WorldWideScience

Sample records for alteration shift patterns

  1. Altered precipitation patterns with a shift from snow to rain in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T. M.; Sobolowski, S.; Kapnick, S. B.; Barnes, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation patterns in mountain environments affect global water resources and major hazards such as floods and landslides. In mid-latitude mountain ranges such as the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, much of the precipitation falls as snow, which accumulates and acts as a natural reservoir. As in many snowfall-dependent regions, California water infrastructure has been designed to capture warm season snowmelt runoff and transport it to otherwise dry areas where it is needed. Recent studies suggest that anthropogenic climate change is likely to result in a substantial shift from snow to rain in the Sierra Nevada during the 21st century. One mechanism for changing spatial patterns in precipitation that has not received substantial attention arises directly from a phase change associated with winter temperatures rising above freezing with greater frequency. Because the fall speed of rain is greater than snow, it is not advected as far as snow by the prevailing winds. We hypothesize that an extreme change from snow to rain will result in a substantial westward shift in annual precipitation under a warming climate. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two climate simulations over the central Sierra Nevada using the WRF regional climate model version 3.1.1 for the period October 2001 to September 2002. Both simulations used nested domains with grid spacings of 27 km, 9 km, and 3 km. The first simulation is a control run, while the second run is an idealized simulation in which fall speeds for snow and graupel are set to be identical to those of raindrops. Comparison of the two runs suggests that a change from snow to rain would yield substantial changes in the spatial patterns of precipitation. However, these patterns are fully realized only in the 3 km domain. In the 9 km and especially the 27 km domain these patterns are substantially attenuated, likely due to less detailed orographic forcing. In the 3 km domain, precipitation increases substantially on

  2. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  3. Ocean acidification causes ecosystem shifts via altered competitive interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristy J.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Gambi, Maria Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Ocean acidification represents a pervasive environmental change that is predicted to affect a wide range of species, yet our understanding of the emergent ecosystem impacts is very limited. Many studies report detrimental effects of acidification on single species in lab studies, especially those with calcareous shells or skeletons. Observational studies using naturally acidified ecosystems have shown profound shifts away from such calcareous species, and there has been an assumption that direct impacts of acidification on sensitive species drive most ecosystem responses. We tested an alternative hypothesis that species interactions attenuate or amplify the direct effects of acidification on individual species. Here, we show that altered competitive dynamics between calcareous species and fleshy seaweeds drive significant ecosystem shifts in acidified conditions. Although calcareous species recruited and grew at similar rates in ambient and low pH conditions during early successional stages, they were rapidly overgrown by fleshy seaweeds later in succession in low pH conditions. The altered competitive dynamics between calcareous species and fleshy seaweeds is probably the combined result of decreased growth rates of calcareous species, increased growth rates of fleshy seaweeds, and/or altered grazing rates. Phase shifts towards ecosystems dominated by fleshy seaweed are common in many marine ecosystems, and our results suggest that changes in the competitive balance between these groups represent a key leverage point through which the physiological responses of individual species to acidification could indirectly lead to profound ecosystem changes in an acidified ocean.

  4. Intensive reasoning training alters patterns of brain connectivity at rest

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, AP; Singley, ATM; Bunge, SA

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of correlated activity among brain regions reflect functionally relevant networks that are widely assumed to be stable over time. We hypothesized that if these correlations reflect the prior history of coactivation of brain regions, then a marked shift in cognition could alter the strength of coupling between these regions. We sought to test whether intensive reasoning training in humans would result in tighter coupling among regions in the lateral frontoparietal network, as measured...

  5. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    modelling, and relying on empirical data from fieldwork and observations for parameterization of variables, the level of clustering in agricultural fields observed around a study village is reproduced. Agents in the model act to maximize labour productivity, which is based on potential yield and labour......Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent-based...... costs associated with fencing of fields, and are faced with physical constraints. The simulation results are compared with land-cover data obtained from remote sensing. Comparisons are made on patterns as detected visually and using the mean nearest-neighbour ratio. Baseline simulation outputs show high...

  6. Cascaded linear shift-invariant processors in optical pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S; Coupland, J

    2001-08-10

    We study a cascade of linear shift-invariant processing modules (correlators), each augmented with a nonlinear threshold as a means to increase the performance of high-speed optical pattern recognition. This configuration is a special class of multilayer, feed-forward neural networks and has been proposed in the literature as a relatively fast best-guess classifier. However, it seems that, although cascaded correlation has been proposed in a number of specific pattern recognition problems, the importance of the configuration has been largely overlooked. We prove that the cascaded architecture is the exact structure that must be adopted if a multilayer feed-forward neural network is trained to produce a shift-invariant output. In contrast with more generalized multilayer networks, the approach is easily implemented in practice with optical techniques and is therefore ideally suited to the high-speed analysis of large images. We have trained a digital model of the system using a modified backpropagation algorithm with optimization using simulated annealing techniques. The resulting cascade has been applied to a defect recognition problem in the canning industry as a benchmark for comparison against a standard linear correlation filter, the minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter. We show that the nonlinear performance of the cascade is a significant improvement over that of the linear MACE filter in this case. PMID:18360417

  7. Intensive reasoning training alters patterns of brain connectivity at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Allyson P; Miller Singley, Alison T; Bunge, Silvia A

    2013-03-13

    Patterns of correlated activity among brain regions reflect functionally relevant networks that are widely assumed to be stable over time. We hypothesized that if these correlations reflect the prior history of coactivation of brain regions, then a marked shift in cognition could alter the strength of coupling between these regions. We sought to test whether intensive reasoning training in humans would result in tighter coupling among regions in the lateral frontoparietal network, as measured with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). Rather than designing an artificial training program, we studied individuals who were preparing for a standardized test that places heavy demands on relational reasoning, the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). LSAT questions require test takers to group or sequence items according to a set of complex rules. We recruited young adults who were enrolled in an LSAT course that offers 70 h of reasoning instruction (n = 25), and age- and IQ-matched controls intending to take the LSAT in the future (n = 24). rs-fMRI data were collected for all subjects during two scanning sessions separated by 90 d. An analysis of pairwise correlations between brain regions implicated in reasoning showed that fronto-parietal connections were strengthened, along with parietal-striatal connections. These findings provide strong evidence for neural plasticity at the level of large-scale networks supporting high-level cognition. PMID:23486950

  8. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Yoon

    Full Text Available In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA, body temperature (BT, blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42% of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  9. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L; González, Angélica L; Hagen, Elizabeth M; Nathaniel Holland, J; Kotler, Burt P; Maestre, Fernando T; Smith, Stanley D; Wolf, Blair O

    2012-08-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  10. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.

    2012-01-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  11. Challenge: Getting Residential Users to Shift Their Electricity Usage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Rasmussen, Mia Kruse;

    2015-01-01

    , determining when to shift and communicating that to users, and accounting for the dynamic nature of shifting. We argue that encouraging residential electricity shifting is much more challenging than electricity curtailment, and suggest an increased focus on understanding the everyday practices of users, which...

  12. Climate change-related regime shifts have altered spatial synchrony of plankton dynamics in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defriez, Emma J; Sheppard, Lawrence W; Reid, Philip C; Reuman, Daniel C

    2016-06-01

    During the 1980s, the North Sea plankton community underwent a well-documented ecosystem regime shift, including both spatial changes (northward species range shifts) and temporal changes (increases in the total abundances of warmer water species). This regime shift has been attributed to climate change. Plankton provide a link between climate and higher trophic-level organisms, which can forage on large spatial and temporal scales. It is therefore important to understand not only whether climate change affects purely spatial or temporal aspects of plankton dynamics, but also whether it affects spatiotemporal aspects such as metapopulation synchrony. If plankton synchrony is altered, higher trophic-level feeding patterns may be modified. A second motivation for investigating changes in synchrony is that the possibility of such alterations has been examined for few organisms, in spite of the fact that synchrony is ubiquitous and of major importance in ecology. This study uses correlation coefficients and spectral analysis to investigate whether synchrony changed between the periods 1959-1980 and 1989-2010. Twenty-three plankton taxa, sea surface temperature (SST), and wind speed were examined. Results revealed that synchrony in SST and plankton was altered. Changes were idiosyncratic, and were not explained by changes in abundance. Changes in the synchrony of Calanus helgolandicus and Para-pseudocalanus spp appeared to be driven by changes in SST synchrony. This study is one of few to document alterations of synchrony and climate-change impacts on synchrony. We discuss why climate-change impacts on synchrony may well be more common and consequential than previously recognized. PMID:26810148

  13. Challenge: Getting Residential Users to Shift Their Electricity Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Rasmussen, Mia Kruse; Entwistle, Johanne Mose; Grønbæk, Kaj; Blunck, Henrik; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Increased renewable electricity production, coupled with emerging sectors of electricity consumption such as electric vehicles, has led to the desire to shift the times of the day electricity is consumed to better match generation. Different methods have been proposed to shift residential electricity use from the less desirable times to more desirable times, including: feedback technology, pricing incentives, smart appliances, and energy storage. Based on our experience in this area, we prese...

  14. "Electromyographic pattern of masticatory muscles in altered dentition" Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H D Adhikari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of this study is to show that a change in occlusal contacting pattern of tooth has definite influence over the behavior of orofacial musculature, resulting deleterious effect on it. Keeping this in view, the electromyographic (EMG activity of temporalis and masseter muscles in rest position of mandible, maximum clenching and chewing, was studied in total 24 subjects--14 subjects with normal occlusion and rest 10 with normal occlusion and one tooth carious which was prepared to receive an inlay with high point. This high point or occlusal interference was introduced intentionally to have a change in occlusion or "altered dentition". The subjects were all male medical volunteers with average age group of 20 years. A particular variety of chewing substance - chewing gum was used in this study. No EMG activity was detected in the rest position of mandible. In maximum clenching, balanced type of activity was seen bilaterally in normal occlusion.Whereas in changed occlusion, an unbalanced type of muscle activity was seen in temporalis muscle during maximum clenching. There was an overall decrease in activity in both the muscles during maximum clenching and during chewing. This decrease in activity was statistically significant in most of the times. A non-specific pattern of muscle activity resembling spasm in skeletal muscle -- a state of "hyperactivity" was also found during chewing in presence of occlusal interference. This spasm-like activity may cause pain in the muscles of masticatory apparatus. All these abnormal types of behavior of muscle were abolished after removal of high point and establishing the previous normal occlusion. It is therefore, for the clinicians to understand the importance of establishing occlusal equilibrium in day to day practice.

  15. Orthogonal-reference-pattern-modulated shift multiplexing for collinear holographic data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Cao, Liangcai; Gu, Huarong; Tan, Xiaodi; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2012-03-01

    A novel hybrid shift multiplexing method for collinear holographic data storage (CHDS) by using orthogonal reference patterns (RPs) is proposed, analyzed, and demonstrated. For this method, holograms are multiplexed by not only shifting the media but also using different RPs. Compared with the traditional method, the shift pitch for the hybrid method is substantially reduced because of the selectivity introduced by different RPs. The interpage cross talk due to Bragg mismatch and degeneracy for multiplexing holograms in the same volume by using orthogonal RPs is also attenuated by utilizing the shift selectivity of the hologram. A 1.5 μm shift pitch is experimentally achieved by using three amplitude RPs in a system that would be 4.5 μm with only one RP. This new method offers an alternative to significantly increase the data density and transfer rate of the CHDS system given that the media has ideal properties. PMID:22378444

  16. Altered expression patterns of syndecan-1 and -2 predict biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Ledezma; Federico Cifuentes; Iván Gallegos; Juan Fullá; Enrique Ossandon; Enrique A Castellon; Héctor R Contreras

    2011-01-01

    The clinical features of prostate cancer do not provide an accurate determination of patients undergoing biochemical relapse and are therefore not suitable as indicators of prognosis for recurrence. New molecular markers are needed for proper pre-treatment risk stratification of patients. Our aim was to assess the value of altered expression of syndecan-1 and -2 as a marker for predicting biochemical relapse in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy. The expression of syndecan-1 and -2 was examined by immunohistochemical staining in a series of 60 paraffin-embedded tissue samples from patients with localized prostate cancer. Ten specimens from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were used as non-malignant controls. Semiquantitative analysis was performed to evaluate the staining patterns. To investigate the prognostic value, Kaplan-Meier survival curves were performed and compared by a log-rank test. In benign samples, syndecan-1 was expressed in basal and secretory epithelial cells with basolateral membrane localisation, whereas syndecan-2 was expressed preferentially in basal cells. In prostate cancer samples, the expression patterns of both syndecans shifted to granular-cytoplasmic localisation. Survival analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.05) between normal and altered expression of syndecan-1 and -2 in free prostate-specific antigen recurrence survival curves. These data suggest that the expression of syndecan-1 and -2 can be used as a prognostic marker for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer, improving the prostate-specific antigen recurrence risk stratification.

  17. Shift of biome patterns due to simulated climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variability of simulated equilibrium-response patterns of biomes caused by simulated climate variability and climate shift is analysed. This investigation is based on various realisations of simulated present-day climate and climate shift. It has been found that the difference between biomes computed from three 10-year climatologies and from the corresponding 30-year climatology, simulated by the Hamburg climate model at T21 resolution, amounts to approximately 6% of the total land area, Antarctica excluded. This difference is mainly due to differences in annual moisture availability and winter temperatures. When intercomparing biomes from the 10-year climatologies a 10% difference is seen, but there is no unique difference pattern. In contrast to the interdecadal variability, the shift of conditions favorable for biomes due to a shift in climate in the next 100 years, caused by an increase in sea-surface temperatures and atmospheric CO2, reveals a unique trend pattern. It turns out that the strongest and most significant signal is the north-east shift of conditions for boreal biomes. This signal is caused by an increase of annual temperature sums as well as mean temperatures of the coldest and warmest months. Trends in annual moisture availability are of secondary importance globally. Regionally, a decrease in water availability affects biomes in Central and East Europe and an increase of water availability leads to a potential increase in tropical rain forest. In total, all differences amount to roughly 30% of the total land surface, Antarctica excluded. (orig./KW)

  18. Resource shifts in Malagasy dung beetles: contrasting processes revealed by dissimilar spatial genetic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Ilkka; Wirta, Helena; Nyman, Toshka; Rahagalala, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    The endemic dung beetle subtribe Helictopleurina has 65 species mostly in wet forests in eastern Madagascar. There are no extant native ungulates in Madagascar, but three Helictopleurus species have shifted to the introduced cattle dung in open habitats in the past 1500 years. Helictopleurus neoamplicollis and Helictopleurus marsyas exhibit very limited cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 haplotype diversity and a single haplotype is present across Madagascar, suggesting that these species shifted to cattle dung in a small region followed by rapid range expansion. In contrast, patterns of molecular diversity in Helictopleurus quadripunctatus indicate a gradual diet shift across most of southern Madagascar, consistent with somewhat broader diet in this species. The three cattle dung-using Helictopleurus species have significantly greater geographical ranges than the forest-dwelling species, apparently because the shift to the currently very abundant new resource relaxed interspecific competition that hinders range expansion in the forest species. PMID:18778273

  19. Alterations in serum lipid profile patterns in oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Simranjit; Ramesh, Venkatapathy; Premalatha, Balakrishnan; Prashad, Karthikshree Vishnu; Ramadoss, Koliyan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alterations in serum lipids have long been associated with cancer as lipids play an important role in maintenance of cell integrity. Aims: To evaluate alterations in plasma lipid profile in oral cancer patients, to compare and correlate the serum lipid profile in different grades of carcinoma and to evaluate the correlation of serum lipid profile between the tobacco habituates and non-habituates. Materials and Methods: Among 75 study subjects, 50 individuals were oral carcinoma pa...

  20. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators. PMID:26290795

  1. Altered diurnal pattern of steroid hormones in relation to various behaviors, external factors and pathologies: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collomp, K; Baillot, A; Forget, H; Coquerel, A; Rieth, N; Vibarel-Rebot, N

    2016-10-01

    The adrenal and gonadal stress steroids [i.e., cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] have gathered considerable attention in the last few decades due to their very broad physiological and psychological actions. Their diurnal patterns have become a particular focus following new data implicating altered diurnal hormone patterns in various endocrine, behavioral and cardiovascular risk profiles. In this review of the current literature, we present a brief overview of the altered diurnal patterns of these hormones that may occur in relation to chronic stress, nutritional behaviors, physical exercise, drugs and sleep deprivation/shift. We also present data on the altered diurnal hormone patterns implicated in cardiometabolic and psychiatric/neurologic diseases, cancer and other complex pathologies. We consider the occasionally discrepant results of the studies, and summarize the current knowledge in this new field of interest, underlining the potential effects on both biological and psychological functioning, and assess the implications of these effects. Last, we conclude with some practical considerations and perspectives. PMID:27235338

  2. Fractal pattern growth simulation in electrodeposition and study of the shifting of center of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We presented simulation of fractal pattern in electrodeposition (Diffusion limited aggregation) using concept of off lattice walk. It is seen that the growth patterns are based on a parameter called 'bias'. This parameter 'bias' controls the growth of patterns similar to that of electric field in electrodeposition technique. In present study the fractal patterns are grown for different values of 'bias'. Dendritic patterns grown at lower value of 'bias' comprises open structure and show limited branching. As the bias is increased the growth tends to be dense and show more crowded branching. Box counting was implemented to calculate fractal dimension. The structural and textural complexities and are compared with the experimental observations. It was also noted that in the evolution of DLA patterns, the center of mass of the growth is shifted slightly. We tracked the position of the center of mass of simulated electro deposits under different electric field conditions. The center of mass exhibit random walk like patterns and it wanders around the origin or the starting point of the growth.

  3. Fractal pattern growth simulation in electrodeposition and study of the shifting of center of mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Yusuf H. [Shivaji Arts, Commerce and Science College, Kannad 431103 (India)], E-mail: yusufshaikh123@yahoo.com; Khan, A.R. [Dr. Rafiq Zakaria Centre for Higher Learning, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria marg, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad 431001 (India); Pathan, J.M. [Dr. Rafiq Zakaria Campus, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria marg, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad 431001 (India); Patil, Aruna [Viveakanand College, Aurangabad 431001 (India); Behere, S.H. [Departments of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India)

    2009-12-15

    We presented simulation of fractal pattern in electrodeposition (Diffusion limited aggregation) using concept of off lattice walk. It is seen that the growth patterns are based on a parameter called 'bias'. This parameter 'bias' controls the growth of patterns similar to that of electric field in electrodeposition technique. In present study the fractal patterns are grown for different values of 'bias'. Dendritic patterns grown at lower value of 'bias' comprises open structure and show limited branching. As the bias is increased the growth tends to be dense and show more crowded branching. Box counting was implemented to calculate fractal dimension. The structural and textural complexities and are compared with the experimental observations. It was also noted that in the evolution of DLA patterns, the center of mass of the growth is shifted slightly. We tracked the position of the center of mass of simulated electro deposits under different electric field conditions. The center of mass exhibit random walk like patterns and it wanders around the origin or the starting point of the growth.

  4. Altered Doppler flow patterns in cirrhosis patients: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Iranpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Doppler ultrasonography of the hepatic vasculature is an integral part of evaluating precirrhotic and cirrhotic patients. While the reversal of the portal venous flow is a well-recognized phenomenon, other flow patterns, although not as easily understood, may play an important role in assessing the disease status. This article discusses the different characteristic flow patterns observed from the portal vein, hepatic artery, and hepatic vein in patients with liver cirrhosis or related complications and procedures. Knowledge of these different flow patterns provides additional information that may reinforce the diagnosis of cirrhosis, help in staging, and offer prognostic information for determining the direction of therapy. Doppler ultrasonography is invaluable when liver transplantation is being considered and aids in the diagnosis of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

  5. Altered doppler flow patterns in cirrhosis patients: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpour, Pooya; Lall, Chandana; Houshyar, Roozbeh; Helmy, Mohammad; Yang, Albert; Ward, Garrett; Goodwin, Scott C. [Dept. of Radiology, University of California Irvine, Orange (United States); Choi, Joon Il [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Doppler ultrasonography of the hepatic vasculature is an integral part of evaluating precirrhotic and cirrhotic patients. While the reversal of the portal venous flow is a well-recognized phenomenon, other flow patterns, although not as easily understood, may play an important role in assessing the disease status. This article discusses the different characteristic flow patterns observed from the portal vein, hepatic artery, and hepatic vein in patients with liver cirrhosis or related complications and procedures. Knowledge of these different flow patterns provides additional information that may reinforce the diagnosis of cirrhosis, help in staging, and offer prognostic information for determining the direction of therapy. Doppler ultrasonography is invaluable when liver transplantation is being considered and aids in the diagnosis of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

  6. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. - Highlights: • Invading quagga mussels often displace existing zebra mussels. • Interspecies difference in metal concentration may alter exposure of predators. • Zebra and quagga mussel soft tissue were analysed for metal concentrations. • Generally, quagga mussels contained lower concentrations of metals. • A dominance shift to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predators. - A shift in dominance from zebra mussels to invading quagga mussels may reduce the transfer of metals to predator species

  7. The effect of changes in shift patterns on the risk of pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang Tran, L.; Loizou, G.

    2006-07-01

    The study investigated how the risks of pneumoconiosis vary for different patterns of exposure in coalminers. Five exposure scenarios were investigated in shift patterns on the risk of category 2 pneumoconiosis by means of a mathematical model. This model describes the exposure-dose relationship, where the dose is the burden of coalmine dust in the human lungs. For humans, the pulmonary adverse effect of coal dust is the impairment of normal functions of the alveolar region (i.e. the blood-air barrier). This region is normally kept clean and sterile by scavenging cells, the macrophages, which ingest foreign matters and clear them from the lung. However, coal dust is predominantly retained in the interstitial space, i.e. the matrix of supporting tissue of the lung and therefore is prevented from being removed by macrophages. The accumulation of coal dust in the interstitial space eventually impairs normal lung functions. Calculations indicate that: in all cases, a reduction in the level of airborne concentration with respect to the different shift patterns would lead to a reduction in pneumoconiosis in comparison to the pneumoconiosis level obtained when the airborne concentration is at 3 mg.m{sup -3} while allowing for the shift pattern to change correspondingly. Model simulations also indicated that the clearance of coal dust from the lungs is also a sensitive factor affecting the risk of pneumoconiosis. It is recommended that the coal mine dust concentration in the air in coal mines should be reduced according to the proposed time-weighting model in order to reduce pneumoconiosis risk or maintain the level of or maintain the level of risk at the baseline level. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs., 1 app.

  8. Patterns of regional hydroclimatic shifts: An analysis of changing hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, E. J.; Minsker, B. S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-03-01

    Temporal shifts in precipitation and runoff regime curves appear throughout the continental United States, but differ from region to region. This paper explores these regime shifts by building upon a hydroclimatic classification system that partitions the United States into clusters of similarly behaved catchments using four simple hydroclimatic indicators. Hydroclimate data from over four hundred catchments over a 55 year period (belonging to the MOPEX data set) are analyzed to reveal how the indicators have shifted before and after 1970, before and after 1975, and before and after 1980. Statistically significant hydroclimatic changes in these indicators are explored qualitatively, suggesting which catchments today might resemble other catchments tomorrow. Thus, a preview of current locations in one class under future conditions is provided by observing existing locations of another class. The classification system structure enables organization of these data, allowing patterns of regime change to emerge without highly specified models at each individual site. Regional analyses explore changes in mean seasonal precipitation/runoff regimes, including shifts in the daily variability of precipitation and runoff. Additionally, changes in regime curves of minimum and maximum precipitation/runoff observations are analyzed and discussed. Results indicate that after 1980, classifications typically found in the southeastern quarter of the United States have expanded northward and westward. Regionally, the Midwest and Rocky Mountains seem to demonstrate more frequent, but less intense storms after 1980, while southeastern catchments receive much less water in the form of precipitation and runoff than in previous years.

  9. Design and experiment of electronic speckle shearing phase-shifting pattern interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Jing, Wencai; Zhang, Hongxia; Jia, Dagong; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-01-01

    An electronic speckle shearing phase-shifting pattern interferometer (ESSPPI) based on Michelson interferometer was based in this paper. A rotatable mirror driven by a step motor in one of its reflective arm is used to generate an adjustable shearing and the mirror driven by piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in the other reflective arm was used to realize phaseshifting. In the experiments, the deformation of an aluminum plate with the same extern-force on different positions and different forces on the same position is measured. Meanwhile, the phase distribution and phase-unwrap image of the aluminum plate with the extern-force on its center position is obtained by the four-step phase-shifting method.

  10. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh Dang-Vu

    Full Text Available Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD, during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation.Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers.During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls.Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness.

  11. Staying and shifting patterns across IGT trials distinguish children with externalizing disorders from controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FernandaMata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT is the most widely instrument used in the assessment of affective decision-making in several populations with frontal impairment. The standard performance measure on the IGT is obtained by calculating the difference between the advantageous and the disadvantageous choices. This standard score does not allows the assessment of the use of different strategies to deal with contingencies of gain and losses across the task. This study aims to compare the standard score method used in IGT with a method that analyses the patterns of staying and shifting among different decks across the 100 choices, considering contingencies of choices with and without losses. We compared the IGT performance of 24 children with externalizing disorders (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder and 24 healthy age-matched children. The analyses of the standard score across all blocks failed to show differences among children with externalizing disorders and control children. However, healthy children showed a pattern of shifting more from disadvantageous decks to advantageous decks and choosing more consecutive cards from the advantageous decks across all blocks, independently of the contingency of losses. On the other hand, children with externalizing disorders presented a pattern of shifting more from advantageous decks to disadvantageous ones in comparison to healthy children and repeatedly chose cards from the B deck across all blocks. This findings show that even though differences among groups might not be found when using the standard analyses, a different type of analysis might be able to show distinct strategies on the execution of the test.

  12. Methods for shifting the pattern of energy deposition with a MAPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In earlier work the authors observed local heating in bone when an amputated human leg was treated with a MAPA. For this reason we have experimentally compared several methods for controlling the pattern of energy deposition. These methods include radial displacement of the phantom relative to the MAPA, adjusting phase and magnitude of the currents in the dipole elements, and the use of dielectric spacers between the bolus and parts of the phantom. Cylindrical homogeneous muscle-phantoms have been used in these tests. Both theory and experiments show that greater displacement of the pattern can be obtained using phase-shifting than is possible with radial displacement of the phantom. Dielectric spacers act as a shield by decoupling the phantom from the MAPA. The dielectric spacers are simple to use and give results that are stable and easy to predict

  13. Altered oscillation patterns and connectivity during picture naming in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eBuard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Similar behavioral deficits are shared between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and their first-degree relatives, such as impaired face memory, object recognition and some language aspects. Functional neuroimaging studies have reported abnormalities in ASD in at least one brain area implicated in those functions, the fusiform gyrus (FG. High frequency oscillations have also been described as abnormal in ASD in a separate line of research. The present study examined whether low- and high-frequency oscillatory power, localized in part to FG and other language-related regions, differs in ASD subjects and first-degree relatives. Twelve individuals with ASD, 16 parents of children with ASD, and 35 healthy controls participated in a picture-naming task using magnetoencephalography (MEG to assess oscillatory power and connectivity. Relative to controls, we observed reduced evoked high-gamma activity in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG and reduced high-beta/low-gamma evoked power in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG in the ASD group. Finally, reductions in phase-locked beta-band were also seen in the ASD group relative to controls, especially in the occipital lobes (OCC. First degree relatives, in contrast, exhibited higher high-gamma band power in the left STG compared with controls, as well as increased high-beta/low-gamma evoked power in the left FG. In the left hemisphere, beta- and gamma-band functional connectivity between the IFG and FG and between STG and OCC were higher in the autism group than in controls. This suggests that intrahemispheric patterns of connectivity at different frequencies are different in autism. The lack of behavioral correlation for the findings warrants some caution in interpreting the relevance of such changes for language function in ASD. Our findings in parents further implicates the gamma- and beta-band ranges as potential endophenotypes in autism.

  14. Warming Alters the Size Spectrum and Shifts the Distribution of Biomass in Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Montoya, Jose Maria; Trimmer, Mark; Woodward, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Body size is one of the key determinants of community structure. The relationship between abundance and body size can explain how community biomass is partitioned among the biota of an ecosystem. We used an aquatic mesocosm experiment to determine how warming of ~4?C would affect the body size, biomass and taxonomic structure of planktonic communities. We found that warming increased the steepness of the slope of the community size spectrum, primarily by altering the phyto...

  15. Phase shift in leaf movements of xanthium attributed to age and rhythm patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukkari, W L; Hobbs, L C; Salisbury, F B

    1992-04-01

    Leaves of cockelbur (Xanthium strumarium L.) have been reported to be in either an upright or downward position during the dark span (night) of a 24-hour cycle. Results from our studies clearly indicate that such differences in leaf position are not related to differences in ecotypes but can be attributed to age of the leaf, pattern of the waveform of the rhythm at various stages of the light-dark synchronizer regimen, and the statistical model used for the analysis of the waveform. Younger leaves reached a maximum upright position closer to the middle of the dark span, whereas older leaves reached this position closer to the end of the dark span. A phase shift of up to 6 to 10 hours may occur as the leaf ages. Results from the examination of the pattern of the waveform at four different times showed that the pattern of a younger leaf was different from that of an older leaf during the middle of the dark span, during the light-to-dark transition, and during the middle of the light span, but not during the dark-to-light transition. Linear regression, statistical analyses, and the fitting of harmonics clearly indicate that it is the trough, more than the peak, that differs with the age of the leaf. PMID:16668803

  16. A portable intra-oral scanner based on sinusoidal pattern of fast phase-shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Chia-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chieh

    2016-03-01

    This paper presented our current research about the intra-oral scanner made by MIRDC. Utilizing the sinusoidal pattern for fast phase-shifting technique to deal with 3D digitalization of human dental surface profile, the development of pseudo-phase shifting digital projection can easily achieve one type of full-field scanning instead of the common technique of the laser line scanning. Based on traditional Moiré method, we adopt projecting fringes and retrieve phase reconstruction to forward phase unwrapping. The phase difference between the plane and object can be exactly calculated from the desired fringe images, and the surface profile of object was probably reconstructed by using the phase differences information directly. According to our algorithm of space mapping between projections and capturing orientation exchange of our intra-oral scanning configuration, the system we made certainly can be proved to achieve the required accuracy of +/-10μm to deal with intra-oral scanning on the basis of utilizing active triangulation method. The final purpose aimed to the scanning of object surface profile with its size about 10x10x10mm3.

  17. Structural shifts of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes were instrumental for the early evolution of retinoid-dependent axial patterning in metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Tiago J P; Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Simões-Costa, Marcos; Schechtman, Deborah; Pereira, Alexandre C; Brunet, Frédéric; Sweeney, Sarah; Pani, Ariel; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Lowe, Christopher J; Davidson, Bradley; Laudet, Vincent; Bronner, Marianne; de Oliveira, Paulo S L; Schubert, Michael; Xavier-Neto, José

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catabolize toxic aldehydes and process the vitamin A-derived retinaldehyde into retinoic acid (RA), a small diffusible molecule and a pivotal chordate morphogen. In this study, we combine phylogenetic, structural, genomic, and developmental gene expression analyses to examine the evolutionary origins of ALDH substrate preference. Structural modeling reveals that processing of small aldehydes, such as acetaldehyde, by ALDH2, versus large aldehydes, including retinaldehyde, by ALDH1A is associated with small versus large substrate entry channels (SECs), respectively. Moreover, we show that metazoan ALDH1s and ALDH2s are members of a single ALDH1/2 clade and that during evolution, eukaryote ALDH1/2s often switched between large and small SECs after gene duplication, transforming constricted channels into wide opened ones and vice versa. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that during the evolutionary emergence of RA signaling, the ancestral, narrow-channeled metazoan ALDH1/2 gave rise to large ALDH1 channels capable of accommodating bulky aldehydes, such as retinaldehyde, supporting the view that retinoid-dependent signaling arose from ancestral cellular detoxification mechanisms. Our analyses also indicate that, on a more restricted evolutionary scale, ALDH1 duplicates from invertebrate chordates (amphioxus and ascidian tunicates) underwent switches to smaller and narrower SECs. When combined with alterations in gene expression, these switches led to neofunctionalization from ALDH1-like roles in embryonic patterning to systemic, ALDH2-like roles, suggesting functional shifts from signaling to detoxification. PMID:21169504

  18. Structural shifts of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes were instrumental for the early evolution of retinoid-dependent axial patterning in metazoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Simões-Costa, Marcos; Schechtman, Deborah; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Brunet, Frédéric; Sweeney, Sarah; Pani, Ariel; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Lowe, Christopher J.; Davidson, Bradley; Laudet, Vincent; Bronner, Marianne; de Oliveira, Paulo S. L.; Schubert, Michael; Xavier-Neto, José

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catabolize toxic aldehydes and process the vitamin A-derived retinaldehyde into retinoic acid (RA), a small diffusible molecule and a pivotal chordate morphogen. In this study, we combine phylogenetic, structural, genomic, and developmental gene expression analyses to examine the evolutionary origins of ALDH substrate preference. Structural modeling reveals that processing of small aldehydes, such as acetaldehyde, by ALDH2, versus large aldehydes, including retinaldehyde, by ALDH1A is associated with small versus large substrate entry channels (SECs), respectively. Moreover, we show that metazoan ALDH1s and ALDH2s are members of a single ALDH1/2 clade and that during evolution, eukaryote ALDH1/2s often switched between large and small SECs after gene duplication, transforming constricted channels into wide opened ones and vice versa. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that during the evolutionary emergence of RA signaling, the ancestral, narrow-channeled metazoan ALDH1/2 gave rise to large ALDH1 channels capable of accommodating bulky aldehydes, such as retinaldehyde, supporting the view that retinoid-dependent signaling arose from ancestral cellular detoxification mechanisms. Our analyses also indicate that, on a more restricted evolutionary scale, ALDH1 duplicates from invertebrate chordates (amphioxus and ascidian tunicates) underwent switches to smaller and narrower SECs. When combined with alterations in gene expression, these switches led to neofunctionalization from ALDH1-like roles in embryonic patterning to systemic, ALDH2-like roles, suggesting functional shifts from signaling to detoxification. PMID:21169504

  19. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, M; Roderick, GK

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Leong and Roderick. Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and ...

  20. Nursing frequency alters circadian patterns of mammary gene expression in lactating mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milking frequency impacts lactation in dairy cattle and in rodent models of lactation. The role of circadian gene expression in this process is unknown. The hypothesis tested was that changing nursing frequency alters the circadian patterns of mammary gene expression. Mid-lactation CD1 mice were stu...

  1. Continental-Scale Patterns Reveal Potential for Warming-Induced Shifts in Cattle Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Joseph M.; Angerer, Jay P.; Elmore, Andrew; Fierer, Noah

    2016-01-01

    In North America, it has been shown that cattle in warmer, drier grasslands have lower quality diets than those cattle grazing cooler, wetter grasslands, which suggests warming will increase nutritional stress and reduce weight gain. Yet, little is known about how the plant species that comprise cattle diets change across these gradients and whether these shifts in dietary quality coincide with shifts in dietary composition, i.e. the relative abundance of different plant species consumed by cattle. To quantify geographic patterns in dietary composition, we analyzed the dietary composition and dietary quality of unsupplemented cattle from 289 sites across the central US by sequence-based analyses of plant DNA isolated from cattle fecal samples. Overall, assuming that the percentage of reads for a species in a sample corresponds to the percentage of protein derived from the species, only 45% of the protein intake for cattle was derived from grasses. Within the Great Plains, northern cattle relied more on grasses than southern cattle, which derived a greater proportion of their protein from herbaceous and woody eudicots. Eastern cattle were also more likely to consume a unique assemblage of plant species than western cattle. High dietary protein was not strongly tied to consumption of any specific plant species, which suggests that efforts to promote individual plant species may not easily remedy protein deficiencies. A few plant species were consistently associated with lower quality diets. For example, the diets of cattle with high amounts of Elymus or Hesperostipa were more likely to have lower crude protein concentrations than diets with less of these grasses. Overall, our analyses suggest that climatic warming will increase the reliance of cattle on eudicots as protein concentrations of grasses decline. Monitoring cattle diet with this DNA-based sequencing approach can be an effective tool for quantifying cattle diet to better increase animal performance and

  2. Continental-Scale Patterns Reveal Potential for Warming-Induced Shifts in Cattle Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Joseph M; Angerer, Jay P; Elmore, Andrew; Fierer, Noah

    2016-01-01

    In North America, it has been shown that cattle in warmer, drier grasslands have lower quality diets than those cattle grazing cooler, wetter grasslands, which suggests warming will increase nutritional stress and reduce weight gain. Yet, little is known about how the plant species that comprise cattle diets change across these gradients and whether these shifts in dietary quality coincide with shifts in dietary composition, i.e. the relative abundance of different plant species consumed by cattle. To quantify geographic patterns in dietary composition, we analyzed the dietary composition and dietary quality of unsupplemented cattle from 289 sites across the central US by sequence-based analyses of plant DNA isolated from cattle fecal samples. Overall, assuming that the percentage of reads for a species in a sample corresponds to the percentage of protein derived from the species, only 45% of the protein intake for cattle was derived from grasses. Within the Great Plains, northern cattle relied more on grasses than southern cattle, which derived a greater proportion of their protein from herbaceous and woody eudicots. Eastern cattle were also more likely to consume a unique assemblage of plant species than western cattle. High dietary protein was not strongly tied to consumption of any specific plant species, which suggests that efforts to promote individual plant species may not easily remedy protein deficiencies. A few plant species were consistently associated with lower quality diets. For example, the diets of cattle with high amounts of Elymus or Hesperostipa were more likely to have lower crude protein concentrations than diets with less of these grasses. Overall, our analyses suggest that climatic warming will increase the reliance of cattle on eudicots as protein concentrations of grasses decline. Monitoring cattle diet with this DNA-based sequencing approach can be an effective tool for quantifying cattle diet to better increase animal performance and

  3. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP). However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions. Results Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation pattern correlated significantly with the degree of spasticity. Conclusion This study confirmed the occurrence of altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with CP during cycling on a recumbent ergometer. There is a need to develop feedback systems that can inform patients and therapists of an incorrect muscle activation during cycling and support the training

  4. Computational tool for phase-shift calculation in an interference pattern by fringe displacements based on a skeletonized image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Pico-Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript an algorithm based on a graphic user interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB for an automatic phase-shifting estimation between two digitalized interferograms is presented. The proposed algorithm finds the midpoint locus of the dark and bright interference fringes in two skeletonized fringe patterns and relates their displacements with the corresponding phase-shift. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed GUI, its application to simulated and experimental interference patterns will be shown. The viability of this GUI makes it a helpful and easy-to-use computational tool for educational or research purposes in optical phenomena for undergraduate or graduate studies in the field of physics.

  5. Shifting behavior: An analysis of response patterns of Parkinson patients in discrimination-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, J.P.A.; Coenders, C.J.H.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Parkinson patients often show decreased performance on what is generally referred to as 'shift tasks'. This does not necessarily imply that Parkinson patients have problems with shifting, since task performance reflects not only shifting but also other factors. Using a discrimination learning task,

  6. An Effective and Novel Neural Network Ensemble for Shift Pattern Detection in Control Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Barghash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition in control charts is critical to make a balance between discovering faults as early as possible and reducing the number of false alarms. This work is devoted to designing a multistage neural network ensemble that achieves this balance which reduces rework and scrape without reducing productivity. The ensemble under focus is composed of a series of neural network stages and a series of decision points. Initially, this work compared using multidecision points and single-decision point on the performance of the ANN which showed that multidecision points are highly preferable to single-decision points. This work also tested the effect of population percentages on the ANN and used this to optimize the ANN’s performance. Also this work used optimized and nonoptimized ANNs in an ensemble and proved that using nonoptimized ANN may reduce the performance of the ensemble. The ensemble that used only optimized ANNs has improved performance over individual ANNs and three-sigma level rule. In that respect using the designed ensemble can help in reducing the number of false stops and increasing productivity. It also can be used to discover even small shifts in the mean as early as possible.

  7. Shiftworking families: parents' working schedule and sleep patterns of adolescents attending school in two shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka Radoševic-Vidacek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore whether parents' engagement in shift work affects the sleep habits of their adolescent children who attend school in two shifts. METHODS: The data were drawn from an extensive survey of sleep and daytime functioning of adolescents attending school one week in the morning and the other in the afternoon. The participants were 1,386 elementary and high school students (11-18 years old whose parents were both employed. The data were analyzed using MANOVA, with parents' work schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school as between-subject factors. RESULTS: Parents' working schedule significantly affected the sleep patterns of high school adolescents. When attending school in the morning, adolescents whose parents were both day workers woke up somewhat later than adolescents with one shiftworking parent. In addition, they slept longer than adolescents whose parents were both shift workers. On weekends, adolescents whose parents both worked during the day went to bed earlier than adolescents whose parents were both shiftworkers. They also had smaller bedtime delay on weekends with respect to both morning and afternoon shifts than adolescents for whom one or both parents worked shifts. A significant interaction between parents' working schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school was found for sleep extension on weekends after afternoon shift school. CONCLUSIONS: Parental involvement in shift work has negative effects on the sleep of high school adolescents. It contributes to earlier wake-up time and shorter sleep in a week when adolescents attend school in the morning, as well as to greater bedtime irregularity.OBJETIVO: Investigar se a ocupação de pais com o trabalho em turnos interfere nos hábitos de sono dos filhos adolescentes que freqüentam a escola em dois períodos distintos. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados em uma extensa pesquisa sobre sono e atividades diurnas de adolescentes que freqüentavam a escola no

  8. Use of mutation induction to alter the ontogenetic pattern of crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of the mutant cultivars with altered flowering or maturity time are given, and the induced mutants with altered developmental patterns are reviewed. It is pointed out that the adjustment of the time of maturity (earliness or lateness) without lowering the highly desirable traits of a variety such as yield and quality is obtainable by induced mutation techniques. Earlier harvest and the shorter duration from sowing to harvest generally leads to lower yield, but this may be tolerated if better quality is achieved, if crops escape hazardous stress conditions or pathogen attack, and if the subsequent crops gain in yield. Some examples in barley, wheat, rice, leguminous plants, oil seed and fiber crops, sugar cane, fruits and ornamentals are reviewed, and it is emphasized that the whole life history of plants has relevance for their productivity, and that the careful examination of ontogenetic pattern is necessary to breed desirable varieties. (Kaihara, S.)

  9. Radiation-induced alterations in murine lymphocyte homing patterns. I. Radiolabeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro x-irradiation of 51Cr-labeled spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, or thymus cells was found to alter their subsequent in vivo distribution significantly in syngeneic BDF1 mice. Irradiated cells demonstrated an increased distribution to the liver and a significantly lower retention in the lungs. Cells going to the lymph nodes or Peyer's patches showed a significant exposure-dependent decrease in homing following irradiation. Irradiated lymph node cells homed in greater numbers to the spleen and bone marrow, while irradiated cells from other sources showed no preferential distribution to the same tissues. Sampling host tissues at various times after irradiation and injection did not demonstrate any return to normal patterns of distribution. The alterations in lymphocyte homing observed after in vitro irradiation appear to be due to the elimination of a selective population of lymphocytes or membrane alterations of viable cells, and the detection of these homing changes is in turn dependent upon the relative numbers of various lymphoid subpopulations which are obtained from different cell sources. Radiation-induced alterations in the normal homing patterns of lymphoid cells may thus be of considerable importance in the evaluation of subsequent functional assays in recipient animals

  10. Total error shift patterns for daily CT on rails image-guided radiotherapy to the prostate bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Helvecio C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the daily total error shift patterns on post-prostatectomy patients undergoing image guided radiotherapy (IGRT with a diagnostic quality computer tomography (CT on rails system. Methods A total of 17 consecutive post-prostatectomy patients receiving adjuvant or salvage IMRT using CT-on-rails IGRT were analyzed. The prostate bed's daily total error shifts were evaluated for a total of 661 CT scans. Results In the right-left, cranial-caudal, and posterior-anterior directions, 11.5%, 9.2%, and 6.5% of the 661 scans required no position adjustments; 75.3%, 66.1%, and 56.8% required a shift of 1 - 5 mm; 11.5%, 20.9%, and 31.2% required a shift of 6 - 10 mm; and 1.7%, 3.8%, and 5.5% required a shift of more than 10 mm, respectively. There was evidence of correlation between the x and y, x and z, and y and z axes in 3, 3, and 3 of 17 patients, respectively. Univariate (ANOVA analysis showed that the total error pattern was random in the x, y, and z axis for 10, 5, and 2 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Multivariate (MANOVA analysis showed that the (x,y, (x,z, (y,z, and (x, y, z total error pattern was random in 5, 1, 1, and 1 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Conclusions The overall daily total error shift pattern for these 17 patients simulated with an empty bladder, and treated with CT on rails IGRT was predominantly systematic. Despite this, the temporal vector trends showed complex behaviors and unpredictable changes in magnitude and direction. These findings highlight the importance of using daily IGRT in post-prostatectomy patients.

  11. Total error shift patterns for daily CT on rails image-guided radiotherapy to the prostate bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the daily total error shift patterns on post-prostatectomy patients undergoing image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) with a diagnostic quality computer tomography (CT) on rails system. A total of 17 consecutive post-prostatectomy patients receiving adjuvant or salvage IMRT using CT-on-rails IGRT were analyzed. The prostate bed's daily total error shifts were evaluated for a total of 661 CT scans. In the right-left, cranial-caudal, and posterior-anterior directions, 11.5%, 9.2%, and 6.5% of the 661 scans required no position adjustments; 75.3%, 66.1%, and 56.8% required a shift of 1 - 5 mm; 11.5%, 20.9%, and 31.2% required a shift of 6 - 10 mm; and 1.7%, 3.8%, and 5.5% required a shift of more than 10 mm, respectively. There was evidence of correlation between the x and y, x and z, and y and z axes in 3, 3, and 3 of 17 patients, respectively. Univariate (ANOVA) analysis showed that the total error pattern was random in the x, y, and z axis for 10, 5, and 2 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Multivariate (MANOVA) analysis showed that the (x,y), (x,z), (y,z), and (x, y, z) total error pattern was random in 5, 1, 1, and 1 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. The overall daily total error shift pattern for these 17 patients simulated with an empty bladder, and treated with CT on rails IGRT was predominantly systematic. Despite this, the temporal vector trends showed complex behaviors and unpredictable changes in magnitude and direction. These findings highlight the importance of using daily IGRT in post-prostatectomy patients

  12. Analysis of Household Electricity Consumption Patterns and Economy of Water Heating Shifting and Saving Bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Rosin, A.; Moller, T.; Lehtla, M; Hoimoja, H

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses household electricity consumption based on an object in Estonia. Energy consumption of workday and holiday by loads (including high and low tariff energy consumption) is discussed. The final part describes the evaluation of profitability of common investments of consumption shifting and replacing inefficient devices with more efficient ones. Additionally it describes shifting problems and shifting equipment profitability in real-time tariff system

  13. Review and comparison of temporal- and spatial-phase shift speckle pattern interferometry for 3D deformation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Yang, Lianxiang; Chen, Xu; Xu, Nan; Wang, Yonghong

    2013-10-01

    High accuracy full field three dimensional (3D) deformation measurements have always been an essential problem for the manufacturing, instrument, and aerospace industry. 3D deformations, which can be translated further into 3D strain and stress, are the key parameter for design, manufacturing and quality control. Due to the fast development of the manufacturing industry, especially in the automobile and airspace industry, rapid design and optimization concepts have already widely accepted. These concepts all require the support of rapid, high sensitive and accuracy 3D deformation measurement. Advanced optical methods are gaining widely acceptance for deformation and stain measurement by industry due to the advantages of non-contact, full-field and high measurement sensitivity. Of these methods, Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is the most sensitive and accurate method for 3D deformation measurement in micro and sub micro-level. ESPI measures deformation by evaluating the phase difference of two recorded speckle interferograms under different loading conditions. Combined with a phase shift technique, ESPI systems can measure the 3D deformation with dozens of nanometer level sensitivity. Cataloged by phase calculation methods, ESPI systems can be divided into temporal phase shift ESPI systems and spatial phase shift ESPI system. This article provides a review and a comparison of temporal and spatial phase shift speckle pattern interferometry for 3D deformation measurement. After an overview of the fundamentals of ESPI theory, temporal phase-shift and spatial phase-shift techniques, 3D deformation measurements by the temporal phase-shift ESPI which is suited well for static measurement and by the spatial phase-shift ESPI which is particularly useful for dynamic measurement will be discussed in detail. Basic theory, brief derivation and different optical layouts for the two systems will be presented. The potentials and limitations of the both ESPI

  14. Shifting patterns of Aedes aegypti fine scale spatial clustering in Iquitos, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve LaCon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1 quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2 determine overlap between clusters, (3 quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4 quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels.Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [p<0.05] high mosquito abundance were calculated for each of the 9 entomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study.Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically high levels of transmission may be more effective than

  15. Shifting dominance of riparian Populus and Tamarix along gradients of flow alteration in western North American rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David M; Poff, N LeRoy

    2010-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima is a naturalized, nonnative plant species which has become widespread along riparian corridors throughout the western United States. We test the hypothesis that the distribution and success of Tamarix result from human modification of river-flow regimes. We conducted a natural experiment in eight ecoregions in arid and semiarid portions of the western United States, measuring Tamarix and native Populus recruitment and abundance at 64 sites along 13 perennial rivers spanning a range of altered flow regimes. We quantified biologically relevant attributes of flow alteration as an integrated measure (the index of flow modification, IFM), which was then used to explain between-site variation in abundance and recruitment of native and nonnative riparian plant species. We found the likelihood of successful recruitment of Tamarix to be highest along unregulated river reaches and to remain high across a gradient of regulated flows. Recruitment probability for Populus, in contrast, was highest under free-flowing conditions and declined abruptly under even slight flow modification (IFM > 0.1). Adult Tamarix was most abundant at intermediate levels of IFM. Populus abundance declined sharply with modest flow regulation (IFM > 0.2) and was not present at the most flow-regulated sites. Dominance of Tamarix was highest along rivers with the most altered flow regimes. At the 16 least regulated sites, Tamarix and Populus were equally abundant. Given observed patterns of Tamarix recruitment and abundance, we infer that Tamarix would likely have naturalized, spread, and established widely in riparian communities in the absence of dam construction, diversions, and flow regulation in western North America. However, Tamarix dominance over native species would likely be less extensive in the absence of human alteration of river-flow regimes. Restoration that combines active mechanical removal of established stands of Tamarix with a program of flow releases conducive to

  16. Altered stress patterns and increased risk for postpartum depression among low-income pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Kathryn; Urizar, Guido G

    2016-04-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has been associated with a number of negative maternal and infant health outcomes. Despite these adverse health effects, few studies have prospectively examined patterns of pre- and postnatal stress that may increase a woman's risk for PPD. The current study examined whether the timing of altered salivary cortisol patterns and perceived stress levels during pregnancy and at 3 months postpartum was associated with PPD symptoms among 100 low-income mothers. Higher levels of PPD were found among women with a lower cortisol awakening response (first and second trimester), lower average daily cortisol (second trimester), a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern (second and third trimester and at 3 months postpartum), and a less abrupt drop in both cortisol and perceived stress from the third trimester to 3 months postpartum. These results support the need for early screening and regulation of stress levels to promote depression prevention efforts in at-risk populations. PMID:26275372

  17. Shifts in the climate space of temperate cyprinid fishes due to climate change are coupled with altered body sizes and growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Navarro, Ana; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Britton, J Robert

    2016-09-01

    Predictions of species responses to climate change often focus on distribution shifts, although responses can also include shifts in body sizes and population demographics. Here, shifts in the distributional ranges ('climate space'), body sizes (as maximum theoretical body sizes, L∞) and growth rates (as rate at which L∞ is reached, K) were predicted for five fishes of the Cyprinidae family in a temperate region over eight climate change projections. Great Britain was the model area, and the model species were Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus leuciscus, Squalius cephalus, Gobio gobio and Abramis brama. Ensemble models predicted that the species' climate spaces would shift in all modelled projections, with the most drastic changes occurring under high emissions; all range centroids shifted in a north-westerly direction. Predicted climate space expanded for R. rutilus and A. brama, contracted for S. cephalus, and for L. leuciscus and G. gobio, expanded under low-emission scenarios but contracted under high emissions, suggesting the presence of some climate-distribution thresholds. For R. rutilus, A. brama, S. cephalus and G. gobio, shifts in their climate space were coupled with predicted shifts to significantly smaller maximum body sizes and/or faster growth rates, aligning strongly to aspects of temperature-body size theory. These predicted shifts in L∞ and K had considerable consequences for size-at-age per species, suggesting substantial alterations in population age structures and abundances. Thus, when predicting climate change outcomes for species, outputs that couple shifts in climate space with altered body sizes and growth rates provide considerable insights into the population and community consequences, especially for species that cannot easily track their thermal niches. PMID:26824727

  18. Language maintenance and shift patterns of the Turkish speakers in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Yagmur, Kutlay; Bayram Jacobs, Dürdane

    2015-01-01

    Language maintenance, shift and ethnolinguistic vitality perceptions of Turkish speakers in the Netherlands are discussed in this paper. Using ethnolinguistic vitality theory of Giles, Bourhis &Taylor (1977) data on language use, choice and attitudes of Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands were collected. Using education as an independent variable, data has been analysed. The findings of this study have contributed further evidence to the role of education for language maintenance and shift....

