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Sample records for alteration processes occurred

  1. Altered dopamine signaling in naturally occurring maternal neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Gammie

    , especially within regions involved in reward, is involved in naturally occurring neglect and that MaD1 mice are a useful model for understanding the basis of naturally occurring neglect.

  2. Bordetella pertussis naturally occurring isolates with altered lipooligosaccharide structure fail to fully mature human dendritic cells.

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    Brummelman, Jolanda; Veerman, Rosanne E; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Deuss, Anna J M; Schuijt, Tim J; Sloots, Arjen; Kuipers, Betsy; van Els, Cécile A C M; van der Ley, Peter; Mooi, Frits R; Han, Wanda G H; Pinelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Despite high vaccination coverage, outbreaks are being increasingly reported worldwide. Possible explanations include adaptation of this pathogen, which may interfere with recognition by the innate immune system. Here, we describe innate immune recognition and responses to different B. pertussis clinical isolates. By using HEK-Blue cells transfected with different pattern recognition receptors, we found that 3 out of 19 clinical isolates failed to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These findings were confirmed by using the monocytic MM6 cell line. Although incubation with high concentrations of these 3 strains resulted in significant activation of the MM6 cells, it was found to occur mainly through interaction with TLR2 and not through TLR4. When using live bacteria, these 3 strains also failed to activate TLR4 on HEK-Blue cells, and activation of MM6 cells or human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was significantly lower than activation induced by the other 16 strains. Mass spectrum analysis of the lipid A moieties from these 3 strains indicated an altered structure of this molecule. Gene sequence analysis revealed mutations in genes involved in lipid A synthesis. Findings from this study indicate that B. pertussis isolates that do not activate TLR4 occur naturally and that this phenotype may give this bacterium an advantage in tempering the innate immune response and establishing infection. Knowledge on the strategies used by this pathogen in evading the host immune response is essential for the improvement of current vaccines or for the development of new ones.

  3. Chemical and Mineralogical Features of Smectite from the Morron de Mateo Bentonite Deposit (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) in Relation to the Parent Rocks and the Alteration Processes Occurred After the Bentonite Formation: Analogies and Implications for the Engineered Clayey Barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on the clayey barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository (DGRR) after its closure, in relation to the radioactive decay of the fission products and the container corrosion. This bentonite deposit and their host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the bioclastic calcarenite beds close to the dome. Bentonite from the NE sector of the deposit have been chemically and mineralogically characterized. Pyroclastic rocks (white tuffs), epyclastic rocks (mass flow) and andesitic breccia all of them hydrothermally altered, have been studied at the site. Samples are composed of feldspars, quartz and amphybols, as inherited minerals, and phyllosilicates, zeolites, crystoballite and calcite, as new formed minerals. White tuffs have the highest phyllosilicate contents, mainly dioctahedral smectite of montmorillonite type. Epyclastic rocks and andesitic breccia have a highest proportion of inherited minerals, the new formed phillosilicates being di octahedral smectite of beidellite type and an ordered interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral, of corrensite type. Smectite from the epyclastic rocks have higher Fe and Mg contents and chemical variability, as a consequence of nature of their parent rocks. The presence of corrensite in the epyclastic rocks suggests that in the Morron de Mateo area a propilitic alteration process occurred after bentonite formation, which transformed Fe-Mg-rich smectite into corrensite. This transformation was probably favoured by the sub volcanic intrusion, which also produced a temperature increase in the geological media and a supply of Fe-Mg-rich solutions, which also were the responsible for the metasomatic transformations observed in the calcarenite beds. (Author) 57 refs

