankle power. Children with flat foot displayed a less functional gait pattern in terms of ankle kinetics than children without flat foot, suggesting that the presence of flat foot may lead to a weaker efficient walking. Then, the increasing flat foot tended to result in lower push-off ability, leading to a less functional walking. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  16. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cruz-Rivera

    Full Text Available The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt, a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny. Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown.

  17. Chronic exposure to triclosan sustains microbial community shifts and alters antibiotic resistance gene levels in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Zitomer, Daniel H; Kappell, Anthony D; Choi, Melinda J; Hristova, Krassimira R; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-08-10

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial chemical found in consumer personal care products, has been shown to stimulate antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Although many studies focus on antibiotic resistance pertinent to medical scenarios, resistance developed in natural and engineered environments is less studied and has become an emerging concern for human health. In this study, the impacts of chronic triclosan (TCS) exposure on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microbial community structure were assessed in lab-scale anaerobic digesters. TCS concentrations from below detection to 2500 mg kg(-1) dry solids were amended into anaerobic digesters over 110 days and acclimated for >3 solid retention time values. Four steady state TCS concentrations were chosen (30-2500 mg kg(-1)). Relative abundance of mexB, a gene coding for a component of a multidrug efflux pump, was significantly higher in all TCS-amended digesters (30 mg kg(-1) or higher) relative to the control. TCS selected for bacteria carrying tet(L) and against those carrying erm(F) at concentrations which inhibited digester function; the pH decrease associated with digester failure was suspected to cause this selection. Little to no impact of TCS was observed on intI1 relative abundance. Microbial communities were also surveyed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Compared to the control digesters, significant shifts in community structure towards clades containing commensal and pathogenic bacteria were observed in digesters containing TCS. Based on these results, TCS should be included in studies and risk assessments that attempt to elucidate relationships between chemical stressors (e.g. antibiotics), antibiotic resistance genes, and public health.

  18. Follow-up trends of parasite community alteration in a marine fish after the Prestige oil-spill: Shifting baselines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-del-Olmo, A.; Montero, F.E.; Raga, J.A.; Fernandez, M.; Kostadinova, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the follow-up trends in the composition and structure of the parasite communities in the marine sparid Boops boops after the Prestige oil-spill. A total of 400 fish comprising 11 seasonal samples was analyzed from three impacted localities on the Atlantic coast of Spain. A large number of parasite species was recovered only after the spill thus suggesting a substantial alteration of the marine food webs. Post-spill communities exhibited higher richness and abundance due to the significant changes in the abundance of the common species, the latter indicating accelerated parasite transmission rates. Multivariate analyses at two nested scales detected a directional trend in parasite community succession towards the pre-spill situation, however, with no full support for community recovery. The state of parasite communities in 2005-2006 may provide the new baseline data which can serve as a framework for quantifying the impact of potential future spills in the region. - Prestige oil-spill impact on parasite communities in the sparid fish B. boops

  19. Above–belowground herbivore interactions in mixed plant communities are influenced by altered precipitation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael William Ryalls

    2016-03-01

    belowground decreased aphid numbers by 30%, likely associated with a significant reduction in proline in weevil-treated lucerne plants. This study demonstrates how predicted changes to precipitation patterns and indirect interactions between herbivores can alter the outcome of competition between N-fixing legumes and non-N-fixing grasses, with important implications for plant community structure and productivity.

  20. Accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns: the effects of shifting the timing of sleep on training effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Shattuck, Lawrence G

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep period of US Army recruits. The quasi-experimental study compared recruits assigned to one of two training companies: one with a customary sleep regimen (20:30 to 04:30) while the other employed a phase-delayed sleep regimen (23:00 to 07:00), the latter aligning better with biologically driven sleep-wake patterns of adolescents. The study was conducted during Basic Combat Training (BCT) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. TRAINEES: The study included 392 trainees: 209 received the intervention, while 183 composed the Comparison group. Demographic and psychophysiological measures were collected on all trainees. Weekly assessments of subjective fatigue and mood, periodic physical fitness, marksmanship scores, and attrition rates from BCT were studied. Actigraphy was collected on approximately 24% of trainees. Based on actigraphy, trainees on the phase-delayed sleep schedule obtained 31 m more sleep/night than trainees on the customary sleep schedule. The Intervention group reported less total mood disturbance relative to baseline. Improvements in marksmanship correlated positively with average nightly sleep during the preceding week when basic marksmanship skills were taught. No differences were seen in physical fitness or attrition rates. In contrast to the Intervention group, the Comparison group was 2.3 times more likely to experience occupationally significant fatigue and 5.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality. Accommodating adolescent sleep patterns significantly improves mental health and performance in the training environment.

  1. Prenatal phthalate exposure and altered patterns of DNA methylation in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Olivia; Yousefi, Paul; Huen, Karen; Gunier, Robert B; Escudero-Fung, Maria; Barcellos, Lisa F; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2017-07-01

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors with ubiquitous exposures in the general population including pregnant women, and they have been linked with a number of adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between in utero phthalate exposure and altered patterns of cord blood DNA methylation in 336 Mexican-American newborns. Concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in maternal urine samples collected at 13 and 26 weeks gestation as a measure of fetal exposure. DNA methylation was assessed using the Infinium HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip adjusting for cord blood cell composition. To identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that may be more informative than individual CpG sites, we used two different approaches, DMRcate and comb-p. Regional assessment by both methods identified 27 distinct DMRs, the majority of which were in relation to multiple phthalate metabolites. Most of the significant DMRs (67%) were observed for later pregnancy (26 weeks gestation). Further, 51% of the significant DMRs were associated with the di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites. Five individual CpG sites were associated with phthalate metabolite concentrations after multiple comparisons adjustment (FDR), all showing hypermethylation. Genes with DMRs were involved in inflammatory response (IRAK4 and ESM1), cancer (BRCA1 and LASP1), endocrine function (CNPY1), and male fertility (IFT140, TESC, and PRDM8). These results on differential DNA methylation in newborns with prenatal phthalate exposure provide new insights and targets to explore mechanism of adverse effects of phthalates on human health. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:398-410, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Altered fractionation of hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma and failure patterns after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holsti, L.R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Pyrhoenen, S. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Kajanti, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Maentylae, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Mattson, K. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of Pulmonary Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Maasilta, P. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of Pulmonary Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Kivisaari, L. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignancy with a bleak prognosis. The role of radiotherapy has not yet been clarified. Our aim was to study the effect of altered fractionation on mesothelioma. We have treated 57 patients, 41 males and 16 females, with hemithorax irradiation with six different fractionation schedules. All the patients have been included in a combined modality program consisting of surgery followed by chemotherapy and finally by hemithorax irradiation. The radiotherapy schedules used were: I. Conventional fractionation of 20 Gy in 10 fractions over 12 days. II, Split-course radiotherapy 55 Gy in 25 fractions of 2.2 Gy over 7 weeks (a two weeks rest halfways) followed by a boost dose of 15 Gy over 8 days to the major tumour area. III. Hyperfractionation of 70 Gy over 7 weeks, 1.25 Gy BID with a 6-h interval and a 10-day rest halfways. IV. Combined hyperfractionation and hypofractionation, 35 Gy hyperfractionation in 28 fractions (1.25 Gy BID with a 6-h interval) over three weeks followed by 36 Gy hypofractionation 9 fractions of 4 Gy given every other day over 3 weeks to the major tumour areas only. V. Hypofractionation of 38.5 Gy over 15 days (9x3.5 Gy). VI. Combined conventional radiotherapy and hypofractionation with 20 Gy given conventionally in 10 fractions followed by 10 fractions of 3 Gy over two weeks, overall time 4 weeks. The 2-year survival rate of all patients was 21% and the 5-year survival rate 9%. Two patients are still alive more than 6 and 9 years after radiotherapy. Progression occurred after surgery in four patients, during and after chemotherapy in 22 patients and after completed radiotherapy in 29 patients. The pattern of progression was similar in each treatment group. (orig.).

  3. Alterations of CorTFL1 and CorAP1 expression correlate with major evolutionary shifts of inflorescence architecture in Cornus (Cornaceae) - a proposed model for variation of closed inflorescence forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; Liu, Xiang; Franks, Robert G; Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny

    2017-10-01

    TFL1-, AP1- and LFY-like genes are known to be key regulators of inflorescence development. However, it remains to be tested whether the evolutionary modifications of inflorescence morphology result from shifts in their expression patterns. We compared the spatiotemporal expression patterns of CorTFL1, CorAP1 and CorLFY in six closely related Cornus species that display four types of closed inflorescence morphology using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and RNA in situ hybridization. Character mapping on the phylogeny was conducted to identify evolutionary changes and to assess the correlation between changes in gene expression and inflorescence morphology. Results demonstrated variation of gene expression patterns among species and a strong correlation between CorTFL1 expression and the branch index of the inflorescence type. Evolutionary changes in CorTFL1 and CorAP1 expression co-occurred on the phylogeny with the morphological changes underpinning inflorescence divergence. The study found a clear correlation between the expression patterns of CorTFL1 and CorAP1 and the inflorescence architecture in a natural system displaying closed inflorescences. The results suggest a role for the alteration in CorTFL1 and CorAP1 expression during the evolutionary modification of inflorescences in Cornus. We propose that a TFL1-like and AP1-like gene-based model may explain variation of closed inflorescences in Cornus and other lineages. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Can the transformation of instruction process into a virtual place induce a shift in behavioral patterns of teachers and students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljajko Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to reveal possible influence that the participants' age and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT usage in the instruction process can have on behavior that defines whether students and teachers belong to one of the Digital Native/Immigrant or Visitor/Resident groups. We collected data through two surveys that covered a total of 1273 students and 382 teachers from southern regions of Serbia. The surveys consisted of questions about availability of computers and internet, ICT use in the instruction process, and communication habits in the ICT-empowered instruction process. The first survey covered both, students and teachers that were involved in the instruction process mostly deprived of the ICT usage. The second survey covered participants of an instruction process that was successfully improved by an ICT usage. Data analysis shows a shift in communication patterns of teachers and a sharp improvement in computer use for educational purposes for both groups included in the surveys. The change is induced by a proper ICT usage in the instruction process. Conclusions that followed the data analysis lead us to better approaches in organizing ICT usage in the instruction process that enable participants fully employ their resources in order to improve teaching techniques and learning.

  5. Cord blood hematopoietic cells from preterm infants display altered DNA methylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Olivia M; Lavoie, Pascal M; Robinson, Wendy P

    2017-01-01

    Premature infants are highly vulnerable to infection. This is partly attributable to the preterm immune system, which differs from that of the term neonate in cell composition and function. Multiple studies have found differential DNA methylation (DNAm) between preterm and term infants' cord blood; however, interpretation of these studies is limited by the confounding factor of blood cell composition. This study evaluates the epigenetic impact of preterm birth in isolated hematopoietic cell populations, reducing the concern of cell composition differences. Genome-wide DNAm was measured using the Illumina 450K array in T cells, monocytes, granulocytes, and nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) isolated from cord blood of 5 term and 5 preterm (blood cells (nRBCs) showed the most extensive changes in DNAm, with 9258 differentially methylated (DM) sites (FDR  0.10) discovered between preterm and term infants compared to the blood cell populations. The direction of DNAm change with gestational age at these prematurity-DM sites followed known patterns of hematopoietic differentiation, suggesting that term hematopoietic cell populations are more epigenetically mature than their preterm counterparts. Consistent shifts in DNAm between preterm and term cells were observed at 25 CpG sites, with many of these sites located in genes involved in growth and proliferation, hematopoietic lineage commitment, and the cytoskeleton. DNAm in preterm and term hematopoietic cells conformed to previously identified DNAm signatures of fetal liver and bone marrow, respectively. This study presents the first genome-wide mapping of epigenetic differences in hematopoietic cells across the late gestational period. DNAm differences in hematopoietic cells between term and <31 weeks were consistent with the hematopoietic origin of these cells during ontogeny, reflecting an important role of DNAm in their regulation. Due to the limited sample size and the high coincidence of prematurity and

  6. Stressor-induced proteome alterations in zebrafish: A meta-analysis of response patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, Ksenia J., E-mail: ksenia.groh@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Suter, Marc J.-F. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Systems Science, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We compared reported proteome changes induced by various stressors in zebrafish. • Several proteins groups frequently responding to diverse stressors were identified. • These included energy metabolism enzymes, heat shock and cytoskeletal proteins. • Insufficient proteome coverage impedes identification of more specific responses. • Further research needs for proteomics in ecotoxicology are discussed. - Abstract: Proteomics approaches are being increasingly applied in ecotoxicology on the premise that the identification of specific protein expression changes in response to a particular chemical would allow elucidation of the underlying molecular pathways leading to an adverse effect. This in turn is expected to promote the development of focused testing strategies for specific groups of toxicants. Although both gel-based and gel-free global characterization techniques provide limited proteome coverage, the conclusions regarding the cellular processes affected are still being drawn based on the few changes detected. To investigate how specific the detected responses are, we analyzed a set of studies that characterized proteome alterations induced by various physiological, chemical and biological stressors in zebrafish, a popular model organism. Our analysis highlights several proteins and protein groups, including heat shock and oxidative stress defense proteins, energy metabolism enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins, to be most frequently identified as responding to diverse stressors. In contrast, other potentially more specifically responding protein groups are detected much less frequently. Thus, zebrafish proteome responses to stress reported by different studies appear to depend mostly on the level of stress rather than on the specific stressor itself. This suggests that the most broadly used current proteomics technologies do not provide sufficient proteome coverage to allow in-depth investigation of specific mechanisms of toxicant action

  7. Stressor-induced proteome alterations in zebrafish: A meta-analysis of response patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, Ksenia J.; Suter, Marc J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compared reported proteome changes induced by various stressors in zebrafish. • Several proteins groups frequently responding to diverse stressors were identified. • These included energy metabolism enzymes, heat shock and cytoskeletal proteins. • Insufficient proteome coverage impedes identification of more specific responses. • Further research needs for proteomics in ecotoxicology are discussed. - Abstract: Proteomics approaches are being increasingly applied in ecotoxicology on the premise that the identification of specific protein expression changes in response to a particular chemical would allow elucidation of the underlying molecular pathways leading to an adverse effect. This in turn is expected to promote the development of focused testing strategies for specific groups of toxicants. Although both gel-based and gel-free global characterization techniques provide limited proteome coverage, the conclusions regarding the cellular processes affected are still being drawn based on the few changes detected. To investigate how specific the detected responses are, we analyzed a set of studies that characterized proteome alterations induced by various physiological, chemical and biological stressors in zebrafish, a popular model organism. Our analysis highlights several proteins and protein groups, including heat shock and oxidative stress defense proteins, energy metabolism enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins, to be most frequently identified as responding to diverse stressors. In contrast, other potentially more specifically responding protein groups are detected much less frequently. Thus, zebrafish proteome responses to stress reported by different studies appear to depend mostly on the level of stress rather than on the specific stressor itself. This suggests that the most broadly used current proteomics technologies do not provide sufficient proteome coverage to allow in-depth investigation of specific mechanisms of toxicant action

  8. Minor shift in background substitutional patterns in the Drosophila saltans and willistoni lineages is insufficient to explain GC content of coding sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Peter F

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of evidence suggest that codon usage in the Drosophila saltans and D. willistoni lineages has shifted towards a less frequent use of GC-ending codons. Introns in these lineages show a parallel shift toward a lower GC content. These patterns have been alternatively ascribed to either a shift in mutational patterns or changes in the definition of preferred and unpreferred codons in these lineages. Results and discussion To gain additional insight into this question, we quantified background substitutional patterns in the saltans/willistoni group using inactive copies of a novel, Q-like retrotransposable element. We demonstrate that the pattern of background substitutions in the saltans/willistoni lineage has shifted to a significant degree, primarily due to changes in mutational biases. These differences predict a lower equilibrium GC content in the genomes of the saltans/willistoni species compared with that in the D. melanogaster species group. The magnitude of the difference can readily account for changes in intronic GC content, but it appears insufficient to explain changes in codon usage within the saltans/willistoni lineage. Conclusion We suggest that the observed changes in codon usage in the saltans/willistoni clade reflects either lineage-specific changes in the definitions of preferred and unpreferred codons, or a weaker selective pressure on codon bias in this lineage.

  9. The impact of shift patterns on junior doctors' perceptions of fatigue, training, work/life balance and the role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Tucker, P; Rapport, F; Hutchings, H; Dahlgren, A; Davies, G; Ebden, P

    2010-12-01

    The organisation of junior doctors' work hours has been radically altered following the partial implementation of the European Working Time Directive. Poorly designed shift schedules cause excessive disruption to shift workers' circadian rhythms. Interviews and focus groups were used to explore perceptions among junior doctors and hospital managers regarding the impact of the European Working Time Directive on patient care and doctors' well-being. Four main themes were identified. Under "Doctors shift rotas", doctors deliberated the merits and demerits of working seven nights in row. They also discussed the impact on fatigue of long sequences of day shifts. "Education and training" focused on concerns about reduced on-the-job learning opportunities under the new working time arrangements and also about the difficulties of finding time and energy to study. "Work/life balance" reflected the conflict between the positive aspects of working on-call or at night and the impact on life outside work. "Social support structures" focused on the role of morale and team spirit. Good support structures in the work place counteracted and compensated for the effects of negative role stressors, and arduous and unsocial work schedules. The impact of junior doctors' work schedules is influenced by the nature of specific shift sequences, educational considerations, issues of work/life balance and by social support systems. Poorly designed shift rotas can have negative impacts on junior doctors' professional performance and educational training, with implications for clinical practice, patient care and the welfare of junior doctors.

  10. Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift Strategies Emerge as Unintended Patterns in Market Direction Guesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Carlota; Duch, Jordi; Perelló, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made in our everyday lives are based on a wide variety of information so it is generally very difficult to assess what are the strategies that guide us. Stock market provides a rich environment to study how people make decisions since responding to market uncertainty needs a constant update of these strategies. For this purpose, we run a lab-in-the-field experiment where volunteers are given a controlled set of financial information -based on real data from worldwide financial indices- and they are required to guess whether the market price would go “up” or “down” in each situation. From the data collected we explore basic statistical traits, behavioural biases and emerging strategies. In particular, we detect unintended patterns of behavior through consistent actions, which can be interpreted as Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift emerging strategies, with Market Imitation being the most dominant. We also observe that these strategies are affected by external factors: the expert advice, the lack of information or an information overload reinforce the use of these intuitive strategies, while the probability to follow them significantly decreases when subjects spends more time to make a decision. The cohort analysis shows that women and children are more prone to use such strategies although their performance is not undermined. Our results are of interest for better handling clients expectations of trading companies, to avoid behavioural anomalies in financial analysts decisions and to improve not only the design of markets but also the trading digital interfaces where information is set down. Strategies and behavioural biases observed can also be translated into new agent based modelling or stochastic price dynamics to better understand financial bubbles or the effects of asymmetric risk perception to price drops. PMID:27532219

  11. Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift Strategies Emerge as Unintended Patterns in Market Direction Guesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Segura, Carlota; Duch, Jordi; Perelló, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made in our everyday lives are based on a wide variety of information so it is generally very difficult to assess what are the strategies that guide us. Stock market provides a rich environment to study how people make decisions since responding to market uncertainty needs a constant update of these strategies. For this purpose, we run a lab-in-the-field experiment where volunteers are given a controlled set of financial information -based on real data from worldwide financial indices- and they are required to guess whether the market price would go "up" or "down" in each situation. From the data collected we explore basic statistical traits, behavioural biases and emerging strategies. In particular, we detect unintended patterns of behavior through consistent actions, which can be interpreted as Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift emerging strategies, with Market Imitation being the most dominant. We also observe that these strategies are affected by external factors: the expert advice, the lack of information or an information overload reinforce the use of these intuitive strategies, while the probability to follow them significantly decreases when subjects spends more time to make a decision. The cohort analysis shows that women and children are more prone to use such strategies although their performance is not undermined. Our results are of interest for better handling clients expectations of trading companies, to avoid behavioural anomalies in financial analysts decisions and to improve not only the design of markets but also the trading digital interfaces where information is set down. Strategies and behavioural biases observed can also be translated into new agent based modelling or stochastic price dynamics to better understand financial bubbles or the effects of asymmetric risk perception to price drops.

  12. Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift Strategies Emerge as Unintended Patterns in Market Direction Guesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gutiérrez-Roig

    Full Text Available Decisions made in our everyday lives are based on a wide variety of information so it is generally very difficult to assess what are the strategies that guide us. Stock market provides a rich environment to study how people make decisions since responding to market uncertainty needs a constant update of these strategies. For this purpose, we run a lab-in-the-field experiment where volunteers are given a controlled set of financial information -based on real data from worldwide financial indices- and they are required to guess whether the market price would go "up" or "down" in each situation. From the data collected we explore basic statistical traits, behavioural biases and emerging strategies. In particular, we detect unintended patterns of behavior through consistent actions, which can be interpreted as Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift emerging strategies, with Market Imitation being the most dominant. We also observe that these strategies are affected by external factors: the expert advice, the lack of information or an information overload reinforce the use of these intuitive strategies, while the probability to follow them significantly decreases when subjects spends more time to make a decision. The cohort analysis shows that women and children are more prone to use such strategies although their performance is not undermined. Our results are of interest for better handling clients expectations of trading companies, to avoid behavioural anomalies in financial analysts decisions and to improve not only the design of markets but also the trading digital interfaces where information is set down. Strategies and behavioural biases observed can also be translated into new agent based modelling or stochastic price dynamics to better understand financial bubbles or the effects of asymmetric risk perception to price drops.

  13. Nogo-A-deficient transgenic rats show deficits in higher cognitive functions, decreased anxiety and altered circadian activity patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas ePetrasek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decreased levels of Nogo-A dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knock-down laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A-knockout rats and their circadian period (tau did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality and activity patterns.

  14. Shifting the circadian rhythm of feeding in mice induces gastrointestinal, metabolic and immune alterations which are influenced by ghrelin and the core clock gene Bmal1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien Laermans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In our 24-hour society, an increasing number of people are required to be awake and active at night. As a result, the circadian rhythm of feeding is seriously compromised. To mimic this, we subjected mice to restricted feeding (RF, a paradigm in which food availability is limited to short and unusual times of day. RF induces a food-anticipatory increase in the levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin. We aimed to investigate whether ghrelin triggers the changes in body weight and gastric emptying that occur during RF. Moreover, the effect of genetic deletion of the core clock gene Bmal1 on these physiological adaptations was studied. METHODS: Wild-type, ghrelin receptor knockout and Bmal1 knockout mice were fed ad libitum or put on RF with a normal or high-fat diet (HFD. Plasma ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric contractility was studied in vitro in muscle strips and in vivo (13C breath test. Cytokine mRNA expression was quantified and infiltration of immune cells was assessed histologically. RESULTS: The food-anticipatory increase in plasma ghrelin levels induced by RF with normal chow was abolished in HFD-fed mice. During RF, body weight restoration was facilitated by ghrelin and Bmal1. RF altered cytokine mRNA expression levels and triggered contractility changes resulting in an accelerated gastric emptying, independent from ghrelin signaling. During RF with a HFD, Bmal1 enhanced neutrophil recruitment to the stomach, increased gastric IL-1α expression and promoted gastric contractility changes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating that ghrelin and Bmal1 regulate the extent of body weight restoration during RF, whereas Bmal1 controls the type of inflammatory infiltrate and contractility changes in the stomach. Disrupting the circadian rhythm of feeding induces a variety of diet-dependent metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal alterations, which may explain the higher prevalence of obesity and

  15. Individualized prediction of schizophrenia based on the whole-brain pattern of altered white matter tract integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Chih-Min; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Lo, Yu-Chun; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Lin, Yi-Tin; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2018-01-01

    A schizophrenia diagnosis relies on characteristic symptoms identified by trained physicians, and is thus prone to subjectivity. This study developed a procedure for the individualized prediction of schizophrenia based on whole-brain patterns of altered white matter tract integrity. The study comprised training (108 patients and 144 controls) and testing (60 patients and 60 controls) groups. Male and female participants were comparable in each group and were analyzed separately. All participants underwent diffusion spectrum imaging of the head, and the data were analyzed using the tract-based automatic analysis method to generate a standardized two-dimensional array of white matter tract integrity, called the connectogram. Unique patterns in the connectogram that most accurately identified schizophrenia were systematically reviewed in the training group. Then, the diagnostic performance of the patterns was individually verified in the testing group by using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. The performance was high in men (accuracy = 0.85) and satisfactory in women (accuracy = 0.75). In men, the pattern was located in discrete fiber tracts, as has been consistently reported in the literature; by contrast, the pattern was widespread over all tracts in women. These distinct patterns suggest that there is a higher variability in the microstructural alterations in female patients than in male patients. The individualized prediction of schizophrenia is feasible based on the different whole-brain patterns of tract integrity. The optimal masks and their corresponding regions in the fiber tracts could serve as potential imaging biomarkers for schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp 39:575-587, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Adolescent binge-pattern alcohol exposure alters genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimes, AnnaDorothea; Torcaso, Audrey; Pinceti, Elena; Kim, Chun K; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J; Pak, Toni R

    2017-05-01

    Teenage binge drinking is a major health concern in the United States, with 21% of teenagers reporting binge-pattern drinking behavior in the previous 30 days. Recently, our lab showed that alcohol-naïve offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence exhibited altered gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus, a brain region involved in stress regulation. We employed Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing as an unbiased approach to test the hypothesis that parental exposure to binge-pattern alcohol during adolescence alters DNA methylation profiles in their alcohol-naïve offspring. Wistar rats were administered a repeated binge-ethanol exposure paradigm during early (postnatal day (PND) 37-44) and late (PND 67-74) adolescent development. Animals were mated 24 h after the last ethanol dose and subsequent offspring were produced. Analysis of male PND7 offspring revealed that offspring of alcohol-exposed parents exhibited differential DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus. The differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) were distinct between offspring depending on which parent was exposed to ethanol. Moreover, novel DMCs were observed when both parents were exposed to ethanol and many DMCs from single parent ethanol exposure were not recapitulated with dual parent exposure. We also measured mRNA expression of several differentially methylated genes and some, but not all, showed correlative changes in expression. Importantly, methylation was not a direct predictor of expression levels, underscoring the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Overall, we demonstrate that adolescent binge ethanol exposure causes altered genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of somatic alterations between matched primary and metastatic colorectal tumors characterized by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tao; Cho, Yong Beom; Wang, Kai; Huang, Donghui; Hong, Hye Kyung; Choi, Yoon-La; Ko, Young Hyeh; Nam, Do-Hyun; Jin, Juyoun; Yang, Heekyoung; Fernandez, Julio; Deng, Shibing; Rejto, Paul A; Lee, Woo Yong; Mao, Mao

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients have poor prognosis after formation of distant metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which genetic changes facilitate metastasis is critical for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling disease progression while minimizing toxic side effects. A comprehensive portrait of somatic alterations in CRC and the changes between primary and metastatic tumors has yet to be developed. We performed whole genome sequencing of two primary CRC tumors and their matched liver metastases. By comparing to matched germline DNA, we catalogued somatic alterations at multiple scales, including single nucleotide variations, small insertions and deletions, copy number aberrations and structural variations in both the primary and matched metastasis. We found that the majority of these somatic alterations are present in both sites. Despite the overall similarity, several de novo alterations in the metastases were predicted to be deleterious, in genes including FBXW7, DCLK1 and FAT2, which might contribute to the initiation and progression of distant metastasis. Through careful examination of the mutation prevalence among tumor cells at each site, we also proposed distinct clonal evolution patterns between primary and metastatic tumors in the two cases. These results suggest that somatic alterations may play an important role in driving the development of colorectal cancer metastasis and present challenges and opportunities when considering the choice of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-intensity focused ultrasound alters the latency and spatial patterns of sensory-evoked cortical responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jonathan A N; Gumenchuk, Iryna

    2018-02-13

    The use of transcranial, low intensity focused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging neuromodulation technology that shows promise for both therapeutic and research applications. Among many, one of the most exciting applications is the use of FUS to rehabilitate or augment human sensory capabilities. While there is compelling empirical evidence demonstrating this capability, basic questions regarding the spatiotemporal extent of the modulatory effects remain. Our objective was to assess the basic, yet often overlooked hypothesis that FUS in fact alters sensory-evoked neural activity within the region of the cerebral cortex at the beam's focus. To address this knowledge gap, we developed an approach to optically interrogate patterns of neural activity in the cortex directly at the acoustic focus, in vivo. Implementing simultaneous wide-field optical imaging and FUS stimulation in mice, our experiments probed somatosensory-evoked electrical activity through the use of voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs) and, in transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6f, monitored associated Ca 2+ responses. Our results demonstrate that low-intensity FUS alters both the kinetics and spatial patterns of neural activity in primary somatosensory cortex at the acoustic focus. When preceded by 1 s of pulsed ultrasound at intensities below 1 W cm -2 (I sppa ), the onset of sensory-evoked cortical responses occurred 3.0  ±  0.7 ms earlier and altered the surface spatial morphology of Ca 2+ responses. These findings support the heretofore unconfirmed assumption that FUS-induced sensory modulation reflects, at least in part, altered reactivity in primary sensory cortex at the site of sonication. The findings are significant given the interest in using FUS to target and alter spatial aspects of sensory receptive fields on the cerebral cortex.

  19. Nailfold Videocapillaroscopy Alterations in Dermatomyositis and Systemic Sclerosis: Toward Identification of a Specific Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Andreina; Sebastiani, Marco; Campomori, Federica; Pipitone, Nicolò; Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, Michele; Praino, Emanuela; Ferri, Clodoveo

    2016-08-01

    The term scleroderma pattern typically defines capillary abnormalities of scleroderma spectrum disorders, mainly systemic sclerosis (SSc) and dermatomyositis (DM). Our study aimed to investigate differences in nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) between DM and SSc, with a cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation. NVC features of 29 consecutive patients with DM were compared with 90 patients with SSc categorized into the 3 subsets of scleroderma pattern: early, active, and late. Twenty patients with DM and all with SSc were also longitudinally reevaluated after 30 months of followup. At baseline, all SSc groups showed giant capillaries, with significant differences with DM only for early and active pattern. Ramified capillaries were significantly more frequent and severe in DM than in early and active patterns, while DM showed an opposite trend compared with late pattern. Capillary loss was lower in early pattern and higher in active and late, compared with DM. Finally, giant-ramified capillaries were almost exclusive of DM. During followup, NVC showed a different evolution in DM and SSc. In DM we recorded a reduction of giant capillaries, while ramified capillaries increased both in DM and in early and active SSc pattern. The number of capillaries recovered in DM; conversely, capillary loss slightly worsened in all SSc patterns. Giant-ramified capillaries significantly decreased in patients with DM, remaining rare in patients with SSc. Our study strengthens the specificity of DM and SSc microangiopathy and points out the need for large prospective studies to confirm our results and possibly to revise current terminology by distinguishing between "scleroderma" and "dermatomyositis" patterns.

  20. Distribution of intrahepatic T, NK and CD3(+)CD56(+)NKT cells alters after liver transplantation: Shift from innate to adaptive immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens M; Lang, Corinna; Scherer, Marcus N; Farkas, Stefan A; Geissler, Edward K; Schlitt, Hans J; Hornung, Matthias

    2011-07-01

    The liver is an immunological organ containing a large number of T, NK and NKT cells, but little is known about intrahepatic immunity after LTx. Here, we investigated whether the distribution of T, NK and CD3(+)CD56(+)NKT cells is altered in transplanted livers under different circumstances. Core biopsies of transplanted livers were stained with antibodies against CD3 and CD56. Several cell populations including T (CD3(+)CD56(-)), NK (CD3(-)CD56(+)) and NKT cells (CD3(+)CD56(+)) were studied by fluorescence microscopy. Cell numbers were analyzed in relation to the time interval after LTx, immunosuppressive therapy and stage of acute graft rejection (measured with the rejection activity index: RAI) compared to tumor free liver tissue from patients after liver resection due to metastatic disease as control. Recruitment of CD3(+)CD56(+)NKT cells revealed a significant decrease during high RAI scores in comparison to low and middle RAI scores (RAI 7-9: 0.03±0.01/HPF vs. RAI 4-6: 0.1±0.005/HPF). CD3(+)CD56(+)NKT cells were also lower during immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus (0.03±0.01/HPF) than with cyclosporine (0.1±0.003/HPF), cyclosporine/MMF (0.1±0.003/HPF) or sirolimus (0.1±0.01/HPF) treatment. Intrahepatic T cell numbers increased significantly 50days after LTx compared to control liver tissue (4.5±0.2/HPF vs. 1.9±0.1/HPF). In contrast, NK cells (0.3±0.004/HPF) were significantly fewer in all biopsies after LTx compared to the control (0.7±0.04/HPF). These data indicate significant alterations in the hepatic recruitment of T, NK and CD3(+)CD56(+)NKT cells after LTx. The increase in T cells and the decrease in NK and CD3(+)CD56(+)NKT cells suggest a shift from innate to adaptive hepatic immunity in the liver graft. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, A; Rahimi, S; Talebi, A; Soleimani, A; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, S M J

    2015-09-01

    The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog's isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz). Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer's antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T), the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz) as stimuli. The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.

  2. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafati A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz. Materials and Methods: Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer’s antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T, the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz as stimuli. Results: The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion: These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.

  3. Altered expression pattern of molecular factors involved in colonic smooth muscle functions: an immunohistochemical study in patients with diverticular disease.

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    Letizia Mattii

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of diverticular disease (DD is thought to result from complex interactions among dietary habits, genetic factors and coexistence of other bowel abnormalities. These conditions lead to alterations in colonic pressure and motility, facilitating the formation of diverticula. Although electrophysiological studies on smooth muscle cells (SMCs have investigated colonic motor dysfunctions, scarce attention has been paid to their molecular abnormalities, and data on SMCs in DD are lacking. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of molecular factors involved in the contractile functions of SMCs in the tunica muscularis of colonic specimens from patients with DD.By means of immunohistochemistry and image analysis, we examined the expression of Cx26 and Cx43, which are prominent components of gap junctions in human colonic SMCs, as well as pS368-Cx43, PKCps, RhoA and αSMA, all known to regulate the functions of gap junctions and the contractile activity of SMCs. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant abnormalities in DD samples, concerning both the expression and distribution patterns of most of the investigated molecular factors.This study demonstrates, for the first time, that an altered pattern of factors involved in SMC contractility is present at level of the tunica muscularis of DD patients. Moreover, considering that our analysis was conducted on colonic tissues not directly affected by diverticular lesions or inflammatory reactions, it is conceivable that these molecular alterations may precede and predispose to the formation of diverticula, rather than being mere consequences of the disease.

  4. Altered Expression Pattern of Molecular Factors Involved in Colonic Smooth Muscle Functions: An Immunohistochemical Study in Patients with Diverticular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattii, Letizia; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Battolla, Barbara; Colucci, Rocchina; Dolfi, Amelio; Bassotti, Gabrio; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bernardini, Nunzia

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of diverticular disease (DD) is thought to result from complex interactions among dietary habits, genetic factors and coexistence of other bowel abnormalities. These conditions lead to alterations in colonic pressure and motility, facilitating the formation of diverticula. Although electrophysiological studies on smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have investigated colonic motor dysfunctions, scarce attention has been paid to their molecular abnormalities, and data on SMCs in DD are lacking. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of molecular factors involved in the contractile functions of SMCs in the tunica muscularis of colonic specimens from patients with DD. Methods and Findings By means of immunohistochemistry and image analysis, we examined the expression of Cx26 and Cx43, which are prominent components of gap junctions in human colonic SMCs, as well as pS368-Cx43, PKCps, RhoA and αSMA, all known to regulate the functions of gap junctions and the contractile activity of SMCs. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant abnormalities in DD samples, concerning both the expression and distribution patterns of most of the investigated molecular factors. Conclusion This study demonstrates, for the first time, that an altered pattern of factors involved in SMC contractility is present at level of the tunica muscularis of DD patients. Moreover, considering that our analysis was conducted on colonic tissues not directly affected by diverticular lesions or inflammatory reactions, it is conceivable that these molecular alterations may precede and predispose to the formation of diverticula, rather than being mere consequences of the disease. PMID:23437299

  5. Exploring patterns of alteration in Alzheimer’s disease brain networks: a combined structural and functional connectomics analysis

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    Fulvia Palesi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a severe derangement of cognitive functions, primarily memory, in elderly subjects. As far as the functional impairment is concerned, growing evidence supports the disconnection syndrome hypothesis. Recent investigations using fMRI have revealed a generalized alteration of resting state networks in patients affected by AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, it was unclear whether the changes in functional connectivity were accompanied by corresponding structural network changes. In this work, we have developed a novel structural/functional connectomic approach: resting state fMRI was used to identify the functional cortical network nodes and diffusion MRI to reconstruct the fiber tracts to give a weight to internodal subcortical connections. Then, local and global efficiency were determined for different networks, exploring specific alterations of integration and segregation patterns in AD and MCI patients compared to healthy controls (HC. In the default mode network (DMN, that was the most affected, axonal loss and reduced axonal integrity appeared to compromise both local and global efficiency along posterior-anterior connections. In the basal ganglia network (BGN, disruption of white matter integrity implied that main alterations occurred in local microstructure. In the anterior insular network (AIN, neuronal loss probably subtended a compromised communication with the insular cortex. Cognitive performance, evaluated by neuropsychological examinations, revealed a dependency on integration and segregation of brain networks. These findings are indicative of the fact that cognitive deficits in AD could be associated not only with cortical alterations (revealed by fMRI but also with subcortical alterations (revealed by diffusion MRI that extend beyond the areas primarily damaged by neurodegeneration, towards the support of an emerging concept of AD as a

  6. Impacts of deficit irrigation and altered rooting patterns on soil structure and associated soil properties

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    A better understanding of belowground systems and overall management impacts on soil health is needed to improve crop production and long-term sustainability under deficit irrigation. This study investigates effects of deficit irrigation on rooting patterns in maize and subsequent impacts on soil pr...

  7. Expression of Genes Involved in Drosophila Wing Morphogenesis and Vein Patterning Are Altered by Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Imaginal wing discs of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) defined during embryogenesis ultimately result in mature wings of stereotyped (specific) venation patterning. Major regulators of wing disc development are the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF), Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Wingless (Wg), and Dpp signaling pathways. Highly stereotyped vascular patterning is also characteristic of tissues in other organisms flown in space such as the mouse retina and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic and other adaptations of vascular patterning to space environmental factors have not yet been systematically quantified, despite widespread recognition of their critical importance for terrestrial and microgravity applications. Here we report changes in gene expression with space flight related to Drosophila wing morphogenesis and vein patterning. In addition, genetically modified phenotypes of increasingly abnormal ectopic wing venation in the Drosophila wing1 were analyzed by NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software2. Our goal is to further develop insightful vascular mappings associated with bioinformatic dimensions of genetic or other molecular phenotypes for correlation with genetic and other molecular profiling relevant to NASA's GeneLab and other Space Biology exploration initiatives.