  19. North Atlantic atmospheric and ocean inter-annual variability over the past fifty years - Dominant patterns and decadal shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Tristan; Demirov, Entcho; Zhu, Jieshun; Yashayaev, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The atmosphere and ocean of the North Atlantic have undergone significant changes in the past century. To understand these changes, their mechanisms, and their regional implications requires a quantitative understanding of processes in the coupled ocean and atmosphere system. Central to this understanding is the role played by the dominant patterns of ocean and atmospheric variability which define coherent variations in physical characteristics over large areas. Cluster analysis is used in this article to identify the patterns of the North Atlantic atmospheric variability in the subseasonal and interannual spectral intervals. Four dominant subseasonal weather regimes are defined using Bayesian Gaussian mixture models. All correlation patterns of the Sea Level Pressure (SLP) anomalies with the membership probability time series for the weather regimes show similarities with the dipole structure typical for the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The SLP patterns of two of the regimes represent the opposite phases NAO+ and NAO-. The two other weather regimes, the Atlantic Ridge (AR) and Scandinavian-Greenland dipole (SG), have dipole spatial structures with the northern and southern centers of action shifted with respect to the NAO pattern. These two patterns define blocking structures over Scandinavia and near the southern tip of Greenland, respectively. The storm tracks typical for the four regimes resemble the well known paths for positive/negative phases of NAO for the NAO+/NAO- weather regimes, and paths influenced by blocking off the south Greenland tip for AR and over Scandinavia for SG. The correlation patterns of momentum and heat fluxes to the ocean for the four regimes have tripole structures with positive (warm) downward heat flux anomalies over the Subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) for the NAO- and the AR and negative heat flux anomalies over the SPNA for the NAO+. The downward heat flux anomalies associated with the SG are negative over the Labrador Sea and

  20. Extracting an electron's angle of return from shifted interference patterns in macroscopic high-harmonic spectra of diatomic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Das, T; Faria, C Figueira de Morisson; Chipperfield, L E; Hoffmann, D J; Marangos, J P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate high-order harmonic spectra from aligned diatomic molecules in intense driving fields whose components have orthogonal polarizations. We focus on how the driving-field ellipticity influences structural interference patterns in a macroscopic medium. In a previous publication [Phys. Rev. A 88, 023404 (2013)] we have shown that the non-vanishing ellipticity introduces an effective dynamic shift in the angle for which the two-center interference maxima and minima occur, with regard to the existing condition for linearly polarized fields. In this work we show through simulation that it is still possible to observe this shift in harmonic spectra that have undergone macroscopic propagation, and discuss the parameter range for doing so. These features are investigated for $H_2$ in a bichromatic field composed of two orthogonally polarized waves. The shift is visible both in the near- and in the far-field regime, so that, in principle, it can be observed in experiments.

  1. Cumulative-Phase-Alteration of Galactic-Light Passing Through the Cosmic-Microwave-Background: A New Mechanism for Some Observed Spectral-Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tank H. K.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, whole of the measured “cosmological-red-shift ” is interpreted as due to the “metric-expansion-of-space”; so for the required “closer -density” of the universe, we need twenty times more mass-energy than the visible baryonic-matter contained in the universe. This paper proposes a new mechanism, which can account for good per- centage of the red-shift in the extra-galactic-light, greatly reducing the requirement of dark matter-energy. Also, this mechanism can cause a new kin d of blue-shift reported here, and their observational evidences. These spectral-s hifts are proposed to result due to cumulative phase-alteration of extra-galactic-light b ecause of vector-addition of: (i electric-field of extra-galactic-light and (ii that of the cosmic-microwave-background (CMB. Since the center-frequency of CMB is much lower than extra-galactic-light, the cumulative-phase-alteration results in red -shift, observed as an additional contribu- tor to the measured “cosmological red-shift”; and since the center-frequency of CMB is higher than the radio-frequency-signals used to measure velocity of space-probes like: Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, the cum ulative-phase-alteration re- sulted in blue-shift, leading to the interpretation of deceleration of these space-probes. While the galactic-light experiences the red-shift, and th e ranging-signals of the space- probes experience blue -shift, they are comparable in magnitude, providing a supportive- evidence for the new mechanism proposed here. More confirmative-experiments for this new mechanism are also proposed.

  2. Efficient face recognition using local derivative pattern and shifted phase-encoded fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bikram K.; Alam, Mohammad S.; Chowdhury, Suparna

    2016-04-01

    An improved shifted phase-encoded fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation technique is proposed in this paper for face recognition which can accommodate the detrimental effects of noise, illumination, and other 3D distortions such as expression and rotation variations. This technique utilizes a third order local derivative pattern operator (LDP3) followed by a shifted phase-encoded fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation (SPFJTC) operation. The local derivative pattern operator ensures better facial feature extraction in a variable environment while the SPFJTC yields robust correlation output for the desired signals. The performance of the proposed method is determined by using the Yale Face Database, Yale Face Database B, and Georgia Institute of Technology Face Database. This technique has been found to yield better face recognition rate compared to alternate JTC based techniques.

  3. PATTERN OF SHIFTING OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG DRUG ADDICTS UNDERGOING TREATMENT AT DDCS (DRUG DEADDICTION CENTERS) IN PUNJAB

    OpenAIRE

    Vikram Kumar; Priya; Amanpreet; Gurmeet

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: In India , drug addiction has reached very alarming levels in the state of Punjab . The data from a cross - sectional study in two of the DDCs in district Gurdaspur and three of the DDCs in district Hoshiarpur revealed that about 26 patients had history of shifting pattern of substance abuse . The reasons cited by the patients were of affordability , the ease of availability , the job plac e , the locality and the peer gr...

  4. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  5. Chronic hepcidin induction causes hyposideremia and alters the pattern of cellular iron accumulation in hemochromatotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viatte, Lydie; Nicolas, Gaël; Lou, Dan-Qing; Bennoun, Myriam; Lesbordes-Brion, Jeanne-Claire; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Schönig, Kai; Bujard, Hermann; Kahn, Axel; Andrews, Nancy C; Vaulont, Sophie

    2006-04-01

    We report the generation of a tetracycline-regulated (Tet ON) transgenic mouse model for acute and chronic expression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin in the liver. We demonstrate that short-term and long-term tetracycline-dependent activation of hepcidin in adult mice leads to hypoferremia and iron-limited erythropoiesis, respectively. This clearly establishes the key role of hepcidin in regulating the extracellular iron concentration. We previously demonstrated that, when expressed early in fetal development, constitutive transgenic hepcidin expression prevented iron accumulation in an Hfe-/- mouse model of hemochromatosis. We now explore the effect of chronic hepcidin expression in adult Hfe-/- mice that have already developed liver iron overload. We demonstrate that induction of chronic hepcidin expression in 2-month-old Hfe-/- mice alters their pattern of cellular iron accumulation, leading to increased iron in tissue macrophages and duodenal cells but less iron in hepatocytes. These hepcidin-induced changes in the pattern of cellular iron accumulation are associated with decreased expression of the iron exporter ferroportin in macrophages but no detectable alteration of ferroportin expression in the hepatocytes. We speculate that this change in iron homeostasis could offer a therapeutic advantage by protecting against damage to parenchymal cells. PMID:16339398

  6. Language maintenance and shift patterns of the Turkish speakers in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagmur, Kutlay; Bayram Jacobs, Dürdane

    2015-01-01

    Language maintenance, shift and ethnolinguistic vitality perceptions of Turkish speakers in the Netherlands are discussed in this paper. Using ethnolinguistic vitality theory of Giles, Bourhis &Taylor (1977) data on language use, choice and attitudes of Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands were col

  7. [Northward shift in faunal diversity is a general pattern of evolution of the phanerozoic marine biota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naĭmark, E B; Markov, A V

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of two global databases on spatio-temporal distribution of fossil marine animal genera (Sepkoski's compendium and The Paleobiology Database) has revealed the presence of the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) in the marine realm throughout the Phanerozoic. Within each time interval, LDG is characterized by two parameters: the latitudinal position of peak diversity and the steepness of monotonous decline of diversity with increasing distance from the zone of the highest diversity. During the Phanerozoic, peak diversity has drifted gradually from the tropics and subtropics of the Southern hemisphere into northern midlatitudes. The shift in peak diversity is not likely to be an artifact of incompleteness of the fossil record or uneven sampling of different regions. The shift proceeded in a stepwise manner, with periods of relatively fast changes separated by longer periods of little or no change. The latitudinal shift in peak diversity was probably due to a combination of several causes: tectonic (northward shift in the latitudinal distribution of continental shelf area), climatic (as demonstrated by the fact that peak diversity tended to occur near equator during the cold epochs and in midlatitudes during the warm epochs), and historical ("evolutionary inertia" of local faunas). PMID:21061643

  8. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R; Lindeman, Peter V; Lovich, Jeffrey E

    2015-06-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves. PMID:26078863

  9. 0.3-μm pitch random interconnect patterning with node connection phase-shifting mask: experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hotta, Shoji

    2000-07-01

    The effectiveness of node-connection phase-shifting mask (PSM) was investigated experimentally. In this method, the original design patterns are decomposed into several alternating PSM sub-patterns bas don geometrical rules, and multiple-exposure of these masks reconstructs the original design patterns. This is suitable for random logic interconnects, where wire features are on the 'DA-grid'. We applied this method to patterning a 0.3-micrometers pitch random interconnect with a conventional DUV exposure tool Random interconnect patterns with 0.3-micrometers pitch random interconnect with a conventional DUV exposure tool. Random interconnect patterns with 0.3-micrometers pitch were decomposed using in-house geometrical Boolean operators into three PSMs and were multiply exposed onto the same region of wafer using a KrF exposure tool. Though this is preliminary experiment without mask/process optimization, it shows a possibility of below 0.3-micrometers pitch logic interconnect with KrF tools. Thus, combining this with the phase-edge PSMs or some 'slimming' technologies for shrinking gate-length, the 0.1-micrometers generation logic LSIs are expected to be achieved with conventional DUV exposure tools.

  10. Quantitative reflection phase mesoscopy by remote coherence tuning of phase-shift interference patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Elad Arbel; Alberto Bilenca

    2015-01-01

    Conventional low-magnification phase-contrast microscopy is an invaluable, yet a qualitative, imaging tool for the interrogation of transparent objects over a mesoscopic millimeter-scale field-of-view in physical and biological settings. Here, we demonstrate that introducing a compact, unbalanced phase-shifting Michelson interferometer into a standard reflected brightfield microscope equipped with low-power infinity-corrected objectives and white light illumination forms a phase mesoscope tha...

  11. Precipitation Based Malaria Patterns in the Amazon -- Will Deforestation Alter Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. H.; Durieux, L.; Elguero, E.; Foley, J.; Gagnon, R.; Guegan, J.; Patz, J.

    2007-12-01

    The World Health Organization, estimates that forty-two percent of malaria cases are "associated with policies and practices regarding land use, deforestation, water resource management, settlement siting and modified house design". This estimate was drawn from expert opinion and studies performed at local scales, but little research has investigated the cumulative impacts of land use and land cover changes occurring in the Amazon Basin on malaria. Much less is understood about the impact of changing land use and subsequent precipitation regimes on malaria risk. To understand how land use practices may alter malaria patterns in the Basin we present an analysis of municipio (n=755) malaria case data and monthly precipitation patterns between 1996 and 1999. Climate data originated from the CRU TS 2.1 half-degree grid resolution climate data set. We present a hierarchical (random coefficients) log-linear Poisson model relating malaria incidence to precipitation for both municipos and states. At the Basin scale precipitation and cases show strong relationships. Precipitation and cases are asynchronous across the period of observation, but detailed inspection of states and individual municipios reveal geographic dependencies of precipitation and malaria incidence. Future research will link the patterns of precipitation and malaria to anticipated changes in climate from deforestation in the Basin.

  12. Determination of nuclear distances and chemical-shift anisotropy from 1H MAS NMR sideband patterns of surface OH groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzke, Dieter; Hunger, Michael; Pfeifer, Harry

    A procedure is described which allows a separate determination of the proton-aluminum distance and of the chemical-shift anisotropy for the bridging OH groups of crystalline molecular sieves from their 'H MAS NMR sideband patterns. For the bridging OH groups which point into the 6-rings of the framework (line "c"), the 1H- 27Al distance could be determined to be 0.237 ± 0.004 and 0.234 ± 0.004 nm for molecular sieves of type H-Y and SAPO-5, respectively. In contrast, for the bridging OH groups of the 12-rings (line "b"), the corresponding distances are equal and distinctly larger, 0.248 ± 0.004 nm. Within the limits of error, the values of the chemical-shift anisotropy are equal (about 19 ± 2 ppm) except for line b of SAPO-5, which exhibits a much smaller value of 14.5 ± 2 ppm.

  13. Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists

    OpenAIRE

    Kortsch, Susanne; Primicerio, Raul; Fossheim, Maria; Dolgov, Andrey V.; Aschan, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven poleward shifts, leading to changes in species composition and relative abundances, have been recently documented in the Arctic. Among the fastest moving species are boreal generalist fish which are expected to affect arctic marine food web structure and ecosystem functioning substantially. Here, we address structural changes at the food web level induced by poleward shifts via topological network analysis of highly resolved boreal and arctic food webs of the ...

  14. From beliefs to patterns of participation – shifting the research perspective on teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe; Larsen, Dorte Moeskær; Østergaard, Camilla Hellsten

    2011-01-01

    Belief research was introduced to mathematics education in the early 1980s. It challenged the primarily cognitive and mathematical agenda of the time by investigating the character and significance of mental meta-constructs called beliefs. Particular attention has ever since been paid to teachers...... the practices of the mathematics classroom. Elsewhere we have discussed the problems of belief research at some length and suggested an alternative that we call patterns-of-participation research (e.g. Skott, 2009, 2010). In the present article we briefly recapitulate some of the arguments underlying...... this suggestion, but our main interest is to use the patterns-of-participation approach for empirical purposes. Consequently the article consists of two main sections. First we summarise some of the problems of belief research and present the contours of our alternative, patterns...

  15. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  16. Altered placental DNA methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maccani JZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer ZJ Maccani, Matthew A Maccani Penn State Tobacco Center of Regulatory Science, College of Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that adverse early life exposures can have lasting, detrimental effects on lifelong health. Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with morbidity and mortality in offspring, including increased risks for miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, asthma, obesity, altered neurobehavior, and other conditions. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy interferes with placental growth and functioning, and it has been proposed that this may occur through the disruption of normal and necessary placental epigenetic patterns. Epigenome-wide association studies have identified a number of differentially methylated placental genes that are associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy, including RUNX3, PURA, GTF2H2, GCA, GPR135, and HKR1. The placental methylation status of RUNX3 and NR3C1 has also been linked to adverse infant outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight, respectively. Candidate gene analyses have also found maternal smoking-associated placental methylation differences in the NR3C1, CYP1A1, HTR2A, and HSD11B2 genes, as well as in the repetitive elements LINE-1 and AluYb8. The differential methylation patterns of several genes have been confirmed to also exhibit altered gene expression patterns, including CYP1A1, CYP19A1, NR3C1, and HTR2A. Placental methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy may be largely gene-specific and tissue-specific and, to a lesser degree, involve global changes. It is important for future research to investigate the mechanistic roles that these differentially methylated genes may play in mediating the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and disease in later life, as well

  17. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification

  18. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xunheng [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Jiao, Yun, E-mail: yunjiao@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification.

  19. Neuromorphological and wiring pattern alterations effects on brain function: a mixed experimental and computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Manubens-Gil

    2015-04-01

    In addition, the study of fixed intact brains (by means of the state of the art CLARITY technique brings us closer to biologically and medically relevant situations, allowing not only to confirm whether the functional links in neuronal cultures are also present in vivo, but also enabling the introduction of functional information (like behavioral studies and functional imaging and another layer of structural alterations such as brain region morphology, neuronal density, and long-range connectivity. Taking together the experimental information from these systems we want to feed self-developed computational models that allow us to understand what are the fundamental characteristics of the observed connectivity patterns and the impact of each of the alterations on neuronal network function. These models will also provide a framework able to account for the emergent properties that bridge the gap between spontaneous electrical activity arousal/transmission and higher order information processing and memory storage capacities in the brain. As an additional part of the project we are now working on the application of the clearing, labeling and imaging protocols to human biopsy samples. Our aim is to obtain neuronal architecture and connectivity information from focal cortical dysplasia microcircuits using samples from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy patients that undergo deep-brain electrode recording diagnosis and posterior surgical extraction of the tissue. Our computational models can allow us to discern the contributions of the observed abnormalities to neuronal hyperactivity and epileptic seizure generation.

  20. Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) Respond to Increased Ambient Temperatures with a Seasonal Shift in the Timing of Their Daily Inactivity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davimes, Joshua G; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Gravett, Nadine; Bertelsen, Mads F; Mohammed, Osama B; Ismail, Khairy; Bennett, Nigel C; Manger, Paul R

    2016-08-01

    The Arabian oryx inhabits an environment where summer ambient temperatures can exceed 40 °C for extended periods of time. While the oryx uses a suite of adaptations that aid survival, the effects of this extreme environment on inactivity are unknown. To determine how the oryx manages inactivity seasonally, we measured the daily rhythm of body temperature and used fine-grain actigraphy, in 10 animals, to reveal when the animals were inactive in relation to ambient temperature and photoperiod. We demonstrate that during the cooler winter months, the oryx was inactive during the cooler parts of the 24-h day (predawn hours), showing a nighttime (nocturnal) inactivity pattern. In contrast, in the warmer summer months, the oryx displayed a bimodal inactivity pattern, with major inactivity bouts (those greater than 1 h) occurring equally during both the coolest part of the night (predawn hours) and the warmest part of the day (afternoon hours). Of note, the timing of the daily rhythm of body temperature did not vary seasonally, although the amplitude did change, leading to a seasonal alteration in the phase relationship between inactivity and the body temperature rhythm. Because during periods of inactivity the oryx were presumably asleep for much of the time, we speculate that the daytime shift in inactivity may allow the oryx to take advantage of the thermoregulatory physiology of sleep, which likely occurs when the animal is inactive for more than 1 h, to mitigate environmentally induced increases in body temperature. PMID:27154303

  1. Shifts in microbial and chemical patterns within the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba during a disease outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole S; Xavier, Joana R; Freckelton, Marnie; Motti, Cherie A; Cobb, Rose

    2008-12-01

    The microbial community composition in affected and unaffected portions of diseased sponges and healthy control sponges of Aplysina aerophoba was assessed to ascertain the role of microbes in the disease process. Sponge secondary metabolites were also examined to assess chemical shifts in response to infection. The microbial profile and aplysinimine levels in unaffected tissue near the lesions closely reflected those of healthy sponge tissue, indicating a highly localized disease process. DGGE detected multiple sequences that were exclusively present in diseased sponges. Most notably, a Deltaproteobacteria sequence with high homology to a coral black band disease strain was detected in all sponge lesions and was absent from all healthy and unaffected regions of diseased sponges. Other potential pathogens identified by DGGE include an environmental Cytophaga strain and a novel Epsilonproteobacteria strain with no known close relatives. The disease process also caused a major shift in prokaryote community structure at a very high taxonomic level. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, only the diseased sponges were found to contain sequences belonging to the Epsilonproteobacteria and Firmicutes, and there was a much greater number of Bacteroidetes sequences within the diseased sponges. In contrast, only the healthy sponges contained sequences corresponding to the cyanobacteria and 'OP1' candidate division, and the healthy sponges were dominated by Chloroflexi and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Overall bacterial diversity was found to be considerably higher in diseased sponges than in healthy sponges. These results provide a platform for future cultivation-based experiments to isolate the putative pathogens from A. aerophoba and perform re-infection trials to define the disease aetiology. PMID:18783385

  2. Altered motor unit discharge patterns in paretic muscles of stroke survivors assessed using surface electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K.; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Hemispheric stroke survivors often show impairments in voluntary muscle activation. One potential source of these impairments could come from altered control of muscle, via disrupted motor unit (MU) firing patterns. In this study, we sought to determine whether MU firing patterns are modified on the affected side of stroke survivors, as compared with the analogous contralateral muscle. Approach. Using a novel surface electromyogram (EMG) sensor array, coupled with advanced template recognition software (dEMG) we recorded surface EMG signals over the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle on both paretic and contralateral sides. Recordings were made as stroke survivors produced isometric index finger abductions over a large force range (20%–60% of maximum). Utilizing the dEMG algorithm, MU firing rates, recruitment thresholds, and action potential amplitudes were estimated for concurrently active MUs in each trial. Main results. Our results reveal significant changes in the firing rate patterns in paretic FDI muscle, in that the discharge rates, characterized in relation to recruitment force threshold and to MU size, were less clearly correlated with recruitment force than in contralateral FDI muscles. Firing rates in the affected muscle also did not modulate systematically with the level of voluntary muscle contraction, as would be expected in intact muscles. These disturbances in firing properties also correlated closely with the impairment of muscle force generation. Significance. Our results provide strong evidence of disruptions in MU firing behavior in paretic muscles after a hemispheric stroke, suggesting that modified control of the spinal motoneuron pool could be a contributing factor to muscular weakness in stroke survivors.

  3. Individual variation in ontogenetic niche shifts in habitat use and movement patterns of a large estuarine predator (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matich, Philip; Heithaus, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Ontogenetic niche shifts are common among animals, yet most studies only investigate niche shifts at the population level, which may overlook considerable differences among individuals in the timing and dynamics of these shifts. Such divergent behaviors within size-/age-classes have important implications for the roles a population-and specific age-classes-play in their respective ecosystem(s). Using acoustic telemetry, we tracked the movements of juvenile bull sharks in the Shark River Estuary of Everglades National Park, Florida, and found that sharks increased their use of marine microhabitats with age to take advantage of more abundant resources, but continued to use freshwater and estuarine microhabitats as refuges from marine predators. Within this population-level ontogenetic niche shift, however, movement patterns varied among individual sharks, with 47 % of sharks exhibiting condition-dependent habitat use and 53 % appearing risk-averse regardless of body condition. Among sharks older than age 0, fifty percent made regular movements between adjacent regions of the estuary, while the other half made less predictable movements that often featured long-term residence in specific regions. Individual differences were apparently shaped by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including individual responses to food-risk trade-offs and body condition. These differences appear to develop early in the lives of bull sharks, and persist throughout their residencies in nursery habitats. The widespread occurrence of intraspecific variation in behavior among mobile taxa suggests it is important in shaping population dynamics of at least some species, and elucidating the contexts and timing in which it develops and persists is important for understanding its role within communities. PMID:25669454

  4. Preventing regime shifts on the Colorado Plateau: Application of ecological threshold concepts to land management decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigating the mechanisms responsible for ecological thresholds is essential to understanding processes leading to ecosystem regime shifts. Dryland ecosystems are especially prone to threshold behavior wherein stressor-mediated alteration of patterns and processes can shift systems to alternative...

  5. Altered gene expression pattern in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kiliszek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI were included. The blood was collected on the 1(st day of myocardial infarction, after 4-6 days, and after 6 months. Control group comprised 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease, without history of myocardial infarction. Gene expression analysis was performed with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarrays and GCS3000 TG system. Lists of genes showing altered expression levels (fold change >1.5, p<0.05 were submitted to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Gene lists from each group were examined for canonical pathways and molecular and cellular functions. Comparing acute phase of MI with the same patients after 6 months (stable phase and with control group we found 24 genes with changed expression. In canonical analysis three pathways were highlighted: signaling of PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, IL-10 and IL-6 (interleukin 10 and 6. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute phase of STEMI, dozens of genes from several pathways linked with lipid/glucose metabolism, platelet function and atherosclerotic plaque stability show altered expression. Up-regulation of SOCS3 and FAM20 genes in the first days of myocardial infarction is observed in the vast majority of patients.

  6. Heterochronic shifts explain variations in a sequentially developing repeated pattern: palatal ridges of muroid rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalacci, Sophie; Sémon, Marie; Martin, Arnaud; Chevret, Pascale; Laudet, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Metazoans are largely made of repeated parts, and metazoan evolution is marked by changes in the number of these parts, called meristic evolution. Understanding the mechanisms associated with meristic changes is thus a critical issue to evolutionary developmental biology. Palatal rugae are sensory ridges regularly arranged on the hard palate of mammals. They develop sequentially following mesio-distal growth of the palate, and activation-inhibition mechanisms very likely control spacing and timing of this sequential addition. In this study, we characterized trends in rugae number evolution among muroid rodents, showing that most species display 8+/-1 rugae, changes by one being very frequent in the phylogeny. We then compared development of three muroid species: mouse (nine rugae), rat (eight), and golden hamster (seven). We showed that palatal growth rate, spacing, and addition rate in mouse/rat were remarkably similar (with respect to the embryo size difference), and that increase to nine rugae in mouse is achieved by postponing the end of the addition process (hypermorphosis). Such a heterochronic shift may be typical of +/-1 variations observed among muroid rodents. In contrast, decrease to seven rugae in golden hamster is attributed to early growth termination (progenesis) of the palate, which correlates with the severe shortening of gestation in this species. Our results provide an experimental support to the intuitive view that heterochronies are especially relevant to meristic evolution of traits that rely on a sequential addition process. We also interpret our results in the light of developmental constraints specifically linked to this kind of process. PMID:19601975

  7. Shifts in Aboveground Biomass Allocation Patterns of Dominant Shrub Species across a Strong Environmental Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumordzi, Bright B.; Gundale, Michael J.; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Most plant biomass allocation studies have focused on allocation to shoots versus roots, and little is known about drivers of allocation for aboveground plant organs. We explored the drivers of within-and between-species variation of aboveground biomass allocation across a strong environmental resource gradient, i.e., a long-term chronosequence of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden across which soil fertility and plant productivity declines while light availability increases. For each of the three coexisting dominant understory dwarf shrub species on each island, we estimated the fraction of the total aboveground biomass produced year of sampling that was allocated to sexual reproduction (i.e., fruits), leaves and stems for each of two growing seasons, to determine how biomass allocation responded to the chronosequence at both the within-species and whole community levels. Against expectations, within-species allocation to fruits was least on less fertile islands, and allocation to leaves at the whole community level was greatest on intermediate islands. Consistent with expectations, different coexisting species showed contrasting allocation patterns, with the species that was best adapted for more fertile conditions allocating the most to vegetative organs, and with its allocation pattern showing the strongest response to the gradient. Our study suggests that co-existing dominant plant species can display highly contrasting biomass allocations to different aboveground organs within and across species in response to limiting environmental resources within the same plant community. Such knowledge is important for understanding how community assembly, trait spectra, and ecological processes driven by the plant community vary across environmental gradients and among contrasting ecosystems. PMID:27270445

  8. Animal migration amid shifting patterns of phenology and predation: Lessons from a Yellowstone elk herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Cook, John G.; Cook, Rachel C.; Nelson, Abigail A.; Jimenez, Michael D.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    such seasonal ranges may alter the ecological basis of migratory behavior, representing an important challenge for, and a powerful lens into, the ecology and conservation of migratory taxa.

  9. Altered pattern of brain dopamine synthesis in male adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Nicholas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data from positron emission tomography (PET studies of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD indicate alterations in brain dopamine neurotransmission. However, these studies have used conventional univariate approaches that are less sensitive to detect complex interactions that may exist between different brain dopamine pathways and individual symptoms of ADHD. We aimed to investigate these potential interactions in adolescents with ADHD. Methods We used a 3D PET scan to measure utilization of native L-[11C]-DOPA to map dopamine presynaptic function in various cortical, striatal and midbrain regions in a group of 8 male adolescents with ADHD and 6 age matched controls. To evaluate the interactions between the studied brain regions, multivariate statistical methods were used. Results Abnormal dopaminergic function was found in multiple brain regions of patients with ADHD. A main finding was lower L-[11C]-DOPA utilization in adolescent with ADHD as compared to control subjects, especially in subcortical regions. This pattern of dopaminergic activity was correlated specifically with symptoms of inattention. Conclusion Dopamine signalling in the brain plays an important modulatory role in a variety of motor and cognitive functions. We have identified region-specific functional abnormalities in dopaminergic function, which may help better account for the symptoms of ADHD.

  10. Altered sensitization patterns to sweet food stimuli in patients recovered from anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Angela; Simmons, Alan N; Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Frank, Guido K W; McCurdy-McKinnon, Danyale; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-12-30

    Recent studies show that higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) and overeating in bulimia nervosa (BN). The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensitization effects might underlie pathologic eating behavior when a taste stimulus is administered repeatedly. Recovered AN (RAN, n=14) and BN (RBN, n=15) subjects were studied in order to avoid the confounding effects of altered nutritional state. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measured higher-order brain response to repeated tastes of sucrose (caloric) and sucralose (non-caloric). To test sensitization, the neuronal response to the first and second administration was compared. RAN patients demonstrated a decreased sensitization to sucrose in contrast to RBN patients who displayed the opposite pattern, increased sensitization to sucrose. However, the latter was not as pronounced as in healthy control women (n=13). While both eating disorder subgroups showed increased sensitization to sucralose, the healthy controls revealed decreased sensitization. These findings could reflect on a neuronal level the high caloric intake of RBN during binges and the low energy intake for RAN. RAN seem to distinguish between high energy and low energy sweet stimuli while RBN do not. PMID:26596520

  11. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23741416

  12. Similar blood-borne DNA methylation alterations in cancer and inflammatory diseases determined by subpopulation shifts in peripheral leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, H; Zheng, T.; Chen, B; Hong, G; Zhang, W.; Shi, T; Li, S.; Ao, L; Wang, C.; Guo, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations observed in peripheral whole blood/leukocytes and serum have been considered as potential diagnostic markers for cancer, their origin and their specificity for cancer (e.g., vs inflammatory diseases) remain unclear. Methods: From publicly available datasets, we identified changes in the methylation of blood-borne DNA for multiple cancers and inflammatory diseases. We compared the identified changes with DNAm difference between myelo...

  13. Use of Chinese hamster ovary cells with altered glycosylation patterns to define the carbohydrate specificity of Entamoeba histolytica adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    We compared the adherence of E. histolytica trophozoites with a panel of lectin-resistant CHO mutants with altered glycosylation patterns. Our results coupled with data from saccharide inhibition studies indicate that terminal N-acetyllactosamine units on Asn-linked complex type oligosaccharides provide the major determinants on the cellular receptor for E. histolytica adhesion.

  14. Shifting patterns of natural variation in the nuclear genome of caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Kazufusa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide analysis of variation within a species can reveal the evolution of fundamental biological processes such as mutation, recombination, and natural selection. We compare genome wide sequence differences between two independent isolates of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (CB4856 and CB4858 and the reference genome (N2. Results The base substitution pattern when comparing N2 against CB4858 reveals a transition over transversion bias (1.32:1 that is not present in CB4856. In CB4856, there is a significant bias in the direction of base substitution. The frequency of A or T bases in N2 that are G or C bases in CB4856 outnumber the opposite frequencies for transitions as well as transversions. These differences were not observed in the N2/CB4858 comparison. Similarly, we observed a strong bias for deletions over insertions in CB4856 (1.44: 1 that is not present in CB4858. In both CB4856 and CB4858, there is a significant correlation between SNP rate and recombination rate on the autosomes but not on the X chromosome. Furthermore, we identified numerous significant hotspots of variation in the CB4856-N2 comparison. In both CB4856 and CB4858, based on a measure of the strength of selection (ka/ks, all the chromosomes are under negative selection and in CB4856, there is no difference in the strength of natural selection in either the autosomes versus X or between any of the chromosomes. By contrast, in CB4858, ka/ks values are smaller in the autosomes than in the X chromosome. In addition, in CB4858, ka/ks values differ between chromosomes. Conclusions The clear bias of deletions over insertions in CB4856 suggests that either the CB4856 genome is becoming smaller or the N2 genome is getting larger. We hypothesize the hotspots found represent alleles that are shared between CB4856 and CB4858 but not N2. Because the ka/ks ratio in the X chromosome is higher than the autosomes on average in CB4858, purifying selection is

  15. Aging alters bone-fat reciprocity by shifting in vivo mesenchymal precursor cell fate towards an adipogenic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshman; Brennan, Tracy A; Russell, Elizabeth; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Chen, Qijun; Brad Johnson, F; Pignolo, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) play an important role in bone homeostasis. Age-related changes occur in bone resulting in a decrease in bone density and a relative increase in adipocity. Although in vitro studies suggest the existence of an age-related lineage switch between osteogenic and adipogenic fates, stem cell and microenvironmental contributions to this process have not been elucidated in vivo. In order to study the effects of MPC and microenvironmental aging on functional engraftment and lineage switching, transplantation studies were performed under non-myeloablative conditions in old recipients, with donor MPCs derived from young and old green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. Robust engraftment by young MPCs or their progeny was observed in the marrow, bone-lining region and in the matrix of young recipients; however, significantly lower engraftment was seen at the same sites in old recipients transplanted with old MPCs. Differentiation of transplanted MPCs strongly favored adipogenesis over osteogenesis in old recipients irrespective of MPC donor age, suggesting that microenvironmental alterations that occur with in vivo aging are predominately responsible for MPC lineage switching. These data indicate that aging alters bone-fat reciprocity and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors towards an adipogenic fate. PMID:26805026

  16. Sediment-associated pesticides in an urban stream in Guangzhou, China: implication of a shift in pesticide use patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; Sun, Baoquan; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Pesticide use patterns in China have changed in recent years; however, the study of the environmental fate of current-use pesticides (CUPs) and their ecotoxicological significance in aquatic ecosystems is limited. In the present study, sediments were collected from an urban stream in the Chinese city of Guangzhou. Sediment-associated legacy organochlorine pesticides and CUPs-including organophosphates, pyrethroids, fipronil, and abamectin-were analyzed. Additionally, the relative toxicity of the sediments was evaluated with 10-d bioassays using Chironomus dilutus. Fifteen of 16 sediments collected from the stream were acutely toxic to C. dilutus, with 81% of the samples causing 100% mortality. Abamectin, fipronil, and pyrethroids (mainly cypermethrin) were identified as the principal contributors to the noted toxicity in the midges, with median predicted toxic units of 1.63, 1.63, and 1.03, respectively. Sediments taken from downstream sites, where residential and industrial regions were located, had elevated CUP concentrations and sediment toxicity compared with upstream sites. The present study is the first of its kind to link sediment CUPs, fipronil, and abamectin concentrations with toxicity in urban streams in China with a focus on shifting pesticide usage patterns. PMID:23377859

  17. Early life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke alters immune response to asbestos via a shift in inflammatory phenotype resulting in increased disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Traci Ann; Holian, Andrij; Pinkerton, Kent E; Lee, Joong Won; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2016-07-01

    Asbestos in combination with tobacco smoke exposure reportedly leads to more severe physiological consequences than asbestos alone; limited data also show an increased disease risk due to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Environmental influences during gestation and early lung development can result in physiological changes that alter risk for disease development throughout an individual's lifetime. Therefore, maternal lifestyle may impact the ability of offspring to subsequently respond to environmental insults and alter overall disease susceptibility. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development on asbestos-related inflammation and disease in adulthood. ETS exposure in utero appeared to shift inflammation towards a Th2 phenotype, via suppression of Th1 inflammatory cytokine production. This effect was further pronounced in mice exposed to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development. In utero ETS exposure led to increased collagen deposition, a marker of fibrotic disease, when the offspring was later exposed to asbestos, which was further increased with additional ETS exposure during early postnatal development. These data suggest that ETS exposure in utero alters the immune responses and leads to greater disease development after asbestos exposure, which is further exacerbated when exposure to ETS continues during early postnatal development. PMID:27138493

  18. Warmer winters reduce frog fecundity and shift breeding phenology, which consequently alters larval development and metamorphic timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    One widely documented phenological response to climate change is the earlier occurrence of spring-breeding events. While such climate change-driven shifts in phenology are common, their consequences for individuals and populations have rarely been investigated. I addressed this gap in our knowledge by using a multi-year observational study of six wood frog (Rana sylvatica) populations near the southern edge of their range. I tested first if winter temperature or precipitation affected the date of breeding and female fecundity, and second if timing of breeding affected subsequent larval development rate, mass at metamorphosis, date of metamorphosis, and survival. Warmer winters were associated with earlier breeding but reduced female fecundity. Winter precipitation did not affect breeding date, but was positively associated with female fecundity. There was no association between earlier breeding and larval survival or mass at metamorphosis, but earlier breeding was associated with delayed larval development. The delay in larval development was explained through a counterintuitive correlation between breeding date and temperature during larval development. Warmer winters led to earlier breeding, which in turn was associated with cooler post-breeding temperatures that slowed larval development. The delay in larval development did not fully compensate for the earlier breeding, such that for every 2 days earlier that breeding took place, the average date of metamorphosis was 1 day earlier. Other studies have found that earlier metamorphosis is associated with increased postmetamorphic growth and survival, suggesting that earlier breeding has beneficial effects on wood frog populations. PMID:25263760

  19. Alterations in chemical shifts and exchange broadening upon peptide boronic acid inhibitor binding to α-lytic protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    α-Lytic protease, a bacterial serine protease of 198 aminoacids (19800 Da), has been used as a model system for studies of catalytic mechanism, structure-function relationships, and more recently for studies of pro region-assisted protein folding. We have assigned the backbones of the enzyme alone, and of its complex with the tetrahedral transition state mimic N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-Ala-Pro-boroVal, using double- and triple-resonance 3D NMR spectroscopy on uniformly15N- and 13C/15N-labeled protein.Changes in backbone chemical shifts between the uncomplexed and inhibited form of the protein are correlated with distance from the inhibitor, the displacement of backbone nitrogens, and change in hydrogen bond strength upon inhibitor binding (derived from previously solved crystal structures).A comparison of the solution secondary structure of the uninhibited enzyme with that of the X-ray structure reveals no significant differences.Significant line broadening, indicating intermediate chemical exchange, was observed in many of the active site amides (including three broadened to invisibility), and in a majority of cases the broadening was reversed upon addition of the inhibitor. Implications and possible mechanisms of this line broadening are discussed

  20. Follow-up trends of parasite community alteration in a marine fish after the Prestige oil-spill: Shifting baselines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the follow-up trends in the composition and structure of the parasite communities in the marine sparid Boops boops after the Prestige oil-spill. A total of 400 fish comprising 11 seasonal samples was analyzed from three impacted localities on the Atlantic coast of Spain. A large number of parasite species was recovered only after the spill thus suggesting a substantial alteration of the marine food webs. Post-spill communities exhibited higher richness and abundance due to the significant changes in the abundance of the common species, the latter indicating accelerated parasite transmission rates. Multivariate analyses at two nested scales detected a directional trend in parasite community succession towards the pre-spill situation, however, with no full support for community recovery. The state of parasite communities in 2005-2006 may provide the new baseline data which can serve as a framework for quantifying the impact of potential future spills in the region. - Prestige oil-spill impact on parasite communities in the sparid fish B. boops

  1. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Malaquias, Manuel António E

    2016-01-01

    The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt), a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny). Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown. PMID:27248835

  2. Chronic exposure to triclosan sustains microbial community shifts and alters antibiotic resistance gene levels in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Zitomer, Daniel H; Kappell, Anthony D; Choi, Melinda J; Hristova, Krassimira R; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-08-10

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial chemical found in consumer personal care products, has been shown to stimulate antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Although many studies focus on antibiotic resistance pertinent to medical scenarios, resistance developed in natural and engineered environments is less studied and has become an emerging concern for human health. In this study, the impacts of chronic triclosan (TCS) exposure on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microbial community structure were assessed in lab-scale anaerobic digesters. TCS concentrations from below detection to 2500 mg kg(-1) dry solids were amended into anaerobic digesters over 110 days and acclimated for >3 solid retention time values. Four steady state TCS concentrations were chosen (30-2500 mg kg(-1)). Relative abundance of mexB, a gene coding for a component of a multidrug efflux pump, was significantly higher in all TCS-amended digesters (30 mg kg(-1) or higher) relative to the control. TCS selected for bacteria carrying tet(L) and against those carrying erm(F) at concentrations which inhibited digester function; the pH decrease associated with digester failure was suspected to cause this selection. Little to no impact of TCS was observed on intI1 relative abundance. Microbial communities were also surveyed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Compared to the control digesters, significant shifts in community structure towards clades containing commensal and pathogenic bacteria were observed in digesters containing TCS. Based on these results, TCS should be included in studies and risk assessments that attempt to elucidate relationships between chemical stressors (e.g. antibiotics), antibiotic resistance genes, and public health. PMID:27291499

  3. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, Manuel António E.

    2016-01-01

    The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt), a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny). Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown. PMID:27248835

  4. Stressor-induced proteome alterations in zebrafish: A meta-analysis of response patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We compared reported proteome changes induced by various stressors in zebrafish. • Several proteins groups frequently responding to diverse stressors were identified. • These included energy metabolism enzymes, heat shock and cytoskeletal proteins. • Insufficient proteome coverage impedes identification of more specific responses. • Further research needs for proteomics in ecotoxicology are discussed. - Abstract: Proteomics approaches are being increasingly applied in ecotoxicology on the premise that the identification of specific protein expression changes in response to a particular chemical would allow elucidation of the underlying molecular pathways leading to an adverse effect. This in turn is expected to promote the development of focused testing strategies for specific groups of toxicants. Although both gel-based and gel-free global characterization techniques provide limited proteome coverage, the conclusions regarding the cellular processes affected are still being drawn based on the few changes detected. To investigate how specific the detected responses are, we analyzed a set of studies that characterized proteome alterations induced by various physiological, chemical and biological stressors in zebrafish, a popular model organism. Our analysis highlights several proteins and protein groups, including heat shock and oxidative stress defense proteins, energy metabolism enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins, to be most frequently identified as responding to diverse stressors. In contrast, other potentially more specifically responding protein groups are detected much less frequently. Thus, zebrafish proteome responses to stress reported by different studies appear to depend mostly on the level of stress rather than on the specific stressor itself. This suggests that the most broadly used current proteomics technologies do not provide sufficient proteome coverage to allow in-depth investigation of specific mechanisms of toxicant action

  5. Stressor-induced proteome alterations in zebrafish: A meta-analysis of response patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, Ksenia J., E-mail: ksenia.groh@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Suter, Marc J.-F. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Systems Science, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We compared reported proteome changes induced by various stressors in zebrafish. • Several proteins groups frequently responding to diverse stressors were identified. • These included energy metabolism enzymes, heat shock and cytoskeletal proteins. • Insufficient proteome coverage impedes identification of more specific responses. • Further research needs for proteomics in ecotoxicology are discussed. - Abstract: Proteomics approaches are being increasingly applied in ecotoxicology on the premise that the identification of specific protein expression changes in response to a particular chemical would allow elucidation of the underlying molecular pathways leading to an adverse effect. This in turn is expected to promote the development of focused testing strategies for specific groups of toxicants. Although both gel-based and gel-free global characterization techniques provide limited proteome coverage, the conclusions regarding the cellular processes affected are still being drawn based on the few changes detected. To investigate how specific the detected responses are, we analyzed a set of studies that characterized proteome alterations induced by various physiological, chemical and biological stressors in zebrafish, a popular model organism. Our analysis highlights several proteins and protein groups, including heat shock and oxidative stress defense proteins, energy metabolism enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins, to be most frequently identified as responding to diverse stressors. In contrast, other potentially more specifically responding protein groups are detected much less frequently. Thus, zebrafish proteome responses to stress reported by different studies appear to depend mostly on the level of stress rather than on the specific stressor itself. This suggests that the most broadly used current proteomics technologies do not provide sufficient proteome coverage to allow in-depth investigation of specific mechanisms of toxicant action

  6. PATTERN OF SHIFTING OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG DRUG ADDICTS UNDERGOING TREATMENT AT DDCS (DRUG DEADDICTION CENTERS IN PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: In India , drug addiction has reached very alarming levels in the state of Punjab . The data from a cross - sectional study in two of the DDCs in district Gurdaspur and three of the DDCs in district Hoshiarpur revealed that about 26 patients had history of shifting pattern of substance abuse . The reasons cited by the patients were of affordability , the ease of availability , the job plac e , the locality and the peer groups , in which they were hanging out . Studies also confirm the fact , that tighter control over one drug in India forced some drug users to switch to use other drugs . So , uprooting of this evil from any society needs multipron ged strategy comprising of , total supply breakdown of all types of drugs , breaking down the nexus of suppliers and the drug peddlers , support of the family and the community towards addicts , encouraging them to come out in the open for deaddiction , improvi sation of the services at DDCs , vocational rehabilitation wherever needed and integration in mainstream of the society with open arms and hearts .

  7. Altered rainfall patterns increase forb abundance and richness in native tallgrass prairie

    OpenAIRE

    Sydney K. Jones; Collins, Scott L.; Blair, John M.; Smith, Melinda D.; Knapp, Alan K

    2016-01-01

    Models predict that precipitation variability will increase with climate change. We used a 15-year precipitation manipulation experiment to determine if altering the timing and amount of growing season rainfall will impact plant community structure in annually burned, native tallgrass prairie. The altered precipitation treatment maintained the same total growing season precipitation as the ambient precipitation treatment, but received a rainfall regime of fewer, larger rain events, and longer...

  8. Nogo-A-deficient transgenic rats show deficits in higher cognitive functions, decreased anxiety and altered circadian activity patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Petrasek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decreased levels of Nogo-A dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knock-down laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A-knockout rats and their circadian period (tau did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality and activity patterns.

  9. Studies on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability. Kotai sagyo ni yoru suimin dotai to hiro oyobi sono sagyo tekiosei no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, N.; Yokota, A. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    Studies were made on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability with respect to the following items: (1) With a nurse work system as the object, a survey of rectum temperature, heart rate and rhythm before and after a midnight shift, and sleep at rising in the morning using the OSA survey method; (2) To analyze actual conditions of cumulative fatigue felt by shift workers and fatigue factors, a survey on shift work history, overtime work time, work patterns, symptoms of cumulative fatigue, and and life satisfaction; (3) A survey on daytime sleep record maintained at working places of guards including those of middle or advanced age, and sleep as affected by a nap; (4) A method of improving complains of circadian rhythm disorders because of variations in sleep and emergence rhythms experienced by shift workers, and discussions of usability of light radiation; and (5) Establishment of a technique to indicate effects of psychological burdens and psychogenic stress on visual functions of shift workers using tensions in focal adjustment. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Altered rainfall patterns increase forb abundance and richness in native tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sydney K; Collins, Scott L; Blair, John M; Smith, Melinda D; Knapp, Alan K

    2016-01-01

    Models predict that precipitation variability will increase with climate change. We used a 15-year precipitation manipulation experiment to determine if altering the timing and amount of growing season rainfall will impact plant community structure in annually burned, native tallgrass prairie. The altered precipitation treatment maintained the same total growing season precipitation as the ambient precipitation treatment, but received a rainfall regime of fewer, larger rain events, and longer intervals between events each growing season. Although this change in precipitation regime significantly lowered mean soil water content, overall this plant community was remarkably resistant to altered precipitation with species composition relatively stable over time. However, we found significantly higher forb cover and richness and slightly lower grass cover on average with altered precipitation, but the forb responses were manifest only after a ten-year lag period. Thus, although community structure in this grassland is relatively resistant to this type of altered precipitation regime, forb abundance in native tallgrass prairie may increase in a future characterized by increased growing season precipitation variability. PMID:26830847

  11. Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift Strategies Emerge as Unintended Patterns in Market Direction Guesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Segura, Carlota; Duch, Jordi; Perelló, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made in our everyday lives are based on a wide variety of information so it is generally very difficult to assess what are the strategies that guide us. Stock market provides a rich environment to study how people make decisions since responding to market uncertainty needs a constant update of these strategies. For this purpose, we run a lab-in-the-field experiment where volunteers are given a controlled set of financial information -based on real data from worldwide financial indices- and they are required to guess whether the market price would go "up" or "down" in each situation. From the data collected we explore basic statistical traits, behavioural biases and emerging strategies. In particular, we detect unintended patterns of behavior through consistent actions, which can be interpreted as Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift emerging strategies, with Market Imitation being the most dominant. We also observe that these strategies are affected by external factors: the expert advice, the lack of information or an information overload reinforce the use of these intuitive strategies, while the probability to follow them significantly decreases when subjects spends more time to make a decision. The cohort analysis shows that women and children are more prone to use such strategies although their performance is not undermined. Our results are of interest for better handling clients expectations of trading companies, to avoid behavioural anomalies in financial analysts decisions and to improve not only the design of markets but also the trading digital interfaces where information is set down. Strategies and behavioural biases observed can also be translated into new agent based modelling or stochastic price dynamics to better understand financial bubbles or the effects of asymmetric risk perception to price drops. PMID:27532219

  12. DNA methylation patterns of Brachypodium distachyon chromosomes and their alteration by 5-azacytidine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Borowska, Natalia; Idziak, Dominika; Hasterok, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Sequential immunolocalisation of 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with chromosome-specific BAC clones were performed on Brachypodium distachyon mitotic metaphase chromosomes to determine specific DNA methylation patterns of each chromosome in the complement. In the majority of cells examined, chromosomes Bd4 and Bd5, which bear the loci of 5S and 35S ribosomal DNA, respectively, had characteristic 5-MeC patterns. In contrast, the distribution of 5-MeC along the ...

  13. Activation of protein kinase A alters subnuclear distribution pattern of human steroidogenic factor 1 in living cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei刘伟; FAN Wu-qiang范吴强; Toshihiko Yanase; Masayuki Saitoh; WU Yin吴茵

    2004-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify the subnuclear distribution pattern of human orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in living cells with and without the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signal pathway, and thus try to explain the unknown mechanism by which PKA potentiates SF-1 transactivation. Methods Full-length cDNAs of wild type and a naturally occurring mutant (G35E) human SF-1 were cloned and fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Subcellular distribution pattern of human SF-1 in living cells, whose PKA signaling was either activated or not, was studied by laser confocal microscopy after the validity of the gene sequence was confirmed.Results The transactivation ability of the GFP-SF-1 chimeric protein was highly conserved. Wild type human SF-1 diffused homogeneously within the nuclei of cells when PKA was not active, and converged to clear foci when PKA was activated. Mutant SF-1 diffused within the nuclei even in the presence of PKA activation, surprisingly aggregating as fluorescent dots inside the nucleoli, a phenomenon not altered by PKA.Conclusions Activation of PKA causes wild type, but not mutant SF-1 to alter its subnuclear distribution pattern to a transactivationally active form (foci formation). This finding may throw new light on the mechanism by which PKA activates the orphan nuclear receptor.

  14. Altered pattern of brain dopamine synthesis in male adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Waters Nicholas; Waters Susanna; Fernell Elisabeth; Forssberg Hans; Tedroff Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited data from positron emission tomography (PET) studies of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicate alterations in brain dopamine neurotransmission. However, these studies have used conventional univariate approaches that are less sensitive to detect complex interactions that may exist between different brain dopamine pathways and individual symptoms of ADHD. We aimed to investigate these potential interactions in adolescents with ADHD. M...