  4. A Proteomic Focus on the Alterations Occurring at the Human Atherosclerotic Coronary Intima*

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    de la Cuesta, Fernando; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maroto, Aroa S.; Donado, Alicia; Zubiri, Irene; Posada, Maria; Padial, Luis R.; Pinto, Angel G.; Barderas, Maria G.; Vivanco, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis still represents the major cause of mortality in western societies. Initiation of atherosclerosis occurs within the intima, where major histological and molecular changes are produced during pathogenesis. So far, proteomic analysis of the atherome plaque has been mainly tackled by the analysis of the entire tissue, which may be a challenging approach because of the great complexity of this sample in terms of layers and cell type composition. Based on this, we aimed to study the intimal proteome from the human atherosclerotic coronary artery. For this purpose, we analyzed the intimal layer from human atherosclerotic coronaries, which were isolated by laser microdissection, and compared with those from preatherosclerotic coronary and radial arteries, using a two-dimensional Differential-In-Gel-Electrophoresis (DIGE) approach. Results have pointed out 13 proteins to be altered (seven up-regulated and six down-regulated), which are implicated in the migrative capacity of vascular smooth muscle cells, extracellular matrix composition, coagulation, apoptosis, heat shock response, and intraplaque hemorrhage deposition. Among these, three proteins (annexin 4, myosin regulatory light 2, smooth muscle isoform, and ferritin light chain) constitute novel atherosclerotic coronary intima proteins, because they were not previously identified at this human coronary layer. For this reason, these novel proteins were validated by immunohistochemistry, together with hemoglobin and vimentin, in an independent cohort of arteries. PMID:21248247

  5. A proteomic focus on the alterations occurring at the human atherosclerotic coronary intima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cuesta, Fernando; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maroto, Aroa S; Donado, Alicia; Zubiri, Irene; Posada, Maria; Padial, Luis R; Pinto, Angel G; Barderas, Maria G; Vivanco, Fernando

    2011-04-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis still represents the major cause of mortality in western societies. Initiation of atherosclerosis occurs within the intima, where major histological and molecular changes are produced during pathogenesis. So far, proteomic analysis of the atherome plaque has been mainly tackled by the analysis of the entire tissue, which may be a challenging approach because of the great complexity of this sample in terms of layers and cell type composition. Based on this, we aimed to study the intimal proteome from the human atherosclerotic coronary artery. For this purpose, we analyzed the intimal layer from human atherosclerotic coronaries, which were isolated by laser microdissection, and compared with those from preatherosclerotic coronary and radial arteries, using a two-dimensional Differential-In-Gel-Electrophoresis (DIGE) approach. Results have pointed out 13 proteins to be altered (seven up-regulated and six down-regulated), which are implicated in the migrative capacity of vascular smooth muscle cells, extracellular matrix composition, coagulation, apoptosis, heat shock response, and intraplaque hemorrhage deposition. Among these, three proteins (annexin 4, myosin regulatory light 2, smooth muscle isoform, and ferritin light chain) constitute novel atherosclerotic coronary intima proteins, because they were not previously identified at this human coronary layer. For this reason, these novel proteins were validated by immunohistochemistry, together with hemoglobin and vimentin, in an independent cohort of arteries. PMID:21248247

  6. 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced glutathione alteration occurs via glutathione enzyme system in primary cultured astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji ZHANG; Jun HU; Jian-hua DING; Hong-hong YAO; Gang HU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To define the role of enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced glutathione alteration in primary cultured astrocytes.Methods: Total glutathione (GSx) levels were determined using the modified enzymatic microtiter plate assay.The mRNA levels ofγ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γGCS), γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), GR (glutathione reductase), and glutathione transferases (GST) were determined using RT-PCR.γGT activity was determined using γGT assay kits.Results: In primary cultured astrocytes, 6-OHDA induced a significant elevation of cellular GSx levels after treatment for 24 h.However, the GSx levels decreased after 24 h and the values were even lower than the value in the control group without 6-OHDA at 48 h.RT-PCR data showed that the mRNA levels of γGCS, the ratelimiting enzyme of γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH) synthesis, were increased by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; the mRNA levels of GPx, GR, and GST did not alter in 6-OHDA-treated astrocytes after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; and 6-OHDA increased the mRNA levels and the activity of γGT after treatment for 48 h,which induced a decrease in GSx levels, despite the up-regulation of γGCS after exposure to 6-OHDA for 48 h.Conclusion: The change in γGCS correlated with the increase in GSH levels induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h.GSx levels decreased because of increased γGT mRNA levels and γGT activity induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 48 h.