  8. Non-linear regime shifts in Holocene Asian monsoon variability: potential impacts on cultural change and migratory patterns

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    Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.; Marwan, N.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2015-05-01

    The Asian monsoon system is an important tipping element in Earth's climate with a large impact on human societies in the past and present. In light of the potentially severe impacts of present and future anthropogenic climate change on Asian hydrology, it is vital to understand the forcing mechanisms of past climatic regime shifts in the Asian monsoon domain. Here we use novel recurrence network analysis techniques for detecting episodes with pronounced non-linear changes in Holocene Asian monsoon dynamics recorded in speleothems from caves distributed throughout the major branches of the Asian monsoon system. A newly developed multi-proxy methodology explicitly considers dating uncertainties with the COPRA (COnstructing Proxy Records from Age models) approach and allows for detection of continental-scale regime shifts in the complexity of monsoon dynamics. Several epochs are characterised by non-linear regime shifts in Asian monsoon variability, including the periods around 8.5-7.9, 5.7-5.0, 4.1-3.7, and 3.0-2.4 ka BP. The timing of these regime shifts is consistent with known episodes of Holocene rapid climate change (RCC) and high-latitude Bond events. Additionally, we observe a previously rarely reported non-linear regime shift around 7.3 ka BP, a timing that matches the typical 1.0-1.5 ky return intervals of Bond events. A detailed review of previously suggested links between Holocene climatic changes in the Asian monsoon domain and the archaeological record indicates that, in addition to previously considered longer-term changes in mean monsoon intensity and other climatic parameters, regime shifts in monsoon complexity might have played an important role as drivers of migration, pronounced cultural changes, and the collapse of ancient human societies.

  9. Pacifier Stiffness Alters the Dynamics of the Suck Central Pattern Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emily; Barlow, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Variation in pacifier stiffness on non-nutritive suck (NNS) dynamics was examined among infants born prematurely with a history of respiratory distress syndrome. Three types of silicone pacifiers used in the NICU were tested for stiffness, revealing the Super Soothie™ nipple is 7 times stiffer than the Wee™ or Soothie™ pacifiers even though shape and displaced volume are identical. Suck dynamics among 20 preterm infants were subsequently sampled using the Soothie™ and Super Soothie™ pacifiers during follow-up at approximately 3 months of age. ANOVA revealed significant differences in NNS cycles/min, NNS amplitude, NNS cycles/burst, and NNS cycle periods as a function of pacifier stiffness. Infants modify the spatiotemporal output of their suck central pattern generator when presented with pacifiers with significantly different mechanical properties. Infants show a non-preference to suck due to high stiffness in the selected pacifier. Therefore, excessive pacifier stiffness may decrease ororhythmic patterning and impact feeding outcomes. PMID:19492006

  10. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  11. Altered cortical activation patterns associated with baroreflex unloading following 24 h of physical deconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, J K; Usselman, C W; Rothwell, A; Wong, S W

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular arousal is associated with patterned cortical activity changes. Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) dimishes the baroreflex-mediated cardiac control. The present study tested the hypothesis that HDBR deconditioning would modify the forebrain organization for heart rate (HR) control during baroreflex unloading. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and plasma hormones were analysed at rest, whereas HR and cortical autonomic activation patterns (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were measured during graded and randomly assigned lower body negative pressure treatments (LBNP, -15 and -35 mmHg) both before (Pre) and after (Post) a 24 h HDBR protocol (study 1; n = 8). An additional group was tested before and following diuretic-induced hypovolaemia (study 2; n = 9; spironolactone, 100 mg day(-1) for 3 days) that mimicked the plasma volume lost during HDBR (-15% in both studies; P physical deconditioning can induce rapid functional changes within the cortical circuitry associated with baroreflex unloading, changes that are distinct from diuretic-induced hypovolaemia. The results suggest that physical activity patterns exert a rapid and notable impact on the cortical circuitry associated with cardiovascular control.

  12. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  13. Altered aortic shape in bicuspid aortic valve relatives influences blood flow patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Susanne; Smith, Danielle A; Barker, Alex J; Entezari, Pegah; Honarmand, Amir R; Carr, Maria L; Malaisrie, S Chris; McCarthy, Patrick M; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is known to exhibit familial inheritance and is associated with aortopathy and altered aortic haemodynamics. However, it remains unclear whether BAV-related aortopathy can be inherited independently of valve morphology. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging for the in vivo assessment of thoracic aortic 3D blood flow was performed in 24 BAV relatives with trileaflet aortic valves (age = 40 ± 14 years) and 15 healthy controls (age = 37 ± 10 years). Data analysis included aortic dimensions, shape (round/gothic/cubic), and 3D blood flow characteristics (semi-quantitative vortex/helix grading and peak velocities). Cubic and gothic aortic shapes were markedly more prevalent in BAV relatives compared with controls (38 vs. 7%). Ascending aorta (AAo) vortex flow in BAV relatives was significantly increased compared with controls (grading = 1.5 ± 1.0 vs. 0.6 ± 0.9, P = 0.015). Aortic haemodynamics were influenced by aortic shape: peak velocities were reduced for gothic aortas vs. round aortas (P = 0.003); vortex flow was increased for cubic aortas in the AAo (P gothic aortas in the AAo and descending aorta (P = 0.003, P = 0.029). Logistic regression demonstrated significant associations of shape with severity of vortex flow in AAo (P < 0.001) and aortic arch (P = 0.016) in BAV relatives. BAV relatives expressed altered aortic shape and increased vortex flow despite the absence of valvular disease or aortic dilatation. These data suggest a heritable component of BAV-related aortopathy affecting aortic shape and aberrant blood flow, independent of valve morphology. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Recognition alters the spatial pattern of FMRI activation in early retinotopic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, P-J; Vul, E; Kanwisher, N

    2010-03-01

    Early retinotopic cortex has traditionally been viewed as containing a veridical representation of the low-level properties of the image, not imbued by high-level interpretation and meaning. Yet several recent results indicate that neural representations in early retinotopic cortex reflect not just the sensory properties of the image, but also the perceived size and brightness of image regions. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging pattern analyses to ask whether the representation of an object in early retinotopic cortex changes when the object is recognized compared with when the same stimulus is presented but not recognized. Our data confirmed this hypothesis: the pattern of response in early retinotopic visual cortex to a two-tone "Mooney" image of an object was more similar to the response to the full grayscale photo version of the same image when observers knew what the two-tone image represented than when they did not. Further, in a second experiment, high-level interpretations actually overrode bottom-up stimulus information, such that the pattern of response in early retinotopic cortex to an identified two-tone image was more similar to the response to the photographic version of that stimulus than it was to the response to the identical two-tone image when it was not identified. Our findings are consistent with prior results indicating that perceived size and brightness affect representations in early retinotopic visual cortex and, further, show that even higher-level information--knowledge of object identity--also affects the representation of an object in early retinotopic cortex.

  15. The effect of nutrition pattern alteration on Chlorella pyrenoidosa growth, lipid biosynthesis-related gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianhua; Cui, Yanbin; Zhou, Yang; Wan, Minxi; Wang, Weiliang; Xie, Jingli; Li, Yuanguang

    2014-07-01

    Heterotrophy to photoautotrophy transition leads to the accumulation of lipids in Chlorella, which has potential to produce both healthy food and biofuels. Therefore, it is of key interest to study the metabolism shift and gene expression changes that influenced by the transition. Both total and neutral lipids contents were increased rapidly within 48 h after the switch to light environment, from 24.5% and 18.0% to 35.3% and 27.4%, respectively, along with the sharp decline of starch from 42.3% to 10.4% during 24h photoinduction phase. By analyzing the correlation between lipid content and gene expression, results revealed several genes viz. me g3137, me g6562, pepc g6833, dgat g3280 and dgat g7566, which encode corresponding enzymes in the de novo lipid biosynthesis pathway, are highly related to lipid accumulation and might be exploited as target genes for genetic modification. These results represented the feasibility of lipid production through trophic converting cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered connectivity pattern of hubs in default-mode network with Alzheimer's disease: an Granger causality modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiaoyan; Wu, Xia; Li, Rui; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li

    2011-01-01

    Evidences from normal subjects suggest that the default-mode network (DMN) has posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC) as its hubs; meanwhile, these DMN nodes are often found to be abnormally recruited in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The issues on how these hubs interact to each other, with the rest nodes of the DMN and the altered pattern of hubs with respect to AD, are still on going discussion for eventual final clarification. To address these issues, we investigated the causal influences between any pair of nodes within the DMN using Granger causality analysis and graph-theoretic methods on resting-state fMRI data of 12 young subjects, 16 old normal controls and 15 AD patients respectively. We found that: (1) PCC/MPFC/IPC, especially the PCC, showed the widest and distinctive causal effects on the DMN dynamics in young group; (2) the pattern of DMN hubs was abnormal in AD patients compared to old control: MPFC and IPC had obvious causal interaction disruption with other nodes; the PCC showed outstanding performance for it was the only region having causal relation with all other nodes significantly; (3) the altered relation between hubs and other DMN nodes held potential as a noninvasive biomarker of AD. Our study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to support the hub configuration of the DMN from the perspective of causal relationship, and reveal abnormal pattern of the DMN hubs in AD. Findings from young subjects provide additional evidence for the role of PCC/MPFC/IPC acting as hubs in the DMN. Compared to old control, MPFC and IPC lost their roles as hubs owing to the obvious causal interaction disruption, and PCC was preserved as the only hub showing significant causal relations with all other nodes.

  17. Aging alters the molecular dynamics of synapses in a sexually dimorphic pattern in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoglu, Elif Tugce; Halim, Dilara Ozge; Erkaya, Bahriye; Altaytas, Ferda; Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Konu, Ozlen; Adams, Michelle M

    2017-06-01

    The zebrafish has become a popular model for studying normal brain aging due to its large fecundity, conserved genome, and available genetic tools; but little data exists about neurobiological age-related alterations. The current study tested the hypothesis of an association between brain aging and synaptic protein loss across males and females. Western blot analysis of synaptophysin (SYP), a presynaptic vesicle protein, and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and gephyrin (GEP), excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic receptor-clustering proteins, respectively, was performed in young, middle-aged, and old male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brains. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that PSD-95 significantly increased in aged females and SYP significantly decreased in males, but GEP was stable. Thus, these key synaptic proteins vary across age in a sexually dimorphic manner, which has been observed in other species, and these consequences may represent selective vulnerabilities for aged males and females. These data expand our knowledge of normal aging in zebrafish, as well as further establish this model as an appropriate one for examining human brain aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pacifier use does not alter sleep and spontaneous arousal patterns in healthy term-born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoi, Alexsandria; Andrew, Shanelle; Wong, Flora Y; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-12-01

    Impaired arousal from sleep has been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Sleeping in the prone position is a major risk factor for SIDS. Epidemiological studies have shown that pacifier use decreases the risk of SIDS, even when infants sleep prone. We examined spontaneous arousability in infants slept prone and supine over the first 6 months of life and hypothesised that spontaneous arousals would be increased in pacifier users, particularly in the prone position. Healthy term infants (n = 30) were studied on three occasions over the first 6 months after birth. Spontaneous cortical arousals and subcortical activations were scored and converted into frequency per hour of sleep. There was no effect of pacifier use on total time spent sleeping or awake or the number of spontaneous awakenings at any age. There was also no effect of pacifier use on the frequency or duration of the total number of spontaneous arousals or on cortical arousals and subcortical activations. Pacifier use did not alter infant spontaneous arousability at any of the three ages studied, in either the prone or supine sleeping position. Any preventative effect of pacifiers for SIDS may be through physiological mechanisms other than increased arousability. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. RNA interference silencing of CHS greatly alters the growth pattern of apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Andrew P; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-08-01

    Plants produce a vast array of phenolic compounds which are essential for their survival on land. One major class of polyphenols are the flavonoids and their formation is dependent on the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). In a recent study we silenced the CHS genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and observed a loss of pigmentation in the fruit skin, flowers and stems. More surprisingly, highly silenced lines were significantly reduced in size, with small leaves and shortened internode lengths. Chemical analysis also revealed that the transgenic shoots contained greatly reduced concentrations of flavonoids which are known to modulate auxin flow. An auxin transport study verified this, with an increased auxin transport in the CHS-silenced lines. Overall, these findings suggest that auxin transport in apple has adapted to take place in the presence of high endogenous concentrations of flavonoids. Removal of these compounds therefore results in abnormal auxin movement and a highly disrupted growth pattern.

  20. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness: a combined actigraphy and psychometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S; Gacon, C; Jennum, P; Ptito, M; Kupers, R

    2016-08-01

    Light plays an important role in the synchronization of the internal biological clock and the environmental day/night pattern. Thus, absence of vision is often associated with both increases in reported sleep disturbances and incidence of free-running circadian rhythms. In this study we discuss variability in the sleep-wake pattern between blind and normal-sighted individuals. Thirty-day actigraphy recordings were collected from 11 blind individuals without residual light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls. From these recordings, we extracted parameters of sleep and wake, including episodes of rest, day-time and night-time sleep periods, and the number of awakenings throughout sleep. A measure of sleep efficiency was derived from these measures for each night-time sleep episode. We also examined complementary measures of sleep quality, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and chronotype, using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Although no group differences were found when averaging over the entire recording period, we found a greater variability throughout the 30-days in both sleep efficiency and timing of the night-time sleep episode in blind participants as compared to sighted control participants. We also confirm previous reports of reduced sleep quality in blind individuals. Notably, the variability in sleep efficiency and in the timing of sleep correlated with the severity of sleep disturbances. The timing and physiology of sleep are strongly dependent on the endogenous circadian phase; therefore, observed findings support the hypothesis of free-running circadian rhythms as a dominant factor for the sleep disturbances experienced in blindness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with an altered temporal pattern of transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Paul N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria has emerged in Western Cambodia. This is a major threat to global plans to control and eliminate malaria as the artemisinins are a key component of antimalarial treatment throughout the world. To identify key features associated with the delayed parasite clearance phenotype, we employed DNA microarrays to profile the physiological gene expression pattern of the resistant isolates. Results In the ring and trophozoite stages, we observed reduced expression of many basic metabolic and cellular pathways which suggests a slower growth and maturation of these parasites during the first half of the asexual intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC. In the schizont stage, there is an increased expression of essentially all functionalities associated with protein metabolism which indicates the prolonged and thus increased capacity of protein synthesis during the second half of the resistant parasite IDC. This modulation of the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic transcriptome may result from differential expression of regulatory proteins such as transcription factors or chromatin remodeling associated proteins. In addition, there is a unique and uniform copy number variation pattern in the Cambodian parasites which may represent an underlying genetic background that contributes to the resistance phenotype. Conclusions The decreased metabolic activities in the ring stages are consistent with previous suggestions of higher resilience of the early developmental stages to artemisinin. Moreover, the increased capacity of protein synthesis and protein turnover in the schizont stage may contribute to artemisinin resistance by counteracting the protein damage caused by the oxidative stress and/or protein alkylation effect of this drug. This study reports the first global transcriptional survey of artemisinin resistant parasites and provides insight to the complexities of the molecular basis

  2. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-06-01

    To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats.

  3. Herbivory alters plant carbon assimilation, patterns of biomass allocation and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschiutta, María Laura; Scholz, Fabián Gustavo; Goldstein, Guillermo; Bucci, Sandra Janet

    2018-01-01

    Herbivory can trigger physiological processes resulting in leaf and whole plant functional changes. The effects of chronic infestation by an insect on leaf traits related to carbon and nitrogen economy in three Prunus avium cultivars were assessed. Leaves from non-infested trees (control) and damaged leaves from infested trees were selected. The insect larvae produce skeletonization of the leaves leaving relatively intact the vein network of the eaten leaves and the abaxial epidermal tissue. At the leaf level, nitrogen content per mass (Nmass) and per area (Narea), net photosynthesis per mass (Amass) and per area (Aarea), photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), leaf mass per area (LMA) and total leaf phenols content were measured in the three cultivars. All cultivars responded to herbivory in a similar fashion. The Nmass, Amass, and PNUE decreased, while LMA and total content of phenols increased in partially damaged leaves. Increases in herbivore pressure resulted in lower leaf size and total leaf area per plant across cultivars. Despite this, stem cumulative growth tended to increase in infected plants suggesting a change in the patterns of biomass allocation and in resources sequestration elicited by herbivory. A larger N investment in defenses instead of photosynthetic structures may explain the lower PNUE and Amass observed in damaged leaves. Some physiological changes due to herbivory partially compensate for the cost of leaf removal buffering the carbon economy at the whole plant level.

  4. Altered Mitochondrial DNA Methylation Pattern in Alzheimer Disease-Related Pathology and in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Marta; Mosquera, Jose Luis; Ansoleaga, Belén; Ferrer, Isidre; Barrachina, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked with the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. Mitochondria are intracellular organelles essential for cell viability and are characterized by the presence of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA. DNA methylation is a well-known epigenetic mechanism that regulates nuclear gene transcription. However, mtDNA methylation is not the subject of the same research attention. The present study shows the presence of mitochondrial 5-methylcytosine in CpG and non-CpG sites in the entorhinal cortex and substantia nigra of control human postmortem brains, using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencer. Moreover, increased mitochondrial 5-methylcytosine levels are found in the D-loop region of mtDNA in the entorhinal cortex in brain samples with Alzheimer disease-related pathology (stages I to II and stages III to IV of Braak and Braak; n = 8) with respect to control cases. Interestingly, this region shows a dynamic pattern in the content of mitochondrial 5-methylcytosine in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 mice along with Alzheimer disease pathology progression (3, 6, and 12 months of age). Finally, a loss of mitochondrial 5-methylcytosine levels in the D-loop region is found in the substantia nigra in Parkinson disease (n = 10) with respect to control cases. In summary, the present findings suggest mtDNA epigenetic modulation in human brain is vulnerable to neurodegenerative disease states. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Feeding alters blood flow patterns in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findsen, Anders; Crossley, Dane A; Wang, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    The crocodilian cardiovascular design with a four-chambered heart and a left aorta that emerge from the right ventricle allows blood to be shunted away from the lungs, a right-to-left (R-L) shunt. The adaptive significance of this R-L shunt remains both poorly understood and controversial with particular debate on its putative role during digestion. Here we measure blood flow patterns in the right aorta (RAo), left aorta (LAo) and the coeliac artery (CoA) of undisturbed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) during fasting and throughout most of the digestive period. Digestion doubled blood flow in the RAo (10.1±0.9 to 20.7±1.5mlmin -1 kg -1 ), whereas LAo increased approximately 3-fold (3.8±0.6 to 12.2±2.1mlmin -1 kg -1 ). Blood flow in the CoA increased more than four-fold during digestion (3.0±0.6 to 13.3±1.6mlmin -1 kg -1 ). The rise in blood flows was achieved by a doubling of heart rate (18.5±3.3 to 37.8±3.6mlmin -1 kg -1 ). Maximal flows measured in all arteries and heart rate occurred in the first hour of the postprandial period and continued for the next 7h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of black box warning by mining patterns of Convergent Focus Shift in clinical trial study populations using linked public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Handong; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    To link public data resources for predicting post-marketing drug safety label changes by analyzing the Convergent Focus Shift patterns among drug testing trials. We identified 256 top-selling prescription drugs between 2003 and 2013 and divided them into 83 BBW drugs (drugs with at least one black box warning label) and 173 ROBUST drugs (drugs without any black box warning label) based on their FDA black box warning (BBW) records. We retrieved 7499 clinical trials that each had at least one of these drugs for intervention from the ClinicalTrials.gov. We stratified all the trials by pre-marketing or post-marketing status, study phase, and study start date. For each trial, we retrieved drug and disease concepts from clinical trial summaries to model its study population using medParser and SNOMED-CT. Convergent Focus Shift (CFS) pattern was calculated and used to assess the temporal changes in study populations from pre-marketing to post-marketing trials for each drug. Then we selected 68 candidate drugs, 18 with BBW warning and 50 without, that each had at least nine pre-marketing trials and nine post-marketing trials for predictive modeling. A random forest predictive model was developed to predict BBW acquisition incidents based on CFS patterns among these drugs. Pre- and post-marketing trials of BBW and ROBUST drugs were compared to look for their differences in CFS patterns. Among the 18 BBW drugs, we consistently observed that the post-marketing trials focused more on recruiting patients with medical conditions previously unconsidered in the pre-marketing trials. In contrast, among the 50 ROBUST drugs, the post-marketing trials involved a variety of medications for testing their associations with target intervention(s). We found it feasible to predict BBW acquisitions using different CFS patterns between the two groups of drugs. Our random forest predictor achieved an AUC of 0.77. We also demonstrated the feasibility of the predictor for identifying long

  7. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Mikelson, Lisa R; Noffal, Guillermo J; Judelson, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foot strike patterns and converted foot strike patterns on lower limb kinematics and kinetics at the hip, knee, and ankle during a shod condition. Subjects were videotaped with a high speed camera while running a 5km at self-selected pace on a treadmill to determine natural foot strike pattern on day one. Preferred forefoot group (PFFG, n = 10) and preferred rear foot group (PRFG, n = 11) subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m). On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern -forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS]) x 2 (Group - PFFG, PRFG) mixed model ANOVAs (p plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF) (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW), dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg(-1), FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg(-1)), and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°). There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg(-1), FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg(-1)), peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg(-1), FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg(-1)), knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°), and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32°) as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that

  8. Dietary patterns in men and women are simultaneously determinants of altered glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Barr, Susan I; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Berger, Claudie; Kovacs, Christopher S; Josse, Robert G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Brown, Jacques P; Morin, Suzanne N; Davison, Kenneth S; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that diet would have direct effects on glucose metabolism with direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism in a cohort of Canadian adults. We assessed dietary patterns (Prudent [fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and legumes] and Western [soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts]) from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used fasting blood samples to measure glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker), and serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX; a bone resorption marker). We used multivariate regression models adjusted for confounders and including/excluding body mass index. In a secondary analysis, we examined relationships through structural equations models. The Prudent diet was associated with favorable effects on glucose metabolism (lower insulin and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (lower CTX in women; higher 25OHD and lower parathyroid hormone in men). The Western diet was associated with deleterious effects on glucose metabolism (higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and lower 25OHD in women; higher CTX in men). Body mass index adjustment moved point estimates toward the null, indicating partial mediation. The structural equation model confirmed the hypothesized linkage with strong effects of Prudent and Western diet on metabolic risk, and both direct and indirect effects of a Prudent diet on bone turnover. In summary, a Prudent diet was associated with lower metabolic risk with both primary and mediated effects on bone turnover, suggesting that it is a potential target for reducing fracture risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Patrick E; Makowski, Nathaniel S

    2014-10-01

    Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic interventions involving motor or sensory stimulation.

  10. Detecting altered connectivity patterns in HIV associated neurocognitive impairment using mutual connectivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Anas Zainul; D'Souza, Adora M.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    The use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has provided interesting insights into our understanding of the brain. In clinical setups these scans have been used to detect and study changes in the brain network properties in various neurological disorders. A large percentage of subjects infected with HIV present cognitive deficits, which are known as HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). In this study we propose to use our novel technique named Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA) to detect differences in brain networks in subjects with and without HIV infection. Resting state functional MRI scans acquired from 10 subjects (5 HIV+ and 5 HIV-) were subject to standard preprocessing routines. Subsequently, the average time-series for each brain region of the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas are extracted and used with the MCA framework to obtain a graph characterizing the interactions between them. The network graphs obtained for different subjects are then compared using Network-Based Statistics (NBS), which is an approach to detect differences between graphs edges while controlling for the family-wise error rate when mass univariate testing is performed. Applying this approach on the graphs obtained yields a single network encompassing 42 nodes and 65 edges, which is significantly different between the two subject groups. Specifically connections to the regions in and around the basal ganglia are significantly decreased. Also some nodes corresponding to the posterior cingulate cortex are affected. These results are inline with our current understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of HIV associated neurocognitive disease (HAND) and other HIV based fMRI connectivity studies. Hence, we illustrate the applicability of our novel approach with network-based statistics in a clinical case-control study to detect differences connectivity patterns.

  11. Abnormally altered patterns of whole brain functional connectivity network of posterior cingulate cortex in remitted geriatric depression: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Yuan, Yong-Gui; Zhou, Hong; Bai, Feng; You, Jia-Yong; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2014-08-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the remitted geriatric depression (RGD) patients' persistent cognitive impairment and potential correlation with their PCC functional connectivity network. A total of 14 RGD patients and 18 matched controls were recruited. All subjects finished the neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and follow-up. A spherical region of interest was placed in PCC to calculate the functional connectivity, and further analysis was employed to detect correlations between longitudinal changes in the brain regions and neuropsychological data. There were significant cognitive declines in RGD patients at baseline and follow-up. Altered patterns of functional connectivity were detected within the RGD group showing correlations with neuropsychological tests. The longitudinal change in functional connectivity between PCC and cerebellum posterior lobe was correlated with longitudinal changes in auditory verbal memory test-recall (r=0.550, P=0.042). The longitudinal change in functional connectivity between PCC and right parahippocampal gyrus was correlated with Trail Making Test-A (r=0.631, P=0.015). The longitudinal change in functional connectivity between PCC and supramarginal_R was correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination (r=-0.630, P=0.016). RGD patients performed worse cognitive function, and altered PCC functional connectivity network might have a role in these cognitive declines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (pfeeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and develop precautionary policies regarding proposed feeding sites.

  13. Altered gene expression pattern in the fatty liver dystrophy mouse reveals impaired insulin-mediated cytoskeleton dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenspor, M; Xu, P; Cohen, R D; Welch, C; Reue, K

    1999-08-13

    The mouse fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation is characterized by transient hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver during the neonatal period, followed by development of a peripheral neuropathy. To uncover the metabolic pathway that is disrupted by the fld mutation, we analyzed the altered pattern of gene expression in the fatty liver of fld neonates by representational difference analysis of cDNA. Differentially expressed genes detected include a novel member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, a novel Ser/Thr kinase, and several actin cytoskeleton-associated proteins including actin, profilin, alpha-actinin, and myosin light chain. Because these proteins have a potential functional link in the propagation of hormone signals, we investigated cytoskeleton dynamics in fld cells in response to hormone treatment. These studies revealed that preadipocytes from fld mice exhibit impaired formation of actin membrane ruffles in response to insulin treatment. These findings suggest that the altered mRNA expression levels detected in fld tissue represent a compensatory response for the nonfunctional fld gene and that the fld gene product may be required for development of normal insulin response.

  14. Bending The Spending Curve By Altering Care Delivery Patterns: The Role Of Care Management Within A Pioneer ACO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John; Price, Mary; Vogeli, Christine; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G

    2017-05-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) appear to lower medical spending, but there is little information on how they do so. We examined the impact of patient participation in a Pioneer ACO and its care management program on rates of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations and on Medicare spending. We used data for the period 2009-14, exploiting naturally staggered program entry to create concurrent controls to help isolate the program effects. The care management program (the ACO's primary intervention) targeted beneficiaries with elevated but modifiable risks for future spending. ACO participation had a modest effect on spending, in line with previous estimates. Participation in the care management program was associated with substantial reductions in rates for hospitalizations and both all and nonemergency ED visits, as well as Medicare spending, when compared to preparticipation levels and to rates and spending for a concurrent sample of beneficiaries who were eligible for but had not yet started the program. Rates of ED visits and hospitalizations were reduced by 6 percent and 8 percent, respectively, and Medicare spending was reduced by 6 percent. Targeting beneficiaries with modifiable high risks and shifting care away from the ED represent viable mechanisms for altering spending within ACOs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Linking Contextual Factors with Rhetorical Pattern Shift: Direct and Indirect Strategies Recommended in English Business Communication Textbooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Zhu, Pinfan

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have consistently claimed that rhetorical patterns are culturally bound, and indirectness is a defining characteristic of Chinese writing. Through examining how the rhetorical mechanism of directness and indirectness is presented in 29 English business communication textbooks published in China, we explore how English business…

  16. Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘default-mode’ network (DMN has been investigated in the presence of various disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Autism spectrum disorders. More recently, this investigation has expanded to include patients with ischemic injury. Here, we characterized the effects of ischemic injury in terms of its spectral distribution of resting-state low-frequency oscillations and further investigated whether those specific disruptions were unique to the DMN, or rather more general, affecting the global cortical system. With 43 young healthy adults, 42 older healthy adults, 14 stroke patients in their early stage (< 7 days after stroke onset, and 16 stroke patients in their later stage (between 1-6 months after stroke onset, this study showed that patterns of cortical system disruption may differ between healthy aging and following the event of an ischemic stroke. The stroke group in the later stage demonstrated a global reduction in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations (0.01-0.027 Hz in the DMN as well as in the primary visual and sensorimotor networks, two ‘task-positive’ networks. In comparison to the young healthy group, the older healthy subjects presented a decrease in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations specific to the components of the DMN, while exhibiting an increase in oscillation power in the task-positive networks. These two processes of a decrease DMN and an increase in ‘task-positive’ slow-5 oscillations may potentially be related, with a deficit in DMN inhibition, leading to an elevation of oscillations in non-DMN systems. These findings also suggest that disruptions of the slow-5 oscillations in healthy aging may be more specific to the DMN while the disruptions of those oscillations following a stroke through remote (diaschisis effects may be more widespread, highlighting a non-specificity of disruption on the DMN in stroke population. The mechanisms underlying those differing modes of network disruption need

  17. Conspecific disturbance contributes to altered hibernation patterns in bats with white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James M; Warnecke, Lisa; Wilcox, Alana; Baloun, Dylan; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Willis, Craig K R

    2015-03-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) affects both physiology and behaviour of hibernating bats. Infection with the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the first pathogen known to target torpid animals, causes an increase in arousal frequency during hibernation, and therefore premature depletion of energy stores. Infected bats also show a dramatic decrease in clustering behaviour over the winter. To investigate the interaction between disease progression and torpor expression we quantified physiological (i.e., timing of arousal, rewarming rate) and behavioural (i.e., arousal synchronisation, clustering) aspects of rewarming events over four months in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) experimentally inoculated with Pd. We tested two competing hypotheses: 1) Bats adjust arousal physiology adaptively to help compensate for an increase in energetically expensive arousals. This hypothesis predicts that infected bats should increase synchronisation of arousals with colony mates to benefit from social thermoregulation and/or that solitary bats will exhibit faster rewarming rates than clustered individuals because rewarming costs fall as rewarming rate increases. 2) As for the increase in arousal frequency, changes in arousal physiology and clustering behaviour are maladaptive consequences of infection. This hypothesis predicts no effect of infection or clustering behaviour on rewarming rate and that disturbance by normothermic bats contributes to the overall increase in arousal frequency. We found that arousals of infected bats became more synchronised than those of controls as hibernation progressed but the pattern was not consistent with social thermoregulation. When a bat rewarmed from torpor, it was often followed in sequence by up to seven other bats in an arousal "cascade". Moreover, rewarming rate did not differ between infected and uninfected bats, was not affected by clustering and did not change over time. Our results support

  18. Climate-driven Shifting in Distribution Patterns of Calanus sinicus Brodsky in the Continental Shelf Waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Liu, H.; Yan, Q. L.; Fan, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale variations in zooplankton dynamics, including the poleward movements and earlier timing of life cycle events, have been widely observed over recent decades. The biogeographical shifts are often related to the increasing sea surface temperature or the long-term climatological change, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (NESO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The Copepod Calanus sinicus Brodsky plays an important trophic role in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean as a grazer of phytoplankton and main food source for many ecologically and commercially important fish, such as sardine and anchovy. Because of its importance in marine ecosystem dynamics, C. sinicus was selected as one of the "keystone species" in the China-GLOBEC program. In this study, we examined the shifts in spatial patterns of the species within its distribution domain - the Yellow Sea and the northern East China Sea in the 1950s, 1980s and 2010s. We used contour mapping and a mathematical model to locate the geographical distribution center of the species. We found a significant relationship (r=0.594, P<0.05) between the monthly PDO index and the latitudes of the distribution center of C. sinicus, and a lag of two months for copepods to respond the PDO index. Our findings imply a northward shifting in the distribution center, and the northern Yellow Sea is becoming a new distribution center as another possible over-summering site of C. sinicus.

  19. X-inactivation in female human embryonic stem cells is in a nonrandom pattern and prone to epigenetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yin; Matsuno, Youko; Fouse, Shaun D; Rao, Nagesh; Root, Sierra; Xu, Renhe; Pellegrini, Matteo; Riggs, Arthur D; Fan, Guoping

    2008-03-25

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an essential mechanism for dosage compensation of X-linked genes in female cells. We report that subcultures from lines of female human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) exhibit variation (0-100%) for XCI markers, including XIST RNA expression and enrichment of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) on the inactive X chromosome (Xi). Surprisingly, regardless of the presence or absence of XCI markers in different cultures, all female hESCs we examined (H7, H9, and HSF6 cells) exhibit a monoallelic expression pattern for a majority of X-linked genes. Our results suggest that these established female hESCs have already completed XCI during the process of derivation and/or propagation, and the XCI pattern of lines we investigated is already not random. Moreover, XIST gene expression in subsets of cultured female hESCs is unstable and subject to stable epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation. In the absence of XIST expression, approximately 12% of X-linked promoter CpG islands become hypomethylated and a portion of X-linked alleles on the Xi are reactivated. Because alterations in dosage compensation of X-linked genes could impair somatic cell function, we propose that XCI status should be routinely checked in subcultures of female hESCs, with cultures displaying XCI markers better suited for use in regenerative medicine.

  20. Sleep influences the immune response and the rejection process alters sleep pattern: Evidence from a skin allograft model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Francieli Silva; Andersen, Monica Levy; Guindalini, Camila; Araujo, Leandro Pires; Lopes, José Daniel; Tufik, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Sleep generally regulates immune functions in a supportive manner and can affect parameters that are directly involved in the rejection process. The first objective was to assess whether sleep deprivation (SD) or sleep restriction (SR) affects the allograft rejection process in mice. The second objective was to investigate whether the rejection process itself modulates the sleep pattern of allografted mice. Adult BALB/c and C57BL/6J male mice were used as the donors and recipients, respectively, except for the syngeneic group (ISOTX), which received skin from mice of the same strain (C57BL/6J). The recipients were randomly assigned to either one of two control groups - TX (allogenic) or ISOTX (syngeneic) - which underwent stereotaxic surgery to enable sleep recording prior to the allograft but were not sleep deprived; one of two paradoxical sleep deprived groups - SDTX and TXSD - which underwent 72h of continuous SD either before or after the allograft respectively, and one of two sleep restricted groups - SRTX and TXSR - which underwent 21h of SD and 3h of sleep for 15days either before or after the allograft respectively. The skin allograft was inspected daily to determine the survival time, expected as 8.0±0.4days in this transplant model under no treatment. The sleep pattern was controlled throughout the rejection process in the SD and SR groups. Draining lymph nodes, spleen, blood and skin grafts were harvested on the 5th day after transplantation for evaluation of the immune parameters related to allograft rejection. In the control groups, we observed a reduction in paradoxical sleep throughout the entire allograft rejection process. Acute and chronic experimental sleep loss in the SD and SR groups produced marked alterations in the immune response. Both SD and SR prolonged allograft survival compared to the non-sleep-deprived group. There were reductions in the following parameters involved in the allograft rejection under sleep loss: CD4 + and CD8 + T cell

  1. Shift of circadian feeding pattern by high-fat diets is coincident with reward deficits in obese mice.

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    Lidia Morales

    Full Text Available Recent studies provide evidence that high-fat diets (HF trigger both i a deficit of reward responses linked to a decrease of mesolimbic dopaminergic activity, and ii a disorganization of circadian feeding behavior that switch from a structured meal-based schedule to a continuous snacking, even during periods normally devoted to rest. This feeding pattern has been shown to be a cause of HF-induced overweight and obesity. Our hypothesis deals with the eventual link between the rewarding properties of food and the circadian distribution of meals. We have investigated the effect of circadian feeding pattern on reward circuits by means of the conditioned-place preference (CPP paradigm and we have characterized the rewarding properties of natural (food and artificial (cocaine reinforcers both in free-feeding ad libitum HF mice and in HF animals submitted to a re-organized feeding schedule based on the standard feeding behavior displayed by mice feeding normal chow ("forced synchronization". We demonstrate that i ad libitum HF diet attenuates cocaine and food reward in the CPP protocol, and ii forced synchronization of feeding prevents this reward deficit. Our study provides further evidence that the rewarding impact of food with low palatability is diminished in mice exposed to a high-fat diet and strongly suggest that the decreased sensitivity to chow as a positive reinforcer triggers a disorganized feeding pattern which might account for metabolic disorders leading to obesity.