  15. Changing summer precipitation pattern alters microbial community response to fall wetup in a Mediterranean soil

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, Romain; Osborne, Catherine A; Firestone, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The large soil CO2 efflux associated with rewetting dry soils after the dry summer period significantly contributes to the annual carbon budget of Mediterranean grasslands. Rapid reactivation of soil heterotrophic activity and a pulse of available carbon are both required to fuel the CO2 pulse. Better understanding of the effects of altered summer precipitation on the metabolic state of indigenous microorganisms may be important in predicting future changes in carbon cycling. Here, we investi...

  16. Multi-metabolic altered patterns and cardiovascular risk factors associated to hypertension in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Ocampo Segura.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundaments: Among other factors, hypertension , hypercholesterolemia and hyperinsulonemia form the so called metabolic syndrome Many studies relate hypertension to other risk factors and to metabolic-endocrine disorders. Objective: To know the relationship between Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and other cardiovascular risk factors in a community of Cienfuegos city, Cuba. Method: Study of non paired cases and controls . the cases gathered 60 hypertensive patients aged 18 or more years without discrimination of sex, skin color, and other socio demographic features of the population and the control group gathered 60 non- hypertensive individuals from the same population. Results: Family history of hypertension OR:64( 29:14,19 and alcohol consumption OR: 19,8 ( 4,6:84,8 were the most frequent risk factors in the population. The presence of Diabetes mellitus OR 7,8( 2,7:22,4 and dyslipidemia OR 2,7 ( 1,3: 5,6 were the endocrine-metablic factors that associated the most to hypertension Important was the relationship between altered tolerance to glucose and risk factors OR: 14,49 ( 3,64: 57,67 and the relationship altered tolerance to glucose and familial antecedents of hypertension in hypertensive patients which showed a significant association.Conclusion: In the community under study family history of hypertension, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and altered glucose are strongly associated to hypertension and constitute risk factors that should be taken into consideration in order to diminish the mortality rate due to vascular disorders.

  17. Mitral valve prolapse is associated with altered extracellular matrix gene expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, David G; Murphy, Alison; Mignatti, Paolo; Zavadil, Jiri; Galloway, Aubrey C; Balsam, Leora B

    2016-07-15

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the leading indication for isolated mitral valve surgery in the United States. Disorganization of collagens and glycosaminoglycans in the valvular extracellular matrix (ECM) are histological hallmarks of MVP. We performed a transcriptome analysis to study the alterations in ECM-related gene expression in humans with sporadic MVP. Mitral valve specimens were obtained from individuals undergoing valve repair for MVP (n=7 patients) and from non-beating heart-tissue donors (n=3 controls). Purified RNA was subjected to whole-transcriptome microarray analysis. Microarray results were validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Gene ontology enrichment analysis was performed. 2046 unique genes showed significant differential expression (false discovery rate Functional annotation clustering calculated enrichment of ECM-related ontology groups (enrichment score=4.1). ECM-related gene expression is significantly altered in MVP. Our study is consistent with the histologically observed alterations in collagen and mucopolysaccharide profiles of myxomatous mitral valves. Furthermore, whole-transcriptome analyses suggest dysregulation of multiple pathways, including TGF-beta signaling. PMID:27063507

  18. Alterations in lymphocyte subset patterns and co-stimulatory molecules in patients with Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Shou-ru; XU Dong-hua; YANG Xin-xin; DONG Wan-li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain.1 More evidence of inflammatory parameters, such as, complement factors, proinflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes has been found to be co-localized with Aβ plaques,1,2 The research in the past decades has demonstrated abnormalities of both the humoral and cellular immune responses, suggesting an association of immunological aberration and AD. The total percentage of lymphocytes was not found to be altered, whereas the alterations of T-cell function, differentiation and subset distribution have still been unresolved.3,4 A significantly decreased function of suppressor as well as helper T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells in AD patients has been observed. Studies on lymphocyte subpopulations showed conflicting results, while other studies could not find alterations in lymphocyte subset distribution. In the present study, we assume the immune system dysregulation depending on a defective immune response which also affects lymphocyte differentiation and subset distribution. We investigated T lymphocyte subset pattems and co-stimulatory molecules, as well as B lymphocytes and NK cells in peripheral blood of AD patients and age matched healthy controls.

  19. Ethanol-related alterations in gene expression patterns in the developing murine hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Chanchal; Park, Kyoung Sun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that consuming alcohol prior to and during pregnancy can cause harm to the developing fetus. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a term commonly used to describe a range of disabilities that may arise from prenatal alcohol exposure such as fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders, and alcohol-related birth defects. Here, we report that maternal binge alcohol consumption alters several important genes that are involved in nervous system development in the mouse hippocampus at embryonic day 18. Microarray analysis revealed that Nova1, Ntng1, Gal, Neurog2, Neurod2, and Fezf2 gene expressions are altered in the fetal hippocampus. Pathway analysis also revealed the association of the calcium signaling pathway in addition to other pathways with the differentially expressed genes during early brain development. Alteration of such important genes and dynamics of the signaling pathways may cause neurodevelopmental disorders. Our findings offer insight into the molecular mechanism involved in neurodevelopmental disorders associated with alcohol-related defects. PMID:26063602

  20. Shifting the circadian rhythm of feeding in mice induces gastrointestinal, metabolic and immune alterations which are influenced by ghrelin and the core clock gene Bmal1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien Laermans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In our 24-hour society, an increasing number of people are required to be awake and active at night. As a result, the circadian rhythm of feeding is seriously compromised. To mimic this, we subjected mice to restricted feeding (RF, a paradigm in which food availability is limited to short and unusual times of day. RF induces a food-anticipatory increase in the levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin. We aimed to investigate whether ghrelin triggers the changes in body weight and gastric emptying that occur during RF. Moreover, the effect of genetic deletion of the core clock gene Bmal1 on these physiological adaptations was studied. METHODS: Wild-type, ghrelin receptor knockout and Bmal1 knockout mice were fed ad libitum or put on RF with a normal or high-fat diet (HFD. Plasma ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric contractility was studied in vitro in muscle strips and in vivo (13C breath test. Cytokine mRNA expression was quantified and infiltration of immune cells was assessed histologically. RESULTS: The food-anticipatory increase in plasma ghrelin levels induced by RF with normal chow was abolished in HFD-fed mice. During RF, body weight restoration was facilitated by ghrelin and Bmal1. RF altered cytokine mRNA expression levels and triggered contractility changes resulting in an accelerated gastric emptying, independent from ghrelin signaling. During RF with a HFD, Bmal1 enhanced neutrophil recruitment to the stomach, increased gastric IL-1α expression and promoted gastric contractility changes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating that ghrelin and Bmal1 regulate the extent of body weight restoration during RF, whereas Bmal1 controls the type of inflammatory infiltrate and contractility changes in the stomach. Disrupting the circadian rhythm of feeding induces a variety of diet-dependent metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal alterations, which may explain the higher prevalence of obesity and

  1. More consistently altered connectivity patterns for cerebellum and medial temporal lobes than for amygdala and striatum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning ePeters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory ‘subcortical-cerebellar’ systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs, amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs (i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum. Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices (i.e. connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW, only NWs (NWs-NWs, and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56% and 74%, respectively. Considering separate

  2. Expression of Genes Involved in Drosophila Wing Morphogenesis and Vein Patterning Are Altered by Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Imaginal wing discs of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) defined during embryogenesis ultimately result in mature wings of stereotyped (specific) venation patterning. Major regulators of wing disc development are the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF), Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Wingless (Wg), and Dpp signaling pathways. Highly stereotyped vascular patterning is also characteristic of tissues in other organisms flown in space such as the mouse retina and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic and other adaptations of vascular patterning to space environmental factors have not yet been systematically quantified, despite widespread recognition of their critical importance for terrestrial and microgravity applications. Here we report changes in gene expression with space flight related to Drosophila wing morphogenesis and vein patterning. In addition, genetically modified phenotypes of increasingly abnormal ectopic wing venation in the Drosophila wing1 were analyzed by NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software2. Our goal is to further develop insightful vascular mappings associated with bioinformatic dimensions of genetic or other molecular phenotypes for correlation with genetic and other molecular profiling relevant to NASA's GeneLab and other Space Biology exploration initiatives.

  3. Altered expression pattern of clock genes in a rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Wiborg, Ove; Bouzinova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    validated chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of depression was used to investigate rhythmic expression of three clock genes; Per1, Per2 and Bmal1. Brain and liver tissue was collected from 96 animals after 3.5 weeks of CMS (48 control and 48 depression-like rats) at 4 h sampling interval within 24 h. We......: The present results suggest that altered expression of investigated clock genes are likely to associate with the induction of a depression-like state in the CMS model....

  4. Altered expression pattern of clock genes in a rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Bouzinova, Elena; Fahrenkrug, Jan;

    2016-01-01

    validated chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of depression was used to investigate rhythmic expression of three clock genes; Per1, Per2 and Bmal1. Brain and liver tissue was collected from 96 animals after 3.5 weeks of CMS (48 control and 48 depression-like rats) at 4 h sampling interval within 24 h. We......: The present results suggest that altered expression of investigated clock genes are likely to associate with the induction of a depression-like state in the CMS model...

  5. The vascular pattern in the flower of some Mesembryanthemaceae: Aptenia cordifolia and Dorotheanthus bellidiformis. The effect of an ontogenetical shifting on the vascular pattern and vascular conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-Bruijns, van der C.

    1976-01-01

    1. The vascular pattern in the flower at various stages of maturity of Aptenia cordifolia and Dorotheanthus bellidiformis is examined. 2. The vascular pattern of Dorotheanthus has been compared with that of Aptenia: typologically, Dorotheanthus is derived from Aptenia. 3. The vascular pattern of Apt

  6. Altered Gene Expression Pattern in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Kiliszek; Beata Burzynska; Marcin Michalak; Monika Gora; Aleksandra Winkler; Agata Maciejak; Agata Leszczynska; Ewa Gajda; Janusz Kochanowski; Grzegorz Opolski

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twe...

  7. Altered growth patterns in vitro of human papillary transitional carcinoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Reznikoff, C. A.; Gilchrist, K. W.; Norback, D. H.; Cummings, K. B.; ERTÜRK, E.; Bryan, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    In vitro growth patterns and morphologic characteristics of five low-grade human papillary transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) were compared and contrasted with those of normal human urothelial cells in culture. Biopsies of TCC were performed by transurethral resection. Specimens of normal human ureters were obtained surgically. Singly dispersed TCC cells grew in 0.3% agarose semisolid medium with a cloning efficiency ranging from 0.02% to 0.71%. Singly dispersed normal ureteral urothelial ce...

  8. Altered Gene Expression Pattern in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Kiliszek, Marek; Burzynska, Beata; Michalak, Marcin; Gora, Monika; Winkler, Aleksandra; Maciejak, Agata; Leszczynska, Agata; Gajda, Ewa; Kochanowski, Janusz; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients. Methods and Results Twent...

  9. ALTERATION IN THE PROTEIN PATTERN OF THE COWPEA WEEVIL CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS TREATED WITH GAMMA RAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the effect of gamma rays on the protein patterns of Callosobruchus maculatus as well as the total protein concentration.Exposure of adult females and males of C. maculatus to doses of 80 and 100 Gy increased the number of protein fractions, where one band was commonly detected in both naturally and artificially sterile males. It might be a protein fraction associated with the male sterility.Adult females of C. maculatus irradiated with different doses at various immature stages showed different electrophoretic patterns of proteins as compared to the normal. Females irradiated as two days old egg were appeared to be the most highly affected by irradiation.Adult males of C. maculatus irradiated with different doses during their different developmental immature stages showed different protein patterns as compared to the adult control males. The most highly affected case of irradiated male was that of the males emerged from pupae irradiated with 40 Gy.The appearance of extra bands in irradiated samples might be due to the increase in protein synthesis after exposure of some insects to irradiation by increasing the level of free amino acids while the disappearance of other bands might be attributed to their breakdown or suppression during synthesis.As the proteins and the nucleic acid contents are involved in sexual maturation of the insects in general, thus, one can deduce that any induced damage to those materials might affect the growth and maturation of the germ cells causing the sterility of the insect.

  10. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  11. Patterning of self-assembled monolayers by phase-shifting mask and its applications in large-scale assembly of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonselective micropatterning method of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) based on laser and phase-shifting mask (PSM) is demonstrated. Laser beam is spatially modulated by a PSM, and periodic SAM patterns are generated sequentially through thermal desorption. Patterned wettability is achieved with alternating hydrophilic/hydrophobic stripes on octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayers. The substrate is then used to assemble CdS semiconductor nanowires (NWs) from a solution, obtaining well-aligned NWs in one step. Our results show valuably the application potential of this technique in engineering SAMs for integration of functional devices

  12. Alterations in plasma lipid profile patterns in head and neck cancer and oral precancerous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Prabhudas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The changes in lipid profile have long been associated with cancer because lipids play a key role in maintenance of cell integrity. AIMS : The present study evaluated alterations in plasma lipid profile in untreated head and neck cancer patients as well as patients with oral precancerous conditions (OPC and its association with habit of tobacco consumption. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This hospital-based case control study included 184 head and neck cancer patients, 153 patients with OPC and 52 controls. Plasma lipids including: (i Total cholesterol, (ii LDL cholesterol (LDLC, (iii HDL cholesterol (HDLC (iv VLDL cholesterol (VLDLC and (v triglycerides were analysed by spectrophotometric kits. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Student′s t-test was performed to compare mean values of the parameters. RESULTS : A significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol and HDLC was observed in cancer patients (P=0.008 and P=0.000 respectively as well as in patients with OPC (P=0.014 and P=0.000, respectively as compared to the controls. The plasma VLDL and triglycerides levels were significantly lower in cancer patients as compared to the patients with OPC (P=0.04 and controls (P=0.059. The tobacco habituates showed lower plasma lipid levels than the non-habituates. Our data strengthen the evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma lipid levels and head and neck malignancies as well as OPC. CONCLUSION :The lower levels of plasma cholesterol and other lipid constituents in patients might be due to their increased utilization by neoplastic cells for new membrane biogenesis. The findings strongly warrant an in-depth study of alterations in plasma lipid profile in head neck cancer patients.

  13. Patterns of olfactory bulb neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish are altered following reversible deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpe, Darcy M; Byrd-Jacobs, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    Adult brain plasticity can be investigated using reversible methods that remove afferent innervation but allow return of sensory input. Repeated intranasal irrigation with Triton X-100 in adult zebrafish diminishes innervation to the olfactory bulb, resulting in a number of alterations in bulb structure and function, and cessation of the treatment allows for reinnervation and recovery. Using bromodeoxyuridine, Hu, and caspase-3 immunoreactivity we examined cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival under conditions of acute and chronic deafferentation and reafferentation. Cell proliferation within the olfactory bulb was not influenced by acute or chronic deafferentation or reafferentation, but cell fate (including differentiation, migration, and/or survival of newly formed cells) was affected. We found that chronic deafferentation caused a bilateral increase in the number of newly formed cells that migrated into the bulb, although the amount of cell death of these new cells was significantly increased compared to untreated fish. Reafferentation also increased the number of newly formed cells migrating into both bulbs, suggesting that the deafferentation effect on cell fate was maintained. Reafferentation resulted in a decrease in newly formed cells that became neurons and, although death of newly formed cells was not altered from control levels, survival was reduced in relation to that seen in chronically deafferented fish. The potential effect of age on cell genesis was also examined. While the amount of cell migration into the olfactory bulbs was not affected by fish age, more of the newly formed cells became neurons in older fish. Younger fish displayed more cell death under conditions of chronic deafferentation. In sum, our results show that reversible deafferentation affects several aspects of cell fate, including cell differentiation, migration, and survival, and age of the fish influences the response to deafferentation. PMID:27343831

  14. CO2 mitigation potential in farmland of China by altering current organic matter amendment pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CADISCH; Georg

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of the global warming mitigation potential in terrestrial ecosystems is of great importance for decision makers to adopt measures to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as to reduce greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions. In this paper, we compiled data published in peer-reviewed journals, and conducted a holistic analysis of the effects of organic matter amendment on soil organic carbon sequestration, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in paddy and upland systems. Results showed that organic matter amendment increased soil organic carbon content, and apparent conversion rate of organic matter carbon to soil organic carbon in paddies was constant, while that in uplands decreased along with amendment years at 25 years time scale. Organic matter amendment during the rice season led to large CH4-C emissions, e.g on average 99.5 g CH4-C per kg organic carbon input under intermittent flood conditions, and 191.7 g CH4-C per kg organic carbon input under continuous flood conditions, respectively. By alteration of organic matter amendment from rice season to off-rice upland crop season, estimated CH4-C emissions in China could be cut by 3.5 Tg yr-1, accounting for 63% of current CH4-C emissions (5.5 Tg). If organic matter amendment percentage was increased from current 30% to future 50% of organic matter production and by alteration of organic matter amendment from rice season to off-rice upland crop season, the equivalent CO2-C mitigation potential in farmland of China would be 49.2 Tg yr-1 at the 10th year organic matter amendment and 36.0 Tg yr-1 at the 30th year amendment. These findings are important not only for China but also for the other rice production countries to increase farmland global warming mitigation.

  15. Altered cleavage patterns in human tripronuclear embryos and their association to fertilization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Mette Warming; Agerholm, Inge; Hindkjaer, Johnny;

    2014-01-01

    stage (p < 0.001), and arrested development from the compaction stage and onwards (p < 0.001). For the IVF embryos, the 2nd and 3rd cleavage cycles were completed within the expected time frame. However, timing of the cell divisions within the cleavage cycles differed between the two groups. In contrast......, the completion of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd cleavage cycle was delayed, but with a similar division pattern for 3PN ICSI compared with the 2PN ICSI embryos. 3PN, more often than 2PN ICSI embryos, displayed early cleavage into 3 cells (p = 0.03) and arrested development from the compaction stage and......PURPOSE: To analyze the cleavage patterns in dipronuclear (2PN) and tripronuclear (3PN) embryos in relation to fertilization method. METHOD: Time-lapse analysis. RESULTS: Compared to 2PN, more 3PN IVF embryos displayed early cleavage into 3 cells (p < 0.001), displayed longer duration of the 3-cell...

  16. Effects of altered ventilatory patterns of rabbit pulmonary endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme function, in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because alveolar pressure can influence pulmonary blood flow, volume and surface area, the authors have studied the effects of airway pressure on endothelial angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) function in rabbit lungs in vivo, utilizing indicator dilution techniques with 3H-Benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (BPAP) as substate. Static inclation of the lungs to a pressure of 0 or 5 mmHg did not change percent transpulmonary metabolism and Amax/Km ratio in comparison to control measurements during conventional mechanical ventilation. When the inflation pressure was increased to 10 mmHg, percent metabolism of 3H-BPAP remained unaltered but Amax/Km decreased over 40% from control. This decrease was in close relation to the reduction in pulmonary blood flow. Addition of 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the mechanical ventilation also decreased Amax/Km values and pulmonary blood flow but did not influence percent metabolism of 3H-BPAP. These results suggest that the detected alterations in ACE kinetics were more likely due to hemodynamic changes than enzyme dysfunction. The authors propose that high static alveolar pressures as well as PEEP did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme function, but reduced the fraction of perfused microvessels reflected in changes in Amax/Km ratios

  17. Sex dependent alterations in the protein characterization patterns of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Pandey, Vijay; Singh, Amit; Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Nigam, Rajesh; Shanker, Daya

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to highlight the sex dependent differences in the electrophoretic protein patterns of male and female Haemonchus contortus worms SDS based polyacrylamide gels of both male and female worms were run side by side for comparison. A total of 33 and 35 polypeptides were detected in polyacrylamide gels stained with coomassie brilliant blue R-250, respectively. Besides many of the fundamental homologies in protein profile, some of the polypeptides specific to either sex were also observed. Most of the characteristic polypeptides were of low molecular weight. These polypeptides needs deeper unrevealing regarding the nature of protein, through well planned zymographic studies, so as to ascertain the true nature and/or type of protein involved in those bands. This will help us in better understanding of parasite immunology and sex influenced differences amongst the worm and the possible variations in their pathogenesis contributed thereof, if any. PMID:27605828

  18. Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with an altered temporal pattern of transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Paul N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria has emerged in Western Cambodia. This is a major threat to global plans to control and eliminate malaria as the artemisinins are a key component of antimalarial treatment throughout the world. To identify key features associated with the delayed parasite clearance phenotype, we employed DNA microarrays to profile the physiological gene expression pattern of the resistant isolates. Results In the ring and trophozoite stages, we observed reduced expression of many basic metabolic and cellular pathways which suggests a slower growth and maturation of these parasites during the first half of the asexual intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC. In the schizont stage, there is an increased expression of essentially all functionalities associated with protein metabolism which indicates the prolonged and thus increased capacity of protein synthesis during the second half of the resistant parasite IDC. This modulation of the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic transcriptome may result from differential expression of regulatory proteins such as transcription factors or chromatin remodeling associated proteins. In addition, there is a unique and uniform copy number variation pattern in the Cambodian parasites which may represent an underlying genetic background that contributes to the resistance phenotype. Conclusions The decreased metabolic activities in the ring stages are consistent with previous suggestions of higher resilience of the early developmental stages to artemisinin. Moreover, the increased capacity of protein synthesis and protein turnover in the schizont stage may contribute to artemisinin resistance by counteracting the protein damage caused by the oxidative stress and/or protein alkylation effect of this drug. This study reports the first global transcriptional survey of artemisinin resistant parasites and provides insight to the complexities of the molecular basis

  19. Experimental manipulation of compaction of the mouse embryo alters patterns of protein phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compaction, occurring at the eight-cell stage of mouse development, is the process of cell flattening and polarisation by which cellular asymmetry is first established. Changes in the pattern of protein phosphorylation have been correlated with this early event of development. In the study reported here, groups of embryos were treated in ways known to affect particular features of compaction and were then labeled with [32P]orthophosphate; the phosphoproteins obtained were examined following electrophoresis in one and two dimensions. Four-cell embryos were treated with protein synthesis inhibitors, which advance cell flattening. This treatment resulted in only minor differences from the phosphoprotein profile of untreated four-cell embryos. Inhibition of protein synthesis at the eight-cell stage has little effect on cell flattening or polarisation. However, some phosphoproteins that are observed normally in eight-cell but not in four-cell embryos were no longer detectable if labeling took place in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Eight-cell embryos incubated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which disrupts various features of compaction, showed a relative increase in the phosphorylation of a group of phosphoprotein spots associated with the eight-cell but not with the four-cell stage. Embryos incubated in Ca2(+)-free medium, which prevents intercellular flattening and delays polarisation, showed a relative decrease in the phosphorylation of the same group of phosphoprotein spots. The behaviour of these phosphoproteins may therefore be correlated with some of the features of compaction

  20. Alterations in lower limb multimuscle activation patterns during stair climbing in female total knee arthroplasty patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntze, G; von Tscharner, V; Hutchison, C; Ronsky, J L

    2015-11-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients commonly experience neuromuscular adaptations that may affect stair climbing competence. This study identified multimuscle pattern (MMP) changes in postoperative female TKA patients during stair climbing with a support vector machine (SVM). It was hypothesized that TKA patients adopt temporal and spectral muscle activation characteristics indicative of muscle atrophy and cocontraction strategies. Nineteen female subjects [10 unilateral sex-specific TKAs, 62.2 ± 8.6 yr, body mass index (BMI) 28.2 ± 5.4 kg/m(2); 9 healthy control subjects, 61.4 ± 7.4 yr, BMI 25.6 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)] were recruited. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were obtained for seven lower limb muscles of the affected limb of TKA subjects and a randomly assigned limb for control subjects during stair climbing. Stance phase (±30%) EMG data were wavelet transformed and normalized to total power. Data across all muscles were combined to form MMPs and analyzed with a SVM. Statistical analysis was performed with binomial tests, independent group t-tests, or independent group Mann-Whitney U-tests in SPSS (P tool for clinical neuromuscular function assessment and rehabilitation monitoring. PMID:26354313

  1. Dietary patterns in men and women are simultaneously determinants of altered glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Barr, Susan I; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Berger, Claudie; Kovacs, Christopher S; Josse, Robert G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Brown, Jacques P; Morin, Suzanne N; Davison, Kenneth S; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that diet would have direct effects on glucose metabolism with direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism in a cohort of Canadian adults. We assessed dietary patterns (Prudent [fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and legumes] and Western [soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts]) from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used fasting blood samples to measure glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker), and serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX; a bone resorption marker). We used multivariate regression models adjusted for confounders and including/excluding body mass index. In a secondary analysis, we examined relationships through structural equations models. The Prudent diet was associated with favorable effects on glucose metabolism (lower insulin and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (lower CTX in women; higher 25OHD and lower parathyroid hormone in men). The Western diet was associated with deleterious effects on glucose metabolism (higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and lower 25OHD in women; higher CTX in men). Body mass index adjustment moved point estimates toward the null, indicating partial mediation. The structural equation model confirmed the hypothesized linkage with strong effects of Prudent and Western diet on metabolic risk, and both direct and indirect effects of a Prudent diet on bone turnover. In summary, a Prudent diet was associated with lower metabolic risk with both primary and mediated effects on bone turnover, suggesting that it is a potential target for reducing fracture risk. PMID:27001278

  2. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Patrick E.; Makowski, Nathaniel S.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. Approach. We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Main results. Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. Significance. This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic

  3. Early exposure to dynamic environments alters patterns of motor exploration throughout the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S Lee; Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Barton, Scott J; Rebec, George V

    2016-04-01

    We assessed early rearing conditions on aging-related changes in mouse behavior. Two isolated-housing groups, running wheel (IHRW) and empty cage (IHEC), were compared against two enriched environments, static (EEST) and dynamic (EEDY), both of which included toys and other mice. For EEDY, the location of toys and sources of food and water changed daily, but remained constant for EEST. All mice, randomly assigned to one of the four groups at ∼4 weeks of age, remained in their respective environments for 25 weeks followed by single housing in empty cages. Beginning at ∼40 weeks of age, all mice were tested at monthly intervals in a plus-shaped maze in which we measured the number of arm entries and the probability of entering a perpendicular arm. Despite making significantly more arm entries than any other group, IHEC mice also were less likely to turn into the left or right arm, a sign of motor inflexibility. Both EEDY and EEST mice showed enhanced turning relative to IHRW and IHEC groups, but only EEDY mice maintained their turning performance for up to ∼100 weeks of age. EEDY and EEST mice also were unique in showing an increase in expression of the major glutamate transporter (GLT1) in striatum, but a decrease in motor cortex, suggesting a need for further assessment of environmental manipulations on long-term changes in forebrain glutamate transmission. Our behavioral results indicate that early exposure to continually changing environments, rather than socialization or exercise alone, results in life-long changes in patterns of motor exploration. PMID:26778790

  4. Detecting altered connectivity patterns in HIV associated neurocognitive impairment using mutual connectivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Anas Zainul; D'Souza, Adora M.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    The use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has provided interesting insights into our understanding of the brain. In clinical setups these scans have been used to detect and study changes in the brain network properties in various neurological disorders. A large percentage of subjects infected with HIV present cognitive deficits, which are known as HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). In this study we propose to use our novel technique named Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA) to detect differences in brain networks in subjects with and without HIV infection. Resting state functional MRI scans acquired from 10 subjects (5 HIV+ and 5 HIV-) were subject to standard preprocessing routines. Subsequently, the average time-series for each brain region of the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas are extracted and used with the MCA framework to obtain a graph characterizing the interactions between them. The network graphs obtained for different subjects are then compared using Network-Based Statistics (NBS), which is an approach to detect differences between graphs edges while controlling for the family-wise error rate when mass univariate testing is performed. Applying this approach on the graphs obtained yields a single network encompassing 42 nodes and 65 edges, which is significantly different between the two subject groups. Specifically connections to the regions in and around the basal ganglia are significantly decreased. Also some nodes corresponding to the posterior cingulate cortex are affected. These results are inline with our current understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of HIV associated neurocognitive disease (HAND) and other HIV based fMRI connectivity studies. Hence, we illustrate the applicability of our novel approach with network-based statistics in a clinical case-control study to detect differences connectivity patterns.

  5. LPS alters pattern of sickness behavior but does not affect glutathione level in aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrotek, Sylwia; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Nowakowska, Anna; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral symptoms of sickness, such as fever and motor activity are a coordinated set of changes that develop during infection. The aim of study was to compare the sickness behaviour (SB) in healthy old and young rats treated with pyrogenic dose of endotoxin and to check their glutathione level. Before experimentation male Wistar rats were selected according to standard body mass, motor activity, and white blood cells count. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli was used to provoke SB. The level of liver glutathione, interleukin (IL) -6, deep body temperature (Tb) and motor activity were measured. Glutathione level in old and young rats did not differ significantly. In both young and old rats LPS administration provoked fever (the mean value of Tb was 38.06 ± 0.01 °C in old rats, and 38.19 ± 0.06 °C in young rats). LPS injection affected night-time activity in both groups (12 h averages were 1.56 ± 0.40 counts in old LPS-treated rats vs 2.74 ± 0.53 counts in not-treated old rats and 3.44 ± 0.60 counts for young LPS-treated vs 4.28 ± 0.57 counts for young not-treated rats). The injection of LPS provoked an elevation of plasma IL-6 concentration (from values below the lowest detectable standard in not-treated groups of animals to 6322.82 ± 537.00 pg/mL in old LPS-treated rats and 7415.62 ± 451.88 pg/mL in young LPS-treated rats). Based on these data, we conclude that good health of aged rats prevents decrease in the glutathione level. Old rats are still able to develop SB in response to pyrogenic dose of LPS, although its components have changed pattern compared to young animals. PMID:26829940

  6. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  7. Shifting atomic patterns: on the origin of the different atomic-scale patterns of graphite as observed using scanning tunnelling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an in-depth study of the myriad atomically resolved patterns observed on graphite using the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) over the past three decades. Through the use of highly resolved atomic resolution images, we demonstrate how the interactions between the different graphene layers comprising graphite affect the local surface atomic charge density and its resulting symmetry orientation, with particular emphasis on interactions that are thermodynamically unstable. Moreover, the interlayer graphene coupling is controlled experimentally by varying the tip–surface interaction, leading to associated changes in the atomic patterns. The images are corroborated by first-principles calculations, further validating our claim that surface graphene displacement, coming both from lateral and vertical displacement of the top graphene layer, forms the basis of the rich variety of atomic patterns observed in STM experiments on graphite. (paper)

  8. Alteration of protein expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from soluble to cell-associated isoform during tumourigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and 1,251 ± 568 pg/ml in lung) than a healthy volunteer group (543 ± 344 pg/ml). No correlation between the level of circulating VEGF and the pathologic features of tumours was observed. Our findings indicate that the expression patterns of VEGF isoforms are altered during tumourigenesis as certain isoform overexpression in tumour tissues correlated with tumour progression indicating their important role in tumour development. However, measurement of VEGF in the circulation as a prognostic marker needs to be carefully evaluated as the cell-associated isoform (VEGF189), but not the soluble isoform (VEGF121 and VEGF165) appears to play important role in tumour progression

  9. Linking Contextual Factors with Rhetorical Pattern Shift: Direct and Indirect Strategies Recommended in English Business Communication Textbooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Zhu, Pinfan

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have consistently claimed that rhetorical patterns are culturally bound, and indirectness is a defining characteristic of Chinese writing. Through examining how the rhetorical mechanism of directness and indirectness is presented in 29 English business communication textbooks published in China, we explore how English business…

  10. Excitation Intensity Driven PL Shifts of SiGe Islands on Patterned and Planar Si(001 Substrates: Evidence for Ge-rich Dots in Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehm M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For randomly nucleated SiGe/Si(001 islands, a significantly stronger blue-shift of the PL spectra as a function of the excitation intensity is observed when compared to islands grown on patterned substrates side by side within the same run in a solid source molecular beam epitaxy chamber. We ascribe this different PL behavior to the much larger inhomogeneity of the Ge distribution in islands on planar substrates when compared to islands grown on pit-patterned ones, as observed previously. 3D band-structure calculations show that Ge-rich inclusions of approximately 5 nm diameter at the apex of the islands can account for the observed differences in the PL spectra. The existence of such inclusions can be regarded as a quantum dot in an island and is in agreement with recent nano-tomography experiments.

  11. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS, Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05 smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively. Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing

  12. Short-term weightlessness produced by parabolic flight maneuvers altered gene expression patterns in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Jirka; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Ma, Xiao; Ulbrich, Claudia; Schulz, Herbert; Saar, Katrin; Hübner, Norbert; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Braun, Markus; van Loon, Jack; Vagt, Nicole; Infanger, Manfred; Eilles, Christoph; Egli, Marcel; Richter, Peter; Baltz, Theo; Einspanier, Ralf; Sharbati, Soroush; Grimm, Daniela

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the effects of short-term microgravity (22 s) on the gene expression and morphology of endothelial cells (ECs) and evaluated gravisensitive signaling elements. ECs were investigated during four German Space Agency (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) parabolic flight campaigns. Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed no signs of cell death in ECs after 31 parabolas (P31). Gene array analysis revealed 320 significantly regulated genes after the first parabola (P1) and P31. COL4A5, COL8A1, ITGA6, ITGA10, and ITGB3 mRNAs were down-regulated after P1. EDN1 and TNFRSF12A mRNAs were up-regulated. ADAM19, CARD8, CD40, GSN, PRKCA (all down-regulated after P1), and PRKAA1 (AMPKα1) mRNAs (up-regulated) provide a very early protective mechanism of cell survival induced by 22 s microgravity. The ABL2 gene was significantly up-regulated after P1 and P31, TUBB was slightly induced, but ACTA2 and VIM mRNAs were not changed. β-Tubulin immunofluorescence revealed a cytoplasmic rearrangement. Vibration had no effect. Hypergravity reduced CARD8, NOS3, VASH1, SERPINH1 (all P1), CAV2, ADAM19, TNFRSF12A, CD40, and ITGA6 (P31) mRNAs. These data suggest that microgravity alters the gene expression patterns and the cytoskeleton of ECs very early. Several gravisensitive signaling elements, such as AMPKα1 and integrins, are involved in the reaction of ECs to altered gravity. PMID:22024737

  13. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (pecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and develop precautionary policies regarding proposed feeding sites. PMID:23527144

  14. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Valenzuela, Scott K. Lynn, Lisa R. Mikelson, Guillermo J. Noffal, Daniel A. Judelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m. On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern –forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS] x 2 (Group – PFFG, PRFG mixed model ANOVAs (p < 0.05 were run on speed, active peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF, peak early stance and mid stance sagittal ankle moments, sagittal plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW, dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg-1, and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°. There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg-1, peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°, and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32° as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait.

  15. Automated classification of Plasmodium sporozoite movement patterns reveals a shift towards productive motility during salivary gland infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Stephan; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Smith, Ashley; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2009-06-01

    The invasive stages of malaria and other apicomplexan parasites use a unique motility machinery based on actin, myosin and a number of parasite-specific proteins to invade host cells and tissues. The crucial importance of this motility machinery at several stages of the life cycle of these parasites makes the individual components potential drug targets. The different stages of the malaria parasite exhibit strikingly diverse movement patterns, likely reflecting the varied needs to achieve successful invasion. Here, we describe a Tool for Automated Sporozoite Tracking (ToAST) that allows the rapid simultaneous analysis of several hundred motile Plasmodium sporozoites, the stage of the malaria parasite transmitted by the mosquito. ToAST reliably categorizes different modes of sporozoite movement and can be used for both tracking changes in movement patterns and comparing overall movement parameters, such as average speed or the persistence of sporozoites undergoing a certain type of movement. This allows the comparison of potentially small differences between distinct parasite populations and will enable screening of drug libraries to find inhibitors of sporozoite motility. Using ToAST, we find that isolated sporozoites change their movement patterns towards productive motility during the first week after infection of mosquito salivary glands. PMID:19455538

  16. Shift of circadian feeding pattern by high-fat diets is coincident with reward deficits in obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Morales

    Full Text Available Recent studies provide evidence that high-fat diets (HF trigger both i a deficit of reward responses linked to a decrease of mesolimbic dopaminergic activity, and ii a disorganization of circadian feeding behavior that switch from a structured meal-based schedule to a continuous snacking, even during periods normally devoted to rest. This feeding pattern has been shown to be a cause of HF-induced overweight and obesity. Our hypothesis deals with the eventual link between the rewarding properties of food and the circadian distribution of meals. We have investigated the effect of circadian feeding pattern on reward circuits by means of the conditioned-place preference (CPP paradigm and we have characterized the rewarding properties of natural (food and artificial (cocaine reinforcers both in free-feeding ad libitum HF mice and in HF animals submitted to a re-organized feeding schedule based on the standard feeding behavior displayed by mice feeding normal chow ("forced synchronization". We demonstrate that i ad libitum HF diet attenuates cocaine and food reward in the CPP protocol, and ii forced synchronization of feeding prevents this reward deficit. Our study provides further evidence that the rewarding impact of food with low palatability is diminished in mice exposed to a high-fat diet and strongly suggest that the decreased sensitivity to chow as a positive reinforcer triggers a disorganized feeding pattern which might account for metabolic disorders leading to obesity.

  17. Hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with temozolomide chemotherapy may alter the patterns of failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to report the patterns of failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated on a phase II trial of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (hypo-IMRT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Patients with newly diagnosed GBM post-resection received postoperative hypo-IMRT to 60Gy in 10 fractions. TMZ was given concurrently at 75mg/m2/day for 28 consecutive days and adjuvantly at 150–200mg/m2/day for 5 days every 28 days. Radiographic failure was defined as any new T1-enhancing lesion or biopsy-confirmed progressive enhancement at the primary site. MRIs obtained at the time of failure were fused to original hypo-IMRT plans. Central, in-field, marginal and distant failure were defined as ≥95%, 80% to 95%, any to 80% and 0% of the volume of a recurrence receiving 60Gy, respectively. Twenty-four patients were treated on the trial. Median follow-up was 14.8 months (range 2.7–34.2). Seventeen of 24 patients experienced radiographic failure: one central, five in-field, two marginal, eight distant and one both in-field and distant. Two of the eight distant failures presented with leptomeningeal disease. Two other patients died without evidence of radiographic recurrence. Five of 24 patients demonstrated asymptomatic, gradually progressive in-field T1 enhancement, suggestive of post-treatment changes, without clear evidence of failure; three of these patients received a biopsy/second resection, with 100% radiation necrosis found. The median overall survival of this group was 33.0 months. A 60-Gy hypo-IMRT treatment delivered in 6-Gy fractions with TMZ altered the patterns of failure in GBM, with more distant failures.

  18. Evidence that disease-induced population decline changes genetic structure and alters dispersal patterns in the Tasmanian devil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachish, S; Miller, K J; Storfer, A; Goldizen, A W; Jones, M E

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease has been shown to be a major cause of population declines in wild animals. However, there remains little empirical evidence on the genetic consequences of disease-mediated population declines, or how such perturbations might affect demographic processes such as dispersal. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) has resulted in the rapid decline of the Tasmanian devil, Sarcophilus harrisii, and threatens to cause extinction. Using 10 microsatellite DNA markers, we compared genetic diversity and structure before and after DFTD outbreaks in three Tasmanian devil populations to assess the genetic consequences of disease-induced population decline. We also used both genetic and demographic data to investigate dispersal patterns in Tasmanian devils along the east coast of Tasmania. We observed a significant increase in inbreeding (F(IS) pre/post-disease -0.030/0.012, Pdevil populations after just 2-3 generations of disease arrival, but no detectable change in genetic diversity. Furthermore, although there was no subdivision apparent among pre-disease populations (θ=0.005, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.003 to 0.017), we found significant genetic differentiation among populations post-disease (θ=0.020, 0.010-0.027), apparently driven by a combination of selection and altered dispersal patterns of females in disease-affected populations. We also show that dispersal is male-biased in devils and that dispersal distances follow a typical leptokurtic distribution. Our results show that disease can result in genetic and demographic changes in host populations over few generations and short time scales. Ongoing management of Tasmanian devils must now attempt to maintain genetic variability in this species through actions designed to reverse the detrimental effects of inbreeding and subdivision in disease-affected populations. PMID:20216571

  19. Predicting distribution patterns and recent northward range shift of an invasive aquatic plant: Elodea canadensis in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Heikkinen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate data and distribution data for the Canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis Michx. from North America, whole Europe and Finland were used to investigate the ability of bioclimatic envelope models to predict the distribution range and recent northward range shift of the species in Europe. Four different main types of models were developed using the North American data, including either three ‘baseline’ climate variables (growing degrees days, temperature of the coldest month, water balance or an extended set of seven climate variables, both averaged either over a 30 year time slice or a longer 90 year time slice. Ten different random selections of pseudo-absences were generated from the North American data, on the basis of which ten separate generalized additive models (GAMs were developed for each main model type. All the 40 developed GAMs were applied first to North America and then transferred to whole Europe and Finland. All the models showed a statistically highly significant accuracy in the three study areas. Although the differences among the four main model types were only minor, the two extended model types showed on average statistically better performance than the two baseline models based on Bayesian information criterion (BIC values, the amount of deviance explained by the models, resubstitution validation and four-fold cross-validation in North America. They also provided slightly more accurate predictions of climatically suitable area for Elodea canadensis in Finland both in 1961–1984 and 1985–2006. However, the projections from the individual extended models were more variable than projections from the baseline models. Thus model predictions based on a variety of predictor variables but only one selection of pseudoabsences may be subject to biases, and outputs from multiple models should be investigated to better account for uncertainties in modelling. Overall, our results suggest that more attention should be paid to the

  20. The shift in equity shares’ trading pattern in terms of ‘Trade’ and ‘Turnover’

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, Rashedul

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to understand the trend of market pattern of equity shares, in terms of ‘Number of Trades’ and ‘Turnover’ of the listed exchanges in FESE (Federa-tion and Securities Exchange) from year 2006 to 2010. The research study will assist to apprehend whether the European Market, in general, has been more Electronic Order Book (EOB) transaction oriented than that of Off-Electronic Order Book (EOB). The research study was conducted by evaluating annual exchange repo...

  1. Specific genes involved in synthesis and editing of heparan sulfate proteoglycans show altered expression patterns in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , experienced a strong deregulation in all patients analyzed. IDCs show alterations in the expression of HSPG genes; principally the expression and localization of proteoglycans and the sulfation patterns of glycosaminoglycan chains, depending on the metastatic nature of the tumor. In addition, the anti-proliferative molecule heparanase 2 experiences strong deregulation, thus highlighting it as a potentially interesting diagnostic factor

  2. Changing Summer Precipitation Pattern Alters Microbial Community Response to Fall Wet-up in a Mediterranean Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, R. L.; Osborne, C. A.; Firestone, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    The large soil CO2 efflux associated with rewetting dry soils after the dry summer period significantly contributes to the annual carbon budget of Mediterranean grasslands. Rapid reactivation of soil heterotrophic activity and a pulse of available carbon are both required to fuel the CO2 pulse. Better understanding of the effects of altered summer precipitation on the metabolic state of indigenous microorganisms may be important in predicting future changes in carbon cycling. Here, we investigated the effects of a controlled rewetting event on the soil CO2 efflux pulse and on the present (DNA-based) and potentially active (rRNA-based) soil bacterial and fungal communities in intact soil cores previously subjected to three different precipitation patterns over four months (full summer dry season, extended wet season, and absent dry season). Phylogenetic marker genes for bacteria (16S) and fungi (28S) were sequenced before and after rewetting, and the abundance of these genes and transcripts was measured. Even after having experienced markedly different antecedent water conditions, the potentially active bacterial communities showed a consistent wet-up response. Moreover, we found a significant positive relation between the extent of change in the structure of the potentially active bacterial community and the magnitude of the CO2 pulse upon rewetting dry soils. We suggest that the duration of severe dry conditions (predicted to change under future climate) is important in conditioning the response potential of the soil bacterial community to wet-up as well as in framing the magnitude of the associated CO2 pulse.

  3. The altered ecology of Lake Christina: A record of regime shifts, land-use change, and management from a temperate shallow lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We collected two sediment cores and modern submerged aquatic plants and phytoplankton from two sub-basins of Lake Christina, a large shallow lake in west-central Minnesota, and used stable isotopic and elemental proxies from sedimentary organic matter to explore questions about the pre- and post-settlement ecology of the lake. The two morphologically distinct sub-basins vary in their sensitivities to internal and external perturbations offering different paleoecological information. The record from the shallower and much larger western sub-basin reflects its strong response to internal processes, while the smaller and deeper eastern sub-basin record primarily reflects external processes including important post-settlement land-use changes in the area. A significant increase in organic carbon accumulation (3–4 times pre-settlement rates) and long-term trends in δ13C, organic carbon to nitrogen ratios (C/N), and biogenic silica concentrations shows that primary production has increased and the lake has become increasingly phytoplankton-dominated in the post-settlement period. Significant shifts in δ15N values reflect land-clearing and agricultural practices in the region and support the idea that nutrient inputs have played an important role in triggering changes in the trophic status of the lake. Our examination of hydroclimatic data for the region over the last century suggests that natural forcings on lake ecology have diminished in their importance as human management of the lake increased in the mid-1900s. In the last 50 years, three chemical biomanipulations have temporarily shifted the lake from the turbid, algal-dominated condition into a desired clear water regime. Two of our proxies (δ13C and BSi) measured from the higher resolution eastern basin record responded significantly to these known regime shifts. -- Highlights: ► We explore the sediment geochemistry from Lake Christina's two distinct sub-basins. ► Our geochemical data show significant

  4. The altered ecology of Lake Christina: A record of regime shifts, land-use change, and management from a temperate shallow lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theissen, Kevin M., E-mail: kmtheissen@stthomas.edu [Department of Geology, University of St. Thomas, Mail OWS 153, 2115 Summit Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Hobbs, William O.; Hobbs, Joy M. Ramstack [St. Croix Watershed Research Station, Marine-on-St. Croix, MN 55047 (United States); Zimmer, Kyle D. [Department of Biology, University of St. Thomas, 2115 Summit Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Domine, Leah M.; Cotner, James B. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Sugita, Shinya [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Institute of Ecology, Tallinn University, Uus-Sadama 5, 10120 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2012-09-01

    We collected two sediment cores and modern submerged aquatic plants and phytoplankton from two sub-basins of Lake Christina, a large shallow lake in west-central Minnesota, and used stable isotopic and elemental proxies from sedimentary organic matter to explore questions about the pre- and post-settlement ecology of the lake. The two morphologically distinct sub-basins vary in their sensitivities to internal and external perturbations offering different paleoecological information. The record from the shallower and much larger western sub-basin reflects its strong response to internal processes, while the smaller and deeper eastern sub-basin record primarily reflects external processes including important post-settlement land-use changes in the area. A significant increase in organic carbon accumulation (3-4 times pre-settlement rates) and long-term trends in {delta}{sup 13}C, organic carbon to nitrogen ratios (C/N), and biogenic silica concentrations shows that primary production has increased and the lake has become increasingly phytoplankton-dominated in the post-settlement period. Significant shifts in {delta}{sup 15}N values reflect land-clearing and agricultural practices in the region and support the idea that nutrient inputs have played an important role in triggering changes in the trophic status of the lake. Our examination of hydroclimatic data for the region over the last century suggests that natural forcings on lake ecology have diminished in their importance as human management of the lake increased in the mid-1900s. In the last 50 years, three chemical biomanipulations have temporarily shifted the lake from the turbid, algal-dominated condition into a desired clear water regime. Two of our proxies ({delta}{sup 13}C and BSi) measured from the higher resolution eastern basin record responded significantly to these known regime shifts. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the sediment geochemistry from Lake Christina's two

  5. Increased dopamine D2 receptor activity in the striatum alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area

    OpenAIRE

    Krabbe, Sabine; Duda, Johanna; Schiemann, Julia; Poetschke, Christina; Schneider, Gaby; Kandel, Eric R.; Liss, Birgit; Roeper, Jochen; Simpson, Eleanor H.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from cognitive and negative deficits that are largely resistant to current therapeutic strategies. Here, using a genetic mouse model that displays phenotypes similar to these cognitive and negative symptoms, we found that increased postsynaptic D2 receptor (D2R) activity in the striatum leads to changes in the firing pattern of presynaptic dopamine (DA) neurons of the midbrain. These alterations occur in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, but ...

  6. Modest alterations in patterns of motor neuron dendrite morphology in the Fmr1 knockout mouse model for Fragile X

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Christina C.; Combe, Crescent L.; Dyar, Kenneth A.; Inglis, Fiona M.

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X, an inheritable form of mental retardation, is caused by the inactivation of a gene on the X chromosome, FMR1 which codes for an RNA binding protein, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein. Loss of this protein is associated with reduced complexities of neuronal dendrites and alterations in spine morphology in a number of cortical brain regions, and these deficits may underlie the cognitive impairment observed in fragile X patients. Among the many symptoms of fragile X are altered mot...

  7. MicroRNA alterations and associated aberrant DNA methylation patterns across multiple sample types in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman; Gao, Shan; Hulf, Toby;

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is broadly altered in cancer, but few studies have investigated miRNA deregulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of >30 miRNA genes in a range of tissues, and we aimed to investigate this further in OSCC....

  8. Altered sensorimotor activation patterns in idiopathic dystonia-an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian N;

    2016-01-01

    . Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia-related alterations in task-related activity....... Hum Brain Mapp 37:547-557, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  9. Phase variation of a Type IIG restriction-modification enzyme alters site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression in Campylobacter jejuni strain NCTC11168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Awais; Brathwaite, Kelly J; Aidley, Jack; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Parkhill, Julian; Connerton, Ian; Bayliss, Christopher D

    2016-06-01

    Phase-variable restriction-modification systems are a feature of a diverse range of bacterial species. Stochastic, reversible switches in expression of the methyltransferase produces variation in methylation of specific sequences. Phase-variable methylation by both Type I and Type III methyltransferases is associated with altered gene expression and phenotypic variation. One phase-variable gene of Campylobacter jejuni encodes a homologue of an unusual Type IIG restriction-modification system in which the endonuclease and methyltransferase are encoded by a single gene. Using both inhibition of restriction and PacBio-derived methylome analyses of mutants and phase-variants, the cj0031c allele in C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 was demonstrated to specifically methylate adenine in 5'CCCGA and 5'CCTGA sequences. Alterations in the levels of specific transcripts were detected using RNA-Seq in phase-variants and mutants of cj0031c but these changes did not correlate with observed differences in phenotypic behaviour. Alterations in restriction of phage growth were also associated with phase variation (PV) of cj0031c and correlated with presence of sites in the genomes of these phages. We conclude that PV of a Type IIG restriction-modification system causes changes in site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression patterns that may indirectly change adaptive traits. PMID:26786317

  10. Changing precipitation pattern alters soil microbial community response to wet-up under a Mediterranean-type climate

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Catherine A; Firestone, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    A large soil CO2 pulse is associated with rewetting soils after the dry summer period under a Mediterranean-type climate, significantly contributing to grasslands/' annual carbon budget. Rapid reactivation of soil heterotrophs and a pulse of available carbon are both required to fuel the CO2 pulse. Understanding of the effects of altered summer precipitation on the metabolic state of indigenous microorganisms may be important in predicting changes in carbon cycling. Here, we investigated the ...

  11. Primary succession seen through the shifted patterns of plant traits and soil macrofauna above/under-ground activity, a different ecological perspective towards post mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Jabbar; Mudrak, Ondrej; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    to "late succession species" of the oldest ages such as legumes.We infer that by time passing, thru soil development in older sites, soil medium became more favorable for larval stages and endogeic lifestyle of fauna, in other words, environmental selection and consequently the successful colonization of fauna holding the similar trait (i.e. epigeic activity) ended up in an endogeic community shift towards developed soils under older sites. The shift in CWM value of fauna community clearly shows importance of soil development for a stable colonization and regeneration of migrated communities. Traits related to life history of fauna, e.g. epigeic and endogeic, as well as correlated plant traits instead of plant species communities, i.e. LDMC and plant forms, can be of great value for an enhanced perception of the community pattern dynamics through time and space. The incorporation of trait diversity in primary and secondary successional studies seems to be promising in order to gain a better understanding of the successional changes.