  7. Melon necrotic spot virus Replication Occurs in Association with Altered Mitochondria.

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    Gómez-Aix, Cristina; García-García, María; Aranda, Miguel A; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia

    2015-04-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) (genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that has become an experimental model for the analysis of cell-to-cell virus movement and translation of uncapped viral RNAs, whereas little is known about its replication. Analysis of the cytopathology after MNSV infection showed the specific presence of modified organelles that resemble mitochondria. Immunolocalization of the glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) P protein in these organelles confirmed their mitochondrial origin. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization experiments showed the specific localization of positive-sense viral RNA, capsid protein (CP), and double-stranded (ds)RNA in these organelles meaning that replication of the virus takes place in association with them. The three-dimensional reconstructions of the altered mitochondria showed the presence of large, interconnected, internal dilations which appeared to be linked to the outside cytoplasmic environment through pores and/or complex structures, and with lipid bodies. Transient expression of MNSV p29 revealed that its specific target is mitochondria. Our data document the extensive reorganization of host mitochondria induced by MNSV, which provides a protected environment to viral replication, and show that the MNSV p29 protein is the primary determinant of this effect in the host.

  8. Distinct genetic alterations occur in ovarian tumor cells selected for combined resistance to carboplatin and docetaxel

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    Armstrong Stephen R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current protocols for the treatment of ovarian cancer include combination chemotherapy with a platinating agent and a taxane. However, many patients experience relapse of their cancer and the development of drug resistance is not uncommon, making successful second line therapy difficult to achieve. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a cell line resistant to both carboplatin and docetaxel (dual drug resistant ovarian cell line and to compare this cell line to cells resistant to either carboplatin or docetaxel. Methods The A2780 epithelial endometrioid ovarian cancer cell line was used to select for isogenic carboplatin, docetaxel and dual drug resistant cell lines. A selection method of gradually increasing drug doses was implemented to avoid clonal selection. Resistance was confirmed using a clonogenic assay. Changes in gene expression associated with the development of drug resistance were determined by microarray analysis. Changes in the expression of selected genes were validated by Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR and immunoblotting. Results Three isogenic cell lines were developed and resistance to each drug or the combination of drugs was confirmed. Development of resistance was accompanied by a reduced growth rate. The microarray and QPCR analyses showed that unique changes in gene expression occurred in the dual drug resistant cell line and that genes known to be involved in resistance could be identified in all cell lines. Conclusions Ovarian tumor cells can acquire resistance to both carboplatin and docetaxel when selected in the presence of both agents. Distinct changes in gene expression occur in the dual resistant cell line indicating that dual resistance is not a simple combination of the changes observed in cell lines exhibiting single agent resistance.

  9. Three-dimensional disorganization of the cancer genome occurs coincident with long-range genetic and epigenetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberlay, Phillippa C; Achinger-Kawecka, Joanna; Lun, Aaron T L; Buske, Fabian A; Sabir, Kenneth; Gould, Cathryn M; Zotenko, Elena; Bert, Saul A; Giles, Katherine A; Bauer, Denis C; Smyth, Gordon K; Stirzaker, Clare; O'Donoghue, Sean I; Clark, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    A three-dimensional chromatin state underpins the structural and functional basis of the genome by bringing regulatory elements and genes into close spatial proximity to ensure proper, cell-type-specific gene expression profiles. Here, we performed Hi-C chromosome conformation capture sequencing to investigate how three-dimensional chromatin organization is disrupted in the context of copy-number variation, long-range epigenetic remodeling, and atypical gene expression programs in prostate cancer. We find that cancer cells retain the ability to segment their genomes into megabase-sized topologically associated domains (TADs); however, these domains are generally smaller due to establishment of additional domain boundaries. Interestingly, a large proportion of the new cancer-specific domain boundaries occur at regions that display copy-number variation. Notably, a common deletion on 17p13.1 in prostate cancer spanning the TP53 tumor suppressor locus results in bifurcation of a single TAD into two distinct smaller TADs. Change in domain structure is also accompanied by novel cancer-specific chromatin interactions within the TADs that are enriched at regulatory elements such as enhancers, promoters, and insulators, and associated with alterations in gene expression. We also show that differential chromatin interactions across regulatory regions occur within long-range epigenetically activated or silenced regions of concordant gene activation or repression in prostate cancer. Finally, we present a novel visualization tool that enables integrated exploration of Hi-C interaction data, the transcriptome, and epigenome. This study provides new insights into the relationship between long-range epigenetic and genomic dysregulation and changes in higher-order chromatin interactions in cancer. PMID:27053337

  10. Involvement of gut microbial fermentation in the metabolic alterations occurring in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-depleted mice