  2. Alteration of protein expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF from soluble to cell-associated isoform during tumourigenesis

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    Lertprasertsuke Nirush

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent mitogen for endothelial cells, and its expression has been correlated with increased tumour angiogenesis. Although numerous publications dealing with the measurement of circulating VEGF for diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring have been published, the relationship between the production of tissue VEGF and its concentration in blood is still unclear. The aims of this study were to determine: 1 The expression pattern of VEGF isoforms at the protein level in colorectal and lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to the pattern in corresponding adjacent normal tissues 2 The relationship between the expression pattern of VEGF and total level of circulating VEGF in the blood to clarify whether the results of measuring circulating VEGF can be used to predict VEGF expression in tumour tissues. Methods Ninety-four tissue samples were obtained from patients, 76 colorectal tumour tissues and 18 lung tumour tissues. VEGF protein expression pattern and total circulating VEGF were examined using western blot and capture ELISA, respectively. Results Three major protein bands were predominately detected in tumour samples with an apparent molecular mass under reducing conditions of 18, 23 and 26 kDa. The 18 kDa VEGF protein was expressed equally in both normal and colorectal tumour tissues and predominately expressed in normal tissues of lung, whereas the 23 and 26 kDa protein was only detected at higher levels in tumour tissues. The 18, 23 and 26 kDa proteins are believed to represent the VEGF121, the VEGF165 and the VEGF189, respectively. There was a significant correlation of the expression of VEGF165 with a smaller tumour size maximum diameter 189 with advanced clinical stage of colorectal tumours. The measurement of total circulating VEGF in serum revealed that cancer patients significantly (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that the expression patterns of VEGF isoforms are altered during

  3. Alteration of protein expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from soluble to cell-associated isoform during tumourigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cressey, Ratchada; Wattananupong, Onusa; Lertprasertsuke, Nirush; Vinitketkumnuen, Usanee

    2005-01-01

    colorectal and 1,251 ± 568 pg/ml in lung) than a healthy volunteer group (543 ± 344 pg/ml). No correlation between the level of circulating VEGF and the pathologic features of tumours was observed. Our findings indicate that the expression patterns of VEGF isoforms are altered during tumourigenesis as certain isoform overexpression in tumour tissues correlated with tumour progression indicating their important role in tumour development. However, measurement of VEGF in the circulation as a prognostic marker needs to be carefully evaluated as the cell-associated isoform (VEGF 189 ), but not the soluble isoform (VEGF 121 and VEGF 165 ) appears to play important role in tumour progression

  4. No Escaping the Rat Race: Simulated Night Shift Work Alters the Time-of-Day Variation in BMAL1 Translational Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex

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    Andrea R. Marti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide work during the night, resulting in disturbed circadian rhythms and sleep loss. This may cause deficits in cognitive functions, impaired alertness and increased risk of errors and accidents. Disturbed circadian rhythmicity resulting from night shift work could impair brain function and cognition through disrupted synthesis of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal function. Recently, the circadian transcription factor brain-and-muscle arnt-like protein 1 (BMAL1 has been identified as a promoter of mRNA translation initiation, the most highly regulated step in protein synthesis, through binding to the mRNA “cap”. In this study we investigated the effects of simulated shift work on protein synthesis markers. Male rats (n = 40 were exposed to forced activity, either in their rest phase (simulated night shift work or in their active phase (simulated day shift work for 3 days. Following the third work shift, experimental animals and time-matched undisturbed controls were euthanized (rest work at ZT12; active work at ZT0. Tissue lysates from two brain regions (prefrontal cortex, PFC and hippocampus implicated in cognition and sleep loss, were analyzed with m7GTP (cap pull-down to examine time-of-day variation and effects of simulated shift work on cap-bound protein translation. The results show time-of-day variation of protein synthesis markers in PFC, with increased protein synthesis at ZT12. In the hippocampus there was little difference between ZT0 and ZT12. Active phase work did not induce statistically significant changes in protein synthesis markers at ZT0 compared to time-matched undisturbed controls. Rest work, however, resulted in distinct brain-region specific changes of protein synthesis markers compared to time-matched controls at ZT12. While no changes were observed in the hippocampus, phosphorylation of cap-bound BMAL1 and its regulator S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1 was significantly reduced in

  5. Explaining spatial patterns of sap flow: day-to-day shifts in relevance of site- and tree-specific controls

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    Hassler, Sibylle K.; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the hydrological cycle and a sound understanding and quantification of transpiration is essential for management decisions and for hydrological and climatological modelling. To assess transpiration at the tree scale sap flow velocity is commonly measured. Besides atmospheric conditions and soil moisture state, tree-specific characteristics such as species, size or social status control sap flow of individual trees. Within forest stands, properties such as species composition, basal area or stem number also affect sap flow via competition or facilitation mechanisms. Finally, sap flow patterns might also be influenced by landscape-scale characteristics such as geology, slope position or aspect because they affect water and energy availability; however, so far little is known about these larger-scale controls. We studied the relative importance of various tree- and site-specific characteristics with linear statistical models for daily sap velocity observations on 38 trees at 12 locations in mixed beech and oak forests in a catchment in Luxemburg. The temporal variation of the predictors' importance for sap velocity patterns was then related to hydro-meteorological conditions. Results indicate that a combination of tree- and site-specific controls influence sap velocity patterns, namely tree species, tree diameter, stand basal area, geology and aspect. The temporal dynamics of these controls are related to hydro-meteorological conditions, with tree-specific controls dominating when the atmospheric gradient is strong, i.e. the vapour pressure deficit is large, leading to higher sap velocities, whereas landscape-scale site characteristics are more important during weak atmospheric gradients. The importance of individual predictors also varies between spring and summer, probably due to different soil moisture and atmospheric conditions of the two periods. We conclude that both tree- and site-specific characteristics control sap velocity

  6. Anhedonic behavior in cryptochrome 2-deficient mice is paralleled by altered diurnal patterns of amygdala gene expression.

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    Savalli, Giorgia; Diao, Weifei; Berger, Stefanie; Ronovsky, Marianne; Partonen, Timo; Pollak, Daniela D

    2015-07-01

    Mood disorders are frequently paralleled by disturbances in circadian rhythm-related physiological and behavioral states and genetic variants of clock genes have been associated with depression. Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) is one of the core components of the molecular circadian machinery which has been linked to depression, both, in patients suffering from the disease and animal models of the disorder. Despite this circumstantial evidence, a direct causal relationship between Cry2 expression and depression has not been established. Here, a genetic mouse model of Cry2 deficiency (Cry2 (-/-) mice) was employed to test the direct relevance of Cry2 for depression-like behavior. Augmented anhedonic behavior in the sucrose preference test, without alterations in behavioral despair, was observed in Cry2 (-/-) mice. The novelty suppressed feeding paradigm revealed reduced hyponeophagia in Cry2 (-/-) mice compared to wild-type littermates. Given the importance of the amygdala in the regulation of emotion and their relevance for the pathophysiology of depression, potential alterations in diurnal patterns of basolateral amygdala gene expression in Cry2 (-/-) mice were investigated focusing on core clock genes and neurotrophic factor systems implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Differential expression of the clock gene Bhlhe40 and the neurotrophic factor Vegfb were found in the beginning of the active (dark) phase in Cry2 (-/-) compared to wild-type animals. Furthermore, amygdala tissue of Cry2 (-/-) mice contained lower levels of Bdnf-III. Collectively, these results indicate that Cry2 exerts a critical role in the control of depression-related emotional states and modulates the chronobiological gene expression profile in the mouse amygdala.

  7. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

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    Mark J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS, Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05 smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively. Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing

  8. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics

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    Kevin A. Valenzuela, Scott K. Lynn, Lisa R. Mikelson, Guillermo J. Noffal, Daniel A. Judelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m. On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern –forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS] x 2 (Group – PFFG, PRFG mixed model ANOVAs (p < 0.05 were run on speed, active peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF, peak early stance and mid stance sagittal ankle moments, sagittal plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW, dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg-1, and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°. There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg-1, peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°, and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32° as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait.

  9. More gain less pain: balance control learning shifts the activation patterns of leg and neck muscles and increases muscular parsimony.

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    Iodice, Pierpaolo; Cesinaro, Stefano; Romani, Gian Luca; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Athletes such as skaters or surfers maintain their balance on very unstable platforms. Remarkably, the most skilled athletes seem to execute these feats almost effortlessly. However, the dynamics that lead to the acquisition of a defined and efficient postural strategy are incompletely known. To understand the posture reorganization process due to learning and expertise, we trained twelve participants in a demanding balance/posture maintenance task for 4 months and measured their muscular activity before and after a (predictable) disturbance cued by an auditory signal. The balance training determined significant delays in the latency of participants' muscular activity: from largely anticipatory muscular activity (prior to training) to a mixed anticipatory-compensatory control strategy (after training). After training, the onset of activation was delayed for all muscles, and the sequence of activation systematically reflected the muscle position in the body from top to bottom: neck/upper body muscles were recruited first and in an anticipatory fashion, whereas leg muscles were recruited after the disturbance onset, producing compensatory adjustments. The resulting control strategy includes a mixture of anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments, with a systematic sequence of muscular activation reflecting the different demands of neck and leg muscles. Our results suggest that subjects learned the precise timing of the disturbance onset and used this information to deploy postural adjustments just-in-time and to transfer at least part of the control of posture from anticipatory to less-demanding feedback-based strategies. In turn, this strategy shift increases the cost-efficiency of muscular activity, which is a key signature of skilled performance.

  10. Hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with temozolomide chemotherapy may alter the patterns of failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Krishna; Chen, Changhu; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report the patterns of failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated on a phase II trial of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (hypo-IMRT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Patients with newly diagnosed GBM post-resection received postoperative hypo-IMRT to 60Gy in 10 fractions. TMZ was given concurrently at 75mg/m 2 /day for 28 consecutive days and adjuvantly at 150–200mg/m 2 /day for 5 days every 28 days. Radiographic failure was defined as any new T1-enhancing lesion or biopsy-confirmed progressive enhancement at the primary site. MRIs obtained at the time of failure were fused to original hypo-IMRT plans. Central, in-field, marginal and distant failure were defined as ≥95%, 80% to 95%, any to 80% and 0% of the volume of a recurrence receiving 60Gy, respectively. Twenty-four patients were treated on the trial. Median follow-up was 14.8 months (range 2.7–34.2). Seventeen of 24 patients experienced radiographic failure: one central, five in-field, two marginal, eight distant and one both in-field and distant. Two of the eight distant failures presented with leptomeningeal disease. Two other patients died without evidence of radiographic recurrence. Five of 24 patients demonstrated asymptomatic, gradually progressive in-field T1 enhancement, suggestive of post-treatment changes, without clear evidence of failure; three of these patients received a biopsy/second resection, with 100% radiation necrosis found. The median overall survival of this group was 33.0 months. A 60-Gy hypo-IMRT treatment delivered in 6-Gy fractions with TMZ altered the patterns of failure in GBM, with more distant failures.

  11. Elm leaves 'warned' by insect egg deposition reduce survival of hatching larvae by a shift in their quantitative leaf metabolite pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austel, Nadine; Eilers, Elisabeth J; Meiners, Torsten; Hilker, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Plants may take insect eggs on their leaves as a warning of future herbivory and intensify their defence against feeding larvae. Responsible agents are, however, largely unknown, and little knowledge is available on this phenomenon in perennial plants. We investigated how egg deposition affects the anti-herbivore defence of elm against the multivoltine elm leaf beetle. Prior egg deposition caused changes in the quality of feeding-damaged leaves that resulted in increased larval mortality and reduced reproductive capacity of the herbivore by harming especially female larvae. Chemical analyses of primary and secondary leaf metabolites in feeding-damaged, egg-free (F) and feeding-damaged, egg-deposited (EF)-leaves revealed only small differences in concentrations when comparing metabolites singly. However, a pattern-focused analysis showed clearly separable patterns of (F) and (EF)-leaves because of concentration differences in especially nitrogen and phenolics, of which robinin was consumed in greater amounts by larvae on (EF) than on (F)-leaves. Our study shows that insect egg deposition mediates a shift in the quantitative nutritional pattern of feeding-damaged leaves, and thus might limit the herbivore's population growth by reducing the number of especially female herbivores. This may be a strategy that pays off in a long run particularly in perennial plants against multivoltine herbivores. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Critical windows in embryonic development: Shifting incubation temperatures alter heart rate and oxygen consumption of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eme, J; Mueller, C A; Manzon, R G; Somers, C M; Boreham, D R; Wilson, J Y

    2015-01-01

    Critical windows are periods of developmental susceptibility when the phenotype of an embryonic, juvenile or adult animal may be vulnerable to environmental fluctuations. Temperature has pervasive effects on poikilotherm physiology, and embryos are especially vulnerable to temperature shifts. To identify critical windows, we incubated whitefish embryos at control temperatures of 2°C, 5°C, or 8°C, and shifted treatments among temperatures at the end of gastrulation or organogenesis. Heart rate (fH) and oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ) were measured across embryonic development, and [Formula: see text] was measured in 1-day old hatchlings. Thermal shifts, up or down, from initial incubation temperatures caused persistent changes in fH and [Formula: see text] compared to control embryos measured at the same temperature (2°C, 5°C, or 8°C). Most prominently, when embryos were measured at organogenesis, shifting incubation temperature after gastrulation significantly lowered [Formula: see text] or fH. Incubation at 2°C or 5°C through gastrulation significantly lowered [Formula: see text] (42% decrease) and fH (20% decrease) at 8°C, incubation at 2°C significantly lowered [Formula: see text] (40% decrease) and fH (30% decrease) at 5°C, and incubation at 5°C and 8°C significantly lowered [Formula: see text] at 2°C (27% decrease). Through the latter half of development, [Formula: see text] and fH in embryos were not different from control values for thermally shifted treatments. However, in hatchlings measured at 2°C, [Formula: see text] was higher in groups incubated at 5°C or 8°C through organogenesis, compared to 2°C controls (43 or 65% increase, respectively). Collectively, these data suggest that embryonic development through organogenesis represents a critical window of embryonic and hatchling phenotypic plasticity. This study presents an experimental design that identified thermally sensitive periods for fish embryos. Crown Copyright

  14. An epidemiologic review of enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana: shifting patterns of resistance in an HIV endemic region.

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    Jack S Rowe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of diarrheal disease in Botswana, an HIV endemic region, is largely unknown. Our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana. Secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood cells for predicting bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens.A retrospective cross-sectional study examined laboratory records of stool specimens analyzed by the Botswana National Health Laboratory in Gaborone, Botswana from February 2003 through July 2008. In 4485 specimens the median subject age was 23 [interquartile range 1.6-34] years. Overall, 14.4% (644 of 4485 of samples yielded a pathogen. Bacteria alone were isolated in 8.2% (367 of 4485, parasites alone in 5.6% (253 of 4485 and both in 0.5% (24 of 4485 of samples. The most common bacterial pathogens were Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp., isolated from 4.0% (180 of 4485 and 3.9% (175 of 4485 of specimens, respectively. Escherichia coli (22 of 4485 and Campylobacter spp. (22 of 4485 each accounted for 0.5% of pathogens. Comparing antimicrobial resistance among Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. between two periods, February 2003 to February 2004 and July 2006 to July 2008, revealed an increase in ampicillin resistance among Shigella spp. from 43% to 83% (p<0.001. Among Salmonella spp., resistance to chloramphenicol decreased from 56% to 6% (p<0.001. The absence of stool white and red blood cells correlated with a high specificity and negative predictive value.Most gastroenteritis stools were culture and microscopy negative suggesting that viral pathogens were the majority etiologic agents in this Botswana cohort. Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. were the most common bacteria; Isospora spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most common parasites. Resistance to commonly used antimicrobials is high and should be closely monitored.

  15. Shifting tides in the emigration patterns of Canadian physicians to the United States: a cross-sectional secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas R; Petterson, Stephen; Finnegan, Sean; Bazemore, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources. This analysis was undertaken to re-examine the issue of Canadian physician migration to the US. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 2015 American Medical Association (AMA) Masterfile to identify and locate any graduates of Canadian schools of medicine (CMGs) working in the United States in direct patient care. We reviewed annual reports of the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS); the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry (CAPER); and the Canadian Collaborative Centre for Physician Resources (C3PR). Beginning in the early 1990s the number of CMGs locating in the U.S. reached an all-time high and then abruptly dropped off in 1995. CMGs are going to the US for post-graduate training in smaller numbers and, are less likely to remain than at any time since the 1970's. This four decade retrospective found considerable variation in the migration pattern of CMGs to the US. CMGs' decision to emigrate to the U.S. may be influenced by both 'push' and 'pull' factors. The relative strength of these factors changed and by 2004, more CMGs were returning from abroad than were leaving and the current outflow is negligible. This study supports the need for medical human resource planning to assume a long-term view taking into account national and international trends to avoid the rapid changes that were observed. These results are of importance to medical

  16. The altered ecology of Lake Christina: A record of regime shifts, land-use change, and management from a temperate shallow lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theissen, Kevin M.; Hobbs, William O.; Hobbs, Joy M. Ramstack; Zimmer, Kyle D.; Domine, Leah M.; Cotner, James B.; Sugita, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    We collected two sediment cores and modern submerged aquatic plants and phytoplankton from two sub-basins of Lake Christina, a large shallow lake in west-central Minnesota, and used stable isotopic and elemental proxies from sedimentary organic matter to explore questions about the pre- and post-settlement ecology of the lake. The two morphologically distinct sub-basins vary in their sensitivities to internal and external perturbations offering different paleoecological information. The record from the shallower and much larger western sub-basin reflects its strong response to internal processes, while the smaller and deeper eastern sub-basin record primarily reflects external processes including important post-settlement land-use changes in the area. A significant increase in organic carbon accumulation (3–4 times pre-settlement rates) and long-term trends in δ 13 C, organic carbon to nitrogen ratios (C/N), and biogenic silica concentrations shows that primary production has increased and the lake has become increasingly phytoplankton-dominated in the post-settlement period. Significant shifts in δ 15 N values reflect land-clearing and agricultural practices in the region and support the idea that nutrient inputs have played an important role in triggering changes in the trophic status of the lake. Our examination of hydroclimatic data for the region over the last century suggests that natural forcings on lake ecology have diminished in their importance as human management of the lake increased in the mid-1900s. In the last 50 years, three chemical biomanipulations have temporarily shifted the lake from the turbid, algal-dominated condition into a desired clear water regime. Two of our proxies (δ 13 C and BSi) measured from the higher resolution eastern basin record responded significantly to these known regime shifts. -- Highlights: ► We explore the sediment geochemistry from Lake Christina's two distinct sub-basins. ► Our geochemical data show

  17. Specific genes involved in synthesis and editing of heparan sulfate proteoglycans show altered expression patterns in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Vega Iván

    2013-01-01

    heparanase 2, which displays anti-metastatic features, experienced a strong deregulation in all patients analyzed. Conclusions IDCs show alterations in the expression of HSPG genes; principally the expression and localization of proteoglycans and the sulfation patterns of glycosaminoglycan chains, depending on the metastatic nature of the tumor. In addition, the anti-proliferative molecule heparanase 2 experiences strong deregulation, thus highlighting it as a potentially interesting diagnostic factor.

  18. Trunk neuromuscular pattern alterations during a controlled functional task in a low back injured group deemed ready to resume regular activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl; Moreside, Janice M; Quirk, D Adam

    2014-01-01

    Trunk neuromuscular alterations have been found in those with chronic low back pain, but less well studied are whether responses are altered in those deemed recovered following an injury. Furthermore, coordinated trunk muscle responses are deemed important for normal spinal function, but there are no studies of temporal patterns early after a low back injury. Determining whether altered trunk muscle patterns exist early after injury could improve our understanding of recovery by providing an objective assessment of functional recovery and risk of re-injury. To determine if amplitude and temporal characteristics of trunk neuromuscular patterns differ during a dynamic functional task in a group of participants with recent (within 12 weeks) low back injury (LBI), but deemed ready to resume normal activities, when compared to those with no similar history of injury (ASYM). 35 participants in each group (17 females) were matched for age and body mass index (BMI); (ASYM 36 yrs, BMI 26, LBI 39 yrs, BMI 27). Participants performed a controlled lifting task (2.9 kg) in a standing maximum reach position, which altered frontal and sagittal plane moments of force. Electromyographic activity of 24 trunk muscle sites, as well as thoracic and pelvis position via an electromagnetic sensor was collected. Principal component analyses extracted the temporal and amplitude waveform patterns. Mixed model ANOVAs tested for effects (plow pain scores, the temporal and amplitude muscle activation patterns were altered in this LBI group indicating that differences exist compared to a non-low back injured group. The differences are not just relative amplitude differences among muscles but include differences in the temporal response to the flexion moment.

  19. Imprinting alterations in sperm may not significantly influence ART outcomes and imprinting patterns in the cord blood of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Liu, Zichao; Zhang, Ruopeng; Su, Cunmei; Yang, Wenjuan; Yao, Youlin; Zhao, Shuhua

    2017-01-01

    An increase in imprinting disorders in children conceived though assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) has been the subject of several reports. The transmission of imprinting errors from the sperm of infertile fathers is believed to be a possible reason for the increased occurrence of these disorders. However, whether the imprinting alterations in sperm affect ART outcomes and the imprinting of offspring is unclear. In the current study, we analyzed the methylation of H19, SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1 by pyrosequencing sperm samples from 97 infertile patients and 31 proven fertile males as well as cord blood samples from 13 infantswho were conceived by infertile parents through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 30 healthy newborns who were conceived naturally. After four cases were excluded owing to the lack of a sequencing signal, the infertile patients were subgrouped into normal (69 cases) and abnormal (24 cases) imprinting groups according to the reference range set by the control group. Between the groups, there were no significant differences in ART outcomes. Significantly different levels of methylation were detected in H19, but none of the imprinted genes were determined to be outside of the methylation reference range set by the values derived from the naturally conceived controls. Three CpG loci were found to be significantly hypomethylated in the maternally imprinted gene KCNQ1OT1 in two patients from the abnormal imprinting group, none of which were caused by sperm imprinting errors. In addition, the paternal H19 gene exhibited discrepant methylation patterns between the sperm controls and the cord blood controls. Our data suggest that increased imprinting errors in the sperm of infertile patients do not have an obvious influence on ART outcomes or the imprinting of offspring.

  20. Obese Mice Fed a Diet Supplemented with Enzyme-Treated Wheat Bran Display Marked Shifts in the Liver Metabolome Concurrent with Altered Gut Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Piccolo, Brian D; Marco, Maria L; Kim, Eun Bae; Goodson, Michael L; Keenan, Michael J; Dunn, Tamara N; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Adams, Sean H; Martin, Roy J

    2016-12-01

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) contains a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides (TGs) and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding affects hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., xenometabolites) associated with specific microbes may be involved. The objective of this study was to characterize ETWB-driven shifts in the cecal microbiome and to identify correlates between microbial changes and diet-related differences in liver metabolism in diet-induced obese mice that typically display steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a 45%-lard-based fat diet supplemented with ETWB (20% wt:wt) or rapidly digestible starch (control) (n = 15/group) for 10 wk were characterized by using a multi-omics approach. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify variables that were strong discriminators between the ETWB and control groups. Body weight and liver TGs were decreased by ETWB feeding (by 10% and 25%, respectively; P liver reactive oxygen species was increased (by 29%; P liver antioxidants (glutathione and α-tocopherol); decreased liver carbohydrate metabolites, including glucose; lower hepatic arachidonic acid; and increased liver and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate. Liver transcriptomics revealed key metabolic pathways affected by ETWB, especially those related to lipid metabolism and some fed- or fasting-regulated genes. Together, these changes indicate that dietary fibers such as ETWB regulate hepatic metabolism concurrently with specific gut bacteria community shifts in C57BL/6J mice. It is proposed that these changes may elicit gut-derived signals that reach the liver via enterohepatic circulation, ultimately affecting host liver metabolism in a manner that mimics, in part, the fasting state. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Shift Work, Jet Lag, and Female Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Mahoney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms and “clock gene” expression are involved in successful reproductive cycles, mating, and pregnancy. Alterations or disruptions of biological rhythms, as commonly occurs in shift work, jet lag, sleep deprivation, or clock gene knock out models, are linked to significant disruptions in reproductive function. These impairments include altered hormonal secretion patterns, reduced conception rates, increased miscarriage rates and an increased risk of breast cancer. Female health may be particularly susceptible to the impact of desynchronizing work schedules as perturbed hormonal rhythms can further influence the expression patterns of clock genes. Estrogen modifies clock gene expression in the uterus, ovaries, and suprachiasmatic nucleus, the site of the primary circadian clock mechanism. Further work investigating clock genes, light exposure, ovarian hormones, and reproductive function will be critical for indentifying how these factors interact to impact health and susceptibility to disease.

  2. EEG oscillatory patterns are associated with error prediction during music performance and are altered in musician's dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María Herrojo; Strübing, Felix; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2011-04-15

    Skilled performance requires the ability to monitor ongoing behavior, detect errors in advance and modify the performance accordingly. The acquisition of fast predictive mechanisms might be possible due to the extensive training characterizing expertise performance. Recent EEG studies on piano performance reported a negative event-related potential (ERP) triggered in the ACC 70 ms before performance errors (pitch errors due to incorrect keypress). This ERP component, termed pre-error related negativity (pre-ERN), was assumed to reflect processes of error detection in advance. However, some questions remained to be addressed: (i) Does the electrophysiological marker prior to errors reflect an error signal itself or is it related instead to the implementation of control mechanisms? (ii) Does the posterior frontomedial cortex (pFMC, including ACC) interact with other brain regions to implement control adjustments following motor prediction of an upcoming error? (iii) Can we gain insight into the electrophysiological correlates of error prediction and control by assessing the local neuronal synchronization and phase interaction among neuronal populations? (iv) Finally, are error detection and control mechanisms defective in pianists with musician's dystonia (MD), a focal task-specific dystonia resulting from dysfunction of the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal circuits? Consequently, we investigated the EEG oscillatory and phase synchronization correlates of error detection and control during piano performances in healthy pianists and in a group of pianists with MD. In healthy pianists, the main outcomes were increased pre-error theta and beta band oscillations over the pFMC and 13-15 Hz phase synchronization, between the pFMC and the right lateral prefrontal cortex, which predicted corrective mechanisms. In MD patients, the pattern of phase synchronization appeared in a different frequency band (6-8 Hz) and correlated with the severity of the disorder. The present

  3. Invasive mussels alter the littoral food web of a large lake: stable isotopes reveal drastic shifts in sources and flow of energy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Ozersky

    Full Text Available We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of archival (predreissenid and recent (postdreissenid samples of all common benthic taxa. This approach enabled us to determine the importance of benthic and sestonic carbon to the littoral food web before, and more than a decade after dreissenid establishment. Long term dreissenid presence was associated with a 32-fold increase in abundance, 6-fold increase in biomass, and 14-fold increase in secondary production of the littoral benthos. Dreissenids comprised a large portion of the post-invasion benthos, making up 13, 38, and 56% of total abundance, biomass, and secondary production, respectively. The predreissenid food web was supported primarily by benthic primary production, while sestonic material was relatively more important to the postdreissenid food web. The absolute importance of both sestonic material and benthic primary production to the littoral benthos increased considerably following dreissenid establishment. Our results show drastic alterations to food web structure and suggest that dreissenid mussels redirect energy and material from the water column to the littoral benthos both through biodeposition of sestonic material as well as stimulation of benthic primary production.

  4. CHRONIC DIETARY EXPOSURE WITH INTERMITTENT SPIKE DOSES OF CHLORPYRIFOS FAILS TO ALTER FLASH OR PATTERN REVERSAL EVOKED POTENTIALS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to pesticides is often characterized by chronic low level exposure with intermittent spiked higher exposures. Visual disturbances are often reported following exposure to xenobiotics, and cholinesterase-inhibiting compounds have been reported to alter visual functi...

  5. Effect of restricted feeding schedule on seasonal shifting of daily demand-feeding pattern and food anticipatory activity in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaydi, M; Rubio, V C; López, F J Martínez; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Zamora, S; Madrid, J A

    2007-01-01

    The effect of restricted feeding schedule was investigated on the seasonal shifting of daily demand-feeding pattern and food anticipatory activity in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) held under natural environmental conditions in an outdoor laboratory. To that end, demand-feeding behavior was continuously monitored for approximately one year in four groups of 15 fish each exposed to natural fluctuations of water temperature (from 13.2 degrees C to 27.4 degrees C) and photophase (from 9.5 h to 14.5 h of light). When the animals were subjected to a time-restricted feeding schedule, the demand-feeding rhythm rapidly synchronized to the three periods of food availability: the first meal (FM) from 08:00 to 09:00 h, the second meal (SM) from 16:00 to 17:00 h, and the third meal (TM) from 00:00 to 01:00 h. The occurrence of demand-feeding activity into the three periods of food availability displayed a double seasonal shift: fish that self-fed mostly during the daytime periods of feeding availability (FM and SM) in summer and autumn changed to nocturnal feeding (TM) from December to April, returning to diurnal preferences in April. Food-demands appeared to be predominantly associated with feed availability, reaching its maximum levels during the hours of reward. In addition, feeding anticipatory activity (FAA) was observed. A relationship was detected between the duration of FAA and feeding-time, with shortest FAA (30-60 min) when mealtime occurred just after sunrise (FM) or sunset (TM). These findings demonstrate the ability of sea bass to self-feed under time-restricted schedules, and show a seasonal-phase inversion in demand-feeding activity in spite of the restrictions in their feeding availability. Sea bass can use external signals as reference to anticipate the time of feed availability. This information may be useful for designing new feeding strategies for European sea bass fish farming.

  6. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  7. Altered precipitation patterns and simulated nitrogen deposition effects on phenology of common plant species in a Tibetan Plateau alpine meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive effects of five seasonal precipitation distribution patterns and two levels of N deposition (ambient and doubled) on phenological traits of six dominant plant species were studied in an alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau for two consecutive years. Seasonal precipitation patterns i...

  8. MicroRNA alterations and associated aberrant DNA methylation patterns across multiple sample types in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman; Gao, Shan; Hulf, Toby

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is broadly altered in cancer, but few studies have investigated miRNA deregulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of >30 miRNA genes in a range of tissues, and we aimed to investigate this further in OSCC....

  9. Altered Patterns of Reward Activation in a Large Cohort of Antipsychotic Naïve First Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    not have been caught by the focused analyses. By using a multivariate approach we want to confirm previous findings in a smaller group of patients, and further we expect this method to reveal other important alterations in reward processing. METHODS 53 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients...

  10. Visual sensitivities tuned by heterochronic shifts in opsin gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarland William N

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cichlid fishes have radiated into hundreds of species in the Great Lakes of Africa. Brightly colored males display on leks and vie to be chosen by females as mates. Strong discrimination by females causes differential male mating success, rapid evolution of male color patterns and, possibly, speciation. In addition to differences in color pattern, Lake Malawi cichlids also show some of the largest known shifts in visual sensitivity among closely related species. These shifts result from modulated expression of seven cone opsin genes. However, the mechanisms for this modulated expression are unknown. Results In this work, we ask whether these differences might result from changes in developmental patterning of cone opsin genes. To test this, we compared the developmental pattern of cone opsin gene expression of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, with that of several cichlid species from Lake Malawi. In tilapia, quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that opsin gene expression changes dynamically from a larval gene set through a juvenile set to a final adult set. In contrast, Lake Malawi species showed one of two developmental patterns. In some species, the expressed gene set changes slowly, either retaining the larval pattern or progressing only from larval to juvenile gene sets (neoteny. In the other species, the same genes are expressed in both larvae and adults but correspond to the tilapia adult genes (direct development. Conclusion Differences in visual sensitivities among species of Lake Malawi cichlids arise through heterochronic shifts relative to the ontogenetic pattern of the tilapia outgroup. Heterochrony has previously been shown to be a powerful mechanism for change in morphological evolution. We found that altering developmental expression patterns is also an important mechanism for altering sensory systems. These resulting sensory shifts will have major impacts on visual communication and could help

  11. Secondhand tobacco smoke, arterial stiffness, and altered circadian blood pressure patterns are associated with lung inflammation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Nicole J; Weber, Lynn P

    2012-02-01

    Chronic smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease that are known to adversely alter the structural and mechanical properties of arteries. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of subchronic secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on circadian blood pressure patterns, arterial stiffness, and possible sources of oxidative stress in conscious, unsedated radiotelemetry-implanted rats. Pulse wave change in pressure over time (dP/dt) was used an indicator of arterial stiffness and was compared with both structural (wall thickness) and functional (nitric oxide production and bioactivity and endothelin-1 levels) features of the arterial wall. In addition, histology of lung, heart, and liver was examined as well as pulmonary and hepatic detoxifying enzyme activity (cytochrome P450, specifically CYP1A1). Subchronic secondhand tobacco smoke exposure altered the circadian pattern of heart rate and blood pressure, with a loss in the normal dipping pattern of blood pressure during sleep. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure also increased pulse wave dP/dt in the absence of any structural modifications in the arterial wall. Furthermore, although nitric oxide production and endothelin-1 levels were not altered by secondhand tobacco smoke, there was increased inactivation of nitric oxide as indicated by peroxynitrite production. Increased lung neutrophils or pulmonary CYP1A1 may be responsible for the increase in oxidative stress in rats exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. In turn, this may be related to the observed failure of blood pressure to dip during periods of sleep and a possible increase in arterial stiffness.

  12. Alterations of functional connectivities from early to middle adulthood: Clues from multivariate pattern analysis of resting-state fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixia; Ma, Lin; Wang, Linlin

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to extended research interests in the maturation and aging of human brain, alterations of brain structure and function from early to middle adulthood have been much less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent and pattern of the alterations of functional interactions between brain regions from early to middle adulthood. We carried out the study by multivariate pattern analysis of resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) data of 63 adults aged 18 to 45 years. Specifically, using elastic net, we performed brain age estimation and age-group classification (young adults aged 18-28 years vs. middle-aged adults aged 35-45 years) based on the resting-state functional connectivities (RSFCs) between 160 regions of interest (ROIs) evaluated on the RS-fMRI data of each subject. The results indicate that the estimated brain ages were significantly correlated with the chronological age (R=0.78, MAE=4.81), and a classification rate of 94.44% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.99 were obtained when classifying the young and middle-aged adults. These results provide strong evidence that functional interactions between brain regions undergo notable alterations from early to middle adulthood. By analyzing the RSFCs that contribute to brain age estimation/age-group classification, we found that a majority of the RSFCs were inter-network, and we speculate that inter-network RSFCs might mature late but age early as compared to intra-network ones. In addition, the strengthening/weakening of the RSFCs associated with the left/right hemispheric ROIs, the weakening of cortico-cerebellar RSFCs and the strengthening of the RSFCs between the default mode network and other networks contributed much to both brain age estimation and age-group classification. All these alterations might reflect that aging of brain function is already in progress in middle adulthood. Overall, the present study indicated that the RSFCs undergo notable

  13. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

    2014-04-01

    Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology.

  14. Cloning and expression pattern of dog SDF-1 and the implications of altered expression of SDF-1 in ischemic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying-jie; Tang, Yi; Li, Jun; Cui, Chuan-jue; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Xiao-ling; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Sheng-shou

    2007-10-01

    Stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) plays a pivotal role in the mobilization and homing of stem cells, indicative of its potential in myocardial regeneration after heart damage. The use of large animal models in cardiac surgery research plays an essential role in the translation of results from basic studies into clinical trials. Considering the aforesaid two reasons, for the first time, we cloned dog SDF-1 cDNA and characterized the constitutive expression pattern of SDF-1 gene in normal dog tissues and the dynamic expression pattern in a dog model of myocardial infarction (MI) by means of ELISA test, real-time RT-PCR, and Western blotting. In a dog model of MI, We also examined and compared the differentially expressed pattern of SDF-1 between infarct area and border zone of myocardium in order to explore the implication of differentially distribution of SDF-1 in the mobilization and homing of stem cells to the damaged heart. Our results provide insights into expression pattern and pathophysiologic significance of dog SDF-1 in normal and heart-damaged dogs.

  15. Origin of convex tetrads in rare earth element patterns of hydrothermally altered siliceous igneous rocks from the Zinnwald Sn W deposit, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, T.; Dulski, P.; Kempe, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of whole rock samples from evolved granitic systems hosting rare metal deposits sometimes show a split into four consecutive curved segments, referred to as tetrads. In the present contribution, a rigorous statistical method is proposed that can be used to test whether geological significance should be attributed to tetrads that are only of limited size. The method involves a detailed evaluation of element and sample specific random and systematic errors that are constrained on the basis of independent repeated preparations and analyses of sample and reference materials. Application of the proposed method to samples from the granite-hosted Zinnwald Sn-W deposit, Germany, revealed that at least two tetrads in normalized whole rock REE patterns have to be analytically significant to rule out that fractional crystallization led to the unusual behavior of the REEs. Based on the analysis of altered albite granite and greisen samples from the endocontact of the Zinnwald granite massif, it is demonstrated that the lanthanide tetrad effect is responsible for the formation of the convex tetrads. Geological and petrological evidence suggests that the tetrads in the samples developed prior to greisenization and related cassiterite precipitation. In contrast to the endocontact samples, the rhyolitic wall rocks are typified by normalized REE patterns having tetrads that are variable in size and frequently close to the limit of analytical significance. The sizes of the tetrads apparently correlate with the intensity of albitization, but show no relation to subsequent alteration processes including greisenization and low-temperature argillization. This observation proves that curved segments in normalized whole rock REE patterns can be introduced during hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction.

  16. Use of clay-mineral alteration patterns to define syntectonic permeability of joints (cleat) in Pennsylvania anthracite coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, E. J.; Marshak, S.; Altaner, S. P.

    1996-10-01

    Joints (cleat) in Pennsylvania anthracite contain two distinct clay-mineral assemblages, both of which formed by alteration of preexisting kaolinite at peak metamorphic conditions during the Alleghanian orogeny. The first assemblage, NH 4-illite or pyrophyllite ± quartz, formed by reaction of kaolinite with methane-rich fluids derived from within the coal. The second assemblage, sudoite ± tosudite ± rectorite ± berthierine, formed by the reaction of kaolinite with ferromagnesian-bearing hydrothermal fluids which must have come from outside the coal. In an earlier paper, we suggested that the first assemblage indicated clay diagenesis in low-permeability environments, and that the second assemblage indicated clay diagenesis in high-permeability environments. If this premise is correct, then the distribution of clay-mineral alteration assemblages serves to define syntectonic permeability variations in coal cleat. The first assemblage dominates in the coal matrix itself, in isolated cleat, in cleat that parallel the regional trend of Alleghanian folds, and in the mirror portions of cleat oriented perpendicular to the fold trends, suggesting that these regions are low-permeability environments. The second assemblage dominates in the hackle fringe of interconnected cleat that trend perpendicular to the strike of the Appalachian orogen, suggesting that these regions are high-permeability environments. Our results emphasize that syntectonic cleat permeability is a function of cleat orientation, macroscopic cleat interconnectivity and orientation, as well as microscopic cleat-surface morphology.

  17. Belowground carbon allocation by trees drives seasonal patterns of extracellular enzyme activities by altering microbial community composition in a beech forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Koranda, Marianne; Kitzler, Barbara; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Schnecker, Jörg; Schweiger, Peter; Rasche, Frank; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sessitsch, Angela; Richter, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    *Plant seasonal cycles alter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability for soil microbes, which may affect microbial community composition and thus feed back on microbial decomposition of soil organic material and plant N availability. The temporal dynamics of these plant-soil interactions are, however, unclear. *Here, we experimentally manipulated the C and N availability in a beech forest through N fertilization or tree girdling and conducted a detailed analysis of the seasonal pattern of microbial community composition and decomposition processes over 2 yr. *We found a strong relationship between microbial community composition and enzyme activities over the seasonal course. Phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities were highest during late summer, whereas cellulase and protease peaked in late autumn. Girdling, and thus loss of mycorrhiza, resulted in an increase in soil organic matter-degrading enzymes and a decrease in cellulase and protease activity. *Temporal changes in enzyme activities suggest a switch of the main substrate for decomposition between summer (soil organic matter) and autumn (plant litter). Our results indicate that ectomycorrhizal fungi are possibly involved in autumn cellulase and protease activity. Our study shows that, through belowground C allocation, trees significantly alter soil microbial communities, which may affect seasonal patterns of decomposition processes.