  12. Visual sensitivities tuned by heterochronic shifts in opsin gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarland William N

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cichlid fishes have radiated into hundreds of species in the Great Lakes of Africa. Brightly colored males display on leks and vie to be chosen by females as mates. Strong discrimination by females causes differential male mating success, rapid evolution of male color patterns and, possibly, speciation. In addition to differences in color pattern, Lake Malawi cichlids also show some of the largest known shifts in visual sensitivity among closely related species. These shifts result from modulated expression of seven cone opsin genes. However, the mechanisms for this modulated expression are unknown. Results In this work, we ask whether these differences might result from changes in developmental patterning of cone opsin genes. To test this, we compared the developmental pattern of cone opsin gene expression of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, with that of several cichlid species from Lake Malawi. In tilapia, quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that opsin gene expression changes dynamically from a larval gene set through a juvenile set to a final adult set. In contrast, Lake Malawi species showed one of two developmental patterns. In some species, the expressed gene set changes slowly, either retaining the larval pattern or progressing only from larval to juvenile gene sets (neoteny. In the other species, the same genes are expressed in both larvae and adults but correspond to the tilapia adult genes (direct development. Conclusion Differences in visual sensitivities among species of Lake Malawi cichlids arise through heterochronic shifts relative to the ontogenetic pattern of the tilapia outgroup. Heterochrony has previously been shown to be a powerful mechanism for change in morphological evolution. We found that altering developmental expression patterns is also an important mechanism for altering sensory systems. These resulting sensory shifts will have major impacts on visual communication and could help

  13. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  14. Africa's position shift in world oil supply pattern%非洲在世界石油供给格局中的地位演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽莎; 赵媛

    2012-01-01

    21世纪以来,非洲已成为世界石油进口大国寻求来源地多元化、保障自身石油安全的战略高地,也成为我国的第二大石油来源地。考察非洲在世界石油供给格局中的地位及演变,有利于系统把握非洲石油供给的优劣势,为优化我国对非石油合作战略提供依据。本文以国家为研究单元,综合运用箱线图和空间聚类分析法,创新份额和位序综合分析法,对比考察了1980~2010年间,非洲在世界石油探明储量、生产量、储采比和出口量格局中的地位及演变。结果表明:非洲是当今世界除中东以外,规模以上石油供给国最为集中的地区,在新老接替中,实现总体供给地位的巩固和提升;非洲在世界石油供给格局中的主要优势在于其高储采比和高出口率,是未来世界石油持续增产增销的重点地区之一;非洲逐渐进入世界石油供给格局的核心地带,石油地缘战略地位大为提升;在未来较长时间内,非洲仍将是我国主要的石油来源地之一,我国应当在非洲推进来源地多元化战略,真正进入非洲核心石油市场,扩大供给来源,并分散供给风险。%In the 21st century, Africa has been a strategic place for major oil importers seeking to diversify imports in order to achieve greater oil security, and also Africa has been the second biggest source for China, so that analyses of Africa's position shift in world oil supply pattern could help us to get a better understanding of Africa's advantages and disadvantages in the oil supply, in order to optimize China's strategy for oil cooperation with Africa. In this paper, boxplots and spatial cluster analysis are integrated, together with modified share and rank analysis, to examine and compare Africa's positions and their shift in the patterns of world oil proved reserves, oil production, reserves-to-production ratio, and exports. The results show that, Africa is the most concentrated

  15. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML

  16. Glycotope sharing between snail hemolymph and larval schistosomes: larval transformation products alter shared glycan patterns of plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Timothy P; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Hongdi; Gonzalez, Laura A; Deelder, André M; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the involvement of inducible, highly diverse lectin-like recognition molecules in snail hemocyte-mediated responses to larval Schistosoma mansoni. Because host lectins likely are involved in initial parasite recognition, we sought to identify specific carbohydrate structures (glycans) shared between larval S. mansoni and its host Biomphalaria glabrata to address possible mechanisms of immune avoidance through mimicry of elements associated with the host immunoreactivity. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mABs) to specific S. mansoni glycans was used to identify the distribution and abundance of shared glycan epitopes (glycotopes) on plasma glycoproteins from B. glabrata strains that differ in their susceptibilities to infection by S. mansoni. In addition, a major aim of this study was to determine if larval transformation products (LTPs) could bind to plasma proteins, and thereby alter the glycotopes exposed on plasma proteins in a snail strain-specific fashion. Plasma fractions ( 100 kDa) from susceptible (NMRI) and resistant (BS-90) snail strains were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses using mAB to LacdiNAc (LDN), fucosylated LDN variants, Lewis X and trimannosyl core glycans. Results confirmed a high degree of glycan sharing, with NMRI plasma exhibiting a greater distribution/abundance of LDN, F-LDN and F-LDN-F than BS-90 plasma (LTPs significantly altered the reactivity of specific mABs to shared glycotopes on blots, mainly through the binding of LTPs to plasma proteins resulting in either glycotope blocking or increased glycotope attachment to plasma. Many LTP-mediated changes in shared glycans were snail-strain specific, especially those in the 100 kDa fraction. Our data suggest that differential binding of S. mansoni LTPs to plasma proteins of susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains may significantly impact early anti-larval immune reactivity, and in turn, compatibility, in this parasite-host system. PMID:22448293

  17. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  18. Alteration of CaBP expression pattern in the nucleus magnocellularis following unilateral cochlear ablation in adult zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available Songbirds have the rare ability of auditory-vocal learning and maintenance. Up to now, the organization and function of the nucleus magnocellularis (NM, the first relay of the avian ascending auditory pathway is largely based on studies in non-vocal learning species, such as chickens and owls. To investigate whether NM exhibits different histochemical properties associated with auditory processing in songbirds, we examined the expression patterns of three calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs, including calretinin (CR, parvalbumin (PV and calbindin-D28k (CB, and their relations to auditory inputs in NM in adult zebra finches. We found enriched and co-localized immunostaining of CR, PV and CB in the majority of NM neurons, without neuronal population preference. Furthermore, they were sensitive to adult deafferentation with differential plasticity patterns. After unilateral cochlear removal, CR staining in the ipsilateral NM decreased appreciably at 3 days after surgery, and continued to decline thereafter. PV staining showed down-regulation first at 3 days, but subsequently recovered slightly. CB staining did not significantly decrease until 7 days after surgery. Our findings suggest that the three CaBPs might play distinct roles in association with auditory processing in zebra finches. These results are in contrast to the findings in the NM of chickens where CR is the predominant CaBP and deafferentation had no apparent effect on its expression. Further extended studies in other avian species are required to establish whether the difference in CaBP patterns in NM is functionally related to the different auditory-vocal behaviors.

  19. Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery is increased and its amino acid pattern is altered in pigs fed quebracho extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steendam, C A Carina; Tamminga, Seerp; Boer, Huug; de Jong, Erik-Jan; Visser, G Henk; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-11-01

    Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery (ENR) in pigs (9 +/- 0.6 kg body weight) was estimated simultaneously using the (15)N-isotope dilution technique ((15)N-IDT) and the peptide alimentation ultrafiltration (UF) method. Diets were cornstarch, enzyme-hydrolyzed casein with no (control) or high (4%) content of quebracho extract (Schinopsis spp.) rich in condensed tannins. The amino acid (AA) pattern of the ENR was also determined. The ENR of pigs fed the quebracho diet was higher (P = 0.0001) than that of pigs fed the control diet [6.00 vs. 1.95 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) for the (15)N-IDT and 5.18 vs. 1.49 g/kg DMI for the UF method, respectively]. With the (15)N-IDT, ENR values were 0.44-0.79 g/kg DMI (24%) higher (control P = 0.0032, quebracho P = 0.0002) than for the UF method. Apparent nitrogen digestibility depended on diet (69.0% quebracho vs. 86.0% control, P = 0.0001). Real nitrogen digestibility (RD-N) determined by the UF method was higher (P = 0.0001) for the control than for the quebracho diet (91.4 vs. 88.2%). Corresponding values for the (15)N-IDT did not differ (P = 0.0569) between diets (92.8 vs. 91.4%). The (15)N-IDT gave higher values for RD-N of both diets (control P = 0.0030, quebracho P = 0.0002) compared with the UF method. Endogenous AA recoveries (g/kg DMI) were increased 300% (P = 0.0001) and the AA-pattern of ENR was changed (P from 0.0001 to 0.7530 for different AA) by the quebracho diet. A constant AA-pattern of ENR cannot be assumed. Despite limitations of both techniques, the (15)N-IDT and the UF method gave similar results with respect to ENR. PMID:15514278

  20. Specific siRNA Downregulated TLR9 and Altered Cytokine Expression Pattern in Macrophage after CpG DNA Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Qiao; Baohua Li; Xiuli Yang; Hongyong Zhang; Yiwei Chu; Ying Wang; Sidong Xiong

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial CpG DNA or synthetic oligonucleotides (ODNs) that contain unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODN) can directly activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to secrete various cytokines through the intracellular receptor TLR9. Cytokine profiles elicited by the actions of stimulatory CpG DNA on TLR9 expressed APCs are crucial to the subsequent immune responses. To date, cytokine profiles in APCs upon CpG ODN stimulation in vitro are not fully investigated. In the present study, vector-based siRNA was used to downregulate TLR9 expression. Cytokine profiles were observed in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 transfected with TLR9-siRNA plasmid upon CpG ODN stimulation. We found that not all the cytokine expressions by the macrophage were decreased while TLR9 was downregulated. IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β expressions were significantly decreased, but IL-6,IFN-β and IL-10 expressions were not affected. Interestingly, the level of IFN-α was even increased. This alteration of cytokines produced by TLR9-downregulated APCs upon CpG ODN stimulation might indicate that the role of CpG DNA is more complicated in the pathogenesis and prevention of diseases. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2005;2(2):130-135.

  1. Specific siRNA Downregulated TLR9 and Altered Cytokine Expression Pattern in Macrophage after CpG DNA Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BinQiao; BaohuaLi; XiuliYang; HongyongZhang; YiweiChu; YingWang; SidongXiong

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial CpG DNA or synthetic oligonucleotides (ODNs) that contain unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODN) can directly activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to secrete various cytokines through the intraceilular receptor TL R9. Cytokine profiles elicited by the actions of stimulatory CpG DNA on TLR9 expressed APCs are crucial to the subsequent immune responses. To date, cytokine profiles in APCs upon CpG ODN stimulation in vitro are not fully investigated. In the present study, vector-based siRNA was used to downregulate TLR9 expression. Cytokine profiles were observed in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 transfected with TLR9-siRNA plasmid uponCpG ODN stimulation. We found that not all the cytokine expressions by the macrophage were decreased whileTLR9 was downregulated. IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β expressions were significantly decreased, but IL-6, IFN-β and IL-10 expressions were not affected. Interestingly, the level of IFN-α was even increased. This alteration of cytokines produced by TLR9-downregulated APCs upon CpG ODN stimulation might indicate that the role of CpG DNA is more complicated in the pathogenesis and prevention of diseases. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):130-135.

  2. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor C increases growth and alters the metastatic pattern of orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väänänen H Kalervo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant sites but the roles of lymphatic and hematogenous pathways in metastasis are not fully understood. Methods We studied the roles of VEGF-C and VEGFR3 in prostate cancer metastasis by blocking VEGFR3 using intravenous adenovirus-delivered VEGFR3-Ig fusion protein (VEGFR3-Ig and by ectopic expression of VEGF-C in PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice. Results VEGFR3-Ig decreased the density of lymphatic capillaries in orthotopic PC-3 tumors (p p p p Conclusion The data suggest that even though VEGF-C/VEGFR3 pathway is primarily required for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, an increased level of VEGF-C can also stimulate angiogenesis, which is associated with growth of orthotopic prostate tumors and a switch from a primary pattern of lymph node metastasis to an increased proportion of metastases at distant sites.

  3. Prolonged mechanical ventilation alters the expression pattern of angio-neogenetic factors in a pre-clinical rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian S Bruells

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life saving intervention for patients with respiratory failure. Even after 6 hours of MV, diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction (collectively referred to as ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, VIDD occurs in concert with a blunted blood flow and oxygen delivery. The regulation of hypoxia sensitive factors (i.e. hypoxia inducible factor 1α, 2α (HIF-1α,-2α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and angio-neogenetic factors (angiopoietin 1-3, Ang might contribute to reactive and compensatory alterations in diaphragm muscle. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 8 were ventilated for 24 hours or directly sacrificed (n = 8, diaphragm and mixed gastrocnemius muscle tissue was removed. Quantitative real time PCR and western blot analyses were performed to detect changes in angio-neogenetic factors and inflammatory markers. Tissues were stained using Isolectin (IB 4 to determine capillarity and calculate the capillary/fiber ratio. RESULTS: MV resulted in up-regulation of Ang 2 and HIF-1α mRNA in both diaphragm and gastrocnemius, while VEGF mRNA was down-regulated in both tissues. HIF-2α mRNA was reduced in both tissues, while GLUT 4 mRNA was increased in gastrocnemius and reduced in diaphragm samples. Protein levels of VEGF, HIF-1α, -2α and 4 did not change significantly. Additionally, inflammatory cytokine mRNA (Interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF α were elevated in diaphragm tissue. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that 24 hrs of MV and the associated limb disuse induce an up-regulation of angio-neogenetic factors that are connected to HIF-1α. Changes in HIF-1α expression may be due to several interactions occurring during MV.

  4. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  5. Distinctive Patterns of CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Alterations in Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Vickie Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Krane, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland basaloid neoplasms are diagnostically challenging. Limited publications report that some basal cell adenomas harbor CTNNB1 mutations, and nuclear β-catenin expression is prevalent. We evaluated β-catenin expression in basal cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas in comparison with salivary tumors in the differential diagnosis and performed targeted genetic analysis on a subset of cases. β-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded whole sections from 73 tumors. Nuclear staining was scored semiquantitatively by extent and intensity. DNA was extracted from 6 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (5 basal cell adenomas, 1 basal cell adenocarcinoma) for next-generation sequencing. Nuclear β-catenin staining was present in 18/22 (82%) basal cell adenomas; most were diffuse and strong and predominant in the basal component. Two of 3 basal cell adenocarcinomas were positive (1 moderate focal; 1 moderate multifocal). All adenoid cystic carcinomas (0/20) and pleomorphic adenomas (0/20) were negative; 2/8 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas showed focal nuclear staining. Most β-catenin-negative tumors showed diffuse membranous staining in the absence of nuclear staining. Four of 5 basal cell adenomas had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations, all c.104T>C (p.I35T). Basal cell adenocarcinoma showed a more complex genomic profile, with activating mutations in PIK3CA, biallelic inactivation of NFKBIA, focal CYLD deletion, and without CTNNB1 mutation despite focal β-catenin expression. Nuclear β-catenin expression has moderate sensitivity (82%) for basal cell adenoma but high specificity (96%) in comparison with its morphologic mimics. CTNNB1 mutation was confirmed in most basal cell adenomas tested, and findings in basal cell adenocarcinoma suggest possible tumorigenic mechanisms, including alterations in PI3K and NF-κB pathways and transcriptional regulation. PMID:27259009

  6. Glycotope sharing between snail hemolymph and larval schistosomes: larval transformation products alter shared glycan patterns of plasma proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Yoshino

    Full Text Available Recent evidence supports the involvement of inducible, highly diverse lectin-like recognition molecules in snail hemocyte-mediated responses to larval Schistosoma mansoni. Because host lectins likely are involved in initial parasite recognition, we sought to identify specific carbohydrate structures (glycans shared between larval S. mansoni and its host Biomphalaria glabrata to address possible mechanisms of immune avoidance through mimicry of elements associated with the host immunoreactivity. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mABs to specific S. mansoni glycans was used to identify the distribution and abundance of shared glycan epitopes (glycotopes on plasma glycoproteins from B. glabrata strains that differ in their susceptibilities to infection by S. mansoni. In addition, a major aim of this study was to determine if larval transformation products (LTPs could bind to plasma proteins, and thereby alter the glycotopes exposed on plasma proteins in a snail strain-specific fashion. Plasma fractions ( 100 kDa from susceptible (NMRI and resistant (BS-90 snail strains were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses using mAB to LacdiNAc (LDN, fucosylated LDN variants, Lewis X and trimannosyl core glycans. Results confirmed a high degree of glycan sharing, with NMRI plasma exhibiting a greater distribution/abundance of LDN, F-LDN and F-LDN-F than BS-90 plasma ( 100 kDa fraction. Our data suggest that differential binding of S. mansoni LTPs to plasma proteins of susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains may significantly impact early anti-larval immune reactivity, and in turn, compatibility, in this parasite-host system.

  7. Prenatal stress alters the developmental pattern of behavioral indices of sexual maturation and copulation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arteaga, Enrique; Hernández-González, Marisela; Rentería, Mayra Liliana Ramírez-; Almanza-Sepúlveda, Mayra Linné; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Silva, Marcela Arteaga; Jaime, Herlinda Bonilla

    2016-09-01

    Gestation and pre-puberty are critical periods during which several environmental factors can drastically affect the adequate development of subjects. Considering that stress is one of the most common factors to which subjects may be exposed during gestation, the present study evaluated the effects of prenatal stress on the behavioral indices of sexual maturation in male rats, including genital grooming (GG), preputial separation (PS), and spontaneous penile erections (SPE) during puberty, and on copulatory parameters during adulthood. Stress was exerted by immobilizing the female rats once per day for 2h from days 14-21 of pregnancy. The young rats born to the dams in the stressed group (SG) later presented a delayed occurrence of PS with a delayed onset and lower frequency and duration of GG compared to a control group (CG). Less than half of the subjects in SG presented SPE, and those that did showed delayed onset and lower frequency and duration. In adulthood, fewer subjects in SG showed sexual behavior responses (intromission and ejaculation), and their mount and intromission latencies on the first day they ejaculated were longer than those of the CG rats. Findings from this study provide additional evidence that stress caused by immobilization during the third period of pregnancy exerts a negative effect in the short-term (i.e., around puberty) by altering the typical development of GG and SPE and the occurrence of PS, while also demonstrating that this effect persists in the long-term, when it affects the performance of copulatory behavior in mature male rats. PMID:27174612

  8. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the mouse alters cardiac growth patterns and increases pulse pressure in aged male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during development can result in later cardiovascular and renal disease in sheep and rats. Although prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with impaired renal development, less is known about effects on the developing heart. This study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term exposure to dexamethasone (60 hours from embryonic day 12.5 on the developing mouse heart, and cardiovascular function in adult male offspring. Dexamethasone (DEX exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to saline treated controls (SAL at E14.5, but there was no difference between groups at E17.5. Heart weights of the DEX fetuses also tended to be smaller at E14.5, but not different at E17.5. Cardiac AT1aR, Bax, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by DEX compared to SAL at E17.5. In 12-month-old offspring DEX exposure caused an increase in basal blood pressure of ~3 mmHg. In addition, DEX exposed mice had a widened pulse pressure compared to SAL. DEX exposed males at 12 months had an approximate 25% reduction in nephron number compared to SAL, but no difference in cardiomyocyte number. Exposure to DEX in utero appears to adversely impact on nephrogenesis and heart growth but is not associated with a cardiomyocyte deficit in male mice in adulthood, possibly due to compensatory growth of the myocardium following the initial insult. However, the widened pulse pressure may be indicative of altered vascular compliance.

  9. Patterns of dioxin-altered mRNA expression in livers of dioxin-sensitive versus dioxin-resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franc, Monique A. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON (Canada); Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Department of Pharmacogenomics, 1000 Route 202 South, P.O. Box 300, Raritan, NJ (United States); Moffat, Ivy D.; Boutros, Paul C.; Okey, Allan B. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Tuomisto, Jouko [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, Centre for Environmental Health Risk Analysis, Kuopio (Finland); Pohjanvirta, Raimo [University of Helsinki, Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Dioxins exert their major toxicologic effects by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and altering gene transcription. Numerous dioxin-responsive genes previously were identified both by conventional biochemical and molecular techniques and by recent mRNA expression microarray studies. However, of the large set of dioxin-responsive genes the specific genes whose dysregulation leads to death remain unknown. To identify specific genes that may be involved in dioxin lethality we compared changes in liver mRNA levels following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in three strains/lines of dioxin-sensitive rats with changes in three dioxin-resistant rat strains/lines. The three dioxin-resistant strains/lines all harbor a large deletion in the transactivation domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Despite this deletion, many genes exhibited a ''Type-I'' response - that is, their responses were similar in dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rats. Several genes that previously were well established as being dioxin-responsive or under AHR regulation emerged as Type-I responses (e.g. CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and Gsta3). In contrast, a relatively small number of genes exhibited a Type-II response - defined as a difference in responsiveness between dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rat strains. Type-II genes include: malic enzyme 1, ubiquitin C, cathepsin L, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and ferritin light chain 1. In silico searches revealed that AH response elements are conserved in the 5'-flanking regions of several genes that respond to TCDD in both the Type-I and Type-II categories. The vast majority of changes in mRNA levels in response to 100 {mu}g/kg TCDD were strain-specific; over 75% of the dioxin-responsive clones were affected in only one of the six strains/lines. Selected genes were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in dose-response and time-course experiments and responses of some genes were

  10. Altered bone marrow activity: potential cause of flase-positive indium-111-labeled leukocyte image patterns in complicated cases of suspected osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the frequency with which altered bone marrow distribution might cause false-positive In-111-labeled white blood cell (In-111 WBC) localization patterns at suspected sits of osteomyelitis. Bone/bone marrow cultures were used in each of 74 patients to establish the presence of infection. Thirty-eight patients had nonunited fractures, 26 had painful prostheses, and 10 had prior osteomyelitis. Tc-99 m albumin colloid (Tc-99 m AC) bone marrow imaging was done in 18 patients initially considered to have osteomyelitis by In-111 WBC/Tc-99 m MDP imaging. All 18 had undergone prior internal fixation, bone grafting, or prosthesis removal. Studies were defined positive for osteomyelitis when In-111 WBC activity exceeded Tc-99 m AC activity in extent or focal intensity (discordant)

  11. The course of lung inflation alters the central pattern of tracheobronchial cough in cat-The evidence for volume feedback during cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliacek, Ivan; Simera, Michal; Veternik, Marcel; Kotmanova, Zuzana; Pitts, Teresa; Hanacek, Jan; Plevkova, Jana; Machac, Peter; Visnovcova, Nadezda; Misek, Jakub; Jakus, Jan

    2016-07-15

    The effect of volume-related feedback and output airflow resistance on the cough motor pattern was studied in 17 pentobarbital anesthetized spontaneously-breathing cats. Lung inflation during tracheobronchial cough was ventilator controlled and triggered by the diaphragm electromyographic (EMG) signal. Altered lung inflations during cough resulted in modified cough motor drive and temporal features of coughing. When tidal volume was delivered (via the ventilator) there was a significant increase in the inspiratory and expiratory cough drive (esophageal pressures and EMG amplitudes), inspiratory phase duration (CTI), total cough cycle duration, and the duration of all cough related EMGs (Tactive). When the cough volume was delivered (via the ventilator) during the first half of inspiratory period (at CTI/2-early over inflation), there was a significant reduction in the inspiratory and expiratory EMG amplitude, peak inspiratory esophageal pressure, CTI, and the overlap between inspiratory and expiratory EMG activity. Additionally, there was significant increase in the interval between the maximum inspiratory and expiratory EMG activity and the active portion of the expiratory phase (CTE1). Control inflations coughs and control coughs with additional expiratory resistance had increased maximum expiratory esophageal pressure and prolonged CTE1, the duration of cough abdominal activity, and Tactive. There was no significant difference in control coughing and/or control coughing when sham ventilation was employed. In conclusion, modified lung inflations during coughing and/or additional expiratory airflow resistance altered the spatio-temporal features of cough motor pattern via the volume related feedback mechanism similar to that in breathing. PMID:27125979

  12. Patients treated for male pattern hair with finasteride show, after discontinuation of the drug, altered levels of neuroactive steroids in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Donatella; Abbiati, Federico; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Fusco, Letizia; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2015-02-01

    Observations performed in a subset of patients treated for male pattern hair loss indicate that persistent sexual side effects as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology have been reported even after discontinuation of finasteride treatment. Due to the capability of finasteride to block the metabolism of progesterone (PROG) and/or testosterone (T) we have evaluated, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the levels of several neuroactive steroids in paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from post-finasteride patients and in healthy controls. At the examination, post-finasteride patients reported muscular stiffness, cramps, tremors and chronic fatigue in the absence of clinical evidence of any muscular disorder or strength reduction. Although severity of the anxious/depressive symptoms was quite variable in their frequency, overall all the subjects had a fairly complex and constant neuropsychiatric pattern. Assessment of neuroactive steroid levels in CSF showed a decrease of PROG and its metabolites, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), associated with an increase of its precursor pregnenolone (PREG). Altered levels were also observed for T and its metabolites. Thus, a significant decrease of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) associated with an increase of T as well as of 3α-diol was detected. Changes in neuroactive steroid levels also occurred in plasma. An increase of PREG, T, 3α-diol, 3β-diol and 17β-estradiol was associated with decreased levels of DHP and THP. The present observations show that altered levels of neuroactive steroids, associated with depression symptoms, are present in androgenic alopecia patients even after discontinuation of the finasteride treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Sex steroids and brain disorders'. PMID:24717976

  13. Sodium arsenite delays the differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblast cells and alters methylation patterns on the transcription factor myogenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies have correlated arsenic exposure with cancer, skin diseases, and adverse developmental outcomes such as spontaneous abortions, neonatal mortality, low birth weight, and delays in the use of musculature. The current study used C2C12 mouse myoblast cells to examine whether low concentrations of arsenic could alter their differentiation into myotubes, indicating that arsenic can act as a developmental toxicant. Myoblast cells were exposed to 20 nM sodium arsenite, allowed to differentiate into myotubes, and expression of the muscle-specific transcription factor myogenin, along with the expression of tropomyosin, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3), prostaglandin I2 synthesis (Ptgis), and myocyte enhancer 2 (Mef2), was investigated using QPCR and immunofluorescence. Exposing C2C12 cells to 20 nM sodium arsenite delayed the differentiation process, as evidenced by a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated myotubes, a decrease in myogenin mRNA expression, and a decrease in the total number of nuclei expressing myogenin protein. The expression of mRNA involved in myotube formation, such as Ptgis and Mef2 mRNA, was also significantly reduced by 1.6-fold and 4-fold during differentiation. This was confirmed by immunofluorescence for Mef2, which showed a 2.6-fold reduction in nuclear translocation. Changes in methylation patterns in the promoter region of myogenin (-473 to + 90) were examined by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing. Hypermethylated CpGs were found at -236 and -126 bp, whereas hypomethylated CpGs were found at -207 bp in arsenic-exposed cells. This study indicates that 20 nM sodium arsenite can alter myoblast differentiation by reducing the expression of the transcription factors myogenin and Mef2c, which is likely due to changes in promoter methylation patterns. The delay in muscle differentiation may lead to developmental abnormalities.

  14. Gait Pattern Alterations during Walking, Texting and Walking and Texting during Cognitively Distractive Tasks while Negotiating Common Pedestrian Obstacles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Licence

    Full Text Available Mobile phone texting is a common daily occurrence with a paucity of research examining corresponding gait characteristics. To date, most studies have participants walk in a straight line vs. overcoming barriers and obstacles that occur during regular walking. The aim of our study is to examine the effect of mobile phone texting during periods of cognitive distraction while walking and negotiating barriers synonymous with pedestrian traffic.Thirty participants (18-50 y completed three randomized, counter-balanced walking tasks over a course during: (1 normal walking (control, (2 texting and walking, and (3 texting and walking whilst being cognitively distraction via a standard mathematical test performed while negotiating the obstacle course. We analyzed gait characteristics during course negotiation using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system and a general linear model and Dunnet-Hsu post-hoc procedure the normal walking condition to assess gait characteristic differences. Primary outcomes included the overall time to complete the course time and barrier contact. Secondary outcomes included obstacle clearance height, step frequency, step time, double support phase and lateral deviation.Participants took significantly longer (mean ± SD to complete the course while texting (24.96 ± 4.20 sec and during cognitive distraction COG (24.09 ± 3.36 sec vs. normal walking (19.32 ± 2.28 sec; all, P<0.001. No significant differences were noted for barrier contacts (P = 0.28. Step frequency, step time, double support phase and lateral deviation all increased in duration during the texting and cognitive distraction trial. Texting and being cognitively distracted also increased obstacle clearance versus the walking condition (all, P<0.02.Texting while walking and/or being cognitively distracted significantly affect gait characteristics concordant to mobile phone usage resulting in a more cautious gate pattern. Future research should also examine a similar

  15. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... integrating real-world resource use into a game....

  16. Polyphenol-rich extract of Vernonia amygdalina (del. leaves ameliorated cadmium-induced alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume of male Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eseigbe Imafidon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effects of polyphenol-rich extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA on the feeding pattern of rats that were exposed to cadmium (Cd toxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats, weighing 160-180 g, were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each as follows; Group 1 received distilled water orally (0.2 ml/100 g, daily, throughout the period of study. Group 2 received Cd alone (in the form of CdSO4 at 5 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 5 consecutive days. Group 3 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter left untreated for a period of 4-week. After the oral lethal dose of PEVA was determined, Groups 4, 5, and 6 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 after which they received graded doses of PEVA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (0.2 ml/100 g, respectively via oral route for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for some plasma biochemical assays while urine samples were collected using metabolic cages. Results: PEVA administration significantly increased (P < 0.05 the body weight and feeding patterns that were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 by Cd toxicity. PEVA also significantly reinstated the plasma antioxidant status, as well as glucose and urine volume of the rats toward control values (P < 0.05. Conclusion: PEVA can be an herbal alternative in the treatment or management of subjects manifesting alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume that is Cd-induced. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 284-292

  17. Rotordynamics of Turbine Labyrinth Seals with Rotor Axial Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotors in high-performance steam turbines experience a significant axial shifting during starting and stopping processes due to thermal expansion, for example. This axial shifting could significantly alter the flow pattern and the flow-induced rotordynamic forces in labyrinth seals, which in turn, can considerably affect the rotor-seal system performance. This paper investigates the influence of the rotor axial shifting on leakage rate as well as rotordynamic forces in high-low labyrinth seals over a range of seal clearances and inlet swirl velocities. A well-established CFD-perturbation model was employed to predict the rotordynamic coefficients. A surprisingly large effect was detected for rotordynamic characteristics due to rotor shifting. It was also found that a less destabilizing effect arose from rotor axial shifting in the leakage flow direction, whereas a more destabilizing effect arose from shifting against the leakage flow direction. Further, a tentative explanation was proposed for the large sensitivities of dynamic forces to rotor axial shifting.

  18. Rotordynamics of Turbine Labyrinth Seals with Rotor Axial Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Rhode

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotors in high-performance steam turbines experience a significant axial shifting during starting and stopping processes due to thermal expansion, for example. This axial shifting could significantly alter the flow pattern and the flow-induced rotordynamic forces in labyrinth seals, which in turn, can considerably affect the rotor-seal system performance. This paper investigates the influence of the rotor axial shifting on leakage rate as well as rotordynamic forces in high-low labyrinth seals over a range of seal clearances and inlet swirl velocities. A well-established CFD-perturbation model was employed to predict the rotordynamic coefficients. A surprisingly large effect was detected for rotordynamic characteristics due to rotor shifting. It was also found that a less destabilizing effect arose from rotor axial shifting in the leakage flow direction, whereas a more destabilizing effect arose from shifting against the leakage flow direction. Further, a tentative explanation was proposed for the large sensitivities of dynamic forces to rotor axial shifting.

  19. The relationship between shift work and sleep patterns in nurses Relação entre trabalho por turnos e padrões de sono em enfermeiros

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Fernando dos Santos Barbosa; Ana Cristina Basto Abreu; Milva Maria Figueiredo De Martino; João Eduardo Marques Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the sleep/wake cycle in shift work nurses, as well as their sleep quality and chronotype. The sleep/wake cycle was evaluated by keeping a sleep diary for a total of 60 nurses with a mean age of 31.76 years. The Horne & Östberg Questionnaire (1976) for the chronotype and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep quality were applied. The results revealed a predominance of indifferent chronotypes (65.0%), followed by moderately evening persons (...

  20. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails. PMID:24215063

  1. Shifting densities

    OpenAIRE

    Mille, Matthieu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the author adopt a time-geography approach to examine the temporal variation of urban density by analysing spatial load changes at different times of the day at the communal and community level. The evolution of means of transport coupled with the abandon of the notion of direct proximity to the urban dwelling place provide the basis for this new approach to the study of urban densities. The shift towards spatial specialisation within cities has lead to radical changes in the f...

  2. An Altered Pattern of Myocardial Histopathological and Molecular Changes Underlies the Different Characteristics of Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetic Cardiac Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Radovits

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that both types of diabetes mellitus (DM lead to cardiac structural and functional changes. In this study we investigated and compared functional characteristics and underlying subcellular pathological features in rat models of type-1 and type-2 diabetic cardiomyopathy. Type-1 DM was induced by streptozotocin. For type-2 DM, Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats were used. Left ventricular pressure-volume analysis was performed to assess cardiac function. Myocardial nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry, TUNEL assay, hematoxylin-eosin, and Masson’s trichrome staining were performed. mRNA and protein expression were quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Marked systolic dysfunction in type-1 DM was associated with severe nitrooxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis. These pathological features were less pronounced or absent, while cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was comparable in type-2 DM, which was associated with unaltered systolic function and increased diastolic stiffness. mRNA-expression of hypertrophy markers c-fos, c-jun, and β-MHC, as well as pro-apoptotic caspase-12, was elevated in type-1, while it remained unaltered or only slightly increased in type-2 DM. Expression of the profibrotic TGF-β1 was upregulated in type-1 and showed a decrease in type-2 DM. We compared type-1 and type-2 diabetic cardiomyopathy in standard rat models and described an altered pattern of key pathophysiological features in the diabetic heart and corresponding functional consequences.

  3. Shifts that divide population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Qubbaj, Murad; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Anderies, John M.; Janssen, Marco

    2014-05-01

    How does a population of organisms in an ecosystem or of people in a society respond to rapid shifts in the environment? Answers to this question are critical to our ability to anticipate and cope with a changing ecohydrological system. We have developed a generic model of adaptation mechanisms, based on replicator dynamics, in which we derive a simple and insightful threshold condition that separates two important types of responses: 'cohesive transition' in which the whole population changes gradually together, and 'population-dividing transition' in which the population splits into two groups with one eventually dominating the other. The threshold depends on the magnitude of the shift and the shape of the fitness landscape. Division in populations can fundamentally alter the functioning of and induce subsequent feedbacks within the system; knowing the condition that gives rise to such division is thus fundamentally important.

  4. Phase Shift Interferometer and Growth Set Up to Step Pattern Formation During Growth From Solutions. Influence of the Oscillatory solution Flow on Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alex A.; Booth, N. A.; Vekilov, P. G.; Murray, B. T.; McFadden, G. B.

    2000-01-01

    We have assembled an experimental setup based on Michelson interferometry with the growing crystal surface as one of the reflective surfaces. The crystallization part of the device allows optical monitoring of a face of a crystal growing at temperature stable within 0.05 C in a flow of solution of controlled direction and speed. The reference arm of the interferometer contains a liquid crystal element that allows controlled shifts of the phase of the interferograms. We employ an image-processing algorithm, which combines five images with a pi/2 phase difference between each pair of images. The images are transferred to a computer by a camera capable of capturing 60 frames per second. The device allows data collection on surface morphology and kinetics during the face layers growth over a relatively large area (approximately 4 sq. mm) in situ and in real time during growth. The estimated depth resolution of the phase shifting interferometry is approximately 50 Angstroms. The data will be analyzed in order to reveal and monitor step bunching during the growth process. The crystal chosen as a model for study in this work is KH2PO4 (KDP). This optically non-linear material is widely used in frequency doubling applications. There have been a number of studies of the kinetics of KDP crystallization that can serve as a benchmark for our investigations. However, so far, systematic quantitative characteristics of step interaction and bunching are missing. We intend to present our first quantitative results on the onset, initial stages and development of instabilities in moving step trains on vicinal crystal surfaces at varying supersaturation, flow rate, and flow direction. Behavior of a vicinal face growing from solution flowing normal to the steps and periodically changing its direction in time was considered theoretically. It was found that this oscillating flow reduces both stabilization and destabilization effects resulted from the unidirectional solution flow directed

  5. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Miguel

    Full Text Available Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3 DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression.

  6. SHI Wenlei, The pattern shift of the motion event integration in Chinese: A typological study based on morpho-syntactic features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the typological shift of comparing the morpho-syntactic features of Chinese the motion event integration in Chinese by and Romance languages diachronically and typologically. The results indicate that 1 ) Chinese shows more and more characteristics of the satellite-framed languages (S-language) and less and less characteristics of the verb-framed languages (VAanguage), while Romance languages show an opposite tendency; 2) unlike Spanish, a typical V-language, ancient Chinese uses most single PATH verb constructions; 3) not only the evolutionary directions of Chinese and Romance languages are opposite, the evolutionary mechanisms are also opposite, i.e. grammaticalization and separation of semantic components in Chinese vs. strong lexicalization and incorporation of semantic elements in Romance languages; 4) modern Chinese and Modern Romance both show a diversity of motion event integration types, which are resulted from the preservation of some constructions of ancient languages

  7. Probing structural patterns of ion association and solvation in mixtures of imidazolium ionic liquids with acetonitrile by means of relative (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marekha, Bogdan A; Kalugin, Oleg N; Bria, Marc; Idrissi, Abdenacer

    2015-09-21

    Mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with polar aprotic solvents in different combinations and under different conditions (concentration, temperature etc.) are used widely in electrochemistry. However, little is known about the key intermolecular interactions in such mixtures depending on the nature of the constituents and mixture composition. In order to systematically address the intermolecular interactions, the chemical shift variation of (1)H and (13)C nuclei has been followed in mixtures of imidazolium ILs 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BmimBF4), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmimPF6), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BmimTfO) and 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimTFSI) with molecular solvent acetonitrile (AN) over the entire composition range at 300 K. The concept of relative chemical shift variation is proposed to assess the observed effects on a unified and unbiased scale. We have found that hydrogen bonds between the imidazolium ring hydrogen atoms and electronegative atoms of anions are stronger in BmimBF4 and BmimTfO ILs than those in BmimTFSI and BmimPF6. Hydrogen atom at position 2 of the imidazolium ring is substantially more sensitive to interionic hydrogen bonding than those at positions 4-5 in the case of BmimTfO and BmimTFSI ILs. These hydrogen bonds are disrupted upon dilution in AN due to ion dissociation which is more pronounced at high dilutions. Specific solvation interactions between AN molecules and IL cations are poorly manifested. PMID:26278514

  8. The relationship between shift work and sleep patterns in nurses Relação entre trabalho por turnos e padrões de sono em enfermeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando dos Santos Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to evaluate the sleep/wake cycle in shift work nurses, as well as their sleep quality and chronotype. The sleep/wake cycle was evaluated by keeping a sleep diary for a total of 60 nurses with a mean age of 31.76 years. The Horne & Östberg Questionnaire (1976 for the chronotype and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI for sleep quality were applied. The results revealed a predominance of indifferent chronotypes (65.0%, followed by moderately evening persons (18.3%, decidedly evening persons (8.3%, moderately morning persons (6.6% and decidedly morning persons (1.8%. The sleep quality perception was analyzed by the visual analogical scale, showing a mean score of 5.85 points for nighttime sleep and 4.70 points for daytime sleep, which represented a statistically significant difference. The sleep/wake schedule was also statistically different when considering weekdays and weekends. The PSQI showed a mean of 7.0 points, characterizing poor sleep quality. The results showed poor sleep quality in shift work nurses, possibly due to the lack of sport and shift work habits.Este estudo teve como objectivo analisar o ciclo vigília-sono em enfermeiros que trabalham por turnos, bem como a qualidade do sono e cronótipo. O ciclo vigília-sono foi avaliado através do diário de sono, num total de 60 enfermeiros, com idade média de 31.76 anos. Para o cronótipo utilizou-se o Questionário de Horne e Östberg, de 1976, e para medir a qualidade de sono calculou-se o Índice Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburg (PSQI. Os resultados do cronótipo mostraram uma predominância para tipo indiferente (65.0%, seguido do tipo Moderamente Vespertinos (18.3%, Definitivamente Vespertino (8.3%, Moderadamente Matutinos (6.6% e Definitivamente Matutinos (1.8%. A percepção da qualidade do sono autorreportada pela Escala Analógica Visual (VAS foi de 5.85 pontos, em média, para o sono nocturno e 4.70 para o sono diurno, diferen

  9. The combined effect of two mutations that alter serially homologous color pattern elements on the fore and hindwings of a butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedder Lindsey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability for serially homologous structures to acquire a separate identity has been primarily investigated for structures dependent on Hox gene input but is still incompletely understood in other systems. The fore and hindwings of butterflies are serially homologous structures as are the serially homologous eyespots that can decorate each of these wings. Eyespots can vary in number between fore and hindwings of the same individual and mutations of large effect can control the total number of eyespots that each of the wings displays. Here we investigate the genetics of a new spontaneous color pattern mutation, Missing, that alters eyespot number in the nymphalid butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. We further test the interaction of Missing with a previously described mutation, Spotty, describe the developmental stage affected by Missing, and test whether Missing is a mutant variant of the gene Distal-less via a linkage association study. Results Missing removes or greatly reduces the size of two of the hindwing eyespots from the row of seven eyespots, with no detectable effect on the rest of the wing pattern. Offspring carrying a single Missing allele display intermediate sized eyespots at these positions. Spotty has the opposite effect of Missing, i.e., it introduces two extra eyespots in homologous wing positions to those affected by Missing, but on the forewing. When Missing is combined with Spotty the size of the two forewing eyespots decreases but the size of the hindwing spots stays the same, suggesting that these two mutations have a combined effect on the forewing such that Missing reduces eyespot size when in the presence of a Spotty mutant allele, but that Spotty has no effect on the hindwing. Missing prevents the complete differentiation of two of the eyespot foci on the hindwing. We found no evidence for any linkage between the Distal-less and Missing genes. Conclusion The spontaneous mutation Missing controls the

  10. Altered neuronal firing pattern of the basal ganglia nucleus plays a role in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Levodopa therapy alleviates the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD, but long-term treatment often leads to motor complications such as levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. Aim: To explore the neuronal activity in the basal ganglia nuclei in patients with PD and LID. Methods: Thirty patients with idiopathic PD (age, 55.1±11.0 years; disease duration, 8.7±5.6 years were enrolled between August 2006 and August 2013 at the Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Their Hoehn and Yahr scores ranged from 2 to 4 and their UPDRS III scores were 28.5±5.2. Fifteen of them had severe LID (UPDRS IV scores of 6.7±1.6. Microelectrode recording was performed in the globus pallidus internus (GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN during pallidotomy (n=12 or STN deep brain stimulation (DBS; bilateral, n=12; unilateral, n=6. The firing patterns and frequencies of various cell types were analyzed by assessing single cell interspike intervals (ISIs and the corresponding coefficient of variation (CV. Results: A total of 295 neurons were identified from the GPi (n=12 and STN (n=18. These included 26 (8.8% highly grouped discharge, 30 (10.2% low frequency firing, 78 (26.4% rapid tonic discharge, 103 (34.9% irregular activity, and 58 (19.7% tremor-related activity. There were significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05 for neurons with irregular firing, highly irregular cluster-like firing, and low-frequency firing. Conclusion: Altered neuronal activity was observed in the basal ganglia nucleus of GPi and STN, and may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and LID.

  11. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  12. The significance of shifts in precipitation patterns: modelling the impacts of climate change and glacier retreat on extreme flood events in Denali National Park, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Crossman

    Full Text Available In glacier-fed systems climate change may have various effects over a range of time scales, including increasing river discharge, flood frequency and magnitude. This study uses a combination of empirical monitoring and modelling to project the impacts of climate change on the glacial-fed Middle Fork Toklat River, Denali National Park, Alaska. We use a regional calibration of the model HBV to account for a paucity of long term observed flow data, validating a local application using glacial mass balance data and summer flow records. Two Global Climate Models (HADCM3 and CGCM2 and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2 are used to ascertain potential changes in meteorological conditions, river discharge, flood frequency and flood magnitude. Using remote sensing methods this study refines existing estimates of glacial recession rates, finding that since 2000, rates have increased from 24 m per year to 68.5m per year, with associated increases in ablation zone ice loss. GCM projections indicate that over the 21(st century these rates will increase still further, most extensively under the CGCM2 model, and A2 scenarios. Due to greater winter precipitation and ice and snow accumulation, glaciers release increasing meltwater quantities throughout the 21(st century. Despite increases in glacial melt, results indicate that it is predominantly precipitation that affects river discharge. Three of the four IPCC scenarios project increases in flood frequency and magnitude, events which were primarily associated with changing precipitation patterns, rather than extreme temperature increases or meltwater release. Results suggest that although increasing temperatures will significantly increase glacial melt and winter baseflow, meltwater alone does not pose a significant flood hazard to the Toklat River catchment. Projected changes in precipitation are the primary concern, both through changing snow volumes available for melt, and more directly through increasing

  13. The significance of shifts in precipitation patterns: modelling the impacts of climate change and glacier retreat on extreme flood events in Denali National Park, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Jill; Futter, Martyn N; Whitehead, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    In glacier-fed systems climate change may have various effects over a range of time scales, including increasing river discharge, flood frequency and magnitude. This study uses a combination of empirical monitoring and modelling to project the impacts of climate change on the glacial-fed Middle Fork Toklat River, Denali National Park, Alaska. We use a regional calibration of the model HBV to account for a paucity of long term observed flow data, validating a local application using glacial mass balance data and summer flow records. Two Global Climate Models (HADCM3 and CGCM2) and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) are used to ascertain potential changes in meteorological conditions, river discharge, flood frequency and flood magnitude. Using remote sensing methods this study refines existing estimates of glacial recession rates, finding that since 2000, rates have increased from 24 m per year to 68.5m per year, with associated increases in ablation zone ice loss. GCM projections indicate that over the 21(st) century these rates will increase still further, most extensively under the CGCM2 model, and A2 scenarios. Due to greater winter precipitation and ice and snow accumulation, glaciers release increasing meltwater quantities throughout the 21(st) century. Despite increases in glacial melt, results indicate that it is predominantly precipitation that affects river discharge. Three of the four IPCC scenarios project increases in flood frequency and magnitude, events which were primarily associated with changing precipitation patterns, rather than extreme temperature increases or meltwater release. Results suggest that although increasing temperatures will significantly increase glacial melt and winter baseflow, meltwater alone does not pose a significant flood hazard to the Toklat River catchment. Projected changes in precipitation are the primary concern, both through changing snow volumes available for melt, and more directly through increasing catchment runoff. PMID

  14. Large-scale River Channel Shifts on the Western Indo-Gangetic Plains and their implications for the Bronze-age Harappan Civilisation Settlement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Singh, A.; Sinha, R.; Thomsen, K.; Murray, A. S.; Carter, A.; Mark, D. F.; Buylaert, J.; Mason, P.; Ferrat, M.

    2011-12-01

    detrital minerals can be fingerprinted with potential source areas in the Himalaya using modern river sands and bedrock ages to constrain sediment sources. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating to develop age models for the cores. These data are combined to reconstruct the spatial and temporal evolution of this paleo-river and consider its influence on settlement patterns of the Harappan civilization in NW India.

  15. Regime shifts in models of dryland vegetation

    CERN Document Server

    Zelnik, Yuval R; Yizhaq, Hezi; Bel, Golan; Meron, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Drylands are pattern-forming systems showing self-organized vegetation patchiness, multiplicity of stable states and fronts separating domains of alternative stable states. Pattern dynamics, induced by droughts or disturbances, can result in desertification shifts from patterned vegetation to bare soil. Pattern-formation theory suggests various scenarios for such dynamics; an abrupt global shift involving a fast collapse to bare soil, a gradual global shift involving the expansion and coalescence of bare-soil domains, and an incipient shift to a hybrid state consisting of stationary bare-soil domains in an otherwise periodic pattern. Using models of dryland vegetation we address the question which of these scenarios can be realized. We found that the models can be split into two groups: models that exhibit multiplicity of periodic-pattern and bare-soil states, and models that exhibit, in addition, multiplicity of hybrid states. Furthermore, in all models we could not identify parameter regimes in which bare-s...

  16. Community-wide changes in intertaxonomic temporal co-occurrence resulting from phenological shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Hu, Junhua; Liu, Yang; Giam, Xingli; Lee, Tien Ming; Luo, Hao; Wu, Jia; Liang, Qiaoyi; Zhao, Jian; Long, Xiaoyan; Pang, Hong; Wang, Biao; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Zhengwang; Gao, Xuejie; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Global climate change is known to affect the assembly of ecological communities by altering species' spatial distribution patterns, but little is known about how climate change may affect community assembly by changing species' temporal co-occurrence patterns, which is highly likely given the widely observed phenological shifts associated with climate change. Here, we analyzed a 29-year phenological data set comprising community-level information on the timing and span of temporal occurrence in 11 seasonally occurring animal taxon groups from 329 local meteorological observatories across China. We show that widespread shifts in phenology have resulted in community-wide changes in the temporal overlap between taxa that are dominated by extensions, and that these changes are largely due to taxa's altered span of temporal occurrence rather than the degree of synchrony in phenological shifts. Importantly, our findings also suggest that climate change may have led to less phenological mismatch than generally presumed, and that the context under which to discuss the ecological consequences of phenological shifts should be expanded beyond asynchronous shifts. PMID:26680152

  17. A novel phase shifting structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veena; Dubey, Vishesh; Ahmad, Azeem; Singh, Gyanendra; Mehta, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a new and novel phase shifting technique for qualitative as well as quantitative measurement in microscopy. We have developed a phase shifting device which is robust, inexpensive and involves no mechanical movement. In this method, phase shifting is implemented using LED array, beam splitters and defocused projection of Ronchi grating. The light from the LEDs are made incident on the beam splitters at spatially different locations. Due to variation in the geometrical distances of LEDs from the Ronchi grating and by sequentially illuminating the grating by switching on one LED at a time the phase shifted grating patterns are generated. The phase shifted structured patterns are projected onto the sample using microscopic objective lens. The phase shifted deformed patterns are recorded by a CCD camera. The initial alignment of the setup involves a simple procedure for the calibration for equal fringe width and intensity such that the phase shifted fringes are at equal phase difference. Three frame phase shifting algorithm is employed for the reconstruction of the phase map. The method described here is fully automated so that the phase shifted images are recorded just by switching of LEDs and has been used for the shape measurement of microscopic industrial objects. The analysis of the phase shifted images provides qualitative as well as quantitative information about the sample. Thus, the method is simple, robust and low cost compared to PZT devices commonly employed for phase shifting.

  18. Rural-Urban Migration Patterns Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, David A.; Kassel, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Migration data from the Current Population Survey indicate a small population gain for rural areas during the period from 1990 to 1994. Examination of data by age, education, and poverty level suggests a reversal of the "brain drain" trend of the 1980s, as more working-age people with children and college graduates move into rural areas,…

  19. Shifting Patterns of Student Mobility in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, Asia--traditionally one of the largest exporters of mobile students--has experienced major changes in student mobility within higher education. As the worldwide competition for international students has escalated, many Asian countries have adopted a wide range of mechanisms and strategies in facilitating student mobility.…

  20. Altered pattern of Naïve and memory B cells and B1 cells in patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadegan, Monireh; Fattahi, Fahimeh; Fattahi, Fatemeh; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Naderi Beni, Fariba; Movahedi, Masoud; Pourpak, Zahra

    2014-06-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a greatly increased susceptibility to severe fungal and bacterial infections caused by defects in NADPH oxidase of phagocytic cells. We aimed to investigate immunophenotype alterations of naïve and memory B cells and B1a cells in peripheral whole blood from Iranian patients with CGD. Flow cytometric analysis was performed on peripheral blood samples from 31 CGD patients and 23 healthy controls (HC) to study naïve (IgD+/CD27-), memory (CD27+) B and B1a (CD5+) cells. Soluble CD27 (sCD27) and immunoglobulins were also measured by ELISA and the nephelometric method, respectively. We found significantly higher levels of naïve B cells and B1a cells but lower levels of memory B cells in CGD patients compared to HC.. There was no significant difference in soluble CD27 (sCD27) alteration between CGD patients and HC. Our findings suggested a role for NADPH oxidase in process of B cell differentiation and impairing conversion of naïve B cells to memory B cells and altered B1a cells in CGD patients. Increased susceptibility of CGD patients to opportunistic infections and autoimmune disorders could be partly explained by the altered phenotype of B lymphocytes in these patients. PMID:24659119

  1. Altered pattern of Naïve and memory B cells and B1 cells in patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Mohsenzadegan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a greatly increased susceptibility to severe fungal and bacterial infections caused by defects in NADPH oxidase of phagocytic cells. We aimed to investigate immunophenotype alterations of naïve and memory B cells and B1a cells in peripheral whole blood from Iranian patients with CGD. Flow cytometric analysis was performed on peripheral blood samples from 31 CGD patients and 23 healthy controls (HC to study naïve (IgD+/CD27-, memory (CD27+ B and B1a (CD5+ cells. Soluble CD27 (sCD27 and immunoglobulins were also measured by ELISA and the nephelometric method, respectively. We found significantly higher levels of naïve B cells and B1a cells but lower levels of memory B cells in CGD patients compared to HC.. There was no significant difference in soluble CD27 (sCD27 alteration between CGD patients and HC. Our findings suggested a role for NADPH oxidase in process of B cell differentiation and impairing conversion of naïve B cells to memory B cells and altered B1a cells in CGD patients. Increased susceptibility of CGD patients to opportunistic infections and autoimmune disorders could be partly explained by the altered phenotype of B lymphocytes in these patients.