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    Carpentier Yvon A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Western diet is characterized by an insufficient n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA consumption which is known to promote the pathogenesis of several diseases. We have previously observed that mice fed with a diet poor in n-3 PUFA for two generations exhibit hepatic steatosis together with a decrease in body weight. The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of host energy metabolism, due to symbiotic relationship with fermentable nutrients provided in the diet. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that perturbations of the gut microbiota contribute to the metabolic alterations occurring in mice fed a diet poor in n-3 PUFA for two generations (n-3/- mice. Methods C57Bl/6J mice fed with a control or an n-3 PUFA depleted diet for two generations were supplemented with prebiotic (inulin-type Fructooligosaccharides, FOS, 0.20 g/day/mice during 24 days. Results n-3/-mice exhibited a marked drop in caecum weight, a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase in bifidobacteria in the caecal content as compared to control mice (n-3/+ mice. Dietary supplementation with FOS for 24 days was sufficient to increase caecal weight and bifidobacteria count in both n-3/+ and n-3/-mice. Moreover, FOS increased lactobacilli content in n-3/-mice, whereas it decreased their level in n-3/+ mice. Interestingly, FOS treatment promoted body weight gain in n-3/-mice by increasing energy efficiency. In addition, FOS treatment decreased fasting glycemia and lowered the higher expression of key factors involved in the fatty acid catabolism observed in the liver of n-3/-mice, without lessening steatosis. Conclusions the changes in the gut microbiota composition induced by FOS are different depending on the type of diet. We show that FOS may promote lactobacilli and counteract the catabolic status induced by n-3 PUFA depletion in mice, thereby contributing to restore efficient fat storage.

  11. Studies of the thermal processes occurring during electron-beam processing of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results from studies on the thermal processes taking place during electron-beam treatment of tool steels. A thermal model is presented describing these processes and results are given of calculations performed concerning the thermal field and the dimensions of the zone of structural changes due to electron-beam modification of specimens of tool steels.

  12. Effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow on concentrations of naturally-occurring trace elements at water-supply wells

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    Ayotte, J.D.; Szabo, Z.; Focazio, M.J.; Eberts, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow patterns on concentrations of naturally-occurring trace elements were examined in five hydrologically distinct aquifer systems in the USA. Although naturally occurring, these trace elements can exceed concentrations that are considered harmful to human health. The results show that pumping-induced hydraulic gradient changes and artificial connection of aquifers by well screens can mix chemically distinct groundwater. Chemical reactions between these mixed groundwaters and solid aquifer materials can result in the mobilization of trace elements such as U, As and Ra, with subsequent transport to water-supply wells. For example, in the High Plains aquifer near York, Nebraska, mixing of shallow, oxygenated, lower-pH water from an unconfined aquifer with deeper, confined, anoxic, higher-pH water is facilitated by wells screened across both aquifers. The resulting higher-O2, lower-pH mixed groundwater facilitated the mobilization of U from solid aquifer materials, and dissolved U concentrations were observed to increase significantly in nearby supply wells. Similar instances of trace element mobilization due to human-induced mixing of groundwaters were documented in: (1) the Floridan aquifer system near Tampa, Florida (As and U), (2) Paleozoic sedimentary aquifers in eastern Wisconsin (As), (3) the basin-fill aquifer underlying the California Central Valley near Modesto (U), and (4) Coastal Plain aquifers of New Jersey (Ra). Adverse water-quality impacts attributed to human activities are commonly assumed to be related solely to the release of the various anthropogenic contaminants to the environment. The results show that human activities including various land uses, well drilling, and pumping rates and volumes can adversely impact the quality of water in supply wells, when associated with naturally-occurring trace elements in aquifer materials. This occurs by causing subtle but significant changes in

  13. Electromagnetic Evidence of Altered Visual Processing in Autism

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    Neumann, Nicola; Dubischar-Krivec, Anna M.; Poustka, Fritz; Birbaumer, Niels; Bolte, Sven; Braun, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate intact or superior local processing of visual-spatial tasks. We investigated the hypothesis that in a disembedding task, autistic individuals exhibit a more local processing style than controls, which is reflected by altered electromagnetic brain activity in response to embedded stimuli…

  14. Sensitivity, child regulatory processes, and naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior across childhood.