  18. 24 Hours chronomics of ambulatory blood pressure and its relation with circadian rhythm of 6-sulfatoxy melatonin in night shift health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    B. Anjum; Narsingh Verma; Sandeep Tiwari; Abbas A Mahdi; Ranjana Singh; Qulsoom Naaz; Saumya Mishra; Prerna Singh; Suman Gautam; Shipra Bhardwaj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Night shift workers have altered circadian pattern of blood pressure/heart rate and hormones like melatonin and cortisol. Due to this variation, night shift worker suffers from various cardiovascular disorders and hormonal disturbances. Methods: The Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of rotating night shift on 24 hours chronomics of BP/HR and its relation with 6-sulfatoxy melatonin levels. 62 healthy nursing professionals, aged 20-40 year, performing day and ni...

  19. Altered sensorimotor activation patterns in idiopathic dystonia-an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian Numelin

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements or postures. Functional neuroimaging studies have yielded abnormal task-related sensorimotor activation in dystonia, but the results appear to be rather variable across studies....... Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia-related alterations in task-related activity...... postcentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and dorsal midbrain. Apart from the midbrain cluster, all between-group differences in task-related activity were retrieved in a sub-analysis including only the 14 studies on patients with focal dystonia. For focal dystonia, an additional cluster of increased...

  20. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... real-world resource use into a game....

  1. Cold acclimation alters DNA methylation patterns and confers tolerance to heat and increases growth rate in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongkun; Li, Ying; Duan, Weike; Huang, Feiyi; Hou, Xilin

    2017-02-01

    Epigenetic modifications are implicated in plant adaptations to abiotic stresses. Exposure of plants to one stress can induce resistance to other stresses, a process termed cross-adaptation, which is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to unravel the epigenetic basis of elevated heat-tolerance in cold-acclimated Brassica rapa by conducting a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of leaves from control (CK) and cold-acclimated (CA) plants. We found that both methylation and demethylation occurred during cold acclimation. Two significantly altered pathways, malate dehydrogenase activity and carbon fixation, and 1562 differentially methylated genes, including BramMDH1, BraKAT2, BraSHM4, and Bra4CL2, were identified in CA plants. Genetic validation and treatment of B. rapa with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (Aza) suggested that promoter demethylation of four candidate genes increased their transcriptional activities. Physiological analysis suggested that elevated heat-tolerance and high growth rate were closely related to increases in organic acids and photosynthesis, respectively. Functional analyses demonstrated that the candidate gene BramMDH1 (mMDH: mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase) directly enhances organic acids and photosynthesis to increase heat-tolerance and growth rate in Arabidopsis. However, Aza-treated B. rapa, which also has elevated BramMDH1 levels, did not exhibit enhanced heat-tolerance. We therefore suggest that DNA demethylation alone is not sufficient to increase heat-tolerance. This study demonstrates that altered DNA methylation contributes to cross-adaptation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Saguna; Ziegler, Katja; Ananthula, Praveen; Co, Juliene K.G.; Frisque, Richard J.; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R.

    2006-01-01

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML

  3. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  4. Modification of the endogenous NO level influences apple embryos dormancy by alterations of nitrated and biotinylated protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Ciacka, Katarzyna; Orzechowski, Sławomir; Fettke, Joerg; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    NO donors and Arg remove dormancy of apple embryos and stimulate germination. Compounds lowering NO level (cPTIO, L -NAME, CAN) strengthen dormancy. Embryo transition from dormancy state to germination is linked to increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like activity. Germination of embryos is associated with declined level of biotin containing proteins and nitrated proteins in soluble protein fraction of root axis. Pattern of nitrated proteins suggest that storage proteins are putative targets of nitration. Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a key regulatory factor in removal of seed dormancy and is a signal necessary for seed transition from dormant state into germination. Modulation of NO concentration in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos by NO fumigation, treatment with NO donor (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine, SNAP), application of 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), N ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), canavanine (CAN) or arginine (Arg) allowed us to investigate the NO impact on seed dormancy status. Arg analogs and NO scavenger strengthened embryo dormancy by lowering reactive nitrogen species level in embryonic axes. This effect was accompanied by strong inhibition of NOS-like activity, without significant influence on tissue NO2 (-) concentration. Germination sensu stricto of apple embryos initiated by dormancy breakage via short term NO treatment or Arg supplementation were linked to a reduced level of biotinylated proteins in root axis. Decrease of total soluble nitrated proteins was observed at the termination of germination sensu stricto. Also modulation of NO tissue status leads to modification in nitrated protein pattern. Among protein bands that correspond to molecular mass of approximately 95 kDa, storage proteins (legumin A-like and seed biotin-containing protein) were identified, and can be considered as good markers for seed dormancy status. Moreover, pattern of nitrated proteins suggest that

  5. Altered Feeding Patterns in Rats Exposed to a Palatable Cafeteria Diet: Increased Snacking and Its Implications for Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Sarah I.; Holmes, Nathan; Westbrook, R. Fred; Morris, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. Methods Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow) for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. Results Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. Conclusions Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain. PMID:23565243

  6. Comorbid ADHD is associated with altered patterns of neuronal activation in adolescents with bipolar disorder performing a simple attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Caleb M; Delbello, Melissa P; Mills, Neil P; Schmithorst, Vince; Holland, Scott; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2005-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is increasingly recognized as a significant source of psychiatric morbidity in children and adolescents. Younger bipolar patients symptomatically differ from adults, and frequently present with comorbid disorders, particularly attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurophysiological relationship between these two disorders, however, remains unclear. In this study we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare activation patterns during performance of a simple attention task between bipolar adolescents with and without ADHD. Eleven bipolar adolescents with comorbid ADHD and 15 bipolar adolescents without comorbidity were recruited to participate in fMRI scans. A single-digit continuous performance task alternated with a control task in a block-design paradigm. between-group comparisons were made using voxel-by-voxel analysis. Follow-up correlations were made between performance and activation. Group performance did not significantly differ in percentage correct (p = 0.36) or discriminability (p = 0.11). ADHD comorbidity was associated with less activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann 10) and anterior cingulate, and greater activation in posterior parietal cortex and middle temporal gyrus. Comorbid ADHD was associated with substantial differences in patterns of correlation between performance and voxel-by-voxel activation. Our findings suggest that comorbid ADHD in bipolar adolescents is associated with activation of alternative pathways during performance of a simple attention task. The pattern of differences suggests that bipolar adolescents with comorbid ADHD demonstrate decreased activation of prefrontal regions, compared with bipolar adolescents without ADHD, and preferentially recruit portions of posterior parietal and temporal cortex.

  7. Alterations of blood flow pattern after triple stent endovascular treatment of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm: a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jahir Richard DE; Aquino, Maurício DE Amorim; Barros, Svetlana; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto

    2016-01-01

    to determine the blood flow pattern changes after endovascular treatment of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm with triple stent. we conducted a hemodynamic study of seven Landrace and Large White pigs with saccular aneurysms of the infrarenal abdominal aorta artificially produced according to the technique described. The animals were subjected to triple stenting for endovascular aneurysm. We evaluated the pattern of blood flow by duplex scan before and after stent implantation. We used the non-paired Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis. there was a significant decrease in the average systolic velocity, from 127.4cm/s in the pre-stent period to 69.81cm/s in the post-stent phase. There was also change in the flow pattern from turbulent in the aneurysmal sac to laminate intra-stent. there were changes in the blood flow pattern of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm after endovascular treatment with triple stent. determinar as alterações do padrão do fluxo sanguíneo após tratamento endovascular do aneurisma sacular de aorta abdominal com triplo stent. estudo hemodinâmico de sete suínos das raças Landrace e Large White portadores de aneurismas saculares de aorta abdominal infrarrenal artificialmente produzidos segundo técnica descrita. Os animais foram submetidos a implante de triplo stent para correção endovascular do aneurisma e reavaliados por duplex scan quanto ao padrão do fluxo sanguíneo antes e após o implante dos stents. A análise estatística foi realizada com o teste Mann-Whitney não pareado. verificou-se uma queda significativa da velocidade sistólica média de 127,4cm/s na fase pré-stent para 69,81cm/s na fase pós-stent. Houve ainda mudança no padrão do fluxo de turbilhonar no saco aneurismático para laminar intrastent. o estudo demonstrou alterações do padrão do fluxo sanguíneo do aneurisma sacular de aorta abdominal após tratamento endovascular com triplo stent.

  8. Estudo comparativo de padrões de sono em trabalhadores de enfermagem dos turnos diurno e noturno Comparative study of sleep patterns in nurses working day and night shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milva Maria Figueiredo de Martino

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar os padrões de sono de enfermeiros dos turnos diurno e noturno em um hospital de Campinas (SP, Brasil. Métodos. Participaram 59 enfermeiros entre 23 e 59 anos. Para os enfermeiros do dia, analisou-se o sono noturno, e, para os da noite, os sonos diurno e noturno. Os informantes preencheram um diário do sono durante 1 semana, ao acordar. Foram analisados hora de ir deitar, de dormir, e de acordar; latência do sono; horas de sono noturno e diurno; cochilos; qualidade do sono; modo de acordar; e comparação do sono registrado no diário com o sono habitual. Também foram coletadas informações pessoais e profissionais. Resultados. O grupo diurno ia dormir às 23h36min e o grupo noturno, às 23h52min (P Objective. To compare sleep patterns in nurses working day and night shifts in a hospital in Campinas (SP, Brazil. Methods. Fifty-nine nurses between 23 and 59 years of age participated in the study. For day shift workers, the pattern of nocturnal sleep was examined; for night shift workers, nocturnal and diurnal sleep patterns were examined. During 1 week, participants filled out a sleep diary right after waking up. The following items were assessed: time going to bed, falling asleep, and waking up; sleep latency; duration in hours of nocturnal and diurnal sleep; naps; quality of sleep; mode of waking up; and comparison between the sleep recorded in the diary with the usual sleep. Personal and professional information was also collected. Results. Day shift workers went to bed at 23h36min, and night workers at 23h52min (P > 0.05. The nurses working a day schedule woke up earlier (7h3min than those working a night schedule when they slept at night (8h30min (P <= 0.004, Wilcoxon. Mean sleep latency was 23min26s for day shift nurses versus 22min50s for night shift nurses; the duration of nocturnal sleep was 7h11min and 9h6min, respectively. Only day workers took naps (mean 2h3min. The average diurnal sleep of night shift nurses

  9. mRNA expression patterns for GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II during altered feeding status in rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayson, Felix G; de Jesus-Ayson, Evelyn Grace T; Takemura, Akihiro

    2007-01-15

    Feeding time is a major synchronizer of many physiological rhythms in many organisms. Alteration in the nutritional status, specifically fasting, also affects the secretion rhythms of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In this study, we investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of GH, prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver of juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) follow a rhythm according to feeding time and whether these hormone rhythms changes with starvation. Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. The daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of GH, PRL and SL was not altered whether food was given in the morning (10:00 h) or in the afternoon (15:00 h). The daily GH mRNA expression pattern, however, was affected when food was not available for 3 days. In contrast, the daily expression pattern for IGF-I mRNA reaches its peak at roughly 5-6h after feeding. This pattern, however, was not observed with IGF-II mRNA. During 15-day starvation, GH mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly higher than the control fish starting on the 9th day of starvation until day 15. The levels returned to normal after re-feeding. In contrast to GH, PRL mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly lower than the control group starting on the 6th day of starvation until 3 days after re-feeding. SL mRNA levels were not significantly different between the control and starved group at anytime during the experiment. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in starved group were significantly higher than the control fish on the 3rd and 6th day of starvation. mRNA levels of both IGF-I and II in the starved fish decreased starting on the 9th day of starvation. While IGF-I mRNA levels in the starved group continued to decrease as starvation progressed, IGF-II mRNA levels were not significantly different from the control during the rest of the

  10. Biennial pattern of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Netherlands and a shifting age distribution following a low rotavirus season, 2010-2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, J.D.M.; Pijnacker, R.; Bruijning-Verhagen, P.; Franz, E.; Vennema, H.; Hooiveld, M.; Hahné, S.J.M.; Melker, H.E. de

    2017-01-01

    A hyper-endemic rotavirus season was expected after a low-endemic 2014 season in the Netherlands. Rotavirus detections were however similar in 2015 and lower in 2016 compared with 2010-2013. Gastroenteritis consultations rates were also similar in 2015, but the age-distribution shifted to older

  11. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor C increases growth and alters the metastatic pattern of orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väänänen H Kalervo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant sites but the roles of lymphatic and hematogenous pathways in metastasis are not fully understood. Methods We studied the roles of VEGF-C and VEGFR3 in prostate cancer metastasis by blocking VEGFR3 using intravenous adenovirus-delivered VEGFR3-Ig fusion protein (VEGFR3-Ig and by ectopic expression of VEGF-C in PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice. Results VEGFR3-Ig decreased the density of lymphatic capillaries in orthotopic PC-3 tumors (p p p p Conclusion The data suggest that even though VEGF-C/VEGFR3 pathway is primarily required for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, an increased level of VEGF-C can also stimulate angiogenesis, which is associated with growth of orthotopic prostate tumors and a switch from a primary pattern of lymph node metastasis to an increased proportion of metastases at distant sites.

  12. Larval Fish Swimming Behavior Alters Dispersal Patterns From Marine Protected Areas in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Faillettaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most demersal fishes undergo a dispersal phase as larvae, which strongly influences the connectivity among adult populations and, consequently, their genetic structure and replenishment opportunities. Because this phase is difficult to observe directly, it is frequently simulated through numerical models, most of which consider larvae as passive or only vertically migrating. However, in several locations, including the Mediterranean Sea, many species have been shown to swim fast and orient. Here we use a Lagrangian model to study connectivity patterns among three Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas (MPAs and compare simulations in which virtual larvae are passive to simulations in which oriented swimming is implemented. The parameterization of behavior is based on observations for two groups of species of the family Sparidae: species with small larvae (i.e., 9–11 mm, displaying a maximum swimming speed of 6 cm s−1 and a pelagic larval duration of 13–19 days (e.g., Diplodus annularis L., Oblada melanura L. and species with large larvae (i.e., 14–16 mm, displaying a maximum swimming speed of 10 cm s−1 and a PLD of 28–38 days (e.g., Spondyliosoma cantharus L.. Including larval behavior in the model (i increased the overall proportion of successful settlers, (ii enhanced self-recruitment within the MPAs, but also (iii increased the intensity, and (iv widened the export of eggs and larvae (recruitment subsidy from the MPAs; overall, it significantly changed connectivity patterns. These results highlight the need to gather the observational data that are required to correctly parameterize connectivity models.

  13. Alteration of consciousness via diverse photo-acoustic stimulatory patterns. Phenomenology and effect on salivary flow rate, alpha-amylase and total protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Anita; Fábián, Gábor; Fejérdy, Pál; Krause, Wolf-Rainer; Hermann, Péter; Módos, Károly; Varga, Gábor; Fábián, Tibor Károly

    2015-12-01

    Long-term photo-acoustic stimulation is used for the induction of altered states of consciousness for both therapeutic and experimental purposes. Long-term photo-acoustic stimulation also leads to changes in the composition of saliva which have a key contribution to the efficiency of this technique in easing mucosal symptoms of oral psychosomatic patients. The aim of this study is to find out whether there is any cumulative effect of repeated stimulation and whether there are any detectable differences between diverse stimulatory patterns of long lasting photo-acoustic stimulation on the phenomenology of the appearing trance state and on salivary secretion. There was significant cumulative effect in relation with the appearance of day dreaming as phenomenological parameter, and in relation with protein output and amylase/protein ratio as salivary parameter. Pattern specific effect was detectable in relation with salivary flow rate only. Although our results clearly indicate the existence of certain cumulative and stimulation-pattern specific effects of repeated photo-acoustic stimulation, the absolute values of all these effects were relatively small in this study. Therefore, in spite of their theoretical importance there are no direct clinical consequences of these findings. However, our data do not exclude at all the possibility that repeated stimulation with other stimulatory parameters may lead to more pronounced effects. Further studies are needed to make clear conclusion in this respect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prolonged mechanical ventilation alters the expression pattern of angio-neogenetic factors in a pre-clinical rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian S Bruells

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life saving intervention for patients with respiratory failure. Even after 6 hours of MV, diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction (collectively referred to as ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, VIDD occurs in concert with a blunted blood flow and oxygen delivery. The regulation of hypoxia sensitive factors (i.e. hypoxia inducible factor 1α, 2α (HIF-1α,-2α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and angio-neogenetic factors (angiopoietin 1-3, Ang might contribute to reactive and compensatory alterations in diaphragm muscle. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 8 were ventilated for 24 hours or directly sacrificed (n = 8, diaphragm and mixed gastrocnemius muscle tissue was removed. Quantitative real time PCR and western blot analyses were performed to detect changes in angio-neogenetic factors and inflammatory markers. Tissues were stained using Isolectin (IB 4 to determine capillarity and calculate the capillary/fiber ratio. RESULTS: MV resulted in up-regulation of Ang 2 and HIF-1α mRNA in both diaphragm and gastrocnemius, while VEGF mRNA was down-regulated in both tissues. HIF-2α mRNA was reduced in both tissues, while GLUT 4 mRNA was increased in gastrocnemius and reduced in diaphragm samples. Protein levels of VEGF, HIF-1α, -2α and 4 did not change significantly. Additionally, inflammatory cytokine mRNA (Interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF α were elevated in diaphragm tissue. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that 24 hrs of MV and the associated limb disuse induce an up-regulation of angio-neogenetic factors that are connected to HIF-1α. Changes in HIF-1α expression may be due to several interactions occurring during MV.

  15. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  16. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the mouse alters cardiac growth patterns and increases pulse pressure in aged male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during development can result in later cardiovascular and renal disease in sheep and rats. Although prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with impaired renal development, less is known about effects on the developing heart. This study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term exposure to dexamethasone (60 hours from embryonic day 12.5 on the developing mouse heart, and cardiovascular function in adult male offspring. Dexamethasone (DEX exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to saline treated controls (SAL at E14.5, but there was no difference between groups at E17.5. Heart weights of the DEX fetuses also tended to be smaller at E14.5, but not different at E17.5. Cardiac AT1aR, Bax, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by DEX compared to SAL at E17.5. In 12-month-old offspring DEX exposure caused an increase in basal blood pressure of ~3 mmHg. In addition, DEX exposed mice had a widened pulse pressure compared to SAL. DEX exposed males at 12 months had an approximate 25% reduction in nephron number compared to SAL, but no difference in cardiomyocyte number. Exposure to DEX in utero appears to adversely impact on nephrogenesis and heart growth but is not associated with a cardiomyocyte deficit in male mice in adulthood, possibly due to compensatory growth of the myocardium following the initial insult. However, the widened pulse pressure may be indicative of altered vascular compliance.

  17. Thermal maturity patterns in the Ordovician and Devonian of Pennsylvania using conodont color alteration index (CAI) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetski, J.E.; Ryder, R.T.; Harper, J.A.; Trippi, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This new series of maps enhances previous thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  18. Alterations in cyclic alternating pattern associated with phase advanced sleep are differentially modulated by gaboxadol and zolpidem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetnik, Vladimir; Ferri, Raffaele; Ray, Shubhankar; Ma, Junshui; Walsh, James K; Snyder, Ellen; Ebert, Bjarke; Deacon, Steve

    2010-11-01

    to evaluate cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in a phase advance model of transient insomnia and the effects of gaboxadol and zolpidem. a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in which habitual sleep time was advanced by 4 h. 6 sleep research laboratories in US PARTICIPANTS: 55 healthy subjects (18-57 y) Gaboxadol 15 mg (GBX), zolpidem 10 mg (ZOL), and placebo (PBO). routine polysomnographic (PSG) measures, CAP, spectral power density, and self-reported sleep measures The phase advance model of transient insomnia produced significant changes in CAP parameters. Both GBX and ZOL significantly and differentially modified CAP parameters in the direction of more stable sleep. GBX brought the CAP rate in stage 1 sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) closer to baseline levels but did not significantly change the CAP rate in stage 2. ZOL reduced the CAP rate in stage 2 to near baseline levels, whereas the CAP rate in stage 1 and SWS was reduced substantially below baseline levels. The CAP parameter A1 index (associated with SWS and sleep continuity) showed the highest correlation with self-reported sleep quality, higher than any traditional PSG, spectral, or other self-reported measures. disruptions in CAP produced by phase advanced sleep were significantly and differentially modulated by gaboxadol and zolpidem. The relative independence of CAP parameters from other electrophysiological measures of sleep, their high sensitivity to sleep disruption, and their strong association with subjective sleep quality suggest that CAP variables may serve as valuable endpoints in future insomnia research.

  19. Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Derrick K; Mitchell, Shaylyn B; Barrett, Jacqueline S; Shepherd, Sue J; Irving, Peter M; Biesiekierski, Jessica R; Smith, Stuart; Gibson, Peter R; Muir, Jane G

    2010-08-01

    Reduction of short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (FODMAPs) in the diet reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In the present study, we aimed to compare the patterns of breath hydrogen and methane and symptoms produced in response to diets that differed only in FODMAP content. Fifteen healthy subjects and 15 with IBS (Rome III criteria) undertook a single-blind, crossover intervention trial involving consuming provided diets that were either low (9 g/day) or high (50 g/day) in FODMAPs for 2 days. Food and gastrointestinal symptom diaries were kept and breath samples collected hourly over 14 h on day 2 of each diet. Higher levels of breath hydrogen were produced over the entire day with the high FODMAP diet for healthy volunteers (181 +/- 77 ppm.14 h vs 43 +/- 18; mean +/- SD P intestine that is greater in IBS, influence the amount of methane produced, and induce gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms experienced by patients with IBS. The results offer mechanisms underlying the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet in IBS.

  20. The rate and pattern of urea infusion into the rumen of wethers alters nitrogen balance and plasma ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recavarren, M I; Milano, G D

    2014-12-01

    Changes in N balance, urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD), urea, creatinine and ammonia and plasma ammonia, glucose, urea, insulin and IGF-1 were examined in four wethers (37 ± 2.6 kg BW). The animals were fitted with permanent ruminal catheters, fed lucerne hay (9.4 MJ/day; 23 g N/day; 7 g soluble N/day, 6 equal meals/day) and treated with contrasting rates of urea infusion into the rumen: first, a continuous infusion (CT), at 3.2 mg urea-N/min for 10 days and then a discontinuous infusion (DT) at 156 mg urea-N/min for 4 min; in 6 daily doses with the meals for 7 days. N balance was calculated from pooled samples of faeces and urine. Jugular blood samples were collected before and 1.5 h after the morning meal (M1) on days CT10, DT2, DT4 and DT6. N retention decreased during DT (p = 0.01) due to a significant increase of N excretion in urine (4 g/day; p = 0.009) and faeces (1 g/day; p = 0.02). Dry matter (p excretion were not altered by treatment. Significant linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.001) effects were observed for plasma ammonia in M1 (from 170 CT10 to 235 μm DT2 and returned to 120 μm DT6). No changes were observed in plasma glucose, urea, insulin and IGF-1. Results indicate that changes from CT to DT reduced N retention in sheep due to enhanced urinary N excretion, but it was not associated with changes in urinary urea or PD excretion; or plasma concentrations of insulin and IGF-1. As the dry matter (DM) an N digestibility could account a 0.23 of the decrease in N retention; the largest fraction of the reduction in N retention remained unexplained by the results. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Patterns of dioxin-altered mRNA expression in livers of dioxin-sensitive versus dioxin-resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franc, Monique A. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON (Canada); Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Department of Pharmacogenomics, 1000 Route 202 South, P.O. Box 300, Raritan, NJ (United States); Moffat, Ivy D.; Boutros, Paul C.; Okey, Allan B. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Tuomisto, Jouko [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, Centre for Environmental Health Risk Analysis, Kuopio (Finland); Pohjanvirta, Raimo [University of Helsinki, Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Dioxins exert their major toxicologic effects by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and altering gene transcription. Numerous dioxin-responsive genes previously were identified both by conventional biochemical and molecular techniques and by recent mRNA expression microarray studies. However, of the large set of dioxin-responsive genes the specific genes whose dysregulation leads to death remain unknown. To identify specific genes that may be involved in dioxin lethality we compared changes in liver mRNA levels following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in three strains/lines of dioxin-sensitive rats with changes in three dioxin-resistant rat strains/lines. The three dioxin-resistant strains/lines all harbor a large deletion in the transactivation domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Despite this deletion, many genes exhibited a ''Type-I'' response - that is, their responses were similar in dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rats. Several genes that previously were well established as being dioxin-responsive or under AHR regulation emerged as Type-I responses (e.g. CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and Gsta3). In contrast, a relatively small number of genes exhibited a Type-II response - defined as a difference in responsiveness between dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rat strains. Type-II genes include: malic enzyme 1, ubiquitin C, cathepsin L, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and ferritin light chain 1. In silico searches revealed that AH response elements are conserved in the 5'-flanking regions of several genes that respond to TCDD in both the Type-I and Type-II categories. The vast majority of changes in mRNA levels in response to 100 {mu}g/kg TCDD were strain-specific; over 75% of the dioxin-responsive clones were affected in only one of the six strains/lines. Selected genes were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in dose-response and time-course experiments and responses of some genes were

  2. 4D cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity mapping of alterations of right heart flow patterns and main pulmonary artery hemodynamics in tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess changes in right heart flow and pulmonary artery hemodynamics in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) we used whole heart, four dimensional (4D) velocity mapping (VM) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods CMR studies were performed in 11 subjects with rTOF (5M/6F; 20.1 ± 12.4 years) and 10 normal volunteers (6M/4F; 34.2 ± 13.4 years) on clinical 1.5T and 3.0T MR scanners. 4D VM-CMR was performed using PC VIPR (Phase Contrast Vastly undersampled Isotropic Projection Reconstruction). Interactive streamline and particle trace visualizations of the superior and inferior vena cava (IVC and SVC, respectively), right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and pulmonary artery (PA) were generated and reviewed by three experienced readers. Main PA net flow, retrograde flow, peak flow, time-to-peak flow, peak acceleration, resistance index and mean wall shear stress were quantified. Differences in flow patterns between the two groups were tested using Fisher's exact test. Differences in quantitative parameters were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Results 4D VM-CMR was successfully performed in all volunteers and subjects with TOF. Right heart flow patterns in rTOF subjects were characterized by (a) greater SVC/IVC flow during diastole than systole, (b) increased vortical flow patterns in the RA and in the RV during diastole, and (c) increased helical or vortical flow features in the PA's. Differences in main PA retrograde flow, resistance index, peak flow, time-to-peak flow, peak acceleration and mean wall shear stress were statistically significant. Conclusions Whole heart 4D VM-CMR with PC VIPR enables detection of both normal and abnormal right heart flow patterns, which may allow for comprehensive studies to evaluate interdependencies of post-surgically altered geometries and hemodynamics. PMID:22313680

  3. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  4. Soil moisture response to experimentally altered snowmelt timing is mediated by soil, vegetation, and regional climate patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Lafe G; Gill, Richard A.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture in seasonally snow-covered environments fluctuates seasonally between wet and dry states. Climate warming is advancing the onset of spring snowmelt and may lengthen the summer-dry state and ultimately cause drier soil conditions. The magnitude of either response may vary across elevation and vegetation types. We situated our study at the lower boundary of persistent snow cover and the upper boundary of subalpine forest with paired treatment blocks in aspen forest and open meadow. In treatments plots, we advanced snowmelt timing by an average of 14 days by adding dust to the snow surface during spring melt. We specifically wanted to know whether early snowmelt would increase the duration of the summer-dry period and cause soils to be drier in the early-snowmelt treatments compared with control plots. We found no difference in the onset of the summer-dry state and no significant differences in soil moisture between treatments. To better understand the reasons soil moisture did not respond to early snowmelt as expected, we examined the mediating influences of soil organic matter, texture, temperature, and the presence or absence of forest. In our study, late-spring precipitation may have moderated the effects of early snowmelt on soil moisture. We conclude that landscape characteristics, including soil, vegetation, and regional weather patterns, may supersede the effects of snowmelt timing in determining growing season soil moisture, and efforts to anticipate the impacts of climate change on seasonally snow-covered ecosystems should take into account these mediating factors. 

  5. Gait Pattern Alterations during Walking, Texting and Walking and Texting during Cognitively Distractive Tasks while Negotiating Common Pedestrian Obstacles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Licence

    Full Text Available Mobile phone texting is a common daily occurrence with a paucity of research examining corresponding gait characteristics. To date, most studies have participants walk in a straight line vs. overcoming barriers and obstacles that occur during regular walking. The aim of our study is to examine the effect of mobile phone texting during periods of cognitive distraction while walking and negotiating barriers synonymous with pedestrian traffic.Thirty participants (18-50 y completed three randomized, counter-balanced walking tasks over a course during: (1 normal walking (control, (2 texting and walking, and (3 texting and walking whilst being cognitively distraction via a standard mathematical test performed while negotiating the obstacle course. We analyzed gait characteristics during course negotiation using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system and a general linear model and Dunnet-Hsu post-hoc procedure the normal walking condition to assess gait characteristic differences. Primary outcomes included the overall time to complete the course time and barrier contact. Secondary outcomes included obstacle clearance height, step frequency, step time, double support phase and lateral deviation.Participants took significantly longer (mean ± SD to complete the course while texting (24.96 ± 4.20 sec and during cognitive distraction COG (24.09 ± 3.36 sec vs. normal walking (19.32 ± 2.28 sec; all, P<0.001. No significant differences were noted for barrier contacts (P = 0.28. Step frequency, step time, double support phase and lateral deviation all increased in duration during the texting and cognitive distraction trial. Texting and being cognitively distracted also increased obstacle clearance versus the walking condition (all, P<0.02.Texting while walking and/or being cognitively distracted significantly affect gait characteristics concordant to mobile phone usage resulting in a more cautious gate pattern. Future research should also examine a similar

  6. Altered glycosylation pattern allows the distinction between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from normal and tumor origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracaula, Rosa; Tabarés, Glòria; Royle, Louise; Harvey, David J; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M; de Llorens, Rafael

    2003-06-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein secreted by prostate epithelial cells. PSA is currently used as a marker of prostate carcinoma because high levels of PSA are indicative of a tumor situation. However, PSA tests still suffer from a lack of specificity to distinguish between benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. To determine whether PSA glycosylation could provide a means of differentiating between PSA from normal and tumor origins, N-glycan characterization of PSA from seminal fluid and prostate cancer cells (LNCaP cell line) by sequencing analysis and mass spectrometry was carried out. Glycans from normal PSA (that correspond to low and high pI PSA fractions) were sialylated biantennary complex structures, half of them being disialylated in the low pI PSA fraction and mostly monosialylated in the high pI PSA. PSA from LNCaP cells was purified to homogeneity, and its glycan analysis showed a significantly different pattern, especially in the outer ends of the biantennary complex structures. In contrast to normal PSA glycans, which were sialylated, LNCaP PSA oligosaccharides were all neutral and contained a higher fucose content. In 10-15% of the structures fucose was linked alpha1-2 to galactose, forming the H2 epitope absent in normal PSA. GalNAc was increased in LNCaP glycans to 65%, whereas in normal PSA it was only present in 25% of the structures. These carbohydrate differences allow a distinction to be made between PSA from normal and tumor origins and suggest a valuable biochemical tool for diagnosis and follow-up purposes.

  7. Shifting Blame?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garofalo, Orsola; Rott, Christina

    2017-01-01

    either the decision maker or a spokesperson communicates the decided allocation to recipients, who then determine whether to punish either of them. We find that receivers punish both the decision maker and the spokesperson more often, and more heavily, for unfair allocations communicated...... by the spokesperson if there is room for shifting blame. The increased punishment results from the messenger’s style of delivery: spokespersons are more likely than decision makers to express emotional regret instead of rational need. Receivers seem to punish the former style of communication because they view...

  8. Disturbed dreaming and the instability of sleep: altered nonrapid eye movement sleep microstructure in individuals with frequent nightmares as revealed by the cyclic alternating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Péter; Bódizs, Róbert; Horváth, Klára; Ferri, Raffaele

    2013-03-01

    Nightmares are disturbing mental experiences during sleep that usually result in abrupt awakenings. Frequent nightmares are associated with poor subjective sleep quality, and recent polysomnographic data suggest that nightmare sufferers exhibit impaired sleep continuity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Because disrupted sleep might be related to abnormal arousal processes, the goal of this study was to examine polysomnographic arousal-related activities in a group of nightmare sufferers and a healthy control group. Sleep microstructure analysis was carried out by scoring the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in NREM sleep and the arousal index in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on the second night of the polysomnographic examination. Hospital-based sleep research laboratory. There were 17 in the nightmare (NMs) group and 23 in the healthy control (CTLs) group. N/A. The NMs group exhibited reduced amounts of CAP A1 subtype and increased CAP A2 and A3 subtypes, as well as longer duration of CAP A phases in comparison with CTLs. Moreover, these differences remained significant after controlling for the confounding factors of anxious and depressive symptoms. The absolute number and frequency of REM arousals did not differ significantly between the two groups. The results of our study indicate that NREM sleep microstructure is altered during nonsymptomatic nights of nightmares. Disrupted sleep in the NMs group seems to be related to abnormal arousal processes, specifically an imbalance in sleep-promoting and arousing mechanisms during sleep. Simor P; Bódizs R; Horváth K; Ferri R. Disturbed dreaming and the instability of sleep: altered nonrapid eye movement sleep microstructure in individuals with frequent nightmares as revealed by the cyclic alternating pattern. SLEEP 2013;36(3):413-419.

  9. When cold is better: climate-driven elevation shifts yield complex patterns of diversification and demography in an alpine specialist (American pika, Ochotona princeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbreath, Kurt E; Hafner, David J; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2009-11-01

    The genetic consequences of climate-driven range fluctuation during the Pleistocene have been well studied for temperate species, but cold-adapted (e.g., alpine, arctic) species that may have responded uniquely to past climatic events have received less attention. In particular, we have no a priori expectation for long-term evolutionary consequences of elevation shifts into and out of sky islands by species adapted to alpine habitats. Here, we examined the influence of elevation shifts on genetic differentiation and historical demography in an alpine specialist, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). Pika populations are divided into five genetic lineages that evolved in association with separate mountain systems, rather than lineages that reflect individual sky islands. This suggests a role for glacial-period elevation shifts in promoting gene flow among high-elevation populations and maintaining regional cohesion of genetic lineages. We detected a signature of recent demographic decline in all lineages, consistent with the expectation that Holocene climate warming has driven range retraction in southern lineages, but unexpected for northern populations that presumably represent postglacial expansion. An ecological niche model of past and future pika distributions highlights the influence of climate on species range and indicates that the distribution of genetic diversity may change dramatically with continued climate warming.

  10. Exposure to predicted precipitation patterns decreases population size and alters community structure of cyanobacteria in biological soil crusts from the Chihuahuan Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vanessa M C; Machado de Lima, Náthali Maria; Roush, Daniel; Rudgers, Jennifer; Collins, Scott L; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    Cyanobacteria typically colonize the surface of arid soils, building biological soil crust (biocrusts) that provide a variety of ecosystem benefits, ranging from fertilization to stabilization against erosion. We investigated how future scenarios in precipitation anticipated for the Northern Chihuahuan Desert affected abundance and composition of biocrust cyanobacteria in two grassland ecosystems. Scenarios included a decrease in precipitation and a delay of monsoon rainfall. After three years, both treatments negatively affected cyanobacteria, although the effects of monsoon delay were milder than those of decreased precipitation. Mature biocrusts in black grama grassland suffered severe losses in cyanobacterial biomass and diversity, but compositionally simpler biocrusts in blue grama-dominated grassland maintained biomass, only suffering diversity losses. This could be partially explained by the differential sensitivity of cyanobacterial taxa: nitrogen-fixing Scytonema spp. were the most sensitive, followed by phylotypes in the Microcoleus steenstrupii complex. Microcoleus vaginatus was the least affected in all cases, but is known to be very sensitive to warming. We predict that altered precipitation will tend to prevent biocrusts from reaching successional maturity, selecting for M. vaginatus over competing M. steenstrupii, among pioneer biocrust-formers. A shift towards heat-sensitive M. vaginatus could ultimately destabilize biocrusts when precipitation changes are combined with global warming. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Metabolic impact of shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Fernandes Junior, Silvio A; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, shift work represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies have shown that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, shift work has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of many metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dislipidemias and metabolic syndrome. Recent data have pointed that decrease of the sleep time, desynchronization of circadian rhythm and alteration of environmental aspects are the main factors related to such problems. Shortened or disturbed sleep is among the most common health-related effects of shift work. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. The present review will discuss the impact of shift work on obesity and metabolic disorders and how disruption of sleep and circadian misalignment may contribute to these metabolic dysfunctions.

  12. Polyphenol-rich extract of Vernonia amygdalina (del. leaves ameliorated cadmium-induced alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume of male Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eseigbe Imafidon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effects of polyphenol-rich extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA on the feeding pattern of rats that were exposed to cadmium (Cd toxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats, weighing 160-180 g, were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each as follows; Group 1 received distilled water orally (0.2 ml/100 g, daily, throughout the period of study. Group 2 received Cd alone (in the form of CdSO4 at 5 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 5 consecutive days. Group 3 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter left untreated for a period of 4-week. After the oral lethal dose of PEVA was determined, Groups 4, 5, and 6 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 after which they received graded doses of PEVA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (0.2 ml/100 g, respectively via oral route for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for some plasma biochemical assays while urine samples were collected using metabolic cages. Results: PEVA administration significantly increased (P < 0.05 the body weight and feeding patterns that were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 by Cd toxicity. PEVA also significantly reinstated the plasma antioxidant status, as well as glucose and urine volume of the rats toward control values (P < 0.05. Conclusion: PEVA can be an herbal alternative in the treatment or management of subjects manifesting alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume that is Cd-induced. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 284-292

  13. Common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume alteration in major depression and bipolar disorder: evidence from voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, T; Radua, J; Via, E; Cardoner, N; Abe, O; Adams, T M; Amico, F; Cheng, Y; Cole, J H; de Azevedo Marques Périco, C; Dickstein, D P; Farrow, T F D; Frodl, T; Wagner, G; Gotlib, I H; Gruber, O; Ham, B J; Job, D E; Kempton, M J; Kim, M J; Koolschijn, P C M P; Malhi, G S; Mataix-Cols, D; McIntosh, A M; Nugent, A C; O'Brien, J T; Pezzoli, S; Phillips, M L; Sachdev, P S; Salvadore, G; Selvaraj, S; Stanfield, A C; Thomas, A J; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J A; Veltman, D J; Young, A H; Fu, C H; Cleare, A J; Arnone, D

    2017-10-01

    Finding robust brain substrates of mood disorders is an important target for research. The degree to which major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with common and/or distinct patterns of volumetric changes is nevertheless unclear. Furthermore, the extant literature is heterogeneous with respect to the nature of these changes. We report a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in MDD and BD. We identified studies published up to January 2015 that compared grey matter in MDD (50 data sets including 4101 individuals) and BD (36 data sets including 2407 individuals) using whole-brain VBM. We used statistical maps from the studies included where available and reported peak coordinates otherwise. Group comparisons and conjunction analyses identified regions in which the disorders showed common and distinct patterns of volumetric alteration. Both disorders were associated with lower grey-matter volume relative to healthy individuals in a number of areas. Conjunction analysis showed smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral insula. Group comparisons indicated that findings of smaller grey-matter volumes relative to controls in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus, along with cerebellar, temporal and parietal regions were more substantial in major depression. These results suggest that MDD and BD are characterised by both common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume changes. This combination of differences and similarities has the potential to inform the development of diagnostic biomarkers for these conditions.