  2. Jet Lag and Shift Work Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathryn J; Abbott, Sabra M

    2015-12-01

    Jet lag and shift work disorder are circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders resulting from behaviorally altering the sleep-wake schedule in relation to the external environment. Not everyone who experiences trans-meridian travel or performs shift work has a disorder. The prevalence of jet lag disorder is unclear, approximately 5%-10% of shift workers have shift work disorder. Treatment aims to realign the internal circadian clock with the external environment. Behavioral therapies include sleep hygiene and management of the light-dark and sleep schedule. Pharmacologic agents are used to treat insomnia and excessive sleepiness, and melatonin is used to facilitate sleep and circadian realignment. PMID:26568127

  3. Phase shifting interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    1999-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  4. Altered pattern of Naïve and memory B cells and B1 cells in patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a greatly increased susceptibility to severe fungal and bacterial infections caused by defects in NADPH oxidase of phagocytic cells. We aimed to investigate immunophenotype alterations of naïve and memory B cells and B1a cells in peripheral whole blood from Iranian patients with CGD. Flow cytometric analysis was performed on peripheral blood samples from 31 CGD patients and 23 healthy controls (HC...

  5. Phase variation of a Type IIG restriction-modification enzyme alters site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression in Campylobacter jejuni strain NCTC11168

    OpenAIRE

    Anjum, Awais; Kelly, Brathwaite; Aidley, Jack B; Connerton, Phillippa L.; Cummings, Nicola J; Parkhill, Julian; Ian F Connerton; Bayliss, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Phase-variable restriction-modification systems are a feature of a diverse range of bacterial species. Stochastic, reversible switches in expression of the methyltransferase produces variation in methylation of specific sequences. Phase-variable methylation by both Type I and Type III methyltransferases is associated with altered gene expression and phenotypic variation. One phase-variable gene of Campylobacter jejuni encodes a homologue of an unusual Type IIG restriction-modification system ...

  6. Historical decline and altered congener patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish and sediment in response to process changes at a pulp mill discharging into Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmer, Shari C; Tetreault, Gerald R; Hall, Roland I; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Improved regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents and an industry shift away from elemental chlorine bleaching in the 1990s greatly reduced the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into the environment. However, the high potential of these contaminants to persist in sediment and bioaccumulate in biota means that they have remained a concern. To document current contamination from bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, PCDD/Fs were measured in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. These values were contrasted to historically reported fish data as well as PCDD/F patterns from dated sediment cores. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores from Jackfish Bay and reference sites demonstrated a relationship between contamination and mill process changes. During the peak PCDD/F contamination period (1991), when the mill was still using elemental chlorine, the contamination patterns in fish and sediment were distinct and dominated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Following the reduction in the use of elemental chlorine during the early 1990s, a rapid decline was observed in PCDD/F contamination of fish tissue, and levels are now approaching background conditions with congener patterns more reflective of atmospheric sources. Although surface sediments from Jackfish Bay continue to have elevated PCDD/Fs, with some locations exceeding sediment quality guidelines, they do not appear to be highly bioavailable to benthic fish. PMID:26468966

  7. Sensitivity of streamflows to hydroclimatic fluctuations: resilience and regime shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, Gianluca; Basso, Stefano; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Landscape and climate alterations foreshadow global-scale shifts of river flow regimes. However, a theory that identifies the range of foreseen impacts on streamflows resulting from inhomogeneous forcings and sensitivity gradients across diverse regimes is lacking. In this contribution, we use a dimensionless index embedding simple climate and landscape attributes (the ratio of the mean interarrival of streamflow-producing rainfall events and the mean catchment response time) to discriminate erratic regimes with enhanced intra-seasonal streamflow variability from persistent regimes endowed with regular flow patterns. The proposed classification is successfully applied to 110 seasonal streamflow distributions observed in 44 catchments of the Alps and the United States, allowing the identification of emerging patterns in space and time. In the same framework, the impact of multi-scale fluctuations of the underlying climatic drivers (temperature, precipitation) on the streamflow distributions can be analyzed. Theoretical and empirical data show that erratic regimes, typical of rivers with low mean discharges, are highly resilient in that they hold a reduced sensitivity to variations in the external forcing. Specific temporal trajectories of streamflow distributions and flow regime shifts driven by land-cover change and rainfall patterns can be also evidenced. The approach developed offers an objective basis for the analysis and prediction of the impact of climate/landscape change on water resources.

  8. Common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume alteration in major depression and bipolar disorder : evidence from voxel-based meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wise, T; Radua, J; Via, E; Cardoner, N; Abe, O; Adams, T M; Amico, F; Cheng, Y; Cole, J H; de Azevedo Marques Périco, C; Dickstein, D P; Farrow, T F D; Frodl, T; Wagner, G; Gotlib, I H; Gruber, O; Ham, B J; Job, D E; Kempton, M J; Kim, M J; Koolschijn, P C M P; Malhi, G S; Mataix-Cols, D; McIntosh, A M; Nugent, A C; O'Brien, J T; Pezzoli, S; Phillips, M L; Sachdev, P S; Salvadore, G; Selvaraj, S; Stanfield, A C; Thomas, A J; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J A; Veltman, D J; Young, A H; Fu, C H; Cleare, A J; Arnone, D

    2016-01-01

    Finding robust brain substrates of mood disorders is an important target for research. The degree to which major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with common and/or distinct patterns of volumetric changes is nevertheless unclear. Furthermore, the extant literature is heterog

  9. Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rogerson

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations This paper studies a two sector real business cycle model in which the sectors experience different trend rates of growth and labor mobility is costly. Predictions are derived concerning the correlation between sectoral reallocation of workers and the cycle. This correlation may be positive or negative depending upon whether the growing sector displays larger or smaller fluctuations than the shrinking sector. The post- World War II period has witnessed two major patterns of sectoral change in industrialized countries: movement out of agriculture and movement out of the industrial sector. The model's basic prediction is shown to be consistent with the observed pattern of reallocation.

  10. Coupling age-structured stock assessment and fish bioenergetics models: a system of time-varying models for quantifying piscivory patterns during the rapid trophic shift in the main basin of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji X.; Bence, James R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Dobiesz, Norine E.; Fielder, David G.; Johnson, James E.; Ebener, Mark P.; Cottrill, Adam R.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Koproski, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified piscivory patterns in the main basin of Lake Huron during 1984–2010 and found that the biomass transfer from prey fish to piscivores remained consistently high despite the rapid major trophic shift in the food webs. We coupled age-structured stock assessment models and fish bioenergetics models for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). The model system also included time-varying parameters or variables of growth, length–mass relations, maturity schedules, energy density, and diets. These time-varying models reflected the dynamic connections that a fish cohort responded to year-to-year ecosystem changes at different ages and body sizes. We found that the ratio of annual predation by lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye combined with the biomass indices of age-1 and older alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) increased more than tenfold during 1987–2010, and such increases in predation pressure were structured by relatively stable biomass of the three piscivores and stepwise declines in the biomass of alewives and rainbow smelt. The piscivore stability was supported by the use of alternative energy pathways and changes in relative composition of the three piscivores. In addition, lake whitefish became a new piscivore by feeding on round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Their total fish consumption rivaled that of the other piscivores combined, although fish were still a modest proportion of their diet. Overall, the use of alternative energy pathways by piscivores allowed the increases in predation pressure on dominant diet species.

  11. Exercise, energy balance and the shift worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don

    2008-01-01

    Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst 'white collar' occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality in shift workers have not been confirmed. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. 'Normal' eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of physical

  12. Parasite zoonoses and climate change: molecular tools for tracking shifting boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Lydden; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-06-01

    For human, domestic animal and wildlife health, key effects of directional climate change include the risk of the altered occurrence of infectious diseases. Many parasite zoonoses have high potential for vulnerability to the new climate, in part because their free-living life-cycle stages and ectothermic hosts are directly exposed to climatic conditions. For these zoonoses, climate change can shift boundaries for ecosystem components and processes integral to parasite transmission and persistence, and these shifts can impact host health. Vulnerable boundaries include those for spatial distributions, host-parasite assemblages, demographic rates, life-cycle phenologies, associations within ecosystems, virulence, and patterns of infection and disease. This review describes these boundary shifts and how molecular techniques can be applied to defining the new boundaries. PMID:19428303

  13. The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter sequence alters the level and patterns of activity of adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuelian; Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Duan, Hui; Chen, Yongqin; McAvoy, Richard; Song, Shuiqing; Pei, Yan; Li, Yi

    2007-08-01

    Here we report the effect of the 35S promoter sequence on activities of the tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters in tobacco plants. In the absence of the 35S promoter sequence the AAP2 promoter is active only in vascular tissues as indicated by expression of the AAP2:GUS gene. With the 35S promoter sequence in the same T-plasmid, transgenic plants exhibit twofold to fivefold increase in AAP2 promoter activity and the promoter becomes active in all tissue types. Transgenic plants hosting the ovary-specific AGL5:iaaM gene (iaaM coding an auxin biosynthetic gene) showed a wild-type phenotype except production of seedless fruits, whereas plants hosting the AGL5:iaaM gene along with the 35S promoter sequence showed drastic morphological alterations. RT-PCR analysis confirms that the phenotype was caused by activation of the AGL5:iaaM gene in non-ovary organs including roots, stems and flowers. When the pollen-, ovule- and early embryo-specific PAB5:barnase gene (barnase coding a RNase gene) was transformed, the presence of 35S promoter sequence drastically reduced transformation efficiencies. However, the transformation efficiencies were restored in the absence of 35S promoter, indicating that the 35S promoter might activate the expression of PAB5:barnase in non-reproductive organs such as calli and shoot primordia. Furthermore, if the 35S promoter sequence was replaced with the NOS promoter sequence, no alteration in AAP2, AGL5 or PAB5 promoter activities was observed. Our results demonstrate that the 35S promoter sequence can convert an adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoter into a globally active promoter. PMID:17340093

  14. Wnt Signaling Alteration in the Spinal Cord of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Transgenic Mice: Special Focus on Frizzled-5 Cellular Expression Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Carlos; Mancuso, Renzo; del Valle, Jaume; Navarro, Xavier; Rodríguez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive paralysis due to degeneration of motor neurons by unknown causes. Recent evidence shows that Wnt signaling is involved in neurodegenerative processes, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. However, to date, little is known regarding the expression of Wnt signaling components in this fatal condition. In the present study we used transgenic SOD1G93A mice to evaluate the expression of several Wnt signaling components, with special focus on Frizzled-5 cellular expression alteration along disease progression. Findings Based on previous studies demonstrating the expression of Wnts and their transcriptional regulation during Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis development, we have analyzed the mRNA expression of several Wnt signaling components in the spinal cord of SOD1G93A transgenic mice at different stages of the disease by using real time quantitative PCR analysis. Strikingly, one of the molecules that seemed not to be altered at mRNA level, Frizzled-5, showed a clear up-regulation at late stages in neurons, as evidenced by immunofluorescence assays. Moreover, increased Frizzled-5 appears to correlate with a decrease in NeuN signal in these cells, suggesting a correlation between neuronal affectation and the increased expression of this receptor. Conclusions Our data suggest the involvement of Wnt signaling pathways in the pathophysiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and, more specifically, the implication of Frizzled-5 receptor in the response of neuronal cells against neurodegeneration. Nevertheless, further experimental studies are needed to shed light on the specific role of Frizzled-5 and the emerging but increasing Wnt family of proteins research field as a potential target for this neuropathology. PMID:27192435

  15. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: Within-subject variation in male airline pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Summary We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking + 30 m, waking + 2.5 h, waking + 8 h, waking + 12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1–6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CARi), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUCG) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days. PMID:22877997

  16. Sofic Tree-Shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Aubrun, Nathalie; Béal, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of sofic tree-shifts which corresponds to symbolic dynamical systems of infinite ranked trees accepted by finite tree automata. We show that, contrary to shifts of infinite sequences, there is no unique reduced deterministic irreducible tree automaton accepting an irreducible sofic tree-shift, but that there is a unique synchronized one, called the Fischer automaton of the tree-shift. We define the notion of almost of finite type tree-shift which are sofic tree-shifts accepted...

  17. Hybridization between Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Rainbow Trout Alters the Expression of Muscle Growth-Related Genes and Their Relationships with Growth Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl O Ostberg

    Full Text Available Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout. Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  18. Altered DNA methylation patterns of the H19 differentially methylated region and the DAZL gene promoter are associated with defective human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation disturbance is associated with defective human sperm. However, oligozoospermia (OZ and asthenozoospermia (AZ usually present together, and the relationship between the single-phenotype defects in human sperm and DNA methylation is poorly understood. In this study, 20 infertile OZ patients and 20 infertile AZ patients were compared with 20 fertile normozoospermic men. Bisulfate-specific PCR was used to analyze DNA methylation of the H19-DMR and the DAZL promoter in these subjects. A similar DNA methylation pattern of the H19-DMR was detected in AZ and NZ(control, with only complete methylation and mild hypomethylation(0.05. However, the methylation pattern of severe hypomethylation (>50% unmethylated CpGs and complete unmethylation was only detected in 5 OZ patients, and the occurrence of these two methylation patterns was 8.54±10.86% and 9±6.06%, respectively. Loss of DNA methylation of the H19-DMR in the OZ patients was found to mainly occur in CTCF-binding site 6, with occurrence of 18.15±14.71%, which was much higher than that in patients with NZ (0.84±2.05% and AZ (0.58±1.77% (P20% methylated clones in the DAZL promoter only in infertile patients, there was no significant difference between the AZ and OZ patients in the proportion of moderately-to-severely hypermethylated clones (p>0.05. In all cases, global sperm genome methylation analyses, using LINE1 transposon as the indicator, showed that dysregulation of DNA methylation is specifically associated with the H19-DMR and DAZL promoter. Therefore, abnormal DNA methylation status of H19-DMR, especially at the CTCF-binding site 6, is closely associated with OZ. Abnormal DNA methylation of the DAZL promoter might represent an epigenetic marker of male infertility.

  19. Foliar sprays of citric acid and salicylic acid alter the pattern of root acquisition of some minerals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazijahani, Noushin; Hadavi, Ebrahim; Jeong, Byoung R

    2014-01-01

    The effect of foliar application of two levels of citric acid (CA; 0 and 7 mM) and two levels of salicylic acid (SA; 0 and 1 mM) combined with two levels of nutrient solution strength (full strength and half strength) on mineral acquisition by sweet basil were investigated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design arrangement with three replications. SA alone reduced the plant height and thickened the stem. Plants supplied with a full strength solution had a ticker stem, produced more biomass, and showed higher values of Fv/Fm. Some changes in the uptake pattern of some nutrients, especially boron and sulfur, were noticed. Higher boron concentrations in leaves were in plants sprayed with a combination of 7 mM CA and 1 mM of SA. Applying combination of CA and SA was more effective than using them individually that suggests an effective synergism between them. PMID:25400645

  20. Foliar sprays of citric acid and salicylic acid alter the pattern of root acquisition of some minerals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin eGhazijahani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar application of two levels of citric acid (0 and 7 mM and two levels of salicylic acid (0 and 1mM combined with two levels of nutrient solution strength (full strength and half strength on mineral acquisition by sweet basil were investigated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design arrangement with three replications. Salicylic acid alone reduced the plant height and thickened the stem. Plants supplied with a full strength solution had a ticker stem, produced more biomass, and showed higher values of Fv/Fm. Some changes in the uptake pattern of some nutrients, especially boron and sulfur, were noticed. Higher boron concentrations in leaves were in plants sprayed with a combination of 7 mM citric acid and 1 mM of salicylic acid. Applying combination of citric acid and salicylic acid was more effective than using them individually that suggests an effective synergism between them.

  1. Inactivation of ca10a and ca10b Genes Leads to Abnormal Embryonic Development and Alters Movement Pattern in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Aspatwar

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs X and XI are highly conserved across species and are predominantly expressed in neural tissues. The biological role of these proteins is still an enigma. Ray-finned fish have lost the CA11 gene, but instead possess two co-orthologs of CA10. We analyzed the expression pattern of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes during embryonic development and in different adult tissues, and studied 61 CARP X/XI-like sequences to evaluate their phylogenetic relationship. Sequence analysis of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b reveals strongly predicted signal peptides, N-glycosylation sites, and a potential disulfide, all of which are conserved, suggesting that all of CARP X and XI are secretory proteins and potentially dimeric. RT-qPCR showed that zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes are expressed in the brain and several other tissues throughout the development of zebrafish. Antisense morpholino mediated knockdown of ca10a and ca10b showed developmental delay with a high rate of mortality in larvae. Zebrafish morphants showed curved body, pericardial edema, and abnormalities in the head and eye, and there was increased apoptotic cell death in the brain region. Swim pattern showed abnormal movement in morphant zebrafish larvae compared to the wild type larvae. The developmental phenotypes of the ca10a and ca10b morphants were confirmed by inactivating these genes with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In conclusion, we introduce a novel zebrafish model to investigate the mechanisms of CARP Xa and CARP Xb functions. Our data indicate that CARP Xa and CARP Xb have important roles in zebrafish development and suppression of ca10a and ca10b expression in zebrafish larvae leads to a movement disorder.

  2. Sperm DNA methylation analysis in swine reveals conserved and species-specific methylation patterns and highlights an altered methylation at the GNAS locus in infertile boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congras, Annabelle; Yerle-Bouissou, Martine; Pinton, Alain; Vignoles, Florence; Liaubet, Laurence; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Acloque, Hervé

    2014-12-01

    Male infertility is an increasing health issue in today's society for both human and livestock populations. In livestock, male infertility slows the improvement of animal selection programs and agricultural productivity. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic marks play an important role in the production of good-quality sperm. We therefore screened for specific or common epigenetic signatures of livestock infertility. To do so, we compared DNA methylation level in sperm DNA from fertile and infertile boars. We evaluated first the global level of sperm DNA methylation and found no difference between the two groups of boars. We then selected 42 loci of interest, most of them known to be imprinted in human or mice, and assessed the imprinting status of five of them not previously described in swine tissues: WT1, CNTN3, IMPACT, QPCT, and GRB10. DNA methylation level was then quantified in fertile and infertile boars at these 42 loci. Results from fertile boars indicated that the methylation level of the selected loci is highly conserved between pig, human, and mice, with a few exceptions, including the POU5F1 (OCT4) promoter and RTL1. Comparison between fertile and infertile boars revealed that one imprinted region, the GNAS locus, shows an increase in sperm DNA methylation in three out of eight infertile boars with low semen quality. This increase in DNA methylation is associated with an altered expression of the genes belonging to the GNAS locus, suggesting a new role for GNAS in the proper formation of functional gametes. PMID:25320151

  3. Increased dopamine D2 receptor activity in the striatum alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Sabine; Duda, Johanna; Schiemann, Julia; Poetschke, Christina; Schneider, Gaby; Kandel, Eric R.; Liss, Birgit; Roeper, Jochen; Simpson, Eleanor H.

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that the core deficits of schizophrenia result from dysfunction of the dopamine (DA) system, but details of this dysfunction remain unclear. We previously reported a model of transgenic mice that selectively and reversibly overexpress DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum (D2R-OE mice). D2R-OE mice display deficits in cognition and motivation that are strikingly similar to the deficits in cognition and motivation observed in patients with schizophrenia. Here, we show that in vivo, both the firing rate (tonic activity) and burst firing (phasic activity) of identified midbrain DA neurons are impaired in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not in the substantia nigra (SN), of D2R-OE mice. Normalizing striatal D2R activity by switching off the transgene in adulthood recovered the reduction in tonic activity of VTA DA neurons, which is concordant with the rescue in motivation that we previously reported in our model. On the other hand, the reduction in burst activity was not rescued, which may be reflected in the observed persistence of cognitive deficits in D2R-OE mice. We have identified a potential molecular mechanism for the altered activity of DA VTA neurons in D2R-OE mice: a reduction in the expression of distinct NMDA receptor subunits selectively in identified mesolimbic DA VTA, but not nigrostriatal DA SN, neurons. These results suggest that functional deficits relevant for schizophrenia symptoms may involve differential regulation of selective DA pathways. PMID:25675529

  4. Alterations to dendritic spine morphology, but not dendrite patterning, of cortical projection neurons in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse models of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda A Haas

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is a highly prevalent developmental disorder, affecting 1/700 births. Intellectual disability, which affects learning and memory, is present in all cases and is reflected by below average IQ. We sought to determine whether defective morphology and connectivity in neurons of the cerebral cortex may underlie the cognitive deficits that have been described in two mouse models of DS, the Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse lines. We utilised in utero electroporation to label a cohort of future upper layer projection neurons in the cerebral cortex of developing mouse embryos with GFP, and then examined neuronal positioning and morphology in early adulthood, which revealed no alterations in cortical layer position or morphology in either Tc1 or Ts1Rhr mouse cortex. The number of dendrites, as well as dendrite length and branching was normal in both DS models, compared with wildtype controls. The sites of projection neuron synaptic inputs, dendritic spines, were analysed in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr cortex at three weeks and three months after birth, and significant changes in spine morphology were observed in both mouse lines. Ts1Rhr mice had significantly fewer thin spines at three weeks of age. At three months of age Tc1 mice had significantly fewer mushroom spines--the morphology associated with established synaptic inputs and learning and memory. The decrease in mushroom spines was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of stubby spines. This data suggests that dendritic spine abnormalities may be a more important contributor to cognitive deficits in DS models, rather than overall neuronal architecture defects.

  5. One-Class Support Vector Machines Identify the Language and Default Mode Regions As Common Patterns of Structural Alterations in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retico, Alessandra; Gori, Ilaria; Giuliano, Alessia; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The identification of reliable brain endophenotypes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been hampered to date by the heterogeneity in the neuroanatomical abnormalities detected in this condition. To handle the complexity of neuroimaging data and to convert brain images in informative biomarkers of pathology, multivariate analysis techniques based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been widely used in several disease conditions. They are usually trained to distinguish patients from healthy control subjects by making a binary classification. Here, we propose the use of the One-Class Classification (OCC) or Data Description method that, in contrast to two-class classification, is based on a description of one class of objects only. This approach, by defining a multivariate normative rule on one class of subjects, allows recognizing examples from a different category as outliers. We applied the OCC to 314 regional features extracted from brain structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of young children with ASD (21 males and 20 females) and control subjects (20 males and 20 females), matched on age [range: 22-72 months of age; mean = 49 months] and non-verbal intelligence quotient (NVIQ) [range: 31-123; mean = 73]. We demonstrated that a common pattern of features characterize the ASD population. The OCC SVM trained on the group of ASD subjects showed the following performances in the ASD vs. controls separation: the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.74 for the male and 0.68 for the female population, respectively. Notably, the ASD vs. controls discrimination results were maximized when evaluated on the subsamples of subjects with NVIQ ≥ 70, leading to AUC = 0.81 for the male and AUC = 0.72 for the female populations, respectively. Language regions and regions from the default mode network-posterior cingulate cortex, pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and transverse temporal gyrus

  6. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05 and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05. When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.

  7. Ablation of connexin30 in transgenic mice alters expression patterns of connexin26 and connexin32 in glial cells and leptomeninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, B D; Tress, O; May, D; Willecke, K; Nagy, J I

    2011-12-01

    Expression of connexin26 (Cx26), Cx30 and Cx43 in astrocytes and expression of Cx29, Cx32 and Cx47 in oligodendrocytes of adult rodent brain has been well documented, as has the interdependence of connexin expression patterns of macroglial cells in Cx32- and Cx47-knockout mice. To investigate this interdependence further, we examined immunofluorescence labelling of glial connexins in transgenic Cx30 null mice. Ablation of astrocytic Cx30, confirmed by the absence of immunolabelling for this connexin in all brain regions, resulted in the loss of its coupling partner Cx32 on the oligodendrocyte side of astrocyte-oligodendrocyte (A/O) gap junctions, but had no effect on the localization of astrocytic Cx43 and oligodendrocytic Cx47 at these junctions or on the distribution of Cx32 along myelinated fibres. Surprisingly, gene deletion of Cx30 led to the near total elimination of immunofluorescence labelling for Cx26 in all leptomeningeal tissues covering brain surfaces as well as in astrocytes of brain parenchyma. Moreover northern blot analysis revealed downregulation of Cx26 mRNA in Cx30-knockout brains. Our results support earlier observations on the interdependency of Cx30/Cx32 targeting to A/O gap junctions and further suggest that Cx26 mRNA expression is affected by Cx30 gene expression. In addition, Cx30 protein may be required for co-stabilization of gap junctions or for co-trafficking in cells. PMID:22098503

  8. Induction of chromosome instability and stomach cancer by altering the expression pattern of mitotic checkpoint genes in mice exposed to areca-nut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are strong indications for a causal association between areca-nut consumption and cancers. In Meghalaya, India, the variety of areca-nut is used as raw and unprocessed form whose chemical composition and pharmacological actions have been reported. Yet we know little on the initial pathway involved in areca-nut associated carcinogenesis since it is difficult to assess its effects on genetic alterations without interference of other compounding factors. Therefore, present study was undertaken in mice to verify the ability of raw areca-nut (RAN) to induce cancer and to monitor the expression of certain genes involved in carcinogenesis. This study was not intended to isolate any active ingredients from the RAN and to look its action. Three groups of mice (n = 25 in each) were taken and used at different time-points for different experimental analysis. The other three groups of mice (n = 15 in each) were considered for tumor induction studies. In each set, two groups were administered RAN-extract ad libitum in drinking water with or without lime. The expression of certain genes was assessed by conventional RT-PCR and immunoblotting. The mice were given the whole RAN-extract with and without lime in order to mimic the human consumption style of RAN. Histological preparation of stomach tissue revealed that RAN induced stomach cancer. A gradual increase in the frequency of precocious anaphase and aneuploid cells was observed in the bone marrow cells with a greater increment following RAN + lime administeration. Levels of p53, Bax, Securin and p65 in esophageal and stomach cells were elevated during early days of RAN exposure while those of different mitotic checkpoint proteins were downregulated. Apoptotic cell death was detected in non-cancerous stomach cells but not in tumor cells which showed overexpression of Bax and absence of PARP. Present study suggested (a) RAN induces stomach cancer, however, presence of lime promoted higher cell transformation and thereby

  9. Altered pattern of spontaneous brain activity in the patients with end-stage renal disease: a resting-state functional MRI study with regional homogeneity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Liang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the pattern of spontaneous neural activity in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD with and without neurocognitive dysfunction using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI with a regional homogeneity (ReHo algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: rs-fMRI data were acquired in 36 ESRD patients (minimal nephro-encephalopathy [MNE], n = 19, 13 male, 37±12.07 years; non-nephro-encephalopathy [non-NE], n = 17, 11 male, 38±12.13 years and 20 healthy controls (13 male, 7 female, 36±10.27 years. Neuropsychological (number connection test type A [NCT-A], digit symbol test [DST] and laboratory tests were performed in all patients. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC was used to measure the regional homogeneity for each subject. The regional homogeneity maps were compared using ANOVA tests among MNE, non-NE, and healthy control groups and post hoc t -tests between each pair in a voxel-wise way. A multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between ReHo index and NCT-A, DST scores, serum creatinine and urea levels, disease and dialysis duration. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, both MNE and non-NE patients showed decreased ReHo in the multiple areas of bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. Compared with the non-NE, MNE patients showed decreased ReHo in the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL, medial frontal cortex (MFC and left precuneus (PCu. The NCT-A scores and serum urea levels of ESRD patients negatively correlated with ReHo values in the frontal and parietal lobes, while DST scores positively correlated with ReHo values in the bilateral PCC/precuneus, MFC and inferior parietal lobe (IPL (all P0.05, AlphaSim corrected. CONCLUSION: Diffused decreased ReHo values were found in both MNE and non-NE patients. The progressively decreased ReHo in the default mode network (DMN, frontal and parietal lobes might be trait-related in MNE. The Re

  10. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  11. Shift Work and Child Behavioral Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2008-01-01

    Using a large, contemporary U.S. dataset, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Child Supplement, this paper explores the relationship between maternal shift work and the behavioral outcomes of children aged 4 to 10. Special attention was given to subgroups of children (e.g., based on family type, family income, and mother’s occupation and working hours) and the patterns of parental work schedules and work hours. Regression results suggest that maternal shift work may contribute to more b...

  12. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  13. Quantized beam shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kort-Kamp, W J M; Dalvit, D A R

    2015-01-01

    We predict quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-H\\"anchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, while the Goos- H\\"anchen ones in multiples of $\\alpha^2$. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  14. Tensor GSVD of patient- and platform-matched tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles uncovers chromosome arm-wide patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent alterations encoding for cell transformation and predicting ovarian cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E; Aiello, Katherine A; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq, PABPC5

  15. Tensor GSVD of patient- and platform-matched tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles uncovers chromosome arm-wide patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent alterations encoding for cell transformation and predicting ovarian cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD, which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs. We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival

  16. Alteration of introns in a hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1 minigene convert Pre-mRNA [corrected] splicing to the aberrant pattern in multiple myeloma (MM: MM patients harbor similar changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitra Kriangkum

    Full Text Available Aberrant pre-mRNA splice variants of hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1 have been identified in malignant cells from cancer patients. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that intronic sequence changes can underlie aberrant splicing. Deletions and mutations were introduced into HAS1 minigene constructs to identify regions that can influence aberrant intronic splicing, comparing the splicing pattern in transfectants with that in multiple myeloma (MM patients. Introduced genetic variations in introns 3 and 4 of HAS1 as shown here can promote aberrant splicing of the type detected in malignant cells from MM patients. HAS1Vd is a novel intronic splice variant first identified here. HAS1Vb, an intronic splice variant previously identified in patients, skips exon 4 and utilizes the same intron 4 alternative 3'splice site as HAS1Vd. For transfected constructs with unaltered introns 3 and 4, HAS1Vd transcripts are readily detectable, frequently to the exclusion of HAS1Vb. In contrast, in MM patients, HAS1Vb is more frequent than HAS1Vd. In the HAS1 minigene, combining deletion in intron 4 with mutations in intron 3 leads to a shift from HAS1Vd expression to HAS1Vb expression. The upregulation of aberrant splicing, exemplified here by the expression of HAS1Vb, is shown here to be influenced by multiple genetic changes in intronic sequences. For HAS1Vb, this includes enhanced exon 4 skipping and increased usage of alternative 3' splice sites. Thus, the combination of introduced mutations in HAS1 intron3 with introduced deletions in HAS1 intron 4 promoted a shift to an aberrant splicing pattern previously shown to be clinically significant. Most MM patients harbor genetic variations in intron 4, and as shown here, nearly half harbor recurrent mutations in HAS1 intron 3. Our work suggests that aberrant intronic HAS1 splicing in MM patients may rely on intronic HAS1 deletions and mutations that are frequent in MM patients but absent from healthy donors.

  17. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  18. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  19. Albedo and land surface temperature shift in hydrocarbon seepage potential area, case study in Miri Sarawak Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of hydrocarbon seepage is generally associated with rock or mineral alteration product exposures, and changes of soil properties which manifest with bare development and stress vegetation. This alters the surface thermodynamic properties, changes the energy balance related to the surface reflection, absorption and emission, and leads to shift in albedo and LST. Those phenomena may provide a guide for seepage detection which can be recognized inexpensively by remote sensing method. District of Miri is used for study area. Available topographic maps of Miri and LANDSAT ETM+ were used for boundary construction and determination albedo and LST. Three land use classification methods, namely fixed, supervised and NDVI base classifications were employed for this study. By the intensive land use classification and corresponding statistical comparison was found a clearly shift on albedo and land surface temperature between internal and external seepage potential area. The shift shows a regular pattern related to vegetation density or NDVI value. In the low vegetation density or low NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to lower value than external area. Conversely in the high vegetation density or high NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to higher value than external area. Land surface temperature of internal seepage potential was generally shifted to higher value than external area in all of land use classes. In dense vegetation area tend to shift the temperature more than poor vegetation area

  20. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem. PMID:21808092

  1. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Canuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status, socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift, and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2. The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2, followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64, workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93 and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73. CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  2. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  3. Developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin may alter LH release patterns by abolishing sex differences in GABA/glutamate cell number and modifying the transcriptome of the male anteroventral periventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino Sans, Javier; Clements, Kelsey J; Suvorov, Alexander; Krishnan, Sudha; Adams, Hillary L; Petersen, Sandra L

    2016-08-01

    Developmental exposure to arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands abolishes sex differences in a wide range of neural structures and functions. A well-studied example is the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a structure that controls sex-specific luteinizing hormone (LH) release. In the male, testosterone (T) secreted by the developing testes defeminizes LH release mechanisms; conversely, perinatal AhR activation by 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) blocks defeminization. To better understand developmental mechanisms altered by TCDD exposure, we first verified that neonatal TCDD exposure in male rats prevented the loss of AVPV GABA/glutamate neurons that are critical for female-typical LH surge release. We then used whole genome arrays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to compare AVPV transcriptomes of males treated neonatally with TCDD or vehicle. Our bioinformatics analyses showed that TCDD enriched gene sets important for neuron development, synaptic transmission, ion homeostasis, and cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, upstream regulatory analysis suggests that both estrogen receptors (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) regulate genes targeted by TCDD. Of the 23 mRNAs found to be changed by TCDD at least 2-fold (pbrain. These findings provide new insights into how TCDD may interfere with defeminization of LH release patterns. PMID:27185484

  4. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Paprocki

    Full Text Available Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1 and 7.74 km yr(-1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally

  5. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  6. Revealing alteration of membrane structures during ischema using impedance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Gheorghiu

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of membrane structure and function are essential characteristics of cells undergoing ischemia. Noninvasive monitoring of tissue alterations during ischemia and the estimation of the reversibility domain (corresponding to organ capability to fully recover its functions after shifting back to normal blood perfusion are important for biomedical applications allowing better time management during surgical interventions, especially in organ transplantation. Due to it’s capability to reveal inhomogeneities, as well as it’s noninvasive character, impedance spectroscopy was used for continuous monitoring of the progression of excised tissue samples during ischemia. We have developed a fast, noninvasive, automated method for quantitative analysis of impedance spectra of tissue samples, capable of revealing, through characteristic parameters (dispersion amplitudes, time constants and distribution parameters membrane based microscopic processes like the closure ofgap-junctions (a characteristic of the early alterations of ischemic tissues in the reversibility phase. Microscopic and equivalent circuit modeling was used to probe the effect of closure of cell connections and of changes in electrical properties of cell constituents on impedance spectra. We have developed a normalizing procedure emphasizing the pattern of ischemic alterations and enabling the comparison of different data sets.

  7. Protein Chemical Shift Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

  8. Absorption driven focus shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  9. Shifting tolerance for multilayer collinear holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinqiu; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2014-09-01

    The shifting tolerance of the collinear holographic data storage system is discussed considering its influences on the quality of the reconstructed data pages and the precision of the holographic disk actuator. The diffractive efficiencies with shifting along the x-axis and the z-axis are calculated respectively based on the bit error rates of the reconstructed data pages. The numerical aperture of the objective lens and the recording wavelength show different impacts on the shifting tolerance and the storage density. The orthogonal reference pattern shift multiplexing method is investigated. It is proved that the method could improve the data storage density by keeping the shifting tolerance.

  10. Addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy alters failure patterns by cell type within non-small cell carcinoma of lung (NSCCL): analysis of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of cell type within non-small cell carcinoma of lung (NSCCL) on failure patterns when chemotherapy (CT) is combined with radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Data from 4 RTOG studies including 1415 patients treated with RT alone, and 5 RTOG studies including 350 patients also treated with chemotherapy (RT + CT) were analyzed. Patterns of progression were evaluated for squamous cell carcinoma (SQ) (n = 946), adenocarcinoma (AD) (n = 532) and large cell carcinoma (LC) (n = 287). Results: When treated with RT alone, SQ was more likely to progress at the primary site than LC (26% vs. 20%, p = 0.05). AD and LC were more likely to progress in the brain than SQ (20% and 18% vs. 11%, p = 0.0001 and 0.011, respectively). No differences were found in intrathoracic and distant metastasis by cell type. When treated with RT + CT, AD was less likely to progress at the primary than either SQ or LC (23% vs. 34% and 40%, respectively; p = 0.057 and 0.035). AD was more likely than SQ to metastasize to the brain (16% vs. 8%, p = 0.03), and other distant sites (26% vs. 14%, p = 0.019). No differences were found in intrathoracic metastasis. LC progressed at the primary site more often with RT + CT than with RT alone (40% vs. 20%, p = 0.036). Death with no clinical progression was more likely with SQ than AD or LC for RT alone and RT + CT (p < 0.01). Brain metastasis was altered little by the addition of CT, but other distant metastases were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in all cell types by the addition of CT. Conclusion: CT, although effective in reducing distant metastasis in all types of NSCCL, has different effects on the primary tumor by cell type, and has no effect on brain metastasis or death with no progression. Different treatment strategies should be considered for the different cell types to advance progress with RT + CT in NSCCL

  11. A Shift of Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Administrative reforms are shifting prefecture government powers to the county level in an effort to boost local economies on July 8, the government of China’s southernmost Hainan Province announced that it was to hand over 177 of its administrative powers to county-level governments. The move practically dismantled the powers of the

  12. Shift work and circadian dysregulation of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Gamble

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Health impairments, including reproductive issues, are associated with working nights or rotating shifts. For example, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, endometriosis, infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight or pre-term delivery, and reduced incidence of breastfeeding. Based on what is known about circadian regulation of endocrine rhythms in rodents (and much less in humans, the circadian clock is an integral regulatory part of the reproductive system. When this 24-h program is disordered by environmental perturbation (such as shift work or genetic alterations, the endocrine system can be impaired. The purpose of this review is to explore the hypothesis that misalignment of reproductive hormones with the environmental light-dark cycle and/or sleep wake rhythms can disrupt menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and parturition. We highlight the role of the circadian clock in regulating human reproductive physiology and shift work-induced pathology within each step of the reproductive axis while exploring potential mechanisms from the animal model literature. In addition to documenting the reproductive hazards of shift work, we also point out important gaps in our knowledge as critical areas for future investigation. For example, future studies should examine whether forced desynchronization disrupts gonadotropin secretion rhythms and whether there are sleep/wake schedules that are better or worse for the adaptation of the reproductive system to shift work. These studies are necessary in order to define not only whether or not shift-work induced circadian misalignment impairs reproductive capacity, but also to identify strategies for the future that can minimize this desynchronization.

  13. Shift work and circadian dysregulation of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Karen L; Resuehr, David; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-01-01

    Health impairments, including reproductive issues, are associated with working nights or rotating shifts. For example, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, endometriosis, infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight or pre-term delivery, and reduced incidence of breastfeeding. Based on what is known about circadian regulation of endocrine rhythms in rodents (and much less in humans), the circadian clock is an integral regulatory part of the reproductive system. When this 24-h program is disordered by environmental perturbation (such as shift work) or genetic alterations, the endocrine system can be impaired. The purpose of this review is to explore the hypothesis that misalignment of reproductive hormones with the environmental light-dark cycle and/or sleep-wake rhythms can disrupt menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and parturition. We highlight the role of the circadian clock in regulating human reproductive physiology and shift work-induced pathology within each step of the reproductive axis while exploring potential mechanisms from the animal model literature. In addition to documenting the reproductive hazards of shift work, we also point out important gaps in our knowledge as critical areas for future investigation. For example, future studies should examine whether forced desynchronization disrupts gonadotropin secretion rhythms and whether there are sleep/wake schedules that are better or worse for the adaptation of the reproductive system to shift work. These studies are necessary in order to define not only whether or not shift work-induced circadian misalignment impairs reproductive capacity, but also to identify strategies for the future that can minimize this desynchronization. PMID:23966978

  14. New shifted hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario is introduced which, in contrast to the older one, relies only on renormalizable superpotential terms. This scenario is automatically realized in a concrete extension of the 'minimal' supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which naturally leads to a moderate violation of Yukawa unification so that, for μ>0, the predicted b-quark mass is acceptable even with universal boundary conditions. It is shown that this extended model possesses a classically flat 'shifted' trajectory which acquires a slope via one-loop radiative corrections and can be used as inflationary path. The constraints from the cosmic background explorer can be met with natural values of the relevant parameters. Also, there is no disastrous production of magnetic monopoles after inflation since the Pati-Salam gauge group is already broken on the 'shifted' path. The relevant part of inflation takes place at values of the inflaton field which are not much smaller than the 'reduced' Planck scale and, thus, supergravity corrections could easily invalidate inflation. It is, however, shown that inflation can be kept intact provided that an extra gauge singlet with a superheavy vacuum expectation value, which originates from D-terms, is introduced and a specific form of the Kaehler potential is used. Moreover, it is found that, although the supergravity corrections are sizable, the constraints from the cosmic background explorer can again be met by readjusting the values of the parameters which were obtained with global supersymmetry. (author)

  15. Modelling Vulnerability and Range Shifts in Ant Communities Responding to Future Global Warming in Temperate Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Soo; Chun, Jung Hwa; Park, Young-Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is likely leading to species’ distributional shifts, resulting in changes in local community compositions and diversity patterns. In this study, we applied species distribution models to evaluate the potential impacts of temperature increase on ant communities in Korean temperate forests, by testing hypotheses that 1) the risk of extinction of forest ant species would increase over time, and 2) the changes in species distribution ranges could drive upward movements of ant communities and further alter patterns of species richness. We sampled ant communities at 335 evenly distributed sites across South Korea and modelled the future distribution range for each species using generalized additive models. To account for spatial autocorrelation, autocovariate regressions were conducted prior to generalized additive models. Among 29 common ant species, 12 species were estimated to shrink their suitable geographic areas, whereas five species would benefit from future global warming. Species richness was highest at low altitudes in the current period, and it was projected to be highest at the mid-altitudes in the 2080s, resulting in an upward movement of 4.9 m yr−1. This altered the altitudinal pattern of species richness from a monotonic-decrease curve (common in temperate regions) to a bell-shaped curve (common in tropical regions). Overall, ant communities in temperate forests are vulnerable to the on-going global warming and their altitudinal movements are similar to other faunal communities. PMID:27504632

  16. Modelling Vulnerability and Range Shifts in Ant Communities Responding to Future Global Warming in Temperate Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Sung; Li, Fengqing; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chun, Jung Hwa; Park, Young-Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is likely leading to species' distributional shifts, resulting in changes in local community compositions and diversity patterns. In this study, we applied species distribution models to evaluate the potential impacts of temperature increase on ant communities in Korean temperate forests, by testing hypotheses that 1) the risk of extinction of forest ant species would increase over time, and 2) the changes in species distribution ranges could drive upward movements of ant communities and further alter patterns of species richness. We sampled ant communities at 335 evenly distributed sites across South Korea and modelled the future distribution range for each species using generalized additive models. To account for spatial autocorrelation, autocovariate regressions were conducted prior to generalized additive models. Among 29 common ant species, 12 species were estimated to shrink their suitable geographic areas, whereas five species would benefit from future global warming. Species richness was highest at low altitudes in the current period, and it was projected to be highest at the mid-altitudes in the 2080s, resulting in an upward movement of 4.9 m yr-1. This altered the altitudinal pattern of species richness from a monotonic-decrease curve (common in temperate regions) to a bell-shaped curve (common in tropical regions). Overall, ant communities in temperate forests are vulnerable to the on-going global warming and their altitudinal movements are similar to other faunal communities. PMID:27504632

  17. Grape berry ripening delay induced by a pre-véraison NAA treatment is paralleled by a shift in the expression pattern of auxin- and ethylene-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliotto Fiorenza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auxins act as repressors of ripening inception in grape (véraison, while ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA play a positive role as inducers of the syndrome. Despite the increasing amount of information made available on this topic, the complex network of interactions among these hormones remains elusive. In order to shed light on these aspects, a holistic approach was adopted to evaluate, at the transcriptomic level, the crosstalk between hormones in grape berries, whose ripening progression was delayed by applying naphtalenacetic acid (NAA one week before véraison. Results The NAA treatment caused significant changes in the transcription rate of about 1,500 genes, indicating that auxin delayed grape berry ripening also at the transcriptional level, along with the recovery of a steady state of its intracellular concentration. Hormone indices analysis carried out with the HORMONOMETER tool suggests that biologically active concentrations of auxins were achieved throughout a homeostatic recovery. This occurred within 7 days after the treatment, during which the physiological response was mainly unspecific and due to a likely pharmacological effect of NAA. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the up-regulation of genes involved in auxin conjugation (GH3-like and action (IAA4- and IAA31-like. A strong antagonistic effect between auxin and ethylene was also observed, along with a substantial ‘synergism’ between auxins and ABA, although to a lesser extent. Conclusions This study suggests that, in presence of altered levels of auxins, the crosstalk between hormones involves diverse mechanisms, acting at both the hormone response and biosynthesis levels, creating a complex response network.

  18. Shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra and shifted Hurwitz numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan

    2016-05-01

    We construct the shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra, which is isomorphic to the central subalgebra A ∞ of infinite symmetric group algebra and to the shifted Schur symmetrical function algebra Λ* defined by Okounkov and Olshanskii. As an application, we get some differential equations for the generating functions of the shifted Hurwitz numbers; thus, we can express the generating functions in terms of the shifted genus expanded cut-and-join operators.

  19. Climate change induces shifts in abundance and activity pattern of bacteria and archaea catalyzing major transformation steps in nitrogen turnover in a soil from a mid-European beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Tejedor, Javier; Bimüller, Carolin; Bimueller, Carolin; Dannenmann, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Knabner, Ingrid Kögel; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing climate change will lead to more extreme weather events, including severe drought periods and intense drying rewetting cycles. This will directly influence microbial nitrogen (N) turnover rates in soil by changing the water content and the oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, a space for time climate change experiment was conducted by transferring intact beech seedling-soil mesocosms from a northwest (NW) exposed site, representing today's climatic conditions, to a southwest (SW) exposed site, providing a model climate for future conditions with naturally occurring increased soil temperature (+0.8°C in average). In addition, severe drought and intense rainfall was simulated by a rainout shelter at SW and manual rewetting after 39 days drought, respectively. Soil samples were taken in June, at the end of the drought period (August), 24 and 72 hours after rewetting (August) and after a regeneration period of four weeks (September). To follow dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities involved in N turnover, abundance and activity of nitrifiers, denitrifiers, N2-fixing microbes and N-mineralizers was analyzed based on marker genes and the related transcripts by qPCR from DNA and RNA directly extracted from soil. Abundance of the transcripts was reduced under climate change with most pronounced effects for denitrification. Our results revealed that already a transfer from NW to SW without further treatment resulted in decreased cnor and nosZ transcripts, encoding for nitric oxide reductase and nitrous oxide reductase, respectively, while nirK transcripts, encoding for nitrite reductase, remained unaffected. Severe drought additionally led to reduced nirK and cnor transcripts at SW. After rewetting, nirK transcripts increased rapidly at both sites, while cnor and nosZ transcripts increased only at NW. Our data indicate that the climate change influences activity pattern of microbial communities involved in denitrification processes to a different extend

  20. Climate change induces shifts in abundance and activity pattern of bacteria and archaea catalyzing major transformation steps in nitrogen turnover in a soil from a mid-European beech forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gschwendtner

    Full Text Available Ongoing climate change will lead to more extreme weather events, including severe drought periods and intense drying rewetting cycles. This will directly influence microbial nitrogen (N turnover rates in soil by changing the water content and the oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, a space for time climate change experiment was conducted by transferring intact beech seedling-soil mesocosms from a northwest (NW exposed site, representing today's climatic conditions, to a southwest (SW exposed site, providing a model climate for future conditions with naturally occurring increased soil temperature (+0.8°C in average. In addition, severe drought and intense rainfall was simulated by a rainout shelter at SW and manual rewetting after 39 days drought, respectively. Soil samples were taken in June, at the end of the drought period (August, 24 and 72 hours after rewetting (August and after a regeneration period of four weeks (September. To follow dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities involved in N turnover, abundance and activity of nitrifiers, denitrifiers, N2-fixing microbes and N-mineralizers was analyzed based on marker genes and the related transcripts by qPCR from DNA and RNA directly extracted from soil. Abundance of the transcripts was reduced under climate change with most pronounced effects for denitrification. Our results revealed that already a transfer from NW to SW without further treatment resulted in decreased cnor and nosZ transcripts, encoding for nitric oxide reductase and nitrous oxide reductase, respectively, while nirK transcripts, encoding for nitrite reductase, remained unaffected. Severe drought additionally led to reduced nirK and cnor transcripts at SW. After rewetting, nirK transcripts increased rapidly at both sites, while cnor and nosZ transcripts increased only at NW. Our data indicate that the climate change influences activity pattern of microbial communities involved in denitrification processes to a

  1. When teams shift among processes: insights from simulation and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Deanna M; McComb, Sara A

    2014-09-01

    This article introduces process shifts to study the temporal interplay among transition and action processes espoused in the recurring phase model proposed by Marks, Mathieu, and Zacarro (2001). Process shifts are those points in time when teams complete a focal process and change to another process. By using team communication patterns to measure process shifts, this research explores (a) when teams shift among different transition processes and initiate action processes and (b) the potential of different interventions, such as communication directives, to manipulate process shift timing and order and, ultimately, team performance. Virtual experiments are employed to compare data from observed laboratory teams not receiving interventions, simulated teams receiving interventions, and optimal simulated teams generated using genetic algorithm procedures. Our results offer insights about the potential for different interventions to affect team performance. Moreover, certain interventions may promote discussions about key issues (e.g., tactical strategies) and facilitate shifting among transition processes in a manner that emulates optimal simulated teams' communication patterns. Thus, we contribute to theory regarding team processes in 2 important ways. First, we present process shifts as a way to explore the timing of when teams shift from transition to action processes. Second, we use virtual experimentation to identify those interventions with the greatest potential to affect performance by changing when teams shift among processes. Additionally, we employ computational methods including neural networks, simulation, and optimization, thereby demonstrating their applicability in conducting team research. PMID:25068813

  2. Marine regime shifts: drivers and impacts on ecosystems services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, J.; Yletyinen, J.; Biggs, R.; Blenckner, T.; Peterson, G.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems can experience regime shifts, in which they shift from being organized around one set of mutually reinforcing structures and processes to another. Anthropogenic global change has broadly increased a wide variety of processes that can drive regime shifts. To assess the vulnerability of marine ecosystems to such shifts and their potential consequences, we reviewed the scientific literature for 13 types of marine regime shifts and used networks to conduct an analysis of co-occurrence of drivers and ecosystem service impacts. We found that regime shifts are caused by multiple drivers and have multiple consequences that co-occur in a non-random pattern. Drivers related to food production, climate change and coastal development are the most common co-occurring causes of regime shifts, while cultural services, biodiversity and primary production are the most common cluster of ecosystem services affected. These clusters prioritize sets of drivers for management and highlight the need for coordinated actions across multiple drivers and scales to reduce the risk of marine regime shifts. Managerial strategies are likely to fail if they only address well-understood or data-rich variables, and international cooperation and polycentric institutions will be critical to implement and coordinate action across the scales at which different drivers operate. By better understanding these underlying patterns, we hope to inform the development of managerial strategies to reduce the risk of high-impact marine regime shifts, especially for areas of the world where data are not available or monitoring programmes are not in place.