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    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite considerable research on why antisocial behavior develops and interventions that reduce it, aspects of everyday family processes that may promote naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior or that may result from such declines in most children without intervention are poorly understood. The current study explored family processes that may enable children to replace antisocial tendencies and the effects that declines in antisocial behavior may have on parenting and child regulatory processes. Longitudinal data from 1,022 children (54 months-6th grade) from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were examined. Findings demonstrated that naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior both predicted and were predicted by maternal sensitivity, emotion regulation, and social skills. These declines predicted but were not predicted by declines in hostile attributions. The data revealed multiple indirect paths, which highlight the complex nature of these variables across development.

  15. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I. [Shell Research and Technology Centre, Amsterdam, (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Genetic alterations in uncommon low-grade neuroepithelial tumors: BRAF, FGFR1, and MYB mutations occur at high frequency and align with morphology.

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    Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Orisme, Wilda; Wen, Ji; Santiago, Teresa; Gupta, Kirti; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Haupfear, Kelly; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Easton, John; Mulder, Heather; Boggs, Kristy; Shao, Ying; Rusch, Michael; Becksfort, Jared; Gupta, Pankaj; Wang, Shuoguo; Lee, Ryan P; Brat, Daniel; Peter Collins, V; Dahiya, Sonika; George, David; Konomos, William; Kurian, Kathreena M; McFadden, Kathryn; Serafini, Luciano Neder; Nickols, Hilary; Perry, Arie; Shurtleff, Sheila; Gajjar, Amar; Boop, Fredrick A; Klimo, Paul D; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Baker, Suzanne J; Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Downing, James R; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Ellison, David W

    2016-06-01

    Low-grade neuroepithelial tumors (LGNTs) are diverse CNS tumors presenting in children and young adults, often with a history of epilepsy. While the genetic profiles of common LGNTs, such as the pilocytic astrocytoma and 'adult-type' diffuse gliomas, are largely established, those of uncommon LGNTs remain to be defined. In this study, we have used massively parallel sequencing and various targeted molecular genetic approaches to study alterations in 91 LGNTs, mostly from children but including young adult patients. These tumors comprise dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs; n = 22), diffuse oligodendroglial tumors (d-OTs; n = 20), diffuse astrocytomas (DAs; n = 17), angiocentric gliomas (n = 15), and gangliogliomas (n = 17). Most LGNTs (84 %) analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) were characterized by a single driver genetic alteration. Alterations of FGFR1 occurred frequently in LGNTs composed of oligodendrocyte-like cells, being present in 82 % of DNETs and 40 % of d-OTs. In contrast, a MYB-QKI fusion characterized almost all angiocentric gliomas (87 %), and MYB fusion genes were the most common genetic alteration in DAs (41 %). A BRAF:p.V600E mutation was present in 35 % of gangliogliomas and 18 % of DAs. Pathogenic alterations in FGFR1/2/3, BRAF, or MYB/MYBL1 occurred in 78 % of the series. Adult-type d-OTs with an IDH1/2 mutation occurred in four adolescents, the youngest aged 15 years at biopsy. Despite a detailed analysis, novel genetic alterations were limited to two fusion genes, EWSR1-PATZ1 and SLMAP-NTRK2, both in gangliogliomas. Alterations in BRAF, FGFR1, or MYB account for most pathogenic alterations in LGNTs, including pilocytic astrocytomas, and alignment of these genetic alterations and cytologic features across LGNTs has diagnostic implications. Additionally, therapeutic options based upon targeting the effects of these alterations are already in clinical trials. PMID:26810070

  17. An altered antioxidant balance occurs in Down syndrome fetal organs: implications for the "gene dosage effect" hypothesis.

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    de Haan, J B; Susil, B; Pritchard, M; Kola, I

    2003-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the congenital birth defect responsible for the greatest number of individuals with mental retardation. It arises due to trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) or part thereof. To date there have been limited studies of HSA21 gene expression in trisomy 21 conceptuses. In this study we investigate the expression of the HSA21 antioxidant gene, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) in various organs of control and DS aborted conceptuses. We show that SOD1 mRNA levels are elevated in DS brain, lung, heart and thymus. DS livers show decreased SOD1 mRNA expression compared with controls. Since non-HSA21 antioxidant genes are reported to be concomitantly upregulated in certain DS tissues, we examined the expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) in control and DS fetal organs. Interestingly, GPX1 expression was unchanged in the majority of DS organs and decreased in DS livers. We examined the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio in individual organs, as both enzymes form part of the body's defense against oxidative stress, and because a disproportionate increase of SOD1 to GPX1 results in noxious hydroxyl radical damage. All organs investigated show an approximately 2-fold increase in the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio. We propose that it is the altered antioxidant ratio that contributes to certain aspects of the DS phenotype.