  14. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  15. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  16. Probiotic Bacteria Alter Pattern-Recognition Receptor Expression and Cytokine Profile in a Human Macrophage Model Challenged with Candida albicans and Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Matsubara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer benefits to the host health. The infection rate of potentially pathogenic organisms such as Candida albicans, the most common agent associated with mucosal candidiasis, can be reduced by probiotics. However, the mechanisms by which the probiotics interfere with the immune system are largely unknown. We evaluated the effect of probiotic bacteria on C. albicans challenged human macrophages. Macrophages were pretreated with lactobacilli alone (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR32, Lactobacillus casei L324m, or Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM or associated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, followed by the challenge with C. albicans or LPS in a co-culture assay. The expression of pattern-recognition receptors genes (CLE7A, TLR2, and TLR4 was determined by RT-qPCR, and dectin-1 reduced levels were confirmed by flow cytometry. The cytokine profile was determined by ELISA using the macrophage cell supernatant. Overall probiotic lactobacilli down-regulated the transcription of CLEC7A (p < 0.05, resulting in the decreased expression of dectin-1 on probiotic pretreated macrophages. The tested Lactobacillus species down-regulated TLR4, and increased TLR2 mRNA levels in macrophages challenged with C. albicans. The cytokines profile of macrophages challenged with C. albicans or LPS were altered by the probiotics, which generally led to increased levels of IL-10 and IL-1β, and reduction of IL-12 production by macrophages (p < 0.05. Our data suggest that probiotic lactobacilli impair the recognition of PAMPs by macrophages, and alter the production of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus modulating inflammation.

  17. Introduction of the human AVPR1A gene substantially alters brain receptor expression patterns and enhances aspects of social behavior in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda Charles

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A modulates a wide range of behaviors, including stress management and territorial aggression, as well as social bonding and recognition. Inter- and intra-species variations in the expression pattern of AVPR1A in the brain and downstream differential behavioral phenotypes have been attributed to differences in the non-coding regions of the AVPR1A gene, including polymorphic elements within upstream regulatory areas. Gene association studies have suggested a link between AVPR1A polymorphisms and autism, and AVPR1A has emerged as a potential pharmacological target for treatment of social cognitive impairments and mood and anxiety disorders. To further investigate the genetic mechanism giving rise to species differences in AVPR1A expression patterns and associated social behaviors, and to create a preclinical mouse model useful for screening drugs targeting AVPR1A, we engineered and extensively characterized bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mice harboring the entire human AVPR1A locus with the surrounding regulatory elements. Compared with wild-type animals, the humanized mice displayed a more widely distributed ligand-AVPR1A binding pattern, which overlapped with that of primates. Furthermore, humanized AVPR1A mice displayed increased reciprocal social interactions compared with wild-type animals, but no differences in social approach and preference for social novelty were observed. Aspects of learning and memory, specifically novel object recognition and spatial relocation recognition, were unaffected. The biological alterations in humanized AVPR1A mice resulted in the rescue of the prepulse inhibition impairments that were observed in knockout mice, indicating conserved functionality. Although further behavioral paradigms and additional cohorts need to be examined in humanized AVPR1A mice, the results demonstrate that species-specific variations in the genomic content of regulatory

  18. Image-Guided Analyses Reveal that Non-CD4 Splenocytes Contribute to CD4+ T Cell–Mediated Inflammation Leading to Islet Destruction by Altering Their Local Function and Not Systemic Trafficking Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Heon Lee

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment of CD4+ T cells into islets is a critical component of islet inflammation (insulitis leading to type 1 diabetes; therefore, determining if conditions used to treat diabetes change their trafficking patterns is relevant to the outcome. Cotransfer of CD4+BDC2.5 (BDC cells with non-CD4 splenocytes obtained from newly diabetic NOD mice, but not when they are transferred alone, induces accelerated diabetes. It is unclear whether these splenocytes affect diabetes development by altering the systemic and/or local trafficking and proliferation patterns of BDC cells in target and nontarget tissues. To address these questions, we developed an animal model to visualize BDC cell trafficking and proliferation using whole-body in vivo bioluminescence imaging and used the images to direct tissue sampling for further analyses of the cell distribution within tissues. The whole-body, or macroscopic, trafficking patterns were not dramatically altered in both groups of recipient mice. However, the local patterns of cell distribution were distinct, which led to invasive insulitis only in cotransferred mice with an increased number of islet-infiltrating CD11b+ and CD11c+ cells. Taken together, the non-CD4 splenocytes act locally by promoting invasive insulitis without altering the systemic trafficking patterns or proliferation of BDC cells and thus contributing to diabetes by altering the localization within the tissue.

  19. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. The relationship between shift work and sleep patterns in nurses Relação entre trabalho por turnos e padrões de sono em enfermeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando dos Santos Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to evaluate the sleep/wake cycle in shift work nurses, as well as their sleep quality and chronotype. The sleep/wake cycle was evaluated by keeping a sleep diary for a total of 60 nurses with a mean age of 31.76 years. The Horne & Östberg Questionnaire (1976 for the chronotype and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI for sleep quality were applied. The results revealed a predominance of indifferent chronotypes (65.0%, followed by moderately evening persons (18.3%, decidedly evening persons (8.3%, moderately morning persons (6.6% and decidedly morning persons (1.8%. The sleep quality perception was analyzed by the visual analogical scale, showing a mean score of 5.85 points for nighttime sleep and 4.70 points for daytime sleep, which represented a statistically significant difference. The sleep/wake schedule was also statistically different when considering weekdays and weekends. The PSQI showed a mean of 7.0 points, characterizing poor sleep quality. The results showed poor sleep quality in shift work nurses, possibly due to the lack of sport and shift work habits.Este estudo teve como objectivo analisar o ciclo vigília-sono em enfermeiros que trabalham por turnos, bem como a qualidade do sono e cronótipo. O ciclo vigília-sono foi avaliado através do diário de sono, num total de 60 enfermeiros, com idade média de 31.76 anos. Para o cronótipo utilizou-se o Questionário de Horne e Östberg, de 1976, e para medir a qualidade de sono calculou-se o Índice Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburg (PSQI. Os resultados do cronótipo mostraram uma predominância para tipo indiferente (65.0%, seguido do tipo Moderamente Vespertinos (18.3%, Definitivamente Vespertino (8.3%, Moderadamente Matutinos (6.6% e Definitivamente Matutinos (1.8%. A percepção da qualidade do sono autorreportada pela Escala Analógica Visual (VAS foi de 5.85 pontos, em média, para o sono nocturno e 4.70 para o sono diurno, diferen

  1. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  2. Innate immune humoral factors, C1q and factor H, with differential pattern recognition properties, alter macrophage response to carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondman, Kirsten M; Pednekar, Lina; Paudyal, Basudev; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Kouser, Lubna; Khan, Haseeb A; Shamji, Mohamed H; Ten Haken, Bennie; Stenbeck, Gudrun; Sim, Robert B; Kishore, Uday

    2015-11-01

    Interaction between the complement system and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can modify their intended biomedical applications. Pristine and derivatised CNTs can activate complement primarily via the classical pathway which enhances uptake of CNTs and suppresses pro-inflammatory response by immune cells. Here, we report that the interaction of C1q, the classical pathway recognition molecule, with CNTs involves charge pattern and classical pathway activation that is partly inhibited by factor H, a complement regulator. C1q and its globular modules, but not factor H, enhanced uptake of CNTs by macrophages and modulated the pro-inflammatory immune response. Thus, soluble complement factors can interact differentially with CNTs and alter the immune response even without complement activation. Coating CNTs with recombinant C1q globular heads offers a novel way of controlling classical pathway activation in nanotherapeutics. Surprisingly, the globular heads also enhance clearance by phagocytes and down-regulate inflammation, suggesting unexpected complexity in receptor interaction. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) maybe useful in the clinical setting as targeting drug carriers. However, it is also well known that they can interact and activate the complement system, which may have a negative impact on the applicability of CNTs. In this study, the authors functionalized multi-walled CNT (MWNT), and investigated the interaction with the complement pathway. These studies are important so as to gain further understanding of the underlying mechanism in preparation for future use of CNTs in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterns of altered neural synchrony in the default mode network in autism spectrum disorder revealed with magnetoencephalography (MEG): Relationship to clinical symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajiness-O'Neill, Renée; Brennan, Jonathan R; Moran, John E; Richard, Annette E; Flores, Ana-Mercedes; Swick, Casey; Goodcase, Ryan; Andersen, Tiffany; McFarlane, Kaitlyn; Rusiniak, Kenneth; Kovelman, Ioulia; Wagley, Neelima; Ugolini, Maggie; Albright, Jeremy; Bowyer, Susan M

    2018-03-01

    Disrupted neural synchrony may be a primary electrophysiological abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), altering communication between discrete brain regions and contributing to abnormalities in patterns of connectivity within identified neural networks. Studies exploring brain dynamics to comprehensively characterize and link connectivity to large-scale cortical networks and clinical symptoms are lagging considerably. Patterns of neural coherence within the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Salience Network (SN) during resting state were investigated in 12 children with ASD (M Age  = 9.2) and 13 age and gender-matched neurotypicals (NT) (M Age  = 9.3) with magnetoencephalography. Coherence between 231 brain region pairs within four frequency bands (theta (4-7 Hz), alpha, (8-12 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz), and gamma (30-80 Hz)) was calculated. Relationships between neural coherence and social functioning were examined. ASD was characterized by lower synchronization across all frequencies, reaching clinical significance in the gamma band. Lower gamma synchrony between fronto-temporo-parietal regions was observed, partially consistent with diminished default mode network (DMN) connectivity. Lower gamma coherence in ASD was evident in cross-hemispheric connections between: angular with inferior/middle frontal; middle temporal with middle/inferior frontal; and within right-hemispheric connections between angular, middle temporal, and inferior/middle frontal cortices. Lower gamma coherence between left angular and left superior frontal, right inferior/middle frontal, and right precuneus and between right angular and inferior/middle frontal cortices was related to lower social/social-communication functioning. Results suggest a pattern of lower gamma band coherence in a subset of regions within the DMN in ASD (angular and middle temporal cortical areas) related to lower social/social-communicative functioning. Autism Res 2018, 11: 434-449. © 2017 International

  4. Exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with altered fetal growth patterns: A hypothesis regarding metabolic allocation to growth under hyperglycemic-hypoxemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, Michelle; Jeanty, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rising worldwide, including women who grew poorly in early life, presenting intergenerational health problems for their offspring. It is well documented that fetuses exposed to maternal diabetes during pregnancy experience both macrosomia and poor growth outcomes in birth size. Less is known about the in utero growth patterns that precede these risk factor expressions. Fetal growth patterns and the effects of clinical class and glycemic control were investigated in 37 diabetic pregnant women and their fetuses and compared to 29 nondiabetic, nonsmoking maternal/fetal pairs who were participants in a biweekly longitudinal ultrasound study with measurements of the head, limb, and trunk dimensions. White clinical class of the diabetic women was recorded (A2-FR) and glycosylated hemoglobin levels taken at the time of measurement assessed glycemic control (median 6.9%, interquartile range 5.6-9.2%). No significant difference in fetal weight was found by exposure. The exposed sample had greater abdominal circumferences from 21 weeks (P fetuses had a smaller slope for the occipital frontal diameter (P = 0.00) and were brachycephalic. They experienced a proximal/distal growth gradient in limb proportionality with higher humerus / femur ratios (P = 0.04) and arms relatively long by comparison with legs (P = 0.02). HbA1c levels above 7.5% accompanied shorter femur length for thigh circumference after 30 gestational weeks of age. Significant effects of diabetic clinical class and glycemic control were identified in growth rate timing. These growth patterns suggest that hypoxemic and hyperglycemic signals cross-talk with their target receptors in a developmentally regulated, hierarchical sequence. The increase in fetal fat often documented with diabetic pregnancy may reflect altered growth at the level of cell differentiation and proximate mechanisms controlling body composition. These data suggest that the maternal-fetal interchange circuit

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Snow Patterns in Swiss Ski Resorts to Shifts in Temperature, Precipitation and Humidity Under Condition of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, B.; Goyette, S.; Beniston, M.

    2008-12-01

    The value of snow as a resource has considerably increased in Swiss mountain regions, in particular in the context of winter tourism. In the perspective of a warming climate, it is thus important to quantify the potential changes in snow amount and duration that could have large repercussions on the economy of ski resorts. Because of the fine spatial variability of snow, the use of a Surface Energy Balance Model (SEBM) is adequate to simulate local snow cover evolution. A perturbation method has been developed to generate plausible future meteorological input data required for SEBM simulations in order to assess the changes in snow cover patterns. Current and future snow depths have also been simulated within the ski areas themselves. The results show a large decrease of the snow depths and duration, even at high elevation in a warmer climate and emphasize the sensitivity of snow to topographical characteristics of the resorts. The study highlights the fact that not only the altitude of a domain but also its exposure, localization inland and slope gradients need to be taken into account when evaluating current and future snow depths. This method enables a precise assessment of the snow pattern over a small area.

  6. Shifting Quaternary migration patterns in the Bahamian archipelago: Evidence from the Zamia pumila complex at the northern limits of the Caribbean island biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Meerow, Alan W; Calonje, Michael; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Griffith, M Patrick; Nakamura, Kyoko; Sánchez, Vanessa; Knowles, Lindy; Knowles, David

    2017-05-01

    The Bahamas archipelago is formed by young, tectonically stable carbonate banks that harbor direct geological evidence of global ice-volume changes. We sought to detect signatures of major changes on gene flow patterns and reconstruct the phylogeographic history of the monophyletic Zamia pumila complex across the Bahamas. Nuclear molecular markers with both high and low mutation rates were used to capture two different time scale signatures and test several gene flow and demographic hypotheses. Single-copy nuclear genes unveiled apparent ancestral admixture on Andros, suggesting a significant role of this island as main hub of diversity of the archipelago. We detected demographic and spatial expansion of the Zamia pumila complex on both paleo-provinces around the Piacenzian (Pliocene)/Gelasian (Pleistocene). Populations evidenced signatures of different migration models that have occurred at two different times. Populations on Long Island ( Z. lucayana ) may either represent a secondary colonization of the Bahamas by Zamia or a rapid and early-divergence event of at least one population on the Bahamas. Despite changes in migration patterns with global climate, expected heterozygosity with both marker systems remains within the range reported for cycads, but with significant levels of increased inbreeding detected by the microsatellites. This finding is likely associated with reduced gene flow between and within paleo-provinces, accompanied by genetic drift, as rising seas enforced isolation. Our study highlights the importance of the maintenance of the predominant direction of genetic exchange and the role of overseas dispersion among the islands during climate oscillations. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Proteomic profiling of primary retinal Müller glia cells reveals a shift in expression patterns upon adaptation to in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Stefanie M; Suppmann, Sabine; Ueffing, Marius

    2003-12-01

    Cultured primary retinal Müller glia cells (RMG), a glia cell spanning the entire neuroretina, have recently gained increased attention, especially with respect to their presumed in vivo role in supporting photoreceptor function and survival. Cultured RMG cells, however, are at risk to lose much of their in vivo features. To determine the conditions of isolated primary RMG cells best corresponding with their physiological role in the intact retina, we profiled the respective proteomes of RMG freshly isolated from intact pig eye, as well as from cultured material at different timepoints. Protein samples were separated by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and isolated proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of- flight (MALDI-TOF) peptide mass fingerprint. Compared with freshly isolated RMG, the in vitro protein expression patterns remain relatively stable for the first 3 days in culture but change dramatically thereafter. Proteins involved in specific RMG physiological functions, such as glycolysis, transmitter recycling, CO2 siphoning, visual pigment cycle, and detoxification, are either downregulated or absent. In contrast, cytoskeletal proteins, as well as proteins involved in motility and in proliferation, are upregulated during culture. In the present report, we show for the first time, on a systematic level, that profound changes in the RMG proteome reflect transdifferentiation from a multifunctional, highly differentiated glial cell to a dedifferentiated fibroblast-like phenotype in culture. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The combined effect of two mutations that alter serially homologous color pattern elements on the fore and hindwings of a butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedder Lindsey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability for serially homologous structures to acquire a separate identity has been primarily investigated for structures dependent on Hox gene input but is still incompletely understood in other systems. The fore and hindwings of butterflies are serially homologous structures as are the serially homologous eyespots that can decorate each of these wings. Eyespots can vary in number between fore and hindwings of the same individual and mutations of large effect can control the total number of eyespots that each of the wings displays. Here we investigate the genetics of a new spontaneous color pattern mutation, Missing, that alters eyespot number in the nymphalid butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. We further test the interaction of Missing with a previously described mutation, Spotty, describe the developmental stage affected by Missing, and test whether Missing is a mutant variant of the gene Distal-less via a linkage association study. Results Missing removes or greatly reduces the size of two of the hindwing eyespots from the row of seven eyespots, with no detectable effect on the rest of the wing pattern. Offspring carrying a single Missing allele display intermediate sized eyespots at these positions. Spotty has the opposite effect of Missing, i.e., it introduces two extra eyespots in homologous wing positions to those affected by Missing, but on the forewing. When Missing is combined with Spotty the size of the two forewing eyespots decreases but the size of the hindwing spots stays the same, suggesting that these two mutations have a combined effect on the forewing such that Missing reduces eyespot size when in the presence of a Spotty mutant allele, but that Spotty has no effect on the hindwing. Missing prevents the complete differentiation of two of the eyespot foci on the hindwing. We found no evidence for any linkage between the Distal-less and Missing genes. Conclusion The spontaneous mutation Missing controls the

  9. Altered neuronal firing pattern of the basal ganglia nucleus plays a role in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Levodopa therapy alleviates the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD, but long-term treatment often leads to motor complications such as levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. Aim: To explore the neuronal activity in the basal ganglia nuclei in patients with PD and LID. Methods: Thirty patients with idiopathic PD (age, 55.1±11.0 years; disease duration, 8.7±5.6 years were enrolled between August 2006 and August 2013 at the Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Their Hoehn and Yahr scores ranged from 2 to 4 and their UPDRS III scores were 28.5±5.2. Fifteen of them had severe LID (UPDRS IV scores of 6.7±1.6. Microelectrode recording was performed in the globus pallidus internus (GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN during pallidotomy (n=12 or STN deep brain stimulation (DBS; bilateral, n=12; unilateral, n=6. The firing patterns and frequencies of various cell types were analyzed by assessing single cell interspike intervals (ISIs and the corresponding coefficient of variation (CV. Results: A total of 295 neurons were identified from the GPi (n=12 and STN (n=18. These included 26 (8.8% highly grouped discharge, 30 (10.2% low frequency firing, 78 (26.4% rapid tonic discharge, 103 (34.9% irregular activity, and 58 (19.7% tremor-related activity. There were significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05 for neurons with irregular firing, highly irregular cluster-like firing, and low-frequency firing. Conclusion: Altered neuronal activity was observed in the basal ganglia nucleus of GPi and STN, and may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and LID.

  10. Dutasteride-mediated morphological changes in the genitourinary tract associated with altered expression patterns of the androgen and estrogen receptors in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, N; Chiba, K; Sumii, K; Fukuda, T; Okada, K; Matsushita, K; Fujisawa, M

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of dutasteride on the genitourinary tract using fifteen 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into three groups comprising five animals each and treated as follows. Group A was a control group, members of Group B received oral administration of dutasteride 0.1 mg/kg/day from the age of 8 to 16 weeks, and members of Group C were castrated at the age of 8 weeks. All rats were killed at the age of 16 weeks for the sample collection of blood, bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penis. Then, we evaluated the pathological examination for evaluating the tissue fibrosis and hormonal receptor expression. The results showed that the mean size of the prostate and seminal vesicles was smaller in Group B and Group C than in Group A. Serum and tissue concentrations of both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were remarkably reduced in serum and all tissues in Group C compared with Group A. On the other hand, in Group B, only dihydrotestosterone was reduced in serum and penis. Histopathological examination revealed that Group C showed statistically significant histological changes, such as an increase in fibrotic tissue in the bladder, prostate, and penis. Similarly, Group B showed fibrotic changes in the prostate and penis compared with the Group A. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that the androgen receptor was more strongly expressed than the estrogen receptor beta in Group A. On the other hand, in Group C, weak expression of the androgen receptor and strong expression of the estrogen receptor beta was noted. In Group B, these changes were noted in the prostate and penis. These findings suggest that dutasteride cause morphological changes not only in prostate but also in penis. These changes are associated with altered expression patterns of androgen receptor and estrogen receptor. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. The Significance of Shifts in Precipitation Patterns: Modelling the Impacts of Climate Change and Glacier Retreat on Extreme Flood Events in Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Jill; Futter, Martyn N.; Whitehead, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    In glacier-fed systems climate change may have various effects over a range of time scales, including increasing river discharge, flood frequency and magnitude. This study uses a combination of empirical monitoring and modelling to project the impacts of climate change on the glacial-fed Middle Fork Toklat River, Denali National Park, Alaska. We use a regional calibration of the model HBV to account for a paucity of long term observed flow data, validating a local application using glacial mass balance data and summer flow records. Two Global Climate Models (HADCM3 and CGCM2) and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) are used to ascertain potential changes in meteorological conditions, river discharge, flood frequency and flood magnitude. Using remote sensing methods this study refines existing estimates of glacial recession rates, finding that since 2000, rates have increased from 24m per year to 68.5m per year, with associated increases in ablation zone ice loss. GCM projections indicate that over the 21st century these rates will increase still further, most extensively under the CGCM2 model, and A2 scenarios. Due to greater winter precipitation and ice and snow accumulation, glaciers release increasing meltwater quantities throughout the 21st century. Despite increases in glacial melt, results indicate that it is predominantly precipitation that affects river discharge. Three of the four IPCC scenarios project increases in flood frequency and magnitude, events which were primarily associated with changing precipitation patterns, rather than extreme temperature increases or meltwater release. Results suggest that although increasing temperatures will significantly increase glacial melt and winter baseflow, meltwater alone does not pose a significant flood hazard to the Toklat River catchment. Projected changes in precipitation are the primary concern, both through changing snow volumes available for melt, and more directly through increasing catchment runoff. PMID

  12. The significance of shifts in precipitation patterns: modelling the impacts of climate change and glacier retreat on extreme flood events in Denali National Park, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Jill; Futter, Martyn N; Whitehead, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    In glacier-fed systems climate change may have various effects over a range of time scales, including increasing river discharge, flood frequency and magnitude. This study uses a combination of empirical monitoring and modelling to project the impacts of climate change on the glacial-fed Middle Fork Toklat River, Denali National Park, Alaska. We use a regional calibration of the model HBV to account for a paucity of long term observed flow data, validating a local application using glacial mass balance data and summer flow records. Two Global Climate Models (HADCM3 and CGCM2) and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) are used to ascertain potential changes in meteorological conditions, river discharge, flood frequency and flood magnitude. Using remote sensing methods this study refines existing estimates of glacial recession rates, finding that since 2000, rates have increased from 24 m per year to 68.5m per year, with associated increases in ablation zone ice loss. GCM projections indicate that over the 21(st) century these rates will increase still further, most extensively under the CGCM2 model, and A2 scenarios. Due to greater winter precipitation and ice and snow accumulation, glaciers release increasing meltwater quantities throughout the 21(st) century. Despite increases in glacial melt, results indicate that it is predominantly precipitation that affects river discharge. Three of the four IPCC scenarios project increases in flood frequency and magnitude, events which were primarily associated with changing precipitation patterns, rather than extreme temperature increases or meltwater release. Results suggest that although increasing temperatures will significantly increase glacial melt and winter baseflow, meltwater alone does not pose a significant flood hazard to the Toklat River catchment. Projected changes in precipitation are the primary concern, both through changing snow volumes available for melt, and more directly through increasing catchment runoff.

  13. Large-scale River Channel Shifts on the Western Indo-Gangetic Plains and their implications for the Bronze-age Harappan Civilisation Settlement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Singh, A.; Sinha, R.; Thomsen, K.; Murray, A. S.; Carter, A.; Mark, D. F.; Buylaert, J.; Mason, P.; Ferrat, M.

    2011-12-01

    detrital minerals can be fingerprinted with potential source areas in the Himalaya using modern river sands and bedrock ages to constrain sediment sources. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating to develop age models for the cores. These data are combined to reconstruct the spatial and temporal evolution of this paleo-river and consider its influence on settlement patterns of the Harappan civilization in NW India.

  14. Increased leaf mesophyll porosity following transient retinoblastoma-related protein silencing is revealed by microcomputed tomography imaging and leads to a system-level physiological response to the altered cell division pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorca-Fornell, Carmen; Pajor, Radoslaw; Lehmeier, Christoph; Pérez-Bueno, Marísa; Bauch, Marion; Sloan, Jen; Osborne, Colin; Rolfe, Stephen; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha; Fleming, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    The causal relationship between cell division and growth in plants is complex. Although altered expression of cell-cycle genes frequently leads to altered organ growth, there are many examples where manipulation of the division machinery leads to a limited outcome at the level of organ form, despite changes in constituent cell size. One possibility, which has been under-explored, is that altered division patterns resulting from manipulation of cell-cycle gene expression alter the physiology of the organ, and that this has an effect on growth. We performed a series of experiments on retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR), a well characterized regulator of the cell cycle, to investigate the outcome of altered cell division on leaf physiology. Our approach involved combination of high-resolution microCT imaging and physiological analysis with a transient gene induction system, providing a powerful approach for the study of developmental physiology. Our investigation identifies a new role for RBR in mesophyll differentiation that affects tissue porosity and the distribution of air space within the leaf. The data demonstrate the importance of RBR in early leaf development and the extent to which physiology adapts to modified cellular architecture resulting from altered cell-cycle gene expression. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Shifting Patterns of Student Mobility in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, Asia--traditionally one of the largest exporters of mobile students--has experienced major changes in student mobility within higher education. As the worldwide competition for international students has escalated, many Asian countries have adopted a wide range of mechanisms and strategies in facilitating student mobility.…

  16. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  17. Temporal, but not spatial, changes in expression patterns of petal identity genes are associated with loss of papillate conical cells and the shift to bird pollination in Macaronesian Lotus (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, D I; Jaén-Molina, R; Santos-Guerra, A; Caujape-Castells, J; Cronk, Q

    2017-05-01

    In the generally bee-pollinated genus Lotus a group of four species have evolved bird-pollinated flowers. The floral changes in these species include altered petal orientation, shape and texture. In Lotus these characters are associated with dorsiventral petal identity, suggesting that shifts in the expression of dorsal identity genes may be involved in the evolution of bird pollination. Of particular interest is Lotus japonicus CYCLOIDEA 2 (LjCYC2), known to determine the presence of papillate conical cells on the dorsal petal in L. japonicus. Bird-pollinated species are unusual in not having papillate conical cells on the dorsal petal. Using RT-PCR at various stages of flower development, we determined the timing of expression in all petal types for the three putative petal identity genes (CYC-like genes) in different species with contrasting floral morphology and pollination syndromes. In bird-pollinated species the dorsal identity gene, LjCYC2, is not expressed at the floral stage when papillate conical cells are normally differentiating in bee-pollinated species. In contrast, in bee-pollinated species, LjCYC2 is expressed during conical cell development. Changes in the timing of expression of the above two genes are associated with modifications in petal growth and lateralisation of the dorsal and ventral petals in the bird-pollinated species. This study indicates that changes in the timing, rather than spatial distribution, of expression likely contribute to the modifications of petal micromorphology and petal size during the transition from bee to bird pollination in Macaronesian Lotus species. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Canuto; Marcos Pascoal Pattussi; Jamile Block Araldi Macagnan; Ruth Liane Henn; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic ...

  19. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers.METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (...

  20. Steady State Shift Damage Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk

    2017-01-01

    The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first...

  1. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: within-subject variation in male airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  4. Pattern of pressure gradient alterations after venous sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension predicts stent-adjacent stenosis: a proposed classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Daniel; Buell, Thomas J; Ding, Dale; Chen, Ching-Jen; Starke, Robert M; Liu, Kenneth C

    2018-04-01

    Venous sinus stenting (VSS) is a safe and effective treatment for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) with angiographic venous sinus stenosis. However, predictors of stent-adjacent stenosis (SAS) remain poorly defined. We performed a retrospective review of 47 patients with IIH and intracranial venous stenosis who underwent VSS with pre- and post-stent venography. Patient characteristics, treatments and outcomes were reviewed. Changes in pressure gradient after VSS were classified according to pattern of gradient resolution into types I-III. Type I gradient resolution, in which mean venous pressure (MVP) in the transverse sinus (TS) decreases towards MVP in the sigmoid sinus (SS), occurred in 18 patients (38.3%). Type II gradient resolution pattern, in which SS MVP increases towards that in the TS, occurred in 7patients (14.9%). Type III pattern, in which MVP equilibrates to a middle value, occurred in 22patients (46.8%). SAS occurred in 0%, 28.6%, and 22.7% of patients in types I, II and III, respectively. Compared with patients with type I gradient resolution, SAS was more common in those with type II (p=0.0181) and type III (p=0.0306) patterns. The pattern of change in the trans-stenosis venous pressure gradient may be predictive of SAS and is a useful tool for classifying the response of the venous obstruction to stenting. A type I pattern appears to represent the ideal response to VSS. Some patients with type II and III changes, particularly if they have other predictors of recurrent stenosis, may benefit from longer initial stent constructs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Coupling age-structured stock assessment and fish bioenergetics models: a system of time-varying models for quantifying piscivory patterns during the rapid trophic shift in the main basin of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji X.; Bence, James R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Dobiesz, Norine E.; Fielder, David G.; Johnson, James E.; Ebener, Mark P.; Cottrill, Adam R.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Koproski, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified piscivory patterns in the main basin of Lake Huron during 1984–2010 and found that the biomass transfer from prey fish to piscivores remained consistently high despite the rapid major trophic shift in the food webs. We coupled age-structured stock assessment models and fish bioenergetics models for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). The model system also included time-varying parameters or variables of growth, length–mass relations, maturity schedules, energy density, and diets. These time-varying models reflected the dynamic connections that a fish cohort responded to year-to-year ecosystem changes at different ages and body sizes. We found that the ratio of annual predation by lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye combined with the biomass indices of age-1 and older alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) increased more than tenfold during 1987–2010, and such increases in predation pressure were structured by relatively stable biomass of the three piscivores and stepwise declines in the biomass of alewives and rainbow smelt. The piscivore stability was supported by the use of alternative energy pathways and changes in relative composition of the three piscivores. In addition, lake whitefish became a new piscivore by feeding on round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Their total fish consumption rivaled that of the other piscivores combined, although fish were still a modest proportion of their diet. Overall, the use of alternative energy pathways by piscivores allowed the increases in predation pressure on dominant diet species.

  6. Patterns of stress responses shift during seasonal life-history transitions: An analysis comparing baseline, maximal and integrated corticosterone in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayger, Catherine A; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2017-05-15

    Glucocorticoids often rise and fall with a variety of external and internal cues and frequently vary among life-history stages. This suggests that changing glucocorticoids may coordinate life-history transitions. To explore this hypothesis, we asked if the time-course of stress-induced glucocorticoid levels differ between two life-history transitions (i.e., spring and fall migration) in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). We collected non-migratory females from a communal den and migratory females from a road along the migration route and treated them with 4h of capture stress; plasma corticosterone was measured before, during and after capture stress. During the spring, den-collected females exhibited a stress-induced peak in corticosterone at an earlier sampling time than migrating, road-collected females. Because the pattern of corticosterone responses varied with migratory state, negative feedback on and/or sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis may be linked to spring migration. During the fall, capture stress elicited an increase in corticosterone in den-collected females but not in migrating, road-collected females. Baseline corticosterone was higher and both maximal and integrated corticosterone responses were lower during the fall compared to spring, indicating that stress responses are smaller when baseline corticosterone is elevated, perhaps due to a "ceiling effect". These data suggest that HPA axis regulation changes during seasonal migration, possibly via altering negative feedback, HPA axis sensitivity, or some other mechanism. This study supports the hypothesis that glucocorticoids coordinate life-history events and suggests that examining a suite of stress response characteristics is most informative for understanding the function of HPA modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Origin of convex tetrads in rare earth element patterns of hydrothermally altered siliceous igneous rocks from the Zinnwald Sn–W deposit, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    T. Monecke; Peter Dulski; U. Kempe

    2007-01-01

    The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of whole rock samples from evolved granitic systems hosting rare metal deposits sometimes show a split into four consecutive curved segments, referred to as tetrads. In the present contribution, a rigorous statistical method is proposed that can be used to test whether geological significance should be attributed to tetrads that are only of limited size. The method involves a detailed evaluation of element and sample specific random a...

  8. Wnt Signaling Alteration in the Spinal Cord of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Transgenic Mice: Special Focus on Frizzled-5 Cellular Expression Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos González-Fernández

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive paralysis due to degeneration of motor neurons by unknown causes. Recent evidence shows that Wnt signaling is involved in neurodegenerative processes, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. However, to date, little is known regarding the expression of Wnt signaling components in this fatal condition. In the present study we used transgenic SOD1G93A mice to evaluate the expression of several Wnt signaling components, with special focus on Frizzled-5 cellular expression alteration along disease progression.Based on previous studies demonstrating the expression of Wnts and their transcriptional regulation during Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis development, we have analyzed the mRNA expression of several Wnt signaling components in the spinal cord of SOD1G93A transgenic mice at different stages of the disease by using real time quantitative PCR analysis. Strikingly, one of the molecules that seemed not to be altered at mRNA level, Frizzled-5, showed a clear up-regulation at late stages in neurons, as evidenced by immunofluorescence assays. Moreover, increased Frizzled-5 appears to correlate with a decrease in NeuN signal in these cells, suggesting a correlation between neuronal affectation and the increased expression of this receptor.Our data suggest the involvement of Wnt signaling pathways in the pathophysiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and, more specifically, the implication of Frizzled-5 receptor in the response of neuronal cells against neurodegeneration. Nevertheless, further experimental studies are needed to shed light on the specific role of Frizzled-5 and the emerging but increasing Wnt family of proteins research field as a potential target for this neuropathology.

  9. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  10. Hybridization between Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout alters the expression of muscle growth-related genes and their relationships with growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hauser, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L) and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor) in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout). Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  11. Altered DNA methylation patterns of the H19 differentially methylated region and the DAZL gene promoter are associated with defective human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation disturbance is associated with defective human sperm. However, oligozoospermia (OZ and asthenozoospermia (AZ usually present together, and the relationship between the single-phenotype defects in human sperm and DNA methylation is poorly understood. In this study, 20 infertile OZ patients and 20 infertile AZ patients were compared with 20 fertile normozoospermic men. Bisulfate-specific PCR was used to analyze DNA methylation of the H19-DMR and the DAZL promoter in these subjects. A similar DNA methylation pattern of the H19-DMR was detected in AZ and NZ(control, with only complete methylation and mild hypomethylation(0.05. However, the methylation pattern of severe hypomethylation (>50% unmethylated CpGs and complete unmethylation was only detected in 5 OZ patients, and the occurrence of these two methylation patterns was 8.54±10.86% and 9±6.06%, respectively. Loss of DNA methylation of the H19-DMR in the OZ patients was found to mainly occur in CTCF-binding site 6, with occurrence of 18.15±14.71%, which was much higher than that in patients with NZ (0.84±2.05% and AZ (0.58±1.77% (P20% methylated clones in the DAZL promoter only in infertile patients, there was no significant difference between the AZ and OZ patients in the proportion of moderately-to-severely hypermethylated clones (p>0.05. In all cases, global sperm genome methylation analyses, using LINE1 transposon as the indicator, showed that dysregulation of DNA methylation is specifically associated with the H19-DMR and DAZL promoter. Therefore, abnormal DNA methylation status of H19-DMR, especially at the CTCF-binding site 6, is closely associated with OZ. Abnormal DNA methylation of the DAZL promoter might represent an epigenetic marker of male infertility.

  12. In vitro assessment of attachment pattern and replication efficiency of H5N1 influenza A viruses with altered receptor specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinimitkul, Salin; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J; van den Brand, Judith M A; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; de Wit, Emmie

    2010-07-01

    The continuous circulation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been a cause of great concern. The possibility of this virus acquiring specificity for the human influenza A virus receptor, alpha2,6-linked sialic acids (SA), and being able to transmit efficiently among humans is a constant threat to human health. Different studies have described amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) of clinical HPAI H5N1 isolates or that were introduced experimentally that resulted in an increased, but not exclusive, binding of these virus strains to alpha2,6-linked SA. We introduced all previously described amino acid substitutions and combinations thereof into a single genetic background, influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 HA, and tested the receptor specificity of these 27 mutant viruses. The attachment pattern to ferret and human tissues of the upper and lower respiratory tract of viruses with alpha2,6-linked SA receptor preference was then determined and compared to the attachment pattern of a human influenza A virus (H3N2). At least three mutant viruses showed an attachment pattern to the human respiratory tract similar to that of the human H3N2 virus. Next, the replication efficiencies of these mutant viruses and the effects of three different neuraminidases on virus replication were determined. These data show that influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 potentially requires only a single amino acid substitution to acquire human receptor specificity, while at the same time remaining replication competent, thus suggesting that the pandemic threat posed by HPAI H5N1 is far from diminished.