  3. Improved Approach for Exact Pattern Matching (Bidirectional Exact Pattern Matching)

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Iftikhar; Kausar, Samina; Hussain, Liaqat; Asif Khan, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    In this research we present Bidirectional exact pattern matching algorithm [20] in detail. Bidirectional (BD) exact pattern matching (EPM) introduced a new idea to compare pattern with Selected Text Window (STW) of text string by using two pointers (right and left) simultaneously in searching phase. In preprocessing phase Bidirectional EPM algorithm improved the shift decision by comparing rightmost and mismatched character of Partial Text Window (PTW) to the left of pattern at sa...

  4. Adaptation of muscle coordination to altered task mechanics during steady-state cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neptune, R R; Herzog, W

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this work was to increase our understanding of how motor patterns are produced during movement tasks by quantifying adaptations in muscle coordination in response to altered task mechanics. We used pedaling as our movement paradigm because it is a constrained cyclical movement that allows for a controlled investigation of test conditions such as movement speed and effort. Altered task mechanics were introduced using an elliptical chainring. The kinematics of the crank were changed from a relatively constant angular velocity using a circular chainring to a widely varying angular velocity using an elliptical chainring. Kinetic, kinematic and muscle activity data were collected from eight competitive cyclists using three different chainrings--one circular and two different orientations of an elliptical chainring. We tested the hypotheses that muscle coordination patterns (EMG timing and magnitude), specifically the regions of active muscle force production, would shift towards regions in the crank cycle in which the crank angular velocity, and hence muscle contraction speeds, were favorable to produce muscle power as defined by the skeletal muscle power-velocity relationship. The results showed that our hypothesis with regards to timing was not supported. Although there were statistically significant shifts in muscle timing, the shifts were minor in absolute terms and appeared to be the result of the muscles accounting for the activation dynamics associated with muscle force development (i.e. the delay in muscle force rise and decay). But, significant changes in the magnitude of muscle EMG during regions of slow crank angular velocity for the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris were observed. Thus, the nervous system used adaptations to the muscle EMG magnitude, rather than the timing, to adapt to the altered task mechanics. The results also suggested that cyclists might work on the descending limb of the power-velocity relationship when pedaling at

  5. Fractal dynamics of bioconvective patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Biologically generated cellular patterns, sometimes called bioconvective patterns, are found to cluster into aggregates which follow fractal growth dynamics akin to diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) models. The pattern formed is self-similar with fractal dimension of 1.66 +/-0.038. Bioconvective DLA branching results from thermal roughening which shifts the balance between ordering viscous forces and disordering cell motility and random diffusion. The phase diagram for pattern morphology includes DLA, boundary spokes, random clusters, and reverse clusters.

  6. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  7. Isotope Shifts and Isomer Shifts in Muonic Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on isotope shifts (142-146,148,150 Nd, 92,95-97 Mo, 50,52-54Cr) and isomer shifts (182,184,186W) are summarized in this paper. First, the merits and disadvantages of the three different isotope shift methods (optical h.f.s. spectra, electronic X-rays and muonic X-rays) are briefly outlined. The sensitivities of model dependence of the observed isotope shifts by these three methods are also introduced and discussed. The main emphasis of the paper is to show and to explain how the muonic isotope shift results may be used to normalize the optical isotope shift results and obtain the specific mass corrections occurring in optical results. The energy shifts of nuclear gamma rays as the result of the dynamic E2 interactions in several deformed nuclei have been precisely measured. The calculated shifts of the centre of gravity of the unresolved magnetic doublet are first applied to the observed shifts. The remaining shifts may be interpreted as the isomer effects, i.e. the effect of charge distribution on the transition energy, A comparison of the isomer effects by the muonic atom method and by the Mössbauer technique is included. (author)

  8. Shifting Design Consultancy Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Huijboom, Nina; Holm Nielsen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    and identities that resonate more with freelancing and portfolio careers than with the intention of creating firms that are intended to expand. We recognized a pattern where freelancers build up their work as a portfolio by moving from one engagement to another, a process that we will call sequential...... freelancing. This paper aims to understand the emergence of such identities amongst designers and we suggest that instead of focusing on their individual firms as entities of growth, other strategies such as networking might be more fruitful. If this approach was adopted, we believe that those local...

  9. Alterations of the marginal soft tissue (gingival margin following periodontal therapy: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The evaluation of gingival margin position (GMP plays a vital role in periodontal therapy and is critical in esthetic/plastic surgical procedures revolving around restorative dentistry. Comparative evaluations of GMP measurements in various periodontal therapies are scarce. Thus, the objectives of this study are to measure the alteration in the gingival margin position following various therapies, and to compare GMP alterations among different treatment modalities from the baseline to six months after therapy. Materials and Methods: The changes in GMP were studied for MB, B, DB, ML, and L sites for SRP, curettage, and flap surgery, and for MB, B, and DB sites for crown lengthening cases at the end of one, three, and six months after therapy. The results were interpreted from baseline to one, three, and six months posttreatment. Statistical Analysis : The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Paired ′t′-test was used for intra-group comparisons and intergroup comparisons were done by one-way ANOVA. Results: The GMP changed from baseline in all the sites at different time periods following various therapies. The net results after six months were an apical shift of GMP in SRP, curettage, and flap surgery, and a coronal shift of GMP in crown lengthening. Conclusion: GMP shows various patterns of alteration after various periodontal therapies. One should wait for the GMP to become stable before attempting any restorative procedure.

  10. Cytological alteration of cultured rat liver cells by 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene with special reference to chromosome changes, changes of growth patterns at a colony level and alpha-fetoprotein production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiwa,Takayoshi

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available A near diploid clone derived from a rat liver cell line was continuously treated with various concentrations of 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-Me-DAB in culture. By treatment with 2.8 micrograms/ml, cells with 41 chromosomes formed a mode and which then shifted to 39. The chromosome numbers of cells treated with 5.4 micrograms/ml were widely distributed at early stages, but later the mode shifted to hypotetraploid region. Untreated control cells were confirmed as near diploid. Increased plating efficiency by 3'-Me-DAB as well as the appearance of large sized colonies was obtained. The production of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP by the cells was slightly enhanced by treatment with 3'-Me-DAB. The cells treated with and without 3'-Me-DAB did not produce any tumor in rats 6 months after their intraperitoneal injection.

  11. Antiretroviral therapy: Shifting sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashindran, V K; Chauhan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has been an extremely difficult pandemic to control. However, with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV has now been transformed into a chronic illness in patients who have continued treatment access and excellent long-term adherence. Existing indications for ART initiation in asymptomatic patients were based on CD4 levels; however, recent evidence has broken the shackles of CD4 levels. Early initiation of ART in HIV patients irrespective of CD4 counts can have profound positive impact on morbidity and mortality. Early initiation of ART has been found not only beneficial for patients but also to community as it reduces the risk of transmission. There have been few financial concerns about providing ART to all HIV-positive people but various studies have proven that early initiation of ART not only proves to be cost-effective but also contributes to economic and social growth of community. A novel multidisciplinary approach with early initiation and availability of ART at its heart can turn the tide in our favor in future. Effective preexposure prophylaxis and postexposure prophylaxis can also lower transmission risk of HIV in community. New understanding of HIV pathogenesis is opening new vistas to cure and prevention. Various promising candidate vaccines and drugs are undergoing aggressive clinical trials, raising optimism for an ever-elusive cure for HIV. This review describes various facets of tectonic shift in management of HIV. PMID:26900224

  12. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... positions. S3.1.1.1Transmission shift levers. If a steering-column-mounted transmission shift lever is used... lever sequence includes a park position, it shall be located at the end, adjacent to the reverse drive.... Identification of the shift lever pattern of manual transmissions, except three forward speed...

  13. Stable Core, Shifting Periphery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    European empires of the past. The paper argues that colonial empires are just one type of empires and that another type should be given more scholarly attention. In order to account for the diversity of imperial patterns observed, the paper suggests using two concepts, inwards imperial governance and...... outwards imperial governance. Using these two concepts instead of one undifferentiated concept of empire makes it possible to shed a different light on the EU’s alleged empirehood and its evolution over time. It also offers an analytical tool that can account for differences between different empires of......The paper discusses the usefulness of the concept of empire in the study of the European Union, the integration process and the development EU’s external relations. In order to do so, it reflects critically on the use of this concept in the broader context of contemporary polities and selected...

  14. Portable shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M3CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M3CA; like the M3CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel

  15. Instrument Measures Shift In Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Lawrence J.

    1992-01-01

    Optical components tested at wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. Focus-shift-measuring instrument easy to use. Operated in lighted room, without having to make delicate adjustments while peering through microscope. Measures distance along which focal point of converging beam of light shifted by introduction of nominally plane parallel optical component into beam. Intended primarily for measuring focus shifts produced by windows and filters at wavelengths from 120 to 1,100 nanometers. Portable, compact, and relatively inexpensive for degree of precision.

  16. Zero-shifted accelerometer outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Arnold

    1986-08-01

    It is claimed that the commonly appearing zero-shift in pyroshock data is usually a symptom of a malfunctioning measurement system, so that the data can not be repaired (by high-pass filtering or equivalent) unless tests can be devised that permit the demonstration that the system is operating in a linear mode in all respects other than the shift. The likely cause of the zero-shift and its prevention are discussed.

  17. The Poetics of "Pattern Recognition": William Gibson's Shifting Technological Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Alex

    2007-01-01

    William Gibson's 1984 cyberpunk novel "Neuromancer" continues to be a touchstone in cultural representations of the impact of new information and communication technologies on the self. As critics have noted, the posthumanist, capital-driven, urban landscape of "Neuromancer" resembles a Foucaultian vision of a panoptically engineered social space…

  18. Resolving shifting patterns of muscle energy use in swimming fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon P Gerry

    Full Text Available Muscle metabolism dominates the energy costs of locomotion. Although in vivo measures of muscle strain, activity and force can indicate mechanical function, similar muscle-level measures of energy use are challenging to obtain. Without this information locomotor systems are essentially a black box in terms of the distribution of metabolic energy. Although in situ measurements of muscle metabolism are not practical in multiple muscles, the rate of blood flow to skeletal muscle tissue can be used as a proxy for aerobic metabolism, allowing the cost of particular muscle functions to be estimated. Axial, undulatory swimming is one of the most common modes of vertebrate locomotion. In fish, segmented myotomal muscles are the primary power source, driving undulations of the body axis that transfer momentum to the water. Multiple fins and the associated fin muscles also contribute to thrust production, and stabilization and control of the swimming trajectory. We have used blood flow tracers in swimming rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss to estimate the regional distribution of energy use across the myotomal and fin muscle groups to reveal the functional distribution of metabolic energy use within a swimming animal for the first time. Energy use by the myotomal muscle increased with speed to meet thrust requirements, particularly in posterior myotomes where muscle power outputs are greatest. At low speeds, there was high fin muscle energy use, consistent with active stability control. As speed increased, and fins were adducted, overall fin muscle energy use declined, except in the caudal fin muscles where active fin stiffening is required to maintain power transfer to the wake. The present data were obtained under steady-state conditions which rarely apply in natural, physical environments. This approach also has potential to reveal the mechanical factors that underlie changes in locomotor cost associated with movement through unsteady flow regimes.

  19. Resolving Shifting Patterns of Muscle Energy Use in Swimming Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry, Shannon P.; David J Ellerby

    2014-01-01

    Muscle metabolism dominates the energy costs of locomotion. Although in vivo measures of muscle strain, activity and force can indicate mechanical function, similar muscle-level measures of energy use are challenging to obtain. Without this information locomotor systems are essentially a black box in terms of the distribution of metabolic energy. Although in situ measurements of muscle metabolism are not practical in multiple muscles, the rate of blood flow to skeletal muscle tissue can be us...

  20. Decoding attentional shifts from motor preparatory brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Bednark

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to the premotor theory of attention, movement preparation and shifts of attention are intrinsically linked because they are controlled by shared sensorimotor mechanisms. However, the precise nature of the coupling between attention and voluntary movement preparation is unclear. In the present study, we used multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI activity to investigate whether shifts of attention towards an effector are encoded in the pre-movement activity. Meth...

  1. Twelve-hour shifts: burnout or job satisfaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Dall'Ora, C.; Griffiths, P; Ball, J.

    2016-01-01

    Job satisfaction and burnout in the nursing workforce are global concerns. Not only do job satisfaction and burnout affect the quality and safety of care, but job satisfaction is also a factor in nurses’ decisions to stay or leave their jobs. Shift patterns may be an important aspect influencing wellbeing and satisfaction among nurses. Many hospitals worldwide are moving to 12-hour shifts in an effort to improve efficiency and cope with nursing shortages. But what is the effect of these work ...

  2. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  3. Quantum phase shift of spatially confined de Broglie waves in gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small change in momentum in the direction of motion and a corresponding change in the phase of the wave function follow the introduction of a transverse spatial constriction. It is shown that gravity significantly alters this phase shift

  4. Compton shift and de Broglie frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Heyrovska, R

    2004-01-01

    Compton scattering is usually explained in terms of the relativistic mass and momentum. Here, a mathematically equivalent and simple non-relativistic interpretation shows that the Compton frequency shift is equal to the de Broglie frequency associated with the moving charged particle (e.g., an electron). In this work, the moving electron is considered as a particle and the electromagnetic energy associated with it is shown to be proportional to the de Broglie frequency. This energy is released when its motion is arrested, as for example on a diffraction screen, where it causes the observed interfernce patterns. Thus, electrons transport electromagnetic energy from a source to a sink.

  5. Status Report from the Scientific Panel on Antibiotic Use in Dermatology of the American Acne and Rosacea Society: Part 1: Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns, Sources of Antibiotic Exposure, Antibiotic Consumption and Emergence of Antibiotic Resistance, Impact of Alterations in Antibiotic Prescribing, and Clinical Sequelae of Antibiotic Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Webster, Guy F; Rosen, Ted; Thiboutot, Diane; Leyden, James J; Gallo, Richard; Walker, Clay; Zhanel, George; Eichenfield, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Oral and topical antibiotics are commonly prescribed in dermatologie practice, often for noninfectious disorders, such as acne vulgaris and rosacea. Concerns related to antibiotic exposure from both medical and nonmedical sources require that clinicians consider in each case why and how antibiotics are being used and to make appropriate adjustments to limit antibiotic exposure whenever possible. This first article of a three-part series discusses prescribing patterns in dermatology, provides an overview of sources of antibiotic exposure, reviews the relative correlations between the magnitude of antibiotic consumption and emergence of antibiotic resistance patterns, evaluates the impact of alterations in antibiotic prescribing, and discusses the potential relevance and clinical sequelae of antibiotic use, with emphasis on how antibiotics are used in dermatology. PMID:27462384

  6. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  7. Does drought alter hydrological functions in forest soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Katharina; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will probably alter precipitation patterns across central Europe, and (summer) droughts are expected to be more frequent and severe in future. Droughts may modify soil properties, such as the pore volume distribution, soil aggregation, water repellency and rooting patterns. These changes in soil properties affect the hydrological functioning of the soil like water retention, infiltration and percolation and thereby the site conditions for plants. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of droughts on the hydrological functioning of forest soils. We conducted rainfall-reduction experiments in three woodlands (nine investigation sites) across Germany. We established adaptive roofing systems which allow a flexible reduction of the precipitation between 15 % and 65 % of the incoming precipitation depending on the actual precipitation. The impact of the imposed droughts on the soil properties was assessed by repeated analyses of soil aggregation, hydrophobicity and pore volume distribution. Hydrological functioning of the soil was assessed by means of repeated dye tracer sprinkling experiments. Comparing dye tracer images of 2011 with images taken after two years of imposed drought, we found a general shift in infiltration processes depending on the soil type. Sandy soils showed a shift from front-like infiltration towards a more fingered and scattered infiltration. Soils rich in clay tend to develop unstained (= not wetted) areas in the top layer, which might hint to evolving hydrophobicity. This was confirmed by field and laboratory hydrophobicity tests. Further, the same profiles were showing signs of lower permeability in the bottom layers. Similar to hydrophobicity, we want to link the results of soil aggregation and pore volume distribution to the changes in the infiltration pattern. Our study shows that changes in precipitation pattern can severely affect forest soil properties and their hydrological functions. The results of this

  8. An evaluation of chemical shift index-based secondary structure determination in proteins: Influence of random coil chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, S.P.; Krishnan, V.V. [Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Davis (United States)], E-mail: krish@llnl.gov

    2004-10-15

    Random coil chemical shifts are commonly used to detect protein secondary structural elements in chemical shift index (CSI) calculations. Though this technique is widely used and seems reliable for folded proteins, the choice of reference random coil chemical shift values can significantly alter the outcome of secondary structure estimation. In order to evaluate these effects, we present a comparison of secondary structure content calculated using CSI, based on five different reference random coil chemical shift value sets, to that derived from three-dimensional structures. Our results show that none of the reference random coil data sets chosen for evaluation fully reproduces the actual secondary structures. Among the reference values generally available to date, most tend to be good estimators only of helices. Based on our evaluation, we recommend the experimental values measured by Schwarzinger et al. (2000), and statistical values obtained by Lukin et al. (1997), as good estimators of both helical and sheet content.

  9. Gait Retraining: Altering the Fingerprint of Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Irene S; Futrell, Erin

    2016-02-01

    In terms of running, there is evidence that links mechanics with injury. This evidence provides the justification for altering these mechanics. Increased hip adduction and vertical impact loading have been most commonly associated with injury. More work is needed in order to understand the optimal way to retrain gait patterns in runners. The human body has a considerable ability to adapt. To provide individuals with the ability to alter faulty movement patterns in ways that can reduce injury risk is a powerful tool. PMID:26616188

  10. Molecular Genetic Alterations in Renal Cell Carcinomas With Tubulocystic Pattern: Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma, Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma With Heterogenous Component and Familial Leiomyomatosis-associated Renal Cell Carcinoma. Clinicopathologic and Molecular Genetic Analysis of 15 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulamec, Monika; Skenderi, Faruk; Zhou, Ming; Krušlin, Božo; Martínek, Petr; Grossmann, Petr; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Kalusova, Kristyna; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Daum, Ondrej; Dubova, Magdalena; Bauleth, Kevin; Slouka, David; Sperga, Maris; Davidson, Whitney; Rychly, Boris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic morphologic spectrum of tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC) may include areas resembling papillary RCC (PRCC). Our study includes 15 RCCs with tubulocystic pattern: 6 TC-RCCs, 1 RCC-high grade with tubulocystic architecture, 5 TC-RCCs with foci of PRCC, 2 with high-grade RCC (HGRCC) not otherwise specified, and 1 with a clear cell papillary RCC/renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor-like component. We analyzed aberrations of chromosomes 7, 17, and Y; mutations of VHL and FH genes; and loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 3p. Genetic analysis was performed separately in areas of classic TC-RCC and in those with other histologic patterns. The TC-RCC component demonstrated disomy of chromosome 7 in 9/15 cases, polysomy of chromosome 17 in 7/15 cases, and loss of Y in 1 case. In the PRCC component, 2/3 analyzable cases showed disomy of chromosome 7 and polysomy of chromosome 17 with normal Y. One case with focal HGRCC exhibited only disomy 7, whereas the case with clear cell papillary RCC/renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor-like pattern showed polysomies of 7 and 17, mutation of VHL, and loss of heterozygosity 3p. FH gene mutation was identified in a single case with an aggressive clinical course and predominant TC-RCC pattern. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) TC-RCC demonstrates variable status of chromosomes 7, 17, and Y even in cases with typical/uniform morphology. (2) The biological nature of PRCC/HGRCC-like areas within TC-RCC remains unclear. Our data suggest that heterogenous TC-RCCs may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome. (3) Hereditary leiomyomatosis-associated RCC can be morphologically indistinguishable from "high-grade" TC-RCC; therefore, in TC-RCC with high-grade features FH gene status should be tested. PMID:26447894

  11. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal......The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type of...... competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...

  12. Climate-induced range shifts and possible hybridisation consequences in insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ana Sánchez-Guillén

    Full Text Available Many ectotherms have altered their geographic ranges in response to rising global temperatures. Current range shifts will likely increase the sympatry and hybridisation between recently diverged species. Here we predict future sympatric distributions and risk of hybridisation in seven Mediterranean ischnurid damselfly species (I. elegans, I. fountaineae, I. genei, I. graellsii, I. pumilio, I. saharensis and I. senegalensis. We used a maximum entropy modelling technique to predict future potential distribution under four different Global Circulation Models and a realistic emissions scenario of climate change. We carried out a comprehensive data compilation of reproductive isolation (habitat, temporal, sexual, mechanical and gametic between the seven studied species. Combining the potential distribution and data of reproductive isolation at different instances (habitat, temporal, sexual, mechanical and gametic, we infer the risk of hybridisation in these insects. Our findings showed that all but I. graellsii will decrease in distributional extent and all species except I. senegalensis are predicted to have northern range shifts. Models of potential distribution predicted an increase of the likely overlapping ranges for 12 species combinations, out of a total of 42 combinations, 10 of which currently overlap. Moreover, the lack of complete reproductive isolation and the patterns of hybridisation detected between closely related ischnurids, could lead to local extinctions of native species if the hybrids or the introgressed colonising species become more successful.

  13. Semantic Shift in Plant Names

    OpenAIRE

    DOSKOČILOVÁ, Iveta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to identify and list English plant names coined by semantic shift, namely by metaphor, metonymy or synecdoche, and to carry out a detailed categorisation of individual semantic categories based on different tendencies within them and interpretation of the results. The theoretical part of my work focuses on different approaches to semantic shift and its categories. It is followed by the practical part which deals individually with metaphor, metonymy and synecdoch...

  14. Unconventional treatment of focal shift

    OpenAIRE

    Vokinger, Urs; Dändliker, René; Blattner, Peter; Herzig, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present an unconventional approach for the explanation of focal shift behind a lens. It is based on the fact that, within the approximation of Fresnel diffraction, the intensity distributions in the conjugate planes of a lens are equal to their geometrical images. We show that the focus (position of highest intensity) is always shifted towards the lens. The results for a Gaussian beam and a uniform converging spherical wave are presented.

  15. Metabolic Shifts during Aging and Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a very special organ in the body and has a high requirement for metabolism due to its constant workload. As a consequence, to provide a consistent and sufficient energy a high steady-state demand of metabolism is required by the heart. When delicately balanced mechanisms are changed by physiological or pathophysiological conditions, the whole system’s homeostasis will be altered to a new balance, which contributes to the pathologic process. So it is no wonder that almost every heart disease is related to metabolic shift. Furthermore, aging is also found to be related to the reduction in mitochondrial function, insulin resistance, and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an energy sensor to detect intracellular ATP/AMP ratio and plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress. During different pathology (like myocardial ischemia and hypertension), the activation of cardiac AMPK appears to be essential for repairing cardiomyocyte’s function by accelerating ATP generation, attenuating ATP depletion, and protecting the myocardium against cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. In this overview, we will talk about the normal heart’s metabolism, how metabolic shifts during aging and different pathologies, and how AMPK regulates metabolic changes during these conditions. PMID:25880509

  16. ESTIMATING THE TIMING OF DIET SHIFTS USING STABLE ISOTOPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope analysis has become an important tool in studies of trophic food webs and animal feeding patterns. When animals undergo rapid dietary shifts due to migration, metamorphosis, or other reasons, the isotopic composition of their tissues begins changing to reflect tha...

  17. Shifting-and-Scaling Correlation Based Biclustering Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hasin Afzal; Mahanta, Priyakshi; Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar; Kalita, Jugal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The existence of various types of correlations among the expressions of a group of biologically significant genes poses challenges in developing effective methods of gene expression data analysis. The initial focus of computational biologists was to work with only absolute and shifting correlations. However, researchers have found that the ability to handle shifting-and-scaling correlation enables them to extract more biologically relevant and interesting patterns from gene microarray data. In this paper, we introduce an effective shifting-and-scaling correlation measure named Shifting and Scaling Similarity (SSSim), which can detect highly correlated gene pairs in any gene expression data. We also introduce a technique named Intensive Correlation Search (ICS) biclustering algorithm, which uses SSSim to extract biologically significant biclusters from a gene expression data set. The technique performs satisfactorily with a number of benchmarked gene expression data sets when evaluated in terms of functional categories in Gene Ontology database. PMID:26357059

  18. Dexamethasone protects RAW264.7 macrophages from growth arrest and apoptosis induced by H2O2 through alteration of gene expression patterns and inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effect of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, on H2O2 stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophages was investigated. It was found that dexamethasone protected the cells from apoptosis induced by H2O2. A cDNA microarray, which consists of 1000 genes selected from a mouse clone set provided from NIA, was used to study the gene expression profiles involved in the protective effect. Our data show that dexamethasone exerts the anti-apoptosis function by changing the expression patterns of many genes involved inhibiting the up-regulation of apoptosis promoting genes and the down-regulation of cell cycle stimulating genes as well as keeping the up-regulation of cell survival related genes. Our study also revealed that dexamethasone protects RAW264.7 macrophages from H2O2 induced apoptosis through blocking nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity

  19. SAT in shift manager training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has improved the organization of the operation shift teams with the replacement of shift supervisor in shift manager function. The shift manager is not only responsible for tasks associated to plant operation (production), but he is also responsible for safety of these tasks and for management of shift team members. A job analysis of this new job position has been performed in order to design the training programme. It resulted in a 10-month training programme that includes 8 weeks in safety-related topics and 12 weeks in soft-skills related topics. The safety related training courses are mandatory, the other courses are optional courses depending on individual trainee needs. The training also includes the development of management competencies. During the 10 month period, each trainee develops an individual project that is evaluated by NPP manager. As well, as group project is undertaken by the trainees and overseen by a steering committee. The steering committee participates in the evaluation process and provides operational experience feedback to the trainee groups and to the overall programme

  20. Multi-metabolic altered patterns and cardiovascular risk factors associated to hypertension in the community. Alteraciones plurimetabólicas y factores de riesgo cardiovasculares asociados a la hipertensión en la comunidad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl López Fernández

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundaments: Among other factors, hypertension , hypercholesterolemia and hyperinsulonemia form the so called metabolic syndrome Many studies relate hypertension to other risk factors and to metabolic-endocrine disorders. Objective: To know the relationship between Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and other cardiovascular risk factors in a community of Cienfuegos city, Cuba. Method: Study of non paired cases and controls . the cases gathered 60 hypertensive patients aged 18 or more years without discrimination of sex, skin color, and other socio demographic features of the population and the control group gathered 60 non- hypertensive individuals from the same population. Results: Family history of hypertension OR:64( 29:14,19 and alcohol consumption OR: 19,8 ( 4,6:84,8 were the most frequent risk factors in the population. The presence of Diabetes mellitus OR 7,8( 2,7:22,4 and dyslipidemia OR 2,7 ( 1,3: 5,6 were the endocrine-metablic factors that associated the most to hypertension Important was the relationship between altered tolerance to glucose and risk factors OR: 14,49 ( 3,64: 57,67 and the relationship altered tolerance to glucose and familial antecedents of hypertension in hypertensive patients which showed a significant association.Conclusion: In the community under study family history of hypertension, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and altered glucose are strongly associated to hypertension and constitute risk factors that should be taken into consideration in order to diminish the mortality rate due to vascular disorders.

    Fundamentos : La hipertensión arterial junto a la hipercolesterolemia e hiperinsulinemia, entre otros factores, forman parte del llamado síndrome x metabólico. Numerosos estudios han relacionado la hipertensión arterial con otros factores de riesgo y con

  1. Evolutionary traps and range shifts in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Robin; Morrongiello, John R; Swearer, Stephen E

    2016-06-01

    Humans are altering the environment at an unprecedented rate. Although behavioural plasticity has allowed many species to respond by shifting their ranges to more favourable conditions, these rapid environmental changes may cause 'evolutionary traps', whereby animals mistakenly prefer resources that reduce their fitness. The role of evolutionary traps in influencing the fitness consequences of range shifts remains largely unexplored. Here, we review these interactions by considering how climate change may trigger maladaptive developmental pathways or increase the probability of animals encountering traps. We highlight how traps could selectively remove some phenotypes and compromise population persistence. We conclude by highlighting emerging areas of research that would improve our understanding of when interactions between evolutionary traps and range shifts are likely to be most detrimental to animals. PMID:27330167

  2. Josephson 32-bit shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a 32-bit shift register designed by edge-triggered gates tested with ±25% bias margin and ±81% input margin for the full array. Simulations have shown ±55% bias margin at 3.3 GHz and working up to a maximum frequency of 30 GHz with a junction current density of 2000A/cm2 although the shift register has only been tested up to 500 MHz, limited by instrumentation. This edge-triggered gate consisting of a pair of conventional Josephson logic gates in series has the advantages of wide margins, short reset time, and insensitivity to global parameter-variations

  3. Alterações eletrencefalográficas após administração de substâncias vaso-ativas (Hydergine Alterations of electroencephalographic patterns after intravenous administration of Hydergine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sergio Pires de Oliveira

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante estudo duplo-cego cruzado são analisadas as alterações eletrencefalográficas em 39 pacientes submetidos à administração de terapêutica parenteral com uma substância de atividade metabólica cerebral (Hydergine e administração de placebo. Os pacientes foram selecionados a partir de critérios rígidos: todos apresentavam síndrome de insuficiência vascular cerebral, porém estavam em boas condições físicas, sem sinais neurológicos focais e sem distúrbios psicóticos senis. Não foi feito uso de terapêutica que pudessem influir sobre os resultados eletrencefalográficos. Foram assinaladas as seguintes alterações do EEG: aumento estatisticamente significante do ritmo alfa de base, melhor estruturação e organização do traçado e diminuição dos ritmos beta, em 70% dos pacientes quando receberam a substância ativa, em 5% dos pacientes quando da administração do placebo; não foram assinaladas diferenças mensuráveis em 20% dos casos. A relação entre a ação da Hydergine a atividade bioelétrica cerebral é analisada e discutida.The electroencephalographic results of a trial with an ergot alkaloid preparation (Hydergine and placebo in 39 patients presenting cerebrovascular insufficiency, selected by rigid criteria and presenting good physical conditions, no past history of cerebro-vascular accident, Parkinson's disease and without psychotic senile disturbances are reported. Apart from slight changes in blood pressure, no significant clinical effects were observed. The 39 patients (average age 59,8 yearss received Hydergine and placebo by intravenous injection in alternating days according to a randomization schedule in double-blind cross-over conditions. Statistically significant improvements were noted in the EEG alterations in this group of senile patients during the first and second hours after the administration of the active drug against the administration of the placebo. The correlation between the action

  4. Categorical Pairs and the Indicative Shift

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, Louis H

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of a categorical pair, a pair of categories (C,C') such that every morphism in C is an object in C'. Categorical pairs are precursors to 2-categories. Arrows in C' can express relationships among the morphisms of C. In particular we show that by using a model of the linguistic process of naming, we can ensure that every morphism in C has an indirect self-reference of the form a -----> Fa where this arrow occurs in the category C'. This result is shown to generalize and clarify known fixed point theorems in logic and categories, and is applied to Goedel's Incompleteness Theorem, the Cantor Diagonal Process and the Lawvere Fixed Point Theorem. In particular we show that the indirect self-reference that is central to Goedel's Theorem is an instance of a general pattern here called the indicative shift.

  5. Field shifts in hafnium II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufmuth, P.; Henneberg, I.; Siminski, A.; Steudel, A.

    1991-03-01

    By means of classical interference spectroscopy, using enriched isotope samples, the isotope shift between178Hf and180Hf has been measured for 33 transitions in the Hf II spectrum. For the pure Russell-Saunders terms 5 d 26 s 4 F and2 F the parametric analysis yields a field-shift difference of 17(2) mK produced by the second-order interaction of the electrostatic operator and the field-shift operator. Semi-empirical calculations based on the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method reproduce this value as well as the experimental field shifts if a factor of 1.68(6) is used to scale the ab initio electron densities at the nucleus. The corresponding factor for the Hf atom is much smaller. This leads to a re-evaluation of screening ratios for Hf and to a more accurate value of the nuclear parameter λ178,180 (Hf)=0.072(4) fm2.

  6. Field shifts in hafnium II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of classical interference spectroscopy, using enriched isotope samples, the isotope shift between 178Hf and 180Hf has been measured for 33 transitions in the Hf II spectrum. For the pure Russell-Saunders terms 5d26s 4F and 2F the parametric analysis yields a field-shift difference of 17(2) mK produced by the second-order interaction of the electrostatic operator and the field-shift operator. Semi-empirical calculations based on the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method reproduce this value as well as the experimental field shifts if a factor of 1.68(6) is used to scale the ab initio electron densities at the nucleus. The corresponding factor for the Hf atom is much smaller. This leads to a re-evaluation of screening ratios for Hf and to a more accurate value of the nuclear parameter λ178,180(Hf)=0.072(4) fm2. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic shift of magic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shell effect of nuclei in strong magnetic fields associated with magnetars' is considered within the shell model. It is demonstrated that the magnetic field gives rise to a change of the phase in shell-oscillations of nuclear masses. The nuclear magic numbers of the iron region are shifted significantly towards smaller mass numbers. (author)

  8. Leadership Shifts in Changing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    As groups representing local and state education players struggle to remain relevant in a policy conversation often dominated by foundations, think tanks, new advocacy groups, and political and business figures, a shift in leadership has been under way at major associations. Most of the changes have come as part of the natural churn; former…

  9. Thermal discharge-created increasing temperatures alter the bacterioplankton composition and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Xiong, Shangling; Qian, Peng; Zhang, Demin; Liu, Lian; Fei, Yuejun

    2016-12-01

    Elevated seawater temperature has altered the coupling between coastal primary production and heterotrophic bacterioplankton respiration. This shift, in turn, could influence the feedback of ocean ecosystem to climate warming. However, little is known about how natural bacterioplankton community responds to increasing seawater temperature. To investigate warming effects on the bacterioplankton community, we collected water samples from temperature gradients (ranged from 15.0 to 18.6 °C) created by a thermal flume of a coal power plant. The results showed that increasing temperatures significantly stimulated bacterial abundance, grazing rate, and altered bacterioplankton community compositions (BCCs). The spatial distribution of bacterioplankton community followed a distance similarity decay relationship, with a turnover of 0.005. A variance partitioning analysis showed that temperature directly constrained 2.01 % variation in BCCs, while temperature-induced changes in water geochemical and grazing rate indirectly accounted for 4.03 and 12.8 % of the community variance, respectively. Furthermore, the relative abundances of 24 bacterial families were linearly increased or decreased (P < 0.05 in all cases) with increasing temperatures. Notably, the change pattern for a given bacterial family was in concert with its known functions. In addition, community functional redundancy consistently decreased along the temperature gradient. This study demonstrates that elevated temperature, combined with substrate supply and trophic interactions, dramatically alters BCCs, concomitant with decreases in functional redundancy. The responses of sensitive assemblages are temperature dependent, which could indicate temperature departures. PMID:27620732

  10. An equity investigation of attitudinal shifts in introductory physics

    CERN Document Server

    Traxler, Adrienne L

    2014-01-01

    We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI) sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students from statistically underrepresented ethnic groups are equally supported on this attitudinal measure, and that this result holds even when interaction effects of gender and ethnicity are included. We conclude with suggestions for future work in UMI courses and for attitudinal equity investigations generally.

  11. Synthesizing Knowledge about Nursing Shift Handovers: Overview and Reflections from Evidence-Based Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Efstratios Athanasakis

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nursing shift handovers consider to be a pattern of communication that is applied in everyday clinical nursing practice, in order to be fulfilled the goals of organization, continuity, consistency and safety of care that nurses provide to patients.Aim: The aim of this review was the evaluation of the body of current research evidence examined issues concerning shift handovers in nursing.Methodology: A combination of various search terms: nurses, nursing, shift handovers and bedsid...

  12. Patterns and predictors of atypical language representation in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Krijn Kristian; Ferrier, Cyrille Henri

    2013-04-01

    In the majority of the normal population, the left hemisphere is dominant for language. In epilepsy, a higher proportion of 'atypical' language representation is encountered. This can follow one of three patterns: (1) altered interhemispheric representation, where the spectrum of lateralisation is shifted to the right; (2) interhemispheric dissociation of linguistic subfunctions; or (3) intrahemispheric changes in representation. Knowledge of these patterns is essential for avoiding postoperative language deficits in epilepsy patients undergoing surgery. Several predictors of atypical language representation exist. It is more prevalent in left-handed individuals. Lesions in rough proximity to classical language areas are more associated with atypical language, although in some cases, remote lesions, such as in the hippocampus, can also lead to altered language representation. The more disruptive the lesion, the more likely atypical language is to be found. Widespread and frequent interictal epileptiform discharges are also associated with atypical language. Atypical language representation is more likely to be present when injury or epilepsy onset occurred at a young age. Thus, a subgroup of patients can be defined in whom atypical language representation is more likely to be found. PMID:22942215

  13. Language Shift or Maintenance within Three Generations: Examples from Three Turkish-Arabic-Speaking Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofu, Hatice

    2009-01-01

    Where there are two or more languages in contact, language shift is inevitable. Shift or maintenance happens at individual or societal levels due to social and psychological conditions in which community members are in. Pattern of language use in a family and the attitudes of family members towards heritage language or the language of the wider…

  14. Epigenetic alterations underlying autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Karami, Jafar; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Malekshahi, Zahra; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Recent breakthroughs in genetic explorations have extended our understanding through discovery of genetic patterns subjected to autoimmune diseases (AID). Genetics, on the contrary, has not answered all the conundrums to describe a comprehensive explanation of causal mechanisms of disease etiopathology with regard to the function of environment, sex, or aging. The other side of the coin, epigenetics which is defined by gene manifestation modification without DNA sequence alteration, reportedly has come in to provide new insights towards disease apprehension through bridging the genetics and environmental factors. New investigations in genetic and environmental contributing factors for autoimmunity provide new explanation whereby the interactions between genetic elements and epigenetic modifications signed by environmental agents may be responsible for autoimmune disease initiation and perpetuation. It is aimed through this article to review recent progress attempting to reveal how epigenetics associates with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. PMID:26761426

  15. Special training of shift personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first step of on-the-job training is practical observation phase in an operating Nuclear Plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists give the practical feeling for Nuclear Power Plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own Nuclear Power Plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and assisted during their process of practical learning by special instructors. The preparation for the licensing exams is vitally important for shift personnel and special courses are provided after the first non-nuclear trial operation of the plant. Personnel training also includes performance of programmes and material for retraining, training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well as training centers. (orig./RW)

  16. Into the Era of shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencik, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Globalization and new communication technologies shape new increasingly unpredictable living conditions. Societies as individuals face a world og growing predictive impotence. Traditions loose their power as guides for maneuvering - where traditions was reflection will be. At the same time people......, life styles, experiences and sexuality. Even thougts and feelings.In the era of shifts we shall be living with ever more design in an ever less designed world....

  17. Hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebach, M; Dax, A; Fuhrmann, H; Gotta, D; Gruber, A; Hirtl, A; Indelicato, P; Liu, Y -W; Manil, B; Markushin, V E; Hassani, A J Rusi el; Simons, L M; Trassinelli, M; Zmeskal, J

    2014-01-01

    The hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen has been redetermined to be $\\epsilon_{1s}=7.086\\,\\pm\\,0.007(stat)\\,\\pm\\,0.006(sys)$\\,eV by X-ray spectroscopy of ground state transitions applying various energy calibration schemes. The experiment was performed at the high-intensity low-energy pion beam of the Paul Scherrer Institut by using the cyclotron trap and an ultimate resolution bent crystal Bragg spectrometer.

  18. Hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen has been redetermined to be ε 1s = 7.086 ± 0.007(stat) ± 0.006(sys) eV by X-ray spectroscopy of ground-state transitions applying various energy calibration schemes. The experiment was performed at the high-intensity low-energy pion beam of the Paul Scherrer Institut by using the cyclotron trap and an ultimate-resolution Bragg spectrometer with bent crystals. (orig.)

  19. Shifting landscapes of immigrant entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Kloosterman, R.; Rath, J.

    2010-01-01

    Although immigrant entrepreneurship still comprises small businesses confined to lower segments of markets, today immigrant entrepreneurs are also visible in the high-value activities that characterise advanced urban economies. The potential of self-employment to open up avenues of upward social mobility has also increased over time. This qualitative shift from low-value to high-value added business has emphasised the potential significance of immigrant entrepreneurs for the national and, in ...

  20. Hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebach, M.; Gotta, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Anagnostopoulos, D.F. [University of Ioannina, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ioannina (Greece); Dax, A.; Liu, Y.W.; Markushin, V.E.; Simons, L.M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen (Switzerland); Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Zmeskal, J. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Indelicato, P. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Universites, Paris (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris (France); Departement de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris (France); Manil, B. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Universites, Paris (France); Rusi el Hassani, A.J. [Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Tanger (Morocco); Trassinelli, M. [Sorbonne Universites, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris (France); CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    The hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen has been redetermined to be ε {sub 1s} = 7.086 ± 0.007(stat) ± 0.006(sys) eV by X-ray spectroscopy of ground-state transitions applying various energy calibration schemes. The experiment was performed at the high-intensity low-energy pion beam of the Paul Scherrer Institut by using the cyclotron trap and an ultimate-resolution Bragg spectrometer with bent crystals. (orig.)

  1. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    OpenAIRE

    Venselaar, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is becoming the incentive for much of the research and development in chemistry and engineering. Visions and approaches on the role of chemistry and the way chemistry is done, change. New knowledge is co...

  2. Waveguides having patterned, flattened modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, Michael J.; Pax, Paul H.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-10-27

    Field-flattening strands may be added to and arbitrarily positioned within a field-flattening shell to create a waveguide that supports a patterned, flattened mode. Patterning does not alter the effective index or flattened nature of the mode, but does alter the characteristics of other modes. Compared to a telecom fiber, a hexagonal pattern of strands allows for a three-fold increase in the flattened mode's area without reducing the separation between its effective index and that of its bend-coupled mode. Hexagonal strand and shell elements prove to be a reasonable approximation, and, thus, to be of practical benefit vis-a-vis fabrication, to those of circular cross section. Patterned flattened modes offer a new and valuable path to power scaling.

  3. Waveguides having patterned, flattened modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerly, Michael J.; Pax, Paul H.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-10-27

    Field-flattening strands may be added to and arbitrarily positioned within a field-flattening shell to create a waveguide that supports a patterned, flattened mode. Patterning does not alter the effective index or flattened nature of the mode, but does alter the characteristics of other modes. Compared to a telecom fiber, a hexagonal pattern of strands allows for a three-fold increase in the flattened mode's area without reducing the separation between its effective index and that of its bend-coupled mode. Hexagonal strand and shell elements prove to be a reasonable approximation, and, thus, to be of practical benefit vis-a-vis fabrication, to those of circular cross section. Patterned flattened modes offer a new and valuable path to power scaling.

  4. Sleep and health in shift working nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Flo, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the prevalence of Shift Work Disorder (SWD) in a sample of nurses, and the association between SWD and work characteristics, health outcome and personality (paper 1) have been investigated. Next, the psychometric properties of the “Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire” (BSWSQ) were evaluated (paper 2). The BSWSQ evaluates sleep and sleepiness problems in relation to day shifts, evening shifts, night shifts and rest-days. The validated BSWSQ was used to investig...

  5. The Paradigm Shift in Language Learning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲

    2008-01-01

    <正>With the development of English as an international language,English speakers are widely spread in the world.The English learning fashion has been greatly changed since the culture background of English as a langauge has shifted to a mixed cultures instead of just British and American. But the standard varieties of British and American English have been accepted as the only generally accepted forms of standard English in China.The language learning fashion in China is about to undertake a big paradigm shift.This paper is an analysis of the English learning pattern shift in Chinese setting and therefore suggests a practical activities to apply this concept in English learning classes.

  6. In-plane displacement measurement using optical vortex phase shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haibin; Wang, Xinghai; Sun, Ping

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, we propose a new method for in-plane displacement measurement by application of phase shifting based on an optical vortex. The phase shifts are obtained by displaying computer-generated fork holograms on the screen of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM). Furthermore, the vortex beam that is generated by the LC-SLM can be used as a reference light in the experiment. Eight speckle patterns with phase-shift increments of 0, π/2, π, and 3π/2 were captured by a CCD camera before and after the deformation. The displacement of the deformed object was obtained by unwrapping. Experimental results demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed method for in-plane displacement measurement. PMID:27463914

  7. Influence of pore size on the Knight shift in liquid tin and mercury in a confined geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Cheng; Charnaya, E. V.; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu A.

    2007-03-01

    119Sn and 199Hg NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin and mercury embedded in synthetic opals and porous glasses. The Knight shift for confined liquid tin and mercury was found to decrease monotonically with decreasing pore size, evidence for the reduction of electron susceptibility. Size-induced alterations in the Knight shift were more pronounced for confined mercury than for tin. The influence of pore filling on the NMR line shape and Knight shift was observed for tin within opal. The reasons for the decreasing Knight shift for liquid metals in a confined geometry are discussed. Correlations between the alteration in the Knight shift and atomic number are shown, the changes in fractional values of the Knight shift remaining almost identical.

  8. Alterations in Muscle Mass and Contractile Phenotype in Response to Unloading Models: Role of Transcriptional/Pretranslational Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M Baldwin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is the largest organ system in mammalian organisms providing postural control and movement patterns of varying intensity. Through evolution, skeletal muscle fibers have evolved into three phenotype clusters defined as a muscle unit which consists of all muscle fibers innervated by a single motoneuron linking varying numbers of fibers of similar phenotype. This fundamental organization of the motor unit reflects the fact that there is a remarkable interdependence of gene regulation between the motoneurons and the muscle mainly via activity-dependent mechanisms. These fiber types can be classified via the primary type of myosin heavy chain (MHC gene expressed in the motor unit. Four MHC gene encoded proteins have been identified in striated muscle: slow type I MHC and three fast MHC types, IIa, IIx, and IIb. These MHCs dictate the intrinsic contraction speed of the myofiber with the type I generating the slowest and IIb the fastest contractile speed. Over the last ~35 years, a large body of knowledge suggests that altered loading state cause both fiber atrophy/wasting and a slow to fast shift in the contractile phenotype in the target muscle(s. Hence, this review will examine findings from three different animal models of unloading: 1 space flight (SF, i.e., microgravity; 2 hindlimb suspension (HS, a procedure that chronically eliminates weight bearing of the lower limbs; and 3 spinal cord isolation (SI, a surgical procedure that eliminates neural activation of the motoneurons and associated muscles while maintaining neurotrophic motoneuron-muscle connectivity. The collective findings demonstrate: 1 all three models show a similar pattern of fiber atrophy with differences mainly in the magnitude and kinetics of alteration; 2 transcriptional/pretranslational processes play a major role in both the atrophy process and phenotype shifts; and 3 signaling pathways impacting these alterations appear to be similar in each of the models

  9. A plant distribution shift: temperature, drought or past disturbance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilk, Dylan W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Simple models of plant response to warming climates predict vegetation moving to cooler and/or wetter locations: in mountainous regions shifting upslope. However, species-specific responses to climate change are likely to be much more complex. We re-examined a recently reported vegetation shift in the Santa Rosa Mountains, California, to better understand the mechanisms behind the reported shift of a plant distribution upslope. We focused on five elevational zones near the center of the gradient that captured many of the reported shifts and which are dominated by fire-prone chaparral. Using growth rings, we determined that a major assumption of the previous work was wrong: past fire histories differed among elevations. To examine the potential effect that this difference might have on the reported upward shift, we focused on one species, Ceanothus greggii: a shrub that only recruits post-fire from a soil stored seedbank. For five elevations used in the prior study, we calculated time series of past per-capita mortality rates by counting growth rings on live and dead individuals. We tested three alternative hypotheses explaining the past patterns of mortality: 1) mortality increased over time consistent with climate warming, 2) mortality was correlated with drought indices, and 3) mortality peaked 40–50 years post fire at each site, consistent with self-thinning. We found that the sites were different ages since the last fire, and that the reported increase in the mean elevation of C. greggii was due to higher recent mortality at the lower elevations, which were younger sites. The time-series pattern of mortality was best explained by the self-thinning hypothesis and poorly explained by gradual warming or drought. At least for this species, the reported distribution shift appears to be an artifact of disturbance history and is not evidence of a climate warming effect.

  10. A plant distribution shift: temperature, drought or past disturbance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan W Schwilk

    Full Text Available Simple models of plant response to warming climates predict vegetation moving to cooler and/or wetter locations: in mountainous regions shifting upslope. However, species-specific responses to climate change are likely to be much more complex. We re-examined a recently reported vegetation shift in the Santa Rosa Mountains, California, to better understand the mechanisms behind the reported shift of a plant distribution upslope. We focused on five elevational zones near the center of the gradient that captured many of the reported shifts and which are dominated by fire-prone chaparral. Using growth rings, we determined that a major assumption of the previous work was wrong: past fire histories differed among elevations. To examine the potential effect that this difference might have on the reported upward shift, we focused on one species, Ceanothus greggii: a shrub that only recruits post-fire from a soil stored seedbank. For five elevations used in the prior study, we calculated time series of past per-capita mortality rates by counting growth rings on live and dead individuals. We tested three alternative hypotheses explaining the past patterns of mortality: 1 mortality increased over time consistent with climate warming, 2 mortality was correlated with drought indices, and 3 mortality peaked 40-50 years post fire at each site, consistent with self-thinning. We found that the sites were different ages since the last fire, and that the reported increase in the mean elevation of C. greggii was due to higher recent mortality at the lower elevations, which were younger sites. The time-series pattern of mortality was best explained by the self-thinning hypothesis and poorly explained by gradual warming or drought. At least for this species, the reported distribution shift appears to be an artifact of disturbance history and is not evidence of a climate warming effect.

  11. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  12. Ontogenetic Habitat Shifts of Juvenile Bear Lake Sculpin

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzycki, J.; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1999-01-01

    Bear lake sculpin Cottus extensus exhibit ontogenetic habitat shifts during their initial year of life. Distribution and habitat switching was measured with bimonthly bottom-trawl surveys repeated throughout the summer. Patterns of daily growth increments on otoliths were used to measure the history of habitat residence, individual size at the time of the habitat switch, and habitat-specific growth rates. Laboratory experiments and known-age fish confirmed daily increment formation of otolith...

  13. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Gogonas, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin. Quantitative and qualitative data on children’s language competence and on patterns of language use within Albanian households indicate that...

  14. Ontogenetic Habitat Shift of Juvenile Bear Lake Sculpin (Cottus extensus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzycki, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Bear Lake sculpin (Cottus extensus) exhibited an ontogenetic habitat shift during their first year of life. Soon after hatching in the littoral zone, the fry swam to the surface where they dispersed throughout the lake. Most juveniles that initially settled in the profundal zone returned to the littoral zone during their first summer. Patterns in the daily growth increments of otoliths confirmed the history of habitat residence and the individual size at the habitat switch. We used this habit...

  15. The genetic alteration of retinoblastoma gene in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Il; Shim, Yung Mok; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Retinoblastoma(RB) gene is the prototype of tumor suppressor gene and it`s alteration have been frequently observed in a large number of human tumors. To investigate the role of RB in esophageal cancer, we studied 36 esophageal cancer tissues with Southern blot analysis to detect gross LOH and PCR-SSCP method to find minute LOH and mutation, if any. In the cases with abnormalities, the nucleotide sequence analysis was performed. Allelic loss of chromosome 13q14 occurred in 20 out of 32 informative cases (62.5%) by Southern analysis. Furthermore, PCR-LOH added three positive cases. Mobility shift by PCR-SSCP was observed in one case at exon 22, which showed 1 bp deletion in codon 771 of RB gene resulting in frame shift mutation. Besides, nine PCR-band alteration in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue were observed in exon 14 and 22, but mutation was not found on sequencing analysis suggesting the epigenetic alteration in tumor tissue. Analysis of the clinical data did not show any difference depending upon RB alteration. However, the total incidence of RB gene may play an important role in the development of esophageal cancer. The main genetic alteration of RB gene was deletion detected by Southern blot and one bp deletion leading to frame shift was also observed. 8 figs, 5 tabs. (Author).