  18. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD

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    Paul Frewen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A “4-D model” was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC. Methods: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD with (n=126 versus without (n=132 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Results: As measured by the Borderline Symptom List, consistent with the predictions of the 4-D model, in comparison with symptom endorsements theorized to be associated with NWC, measures of TRASC were less frequent, and more strongly correlated with both Dissociative Experience Scale scores and severity of childhood emotional neglect, particularly in persons with both BPD and PTSD. Our prediction that symptoms of TRASC would be less intercorrelated in comparison with distress associated with NWC symptoms, however, was not supported. Conclusions: Findings are discussed as they pertain to the symptomatology of BPD, PTSD, and dissociation.

  19. Phenomenological Description of Acoustic Emission Processes Occurring During High-Pressure Sand Compaction

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    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea; Grande-García, Elisa; Rodríguez-Cedrún, Borja

    2016-04-01

    Compaction, pore collapse and grain crushing have a significant impact over the hydrodynamic properties of sand formations. The assessment of the crushing stress threshold constitutes valuable information in order to assess the behavior of these formations provided that it can be conveniently identified. Because of the inherent complexities of the direct observation of sand crushing, different authors have developed several indirect methods, being acoustic emission a promising one. However, previous researches have evidenced that there are different processes triggering acoustic emissions which need to be carefully accounted. Worth mentioning among them are grain bearing, grain to container friction, intergranular friction and crushing. The work presented here addresses this purpose. A broadband acoustic emission sensor (PA MicroHF200) connected to a high-speed data acquisition system and control software (AeWIN for PCI1 2.10) has been attached to a steel ram and used to monitor the different processes occurring during the oedometric compaction of uniform quartz sand up to an axial load of about 110 MPa and constant temperature. Load was stepwise applied using a servocontrolled hydraulic press acting at a constant load rate. Axial strain was simultaneously measured with the aid of a LDT device. Counts, energy, event duration, rise time and amplitude were recorded along each experiment and after completion selected waveforms were transformed from the time to the frequency domain via FFT transform. Additional simplified tests were performed in order to isolate the frequency characteristics of the dominant processes occurring during sand compaction. Our results show that, from simple tests, it is possible to determine process-dependent frequency components. When considering more complex experiments, many of the studied processes overlap but it is still possible to identify when a particular one dominates as well as the likely onset of crushing.

  20. Radionuclide sorption/desorption processes occurring during groundwater transport: progress report January 1981 - June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previous reports in this series (ENPU 80-7, 81-6) reported the initial studies of the sorption of various radionuclides (isotopes of Cs, Ce, Co and Sr) on to a naturally weathered granite. In this report the mechanisms of sorption/desorption processes occurring are investigated in greater detail in a series of experiments which utilise a simpler substrate prepared by hydrocycloning the original unsorted granitic material. Data on the kinetics of reaction, sorption/desorption isotherms, and competition for sorption sites in multiple spike systems are reported. (author)

  1. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddow, H. [Geoscience Building, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: h.l.beddow@reading.ac.uk; Black, S. [Geoscience Building, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Read, D. [Enterpris Ltd., Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Old Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by {sup 238}U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations ({<=}8.8 Bq/g) of {sup 238}U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels ({<=}11 Bq/g) of {sup 226}Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  2. Analysis of Occupational Diseases Occurring in Forestry and Wood Processing Industry in Slovakia

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    Jozef Suchomel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is the analysis of occupational diseases occurred in forestry and wood processing industry (WPI between 2000-2009. The aim of this analysis is to highlight the development of occupational diseases and the impact of selected factors on development trend. The basis for the analysis was the basic information on affected persons - gender, job, age and duration of exposure to harmful agents, as well as the information about specific diseases and factors that support the appearance of the disease. Data for the ten-year observation period were evaluated graphically and the correlation between the selected qualitative characteristics was determined by the method of contingency tables. An interesting result is the proportion of diseases among women in the WPI, which reaches nearly 40%, in forestry where men are mostly harmed. The most often represented disease in forestry is vibration disease. The total share of the three types of this disease (vibration disease of joints, bones, tendons and muscles; disease of blood vessels and nerves; other vibration diseases and combined diseases caused by vibration accounts for up to 52% of all occupational diseases. In the wood processing industry the damage of workers’ hearing was the most frequently occurring harm.