  13. In Vitro Assessment of Attachment Pattern and Replication Efficiency of H5N1 Influenza A Viruses with Altered Receptor Specificity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinimitkul, Salin; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J.; van den Brand, Judith M. A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; de Wit, Emmie

    2010-01-01

    The continuous circulation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been a cause of great concern. The possibility of this virus acquiring specificity for the human influenza A virus receptor, α2,6-linked sialic acids (SA), and being able to transmit efficiently among humans is a constant threat to human health. Different studies have described amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA) of clinical HPAI H5N1 isolates or that were introduced experimentally that resulted in an increased, but not exclusive, binding of these virus strains to α2,6-linked SA. We introduced all previously described amino acid substitutions and combinations thereof into a single genetic background, influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 HA, and tested the receptor specificity of these 27 mutant viruses. The attachment pattern to ferret and human tissues of the upper and lower respiratory tract of viruses with α2,6-linked SA receptor preference was then determined and compared to the attachment pattern of a human influenza A virus (H3N2). At least three mutant viruses showed an attachment pattern to the human respiratory tract similar to that of the human H3N2 virus. Next, the replication efficiencies of these mutant viruses and the effects of three different neuraminidases on virus replication were determined. These data show that influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 potentially requires only a single amino acid substitution to acquire human receptor specificity, while at the same time remaining replication competent, thus suggesting that the pandemic threat posed by HPAI H5N1 is far from diminished. PMID:20392847

  14. Hybridization between Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Rainbow Trout Alters the Expression of Muscle Growth-Related Genes and Their Relationships with Growth Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl O Ostberg

    Full Text Available Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout. Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  15. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  16. Alterations in serum growth hormone (GH)/GH dependent ternary complex components (IGF-I, IGFBP-3, ALS, IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio) and the influence of these alterations on growth pattern in female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiyaman, P; Ocal, G; Berberoğlu, M; Evliyaoğlu, O; Aycan, Z; Cetinkaya, E; Bulca, Y; Ersöz, G; Akar, N

    2004-06-01

    GH and GH-dependent components immediately following the exercise, serum GH/IGF-I levels showed a significant decrement (p gymnasts, to a nadir as low as those of the control subjects' baseline levels (p gymnasts and controls except BMI; gymnasts were leaner than controls. During a 4-year follow up, there were no differences between the gymnasts and controls in regard to skeletal growth and reaching their predicted height. However, in gymnasts there was a delay in pubertal tempo but not in growth. Intense exercise induces an acute rise in GH levels, but this acute elevation rapidly normalizes after a 2-day rest in female rhythmic gymnasts. These fluctuations in serum GH and GH-dependent ternary complex components had no reflection on the skeletal growth patterns in gymnasts over the 4-year follow up but there was a delay in their pubertal progression.

  17. Expression patterns of porcine Toll-like receptors family set of genes (TLR1-10) in gut-associated lymphoid tissues alter with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Kaewmala, Kanokwan; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to study the expression pattern of the porcine TLR family (TLR1-10) genes in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) of varying ages. A total of nine clinically healthy pigs of three ages group (1 day, 2 months and 5 months old) were selected for this experiment (three pigs in each group). Tissues from intestinal mucosa in stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) were used. mRNA expression of TLRs (1-10) was detectable in all tissues and TLR3 showed the highest mRNA abundance among TLRs. TLR3 expression in stomach, and TLR1 and TLR6 expression in MLN were higher in adult than newborn pigs. The western blot results of TLR2, 3 and 9 in some cases, did not coincide with the mRNA expression results. The protein localization of TLR2, 3 and 9 showed that TLR expressing cells were abundant in the lamina propria, Peyer's patches in intestine, and around and within the lymphoid follicles in the MLN. This expressions study sheds the first light on the expression patterns of all TLR genes in GALT at different ages of pigs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Platform-Independent Genome-Wide Pattern of DNA Copy-Number Alterations Predicting Astrocytoma Survival and Response to Treatment Revealed by the GSVD Formulated as a Comparative Spectral Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly

    2016-01-01

    We use the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), formulated as a comparative spectral decomposition, to model patient-matched grades III and II, i.e., lower-grade astrocytoma (LGA) brain tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles. A genome-wide tumor-exclusive pattern of DNA copy-number alterations (CNAs) is revealed, encompassed in that previously uncovered in glioblastoma (GBM), i.e., grade IV astrocytoma, where GBM-specific CNAs encode for enhanced opportunities for transformation and proliferation via growth and developmental signaling pathways in GBM relative to LGA. The GSVD separates the LGA pattern from other sources of biological and experimental variation, common to both, or exclusive to one of the tumor and normal datasets. We find, first, and computationally validate, that the LGA pattern is correlated with a patient’s survival and response to treatment. Second, the GBM pattern identifies among the LGA patients a subtype, statistically indistinguishable from that among the GBM patients, where the CNA genotype is correlated with an approximately one-year survival phenotype. Third, cross-platform classification of the Affymetrix-measured LGA and GBM profiles by using the Agilent-derived GBM pattern shows that the GBM pattern is a platform-independent predictor of astrocytoma outcome. Statistically, the pattern is a better predictor (corresponding to greater median survival time difference, proportional hazard ratio, and concordance index) than the patient’s age and the tumor’s grade, which are the best indicators of astrocytoma currently in clinical use, and laboratory tests. The pattern is also statistically independent of these indicators, and, combined with either one, is an even better predictor of astrocytoma outcome. Recurring DNA CNAs have been observed in astrocytoma tumors’ genomes for decades, however, copy-number subtypes that are predictive of patients’ outcomes were not identified before. This is despite the growing number

  19. Altered microRNA expression patterns during the initiation and promotion stages of neonatal diethylstilbestrol-induced dysplasia/neoplasia in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Ramesh; Hendry, Isabel R; Knapp, Jennifer R; Shuai, Bin; Hendry, William J

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of Syrian hamsters on the day of birth with the prototypical endocrine disruptor and synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), leads to 100% occurrence of uterine hyperplasia/dysplasia in adulthood, a large proportion of which progress to neoplasia (endometrial adenocarcinoma). Consistent with our prior gene expression analyses at the mRNA and protein levels, we now report (based on microarray, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization analyses) that progression of the neonatal DES-induced dysplasia/neoplasia phenomenon in the hamster uterus also includes a spectrum of microRNA expression alterations (at both the whole-organ and cell-specific level) that differ during the initiation (upregulated miR-21, 200a, 200b, 200c, 29a, 29b, 429, 141; downregulated miR-181a) and promotion (downregulated miR-133a) stages of the phenomenon. The biological processes targeted by those differentially expressed miRNAs include pathways in cancer and adherens junction, plus regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and miRNA functions, all of which are consistent with our model system phenotype. These findings underscore the need for continued efforts to identify and assess both the classical genetic and the more recently recognized epigenetic mechanisms that truly drive this and other endocrine disruption phenomena.

  20. Distinct pattern of cerebral blood flow alterations specific to schizophrenics experiencing auditory verbal hallucinations with and without insight: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rixing; Huang, Jiangjie; Jiang, Deguo; Lin, Xiaodong; Ma, Xiaolei; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2018-01-23

    Schizophrenia is associated with widespread and complex cerebral blood flow (CBF) disturbance. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and insight are the core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few studies have assessed the CBF characteristics of the AVH suffered by schizophrenic patients with and without insight. Based on our previous findings, Using a 3D pseudo-continuous ASL (pcASL) technique, we investigated the differences in AVH-related CBF alterations in schizophrenia patients with and without insight. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) and statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM13) to perform the fMRI analysis. We found that AVH-schizophrenia patients without insight showed an increased CBF in the left temporal pole and a decreased CBF in the right middle frontal gyrus when compared to AVH-schizophrenia patients with insight. Our novel findings suggest that AVH-schizophrenia patients without insight possess a more complex CBF disturbance. Simultaneously, our findings also incline to support the idea that the CBF aberrant in some specific brain regions may be the common neural basis of insight and AVH. Our findings support the mostly current hypotheses regarding AVH to some extent. Although our findings come from a small sample, it provide the evidence that indicate us to conduct a larger study to thoroughly explore the mechanisms of schizophrenia, especially the core symptoms of AVHs and insight.

  1. Atypical inter-hemispheric communication correlates with altered motor inhibition during learning of a new bimanual coordination pattern in developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Mélody; Amarantini, David; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Chaix, Yves; Tallet, Jessica

    2017-04-25

    Impairment of motor learning skills in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been reported in several studies. Some hypotheses on neural mechanisms of motor learning deficits in DCD have emerged but, to date, brain-imaging investigations are scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess possible changes in communication between brain areas during practice of a new bimanual coordination task in teenagers with DCD (n = 10) compared to matched controls (n = 10). Accuracy, stability and number of mirror movements were computed as behavioural variables. Neural variables were assessed by electroencephalographic coherence analyses of intra-hemispheric and inter-hemispheric fronto-central electrodes. In both groups, accuracy of the new coordination increased concomitantly with right intra-hemispheric fronto-central coherence. Compared to typically developing teenagers, DCD teenagers presented learning difficulties expressed by less stability, no stabilization of the new coordination and a greater number of mirror movements despite practice. These measures correlated with reduced inter-hemispheric communication, even after practice of the new coordination. For the first time, these findings provide neuro-imaging evidence of a kind of inter-hemispheric 'disconnection' related to altered inhibition of mirror movements during motor learning in DCD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Alteration of the renal regulatory hormonal pattern during experimental obstructive jaundice Alteración del patrón hormonal regulatorio renal durante la ictericia obstructiva experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J Padillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the alteration of hormones regulating sodium and water status is related to renal failure in obstructive jaundice (OJ. Experimental design: OJ was induced by common bile duct ligation. Samples were obtained from the control (SO and OJ groups at 24 and 72 hours, and at 7 days. Different parameters related to biliary obstruction, liver and renal injury, and vasoactive mediators such as renin, aldosterone, endothelin-1 (ET-1 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were studied. Results: bile duct ligation caused an increase in total bilirubin (p < 0.001 and alkaline phosphatase (AP (p < 0.001. The SO and OJ groups had the same values for diuresis, renin, and creatinine clearance at 24 h. However, animals with OJ had a lower sodium concentration in urine than SO animals (p < 0.01, as well as an increase in aldosterone levels (p < 0.03. ANP levels were moderately increased during OJ but did not reach statistical significance when compared to the SO group. In contrast, OJ animals showed a rise in serum ET-1 concentration (p < 0.001 and increased PGE2 in urine (p < 0.001. Conclusions: biliary obstruction induced an increase in ET-1 release and PGE2 urine excretion. These hormones might play a role during the renal complications associated with renal disturbances that occur during OJ.

  3. The Brain of Binge Drinkers at Rest: Alterations in Theta and Beta Oscillations in First-Year College Students with a Binge Drinking Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo López-Caneda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have reported anomalous resting brain activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG of alcoholics, often reflected as increased power in the beta and theta frequency bands. The effects of binge drinking, the most common pattern of excessive alcohol consumption during adolescence and youth, on brain activity at rest is still poorly known. In this study, we sought to assess the pattern of resting-state EEG oscillations in college-aged binge drinkers (BDs.Methods: Resting-state brain activity during eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions was recorded from 60 channels in 80 first-year undergraduate students (40 controls and 40 BDs. Cortical sources activity of EEG rhythms was estimated using exact Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (eLORETA analysis.Results: EEG-source localization analysis revealed that BDs showed, in comparison with controls, significantly higher intracranial current density in the beta frequency band over the right temporal lobe (parahippocampal and fusiform gyri during eyes-open resting state as well as higher intracranial current density in the theta band over the bilateral occipital cortex (cuneus and lingual gyrus during eyes-closed resting condition.Conclusions: These findings are in line with previous results observing increased beta and/or theta power following chronic or heavy alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent subjects and BDs. Increased tonic beta and theta oscillations are suggestive of an augmented cortical excitability and of potential difficulties in the information processing capacity in young BDs. Furthermore, enhanced EEG power in these frequency bands may respond to a neuromaturational delay as a result of excessive alcohol consumption during this critical brain developmental period.

  4. Infant avoidance training alters cellular activation patterns in prefronto-limbic circuits during adult avoidance learning: I. Cellular imaging of neurons expressing the synaptic plasticity early growth response protein 1 (Egr1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Nicole; Mannewitz, Anja; Bock, Jörg; de Schultz, Tony Fernando; Guttmann, Katja; Poeggel, Gerd; Braun, Katharina

    2017-11-01

    Both positive feedback learning and negative feedback learning are essential for adapting and optimizing behavioral performance. There is increasing evidence in humans and animals that the ability of negative feedback learning emerges postnatally. Our work in rats, using a two-way active avoidance task (TWA) as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning, revealed that medial and lateral prefrontal regions of infant rats undergo dramatic synaptic reorganization during avoidance training, resulting in improved avoidance learning in adulthood. The aim of this study was to identify changes of cellular activation patterns during the course of training and in relation to infant pretraining. We applied a quantitative cellular imaging technique using the immunocytochemical detection of the activity marker early growth response protein 1 (Egr1) as a candidate contributing to learning-induced synaptic plasticity. We found region-specific cellular activity patterns, which indicate that during the acquisition phase, Egr1 expression is specifically elevated in cellular ensembles of the orbitofrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and hippocampal CA1 region. During memory retrieval Egr1 expression is elevated in cellular ensembles of the dentate gyrus. Moreover, we, for the first time, show here that TWA training during infancy alters adult learning- and memory-related patterns of Egr1 expression in these brain regions. It is tempting to speculate that during infant learning, specific Egr1-expressing cellular ensembles are "tagged" representing long-term memory formation, and that these cell ensembles may be reactivated during adult learning.

  5. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Homogeneous bilateral block shifts. ADAM KORÁNYI. Department of Mathematics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York,. New York, NY 10016, USA. E-mail: Adam.Koranyi@lehman.cuny.edu. MS received 18 January 2013. Abstract. A new 3-parameter family of homogeneous 2-by-2 block shifts is described.

  6. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new 3-parameter family of homogeneous 2-by-2 block shifts is described. These are the first examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1. Author Affiliations. Adam Korányi1. Department of Mathematics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY 10016, USA ...

  7. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  8. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gramuglia, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction (Shifting-study hereafter), gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared

  9. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  10. Hydroalcoholic extract of Myrtus communis can alter anxiety and sleep parameters: a behavioural and EEG sleep pattern study in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaee, Reza; Faizi, Mehrdad; Shahmohammadi, Zahra; Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Naghdibadi, Hasanali; Najafi, Foroogh; Razmi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae), myrtle, is an evergreen shrub with strong antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities. Also, it is used as a sedative-hypnotic plant in Iranian traditional medicine. This study evaluates the effect of 80% ethanolic extract of M. communis leaves on sleep and anxiety in mice and rats. Male NMRI mice were subjected to open field, righting reflex, grip strength and pentylentetrazole-induced seizure tests. Male Wistar rats were used to evaluate the alterations in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. They were treated with 25-400 mg/kg doses of the extract intraperitoneally. The applied doses (50-200 mg/kg) of M. communis extract increased vertical (ED50 = 40.2 ± 6.6 mg/kg) and vertical and horizontal activity (ED50 = 251 ± 55 mg/kg), while treatment with 200 and 400 mg/kg attenuated muscle tone significantly compared to vehicle treated animals (p sleep time was decreased (2.4 ± 0.5%), while total and NREM sleep times were increased significantly compared to the control group of mice (82.5 ± 7.6%). The data show the anxiolytic and muscle relaxant effect of the extract without anticonvulsant activities. The anxiolytic, myorelaxant and hypnotic effects without effect on seizure threshold are in line with the effect of a alpha 2 GABA receptor agonist.

  11. Altered patterns of heartbeat-evoked potentials in depersonalization/derealization disorder: neurophysiological evidence for impaired cortical representation of bodily signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, André; Köster, Susann; Beutel, Manfred E; Schächinger, Hartmut; Vögele, Claus; Rost, Silke; Rauh, Manfred; Michal, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Core features of depersonalization/derealization disorder (DPD) are emotional numbing and feelings of disembodiment. Although there are several neurophysiological findings supporting subjective emotional numbing, the psychobiology of disembodiment remains unclear. Heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), which are considered psychophysiological indicators for the cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system, were assessed in 23 patients with DPD and 24 healthy control individuals during rest and while performing a heartbeat perception task. Absolute HEP amplitudes did not differ between groups. Nevertheless, healthy individuals showed higher HEPs during the heartbeat perception task than during rest, whereas no such effect was found in patients with DPD (p = .031). Patients with DPD had higher total levels of salivary α-amylase than did healthy individuals (9626.6 [8200.0] versus 5344.3 [3745.8] kU min/l; p = .029), but there were no group differences in cardiovascular measures (heart rate = 76.2 [10.1] versus 74.3 [7.5] beats/min, p = .60; normalized low-frequency heart rate variability = 0.63 [0.15] versus 0.56 [0.15] normalized units, p = .099; low frequency/high frequency ratio = 249.3 [242.7] versus 164.8 [108.8], p = .10), salivary cortisol (57.5 [46.7] versus 55.1 [43.6] nmol min/l, p = .86), or cortisone levels (593.2 [260.3] versus 543.8 [257.1] nmol min/l, p = .52). These results suggest altered cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system in patients with DPD, which may be associated with higher sympathetic tone. These findings may reflect difficulties of patients with DPD to attend to their actual bodily experiences.

  12. Alterations to dendritic spine morphology, but not dendrite patterning, of cortical projection neurons in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse models of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda A Haas

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is a highly prevalent developmental disorder, affecting 1/700 births. Intellectual disability, which affects learning and memory, is present in all cases and is reflected by below average IQ. We sought to determine whether defective morphology and connectivity in neurons of the cerebral cortex may underlie the cognitive deficits that have been described in two mouse models of DS, the Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse lines. We utilised in utero electroporation to label a cohort of future upper layer projection neurons in the cerebral cortex of developing mouse embryos with GFP, and then examined neuronal positioning and morphology in early adulthood, which revealed no alterations in cortical layer position or morphology in either Tc1 or Ts1Rhr mouse cortex. The number of dendrites, as well as dendrite length and branching was normal in both DS models, compared with wildtype controls. The sites of projection neuron synaptic inputs, dendritic spines, were analysed in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr cortex at three weeks and three months after birth, and significant changes in spine morphology were observed in both mouse lines. Ts1Rhr mice had significantly fewer thin spines at three weeks of age. At three months of age Tc1 mice had significantly fewer mushroom spines--the morphology associated with established synaptic inputs and learning and memory. The decrease in mushroom spines was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of stubby spines. This data suggests that dendritic spine abnormalities may be a more important contributor to cognitive deficits in DS models, rather than overall neuronal architecture defects.

  13. Altered spinal kinematics and muscle recruitment pattern of the cervical and thoracic spine in people with chronic neck pain during functional task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sharon M H; Szeto, Grace P Y; Lee, Raymond Y W

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge on the spinal kinematics and muscle activation of the cervical and thoracic spine during functional task would add to our understanding of the performance and interplay of these spinal regions during dynamic condition. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of chronic neck pain on the three-dimensional kinematics and muscle recruitment pattern of the cervical and thoracic spine during an overhead reaching task involving a light weight transfer by the upper limb. Synchronized measurements of the three-dimensional spinal kinematics and electromyographic activities of cervical and thoracic spine were acquired in thirty individuals with chronic neck pain and thirty age- and gender-matched asymptomatic controls. Neck pain group showed a significantly decreased cervical velocity and acceleration while performing the task. They also displayed with a predominantly prolonged coactivation of cervical and thoracic muscles throughout the task cycle. The current findings highlighted the importance to examine differential kinematic variables of the spine which are associated with changes in the muscle recruitment in people with chronic neck pain. The results also provide an insight to the appropriate clinical intervention to promote the recovery of the functional disability commonly reported in patients with neck pain disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05 and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05. When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.

  15. Induction of chromosome instability and stomach cancer by altering the expression pattern of mitotic checkpoint genes in mice exposed to areca-nut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkalang, Sillarine; Banerjee, Atanu; Ghoshal, Nitin; Dkhar, Hughbert; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    There are strong indications for a causal association between areca-nut consumption and cancers. In Meghalaya, India, the variety of areca-nut is used as raw and unprocessed form whose chemical composition and pharmacological actions have been reported. Yet we know little on the initial pathway involved in areca-nut associated carcinogenesis since it is difficult to assess its effects on genetic alterations without interference of other compounding factors. Therefore, present study was undertaken in mice to verify the ability of raw areca-nut (RAN) to induce cancer and to monitor the expression of certain genes involved in carcinogenesis. This study was not intended to isolate any active ingredients from the RAN and to look its action. Three groups of mice (n = 25 in each) were taken and used at different time-points for different experimental analysis. The other three groups of mice (n = 15 in each) were considered for tumor induction studies. In each set, two groups were administered RAN-extract ad libitum in drinking water with or without lime. The expression of certain genes was assessed by conventional RT-PCR and immunoblotting. The mice were given the whole RAN-extract with and without lime in order to mimic the human consumption style of RAN. Histological preparation of stomach tissue revealed that RAN induced stomach cancer. A gradual increase in the frequency of precocious anaphase and aneuploid cells was observed in the bone marrow cells with a greater increment following RAN + lime administeration. Levels of p53, Bax, Securin and p65 in esophageal and stomach cells were elevated during early days of RAN exposure while those of different mitotic checkpoint proteins were downregulated. Apoptotic cell death was detected in non-cancerous stomach cells but not in tumor cells which showed overexpression of Bax and absence of PARP. Present study suggested (a) RAN induces stomach cancer, however, presence of lime promoted higher cell transformation and thereby

  16. Albedo and land surface temperature shift in hydrocarbon seepage potential area, case study in Miri Sarawak Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suherman, A; Rahman, M Z A; Busu, I

    2014-01-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon seepage is generally associated with rock or mineral alteration product exposures, and changes of soil properties which manifest with bare development and stress vegetation. This alters the surface thermodynamic properties, changes the energy balance related to the surface reflection, absorption and emission, and leads to shift in albedo and LST. Those phenomena may provide a guide for seepage detection which can be recognized inexpensively by remote sensing method. District of Miri is used for study area. Available topographic maps of Miri and LANDSAT ETM+ were used for boundary construction and determination albedo and LST. Three land use classification methods, namely fixed, supervised and NDVI base classifications were employed for this study. By the intensive land use classification and corresponding statistical comparison was found a clearly shift on albedo and land surface temperature between internal and external seepage potential area. The shift shows a regular pattern related to vegetation density or NDVI value. In the low vegetation density or low NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to lower value than external area. Conversely in the high vegetation density or high NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to higher value than external area. Land surface temperature of internal seepage potential was generally shifted to higher value than external area in all of land use classes. In dense vegetation area tend to shift the temperature more than poor vegetation area

  17. Alteration of hepatocellular antioxidant gene expression pattern and biomarkers of oxidative damage in diazinon-induced acute toxicity in Wistar rat: A time-course mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Shokoufeh; Maqbool, Faheem; Salek-Maghsoudi, Armin; Rahmani, Soheila; Shadboorestan, Amir; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Amir; Amini, Mohsen; Norouzi, Parviz; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    In the present survey, the plasma level of diazinon after acute exposure was measured by HPLC method at a time-course manner. In addition, the impact of diazinon on the expression of the key genes responsible for hepatocellular antioxidative defense, including PON1, GPx and CAT were investigated. The increase in oxidative damages in treated rats was determined by measuring LPO, protein carbonyl content and total antioxidant power in plasma. After administration of 85 mg/kg diazinon in ten groups of male Wistar rats at different time points between 0-24 hours, the activity of AChE enzyme was inhibited to about 77.94 %. Significant increases in carbonyl groups and LPO after 0.75 and 1 hours were also observed while the plasma antioxidant power was significantly decreased. Despite the dramatic reduction of GP X and PON1 gene expression, CAT gene was significantly upregulated in mRNA level by 1.1 fold after 4 hours and 1.5-fold after 24 hours due to diazinon exposure, compared to control group. Furthermore, no significant changes in diazinon plasma levels were found after 4 hours in the treated rats. The limits of detection and quantification were 137.42 and 416.52 ng/mL, respectively. The average percentage recoveries from plasma were between 90.62 % and 95.72 %. In conclusion, acute exposure to diazinon increased oxidative stress markers in a time-dependent manner and the changes were consistent with effects on hepatic antioxidant gene expression pattern. The effect of diazinon even as a non-lethal dose was induced on the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The change in antioxidant defense system occurs prior to diazinon plasma peak time. These results provide biochemical and molecular evidence supporting potential acute toxicity of diazinon and is beneficial in the evaluation of acute toxicity of other organophosphorus pesticides as well.

  18. Nurses' shift reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    practices were described as highly conventionalised and locally situated, but with occasional opportunities for improvisation and negotiation between nurses. Finally, shift reports were described as multifunctional meetings, with individual and social effects for nurses and teams. CONCLUSION: Innovations...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and negotiate care....

  19. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Canuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status, socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift, and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2. The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2, followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64, workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93 and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73. CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  1. Altered pattern of spontaneous brain activity in the patients with end-stage renal disease: a resting-state functional MRI study with regional homogeneity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Liang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the pattern of spontaneous neural activity in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD with and without neurocognitive dysfunction using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI with a regional homogeneity (ReHo algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: rs-fMRI data were acquired in 36 ESRD patients (minimal nephro-encephalopathy [MNE], n = 19, 13 male, 37±12.07 years; non-nephro-encephalopathy [non-NE], n = 17, 11 male, 38±12.13 years and 20 healthy controls (13 male, 7 female, 36±10.27 years. Neuropsychological (number connection test type A [NCT-A], digit symbol test [DST] and laboratory tests were performed in all patients. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC was used to measure the regional homogeneity for each subject. The regional homogeneity maps were compared using ANOVA tests among MNE, non-NE, and healthy control groups and post hoc t -tests between each pair in a voxel-wise way. A multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between ReHo index and NCT-A, DST scores, serum creatinine and urea levels, disease and dialysis duration. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, both MNE and non-NE patients showed decreased ReHo in the multiple areas of bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. Compared with the non-NE, MNE patients showed decreased ReHo in the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL, medial frontal cortex (MFC and left precuneus (PCu. The NCT-A scores and serum urea levels of ESRD patients negatively correlated with ReHo values in the frontal and parietal lobes, while DST scores positively correlated with ReHo values in the bilateral PCC/precuneus, MFC and inferior parietal lobe (IPL (all P0.05, AlphaSim corrected. CONCLUSION: Diffused decreased ReHo values were found in both MNE and non-NE patients. The progressively decreased ReHo in the default mode network (DMN, frontal and parietal lobes might be trait-related in MNE. The Re

  2. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  3. Alteration of introns in a hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1 minigene convert Pre-mRNA [corrected] splicing to the aberrant pattern in multiple myeloma (MM: MM patients harbor similar changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitra Kriangkum

    Full Text Available Aberrant pre-mRNA splice variants of hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1 have been identified in malignant cells from cancer patients. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that intronic sequence changes can underlie aberrant splicing. Deletions and mutations were introduced into HAS1 minigene constructs to identify regions that can influence aberrant intronic splicing, comparing the splicing pattern in transfectants with that in multiple myeloma (MM patients. Introduced genetic variations in introns 3 and 4 of HAS1 as shown here can promote aberrant splicing of the type detected in malignant cells from MM patients. HAS1Vd is a novel intronic splice variant first identified here. HAS1Vb, an intronic splice variant previously identified in patients, skips exon 4 and utilizes the same intron 4 alternative 3'splice site as HAS1Vd. For transfected constructs with unaltered introns 3 and 4, HAS1Vd transcripts are readily detectable, frequently to the exclusion of HAS1Vb. In contrast, in MM patients, HAS1Vb is more frequent than HAS1Vd. In the HAS1 minigene, combining deletion in intron 4 with mutations in intron 3 leads to a shift from HAS1Vd expression to HAS1Vb expression. The upregulation of aberrant splicing, exemplified here by the expression of HAS1Vb, is shown here to be influenced by multiple genetic changes in intronic sequences. For HAS1Vb, this includes enhanced exon 4 skipping and increased usage of alternative 3' splice sites. Thus, the combination of introduced mutations in HAS1 intron3 with introduced deletions in HAS1 intron 4 promoted a shift to an aberrant splicing pattern previously shown to be clinically significant. Most MM patients harbor genetic variations in intron 4, and as shown here, nearly half harbor recurrent mutations in HAS1 intron 3. Our work suggests that aberrant intronic HAS1 splicing in MM patients may rely on intronic HAS1 deletions and mutations that are frequent in MM patients but absent from healthy donors.

  4. Altered cropping pattern and cultural continuation with declined prosperity following abrupt and extreme arid event at ~4,200 yrs BP: Evidence from an Indus archaeological site Khirsara, Gujarat, western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharia, Anil K; Agnihotri, Rajesh; Sharma, Shalini; Bajpai, Sunil; Nath, Jitendra; Kumaran, R N; Negi, Bipin Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Archaeological sites hold important clues to complex climate-human relationships of the past. Human settlements in the peripheral zone of Indus culture (Gujarat, western India) are of considerable importance in the assessment of past monsoon-human-subsistence-culture relationships and their survival thresholds against climatic stress exerted by abrupt changes. During the mature phase of Harappan culture between ~4,600-3,900yrsBP, the ~4,100±100yrsBP time slice is widely recognized as one of the major, abrupt arid-events imprinted innumerous well-dated palaeo records. However, the veracity of this dry event has not been established from any archaeological site representing the Indus (Harappan) culture, and issues concerning timing, changes in subsistence pattern, and the likely causes of eventual abandonment (collapse) continue to be debated. Here we show a significant change in crop-pattern (from barley-wheat based agriculture to 'drought-resistant' millet-based crops) at ~4,200 yrs BP, based on abundant macrobotanical remains and C isotopes of soil organic matter (δ13CSOM) in an archaeological site at Khirsara, in the Gujarat state of western India. The crop-change appears to be intentional and was likely used as an adaptation measure in response to deteriorated monsoonal conditions. The ceramic and architectural remains of the site indicate that habitation survived and continued after the ~4,200yrsBP dry climatic phase, but with declined economic prosperity. Switching to millet-based crops initially helped inhabitants to avoid immediate collapse due to climatic stresses, but continued aridity and altered cropping pattern led to a decline in prosperity levels of inhabitants and eventual abandonment of the site at the end of the mature Harappan phase.

  5. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A; Novak, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1) and 7.74 km yr(-1) shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  6. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  7. Tensor GSVD of Patient- and Platform-Matched Tumor and Normal DNA Copy-Number Profiles Uncovers Chromosome Arm-Wide Patterns of Tumor-Exclusive Platform-Consistent Alterations Encoding for Cell Transformation and Predicting Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq

  8. The impact of sleep deprivation on surgeons' performance during night shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, Ilda

    2014-09-01

    The median incidence of adverse events that may result in patient injury is a total of 9% of all in-hospital admissions. In order to reduce this high incidence initiatives are continuously worked on that can reduce the risk of patient harm during admission by strengthening hospital systems. However, the influence of physicians' shift work on the risk on adverse events in patients remains controversial. In the studies included in this PhD thesis we wished to examine the impact of sleep deprivation and circadian rhythm disturbances on surgeons' during night shifts. Further we wished to examine the impact sleep deprivation had on surgeons' performance as a measure of how patient safety would be affected. We found that sleep deprivation subjectively had an impact on the surgeons and that they were aware of the effect fatigue had on their work performance. As a result they applied different mechanisms to cope with fatigue. Attending surgeons felt that they had a better overview now, due to more experience and better skills, than when they were residents, despite the fatigue on night shifts. We monitored surgeons' performance during night shifts by laparoscopic simulation and cognitive tests in order to assess their performance; no deterioration was found when pre call values were compared to on call values. The surgeons were monitored prospectively for 4 days across a night shift in order to assess the circadian rhythm and sleep. We found that surgeons' circadian rhythm was affected by working night shifts and their sleep pattern altered, resembling that of shift workers on the post call day. We assessed the quality of admission in medical records as a measure of surgeons' performance, during day, evening and night hours and found no deterioration in the quality of night time medical records. However, consistent high errors were found in several categories. These findings should be followed up in the future with respect of clarifying mechanism and consequences for

  9. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  10. Shifting Up a Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Shift workers are often excluded from educational opportunities on and off the job. General education and leisure learning needs are addressed less than job-specific training needs. Providers should consider open/distance learning, creative marketing, targeted funding, and consortia of employer-developed programs. (SK)

  11. Understanding regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heymann, Matthias; Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    ”. Danish wind power development is all the more surprising, as the innovation process in wind technology was carried to a large extent by non-academic craftsmen and political activists. Many features of this innovation story have been investigated and that research makes it possible to summarize...... the current understanding of the regime shift....

  12. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.; Gramuglia, A.

    2014-01-01

    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction, gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared activities with one of the

  13. Paradigm Shifts into Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckstroth, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    The process of recognizing qualities of giftedness in a child evokes a range of responses in families, affecting the roles and relationships of an entire family system as the whole family constellation shifts to accommodate a child's giftedness, and each family member's reactions differ because of their own particular temperament, personality,…

  14. Sleep deprivation due to shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation due to shift work is related to perturbation of the sleep/wake cycle, associated with the modified activity/rest pattern. This may cause a significant disruption of circadian rhythms of biologic functions, driven by the body clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Shift and night workers have to change sleep times and strategies according to their duty periods; consequently, both sleep length and quality can be considerably affected depending on the variable start and finish times on different shifts. About 10% of night and rotating shift workers, aged between 18 and 65 years, have been estimated to have a diagnosable "shift-work sleep disorder," according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2 (ICSD-2). In the long run, this may lead to persistent and severe disturbances of sleep, chronic fatigue and psychoneurotic syndromes, besides being a risk or aggravating factor for accidents, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and reproductive disorders, as well as, probably, for cancer. Preventive and corrective actions deal with the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria, careful health surveillance, appropriate education and training on effective countermeasures, in particular, sleep hygiene and napping. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Predator-induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenberg, B.I.; Hamilton, S.L.; Walsh, S.M.; Donovan, M.K.; Friedlander, A.; DeMartini, E.; Sala, E.; Sandin, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that human impacts have altered community structure in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide. Of these, fishing is one of the most pervasive, and a growing body of work suggests that fishing can have strong effects on the ecology of target species, especially top predators. However, the effects of removing top predators on lower trophic groups of prey fishes are less clear, particularly in highly diverse and trophically complex coral reef ecosystems. We examined patterns of abundance, size structure, and age-based demography through surveys and collection-based studies of five fish species from a variety of trophic levels at Kiritimati and Palmyra, two nearby atolls in the Northern Line Islands. These islands have similar biogeography and oceanography, and yet Kiritimati has ~10,000 people with extensive local fishing while Palmyra is a US National Wildlife Refuge with no permanent human population, no fishing, and an intact predator fauna. Surveys indicated that top predators were relatively larger and more abundant at unfished Palmyra, while prey functional groups were relatively smaller but showed no clear trends in abundance as would be expected from classic trophic cascades. Through detailed analyses of focal species, we found that size and longevity of a top predator were lower at fished Kiritimati than at unfished Palmyra. Demographic patterns also shifted dramatically for 4 of 5 fish species in lower trophic groups, opposite in direction to the top predator, including decreases in average size and longevity at Palmyra relative to Kiritimati. Overall, these results suggest that fishing may alter community structure in complex and non-intuitive ways, and that indirect demographic effects should be considered more broadly in ecosystem-based management. ?? 2011 Ruttenberg et al.

  16. Predator-induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I Ruttenberg

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become apparent that human impacts have altered community structure in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide. Of these, fishing is one of the most pervasive, and a growing body of work suggests that fishing can have strong effects on the ecology of target species, especially top predators. However, the effects of removing top predators on lower trophic groups of prey fishes are less clear, particularly in highly diverse and trophically complex coral reef ecosystems. We examined patterns of abundance, size structure, and age-based demography through surveys and collection-based studies of five fish species from a variety of trophic levels at Kiritimati and Palmyra, two nearby atolls in the Northern Line Islands. These islands have similar biogeography and oceanography, and yet Kiritimati has ∼10,000 people with extensive local fishing while Palmyra is a US National Wildlife Refuge with no permanent human population, no fishing, and an intact predator fauna. Surveys indicated that top predators were relatively larger and more abundant at unfished Palmyra, while prey functional groups were relatively smaller but showed no clear trends in abundance as would be expected from classic trophic cascades. Through detailed analyses of focal species, we found that size and longevity of a top predator were lower at fished Kiritimati than at unfished Palmyra. Demographic patterns also shifted dramatically for 4 of 5 fish species in lower trophic groups, opposite in direction to the top predator, including decreases in average size and longevity at Palmyra relative to Kiritimati. Overall, these results suggest that fishing may alter community structure in complex and non-intuitive ways, and that indirect demographic effects should be considered more broadly in ecosystem-based management.

  17. Causes and projections of abrupt climate-driven ecosystem shifts in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaugrand, G.; Edwards, M.; Brander, Keith

    2008-01-01

    ecosystem shifts seen across multiple trophic levels. This large-scale boundary is located in regions where abrupt ecosystem shifts have been reported in the North Atlantic sector and thereby allows us to link these shifts by a global common phenomenon. We show that these changes alter the biodiversity...

  18. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  19. Shift work in hospitals: what are the effects on patient and employee outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Peter; Dall'ora, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The healthcare sector works around the clock and requires the availability of staff 24 hours a day. This means that shift work is an essential aspect of staffing hospital departments. However, concerns have been raised about the consequences of some shift patterns for both patient and staff. Although there is no “ideal” shift system, this brief reports on evidence of the effect of shift characteristics including the length of the shift, rotation and days off on patient and employee outcomes.

  20. Modelling Vulnerability and Range Shifts in Ant Communities Responding to Future Global Warming in Temperate Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Sung; Li, Fengqing; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chun, Jung Hwa; Park, Young-Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is likely leading to species' distributional shifts, resulting in changes in local community compositions and diversity patterns. In this study, we applied species distribution models to evaluate the potential impacts of temperature increase on ant communities in Korean temperate forests, by testing hypotheses that 1) the risk of extinction of forest ant species would increase over time, and 2) the changes in species distribution ranges could drive upward movements of ant communities and further alter patterns of species richness. We sampled ant communities at 335 evenly distributed sites across South Korea and modelled the future distribution range for each species using generalized additive models. To account for spatial autocorrelation, autocovariate regressions were conducted prior to generalized additive models. Among 29 common ant species, 12 species were estimated to shrink their suitable geographic areas, whereas five species would benefit from future global warming. Species richness was highest at low altitudes in the current period, and it was projected to be highest at the mid-altitudes in the 2080s, resulting in an upward movement of 4.9 m yr-1. This altered the altitudinal pattern of species richness from a monotonic-decrease curve (common in temperate regions) to a bell-shaped curve (common in tropical regions). Overall, ant communities in temperate forests are vulnerable to the on-going global warming and their altitudinal movements are similar to other faunal communities.