  16. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Bracci; Veronica Ciarapica; Alfredo Copertaro; Mariella Barbaresi; Nicola Manzella; Marco Tomasetti; Simona Gaetani; Federica Monaco; Monica Amati; Matteo Valentino; Venerando Rapisarda; Lory Santarelli

    2016-01-01

    The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for...

  17. A Dynamic Model of Risk-Shifting Incentives with Convertible Debt

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal François; Georges Hubner; Nicolas Papageorgiou

    2009-01-01

    In a one-period setting Green (1984) demonstrates that convertible debt perfectly mitigates the asset substitution problem by curbing shareholders’ incentive to increase risk. This is because claimholders design the capital structure precisely when the risk-shifting opportunity is available. In practice, firms do not alter their capital structure over the life of the convertible debt. Hence, when the risk-shifting opportunity arises, convertible debt design may no longer match with firm asset...

  18. Modeling the Response of Human Altered Natural Barrier Island Dynamics Along Assateague Island National Seashore to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A.; McNamara, D.; Schupp, C.

    2009-12-01

    Assateague Island National Seashore comprises a long barrier island located off the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. Geological evidence suggests that over recent centuries Assateague Island has steadily transgressed up the continental shelf in response to rising sea level. More recently, the natural barrier island dynamics governing Assateague’s evolution have been altered by human activity in three ways: the construction of a jetty and the subsequent interruption of alongshore sediment transport on the north end of Assateague and both the ongoing and abandoned maintenance of a continuous dune system along portions of Assateague with the concomitant modification to overwash dynamics. It is unclear how these varied human alterations to the natural barrier island dynamics will influence the response of Assateague to climate change induced shifts in forcing such as increased rates of sea level rise and changing storm patterns. We use LIDAR detected morphological data of Assateague Island as initial conditions in an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of the various human altered segments of Assateague Island to forcing changes. Traditional models exploring barrier island evolution contain only cross-shore dynamics therefore lacking important alongshore-spatial dynamics in aeolian and surf zone sediment transport. Results show that including alongshore dynamics alter the steady state of Assateague relative to simulations that only include cross-shore dynamics. Results will also be presented exploring the potential for regime shifts in steady state behavior under various scenarios for the rate of sea level rise and storm climate and varying management strategies.

  19. Saccadic Alterations in Severe Developmental Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Pensiero; Paolo Brambilla; Agostino Accardo; Paola Michieletto

    2013-01-01

    It is not sure if persons with dyslexia have ocular motor deficits in addition to their deficits in rapid visual information processing. A 15-year-old boy afflicted by severe dyslexia was submitted to saccadic eye movement recording. Neurological and ophthalmic examinations were normal apart from the presence of an esophoria for near and slightly longer latencies of pattern visual evoked potentials. Subclinical saccadic alterations were present, which could be at the basis of the reading path...

  20. Observations of shifts in cetacean distribution in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eNøttestad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess possible shifts in distributional patterns of cetaceans residing in the Norwegian Sea, and if possible relate the distribution to their feeding ecology during the summer seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2012. During this same period, historically large abundances in the order of 15 million tonnes pelagic planktivorous fish such as Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou, have been reported feeding in the Norwegian Sea during the summer. There is also observed elevated average surface temperatures and a reduction in zooplankton biomasses. Such changes might influence species composition, distribution patterns and feeding preferences of cetaceans residing the region. Our results show higher densities of toothed whales, killer whales (Orcinus orca and pilot whales (Globicephala melas, than the previous norm for these waters. Baleen whales, such as minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata and fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus, which is often associated with zooplankton, displayed a distribution overlap with pelagic fish abundances. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae were observed in low numbers, indicating shift in habitat preference, compared to sighting data collected only few years earlier. Our study illustrate that both small and large cetaceans that reside in the Norwegian Sea have the capability to rapidly perform shifts in distribution and abundance patterns dependent of the access to different types and behaviour of prey species.

  1. The Shifting Job Tenure Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt, Henry R.; James R. Spletzer

    2016-01-01

    There has been a shift in the U.S. job tenure distribution toward longer-duration jobs since 2000. This change is apparent both in the tenure supplements to the Current Population Survey and the Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics matched employer-employee data. A substantial portion of these changes are caused by the ageing of the workforce and the decline in the entry rate of new employer businesses. We show that the tenure distribution is a function of historical hiring rates and tenu...

  2. How to optimize the environmental tax shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental tax shift (ETS) follows the polluter-pays principle. The ETS has shifted in three phases and is growing in popularity with each shift. It has recently shifted the property tax (PTS) from buildings to land which promises to transform cities, the source of much pollution and the home of most people. This shift can also lower the cost of housing and the rate of crime, allowing environmentalists to form new alliances with other constituencies. This paper described the three stages of shift and the phases in a cycle. It also described the environmental, economic, political and ethical advantage of the PTS

  3. Integrated Insect Control May Alter Pesticide Use Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of predators, parasites, bacteria, viruses, hormones, pheromones, and sterile-male release and insect-resistance imparting techniques in pest control. Concludes with comments from chemical pesticide companies as popular attitudes toward the integrated pest management. (CC)

  4. Macrophage polarization alters the expression and sulfation pattern of glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pierre; Denys, Agnès; Delos, Maxime; Sikora, Anne-Sophie; Carpentier, Mathieu; Julien, Sylvain; Pestel, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2015-05-01

    Macrophages are major cells of inflammatory process and take part in a large number of physiological and pathological processes. According to tissue environment, they can polarize into pro-inflammatory (M1) or alternative (M2) cells. Although many evidences have hinted to a potential role of cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the functions of macrophages, the effect of M1 or M2 polarization on the biosynthesis of these polysaccharides has not been investigated so far. GAGs are composed of repeat sulfated disaccharide units. Heparan (HS) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfates (CS/DS) are the major GAGs expressed at the cell membrane. They are involved in numerous biological processes, which rely on their ability to selectively interact with a large panel of proteins. More than 20 genes encoding sulfotransferases have been implicated in HS and CS/DS biosynthesis, and the functional repertoire of HS and CS/DS has been related to the expression of these isoenzymes. In this study, we analyzed the expression of sulfotransferases as a response to macrophage polarization. We found that M1 and M2 activation drastically modified the profiles of expression of numerous HS and CS/DS sulfotransferases. This was accompanied by the expression of GAGs with distinct structural features. We then demonstrated that GAGs of M2 macrophages were efficient to present fibroblast growth factor-2 in an assay of tumor cell proliferation, thus indicating that changes in GAG structure may contribute to the functions of polarized macrophages. Altogether, our findings suggest a regulatory mechanism in which fine modifications in GAG biosynthesis may participate to the plasticity of macrophage functions. PMID:25504800

  5. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  6. Observation of the phononic Lamb shift with a synthetic vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Rentrop, T; Olivares, F A; Jendrzejewski, F; Komnik, A; Oberthaler, M K

    2016-01-01

    The quantum vacuum fundamentally alters the properties of embedded particles. In contrast to classical empty space, it allows for creation and annihilation of excitations. For trapped particles this leads to a change in the energy spectrum, known as Lamb shift. Here, we engineer a synthetic vacuum building on the unique properties of ultracold atomic gas mixtures. This system makes it possible to combine high-precision spectroscopy with the ability of switching between empty space and quantum vacuum. We observe the phononic Lamb shift, an intruiguing many-body effect orginally conjectured in the context of solid state physics. Our study therefore opens up new avenues for high-precision benchmarking of non-trivial theoretical predictions in the realm of the quantum vacuum.

  7. Neurobehavioral alterations in HIV-1 transgenic rats: evidence for dopaminergic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, L M; Booze, R M; Webb, K M; Mactutus, C F

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have provided evidence that the progression of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) involves alterations in dopamine (DA) systems. Drugs of abuse that act on the brain DA system, such as cocaine (Coc), may exacerbate HIV-1 infection and consequent behavioral and neurological manifestations. In the present study, we used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which constitutively expresses 7 of the 9 HIV-1 genes, to assess potential DA system alterations in three behavioral assays: prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle response (ASR), novelty and habituation/retention, and sensitization to Coc across repeated administration. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested in each experiment. The HIV-1 Tg animals were hyperreactive to auditory startle stimuli and displayed a leftward shift in the temporal window for maximal PPI, suggesting an alteration in sensorimotor gating. All animals displayed an initial robust locomotor response to a novel environment which dissipated with repeated testing; however, the HIV-1 Tg rats, relative to controls, consistently showed a weaker novelty response across monthly-spaced assessments. The HIV-1 Tg animals also showed decreased intrasession habituation of motor activity across 3-day periods that emerged across monthly-spaced locomotor activity sessions; a pattern consistent with impaired long-term episodic memory. Furthermore, the HIV-1 Tg group displayed differential cocaine-induced sensitization, observed both in initiation across the 10-day cocaine treatment, and in expression following a cocaine rechallenge after a 7-day abstinence. Collectively, the present data implicate that the non-infectious HIV-1 Tg rat, which resembles the complete suppression of infection in HIV-1 positive individuals under CART, displays sustained, if not permanent, alterations in the brain DA system. PMID:23063600

  8. A First Detection of the Acoustic Oscillation Phase Shift Expected from the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    CERN Document Server

    Follin, Brent; Millea, Marius; Pan, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The freestreaming of cosmological neutrinos prior to recombination of the baryon-photon plasma alters gravitational potentials and therefore the details of the time-dependent gravitational driving of acoustic oscillations. We report here a first detection of the resulting shifts in the temporal phase of the oscillations, which we infer from their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature power spectrum. The magnitude of the shift is proportional to the fraction of the total radiation density in neutrinos. Parameterizing the shift via an effective number of neutrino species we find $1.9 < N_\

  9. The spectral shift function and spectral flow

    OpenAIRE

    Azamov, N. A.; Carey, A. L.; Sukochev, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper extends Krein's spectral shift function theory to the setting of semifinite spectral triples. We define the spectral shift function under these hypotheses via Birman-Solomyak spectral averaging formula and show that it computes spectral flow.

  10. Counting Closed Orbits for the Dyck Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alsharari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prime orbit theorem and Mertens’ theorem are proved for a shift dynamical system of infinite type called the Dyck shift. Different and more direct methods are used in the proof without any complicated theoretical discussion.

  11. Orbital angular momentum induced beam shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosa N.; Merano M.; Aiello A.; Woerdman J.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present experiments on Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) induced beam shifts in optical reflection. Specifically, we observe the spatial Goos-H\\"anchen shift in which the beam is displaced parallel to the plane of incidence and the angular Imbert-Fedorov shift which is a transverse angular deviation from the geometric optics prediction. Experimental results agree well with our theoretical predictions. Both beam shifts increase with the OAM of the beam; we have measured these for OAM indices u...

  12. Economic Models of Shifting Cultivation: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Yoshito

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews farm-level economic models of shifting cultivation and those of deforestation and soil conservation related to shifting cultivation. Although economists have made significant progress in modeling shifting cultivation over the last two decades, extant economic models neither clearly distinguish between primary and secondary forests nor address potential roles of on-farm soil conservation in shifting cultivation. Developing a unified farm model of primary forest clearing, f...

  13. Phase shifting interferometry using a spatial light modulator to measure optical thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Mendoza, Brenda; Granados-Agustín, Fermín S; Aguirre-Aguirre, Daniel; Cornejo-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2015-09-10

    This work describes a process for measuring thin film steps, using phase shifting interferometry (PSI). The phase shifts are applied only in the region where the thin film steps are located. The phase shift is achieved by displaying different gray levels on a spatial light modulator (SLM Holoeye LC2012) placed in one arm of a Twyman-Green (T-G) interferometer. Before measuring the thin film steps, it was necessary to quantify the phase shifts achieved with this SLM by measuring the fringe shifts in experimental interferograms. The phase shifts observed in the interference patterns were produced by displaying the different gray levels on the SLM one by one, from 0 to 255. The experimental interferograms and the thicknesses of the thin film steps were successfully quantified, proving that this method can be used to measure thin films by applying the PSI method only on the region occupied by them. PMID:26368976

  14. Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    POPKIN, BM. Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle. PHYSIOL BEHAV xxxx 000-000, 2009. — Total beverage intake patterns have changed greatly over the past half century. The present research was conducted to evaluate historic and current patterns of beverage consumption of adults and children in the U.S. Data were drawn from food balance surveys along with two-day beverage intake averages and were weighted to be nationally representative. A marked slow continuous shift downward in total ...

  15. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  16. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    =2064). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health...... study could not confirm that shift workers in general report a lower availability of and participation in workplace health promotion....

  17. Uniqueness and Zeros of -Shift Difference Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Liu; Xin-Ling Liu; Ting-Bin Cao

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift difference polynomials that share a common value.

  18. Balmer line shifts in quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Sulentic, J W; Del Olmo, A; Zamfir, S

    2015-01-01

    We offer a broad review of Balmer line phenomenology in type 1 active galactic nuclei, briefly sum- marising luminosity and radio loudness effects, and discussing interpretation in terms of nebular physics along the 4D eigenvector 1 sequence of quasars. We stress that relatively rare, peculiar Balmer line profiles (i.e., with large shifts with respect to the rest frame or double and multiple peaked) that start attracted attentions since the 1970s are still passable of multiple dynamical interpretation. More mainstream objects are still not fully understood as well, since competing dynamical models and geometries are possible. Further progress may come from inter-line comparison across the 4D Eigenvector 1 sequence.

  19. Chladni Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Wence

    2010-01-01

    The report aimed at mathematically describing the Chladni Pattern for a plate based on the equation of motion in two dimensions. It began with deriving the equation of motion of a single point from Newton’s laws, and later derived the equation of motion for the vibration in two dimension, and gave the normal modes through the method of separation of variables. The next was deriving the nodal pattern when the initial conditions and bound- ary conditions were given. At t...

  20. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg;

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed.......The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  1. Designing shift calendar for mobile phone

    OpenAIRE

    Zeddek, Maamar

    2010-01-01

    At Nokia production site employee’s work is divided into three shifts, each of 8 hours, and each employee works just one of those shifts. There is a need for a shift calendar for, since scheduling the staff for specific shifts sets an expectation for both the company and employee. Scheduling also allows the employee to plan his/her free time and budget. This thesis shows how to design a Java application by using NetBens IDE targeting cell phones, creating a shift calendar application leads...

  2. Does Nutrient Enrichment Alter the Response of Stream Macroinvertebrates to Disturbance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafner, K.; Robinson, C. T.

    2005-05-01

    We examined the influence of nutrient enrichment on the response of benthic macroinvertebrates to disturbance in springbrooks of an alpine floodplain. Individual stones in three different springs were physically disturbed at frequencies of 0, 4, 8 and 16 days, and then collected on day 32. In another experiment, nutrients (slow-release fertilizer pellets) were added to one of two streams, and stones in both treated as in the first experiment. In both experiments, stones were analyzed for periphyton biomass, total invertebrate density, and the density and relative abundance of four common families: Baetidae, Nemouridae, Chironomidae, and Simuliidae. N, P, and C were analyzed for periphyton, benthic sediments and invertebrates in the 2nd experiment to test for stoichiometric changes resulting from nutrient enrichment. In the 1st experiment, disturbance affected the relative abundance of the four families. Fertilization changed the stoichiometry of periphyton, invertebrates and sediments and altered macroinvertebrate assemblages. Here, the effect of disturbance differed between the two streams, and the non-fertilized stream displayed a similar disturbance response pattern by macroinvertebrates as in the 1st experiment. These results suggest that nutrient enrichment alters the effects of physical disturbance on macroinvertebrates by changing food resource stoichiometry and shifting macroinvertebrate assemblage structure.

  3. Environmental lighting alters the infection process in an animal model of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachron, D L; Tumas, K M; Blank, K J; Prystowsky, M B

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of altered environmental lighting on the infection process of a murine leukemia virus, E-55(+), which induces a thymic lymphoma/leukemia in 100% of BALB.K mice inoculated as adults. One to two weeks after inoculation, high levels of proviral DNA are usually found. This is followed by an asymptomatic period of many weeks during which proviral DNA becomes essentially undetectable. Leukemia develops approximately 28 weeks postinoculation. In this experiment, one group of mice was exposed a consistent 10L: 14D cycle while a second was maintained in constant light (LL). A third group was exposed to a rotating cycle characterized by phase shifting a 10L: 14D cycle every three 24-h days (rLD). All cycles began 2 weeks prior to inoculation and were maintained thereafter. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks, and hematopoietic tissue was examined for proviral DNA content. At 1 week, LL- and rLD-exposed animals showed considerably less proviral DNA in bone marrow and spleen compared with controls. At 15 weeks, thymuses from controls were showing signs of infection whereas tissue from LL and rLD mice remained at background levels. We conclude that environmental lighting does alter the infective pattern displayed by this retrovirus, although whether this effect is mediated by changes in the target stem cells or through immunoenhancement has not yet been determined. PMID:7675882

  4. Temporary threshold shifts from exposures to equal equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    According to existing methods for the assessment of hearing damage, signals with the same A-weighted equivalent level should pose the same hazard to the auditory system. As a measure of hazard, it is assumed that Temporary Thresholds Shifts (TTS) reflect the onset of alterations to the hearing sy...

  5. A NEW ALGORITHM FOR ELIMINATING PHASE-SHIFT ERROR IN PHASE SHIFTING INTERFEROMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of phase-shift error in phase shifting interferometry is investigated. A new algorithm with two sets of 4 samples for eliminating phase-shift error is presented. The computer simulation and experiment result show that the phase-shift offset should be π when the algorithm is used, and this algorithm has gotten better result than the original 4-sample algorithm.

  6. Altered DNA methylation in PAH deficient phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Steven F; Lyons-Weiler, James; Spridik, Kayla; Biery, Amy; Breck, Jane; Vockley, Jerry; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Sultana, Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    While phenylalanine (PHE) is the toxic insult in phenylketonuria (PKU), mechanisms underlying PHE toxicity remain ill-defined. Altered DNA methylation in response to toxic exposures is well-recognized. DNA methylation patterns were assessed in blood and brain from PKU patients to determine if PHE toxicity impacts methylation. Methylome assessment, utilizing methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and paired-end sequencing, was performed in DNA obtained from brain tissue of classical PKU patients, leukocytes from poorly controlled PKU patients, leukocytes from well controlled PKU patients, and appropriate control tissues. In PKU brain tissue, expression analysis determined the impact of methylation on gene function. Differential methylation was observed in brain tissue of PKU patients and expression studies identified downstream impact on gene expression. Altered patterns of methylation were observed in leukocytes of well controlled and poorly controlled patients with more extensive methylation in patients with high PHE exposure. Differential methylation of noncoding RNA genes was extensive in patients with high PHE exposure but minimal in well controlled patients. Methylome repatterning leading to altered gene expression was present in brain tissue of PKU patients, suggesting a role in neuropathology. Aberrant methylation is observed in leukocytes of PKU patients and is influenced by PHE exposure. DNA methylation may provide a biomarker relating to historic PHE exposure. PMID:25990862

  7. Harvey A. K. Whitney Lecture. Shifting pharmacy's paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, M F

    1993-09-01

    Changes occurring in the pharmacy profession and their effects on the paradigm for pharmacy practice are discussed. The paradigm of pharmacy, the pattern or model of pharmacy's structure, services, daily activities, and organization, is shifting, and if pharmacists do not shift with it, they will be left behind. Advances in technological capabilities often result in automation and centralization of services. Improvements in drug therapy have caused shifts in the performance of clinical functions. Philosophical changes about the way health care should be delivered have produced the concepts of pharmaceutical care, patient-focused care, and continuous quality improvement of care. Teams of caregivers whose primary concern is the patient have replaced caregiving based on technology, discipline, or employee needs. Pharmacists have focused on the patient as their primary customer instead of the nurse or practitioner, and they anticipate the patient's needs in a structured and documented fashion. The principles of continuous quality improvement have been applied to every aspect of providing pharmaceutical care. If pharmacists are to adjust to the shift in the pharmacy paradigm, they must recognize their strength as a group, make proper recommendations about pharmaceutical use, move horizontally to grow as professionals, consider themselves clinicians, be active in the making of pharmaceutical care decisions, and believe in themselves. PMID:8135232

  8. Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Neelima Tirumalasetti; Prema Latha, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clin...

  9. How does altered precipitation and annual grass invasion affect plant N uptake in a native semi-arid shrub community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, M.; Lipson, D.; Cleland, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns, which will change the timing and amount of plant resources. Precipitation patterns determine water and nitrogen (N) availability, because water stimulates microbial N turnover and N transport. In order for plants to utilize water and N, they must coincide with the phenology and meet physiological requirements of the plant. As resource supply shifts, differences in species' ability to acquire resources will affect plant community composition. Semiarid ecosystems, such as shrublands in Southern California, are particularly sensitive to shifts in precipitation because they are severely water limited. This study takes advantage of the altered phenology and resource demands presented by invasive annual grasses in a native semiarid shrubland. The goal is to understand how altered precipitation patterns affect plant N uptake. Rainfall levels were manipulated to 50% and 150% of ambient levels. It is expected that higher rainfall levels promote annual grass invasion because grasses have higher water and N requirements and begin to grow earlier in the season than shrubs. A 15N tracer was added with the first rain event and plant samples were collected regularly to track the movement of N into the plants. Net soil N accumulation was determined using resin bags. Invasive grasses altered the timing and amount of N uptake but amount of rainfall had less effect on N distribution. 15N was detected sooner and at higher level in grasses than shrubs. 24hours after the first rain event 15N was detectable in grasses, 15N accumulated rapidly and peaked 2 months earlier than shrubs. Shrub 15N levels remained at pre-rain event levels for the first 2 months and began to increase at the beginning of spring, peak mid-spring and decline as the shrubs entered summer dormancy. One year later 15N levels in annual grass litter remained high, while 15N levels in shrubs returned to initial background levels as a result of resorption. 15N

  10. Nonneuronal origin of CO2-related DC EEG shifts: an in vivo study in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Dragos A; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Lafortune, Frantz-Daniel; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai; Amzica, Florin

    2004-08-01

    We studied the mechanisms underlying CO(2)-dependent DC potential shifts, using epicranial, epidural, epicortical, intraventricular, and intraparenchymal (intraneuronal, intraglial, and field) recordings in ketamine-xylazine-anesthetized cats. DC shifts were elicited by changes in artificial ventilation, causing end-tidal CO(2) variations within a 2-5% range. Hypercapnia was consistently associated with negative scalp DC shifts (average shift -284.4 microV/CO(2)%, range -216 to -324 microV/CO(2)%), whereas hypocapnia induced positive scalp DC shifts (average shift 307.8 microV/CO(2)%, range 234 to 342 microV/CO(2)%) in all electrodes referenced versus the nasium bone. The former condition markedly increased intracranial pressure (ICP), whereas the latter only slightly reduced ICP. Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) resulted in a positive DC shift and drastically reduced subsequent DC responses to hypo-/hypercapnia. Thiopental and isoflurane also elicited a dose-dependent positive DC shift and, at higher doses, hypo-/hypercapnia responses displayed reverted polarity. As to the possible implication of neurons in the production of DC shifts, no polarity reversal was recorded between scalp, various intracortical layers, and deep brain structures. Moreover, the membrane potential of neurons and glia did not show either significant or systematic variations in association with the scalp-recorded CO(2)-dependent DC shifts. Pathological activities of neurons during spike-wave seizures produced DC shifts of significantly smaller amplitude than those generated by hyper-/hypocapnia. DC shifts were still elicited when neuronal circuits were silent during anesthesia-induced burst-suppression patterns. We suggest that potentials generated by the BBB are the major source of epicortical/cranial DC shifts recorded under conditions affecting brain pH and/or cerebral blood flow. PMID:15056689

  11. Socioecological regime shifts in the setting of complex social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarto, Hendrik Santoso; Chung, Ning Ning; Lai, Choy Heng; Chew, Lock Yue

    2015-06-01

    The coupling between social and ecological system has become more ubiquitous and predominant in the current era. The strong interaction between these systems can bring about regime shifts which in the extreme can lead to the collapse of social cooperation and the extinction of ecological resources. In this paper, we study the occurrence of such regime shifts in the context of a coupled social-ecological system where social cooperation is established by means of sanction that punishes local selfish act and promotes norms that prescribe nonexcessive resource extraction. In particular, we investigate the role of social networks on social-ecological regimes shift and the corresponding hysteresis effects caused by the local ostracism mechanism under different social and ecological parameters. Our results show that a lowering of network degree reduces the hysteresis effect and also alters the tipping point, which is duly verified by our numerical results and analytical estimation. Interestingly, the hysteresis effect is found to be stronger in scale-free network in comparison with random network even when both networks have the same average degree. These results provide deeper insights into the resilience of these systems, and can have important implications on the management of coupled social-ecological systems with complex social interactions.

  12. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  13. Electromagnetic tracking of the pivot-shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Ryosuke; Hoshino, Yuichi

    2016-06-01

    The pivot-shift test is an important examination to assess the rotational laxity in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured and reconstructed knees. Because this examination is related to subjective knee function, we may still see cases that have residual rotational laxity after ACL reconstruction. Quantitative evaluation of the pivot-shift test is preferable to the clinical pivot-shift test but is difficult to attain mainly due to complicated movements of the pivot-shift. The electromagnetic tracking system was developed to evaluate knee kinematics during the pivot-shift, providing information related to 6-degree-of-freedom knee kinematics with a high sampling rate. Through this device, the abnormal movement of the pivot-shift is characterized in two phases: an increased anterior tibial translation and a boosted acceleration of tibial posterior reduction. Since its invention, this system has been utilized to assess rotational laxity for clinical follow-up and research after the ACL reconstruction. PMID:27007473

  14. Altering contingencies to facilitate compliance with traffic light systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jason, Leonard A.; Neal, Angela M.; Marinakis, George

    1985-01-01

    The effects of altering light pattern sequences on driver compliance at a busy, urban intersection were explored. The baseline light timing sequences resulted in only 46.8% of drivers stopping at the yellow or red lights. Using an A-B-C design, we altered light pattern sequences that increased the probability of drivers stopping at the signals to 88.8% and 98.8%. These findings indicate that traffic light contingencies have potent effects in influencing driver behaviors at busy intersections....

  15. Cocaine triggers epigenetic alterations in the corticostriatal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh

    2015-12-01

    Acute and repeated exposure to cocaine induces long-lasting alterations in neural networks that underlie compulsive drug seeking and taking. Cocaine exposure triggers complex adaptations in the brain that are mediated by dynamic patterns of gene expression that are translated into enduring changes. Recently, epigenetic modifications have been unveiled as critical mechanisms underlying addiction that contribute to drug-induced plasticity by regulating gene expression. These alterations are also now linked to the heritability of cocaine-induced phenotypes. This review focuses on how changes in the epigenome, such as altered DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs, regulate transcription of specific genes that contribute to cocaine addiction. PMID:25301690

  16. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  17. Profit Shifting: Drivers and Potential Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Sebastian; Loeprick, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In trying to explain the drivers of global profit shifting by MNEs we investigate industry-specific variation in profit shifting and identify determinants thereof. Using the ORBIS database we show that intangible asset endowment of subsidiaries and the complexity of MNE groups explain aggregate profit shifting trends and tend to drive industry specific results. We find that subsidiaries with a high intangible to total asset ratio have a semi-elasticity of 1.2 compared to 0.78 f...

  18. Shift Work in Nurses: Contribution of Phenotypes and Genotypes to Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, Karen L.; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.; Hida, Akiko; Hugo M Borsetti; Servick, Stein V.; Christopher M Ciarleglio; Robbins, Sam; Hicks, Jennifer; Carver, Krista; Hamilton, Nalo; Wells, Nancy; Summar, Marshall L.; McMahon, Douglas G.; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2011-01-01

    Background Daily cycles of sleep/wake, hormones, and physiological processes are often misaligned with behavioral patterns during shift work, leading to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular/metabolic/gastrointestinal disorders, some types of cancer, and mental disorders including depression and anxiety. It is unclear how sleep timing, chronotype, and circadian clock gene variation contribute to adaptation to shift work. Methods Newly defined sleep strategies, chronotype, and genotyp...

  19. The palaeolimnological record of regime shifts in lakes in response to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Randsalu Wendrup, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Regime shifts in lake ecosystems can occur in response to both abrupt and continuous climate change, and the imprints they leave in palaeolimnological records allow us to investigate and better understand patterns and processes governing ecological changes on geological time scales. This thesis aims at investigating palaeolimnological records of regime shifts in lakes during the Holocene to explore how lake ecosystems responded to climate changes and anthropogenic activities and to identify t...

  20. Socio-economic perspectives on shifting cultivation landscapes in Northern Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia; Hurni, Kaspar;

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid agricultural transition that has occurred in the past decade, shifting cultivation remains a widespread agricultural practice in the northern uplands of Lao PDR. Little information is available on the basic socio-economic situation and respective possible patterns in shifting...... minorities, pointing to multi-dimensional marginality of these areas. We discuss whether economic growth and increased market accessibility are sufficient to lift these landscapes out of poverty....

  1. Goos-Haenchen shift in complex crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Staliunas, Kestutis [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats (ICREA), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect for wave scattering from complex PT-symmetric periodic potentials (complex crystals) is theoretically investigated, with specific reference to optical GH shift in photonic crystal slabs with a sinusoidal periodic modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The analysis highlights some distinct and rather unique features as compared to the GH shift found in ordinary crystals. In particular, as opposed to GH shift in ordinary crystals, which is large at the band gap edges, in complex crystals the GH shift can be large inside the reflection (amplification) band and becomes extremely large as the PT symmetry-breaking threshold is approached.

  2. UV Emission line shifts of symbiotic binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Friedjung, M.; Mikolajewska, J.; Zajczyk, A.; Eriksson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Relative and absolute emission line shifts have been previously found for symbiotic binaries, but their cause was not clear. This work aims to better understand the emission line shifts. Positions of strong emission lines were measured on archival UV spectra of Z And, AG Dra, RW Hya, SY Mus and AX Per and relative shifts between the lines of different ions compared. Profiles of lines of RW Hya and Z And were also examined. The reality of the relative shift between resonance and intercombinati...

  3. Phase error analysis and compensation for phase shifting profilometry with projector defocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongliang; Da, Feipeng; Kemao, Qian; Seah, Hock Soon

    2016-07-20

    Phase shifting profilometry (PSP) using binary fringe patterns with projector defocusing is promising for high-speed 3D shape measurement. To obtain a high-quality phase, the projector usually requires a high defocusing level, which leads to a drastic fall in fringe contrast. Due to its convenience and high speed, PSP using squared binary patterns with small phase shifting algorithms and slight defocusing is highly desirable. In this paper, the phase accuracies of the classical phase shifting algorithms are analyzed theoretically, and then compared using both simulation and experiment. We also adapt two algorithms for PSP using squared binary patterns, which include a Hilbert three-step PSP and a double three-step PSP. Both algorithms can increase phase accuracy, with the latter featuring additional invalid point detection. The adapted algorithms are also compared with the classical algorithms. Based on our analysis and comparison results, proper algorithm selection can be easily made according to the practical requirement. PMID:27463929

  4. Soil microbial community successional patterns during forest ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Natasha C; Gleeson, Deirdre B; Grigg, Andrew H; Grant, Carl D; Andersen, Gary L; Brodie, Eoin L; Murphy, D V

    2011-09-01

    Soil microbial community characterization is increasingly being used to determine the responses of soils to stress and disturbances and to assess ecosystem sustainability. However, there is little experimental evidence to indicate that predictable patterns in microbial community structure or composition occur during secondary succession or ecosystem restoration. This study utilized a chronosequence of developing jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest ecosystems, rehabilitated after bauxite mining (up to 18 years old), to examine changes in soil bacterial and fungal community structures (by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis [ARISA]) and changes in specific soil bacterial phyla by 16S rRNA gene microarray analysis. This study demonstrated that mining in these ecosystems significantly altered soil bacterial and fungal community structures. The hypothesis that the soil microbial community structures would become more similar to those of the surrounding nonmined forest with rehabilitation age was broadly supported by shifts in the bacterial but not the fungal community. Microarray analysis enabled the identification of clear successional trends in the bacterial community at the phylum level and supported the finding of an increase in similarity to nonmined forest soil with rehabilitation age. Changes in soil microbial community structure were significantly related to the size of the microbial biomass as well as numerous edaphic variables (including pH and C, N, and P nutrient concentrations). These findings suggest that soil bacterial community dynamics follow a pattern in developing ecosystems that may be predictable and can be conceptualized as providing an integrated assessment of numerous edaphic variables. PMID:21724890

  5. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko eMaekawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli.Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant and white circle (target stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard, 10% (deviant, and 10% (target probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus.Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls.Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli.Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD.

  6. Shift in social order – shift in gender roles? Migration experience and gender roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Havlin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Does gender matter in the context of immigration? What significance does it gain through time? Does transition from one gender role to another result in redistribution of family roles? These are the main questions which this paper addresses through scientific discourse and empiric research. In particular the paper deals with the question whether the transition from one gender role to another in the course of immigration triggers the liberalization of gender roles in the families of East-European immigrants (from Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Armenia in Germany. This is investigated through semi-structured biographical interviews with female immigrants to Germany conducted by the author in 2012-2014. The findings illustrate a specific shift of gender roles in the context of migration. On the one hand, willingly or through circumstances, immigrant women are more likely to be involved in the decision-making process, to adapt to a breadwinner role, and to undertake the communication functions with official institutions (often due to better language proficiency. On the other hand, men are more likely to be more engaged in the caregiver roles for offspring, to maintain native language in communication with children (from mother tongue to ‘father tongue’, and to fulfill housekeeping duties. These patterns are rather untypical for post-soviet gender roles, with their increasing tendency to the renaissance of traditional gender roles. The question of whether a shift in gender roles related to migration from one country to another leads towards the greater liberalization of gender roles still remains debatable. But migration experience reinforces the transformation of gender roles which initially are not only distinct but also unequal. Thus, migration can accelerate restructuring of the gender relationship. In turn, a new social order imposes – on immigrants – a demand for greater flexibility of gender roles in the family and for diversity in

  7. Altered metabolism of growth hormone receptor mutant mice: a combined NMR metabonomics and microarray study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Joachim Schirra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone is an important regulator of post-natal growth and metabolism. We have investigated the metabolic consequences of altered growth hormone signalling in mutant mice that have truncations at position 569 and 391 of the intracellular domain of the growth hormone receptor, and thus exhibit either low (around 30% maximum or no growth hormone-dependent STAT5 signalling respectively. These mutations result in altered liver metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of metabolic changes was performed using microarray analysis of liver tissue and NMR metabonomics of urine and liver tissue. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics and Gene Ontology tools. The metabolic profiles characteristic for each of the two mutant groups and wild-type mice were identified with NMR metabonomics. We found decreased urinary levels of taurine, citrate and 2-oxoglutarate, and increased levels of trimethylamine, creatine and creatinine when compared to wild-type mice. These results indicate significant changes in lipid and choline metabolism, and were coupled with increased fat deposition, leading to obesity. The microarray analysis identified changes in expression of metabolic enzymes correlating with alterations in metabolite concentration both in urine and liver. Similarity of mutant 569 to the wild-type was seen in young mice, but the pattern of metabolites shifted to that of the 391 mutant as the 569 mice became obese after six months age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The metabonomic observations were consistent with the parallel analysis of gene expression and pathway mapping using microarray data, identifying metabolites and gene transcripts involved in hepatic metabolism, especially for taurine, choline and creatinine metabolism. The systems biology approach applied in this study provides a coherent picture of metabolic changes resulting from impaired STAT5 signalling by the growth hormone

  8. Hunting alters seedling functional trait composition in a Neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurten, Erin L; Wright, S Joseph; Carson, Walter P

    2015-07-01

    Defaunation alters trophic interactions between plants and vertebrates, whichmay disrupt trophic cascades, thereby favoring a subset of plant species and reducing diversity. If particular functional traits characterize the favored plant species,.then defaunation may alter community-wide patterns of functional trait composition. Changes in plant functional traits occurring with defaunation may help identify the species interactions affected by defaunation and the potential for other cascading effects of defaunation. We tested the hypotheses that defaunation would (1) disrupt seed dispersal, thereby favoring species whose dispersal agents are not affected (e.g., small birds, bats, and abiotic agents), (2) reduce seed predation, thereby favoring larger-seeded species, and (3) reduce herbivory, thereby favoring species with lower leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf toughness, and wood density. We examined how these six traits responded to vertebrate defaunation caused by hunters or by experimental exclosures among more than-30 000 woody seedlings in a lowland tropical moist forest. Exclosures reduced terrestrial frugivores, granivores, and herbivores, while hunters also reduced volant and arboreal frugivores and granivores. The comparison of exclosures and hunting allowed us to parse the impacts of arboreal and volant species (reduced by hunters only) and terrestrial species (reduced by both hunters and exclosures). The loss of terrestrial vertebrates alone had limited effects on plant trait composition. The additional loss of volant and arboreal vertebrates caused significant shifts in plant species composition towards communities with more species dispersed abiotically, including lianas and low wood-density tree species, and fewer species dispersed by large vertebrates. In contrast to previous studies, community seed mass did not decline significantly in hunted sites. Our exclosure results suggest this is because reducing seed predators disproportionately benefits large

  9. New Brachytherapy Standards Paradigm Shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    measuring quantity in brachytherapy dosimetry. Once the new standards will be validated through comparison, an updated international protocol can be promoted for dosimetry in brachytherapy based on absorbed dose to water standards in place of the current air kerma standards. A gradual shift towards a more direct and accurate traceability chain of brachytherapy sources can be encouraged, according to the demand for a sounder metrology to minimize the final uncertainty in patient dose delivery. (author)

  10. Integrated trend assessment of ecosystem changes in the Limfjord (Denmark): evidence of a recent regime shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Maciej Tomasz; Dinesen, Grete E.; Hoffmann, Erik; Maar, Marie; Støttrup, Josianne

    2012-01-01

    An integrated ecosystem assessment was carried out for the Limfjord over the period from 1984 to 2008 to describe changes in ecosystem structure and potentially important drivers. The Limfjord is an eutrophic transitional Danish fjord system with the main inflow from the North Sea in the west and......), jellyfish, common shore crab, starfish and blue mussels. We interpret this change as a regime shift that showed a similar temporal pattern to regime shifts identified in adjacent seas. The observed changes in trophic interactions and food web reorganisation suggested a non-linear regime shift. The analyses...

  11. Decomposing changes in life expectancy: Compression versus shifting mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Ebeling, Marcus; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Shifting and compression of mortality have been studied through two components of mortality: modal age at death and variability of the age at death. These two components inform us about the timing and age patterns of mortality respectively. The aim of this study is to decompose changes in life...... expectancy into effects due to changes in the modal age at death and in the variability of the age at death. We introduce a new decomposition method, using recent expression of the Gompertz, and study the changes in its components. Our approach allows differentiating between the two underlying processes in...

  12. Editorial Commentary: The Pivot-Shift Phenomenon Is Multifactorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Freddie H; Herbst, Elmar

    2016-06-01

    The biomechanical study on the role of the anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral structures in controlling internal tibial rotation has some major limitations: creation of a large injury to the anterolateral structures, examination only at 30° of flexion, only one outcome variable (internal rotation), and no application of different combined forces. This "worst-case scenario" does not represent the typical injury pattern, and therefore the results might overestimate the influence of these structures on rotatory laxity. Essentially, the pivot-shift phenomenon is multifactorial and injuries or insufficiency of the anterolateral structures are only one explanation. PMID:27263764

  13. Phase-shifted assist feature OPC for sub-45-nm node optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gi-Sung; Kim, Hee-Bom; Lee, Jeung-Woo; Choi, Seong-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung

    2007-03-01

    Hyper numerical aperture (NA) implemented in immersion exposure system makes the semiconductor business enable to enter sub-45nm node optical lithography. Optical proximity correction(OPC) utilizing SRAF has been an essential technique to control critical dimension (CD) and to enhance across pitch performance in sub-wavelength lithography. Mask lithography, however, is getting more challenging with respect to patterning and processing sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs): the higher aspect ratio of mask structure, the more vulnerable. Mask manufacturing environment for DRAM and Flash becomes harsher mainly due to mask patterning problem especially pattern linearity, which causes pattern broken, inspection issue, and finally CD issue on wafer. When a pattern in relatively isolated pitches has small or large assist features, the assist features may bring unexpected CD or print on wafer. A frequency-preserving assist bar solution is the most preferred one, but it is difficult to realize for opaque assist features due to printability. In this paper, we propose a new type assist feature dubbed "Phase-shifted Assist Bar" to improve process window and to solve the resolution constraint of mask at sub-45nm manufacturing process node. The concept of phase-shift assist bar is applying phase-shift to SRAF realized with trench structure on general mask, such as Binary and Attenuated Phase-Shifted Mask (Att.PSM). The characteristics of phase-shift assist bar are evaluated with rigorous 3D lithography simulation and analyzed through verification mask, which is containing hugely various size and placement of main and assist feature. The analysis of verification mask has been done with aerial image verification tool. This work focuses on the performance of phase-shift assist bar as a promising OPC technique for "immersion era" in terms of resolution enhancement technique, optical proximity correction, and patterning on mask.

  14. Implications of human value shift and persistence for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredo, Michael J; Teel, Tara L; Dietsch, Alia M

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale change in human values and associated behavior change is believed by some to be the ultimate solution to achieve global biodiversity conservation. Yet little is known about the dynamics of values. We contribute to this area of inquiry by examining the trajectory of values affecting views of wildlife in North America. Using data from a 19-state study in the United States and global data from the Schwartz Value Survey, we explored questions of value persistence and change and the nature of attitudinal responses regarding wildlife conservation issues. We found support, based on subjects' ancestry, for the supposition that domination is a prevalent American value orientation toward wildlife that has origins in European Judeo-Christian traditions. Independent of that effect, we also found indications of change. Modernization is contributing to a shift from domination to mutualism value orientations, which is fostering attitudes less centered on human interests and seemingly more consistent with a biocentric philosophy. Our findings suggest that if value shift could be achieved in a purposeful way, then significant and widespread behavior change believed necessary for long-term conservation success may indeed be possible. In particular, greater emphasis on mutualism values may help provide the context for more collaborative approaches to support future conservation efforts. However, given the societal forces at play, it is not at all clear that human-engineered value shift is tenable. Instead of developing strategies aimed at altering values, it may be more productive to create strategies that recognize and work within the boundaries of existing values. Whereas values appear to be in a period of flux, it will be difficult to predict future trends without a better understanding of value formation and shift, particularly under conditions of rapid social-ecological change. PMID:26315988

  15. Proof patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.

  16. A NEW DNA BASED APPROACH OF GENERATING KEYDEPENDENT SHIFT ROWS TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auday H. Al-Wattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of key-dependent shiftRows can be considered as one of the applied methods for altering the quality of a cryptographic algorithm. This article describes one approach for changing the ShiftRows transformation employed in the algorithm AES. The approach employs methods inspired from DNA processes and structure which depended on the key while the parameters of the created new ShiftRows have characteristics identical to those of the original algorithm AES in addition to increase its resistance against attacks. The proposed new ShiftRows were tested for coefficient correlation for dynamic and static independence between the input and output. The NIST Test Suite tests were used to test the randomness for the block cipher that used the new transformation.

  17. Pattern classification

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Richard O; Stork, David G

    2001-01-01

    The first edition, published in 1973, has become a classic reference in the field. Now with the second edition, readers will find information on key new topics such as neural networks and statistical pattern recognition, the theory of machine learning, and the theory of invariances. Also included are worked examples, comparisons between different methods, extensive graphics, expanded exercises and computer project topics. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

  18. Respiration-induced weathering patterns of two endolithically growing lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Scherr, Claudia; Bicker, Fritz; Friedl, Thomas; Büdel, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    The two endolithic lichen species Hymenelia prevostii and Hymenelia coerulea were investigated with regard to their thallus morphology and their effects on the surrounding substrate. The physiological processes responsible for the observed alterations of the rock were identified. Whereas the thallus surface of H. coerulea was level, H. prevostii formed small depressions that were deepest in the thallus center. In a cross-section, both species revealed an algal zone consisting of algal cavities parallel to the substrate surface and a fungal zone below. However, H. prevostii revealed significantly larger cavities with more than twice the cell number and a denser pattern of cavities than H. coerulea, resulting in a biomass per surface area being more than twice as large. Below H. prevostii the layer of macroscopically visibly altered rock material was about twice as deep and within this layer, the depletion of calcium and manganese was considerably higher. In simultaneous measurements of the oxygen uptake/oxygen release and pH shift, the isolated algal strains of both lichens revealed respiration-induced acidification of the medium in the dark. At higher light intensities, H. coerulea and to a lesser extent also H. prevostii alkalized the medium which may lessen the acidification effect somewhat under natural conditions. In a long-term growth experiment, the isolated algal strains of both lichens revealed acidification of the medium to a similar extent. Neither acidic lichen substances nor oxalic acid was identified. The significant differences between the weathering patterns of both species are based on the same respiration-induced acidification mechanism, with H. prevostii having a greater effect due to its higher biomass per area. PMID:20735487

  19. A Short History of Three Chemical Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A short history of chemical shifts in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and Mossbauer spectroscopy, which are useful for chemical studies, is described. The term chemical shift is shown to have originated in the mistaken assumption that nuclei of a given element would all undergo resonance at the…

  20. On the calculation of Mossbauer isomer shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatov, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A quantum chemical computational scheme for the calculation of isomer shift in Mossbauer spectroscopy is suggested. Within the described scheme, the isomer shift is treated as a derivative of the total electronic energy with respect to the radius of a finite nucleus. The explicit use of a finite nuc

  1. On the frequency shift of gravitational waves

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Claudio M. G.

    2002-01-01

    Considering plane gravitational waves propagating through flat spacetime, it is shown that curvatures experienced both in the starting point and during their arrival at the earth can cause a considerable shift in the frequencies as measured by earth and space-based detectors. Particularly for the case of resonant bar detectors this shift can cause noise-filters to smother the signal.

  2. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  3. Large 1 behaviour of the phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the large l behaviour of the phase-shifts, using their W.K.B. expressions, which are good in this case. A recurrence relation for the phase-shifts is deduced when the potentials fall off as 1/sub(r)m, while a potentially useful inequality is obtained for potentials which decrease monotonically for large r. (author)

  4. Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotch, Howard

    1981-01-01

    The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)

  5. Glaucoma alters the circadian timing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouyer, Elise; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Chiquet, Christophe; WoldeMussie, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Guadalupe; Wheeler, Larry A; Denis, Philippe; Cooper, Howard M

    2008-01-01

    Glaucoma is a widespread ocular disease and major cause of blindness characterized by progressive, irreversible damage of the optic nerve. Although the degenerative loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and visual deficits associated with glaucoma have been extensively studied, we hypothesize that glaucoma will also lead to alteration of the circadian timing system. Circadian and non-visual responses to light are mediated by a specialized subset of melanopsin expressing RGCs that provide photic input to mammalian endogenous clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In order to explore the molecular, anatomical and functional consequences of glaucoma we used a rodent model of chronic ocular hypertension, a primary causal factor of the pathology. Quantitative analysis of retinal projections using sensitive anterograde tracing demonstrates a significant reduction (approximately 50-70%) of RGC axon terminals in all visual and non-visual structures and notably in the SCN. The capacity of glaucomatous rats to entrain to light was challenged by exposure to successive shifts of the light dark (LD) cycle associated with step-wise decreases in light intensity. Although glaucomatous rats are able to entrain their locomotor activity to the LD cycle at all light levels, they require more time to re-adjust to a shifted LD cycle and show significantly greater variability in activity onsets in comparison with normal rats. Quantitative PCR reveals the novel finding that melanopsin as well as rod and cone opsin mRNAs are significantly reduced in glaucomatous retinas. Our findings demonstrate that glaucoma impacts on all these aspects of the circadian timing system. In light of these results, the classical view of glaucoma as pathology unique to the visual system should be extended to include anatomical and functional alterations of the circadian timing system. PMID:19079596

  6. Glaucoma Alters the Circadian Timing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouyer, Elise; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Chiquet, Christophe; WoldeMussie, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Guadalupe; Wheeler, Larry A.; Denis, Philippe; Cooper, Howard M.

    2008-01-01

    Glaucoma is a widespread ocular disease and major cause of blindness characterized by progressive, irreversible damage of the optic nerve. Although the degenerative loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and visual deficits associated with glaucoma have been extensively studied, we hypothesize that glaucoma will also lead to alteration of the circadian timing system. Circadian and non-visual responses to light are mediated by a specialized subset of melanopsin expressing RGCs that provide photic input to mammalian endogenous clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In order to explore the molecular, anatomical and functional consequences of glaucoma we used a rodent model of chronic ocular hypertension, a primary causal factor of the pathology. Quantitative analysis of retinal projections using sensitive anterograde tracing demonstrates a significant reduction (∼50–70%) of RGC axon terminals in all visual and non-visual structures and notably in the SCN. The capacity of glaucomatous rats to entrain to light was challenged by exposure to successive shifts of the light dark (LD) cycle associated with step-wise decreases in light intensity. Although glaucomatous rats are able to entrain their locomotor activity to the LD cycle at all light levels, they require more time to re-adjust to a shifted LD cycle and show significantly greater variability in activity onsets in comparison with normal rats. Quantitative PCR reveals the novel finding that melanopsin as well as rod and cone opsin mRNAs are significantly reduced in glaucomatous retinas. Our findings demonstrate that glaucoma impacts on all these aspects of the circadian timing system. In light of these results, the classical view of glaucoma as pathology unique to the visual system should be extended to include anatomical and functional alterations of the circadian timing system. PMID:19079596

  7. Phase shifting technique in digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Eliang; Kang, Xin; Chi, Jianan; He, Xiaoyuan

    2008-11-01

    Phase shifting technique is an effective approach to eliminate the zero order diffraction and the conjugate image in numerical reconstruction of digital holography. In this paper, the diffraction optical field of each component of a digital hologram is simulated solely and numerically by Fresnel diffractive integral. Based on this work two algorithms for two and three step phase shifting digital holography are proposed. The simulating results of two algorithms show that the proposed two phase shifting methods can not only recover the object wave front alone but also simplify the measurement process when compared with the usual four-step phase shifting method, because fewer phase shifting steps are needed accordingly. The proposed two algorithms may be a very useful reference for various kinds of measurement using the digital holography in practice.

  8. Enhanced high dynamic range 3D shape measurement based on generalized phase-shifting algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Minmin; Zhou, Canlin; Zhang, Chaorui; Si, Shuchun; Li, Hui; Lei, Zhenkun; Li, YanJie

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge for Phase Measurement Profilometry (PMP) to measure objects with a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Saturated or dark pixels in the deformed fringe patterns captured by the camera will lead to phase fluctuations and errors. Jiang et al. proposed a high dynamic range real-time 3D shape measurement method without changing camera exposures. Three inverted phase-shifted fringe patterns are used to complement three regular phase-shifted fringe patterns for phase retrieval when any of the regular fringe patterns are saturated. But Jiang's method still has some drawbacks: (1) The phases in saturated pixels are respectively estimated by different formulas for different cases. It is shortage of an universal formula; (2) it cannot be extended to four-step phase-shifting algorithm because inverted fringe patterns are the repetition of regular fringe patterns; (3) only three unsaturated intensity values at every pixel of fringe patterns are chosen for phase demodulation, lying i...