  1. Shift rostering using decomposition: assign weekend shifts first

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Post, Gerhard F.; Veltman, Bart

    This paper introduces a shift rostering problem that surprisingly has not been studied in literature: the weekend shift rostering problem. It is motivated by our experience that employees’ shift preferences predominantly focus on the weekends, since many social activities happen during weekends. The

  2. When teams shift among processes: insights from simulation and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Deanna M; McComb, Sara A

    2014-09-01

    This article introduces process shifts to study the temporal interplay among transition and action processes espoused in the recurring phase model proposed by Marks, Mathieu, and Zacarro (2001). Process shifts are those points in time when teams complete a focal process and change to another process. By using team communication patterns to measure process shifts, this research explores (a) when teams shift among different transition processes and initiate action processes and (b) the potential of different interventions, such as communication directives, to manipulate process shift timing and order and, ultimately, team performance. Virtual experiments are employed to compare data from observed laboratory teams not receiving interventions, simulated teams receiving interventions, and optimal simulated teams generated using genetic algorithm procedures. Our results offer insights about the potential for different interventions to affect team performance. Moreover, certain interventions may promote discussions about key issues (e.g., tactical strategies) and facilitate shifting among transition processes in a manner that emulates optimal simulated teams' communication patterns. Thus, we contribute to theory regarding team processes in 2 important ways. First, we present process shifts as a way to explore the timing of when teams shift from transition to action processes. Second, we use virtual experimentation to identify those interventions with the greatest potential to affect performance by changing when teams shift among processes. Additionally, we employ computational methods including neural networks, simulation, and optimization, thereby demonstrating their applicability in conducting team research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Shifting the optimal stiffness for cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Benjamin L; Shamsan, Ghaidan A; Chan, Clarence E; Opoku, Kwaku N; Tüzel, Erkan; Schlichtmann, Benjamin W; Kasim, Jesse A; Fuller, Benjamin J; McCullough, Brannon R; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Odde, David J

    2017-05-22

    Cell migration, which is central to many biological processes including wound healing and cancer progression, is sensitive to environmental stiffness, and many cell types exhibit a stiffness optimum, at which migration is maximal. Here we present a cell migration simulator that predicts a stiffness optimum that can be shifted by altering the number of active molecular motors and clutches. This prediction is verified experimentally by comparing cell traction and F-actin retrograde flow for two cell types with differing amounts of active motors and clutches: embryonic chick forebrain neurons (ECFNs; optimum ∼1 kPa) and U251 glioma cells (optimum ∼100 kPa). In addition, the model predicts, and experiments confirm, that the stiffness optimum of U251 glioma cell migration, morphology and F-actin retrograde flow rate can be shifted to lower stiffness by simultaneous drug inhibition of myosin II motors and integrin-mediated adhesions.

  4. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Guadi, Matteo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance. The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the "Standard Shift Work Index," validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed. The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way. Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects.

  5. Mercury's shifting, rolling past

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  6. Shifting Design Consultancy Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Huijboom, Nina; Holm Nielsen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-intensive business services, such as design consultancies are perceived as key drivers for innovation and competitiveness. However, many designers create their own companies, which often remain as one-man companies. By interviewing designers who own small design firms we found patterns...

  7. Global changes alter soil fungal communities and alter rates of organic matter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Frey, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Global changes - such as warming, more frequent and severe droughts, increasing atmospheric CO2, and increasing nitrogen (N) deposition rates - are altering ecosystem processes. The balance between soil carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition is determined in large part by the activity and biomass of detrital organisms, namely soil fungi, and yet their sensitivity to global changes remains unresolved. We present results from a meta-analysis of 200+ studies spanning manipulative and observational field experiments to quantify fungal responses to global change and expected consequences for ecosystem C dynamics. Warming altered the functional soil microbial community by reducing the ratio of fungi to bacteria (f:b) total fungal biomass. Additionally, warming reduced lignolytic enzyme activity generally by one-third. Simulated N deposition affected f:b differently than warming, but the effect on fungal biomass and activity was similar. The effect of N-enrichment on f:b was contingent upon ecosystem type; f:b increased in alpine meadows and heathlands but decreased in temperate forests following N-enrichment. Across ecosystems, fungal biomass marginally declined by 8% in N-enriched soils. In general, N-enrichment reduced fungal lignolytic enzyme activity, which could explain why soil C accumulates in some ecosystems following warming and N-enrichment. Several global change experiments have reported the surprising result that soil C builds up following increases in temperature and N deposition rates. While site-specific studies have examined the role of soil fungi in ecosystem responses to global change, we present the first meta-analysis documenting general patterns of global change impacts on soil fungal communities, biomass, and activity. In sum, we provide evidence that soil microbial community shifts and activity plays a large part in ecosystem responses to global changes, and have the potential to alter the magnitude of the C-climate feedback.

  8. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  9. The shift in windpower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite new production records, the near-term market for new windpower projects in the US remains bleak. Congressional incentives and project proposals in the mid-1990s offer promise, but for now most development has shifted to Europe. During 1992 and 1993 the largest wind projects developed by US companies will not be in the US, but in the United Kingdom and Spain. Indeed, most of the US's windpower industry is going abroad, establishing offices overseas. This move toward Europe comes as little surprise. New project development for US firms has faltered at home while the European market has burgeoned. The topics of the article include the move to Europe, a reduction in California's share of producing wind power plants, a rise in Europe's share of producing wind power plants, the future market for wind power in the US, and reawakening California's market

  10. Cα chemical shift tensors in helical peptides by dipolar-modulated chemical shift recoupling NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Xiaolan; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Hong Mei

    2002-01-01

    The Cα chemical shift tensors of proteins contain information on the backbone conformation. We have determined the magnitude and orientation of the Cα chemical shift tensors of two peptides with α-helical torsion angles: the Ala residue in G*AL (φ=-65.7 deg., ψ=-40 deg.), and the Val residue in GG*V (φ=-81.5 deg., ψ=-50.7 deg.). The magnitude of the tensors was determined from quasi-static powder patterns recoupled under magic-angle spinning, while the orientation of the tensors was extracted from Cα-Hα and Cα-N dipolar modulated powder patterns. The helical Ala Cα chemical shift tensor has a span of 36 ppm and an asymmetry parameter of 0.89. Its σ 11 axis is 116 deg. ± 5 deg. from the Cα-Hα bond while the σ 22 axis is 40 deg. ± 5 deg. from the Cα-N bond. The Val tensor has an anisotropic span of 25 ppm and an asymmetry parameter of 0.33, both much smaller than the values for β-sheet Val found recently (Yao and Hong, 2002). The Val σ 33 axis is tilted by 115 deg. ± 5 deg. from the Cα-Hα bond and 98 deg. ± 5 deg. from the Cα-N bond. These represent the first completely experimentally determined Cα chemical shift tensors of helical peptides. Using an icosahedral representation, we compared the experimental chemical shift tensors with quantum chemical calculations and found overall good agreement. These solid-state chemical shift tensors confirm the observation from cross-correlated relaxation experiments that the projection of the Cα chemical shift tensor onto the Cα-Hα bond is much smaller in α-helices than in β-sheets

  11. Transcriptional Alterations of Virulence-Associated Genes in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL-Producing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli during Morphologic Transitions Induced by Ineffective Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak Demirel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that an ineffective antibiotic treatment can induce morphological shifts in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC but the virulence properties during these shifts remain to be studied. The present study examines changes in global gene expression patterns and in virulence factor-associated genes in an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing UPEC (ESBL019 during the morphologic transitions induced by an ineffective antibiotic and in the presence of human primary bladder epithelial cells. Microarray results showed that the different morphological states of ESBL019 had significant transcriptional alterations of a large number of genes (Transition; 7%, Filamentation; 32%, and Reverted 19% of the entities on the array. All three morphological states of ESBL019 were associated with a decreased energy metabolism, altered iron acquisition systems and altered adhesion expression. In addition, genes associated with LPS synthesis and bacterial motility was also altered in all the morphological states. Furthermore, the transition state induced a significantly higher release of TNF-α from bladder epithelial cells compared to all other morphologies, while the reverted state was unable to induce TNF-α release. Our findings show that the morphological shifts induced by ineffective antibiotics are associated with significant transcriptional virulence alterations in ESBL-producing UPEC, which may affect survival and persistence in the urinary tract.

  12. Characterizing recovery of sleep after four successive night shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Tachi, Norihide; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Ebara, Takeshi; Inoue, Tatsuki; Takanishi, Toshimasa; Murasaki, Gen-i; Itani, Toru

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the recovery pattern of sleep following simulated, four successive night shifts in ten healthy men (22.9 + or - 3.2 yr). Poor sleep was defined as sleep efficiency of 80% or lower as determined actigraphically. The results showed that four (rapid, slow, pseudo, and incomplete) patterns of sleep recovery were observed over three recovery sleep periods. The rapid and slow recovery pattern represented immediate and slow return to baseline level prior to the nightshifts, respectively. The pseudo recovery pattern demonstrated poor sleep at the 3rd recovery sleep period, despite transient recovery at the 2nd sleep period. The incomplete recovery pattern was characterized by consistently poorer sleep during the entire recovery period. The correlation analysis indicated that sleep habits (bed time and variation of wake time) prior to the experiment were significantly related to the recovery patterns, rather than performance and alertness during the night shifts.

  13. Shifting boundaries in telecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Elkjær, Bente

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Telecare is a growing practice defined as diagnosis, treatment and monitoring among doctors, nurses and patients, which is mediated through ICT and without face-to-face interaction. The purpose of this article is to provide empirically based knowledge about the organization of the use...... of ICT and dilemmas of this increasingly common practice in healthcare. Findings Telecare embraces new standards and possibilities for professional responsibility and accountability for nurses, but also alters the relationship between doctors and nurses. This leads to a dilemma we characterize...... was carried out over four months. Online video consultations were observed alongside workshops focusing on nurses’ photo elucidation of the telecare practice. The analytical ambition was to start the study in the middle of things and explore the emergent design of telecare. Originality/value The study draws...

  14. Identification of irradiated insects: Alterations in total proteins of irradiated adults of the confused flour beetle, tribolium confused DuVal. (Coleoptera: Tenenbrionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1996-01-01

    The results of electrophoretic separation of proteins (SDS-PAGE) revealed several protein bands from homogenate samples of irradiated and control adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum DuVal. However, it was nor possible to detect protein bands that show any shifts or separations between the irradiated and control beetles of the confused flour beetle. A remarkable reduction in the content of total proteins in irradiated adults was noted. Irradiation treatment altered the electrophoretic patterns and densities of proteins. The density of low molecular weight proteins ( 23 kDa) decreased. The alterations in total proteins of adult confused beetles are related to the dose of gamma radiation and the time elapsed after treatment. However, these clear changes in the electrophoretic pattern of protein fractions cannot be used to distinguish irradiated insects from non-irradiated ones as these alterations are not specific for irradiation. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Chemical shift imaging: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brateman, L.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical shift is the phenomenon that is seen when an isotope possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment resonates at a spectrum of resonance frequencies in a given magnetic field. These resonance frequencies, or chemical shifts, depend on the chemical environments of particular nuclei. Mapping the spatial distribution of nuclei associated with a particular chemical shift (e.g., hydrogen nuclei associated with water molecules or with lipid groups) is called chemical shift imaging. Several techniques of proton chemical shift imaging that have been applied in vivo are presented, and their clinical findings are reported and summarized. Acquiring high-resolution spectra for large numbers of volume elements in two or three dimensions may be prohibitive because of time constraints, but other methods of imaging lipid of water distributions (i.e., selective excitation, selective saturation, or variations in conventional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences) can provide chemical shift information. These techniques require less time, but they lack spectral information. Since fat deposition seen by chemical shift imaging may not be demonstrated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging, certain applications of chemical shift imaging, such as in the determination of fatty liver disease, have greater diagnostic utility than conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, edge artifacts caused by chemical shift effects can be eliminated by certain selective methods of data acquisition employed in chemical shift imaging

  16. Perceived shift. South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovadia, H

    1998-01-01

    This speech challenges the global community to commit to reducing HIV/AIDS in Durban, South Africa, where 1 in 4 adults is infected with the virus. A commitment of resources and energy would show good faith in fairness, generate unstoppable momentum in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, provide a genuine renewal in the war against this disease, and set an example for other low income, resource poor, and HIV-epidemic countries. In 2000, the 13th Annual International AIDS Conference will be suitably located in Durban in a region with the highest rates of HIV/AIDS. The 1998 UNAIDS report states that 70% of those infected with HIV (21 million) are in Africa. A shift in program effort and political will would mark a turning point in the war against AIDS. There are four "P's" behind prevention and control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: politicians, people, private sector, and programs. It is suggested that next year's conference should include political will that will become unshakable. Budgets need to be realistic. People should have unquestionable tolerance, acceptance, and generosity. Community organizations should be strengthened. Discrimination should be stopped. Science needs to be advanced. The private sector's involvement should be meaningful and supportive. Programs should be appropriate, affordable, and accessible. Many gaps need to be bridged and many people need to enlist their aid. The author urges that conference participants remember the afflicted poor and plan for a rebirth and renewal of hope.

  17. Night shift decreases cognitive performance of ICU physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, François; Adda, Mélanie; Bablon, Amandine; Hraeich, Sami; Guervilly, Christophe; Lehingue, Samuel; Wiramus, Sandrine; Leone, Marc; Martin, Claude; Vialet, Renaud; Thirion, Xavier; Roch, Antoine; Forel, Jean-Marie; Papazian, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between tiredness and the risk of medical errors is now commonly accepted. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intensive care unit (ICU) night shift on the cognitive performance of a group of intensivists. The influence of professional experience and the amount of sleep on cognitive performance was also investigated. A total of 51 intensivists from three ICUs (24 seniors and 27 residents) were included. The study participants were evaluated after a night of rest and after a night shift according to a randomized order. Four cognitive skills were tested according to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. All cognitive abilities worsened after a night shift: working memory capacity (11.3 ± 0.3 vs. 9.4 ± 0.3; p sleep. The other three cognitive skills were altered, regardless of the amount of sleep during the night shift. The cognitive abilities of intensivists were significantly altered following a night shift in the ICU, regardless of either the amount of professional experience or the duration of sleep during the shift. The consequences for patients' safety and physicians' health should be further evaluated.

  18. Leaf litter mixtures alter microbial community development: mechanisms for non-additive effects in litter decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Chapman

    Full Text Available To what extent microbial community composition can explain variability in ecosystem processes remains an open question in ecology. Microbial decomposer communities can change during litter decomposition due to biotic interactions and shifting substrate availability. Though relative abundance of decomposers may change due to mixing leaf litter, linking these shifts to the non-additive patterns often recorded in mixed species litter decomposition rates has been elusive, and links community composition to ecosystem function. We extracted phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs from single species and mixed species leaf litterbags after 10 and 27 months of decomposition in a mixed conifer forest. Total PLFA concentrations were 70% higher on litter mixtures than single litter types after 10 months, but were only 20% higher after 27 months. Similarly, fungal-to-bacterial ratios differed between mixed and single litter types after 10 months of decomposition, but equalized over time. Microbial community composition, as indicated by principal components analyses, differed due to both litter mixing and stage of litter decomposition. PLFA biomarkers a15∶0 and cy17∶0, which indicate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria respectively, in particular drove these shifts. Total PLFA correlated significantly with single litter mass loss early in decomposition but not at later stages. We conclude that litter mixing alters microbial community development, which can contribute to synergisms in litter decomposition. These findings advance our understanding of how changing forest biodiversity can alter microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they mediate.

  19. Global regime shift dynamics of catastrophic sea urchin overgrazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S. D.; Scheibling, R. E.; Rassweiler, A.; Johnson, C. R.; Shears, N.; Connell, S. D.; Salomon, A. K.; Norderhaug, K. M.; Pérez-Matus, A.; Hernández, J. C.; Clemente, S.; Blamey, L. K.; Hereu, B.; Ballesteros, E.; Sala, E.; Garrabou, J.; Cebrian, E.; Zabala, M.; Fujita, D.; Johnson, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    A pronounced, widespread and persistent regime shift among marine ecosystems is observable on temperate rocky reefs as a result of sea urchin overgrazing. Here, we empirically define regime-shift dynamics for this grazing system which transitions between productive macroalgal beds and impoverished urchin barrens. Catastrophic in nature, urchin overgrazing in a well-studied Australian system demonstrates a discontinuous regime shift, which is of particular management concern as recovery of desirable macroalgal beds requires reducing grazers to well below the initial threshold of overgrazing. Generality of this regime-shift dynamic is explored across 13 rocky reef systems (spanning 11 different regions from both hemispheres) by compiling available survey data (totalling 10 901 quadrats surveyed in situ) plus experimental regime-shift responses (observed during a total of 57 in situ manipulations). The emergent and globally coherent pattern shows urchin grazing to cause a discontinuous ‘catastrophic’ regime shift, with hysteresis effect of approximately one order of magnitude in urchin biomass between critical thresholds of overgrazing and recovery. Different life-history traits appear to create asymmetry in the pace of overgrazing versus recovery. Once shifted, strong feedback mechanisms provide resilience for each alternative state thus defining the catastrophic nature of this regime shift. Importantly, human-derived stressors can act to erode resilience of desirable macroalgal beds while strengthening resilience of urchin barrens, thus exacerbating the risk, spatial extent and irreversibility of an unwanted regime shift for marine ecosystems.

  20. Shifts in lake N: P stoichiometry and nutrient limitation driven by atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, J.J.; Andersen, T.; Baron, Jill S.; Bergstrom, A.-K.; Jansson, M.; Kyle, M.; Nydick, K.R.; Steger, L.; Hessen, D.O.

    2009-01-01

    Human activities have more than doubled the amount of nitrogen (N) circulating in the biosphere. One major pathway of this anthropogenic N input into ecosystems has been increased regional deposition from the atmosphere. Here we show that atmospheric N deposition increased the stoichiometric ratio of N and phosphorus (P) in lakes in Norway, Sweden, and Colorado, United States, and, as a result, patterns of ecological nutrient limitation were shifted. Under low N deposition, phytoplankton growth is generally N-limited; however, in high-N deposition lakes, phytoplankton growth is consistently P-limited. Continued anthropogenic amplification of the global N cycle will further alter ecological processes, such as biogeochemical cycling, trophic dynamics, and biological diversity, in the world's lakes, even in lakes far from direct human disturbance.

  1. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  2. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  3. Infant avoidance training alters cellular activation patterns in prefronto-limbic circuits during adult avoidance learning: II. Cellular imaging of neurons expressing the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Nicole; Mannewitz, Anja; Bock, Jörg; Becker, Susann; Guttmann, Katja; Poeggel, Gerd; Braun, Katharina

    2018-03-01

    ensembles which are involved in different phases of active avoidance learning and whose activity patterns are changing in response to previous learning experience during infancy. Our results indicate (1) that, despite the inability to learn an active avoidance response in infancy, lasting memory traces are formed encoding the subtasks that are learned in infancy (e.g., the association of the CS and UCS, escape strategy), which are encoded in the infant brain by neuronal ensembles, which alter their synaptic connectivity via activation of specific synaptic plasticity proteins such as Arc/Arg3.1 and Egr1, and (2) that during adult training these memories can be retrieved by reactivating these neuronal ensembles and their synaptic circuits and thereby accelerate learning.

  4. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paola Ferri,1 Matteo Guadi,1 Luigi Marcheselli,1 Sara Balduzzi,1 Daniela Magnani,1 Rosaria Di Lorenzo2 1Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 2Department of Mental Health, AUSL di Modena, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Modena, Italy Background: Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance.Objectives: The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the “Standard Shift Work Index,” validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed.Results: The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way.Conclusion: Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects. Keywords: shift work, night work

  5. Phase-shifting interferometer for surface inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Siu Chung; Low, Beng-Yew; Chua, Hock-Chuan; Ho, Anthony T. S.; Neo, Wah-Peng

    1997-08-01

    A phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer has been constructed. Using three consecutively captured interferograms, the phase profile of a reflective surface can be determined. Results using various fringe processing techniques are compared. These methods include uniform averaging, Gaussian mask and spin filtering. For simulated fringes superimposed with random noise and fixed-pattern noise, it has been observed that a combination of weighted averaging and spin filtering could generate the best results. The computerized system has been applied to the measurement of the form errors of a silicon wafer and a cosmetic mirror, respectively. The root-mean-square error of the wafer is determined to be 11.13 nm.

  6. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  7. Resolving Shifting Patterns of Muscle Energy Use in Swimming Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Shannon P.; Ellerby, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle metabolism dominates the energy costs of locomotion. Although in vivo measures of muscle strain, activity and force can indicate mechanical function, similar muscle-level measures of energy use are challenging to obtain. Without this information locomotor systems are essentially a black box in terms of the distribution of metabolic energy. Although in situ measurements of muscle metabolism are not practical in multiple muscles, the rate of blood flow to skeletal muscle tissue can be used as a proxy for aerobic metabolism, allowing the cost of particular muscle functions to be estimated. Axial, undulatory swimming is one of the most common modes of vertebrate locomotion. In fish, segmented myotomal muscles are the primary power source, driving undulations of the body axis that transfer momentum to the water. Multiple fins and the associated fin muscles also contribute to thrust production, and stabilization and control of the swimming trajectory. We have used blood flow tracers in swimming rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to estimate the regional distribution of energy use across the myotomal and fin muscle groups to reveal the functional distribution of metabolic energy use within a swimming animal for the first time. Energy use by the myotomal muscle increased with speed to meet thrust requirements, particularly in posterior myotomes where muscle power outputs are greatest. At low speeds, there was high fin muscle energy use, consistent with active stability control. As speed increased, and fins were adducted, overall fin muscle energy use declined, except in the caudal fin muscles where active fin stiffening is required to maintain power transfer to the wake. The present data were obtained under steady-state conditions which rarely apply in natural, physical environments. This approach also has potential to reveal the mechanical factors that underlie changes in locomotor cost associated with movement through unsteady flow regimes. PMID:25165858

  8. The Poetics of "Pattern Recognition": William Gibson's Shifting Technological Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Alex

    2007-01-01

    William Gibson's 1984 cyberpunk novel "Neuromancer" continues to be a touchstone in cultural representations of the impact of new information and communication technologies on the self. As critics have noted, the posthumanist, capital-driven, urban landscape of "Neuromancer" resembles a Foucaultian vision of a panoptically engineered social space…

  9. Human-ignited wildfire patterns and responses to policy shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Chas-Amil; J. P. Prestemon; C. J. McClean; J. Touza

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient forest wildfire policies requires an understanding of the underlying reasons behind forest fire occurrences. Globally, there is a close relationship between forest wildfires and human activities; most wildfires are human events due to negligence (e.g., agricultural burning escapes) and deliberate actions (e.g., vandalism, pyromania, revenge,...

  10. Resolving shifting patterns of muscle energy use in swimming fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon P Gerry

    Full Text Available Muscle metabolism dominates the energy costs of locomotion. Although in vivo measures of muscle strain, activity and force can indicate mechanical function, similar muscle-level measures of energy use are challenging to obtain. Without this information locomotor systems are essentially a black box in terms of the distribution of metabolic energy. Although in situ measurements of muscle metabolism are not practical in multiple muscles, the rate of blood flow to skeletal muscle tissue can be used as a proxy for aerobic metabolism, allowing the cost of particular muscle functions to be estimated. Axial, undulatory swimming is one of the most common modes of vertebrate locomotion. In fish, segmented myotomal muscles are the primary power source, driving undulations of the body axis that transfer momentum to the water. Multiple fins and the associated fin muscles also contribute to thrust production, and stabilization and control of the swimming trajectory. We have used blood flow tracers in swimming rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss to estimate the regional distribution of energy use across the myotomal and fin muscle groups to reveal the functional distribution of metabolic energy use within a swimming animal for the first time. Energy use by the myotomal muscle increased with speed to meet thrust requirements, particularly in posterior myotomes where muscle power outputs are greatest. At low speeds, there was high fin muscle energy use, consistent with active stability control. As speed increased, and fins were adducted, overall fin muscle energy use declined, except in the caudal fin muscles where active fin stiffening is required to maintain power transfer to the wake. The present data were obtained under steady-state conditions which rarely apply in natural, physical environments. This approach also has potential to reveal the mechanical factors that underlie changes in locomotor cost associated with movement through unsteady flow regimes.

  11. The association between anxiety, hunger, the enjoyment of eating foods and the satiety after food intake in individuals working a night shift compared with after taking a nocturnal sleep: A prospective and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Cecília Silva, Ane Andrade; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Teixeira, Kely Raspante; Mendes, Jordane Amaral; de Souza Borba, Matheus Eduardo; Mota, Maria Carliana; Waterhouse, Jim; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2017-01-01

    Subjective responses to meals are altered by shortened sleep time and anxiety state, but this effect has been poorly studied in shift workers - who act as a typical model concerning sleep restriction and present high levels of anxiety. The objective of this study was to compare subjective perceptions of meals and the levels of anxiety in the same subjects after working night shifts and after taking a nocturnal sleep, and to investigate associations between the responses to meals and the levels of anxiety under these two conditions. The study evaluated 34 male permanent night-shift workers who worked a 12-h shift followed by a 36-h rest period. Evaluations included: sleep pattern (on three days after working night shifts and after sleeping at night); hunger, enjoyment of eating foods and satiety after a meal (evaluated by visual analogue scales on three non-consecutive days after working night shifts and after nocturnal sleeps); and state of anxiety (on a day after working a night shift and a day after a nocturnal sleep). In the days following a night shift, workers had higher mean hunger scores before lunch and higher anxiety scores than when they had slept at night (p = 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). Linear regression indicated that, after a night shift, anxiety scores were negatively associated with hunger before breakfast (p = 0.04) and lunch (p = 0.03), the enjoyment of eating foods (p = 0.03) and the number of meals eaten during the course of the 24 h (p = 0.03). It is concluded that night shifts increase mean hunger and anxiety scores. Anxiety levels seem to interfere with the responses associated with food consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal dynamics of circadian phase shifting response to consecutive night shifts in healthcare workers: role of light-dark exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Julia E; Sletten, Tracey L; Magee, Michelle; Ganesan, Saranea; Mulhall, Megan D; Collins, Allison; Howard, Mark; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2018-03-28

    Shift work is highly prevalent and is associated with significant adverse health impacts. There is substantial inter-individual variability in the way the circadian clock responds to changing shift cycles. The mechanisms underlying this variability are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that light-dark exposure is a significant contributor to this variability; when combined with diurnal preference, the relative timing of light exposure accounted for 71% of individual variability in circadian phase response to night shift work. These results will drive development of personalised approaches to manage circadian disruption among shift workers and other vulnerable populations to potentially reduce the increased risk of disease in these populations. Night shift workers show highly variable rates of circadian adaptation. This study examined the relationship between light exposure patterns and the magnitude of circadian phase resetting in response to night shift work. In 21 participants (nursing and medical staff in an intensive care unit) circadian phase was measured using 6-sulphatoxymelatonin at baseline (day/evening shifts or days off) and after 3-4 consecutive night shifts. Daily light exposure was examined relative to individual circadian phase to quantify light intensity in the phase delay and phase advance portions of the light phase response curve (PRC). There was substantial inter-individual variability in the direction and magnitude of phase shift after three or four consecutive night shifts (mean phase delay -1:08 ± 1:31 h; range -3:43 h delay to +3:07 h phase advance). The relative difference in the distribution of light relative to the PRC combined with diurnal preference accounted for 71% of the variability in phase shift. Regression analysis incorporating these factors estimated phase shift to within ±60 min in 85% of participants. No participants met criteria for partial adaptation to night work after three or four consecutive night

  13. Stokes shift spectroscopy for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasingh, Ebenezar; Prakashrao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (SSS) for normal and different pathological breast tissues such as fibroadenoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The SS spectra is measured by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological breast tissues were observed. The SS spectra of normal and different pathological breast tissues shows the distinct peaks around 300, 350, 450, 500 and 600 nm may be attributed to tryptophan, collagen, NADH, flavin and porphyrin respectively. Using SSS technique one can obtain all the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological breast tissues are verified by different ratio parameters.

  14. Ontogenetic shifts of heart position in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Lillywhite, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    Heart position relative to total body length (TL) varies among snakes, with anterior hearts in arboreal species and more centrally located hearts in aquatic or ground-dwelling species. Anterior hearts decrease the cardiac work associated with cranial blood flow and minimize drops in cranial pressure and flow during head-up climbing. Here, we investigate whether heart position shifts intraspecifically during ontogenetic increases in TL. Insular Florida cottonmouth snakes, Agkistrodon conanti, are entirely ground-dwelling and have a mean heart position that is 33.32% TL from the head. In contrast, arboreal rat snakes, Pantherophis obsoleta, of similar lengths have a mean heart position that is 17.35% TL from the head. In both species, relative heart position shifts craniad during ontogeny, with negative slopes = -.035 and -.021% TL/cm TL in Agkistrodon and Pantherophis, respectively. Using a large morphometric data set available for Agkistrodon (N = 192 individuals, 23-140 cm TL), we demonstrate there is an anterior ontogenetic shift of the heart position within the trunk (= 4.56% trunk length from base of head to cloacal vent), independent of head and tail allometry which are both negative. However, in longer snakes > 100 cm, the heart position reverses and shifts caudally in longer Agkistrodon but continues toward the head in longer individuals of Pantherophis. Examination of data sets for two independent lineages of fully marine snakes (Acrochordus granulatus and Hydrophis platurus), which do not naturally experience postural gravity stress, demonstrate both ontogenetic patterns for heart position that are seen in the terrestrial snakes. The anterior migration of the heart is greater in the terrestrial species, even if TL is standardized to that of the longer P. obsoleta, and compensates for about 5 mmHg gravitational pressure head if they are fully upright. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  16. Metabolic shifts during aging and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Li, Ji

    2015-04-01

    The heart is a very special organ in the body and has a high requirement for metabolism due to its constant workload. As a consequence, to provide a consistent and sufficient energy a high steady-state demand of metabolism is required by the heart. When delicately balanced mechanisms are changed by physiological or pathophysiological conditions, the whole system's homeostasis will be altered to a new balance, which contributes to the pathologic process. So it is no wonder that almost every heart disease is related to metabolic shift. Furthermore, aging is also found to be related to the reduction in mitochondrial function, insulin resistance, and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an energy sensor to detect intracellular ATP/AMP ratio and plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress. During different pathology (like myocardial ischemia and hypertension), the activation of cardiac AMPK appears to be essential for repairing cardiomyocyte's function by accelerating ATP generation, attenuating ATP depletion, and protecting the myocardium against cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. In this overview, we will talk about the normal heart's metabolism, how metabolic shifts during aging and different pathologies, and how AMPK regulates metabolic changes during these conditions. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  17. Digital phase-shifting atomic force microscope Moire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chiaming; Chen Lienwen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the digital atomic force microscope (AFM) Moire method with phase-shifting technology is established to measure the in-plane displacement and strain fields. The Moire pattern is generated by the interference between the specimen grating and the virtual reference grating formed by digital image processes. The overlapped image is filtered by two-dimensional wavelet transformation to obtain the clear interference Moire patterns. The four-step phase-shifting method is realized by translating the phase of the virtual reference grating from 0 to 2π. The principle of the digital AFM Moire method and the phase-shifting technology are described in detail. Experimental results show that this method is convenient to use and efficient in realizing the microscale measurement

  18. Winners and losers: analysing post-disaster spatial economic demand shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Nilawar, Uttara

    2013-10-01

    Disasters produce winners and losers. This paper evaluates such winners and losers in a spatial context. The hypothesis is that, because of severe damage to the core disaster area and the constraints associated with the cost of transportation, economic demand would shift to the immediate edge of the disaster zone where either minor or no damage is observed. Empirical analysis of growth patterns in counties/parishes in the states of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi in the United States after Hurricane Katrina (August 2005) verified the spatial demand shift hypothesis. The study found that the post-Katrina core disaster area became a 'doughnut hole' of low income and employment growth, surrounded by a ring of high growth counties/parishes on the edge of the hole. The short-run adjustment in growth rates may have altered permanently the spatial distribution of employment and income both at the core and in the areas at the edge. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  19. Shift in fire-ecosystems and weather changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongani Finiza

    2013-01-01

    During recent decades too much focus fell on fire suppression and fire engineering methods. Little attention has been given to understanding the shift in the changing fire weather resulting from the global change in weather patterns. Weather change have gradually changed the way vegetation cover respond to fire occurrence and brought about changes in fire behavior and...

  20. Soil bacterial community shifts associated with sugarcane straw removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Laisa; Gumiere, Thiago; Andreote, Fernando; Cerri, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    driver of bacterial community variation in sugarcane areas with straw removal and the bacterial community showed clusters according to the sampling date: early sampling (0 and 4 months) and late sampling (8 and 12 months). Alterations on the straw composition over the decomposition process is associated with these shifts on material community among the sampling date. Moreover, the rates of straw removal separated the bacterial community in two groups: high (75 and 100% of straw removal) and low (50% and no straw removal) rates of straw removal. This pattern could be attributed to differences in the soil environment (humidity and temperature), a strong driver of shifts on bacterial community. In conclusion, the bacterial community was affected by the time since the straw removal and by the rates of straw removal. Finally, both straw removal management and soil quality should be carefully evaluated, in order to maintain the sustainability of 2G sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil.

  1. Altered metabolic signature in pre-diabetic NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Madsen

    Full Text Available Altered metabolism proceeding seroconversion in children progressing to Type 1 diabetes has previously been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that non-obese diabetic (NOD mice show a similarly altered metabolic profile compared to C57BL/6 mice. Blood samples from NOD and C57BL/6 female mice was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 weeks and the metabolite content was analyzed using GC-MS. Based on the data of 89 identified metabolites OPLS-DA analysis was employed to determine the most discriminative metabolites. In silico analysis of potential involved metabolic enzymes was performed using the dbSNP data base. Already at 0 weeks NOD mice displayed a unique metabolic signature compared to C57BL/6. A shift in the metabolism was observed for both strains the first weeks of life, a pattern that stabilized after 5 weeks of age. Multivariate analysis revealed the most discriminative metabolites, which included inosine and glutamic acid. In silico analysis of the genes in the involved metabolic pathways revealed several SNPs in either regulatory or coding regions, some in previously defined insulin dependent diabetes (Idd regions. Our result shows that NOD mice display an altered metabolic profile that is partly resembling the previously observation made in children progressing to Type 1 diabetes. The level of glutamic acid was one of the most discriminative metabolites in addition to several metabolites in the TCA cycle and nucleic acid components. The in silico analysis indicated that the genes responsible for this reside within previously defined Idd regions.

  2. Anthropogenic Water Uses and River Flow Regime Alterations by Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, M.; Botter, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dams and impoundments have been designed to reconcile the systematic conflict between patterns of anthropogenic water uses and the temporal variability of river flows. Over the past seven decades, population growth and economic development led to a marked increase in the number of these water infrastructures, so that unregulated free-flowing rivers are now rare in developed countries and alterations of the hydrologic cycle at global scale have to be properly considered and characterized. Therefore, improving our understanding of the influence of dams and reservoirs on hydrologic regimes is going to play a key role in water planning and management. In this study, a physically based analytic approach is combined to extensive hydrologic data to investigate natural flow regime alterations downstream of dams in the Central-Eastern United States. These representative case studies span a wide range of different uses, including flood control, water supply and hydropower production. Our analysis reveals that the most evident effects of flood control through dams is a decrease in the intra-seasonal variability of flows, whose extent is controlled by the ratio between the storage capacity for flood control and the average incoming streamflow. Conversely, reservoirs used for water supply lead to an increase of daily streamflow variability and an enhanced inter-catchment heterogeneity. Over the last decades, the supply of fresh water required to sustain human populations has become a major concern at global scale. Accordingly, the number of reservoirs devoted to water supply increased by 50% in the US. This pattern foreshadows a possible shift in the cumulative effect of dams on river flow regimes in terms of inter-catchment homogenization and intra-annual flow variability.

  3. Fast phase retrieval with four-quadrant analysis in phase-shifting interferometry with blind phase shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yawei; Han, Hao; Liu, Jingye; Ji, Ying; Jin, Weifeng; Xu, Xiaoqing

    2018-01-01

    Phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) is one of the most effective techniques in optical measurement, in which phase retrieval with high efficiency is an important procedure. In this paper, a simple non-iterative method is proposed to extract the generalized phase shift with the four-quadrant analysis in three-frame PSI. In this method, the possible value of the phase shift is firstly worked out with the inner product algorithm, and then a criterion is put forward to accurately determine its principal value within the range [ 0 , 2 π ] , based on the change relationship of the interference wave vector in four quadrants. Thus, this method provides a possible method to solve the uncertainty of phase shift existing in some common algorithms. Subsequently, the phase can be retrieved easily without any other measurements. Both simulation and experimental results have fully proved the feasibility and high accuracy of the method. Moreover, it works well on open- and closed-fringed patterns.

  4. SAT in shift manager training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, F.

    1995-01-01

    EDF has improved the organization of the operation shift teams with the replacement of shift supervisor in shift manager function. The shift manager is not only responsible for tasks associated to plant operation (production), but he is also responsible for safety of these tasks and for management of shift team members. A job analysis of this new job position has been performed in order to design the training programme. It resulted in a 10-month training programme that includes 8 weeks in safety-related topics and 12 weeks in soft-skills related topics. The safety related training courses are mandatory, the other courses are optional courses depending on individual trainee needs. The training also includes the development of management competencies. During the 10 month period, each trainee develops an individual project that is evaluated by NPP manager. As well, as group project is undertaken by the trainees and overseen by a steering committee. The steering committee participates in the evaluation process and provides operational experience feedback to the trainee groups and to the overall programme

  5. PHONETIC EVIDENCE FOR THE NASAL CODA SHIFT IN MANDARIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented phonetic evidence to resolve the transcription disagreement concerning the syllable-final nasal shift in the variety of Mandarin spoken in Taiwan. Although three judges agreed that the rhyme /iŋ/ underwent a sound change, they perceived the nasal coda shift differently. Two of them transcribed it as a modification from /iŋ/ to /in/, whereas the other asserted that the velar nasal disappears with its preceding vowel nasalized. In order to resolve this transcription conflict, this study analyzed the acoustic attributes of the speculative sound alterations in question, including /in/, /iŋ/, /i/ and /ĩ/. The phonetic analysis indicated that the Taiwanese participants did not nasalize the preceding vowel deleting the nasal coda but tended to pronounce the post-vocalic velar nasal as its dental counterpart. This study concluded by discussing the implications of the synchronic variation for the theories of the nasal coda shift in Chinese dialects.

  6. Observation of the Phononic Lamb Shift with a Synthetic Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rentrop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to classical empty space, the quantum vacuum fundamentally alters the properties of embedded particles. This paradigm shift allows one to explain the discovery of the celebrated Lamb shift in the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Here, we engineer a synthetic vacuum, building on the unique properties of ultracold atomic gas mixtures, offering the ability to switch between empty space and quantum vacuum. Using high-precision spectroscopy, we observe the phononic Lamb shift, an intriguing many-body effect originally conjectured in the context of solid-state physics. We find good agreement with theoretical predictions based on the Fröhlich model. Our observations establish this experimental platform as a new tool for precision benchmarking of open theoretical challenges, especially in the regime of strong coupling between the particles and the quantum vacuum.

  7. shift

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    during the course of an academic year at the University of Witwatersrand following recent reforms in training and assessment methods Method: All fifth ... Assessment of Psychiatry in medical education at the. University of Witwatersrand ... or two examiners, to assess mainly clinical competence; multiple-choice questions ...