  9. Contributors to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses working rotating shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Sun; Lee, Bokim

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers have rapidly increased in South Korea; however, there is no published research exploring shift work tolerance among South Korean workers. This study aimed to investigate factors related to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses. The sample comprised of 660 nurses who worked shifts in a large hospital in South Korea. A structured questionnaire included following comprehensive variables: demographic (age and number of children), individual (morningness and self-esteem), psychosocial (social support and job stress), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, physical activity, and BMI), and working condition factors (number of night shifts and working hours). Shift work tolerance was measured in terms of insomnia, fatigue, and depression. The results of hierarchical regressions indicate that all variables, except for three, number of children, BMI, and working hours, were related to at least one of the symptoms associated with shift work tolerance. Based on these results, we offer some practical implications to help improve shift work tolerance of workers. PMID:25448057

  10. Alteraciones de patrones funcionales en personas con Tuberculosis pulmonar, Villavicencio, Colombia Alterações dos padrões funcionais de pessoas afetadas pela tuberculose pulmonar, Villavicencio, Colómbia Functional patterns alteration in people with pulmonary tuberculosis, Villavicencio, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Aponte Garzón

    2011-07-01

    do ano 2009, avaliaramse os padrões funcionais de saúde dos pacientes enrolados no Programa de Prevenção e Controle de Pacientes com Tuberculose de três instituições de saúde pública de Villavicencio, Meta, Colómbia. Resultados e discussão: Os padrões mais modificados foram os padrões de atividade e malhação; nutrição e metabolismo; cognoscitivo-perceptual; e de auto-percepção e auto-conceito. O cansaço e a dispnéia impedem o deslocamento para a instituição de saúde, a diminuição da energia dificulta o fato de manter um emprego, o que afeta a renda familiar. Existe um desconhecimento dos aspetos relevantes ao controle da doença. Além disso, a percepção social negativa da doença produz tristeza e isolamento. Conclusões: o serviço da equipe de saúde tem que responder às situações complexas dos doentes, que não dependem somente da aplicação dos tratamentos. A enfermagem desempenha um papel central na criação de possibilidades de cuidado apropriadas, e o fomento da interdisciplinaridade para a atenção integral dos doentes. O desenvolvimento de intervenções individualizadas é recomendado, utilizando guias de cuidado da enfermagem; bem como melhorar a informação que é fornecida às pessoas em relação à doença, tratamento e estratégias de prevenção e controle de transmissões.Purpose: To determine functional patterns alterations in people with pulmonary tuberculosis undergoing treatment. Methods: Qualitative, descriptive study, based on the content analysis technique. During the second half of 2009, functional health patterns of patients registered in the Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Program were evaluated in three public health care providers in Villavicencio, Meta. Results and Discussion: patterns showing more alterations were activity and exercise, nutrition and metabolism and self-perception and self-concept. Fatigue and dysnea compromise trips to health institution; decrease in energy makes it difficult

  11. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  12. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  13. Calculation of isotope shifts and relativistic shifts in CI, CII, CIII and CIV

    OpenAIRE

    Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    We present an accurate ab initio method of calculating isotope shifts and relativistic shifts in atomic spectra. We test the method on neutral carbon and three carbon ions. The relativistic shift of carbon lines may allow them to be included in analyses of quasar absorption spectra that seek to measure possible variations in the fine structure constant, alpha, over the lifetime of the Universe. Carbon isotope shifts can be used to measure isotope abundances in gas clouds: isotope abundances a...

  14. The speed of range shifts in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny A Hodgson

    Full Text Available Species may be driven extinct by climate change, unless their populations are able to shift fast enough to track regions of suitable climate. Shifting will be faster as the proportion of suitable habitat in the landscape increases. However, it is not known how the spatial arrangement of habitat will affect the speed of range advance, especially when habitat is scarce, as is the case for many specialist species. We develop methods for calculating the speed of advance that are appropriate for highly fragmented, stochastic systems. We reveal that spatial aggregation of habitat tends to reduce the speed of advance throughout a wide range of species parameters: different dispersal distances and dispersal kernel shapes, and high and low extinction probabilities. In contrast, aggregation increases the steady-state proportion of habitat that is occupied (without climate change. Nonetheless, we find that it is possible to achieve both rapid advance and relatively high patch occupancy when the habitat has a "channeled" pattern, resembling corridors or chains of stepping stones. We adapt techniques from electrical circuit theory to predict the rate of advance efficiently for complex, realistic landscape patterns, whereas the rate cannot be predicted by any simple statistic of aggregation or fragmentation. Conservationists are already advocating corridors and stepping stones as important conservation tools under climate change, but they are vaguely defined and have so far lacked a convincing basis in fundamental population biology. Our work shows how to discriminate properties of a landscape's spatial pattern that affect the speed of colonization (including, but not limited to, patterns like corridors and chains of stepping stones, and properties that affect a species' probability of persistence once established. We can therefore point the way to better land use planning approaches, which will provide functional habitat linkages and also maintain local

  15. Effects of altered soil moisture on respiratory quotient in the Edwards Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, M. A.; Hawkes, C.; Breecker, D.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns around the world. The impacts of altered precipitation on ecosystem function will be partly controlled by soil microbes because of their primary role in soil carbon cycling. However, microbial responses to drought remain poorly understood, particularly local responses that might partly reflect specialization based on historical conditions. Here, we investigated the respiratory response of microbial communities originating from historically wetter and drier sites to both low and high soil moistures. We focused on the respiratory quotient (RQ= moles of CO2 produced per mole of O2 consumed), which varies with the oxidation state of organic carbon being respired and/or the compounds being synthesized by soil microbes. We hypothesized that there would be a shift in RQ across the gradient of soil moisture. Soils were collected from 13 sites across a steep precipitation gradient on the Edwards plateau in central Texas, air-dried, rewet at low or high soil moisture (6% or 24% gravimetric, respectively), and incubated in an atmosphere of 21% O2, 1% Ar, and balance He. After eight weeks, CO2, O2 and Ar in the headspace of incubation vials were measured by gas chromatography after separation of Ar and O2 at subambient temperature. Because of the high calcite content in soils on the Edwards plateau, we corrected the RQ values by assuming pH was buffered at 8 and then adding the calculated amount of CO2 dissolved in water in the incubations vials to the measured CO2 in the headspace. We found that uncorrected RQ values were slightly less than one and increased significantly with increasing mean annual precipitation. In contrast, corrected RQ values were greater than one and decreased with increasing mean annual precipitation. In both cases, we see a shift in RQ across the gradient, suggesting that differences in substrate utilization may vary based on origin across the gradient and with current level of soil moisture

  16. Working the Night Shift: The Impact of Compensating Wages and Local Economic Conditions on Shift Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colene Trent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of compensating differentials asserts that night shift workers should receive compensating wage differentials due to undesirable work conditions. In weak local economies, workers may have difficulty finding jobs; thus, these workers might be more likely to accept night shift work and be less concerned with the size of the compensating differential for night shifts. Using CPS data from 2001, this paper employs maximum likelihood estimation of an endogenous switching regression model to analyze wages of day and night shift workers and shift choice. The findings indicate the presence of selection bias, thus emphasizing the importance of correcting for self-selection into night shifts. The average of the estimated wage differentials for night shift work is negative for the overall sample, with differentials varying by worker characteristics. The shift differential is found to be a statistically significant predictor of shift choice, indicating that shift premiums play an important role in motivating individuals to select night shift work. Using two measures of local economic conditions and a new method of analyzing interaction effects in the context of an endogenous switching regression model, this paper finds limited evidence that weak local economic conditions lessen the impact of compensating differentials on shift choice.

  17. New brachytherapy standards paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    calorimeters. The standards for measurement with low dose rate (LDR) BT sources (as 125I) are based on Ionometric measurements of kerma in water equivalent or graphite phantoms. A preliminary comparison among these standards is planned later this year. By these new absorbed dose standards a reference value of the absorbed dose to water at the reference distance of 1 cm from the source should be determined with a target value for the uncertainty within 2% (at the level of one standard deviations) and with a reduced uncertainty in the dose delivered to the patient in BT treatments. The project is supported by the European Commission in the Seventh Framework Programme. In autumn 2011 a dosimetry workshop -addressed to the national and international medical physicists' associations- will be held to present the new standards and to promote an extension of the international protocol for dosimetry in BT based on absorbed dose standards. The developments of HDR and LDR absorbed dose standards and their validation represent a concrete progress towards a shift for a more direct and accurate traceability chain of BT sources according to the demand for low uncertainty to minimize the final uncertainty in patient dose delivery

  18. Sleep strategies of night shift nurses on days off: which ones are most adaptive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Petrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the off-shift sleep strategies of bi-ethnic night shift nurses, the relationship between these sleep strategies and adaptation to shift work, and identify the participant-level characteristics associated with a given sleep strategy.Methods: African American and non-Hispanic White female, night shift nurses from an academic hospital were recruited to complete a survey on sleep-wake patterns (n = 213. Participants completed the Standard Shiftwork Index and the Biological Clocks Questionnaire to determine sleep strategies and adaptation to night shift work. In addition, chronotype was determined quantitatively with a modified version of the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire.Most participants worked approximately three consecutive 12-hour night shifts followed by several days off.Results: Five sleep strategies used on days off were identified: a Night Stay, b Nap Proxy, c Switch Sleeper, d No Sleep, and e Incomplete Switcher. Nap Proxy and No Sleep types were associated with poorer adaptation to night shift work. The Switch Sleeper and Incomplete Switcher types were identified as more adaptive strategies that were associated with less sleep disturbance, a later chronotype, and less cardiovascular problems.Conclusions: Behavioral sleep strategies are related to adaptation to a typical night-shift schedule among hospital nurses. Nurses are crucial to the safety and well-being of their patients. Therefore, adoption of more adaptive sleep strategies may reduce sleep/wake dysregulation in this population, and improve cardiovascular outcomes.

  19. Unsustainable Groundwater Exploitation and Stochastic Regime Shifts: Converging Management Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suresh; Park, Jeryang

    2014-05-01

    Increasing water security concerns arise from projected increases in competing freshwater demands, resulting from rapid urbanization, growing affluent population, and the need for increased production of food and bio-energy. These global trends in concert with the convergence of three groups of threats are likely to exacerbate freshwater security issues: (1) increasing dependency on effectively non-renewable groundwater ("peak water"); (2) increasing groundwater quality impairment("land-use intensification") from larger contaminant loads delivered from the vadose zone and surface water; and (3) increasing uncertainties in groundwater demand/supply from climate change ("stochastic risks"). Here, we present a conceptual framework for exploring water security threats, with a consideration of aquifers as complex hydrological systems with two stable states. Regime shifts in groundwater pumping -- from "sufficient" to "insufficient" -- result from changes in both internal system dynamics and external forcing from stochastic divers (non-stationary demands, hydro-climatic patterns). Examples from recent related work, in groundwater and surface water systems and ecosystems, are briefly reviewed as a prelude to presentation of model simulations of hypothetical scenarios of regime-shifts (tipping points) involving groundwater quantity and quality constraints. In addition to three types of widely recognized tipping points, we introduce a new type, stochastic tipping, that contributes to unexpected, undesirable regime shifts, resulting in inability to meet groundwater pumping needs, even when the perceived precariousness is small and the system is far from bifurcation point (deterministic tipping). Implications to sustainable groundwater management are discussed.

  20. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Sepulveda

    Full Text Available Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  1. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S Robbert; Shaw, Blanka; Patiño, Jairo; Désamoré, Aurélie; Goffinet, Bernard; Cox, Cymon J; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Shifts in sexual systems are one of the key drivers of species diversification. In contrast to angiosperms, unisexuality prevails in bryophytes. Here, we test the hypotheses that bisexuality evolved from an ancestral unisexual condition and is a key innovation in liverworts. We investigate whether shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems are significantly biased toward unisexuality, even though bisexuality is coupled with increased diversification. Sexual systems are strongly conserved deep within the liverwort tree but become much more labile toward the present. Bisexuality appears to be a key innovation in liverworts. Its effects on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have the opposite effect when compared to angiosperms, leading to contrasting diversification patterns between the two groups. The high prevalence of unisexuality among liverworts suggests, however, a strong selection for sexual dimorphism. PMID:27074401

  2. Operator alertness and performance on 8-hour and 12-hour work shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the alertness and performance problems of rotational shiftworkers in the nuclear power industry. Growing awareness of higher rates of human errors and accidents on night shifts and reports of operations personnel falling asleep on the job have contributed to the heightened interest in this subject. The industry is now considering the effects of different shift rotation systems, including evaluation of the most recent of industry trends in shift scheduling-schedules that include 12 hour work shifts. Surveys show that within the past 5 years about 20% of commercially operational nuclear power plants have instituted schedules that use only 12 hour shifts, or schedules using a combination of 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. Many more plants routinely use 12-hour work shifts during plant outages and refueling operations. In response to this growing trend, the NRC has funded research which is a first attempt to compare alertness, operator performance, and sleep-wake patterns in subjects working simulated 8-hour and 12-hour shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC), located at the Institute of Circadian Physiology in Boston, MA. This paper will describe in greater detail the design of the study, measurement techniques for alertness and sleep, work routine, work task performance measures, and cognitive performance test protocols. It will review the role of circadian factors in human alertness and performance, and discuss previous research findings in this area. It will discuss other variables that are known to influence human alertness in the workplace, such as caffeine, alcohol, and working environment. The physiological basis for shift worker sleep problems will be explained in the context of the ongoing research project at HARC. Finally, the paper presents previous research on shift work and fatigue which may be relevant to a comparison of 8-hour and 12-hour shifts

  3. Scalar Field Theories with Polynomial Shift Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Tom; Horava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi

    2014-01-01

    We continue our study of naturalness in nonrelativistic QFTs of the Lifshitz type, focusing on scalar fields that can play the role of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Such systems allow for an extension of the constant shift symmetry to a shift by a polynomial of degree $P$ in spatial coordinates. These "polynomial shift symmetries" in turn protect the technical naturalness of modes with a higher-order dispersion relation, and lead to a refinement of the proposed classification of infrared Gaussian fixed points available to describe NG modes in nonrelativistic theories. Generic interactions in such theories break the polynomial shift symmetry explicitly to the constant shift. It is thus natural to ask: Given a Gaussian fixed point with polynomial shift symmetry of degree $P$, what are the lowest-dimension operators that preserve this symmetry, and deform the theory into a self-interacting scalar field theory with the shift symmetry of degree $P$? To answer this (essen...

  4. Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Gese, E.M.; Seal, U.S.

    1992-01-01

    Weights, hematology, and serum profIles of white-tailed does in the central Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota were examined year-around to determine seasonal patterns of nutritional condition and metabolism. Deer were initially captured by Clover trap or rocket net. Between 15 February 1989 and 23 January 1990, we recaptured 12 adult (> 1.5 years) female deer 1-9 times each (a total of 59 recaptures) using a radio-controlled capture collar. Monthly weights of deer exhibited a cyclic seasonal pattern. Mean weight declined 22 % from February to an annual minimum during May, then steadily increased 45 % to a maximum in October. Seasonal patterns were most evident for hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells, packed cell volume, serum total protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the urea N to creatinine ratio, triiodothyronine, cortisol, and potassium. Wide seasonal variations of these characteristics were indicative of shifts in the deer's metabolic physiology. Although seasonal metabolic shifts are partially attributable to an endogenous rhythm, the intensity of, their expression was most likely affected by nutritional changes and concomitant alterations of body condition. Annual changes in seasonal trends of blood characteristics may be useful in investigating nutritional effects of specific environmental and demographic factors. We compare our findings with those reported for deer on ranges farther south.

  5. Multi-source analysis reveals latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in range of Ixodes ricinus at its northern distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffersen Anja B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence for a latitudinal and altitudinal shift in the distribution range of Ixodes ricinus. The reported incidence of tick-borne disease in humans is on the rise in many European countries and has raised political concern and attracted media attention. It is disputed which factors are responsible for these trends, though many ascribe shifts in distribution range to climate changes. Any possible climate effect would be most easily noticeable close to the tick's geographical distribution limits. In Norway- being the northern limit of this species in Europe- no documentation of changes in range has been published. The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of I. ricinus in Norway and to evaluate if any range shifts have occurred relative to historical descriptions. Methods Multiple data sources - such as tick-sighting reports from veterinarians, hunters, and the general public - and surveillance of human and animal tick-borne diseases were compared to describe the present distribution of I. ricinus in Norway. Correlation between data sources and visual comparison of maps revealed spatial consistency. In order to identify the main spatial pattern of tick abundance, a principal component analysis (PCA was used to obtain a weighted mean of four data sources. The weighted mean explained 67% of the variation of the data sources covering Norway's 430 municipalities and was used to depict the present distribution of I. ricinus. To evaluate if any geographical range shift has occurred in recent decades, the present distribution was compared to historical data from 1943 and 1983. Results Tick-borne disease and/or observations of I. ricinus was reported in municipalities up to an altitude of 583 metres above sea level (MASL and is now present in coastal municipalities north to approximately 69°N. Conclusion I. ricinus is currently found further north and at higher altitudes than described in

  6. Validation of a Cephalad Fluid Shift Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B.; Cole, C.; Kesari, S.; Hargens, A.; Stenger, M.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S. M. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Liu, J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This project will provide critical data required to objectively determine how an optimized thigh cuff could be incorporated into the NASA integrated physiological countermeasure suite. This project will determine if thigh cuffs used during simulated spaceflight impact intracranial pressure (ICP), ocular structure and function, and intraocular pressure (IOP) using state of-the-art techniques. Additionally, some of the same methods, hardware, and protocols will be employed in the present investigation to enable direct comparisons to the International Space Station (ISS) "Fluid Shifts" experiment with Chibis-Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP). This study will determine the temporal physiological responses of thigh cuff application and removal on ocular and cerebral variables (including invasive ICP) in a microgravity analog. Furthermore, this proposed study will determine tissue pressure distribution applied by thigh cuffs in order to improve comfort, mobility, and efficacy of the countermeasure. Our specific aim is to determine the efficacy of a novel thigh cuff device to mitigate cephalad fluid shifts. We hypothesize that a thigh cuff countermeasure employed in a microgravity analog will temporarily reverse or attenuate ocular and cerebral-volume-pressure variables, approaching normal Earth-based seated posture, the most frequent posture assumed in daily life. In addition, we hypothesize that the magnitude of fluid and pressure redistribution using a thigh cuff countermeasure may require a longer exposure time than that of Chibis-LBNP (using ground-based data from our "Fluid Shifts" project). This project directly addresses Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions regarding "Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations," and IRP Gap VIIP13: We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. METHODS: Noninvasive

  7. Pyrogenic organic matter can alter microbial communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Caroline; Gao, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Silberg, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbes communicate with each other to manage a large range of processes that occur more efficiently when microbes are able to act simultaneously. This coordination occurs through the continuous production of signaling compounds that are easily diffused into and out of cells. As the number of microbes in a localized environment increases, the internal cellular concentration of these signaling compounds increases, and when a threshold concentration is reached, gene expression shifts, leading to altered (and coordinated) microbial behaviors. Many of these coordinated behaviors have biogeochemically important outcomes. For example, methanogenesis, denitrification, biofilm formation, and the development of plant-rhizobial symbioses are all regulated by a simple class of cell-cell signaling molecules known as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Pyrogenic organic matter in soils can act to disrupt microbial communication through multiple pathways. In the case of AHLs, charcoal's very high surface area can sorb these signaling compounds, preventing microbes from detecting each others' presence (Masiello et al., 2014). In addition, the lactone ring in AHLs is vulnerable to pH increases accompanying PyOM inputs, with soil pH values higher than 7-8 leading to ring opening and compound destabilization. Different microbes use different classes of signaling compounds, and not all microbial signaling compounds are pH-vulnerable. This implies that PyOM-driven pH increases may trigger differential outcomes for Gram negative bacteria vs fungi, for example. A charcoal-driven reduction in microbes' ability to detect cell-cell communication compounds may lead to a shift in the ability of microbes to participate in key steps of C and N cycling. For example, an increase in an archaeon-specific AHL has been shown to lead to a cascade of metabolic processes that eventually results in the upregulation of CH4 production (Zhang et al., 2012). Alterations in similar AHL compounds leads to

  8. Real-time microscopic phase-shifting profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Soons, Joris A M; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2015-05-20

    A real-time microscopic profilometry system based on digital fringe projection and parallel programming has been developed and experimentally tested. Structured light patterns are projected onto an object through one pathway of a stereoscopic operation microscope. The patterns are deformed by the shape of the object and are then recorded with a high-speed CCD camera placed in the other pathway of the microscope. As the optical pathways of both arms are separated and reach the same object point at a relative angle, the recorded patterns allow the full-field object height variations to be calculated and the three-dimensional shape to be reconstructed by employing standard triangulation techniques. Applying proper hardware triggering, the projector-camera system is synchronized to capture up to 120 unique deformed line patterns per second. Using standard four-step phase-shifting profilometry techniques and applying graphics processing unit programming for fast phase wrapping, scaling, and visualization, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed system to generate 30 microscopic height maps per second. This allows the qualitative depth perception of the stereomicroscope operator to be enhanced by live quantitative height measurements with depth resolutions in the micrometer range. PMID:26192534

  9. On some new invariants for strong shift equivalence for shifts of finite type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilers, Søren; Kiming, Ian

    2012-01-01

    strong shift equivalence for shifts of finite type given by irreducible $2\\times 2$-matrices with entry sum less than 25, and give examples illustrating to power of the new invariant, i.e., examples where the new invariant can disprove strong shift equivalence whereas the other invariants that we use can......We introduce a new computable invariant for strong shift equivalence of shifts of finite type. The invariant is based on an invariant introduced by Trow, Boyle, and Marcus, but has the advantage of being readily computable. We summarize briefly a large-scale numerical experiment aimed at deciding...

  10. Geometric effects on carbon-13 chemical shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of our investigations on carbon-13 chemical shifts of tetracyclic dodecanes, we managed to show that a large number of chemical shift differences between members of the series and models provided by bicyclic analogs could be attributed to steric effects. There are examples, however, where this is clearly not the case. In order to investigate apparent anomalies we calculated structures of interest and looked into the relationships between molecular geometry and chemical shifts. As the assignment of some of the key structures in these analysis were made by comparison with model compounds and crucial experiments that could remove ambiguities were missing, we prepared and interpreted two spectra which are presented

  11. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Onofrio, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  12. MR chemical shift imaging of human atheroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lipid content of atheromatous plaques has been measured with chemical shift MR imaging by taking advantage of the different resonance frequencies of protons in lipid and water. Fifteen postmortem aortic specimens of the human descending aorta and the aortae of seven patients with documented peripheral vascular disease were studied at 0.5 T. Spin-echo images were used to localize the lesions before acquisition of the chemical shift images. The specimens were examined histologically, and the lipid distribution in the plaque showed good correlation with the chemical shift data. Validation in vivo and clinical applications remain to be established

  13. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia " Galileo Galilei," Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Wegner, Gary A., E-mail: onofrior@gmail.com, E-mail: gary.a.wegner@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  14. Can fisheries-induced evolution shift reference points for fisheries management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heino, Mikko; Baulier, Loїc; Boukal, David S.; Ernande, Bruno; Johnston, Fiona D.; Mollet, Fabian M.; Pardoe, Heidi; Therkildsen, Nina O.; Uusi-Heikkilä, Silva; Vainikka, Anssi; Arlinghaus, Robert; Dankel, Dorothy J.; Dunlop, Erin S.; Eikeset, Anne Maria; Enberg, Katja; Engelhard, Georg H.; Jørgensen, Christian Bødtkjer; Laugen, Ane T.; Matsumura, Shuichi; Nusslé, Sébastien; Urbach, Davnah; Whitlock, Rebecca; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Biological reference points are important tools for fisheries management. Reference points are not static, but may change when a population's environment or the population itself changes. Fisheries-induced evolution is one mechanism that can alter population characteristics, leading to “shifting...... reference points are susceptible to shifting through fisheries-induced evolution, including the limit and “precautionary” reference points for spawning-stock biomass, Blim and Bpa, and the target reference point for fishing mortality, F0.1. Our findings call for increased awareness of fisheries...

  15. Evaluating trophic cascades as drivers of regime shifts in different ocean ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Pershing, Andrew J.; Mills, Katherine E.; Nicholas R Record; Stamieszkin, Karen; Wurtzell, Katharine V.; Byron, Carrie J.; Fitzpatrick, Dominic; Golet, Walter J.; Koob, Elise

    2015-01-01

    In ecosystems that are strongly structured by predation, reducing top predator abundance can alter several lower trophic levels—a process known as a trophic cascade. A persistent trophic cascade also fits the definition of a regime shift. Such ‘trophic cascade regime shifts' have been reported in a few pelagic marine systems—notably the Black Sea, Baltic Sea and eastern Scotian Shelf—raising the question of how common this phenomenon is in the marine environment. We provide a general methodol...

  16. Attenuated phase-shift mask (PSM) blanks for flat panel display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Kagehiro; Mochizuki, Satoru; Yamakawa, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Shigeru

    2015-10-01

    The fine pattern exposure techniques are required for Flat Panel display applications as smart phone, tablet PC recently. The attenuated phase shift masks (PSM) are being used for ArF and KrF photomask lithography technique for high end pattern Semiconductor applications. We developed CrOx based large size PSM blanks that has good uniformity on optical characteristics for FPD applications. We report the basic optical characteristics and uniformity, stability data of large sized CrOx PSM blanks.

  17. Long-term phenological shifts in raptor migration and climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Jaffré

    Full Text Available Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010 of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency.

  18. Noninvasive diagnosis of oral cancer by Stokes shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasrao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (S3) for normal, precancer and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. The SS spectra were recorded in the 250 - 650 nm spectral range by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions observed around 300, 355, 395, and 420 nm which are attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. Using S3 technique one can obtain the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions are verified by different ratio parameters.

  19. Global energy shifts: Future possibilities in historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Bruce Michael

    2000-11-01

    This study adopts a macro-comparative, world-systems perspective in order to shed light on the dynamics that led to a global shift away from primary reliance on coal and towards over-reliance on petroleum. It is argued that the interaction of three global dynamics, those of geopolitical rivalry, commercial competition, and social unrest, undermined the nineteenth-century international coal system and paved the way for the consolidation of an international petroleum system in the twentieth century. Specifically, the historical analysis presented in this dissertation shows that: (1) intervention by state agents was absolutely crucial in the early development and later expansion of the international petroleum system; (2) private coal companies attempted to prevent the consolidation of an oil-based energy system, but these older companies were out-competed by newer, multinational petroleum corporations; and (3) waves of labor unrest in established coal industries played a key role in prompting a relatively rapid shift away from coal and towards petroleum. Indeed, a key conclusion of this study is that pressures exerted by such social movements as labor unions, nationalist movements, and environmental coalitions have played as important a role in influencing energy trajectories as the more commonly-recognized actions of governmental and corporate actors. By examining contemporary patterns of state and private investments in a cluster of new energy technologies, as well as the growing influence of environmental regulations it is argued that global dynamics are beginning to favor a shift towards new, more environmentally sustainable energy technologies. The fuel cell is highlighted as one new energy technology that is poised to enter into widespread diffusion in the coming decades, though potentials for expansions in wind, solar, small-scale hydro-electric, and modern biomass systems are also examined. Although significant hurdles must be overcome, this study concludes by

  20. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  1. Novel Solution of Mercury Perihelion Shift

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Takehisa

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel solution of the Mercury perihelion advance shift in the new gravity model. It is found that the non-relativistic reduction of the Dirac equation with the gravitational potential produces the new gravitational potential of $\\displaystyle{V(r)=-{GMm\\over r}+{G^2M^2m^2\\over 2mc^2r^2}}$. This potential can explain the Mercury perihelion advance shift without any free parameters. Also, it can give rise to the $\\omega-$shift of the GPS satellite where the advance shift amounts to $({\\Delta \\omega\\over \\omega})_{th} \\simeq 3.4\\times 10^{-10}$ which should be compared to the recent observed value of $({\\Delta \\omega\\over \\omega})_{exp} \\simeq 4.5\\times 10^{-10}$.

  2. Shift manager workload assessment - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 2003, Bruce Power restarted two of their previously laid up units in the Bruce A generating station, Units 3 and 4. However, due to challenges relating to the availability of personnel with active Shift Manager licenses, an alternate shift structure was proposed to ensure the safe operation of the station. This alternate structure resulted in a redistribution of responsibility, and a need to assess the resulting changes in workload. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was contracted to perform a workload assessment based on the new shift structure, and to provide recommendations, if necessary, to ensure Shift Managers had sufficient resources available to perform their required duties. This paper discusses the performance of that assessment, and lessons learned as a result of the work performed during the Restart project. (author)

  3. Moessbauer isomer shift anomalies in a superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the Moessbauer isomer shift in a superconductor within a simple model. Our results are in reasonable agreement with iron dopped superconductors data which has been reported in the literature. (author)

  4. Scandinavian Object Shift and Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, Eva; Vikner, Sten

    This study presents an account of object shift, a word order phenomenon found in most of the Scandinavian languages where an object occurs unexpectedly to the left and not to the right of a sentential adverbial. The book examines object shift across many of the Scandinavian languages and dialects......, and analyses the variation, for example whether object shift is optional or obligatory, whether it applies only to pronouns or other objects as well, and whether it applies to adverbials. The authors show that optimality theory, traditionally used in phonology, is a useful framework for accounting...... for the variation as well as the interaction of object shift with other syntactic constructions such as verb second, other verb movements, double object constructions, particle verbs and causative verbs. The book moves on to investigate the interaction with remnant VP-topicalisation in great detail. With new...

  5. Achieving excellence on shift through teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyone familiar with the nuclear industry realizes the importance of operators. Operators can achieve error-free plant operations, i.e., excellence on shift through teamwork. As a shift supervisor (senior reactor operator/shift technical advisor) the author went through the plant's first cycle of operations with no scrams and no equipment damaged by operator error, having since changed roles (and companies) to one of assessing plant operations. This change has provided the opportunity to see objectively the importance of operators working together and of the team building and teamwork that contribute to the shift's success. This paper uses examples to show the effectiveness of working together and outlines steps for building a group of operators into a team

  6. Beta-Shifts, their Languages and Computability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    For every real number ß >1, the ß-shift is a dynamical system describing iterations of the map x ¿ ßx mod 1 and is studied intensively in number theory. Each ß-shift has an associated language of finite strings of characters; properties of this language are studied for the additional insight...... they give into the dynamics of the underlying system. We prove that the language of the ß-shift is recursive iff ß is a computable real number. That fact yields a precise characterization of the reals: The real numbers ß for which we can compute arbitrarily good approximations—hence in particular...... is constructive, the “if” part is not. We show that no constructive proof of the “if” part exists. Hence, there exists no algorithm that transforms a program computing arbitrarily good approximations of a real number ß into a program deciding the language of the ß-shift....

  7. Archetypes as action patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology. PMID:19531123

  8. CNTFET Parallel in Parallel out Shift Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayanthy

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact model for carbon nanotube field effect transistor has been designed by considering various device parameters such as length, number of tubes, chiral vector etc. The modeled CNTFET is used to design various digital circuits in particular parallel in parallel out shift register. The results of Hspice simulation performed on the designed PIPO shift register shows superior performance over conventional MOSFET in terms of power dissipation, power delay product, size etc.

  9. Probing scattering phase shifts by attosecond streaking

    OpenAIRE

    Pazourek, Renate; Nagele, Stefan; Doblhoff-Dier, Katharina; Feist, Johannes; Lemell, Christoph; Tökési, Karoly; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond streaking is one of the most fundamental processes in attosecond science allowing for a mapping of temporal (i.e. phase) information on the energy domain. We show that on the single-particle level attosecond streaking time shifts contain spectral phase information associated with the Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith (EWS) time delay, provided the influence of the streaking infrared field is properly accounted for. While the streaking phase shifts for short-ranged potentials agree with the ass...

  10. Sign (di)Lemma for Dimension Shifting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin Nitsure

    2009-04-01

    There is a surprising occurrence of some minus signs in the isomorphisms produced in the well-known technique of dimension shifting in calculating derived functors in homological algebra. We explicitly determine these signs. Getting these signs right is important in order to avoid basic contradictions. We illustrate the result – which we call as the sign lemma for dimension shifting – by some de Rham cohomology and Chern class considerations for compact Riemann surfaces.

  11. Set Shifting Training with Categorization Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Soveri; Otto Waris; Matti Laine

    2013-01-01

    The very few cognitive training studies targeting an important executive function, set shifting, have reported performance improvements that also generalized to untrained tasks. The present randomized controlled trial extends set shifting training research by comparing previously used cued training with uncued training. A computerized adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was utilized as the training task in a pretest-posttest experimental design involving three groups of university s...

  12. Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    PNAS published on August 15,2011 the article "Eocene habitat shift from saline to freshwater promoted Tethyan amphipod diversification" by Professor Shuqiang Li of Institute of Zoology,CAS,together with Slovenian cooperators. Current theory predicts that a shift to a new habitat would increase the rate of diversification;while as lineages evolve into multiple species,intensified competition would decrease the rate of diversification.

  13. Level shift operators for open quantum systems

    OpenAIRE

    Merkli, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Level shift operators describe the second order displacement of eigenvalues under perturbation. They play a central role in resonance theory and ergodic theory of open quantum systems at positive temperatures. We exhibit intrinsic properties of level shift operators, properties which stem from the structure of open quantum systems at positive temperatures and which are common to all such systems. They determine the geometry of resonances bifurcating from eigenvalues of positive temperature Ha...

  14. Transfer pricing and debt shifting in multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern that governments lose substantial corporate tax revenue because of profit shifting through transfer-pricing and thin-capitalization strategies. Existing literature studies profit shifting and transfer pricing separately. In practice, the choice of debt-to-asset ratios in affiliates and the transfer price of debt are interrelated management decisions that are also mutually affected by government regulation. This paper models these strategies as intertwined. We find t...

  15. Leaf morphology shift linked to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Guerin, Greg R.; Wen, Haixia; Lowe, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is driving adaptive shifts within species, but research on plants has been focused on phenology. Leaf morphology has demonstrated links with climate and varies within species along climate gradients. We predicted that, given within-species variation along a climate gradient, a morphological shift should have occurred over time due to climate change. We tested this prediction, taking advantage of latitudinal and altitudinal variations within the Adelaide Geosyncline region, Sout...

  16. Optical Doppler shift with structured light

    OpenAIRE

    Belmonte A.; Belmonte, Aniceto; de Torres, Juan P; Torres J.P.

    2011-01-01

    When a light beam with a transverse spatially varying phase is considered for optical remote sensing, in addition to the usual longitudinal Doppler frequency shift of the returned signal induced by the motion of the scatter along the beam axis, a new transversal Doppler shift appears associated to the motion of the scatterer in the plane perpendicular to the beam axis. We discuss here how this new effect can be used to enhance the current capabilities of optical measurement system...

  17. Hadronic vacuum polarization and the Lamb shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent improvements in the determination of the running of the fine-structure constant also allow an update of the hadronic vacuum-polarization contribution to the Lamb shift. We find a shift of -3.40(7) kHz to the 1S level of hydrogen. We also comment on the contribution of this effect to the determination by elastic electron scattering of the rms radii of nuclei. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Brain cancer probed by native fluorescence and stokes shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; He, Yong; Pu, Yang; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Wei; Alfano, Robert R.

    2012-12-01

    Optical biopsy spectroscopy was applied to diagnosis human brain cancer in vitro. The spectra of native fluorescence, Stokes shift and excitation spectra were obtained from malignant meningioma, benign, normal meningeal tissues and acoustic neuroma benign tissues. The wide excitation wavelength ranges were used to establish the criterion for distinguishing brain diseases. The alteration of fluorescence spectra between normal and abnormal brain tissues were identified by the characteristic fluorophores under the excitation with UV to visible wavelength range. It was found that the ratios of the peak intensities and peak position in both spectra of fluorescence and Stokes shift may be used to diagnose human brain meninges diseases. The preliminary analysis of fluorescence spectral data from cancer and normal meningeal tissues by basic biochemical component analysis model (BBCA) and Bayes classification model based on statistical methods revealed the changes of components, and classified the difference between cancer and normal human brain meningeal tissues in a predictions accuracy rate is 0.93 in comparison with histopathology and immunohistochemistry reports (gold standard).

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Instability and Metabolic Shift in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chen Lee

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A shift in glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis is one of the biochemical hallmarks of tumor cells. Mitochondrial defects have been proposed to play an important role in the initiation and/or progression of various types of cancer. In the past decade, a wide spectrum of mutations and depletion of mtDNA have been identified in human cancers. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that activation of oncogenes or mutation of tumor suppressor genes, such as p53, can lead to the upregulation of glycolytic enzymes or inhibition of the biogenesis or assembly of respiratory enzyme complexes such as cytochrome c oxidase. These findings may explain, at least in part, the well documented phenomena of elevated glucose uptake and mitochondrial defects in cancers. In this article, we review the somatic mtDNA alterations with clinicopathological correlations in human cancers, and their potential roles in tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and metastasis. The signaling pathways involved in the shift from aerobic metabolism to glycolysis in human cancers are also discussed.

  20. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder : findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; van Erp, T. G. M.; Saemann, P. G.; Frodl, T.; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, M. W.; Ikram, M. A.; Wittfeld, K.; Grabe, H. J.; Block, A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Voelzke, H.; Hoehn, D.; Czisch, M.; Lagopoulos, J.; Hatton, S. N.; Hickie, I. B.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Kraemer, B.; Gruber, O.; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Renteria, M. E.; Strike, L. T.; Mills, N. T.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; McMahon, K. L.; Medland, S. E.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Wright, M. J.; Hall, G.B.; MacQueen, G. M.; Frey, E. M.; Carballedo, A.; van Velzen, L. S.; van Tol, M. J.; van der Wee, N. J.; Veer, I. M.; Walter, H.; Schnell, K.; Schramm, E.; Normann, C.; Schoepf, D.; Konrad, C.; Zurowski, B.; Nickson, T.; McIntosh, A. M.; Papmeyer, M.; Whalley, H. C.; Sussmann, J. E.; Godlewska, B. R.; Cowen, P. J.; Fischer, F. H.; Rose, M.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Thompson, P. M.; Hibar, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristic

  1. Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an increased fractional anisotropy and greater thickness in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum in meditation practitioners compared with control subjects. Altered callosal features may be associated with an altered inter-hemispheric integration and the degree of brain asymmetry may also be shifted in meditation practitioners. Therefore, we investigated differences in gray matter asymmetry as well as correlations between gray matter asymmetry and years of meditation practice in 50 long-term meditators and 50 controls. We detected a decreased rightward asymmetry in the precuneus in meditators compared with controls. In addition, we observed that a stronger leftward asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus was positively associated with the number of meditation practice years. In a further exploratory analysis, we observed that a stronger rightward asymmetry in the pregenual cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the number of practice years. The group difference within the precuneus, as well as the positive correlations with meditation years in the pregenual cingulate cortex, suggests an adaptation of the default mode network in meditators. The positive correlation between meditation practice years and asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus may suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in attention processing. PMID:24643652

  2. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Vincent; Chabbi, Abad; Charrier, Xavier; de Berranger, Christophe; Reignier, Tiffanie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Faivre-Primot, Céline; Terrat, Sébastien; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland). Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health. PMID:26102585

  3. The Adverse Health Effects of Shift Work in Relation to Risk of Illness/Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariat A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological rhythm of sleeping is a natural disparity in an organism corresponding to and in reply to cyclic environmental changes, such as daylight hours and hours of darkness or elevated and low down flow. There is some evidence, based upon epidemiological studies as well as studies upon smaller groups of subjects, that individuals who work during the night and sleep during the daytime show cognitive impairment at work, have poorer and fragmented daytime sleep, and have increased risks of developing a wide range of social, psychological, physiological and medical impairments and disorders. Circadian rhythms are one of the most important effective factors on the physiological and physical performances of humans and disturbing this normal rhythm leads to different groups of diseases. The majority of investigations in biological rhythm demeanor vary noticeably in regards to the exact type of disease, population and protocols of sampling over the other outcomes or issues. We conducted a systematic review of [Science Direct, Pubmed, Scopus] to identify influence of different kinds of diseases among shift workers in response to abnormal rhythm of sleeping. The results of this review indicate that abnormal patterns of sleeping can lead to immunological issues, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, insomnia, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression. It is vital for subsequent investigations to find a way to reduce negative effects (such as decreased amount of works’ time and altered diet without side effects to help them.

  4. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Vincent; Chabbi, Abad; Charrier, Xavier; de Berranger, Christophe; Reignier, Tiffanie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Faivre-Primot, Céline; Terrat, Sébastien; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland). Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health. PMID:26102585

  5. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tardy

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland. Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health.

  6. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  7. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Massimo; Ciarapica, Veronica; Copertaro, Alfredo; Barbaresi, Mariella; Manzella, Nicola; Tomasetti, Marco; Gaetani, Simona; Monaco, Federica; Amati, Monica; Valentino, Matteo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Santarelli, Lory

    2016-01-01

    The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for 24 h after a day off. Significant differences were observed in peripheral skin temperature and cortisol levels between shift and daytime nurses. No differences in melatonin levels were obtained. Per2 maximum values were significantly different between the two groups. Shift nurses exhibited lower circadian variations compared to daytime nurses, and this may indicate an adjustment of the circadian biological clock to continuous shift schedules. Non-invasive procedures, such as peripheral skin temperature measurement, determination of cortisol and melatonin in saliva, and analysis of clock genes in hair follicle cells, may be effective approaches to extensively study the circadian clock in shift workers. PMID:27128899

  8. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for 24 h after a day off. Significant differences were observed in peripheral skin temperature and cortisol levels between shift and daytime nurses. No differences in melatonin levels were obtained. Per2 maximum values were significantly different between the two groups. Shift nurses exhibited lower circadian variations compared to daytime nurses, and this may indicate an adjustment of the circadian biological clock to continuous shift schedules. Non-invasive procedures, such as peripheral skin temperature measurement, determination of cortisol and melatonin in saliva, and analysis of clock genes in hair follicle cells, may be effective approaches to extensively study the circadian clock in shift workers.

  9. Shift systems in nuclear power plants - aspects for planning, shift systems, utility practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture contains the most important aspects of shift structure and shift organisation. The criteria for shift planning involving essential tasks, duties, laws and regulations, medical aspects, social aspects, will be presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany some basic models were established, which will be shown and explained with special reference to the number of teams, size of shift crews and absence regulations. Moreover, the lecture will deal with rotation systems and provisions for the transfer of shift responsibilities. By example of a utility plant commissioning time scale (1300 MW PWR) the practice of shift installations will be shown as well as the most important points of education and training. Within this compass the criteria and requirements for training and education of operational personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany will also be touched. (orig.)

  10. First Detection of the Acoustic Oscillation Phase Shift Expected from the Cosmic Neutrino Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Brent; Knox, Lloyd; Millea, Marius; Pan, Zhen

    2015-08-28

    The unimpeded relativistic propagation of cosmological neutrinos prior to recombination of the baryon-photon plasma alters gravitational potentials and therefore the details of the time-dependent gravitational driving of acoustic oscillations. We report here a first detection of the resulting shifts in the temporal phase of the oscillations, which we infer from their signature in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum. PMID:26371637

  11. Shift work--problems and its impact on female nurses in Udaipur, Rajasthan India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, H; Shukla, K; Singh, S; Tiwari, G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract : There is good evidence that shift work has negative effects on workers health, safety and performance. It is quite appropriate that attention is paid to this very important feature of socio-technical systems, which may adversely affect mental and physical health, social life and safety of shift workers. Research into the impact of shift work on professionals has consistently identified a range of negative outcomes in physical, psychological, and social domains (Akerstedt, 1988; Costa, Lievore, Casaletti, Gaffuri, & Folkard, 1989; Kogi, 2005; Paley & Tepas, 1994). Hospitals, the biggest employer in the health care field, employ more night shift workers than any other industry. It can therefore be inferred that in medical domain high percentage of workforce may be affected by problems related to shift work. Thus the present study will provide knowledge base for the problems faced by the female nurses. The present study was undertaken with an objective of getting an insight into the problems faced by female nurses in shift work. . It was found that the female nurses in India worked on roaster pattern of change in shift every seven days. They did not have a say in the change of duties, it could only be done on mutual grounds. Partners of younger group did not much adjust to their shift pattern this created stress among the nurses.The results showed that the female nurses in both the age groups i.e. 30-45 years and 45-60 years faced many problems related to health and well being, fatigue, social and domestic situations. They could not give much time to their children in particular. Travelling in nights was risky for them. Common problem was the insufficient sleep during night shifts. The nurses had to cater to the needs of the family, children in particular along with the adjustments to be made due to shift work. They had to sometimes do the night duties and attend social functions as a part of their duty. Children and husband in some cases did not cooperate

  12. Hash: a program to accurately predict protein H{sup {alpha}} shifts from neighboring backbone shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Jianyang, E-mail: zengjy@gmail.com [Tsinghua University, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences (China); Zhou Pei [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Donald, Bruce Randall [Duke University, Department of Computer Science (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Chemical shifts provide not only peak identities for analyzing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data, but also an important source of conformational information for studying protein structures. Current structural studies requiring H{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts suffer from the following limitations. (1) For large proteins, the H{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts can be difficult to assign using conventional NMR triple-resonance experiments, mainly due to the fast transverse relaxation rate of C{sup {alpha}} that restricts the signal sensitivity. (2) Previous chemical shift prediction approaches either require homologous models with high sequence similarity or rely heavily on accurate backbone and side-chain structural coordinates. When neither sequence homologues nor structural coordinates are available, we must resort to other information to predict H{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts. Predicting accurate H{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts using other obtainable information, such as the chemical shifts of nearby backbone atoms (i.e., adjacent atoms in the sequence), can remedy the above dilemmas, and hence advance NMR-based structural studies of proteins. By specifically exploiting the dependencies on chemical shifts of nearby backbone atoms, we propose a novel machine learning algorithm, called Hash, to predict H{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts. Hash combines a new fragment-based chemical shift search approach with a non-parametric regression model, called the generalized additive model, to effectively solve the prediction problem. We demonstrate that the chemical shifts of nearby backbone atoms provide a reliable source of information for predicting accurate H{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts. Our testing results on different possible combinations of input data indicate that Hash has a wide rage of potential NMR applications in structural and biological studies of proteins.

  13. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tuan A; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-11-28

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties. PMID:24289370

  14. SPATIAL ALTERATION AT UBUD TRADITIONAL VILLAGE, GIANYAR, BALI IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA: A CULTURAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorda Oka Artha Ardhana Sukawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the era of globalization much spatial alteration has taken place at Ubud TraditionalVillage, Gianyar Regency, Bali as the consequence of fast development of tourism. The aspectswhich have changed, as the result of the shift from agricultural culture to tourism culture since1970, include the spatial relationship between man and God (parhyangan, the spatial relationshipbetween man and his environment (palemahan, and the spatial relationship between man and hisfellow being or the three things which cause physical and spiritual prosperity among human beings.This research in cultural studies was conducted to reveal the spatial alteration which hadtaken place at Ubud Traditional Market in the globalization era especially since 1970 as theconsequence of the fast development in tourism. The data were analyzed by applying qualitativeanalysis technique, eclecticism of the theory of change, the theory of space, the theory ofhegemony, and critical and practical theories. The research was conducted by employing qualitativemethod which features cultural studies.The results of the research show that the increase in population and in what is needed bytourism has led to the spatial alteration in parhyangan in the village and home levels. The spatialalteration in pawongan as a unity of membership (krama does not take place and the spatialalternation in families does not either. This indicates that Ubud Traditional Village is getting morecomplex in facing modern and global condition with its commercial culture. Its tradition,agricultural culture and nature have contributed to the development of tourism. In regard topalemahan, catus patha has not been the only center of orientation any more. The settlement of thepopulation has followed the development of tourist facilities. Tourism has also altered the landusefulness causing zero-settlement based on groups of banjar (neighborhood under a traditionalvillage to be irrelevant. In regard to the patterns of space

  15. Some Notes on M-hyp onormal Weighted Shifts and Hyp onormalizable Weighted Shifts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Bin; ZHOU Qing-mei

    2014-01-01

    Let {an}∞n=0 be a weight sequence and let W denote the associated unilateral weighted shift on H. In this paper, we consider the connection between the M-hyponormal and hyponormalizable weighted shift operator. Main results are Theorems 4.1 and Theorems 4.2. Theorem 4.1 gives the sufficient condition that a weighted shifts M-hyponormal operator is hyponormalizable. Theorem 4.2 gives the sufficient condition that a hyponormalizable weighted shift operator is M-hyponormal. Finally, invariant subspaces of such operators are discussed.

  16. Pulmonary alterations in Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aims to demonstrate pulmonary alterations (PA) in patients with Behcet's disease by using CT. Materials and methods: CTs of 50 patients with Behcet's disease and 20 others in a control group have been evaluated retrospectively for PA (septal, reticular, nodular, atelectatic opacities). Results: Eight out of 50 patients (16%) with Behcet's disease showed PA. Three out of 20 (15%) in the control group showed PA. No differences were observed between Behcet's disease patients and the control group regarding pulmonary alterations (p = 0.917). No differences were observed in the disease duration, ages and sex in either group in those with and without PA. Conclusion: Pulmonary alterations can be seen in patients with Behcet's disease, but these alterations are not significant.

  17. Choice Shift in Opinion Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Michael

    Choice shift is a phenomenon associated with small group dynamics whereby group discussion causes group members to shift their opinions in a more extreme direction so that the mean post-discussion opinion exceeds the mean pre-discussion opinion. Also known as group polarization, choice shift is a robust experimental phenomenon and has been well-studied within social psychology. In opinion network models, shifts toward extremism are typically produced by the presence of stubborn agents at the extremes of the opinion axis, whose opinions are much more resistant to change than moderate agents. However, we present a model in which choice shift can arise without the assumption of stubborn agents; the model evolves member opinions and uncertainties using coupled nonlinear differential equations. In addition, we briefly describe the results of a recent experiment conducted involving online group discussion concerning the outcome of National Football League games are described. The model predictions concerning the effects of network structure, disagreement level, and team choice (favorite or underdog) are in accord with the experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  18. Dark refraction shift with allowance for astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D.H. Gillan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show that the dark refraction shift (dark focus is a more complicated phenomenon than implied when presented as spherical. Methods: Fifty autorefractor measurements of refractive state of the right eye were obtained in light  and  dark  conditions.  Multivariate  methods were used to analyze the data and stereo-pair scat-ter plots, polar meridional profiles and other means of presenting results are used to show important characteristics of the dark refraction shift. Results: The complexity of the dark refrac-tion shift is indicated by stereo-pair scatter plots showing the amount of stigmatic and antistigmatic variation that occurs in light and dark conditions. The mean dark refraction shift is presented in a complete manner including all three components of refractive state. The greater variance and covari-ance under dark conditions is clearly shown by the term-by-term dark-light variance-covariance ratio and polar profiles  of variance and covariance.Conclusions: The  dark  refraction  shift  is  a more complicated phenomenon than implied by representations as purely spherical in nature.

  19. Nonlinear ferromagnetic resonance shift in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Belova, Lyuba; McMichael, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In dynamic magnetic systems, various experiments have shown that the ferromagnetic resonance frequency can shift up or down with increasing driving power in the nonlinear regime. The resonance shift is important in understanding nonlinear physics in nanomagnets and for applications of spin-torque oscillators. Here, we present a systematic study on the sign of the nonlinear coefficient, i.e. the direction of the resonance field/frequency shift. We use ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy (FMRFM) to measure the ferromagnetic resonance of a series of submicron NiFe ellipses with varying aspect ratios. We find the sign of the resonance shift is determined by both the applied field and the anisotropy field. Our measurement and micromagnetic modeling results are in qualitative agreement with a macro-spin analysis developed by Slavin and Tiberkevich. However, both measurement and modeling results exhibit values of the nonlinear coefficient that are more positive (meaning that the resonance tends to shift toward low field direction) than are predicted by the macrospin model. We attribute the difference to the non-uniformity of the precession modes in the ellipses. By analogy with standing spin waves, we show that nonuniform precession tends to increase the nonlinear frequency coefficient through a magnetostatic mechanism.

  20. Exchange energy shifts under dense plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiangdong [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Rosmej, F B [Universite de Provence et CNRS, UMR 6633 Centre St Jerome, PIIM, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2006-08-28

    The variation of the energy interval between the intercombination line (1s2p({sup 3}P{sub 1}){yields}1s{sup 2}) and the resonance line (1s2p({sup 1}P{sub 1}){yields}1s{sup 2}) of He-like aluminium with plasma density and temperature is investigated. Since such energy interval is equivalent to the exchange energy of the state 1s2p({sup 3}P{sub 1}), we consider the dependence of this energy shift on the plasma environment. It was found that the shifts of exchange energy increase (decrease) with the increase of electron density (electron temperature), and the shifts of exchange energy become more sensitive to the electron density as the electron temperature decreases, i.e. in the strongly coupled plasma regime. An approximately linear relation is found between the shifts of exchange energy and the electron density. The results show that dense plasma effects are very important for the simulation of the spectral fine structure. The relative shifts between the intercombination (1s2p({sup 3}P{sub 1}){yields}1s{sup 2}) and the resonance line (1s2p({sup 1}P{sub 1}){yields}1s{sup 2}) are discussed for diagnostic applications.