  8. Response shift en retrospectie. / Response shift in retrospect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; de Meijer, E.; Sprangers, M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between response shift and the concept of "artifact" with reference to W. K. Hofstee's (1986) arguments. The use of retrospective posttests instead of retrospective pretests is rejected, and some empirical approaches for assessing the impact of social desirability and

  9. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  10. VP Anaphors and Object Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the placement of the VP anaphor det ‘it’ as a complement of verbs selecting VP complements in Danish. With verbs that only allow a VP complement, the VP anaphor must be in SpecCP regardless of its information structure properties. If SpecCP is occupied by an operator, the an...... be in situ. The article argues that a shifted pronominal in Danish must be categorially licensed by the verb and extends this analysis to shifting locatives. An Optimality Theory analysis is proposed that accounts for the observed facts....

  11. Historical analysis of riparian vegetation change in response to shifting management objectives on the Middle Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Roy; van Leeuwen, Willem J.D.; Villarreal, Miguel; Tashjian, Paul; Dello Russo, Regina; Scott, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems are valuable to the ecological and human communities that depend on them. Over the past century, they have been subject to shifting management practices to maximize human use and ecosystem services, creating a complex relationship between water policy, management, and the natural ecosystem. This has necessitated research on the spatial and temporal dynamics of riparian vegetation change. The San Acacia Reach of the Middle Rio Grande has experienced multiple management and river flow fluctuations, resulting in threats to its riparian and aquatic ecosystems. This research uses remote sensing data, GIS, a review of management decisions, and an assessment of climate to both quantify how riparian vegetation has been altered over time and provide interpretations of the relationships between riparian change and shifting climate and management objectives. This research focused on four management phases from 1935 to 2014, each highlighting different management practices and climate-driven river patterns, providing unique opportunities to observe a direct relationship between river management, climate, and riparian response. Overall, we believe that management practices coupled with reduced surface river-flows with limited overbank flooding influenced the compositional and spatial patterns of vegetation, including possibly increasing non-native vegetation coverage. However, recent restoration efforts have begun to reduce non-native vegetation coverage.

  12. Differentiating phase shift and delay in narrow band coherent signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, M; Govindan, R B; Deuschl, G; Heute, U; Raethjen, J

    2008-05-01

    Differentiating between a fixed activation pattern (phase shift) and conduction time (time delay) in rhythmic signals has important physiological implications but is methodologically difficult. Delay was estimated by the maximising coherence method and phase spectra calculated between (i) a narrow band-pass filtered AR2 process and its delayed copy for different phase shifts, (ii) the surface EMGs from two antagonistic forearm muscles with reciprocal alternating activity, and (iii) EEG and EMG data from 11 recordings in five Parkinsonian tremor patients. Estimated delays between the versions of the AR2 process resembled the real delay and were not significantly biased by the phase-shifts. The reciprocal alternating pattern of muscle activation was shown to be a pure phase-shift without any time delay. The phase between tremor-coherent cortical electrodes and EMG showed opposite signs and differed by 3pi/4-pi between the antagonistic muscles. Bidirectional delays between contralateral cortex and EMG did not differ between the antagonists and were in keeping with fast corticospinal transmission and feedback to the cortex for both muscles. Phase shifts and delays reflect different mechanisms in tremor related oscillatory interactions. The maximising coherence method can differentiate between them.

  13. Does the ARFIMA really shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have long-memory features similar to those associated to processes generated under fractional integration. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification, that allows to disentangle the level...

  14. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Good daytime sleep is possible, though, if shift work is a necessary part of your work life. To promote better sleep during the day: ... Take naps. Napping late in the day before work might help you make up your sleep debt. ...

  15. Leadership Shifts in Changing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    As groups representing local and state education players struggle to remain relevant in a policy conversation often dominated by foundations, think tanks, new advocacy groups, and political and business figures, a shift in leadership has been under way at major associations. Most of the changes have come as part of the natural churn; former…

  16. Shift register neutron coincidence module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.M.; Swansen, J.E.; East, L.V.

    1975-11-01

    A neutron coincidence module was designed using multistage shift registers to produce the coincidence gates and a crystal controlled oscillator with variable clock outputs to change the gate lengths. The advantage of this system over the conventional, thermal-neutron coincidence gates is a decrease in deadtime by more than an order of magnitude

  17. The Shift Needed for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this action research is to begin to assess to what extent organizations have in practice begun to make the shift towards triple bottom line (TBL) sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A definition of TBL sustainability is provided, and key elements of TBL sustainability considered necessary to success are identified…

  18. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  19. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  20. Shifted risk preferences in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligneul, R; Sescousse, G; Barbalat, G; Domenech, P; Dreher, J-C

    2013-05-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder characterized by excessive monetary risk seeking in the face of negative consequences. We used tools from the field of behavioral economics to refine our description of risk-taking behavior in pathological gamblers. This theoretical framework allowed us to confront two hypotheses: (1) pathological gamblers distort winning probabilities more than controls; and (2) pathological gamblers merely overweight the whole probability range. Method Eighteen pathological gamblers and 20 matched healthy participants performed a decision-making task involving choices between safe amounts of money and risky gambles. The online adjustment of safe amounts, depending on participants' decisions, allowed us to compute 'certainty equivalents' reflecting the subjective probability weight associated with each gamble. The behavioral data were then fitted with a mathematical function known as the 'probability weighting function', allowing us to disentangle our two hypotheses. The results favored the second hypothesis, suggesting that pathological gamblers' behavior reflects economic preferences globally shifted towards risk, rather than excessively distorted probability weighting. A mathematical parameter (elevation parameter) estimated by our fitting procedure was found to correlate with gambling severity among pathological gamblers, and with gambling affinity among controls. PG is associated with a specific pattern of economic preferences, characterized by a global (i.e. probability independent) shift towards risky options. The observed correlation with gambling severity suggests that the present 'certainty equivalent' task may be relevant for clinical use.

  1. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  2. Shifts in pore connectivity from precipitation versus groundwater rewetting increases soil carbon loss after drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ashly P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Benscoter, Brian W.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Hinkle, Ross; Liu, Chongxuan; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2017-11-06

    Droughts and other extreme precipitation events are predicted to increase in intensity, duration and extent, with uncertain implications for terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration. Soil wetting from above (precipitation) results in a characteristically different pattern of pore-filling than wetting from below (groundwater), with larger, well-connected pores filling before finer pore spaces, unlike groundwater rise in which capillary forces saturate the finest pores first. Here we demonstrate that pore-scale wetting patterns interact with antecedent soil moisture conditions to alter pore-, core- and field-scale C dynamics. Drought legacy and wetting direction are perhaps more important determinants of short-term C mineralization than current soil moisture content in these soils. Our results highlight that microbial access to C is not solely limited by physical protection, but also by drought or wetting-induced shifts in hydrologic connectivity. We argue that models should treat soil moisture within a three-dimensional framework emphasizing hydrologic conduits for C and resource diffusion.

  3. Shifts in pore connectivity from precipitation versus groundwater rewetting increases soil carbon loss after drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A Peyton; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Benscoter, Brian W; Tfaily, Malak M; Hinkle, C Ross; Liu, Chongxuan; Bailey, Vanessa L

    2017-11-06

    Droughts and other extreme precipitation events are predicted to increase in intensity, duration, and extent, with uncertain implications for terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration. Soil wetting from above (precipitation) results in a characteristically different pattern of pore-filling than wetting from below (groundwater), with larger, well-connected pores filling before finer pore spaces, unlike groundwater rise in which capillary forces saturate the finest pores first. Here we demonstrate that pore-scale wetting patterns interact with antecedent soil moisture conditions to alter pore-scale, core-scale, and field-scale C dynamics. Drought legacy and wetting direction are perhaps more important determinants of short-term C mineralization than current soil moisture content in these soils. Our results highlight that microbial access to C is not solely limited by physical protection, but also by drought or wetting-induced shifts in hydrologic connectivity. We argue that models should treat soil moisture within a three-dimensional framework emphasizing hydrologic conduits for C and resource diffusion.

  4. Precision phase-shifting applied to fiber Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A simple method of displacing a holographic interferogram within a waveguide based on translation along a slightly tilted fringe pattern of the optical interferogram is presented. By way of example, phase-shifted fibre gratings are produced this way. The spatial resolution in fringe shift...... is separated from the physical spatial displacement of the optical elements and determined primarily by the fringe tilt angle. This relaxes the tolerances in optical components required and can potentially enable spatial displacements as small as 1 nm/@mm to be realised....

  5. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for Theobroma cacao improvement and propagation. Depending on culture medium composition, different morphogenetic structures (including somatic embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns and biochemical changes. The effect of SO42- ion deficiency ...

  6. Behavioral disturbances, not cognitive deterioration, are associated with altered food selection in seniors with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Carol E; Tam, Carolyn; Chan, Mae; Young, Karen W H; Binns, Malcolm A; van Reekum, Robert

    2005-04-01

    We previously reported alterations in circadian patterns of food intake that are associated with measures of functional and cognitive deterioration in seniors with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study further explored disturbed eating patterns in AD, focusing on alterations in macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, and fat) selection, and their association with measures of functional and behavioral losses. Forty-nine days of food intake collections were conducted on 32 residents (26 females, 6 males; age = 88.4 +/- 4.1 years; body mass index = 24.1 +/- 4.0 kg/m(2)) with probable AD residing at a nursing home (a fully accredited geriatric teaching facility affiliated with the University of Toronto's Medical School). All residents ate their meals independently. The relationships between patterns of habitual food consumption and measures of cognitive function (Severe Impairment Battery), behavioral disturbances (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version) and behavioral function (London Psychogeriatric Rating Scale) were examined, cross-sectionally. Consistent with our previous studies, breakfast intakes were not predicted by any of the measures of behavioral, cognitive, or functional deterioration, although those residents with greater functional deterioration, especially disengagement, attained lower 24-hour energy intakes. The presence of "psychomotor disturbances," including irritability, agitation, and disinhibition, were strongly associated with shifts in eating patterns toward carbohydrate and away from protein, placing individuals with these conditions at increased risk for inadequate protein intakes. Between-individual differences in intake patterns could not be explained by the use of either anorexic or orexigenic medications. Behavioral, not cognitive, deterioration is associated with appetite modifications that increase risk of poor protein intake, perhaps indicating a common monoaminergic involvement.

  7. Evaluation of Phase-Shifting Techniques for a Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corley, Melissa S; Rhoadarmer, Troy A

    2005-01-01

    ...) for applications requiring laser propagation in strong scintillation. This paper compares several phase-shifting techniques that can be used to capture interference patterns and examines their effects on SRI WFS performance...

  8. Meta-analysis on shift work and risks of specific obesity types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Feng, W; Wang, F; Li, P; Li, Z; Li, M; Tse, G; Vlaanderen, J; Vermeulen, R; Tse, L A

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the associations between shift work patterns and risks of specific types of obesity. PubMed was searched until March 2017 for observational studies that examined the relationships between shift work patterns and obesity. Odds ratio for obesity was extracted using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Subgroup meta-analyses were carried out for study design, specific obesity types and characteristics of shift work pattern. A total of 28 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The overall odds ratio of night shift work was 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.29) for risk of obesity/overweight. Cross-sectional studies showed a higher risk of 1.26 than those with the cohort design (risk ratio = 1.10). Shift workers had a higher frequency of developing abdominal obesity (odds ratio = 1.35) than other obesity types. Permanent night workers demonstrated a 29% higher risk than rotating shift workers (odds ratio 1.43 vs. 1.14). This meta-analysis confirmed the risks of night shift work for the development of overweight and obesity with a potential gradient association suggested, especially for abdominal obesity. Modification of working schedules is recommended, particularly for prolonged permanent night work. More accurate and detailed measurements on shift work patterns should be conducted in future research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Altered Daytime Fluctuation Pattern of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Strong Association with Persistently Elevated Plasma Insulin, Increased Insulin Resistance, and Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lalić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating daily fluctuation of PAI-1 levels in relation to insulin resistance (IR and daily profile of plasma insulin and glucose levels in 26 type 2 diabetic (T2D patients with coronary artery disease (CAD (group A, 10 T2D patients without CAD (group B, 12 nondiabetics with CAD (group C, and 12 healthy controls (group D. The percentage of PAI-1 decrease was lower in group A versus group B (4.4 ± 2.7 versus 35.0 ± 5.4%; P<0.05 and in C versus D (14.0 ± 5.8 versus 44.7 ± 3.1%; P<0.001. HOMA-IR was higher in group A versus group B (P<0.05 and in C versus D (P<0.01. Simultaneously, AUCs of PAI-1 and insulin were higher in group A versus group B (P<0.05 and in C versus D (P<0.01, while AUC of glucose did not differ between groups. In multiple regression analysis waist-to-hip ratio and AUC of insulin were independent determinants of decrease in PAI-1. The altered diurnal fluctuation of PAI-1, especially in T2D with CAD, might be strongly influenced by a prolonged exposure to hyperinsulinemia in the settings of increased IR and abdominal obesity, facilitating altogether an accelerated atherosclerosis.

  10. Evaluation of fatty replacement in the normal thymus with chemical-shift MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaoka, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji; Iwata, Kunihiro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a fatty replacement in the normal thymus with chemical-shift MR imaging and a correlation between chemical-shift ratio and age. Between December 2001 and January 2003, 30 normal subjects (15 males and 15 females 8-25 years, mean age 15.7 years) who underwent chemical-shift MR imaging for the thymus were assessed. Signal intensities of the thymus and the paraspinal muscle were measured and thymus/muscle ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. We calculated signal intensity alterations between in-phase and opposed-phase images (chemical-shift ratios) and evaluated a correlation between age and them. A significant correlation between chemical-shift ratios and age was identified (r=0.725, p<.001). Chemical-shift MR imaging can depict fatty replacement in the normal thymus in the adolescence and young adults. (author)

  11. [Analysis of cognitive function and sleep of nursing staff on different shift work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Beatriz; De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze short-term memory, attention and sleep patterns of the nursing staff working night and day shifts. Study participants were 109 subjects in a hospital in Minas Gerais working on the day shift (n = 68) or night shift (n = 41). Data collection was performed using the Sleep Diary and WAIS-III Test Battery. The results showed a significant difference for the quality of sleep of those on night shift work (p quality of sleep of the group on the night shift showed lower averages compared with those on the day shifts, although they had greater total sleep. The level of attention showed to be best for the group on the day shift work.

  12. Special training of shift personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The first step of on-the-job training is practical observation phase in an operating Nuclear Plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists give the practical feeling for Nuclear Power Plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own Nuclear Power Plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and assisted during their process of practical learning by special instructors. The preparation for the licensing exams is vitally important for shift personnel and special courses are provided after the first non-nuclear trial operation of the plant. Personnel training also includes performance of programmes and material for retraining, training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well as training centers. (orig./RW)

  13. Debt Shifting and Ownership Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Schindler; Guttorm Schjelderup

    2011-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies on the debt shifting behavior of multinationals have assumed affiliates of multinationals to be wholly owned. We develop a model that allows a multinational firm to determine both the leverage and ownership structure in affiliates endogenously. A main finding is that affiliates with minority owners have less debt than wholly owned affiliates and therefore a less tax efficient financing structure. This is due to an externality that arises endogenously in our model,...

  14. Into the Era of shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencik, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Globalization and new communication technologies shape new increasingly unpredictable living conditions. Societies as individuals face a world og growing predictive impotence. Traditions loose their power as guides for maneuvering - where traditions was reflection will be. At the same time people......, life styles, experiences and sexuality. Even thougts and feelings.In the era of shifts we shall be living with ever more design in an ever less designed world....

  15. Hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebach, M.; Gotta, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Anagnostopoulos, D.F. [University of Ioannina, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ioannina (Greece); Dax, A.; Liu, Y.W.; Markushin, V.E.; Simons, L.M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen (Switzerland); Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Zmeskal, J. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Indelicato, P. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Universites, Paris (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris (France); Departement de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris (France); Manil, B. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Universites, Paris (France); Rusi el Hassani, A.J. [Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Tanger (Morocco); Trassinelli, M. [Sorbonne Universites, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris (France); CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    The hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen has been redetermined to be ε {sub 1s} = 7.086 ± 0.007(stat) ± 0.006(sys) eV by X-ray spectroscopy of ground-state transitions applying various energy calibration schemes. The experiment was performed at the high-intensity low-energy pion beam of the Paul Scherrer Institut by using the cyclotron trap and an ultimate-resolution Bragg spectrometer with bent crystals. (orig.)

  16. Multicolor Holography With Phase Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype apparatus constructed to test feasibility of two-color holographic interferometric scheme in which data for reconstructing holographic wavefront obtained with help of phase-shifting technique. Provides two sets of data needed to solve equations for effects of temperature and concentration. Concept extended to holography at three or more wavelengths to measure three or more phenomena associated with significant variations in index of refraction

  17. The influence of light at night exposure on melatonin levels among Canadian rotating shift nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Tranmer, Joan; Richardson, Harriet; Graham, Charles H; Aronson, Kristan J

    2011-11-01

    Shift work has been identified as a risk factor for several cancer sites in recent years, with melatonin as a potential intermediate on the proposed causal pathway. This study examined the influence of nighttime light exposure on melatonin levels among 123 rotating shift nurses. Nurses working a rotating shift schedule (two 12-hour days, two 12-hour nights, and five days off) were recruited and participated on a day and night shift in both the summer and winter seasons. Over each 48-hour study period, nurses wore a light data logger and provided two urine and four saliva samples. Saliva measurements showed that the pattern of melatonin production did not differ between day and night shifts. Mean light exposure was significantly higher (P night, although peak melatonin levels (P = 0.65) and the daily change in melatonin levels (P = 0.80) were similar across day/night shifts. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between light exposure and melatonin levels when data from both shifts was combined; however, when data from the night shift was considered alone, a statistically significant inverse relationship between light and change in melatonin was observed (P = 0.04). These results show that light exposure does not seem to be strongly related to reduced melatonin production among nurses on this rapidly rotating shift schedule. Future research considering more extreme shift patterns or brighter lighting conditions could further clarify the relationship between light exposure and melatonin production in observational settings. © 2011 AACR.

  18. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronotype modulates sleep duration, sleep quality, and social jet lag in shift-workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

    2013-04-01

    This study explores chronotype-dependent tolerance to the demands of working morning, evening, and night shifts in terms of social jet lag, sleep duration, and sleep disturbance. A total of 238 shift-workers were chronotyped with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shift-workers (MCTQ(Shift)), which collects information about shift-dependent sleep duration and sleep timing. Additionally, 94 shift-workers also completed those items of the Sleep Questionnaire from the Standard Shift-Work Index (SSI) that assess sleep disturbances. Although all participants worked morning, evening, and night shifts, subsamples differed in rotation direction and speed. Sleep duration, social jet lag, and sleep disturbance were all significantly modulated by the interaction of chronotype and shift (mixed-model ANOVAs). Earlier chronotypes showed shortened sleep duration during night shifts, high social jet lag, as well as higher levels of sleep disturbance. A similar pattern was observed for later chronotypes during early shifts. Age itself only influenced sleep duration and quality per se, without showing interactions with shifts. We found that workers slept longer in fast, rotating shift schedules. Since chronotype changes with age, investigations on sleep behavior and circadian misalignment in shift-workers have to consider chronotype to fully understand interindividual and intraindividual variability, especially in view of the current demographic changes. Given the impact of sleep on health, our results stress the importance of chronotype both in understanding the effects of shift-work on sleep and in devising solutions to reduce shift-work-related health problems.

  20. Thermal discharge-created increasing temperatures alter the bacterioplankton composition and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Xiong, Shangling; Qian, Peng; Zhang, Demin; Liu, Lian; Fei, Yuejun

    2016-12-01

    Elevated seawater temperature has altered the coupling between coastal primary production and heterotrophic bacterioplankton respiration. This shift, in turn, could influence the feedback of ocean ecosystem to climate warming. However, little is known about how natural bacterioplankton community responds to increasing seawater temperature. To investigate warming effects on the bacterioplankton community, we collected water samples from temperature gradients (ranged from 15.0 to 18.6 °C) created by a thermal flume of a coal power plant. The results showed that increasing temperatures significantly stimulated bacterial abundance, grazing rate, and altered bacterioplankton community compositions (BCCs). The spatial distribution of bacterioplankton community followed a distance similarity decay relationship, with a turnover of 0.005. A variance partitioning analysis showed that temperature directly constrained 2.01 % variation in BCCs, while temperature-induced changes in water geochemical and grazing rate indirectly accounted for 4.03 and 12.8 % of the community variance, respectively. Furthermore, the relative abundances of 24 bacterial families were linearly increased or decreased (P < 0.05 in all cases) with increasing temperatures. Notably, the change pattern for a given bacterial family was in concert with its known functions. In addition, community functional redundancy consistently decreased along the temperature gradient. This study demonstrates that elevated temperature, combined with substrate supply and trophic interactions, dramatically alters BCCs, concomitant with decreases in functional redundancy. The responses of sensitive assemblages are temperature dependent, which could indicate temperature departures.

  1. A plant distribution shift: temperature, drought or past disturbance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilk, Dylan W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Simple models of plant response to warming climates predict vegetation moving to cooler and/or wetter locations: in mountainous regions shifting upslope. However, species-specific responses to climate change are likely to be much more complex. We re-examined a recently reported vegetation shift in the Santa Rosa Mountains, California, to better understand the mechanisms behind the reported shift of a plant distribution upslope. We focused on five elevational zones near the center of the gradient that captured many of the reported shifts and which are dominated by fire-prone chaparral. Using growth rings, we determined that a major assumption of the previous work was wrong: past fire histories differed among elevations. To examine the potential effect that this difference might have on the reported upward shift, we focused on one species, Ceanothus greggii: a shrub that only recruits post-fire from a soil stored seedbank. For five elevations used in the prior study, we calculated time series of past per-capita mortality rates by counting growth rings on live and dead individuals. We tested three alternative hypotheses explaining the past patterns of mortality: 1) mortality increased over time consistent with climate warming, 2) mortality was correlated with drought indices, and 3) mortality peaked 40–50 years post fire at each site, consistent with self-thinning. We found that the sites were different ages since the last fire, and that the reported increase in the mean elevation of C. greggii was due to higher recent mortality at the lower elevations, which were younger sites. The time-series pattern of mortality was best explained by the self-thinning hypothesis and poorly explained by gradual warming or drought. At least for this species, the reported distribution shift appears to be an artifact of disturbance history and is not evidence of a climate warming effect.

  2. A plant distribution shift: temperature, drought or past disturbance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan W Schwilk

    Full Text Available Simple models of plant response to warming climates predict vegetation moving to cooler and/or wetter locations: in mountainous regions shifting upslope. However, species-specific responses to climate change are likely to be much more complex. We re-examined a recently reported vegetation shift in the Santa Rosa Mountains, California, to better understand the mechanisms behind the reported shift of a plant distribution upslope. We focused on five elevational zones near the center of the gradient that captured many of the reported shifts and which are dominated by fire-prone chaparral. Using growth rings, we determined that a major assumption of the previous work was wrong: past fire histories differed among elevations. To examine the potential effect that this difference might have on the reported upward shift, we focused on one species, Ceanothus greggii: a shrub that only recruits post-fire from a soil stored seedbank. For five elevations used in the prior study, we calculated time series of past per-capita mortality rates by counting growth rings on live and dead individuals. We tested three alternative hypotheses explaining the past patterns of mortality: 1 mortality increased over time consistent with climate warming, 2 mortality was correlated with drought indices, and 3 mortality peaked 40-50 years post fire at each site, consistent with self-thinning. We found that the sites were different ages since the last fire, and that the reported increase in the mean elevation of C. greggii was due to higher recent mortality at the lower elevations, which were younger sites. The time-series pattern of mortality was best explained by the self-thinning hypothesis and poorly explained by gradual warming or drought. At least for this species, the reported distribution shift appears to be an artifact of disturbance history and is not evidence of a climate warming effect.

  3. Rapid Cerebral Hemodynamic Modulation during Set Shifting: Evidence of Time-Locked Associations with Cognitive Control in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepbach, Daniel; Huizinga, Mariette; Duschek, Stefan; Grimm, Simone; Boeker, Heinz; Hell, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Set shifting provokes specific alterations of cerebral hemodynamics in basal cerebral arteries. However, no gender differences have been reported. In the following functional transcranial Doppler study, we introduced cerebral hemodynamic modulation to the aspects of set shifting during Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Twenty-one subjects…

  4. Nonlinearity response correction in phase-shifting deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Manh The; Kang, Pilseong; Ghim, Young-Sik; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the nonlinearity response of digital devices such as screens and cameras in phase-shifting deflectometry, non-sinusoidal phase-shifted fringe patterns are generated and additional measurement errors are introduced. In this paper, a new deflectometry technique is described for overcoming these problems using a pre-distorted pattern combined with an advanced iterative algorithm. The experiment results show that this method can reconstruct the 3D surface map of a sample without fringe print-through caused by the nonlinearity response of digital devices. The proposed technique is verified by measuring the surface height variations in a deformable mirror and comparing them with the measurement result obtained using a coordinate measuring machine. The difference between the two measurement results is estimated to be less than 13 µm.

  5. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  6. Absence of the Adaptor Protein PEA-15 Is Associated with Altered Pattern of Th Cytokines Production by Activated CD4+ T Lymphocytes In Vitro, and Defective Red Blood Cell Alloimmune Response In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Kerbrat

    Full Text Available TCR-dependent and costimulation signaling, cell division, and cytokine environment are major factors driving cytokines expression induced by CD4(+ T cell activation. PEA-15 15 (Protein Enriched in Astrocyte / 15 kDa is an adaptor protein that regulates death receptor-induced apoptosis and proliferation signaling by binding to FADD and relocating ERK1/2 to the cytosol, respectively. By using PEA-15-deficient mice, we examined the role of PEA-15 in TCR-dependent cytokine production in CD4(+ T cells. TCR-stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+ T cells exhibited defective progression through the cell cycle associated with impaired expression of cyclin E and phosphoRb, two ERK1/2-dependent proteins of the cell cycle. Accordingly, expression of the division cycle-dependent cytokines IL-2 and IFNγ, a Th1 cytokine, was reduced in stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+ T cells. This was associated with abnormal subcellular compartmentalization of activated ERK1/2 in PEA-15-deficient T cells. Furthermore, in vitro TCR-dependent differentiation of naive CD4(+ CD62L(+ PEA-15-deficient T cells was associated with a lower production of the Th2 cytokine, IL-4, whereas expression of the Th17-associated molecule IL4I1 was enhanced. Finally, a defective humoral response was shown in PEA-15-deficient mice in a model of red blood cell alloimmunization performed with Poly IC, a classical adjuvant of Th1 response in vivo. Collectively, our data suggest that PEA-15 contributes to the specification of the cytokine pattern of activated Th cells, thus highlighting a potential new target to interfere with T cell functional polarization and subsequent immune response.

  7. Absence of the Adaptor Protein PEA-15 Is Associated with Altered Pattern of Th Cytokines Production by Activated CD4+ T Lymphocytes In Vitro, and Defective Red Blood Cell Alloimmune Response In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbrat, Stéphane; Vingert, Benoit; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Castellano, Flavia; Renault-Mihara, François; Dos Reis Tavares, Silvina; Surenaud, Mathieu; Noizat-Pirenne, France; Boczkowski, Jorge; Guellaën, Georges; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Le Gouvello, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    TCR-dependent and costimulation signaling, cell division, and cytokine environment are major factors driving cytokines expression induced by CD4(+) T cell activation. PEA-15 15 (Protein Enriched in Astrocyte / 15 kDa) is an adaptor protein that regulates death receptor-induced apoptosis and proliferation signaling by binding to FADD and relocating ERK1/2 to the cytosol, respectively. By using PEA-15-deficient mice, we examined the role of PEA-15 in TCR-dependent cytokine production in CD4(+) T cells. TCR-stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+) T cells exhibited defective progression through the cell cycle associated with impaired expression of cyclin E and phosphoRb, two ERK1/2-dependent proteins of the cell cycle. Accordingly, expression of the division cycle-dependent cytokines IL-2 and IFNγ, a Th1 cytokine, was reduced in stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+) T cells. This was associated with abnormal subcellular compartmentalization of activated ERK1/2 in PEA-15-deficient T cells. Furthermore, in vitro TCR-dependent differentiation of naive CD4(+) CD62L(+) PEA-15-deficient T cells was associated with a lower production of the Th2 cytokine, IL-4, whereas expression of the Th17-associated molecule IL4I1 was enhanced. Finally, a defective humoral response was shown in PEA-15-deficient mice in a model of red blood cell alloimmunization performed with Poly IC, a classical adjuvant of Th1 response in vivo. Collectively, our data suggest that PEA-15 contributes to the specification of the cytokine pattern of activated Th cells, thus highlighting a potential new target to interfere with T cell functional polarization and subsequent immune response.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters the expression patterns of three key iron homeostasis genes, ZmNAS1, ZmNAS3 and ZmYS1, in S deprived maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styliani N. Chorianopoulou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nicotianamine is an essential molecule for Fe homeostasis in plants, its primary precursor is the S-containing compound methionine, and it is biosynthesized by the enzyme family of nicotianamine synthases. In maize, a graminaceous plant that follows Strategy II for Fe uptake, ZmNAS genes can be subgrouped into two classes, according to their roles and tissue specific expression profiles. In roots, the genes of class I provide NA for the production of deoxymugineic acid, which is secreted to the rhizosphere and chelates Fe(III. The Fe(III-DMA complex is then inserted to the root via a ZmYS1 transporter. The genes of class II provide NA for local translocation and detoxification of Fe in the leaves. Due to the connection between S and Fe homeostasis, S deficiency causes Fe deprivation responses to graminaceous plants and when S is supplied, these responses are inverted. In this study, maize plants were grown in pots with sterile river sand containing FePO4 and were inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. The plants were grown under S deficient conditions until day 60 from sowing and on that day sulfate was provided to the plants. In order to assess the impact of AM symbiosis on Fe homeostasis, the expression patterns of ZmNAS1, ZmNAS3 (representatives of ZmNAS class I and class II and ZmYS1 were monitored before and after S supply by means of real time RT-PCR and they were used as indicators of the plant Fe status. In addition, total shoot Fe concentration was determined before and after S supply. AM symbiosis prevented Fe deprivation responses in the S deprived maize plants and iron was possibly provided directly to the mycorrhizal plants through the fungal network. Furthermore, sulfate possibly regulated the expression of all three genes revealing its potential role as signal molecule for Fe homeostasis.

  9. Ethanol induced attenuation of oxidative stress is unable to alter mRNA expression pattern of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S- transferase (GST1A), and superoxide dismutase (SOD3) enzymes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Shariat-Madar, Bahbak; Haron, Mona H.; Wu, Mengmeng; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Dasmahapatra, Asok K.

    2010-01-01

    Although the mechanism of ethanol toxicity during embryogenesis is unknown, our earlier studies on Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryos indicated that the effects might be mediated through oxidative stress. In this study we have determined the oxidative stress and the mRNA content of four antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase) during Japanese rice fish embryogenesis (from 0 day post-fertilization to hatching) and after exposing the embryos to ethanol (100 and 300 mM) for 48 h at three stages (0–2, 1–3 and 4–6 day post fertilization, dpf) of organogenesis. We observed that oxidative stress was minimal in blastula, gastrula or neurula stages, increased gradually with the advancement of morphogenesis and reached its maximum level in hatchlings. The antioxidant enzyme mRNAs were constitutively expressed throughout development; however, the expression pattern was not identical among the enzymes. Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNAs were minimal in the fertilized eggs, but increased significantly in 1 dpf and then either sharply dropped (SOD) or maintained a steady-state (catalase). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) was very high in fertilized eggs and sharply dropped 1 dpf and then gradually increased thereafter. Glutathione reductase (GR) maintained a steady-state throughout the development. Ethanol was able to attenuate oxidative stress in embryos exposed only to 300 mM 1–3 dpf; no significant difference with controls was observed in other ethanol-treated groups. The antioxidant enzyme mRNAs also remained unaltered after ethanol treatment. From these data we conclude that the attenuation of oxidative stress by ethanol is probably due to the inhibition of normal growth of the embryos rather than by inhibiting catalase, GST, GR or SOD- dependent activities. PMID:20965276

  10. Mapping hydrothermal altered mineral deposits using Landsat 7 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spatial patterns of alteration makes the 'remote sensing technique' one of the standard procedures in exploration geology, due to its high efficiency and low cost (Yetkin 2003). There are many studies around the world related to hydrothermal alteration mapping using multi- spectral satellite images especially, Landsat and.

  11. Integrated trend assessment of ecosystem changes in the Limfjord (Denmark): evidence of a recent regime shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Maciej Tomasz; Dinesen, Grete E.; Hoffmann, Erik

    2012-01-01

    and main outflow to the Kattegat in the east. We showed that from 1990 to 1995, the ecosystem structure shifted from dominance by demersal fish species (eel pout, whiting, flounder, plaice) to that of pelagic fish species (sprat, herring, sticklebacks), smallbodied fish species (black goby, pipefish......), jellyfish, common shore crab, starfish and blue mussels. We interpret this change as a regime shift that showed a similar temporal pattern to regime shifts identified in adjacent seas. The observed changes in trophic interactions and food web reorganisation suggested a non-linear regime shift. The analyses...

  12. Shifts in historical streamflow extremes in the Colorado River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt C. Solander; Katrina E. Bennett; Richard S. Middleton

    2017-01-01

    The global phenomenon of climate change-induced shifts in precipitation leading to “wet regions getting wetter” and “dry regions getting drier” has been widely studied. However, the propagation of these changes in atmospheric moisture within stream channels is not a direct relationship due to differences in the timing of how changing precipitation patterns interact with various land surfaces. Streamflow is of particular interest in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) due to the region’s rapidly gr...

  13. Incoherent and coherent tune shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). AGS Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The longitudinal and transverse microwave instabilities are the two important limiting factors for the performance of an accelerator. Comparing with the fairly unified approach for the longitudinal microwave instabilities, different approaches have been used to define the transverse microwave instabilities. One reason of this is related to the role played by the space charge incoherent and coherent tune shifts. In this article, the transverse microwave instabilities will be discussed by defining separately the roles of the space charge incoherent and coherent tunes, which are represented by the space charge transverse impedances. Preliminary results for the AGS as proton driver are presented by using this approach.

  14. Image restoration by the shift-and-add algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnuolo, W G

    1985-05-01

    A new method for image restoration based on the shift-and-add (SAA) algorithm is presented, the main advantages of which appear to be speed and simplicity. The SAA pattern produced by an object is given by the object correlated by a nonlinear replica of itself whose intensity distribution is strongly weighted toward the brighter pixels. A method of successive substitutions analogous to Fienup's algorithm can then be used to decorrelate the SAA pattern and recover the object. The method is applied to the case of the extended chromosphere of Betelgeuse.

  15. Control Chart Pattern Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    SAĞIROĞLU, Şeref

    2000-01-01

    Precise and fast control chart pattern (CCP) recognition is important for monitoring process environments to achieve appropriate control and to produce high quality products. CCPs can exhibit six types of pattern: normal, cyclic, increasing trend, decreasing trend, upward shift and downward shift. Except for normal patterns, all other patterns indicate that the process being monitored is not functioning correctly and requires adjustment. This paper describes a new type of neural network for s...

  16. Human alterations, dynamic equilibrium, and riparian ecosystem responses along selected rivers in Tuscany, Italy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, C. R.; Rinaldi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Many, if not most, streams have been mildly to severely affected by human disturbance, which complicates efforts to understand riparian ecosystems. Mediterranean regions have a long history of human influences including: dams, stream channelization, mining of sediment, and levee /canal construction. Typically these alterations reduce the ecosystem services that functioning floodplains provide and may negatively impact the natural ecology of floodplains through reductions in suitable habitats, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. Additionally, human alterations typically shift affected streams away from a state of natural dynamic equilibrium, where net sediment deposition is approximately in balance with net erosion. Lack of equilibrium typically affects the degree to which floodplain ecosystems are connected to streamflow regime. Low connectivity, usually from human- or climate-induced incision, may result in reduced flow on floodplains and lowered water tables. High connectivity may result in severe sediment deposition. Connectivity has a direct impact on vegetation communities. Riparian vegetation distribution patterns and diversity relative to various fluvial geomorphic channel patterns, landforms, and processes are described and interpreted for selected rivers of Tuscany, Central Italy; with emphasis on channel evolution following human impacts. Multivariate analysis reveals distinct quantitative vegetation patterns related to six fluvial geomorphic surfaces. Analysis of vegetation data also shows distinct associations of plants with adjustment processes related to the stage of channel evolution. Plant distribution patterns coincide with disturbance/landform/soil moisture gradients. Species richness increases from channel bed to terrace and on heterogeneous riparian areas, while species richness decreases from moderate to intense incision and from low to intense narrowing. As a feedback mechanism, woody vegetation in particular may facilitate geomorphic recovery

  17. Direct phase-shift measurement of an EUV mask with gradient absorber thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroyoshi; Murachi, Tetsunori; Park, Seh-Jin; Gullikson, Eric M.; Abe, Tsukasa; Hayashi, Naoya

    2013-09-01

    We directly extracted the phase-shift values of an EUV mask by measuring the reflectance of the mask. The mask had gradient absorber thickness along vertical direction. We measured the reflectance of the open multilayer areas and the absorber areas by using an EUV reflectometer at various absorber thicknesses. We also measured the diffracted 0th order light intensities of grating patterns having several sizes of lines or holes. The phase-shift values were derived from these data assuming a flat mask interference model of the diffracted lights. This model was corrected by including the scattering amplitude from the pattern edges. We recalculated the phase-shift values which was free from the mask topological effect. The extracted phase-shift value was close to 180 degrees at 67 nm and 71 nm absorber thicknesses. The phase measurement error around 180 degree phase shift was 5 degrees (3σ).

  18. Observations of shifts in cetacean distribution in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eNøttestad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess possible shifts in distributional patterns of cetaceans residing in the Norwegian Sea, and if possible relate the distribution to their feeding ecology during the summer seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2012. During this same period, historically large abundances in the order of 15 million tonnes pelagic planktivorous fish such as Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou, have been reported feeding in the Norwegian Sea during the summer. There is also observed elevated average surface temperatures and a reduction in zooplankton biomasses. Such changes might influence species composition, distribution patterns and feeding preferences of cetaceans residing the region. Our results show higher densities of toothed whales, killer whales (Orcinus orca and pilot whales (Globicephala melas, than the previous norm for these waters. Baleen whales, such as minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata and fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus, which is often associated with zooplankton, displayed a distribution overlap with pelagic fish abundances. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae were observed in low numbers, indicating shift in habitat preference, compared to sighting data collected only few years earlier. Our study illustrate that both small and large cetaceans that reside in the Norwegian Sea have the capability to rapidly perform shifts in distribution and abundance patterns dependent of the access to different types and behaviour of prey species.

  19. Body size distributions signal a regime shift in a lake ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities of organisms, from mammals to microorganisms, have discontinuous distributions of body size. This <