  3. A computer simulation of the afterburning processes occurring within solid rocket motor plumes in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, R. I.; Stewart, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a continuing study of the environmental effects of solid rocket motor (SRM) operations in the troposphere, a numerical model was used to simulate the afterburning processes occurring in solid rocket motor plumes and to predict the quantities of potentially harmful chemical species which are created. The calculations include the effects of finite-rate chemistry and turbulent mixing. It is found that the amount of NO produced is much less than the amount of HCl present in the plume, that chlorine will appear predominantly in the form of HCl although some molecular chlorine is present, and that combustion is complete as is evident from the predominance of carbon dioxide over carbon monoxide.

  4. Maltivariate Analysis of the Occurring Process of Skeletonema costatum Red Tide in the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀清; 蒋晓山; 陶然; 洪君超

    2001-01-01

    Using the SAS software, the data of environmental factors vs. red tide biomass were analysed during the process of Skeletonema costatum red tide which broke out in the Changjiang Estuary on June 9~15, 1990. The results of the multivariate statistical analysis show that the environmental factors are similar in their developing and maintenance periods and that the values of environmental factors begin to be restored to normal levels during the disappearing period.The results obtained from using the methods of correlation, variable cluster and main component analyses are basically identical. The important factors contributing to the occurrence of this red tide are atmospherical pressure, water temperature, salinity, pH, No3-, -N, Po43--P and Fe, among which,salinity, Fe and PO43--P are the leading factors which have triggered the occurrence of the red tide as determined by the step-by-step regression analysis. Meanwhile, the linear discrimination functions have been established for the red tide. The environmental factor data of another occurring process of Skeletonema costatum red tide in the Changjiang Estuary have been chosen for red tide discrimination with satisfactory results.

  5. Prenatal IV Cocaine: Alterations in Auditory Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Mactutus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One clue regarding the basis of cocaine-induced deficits in attentional processing is provided by the clinical findings of changes in the infants’ startle response; observations buttressed by neurophysiological evidence of alterations in brainstem transmission time. Using the IV route of administration and doses that mimic the peak arterial levels of cocaine use in humans, the present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine on auditory information processing via tests of the acoustic startle response (ASR, habituation, and prepulse inhibition (PPI in the offspring. Nulliparous Long-Evans female rats, implanted with an IV access port prior to breeding, were administered saline, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/injection of cocaine HCL (COC from gestation day (GD8-20 (1x/day-GD8-14, 2x/day-GD15-20. COC had no significant effects on maternal/litter parameters or growth of the offspring. At 18-20 days of age, one male and one female, randomly selected from each litter displayed an increased ASR (>30% for males at 1.0 mg/kg and >30% for females at 3.0 mg/kg. When reassessed in adulthood (D90-100, a linear dose-response increase was noted on response amplitude. At both test ages, within-session habituation was retarded by prenatal cocaine treatment. Testing the females in diestrus vs. estrus did not alter the results. Prenatal cocaine altered the PPI response function across interstimulus interval (ISI and induced significant sex-dependent changes in response latency. Idazoxan, an alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ASR, but less enhancement was noted with increasing doses of prenatal cocaine. Thus, in utero exposure to cocaine, when delivered via a protocol designed to capture prominent features of recreational usage, causes persistent, if not permanent, alterations in auditory information processing, and suggests dysfunction of the central noradrenergic circuitry modulating, if not mediating, these responses.

  6. Predicted climate change alters the indirect effect of predators on an ecosystem process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensing, Janet R; Wise, David H

    2006-10-17

    Changes in rainfall predicted to occur with global climate change will likely alter rates of leaf-litter decomposition through direct effects on primary decomposers. In a field experiment replicated at two sites, we show that altered rainfall may also change how cascading trophic interactions initiated by arthropod predators in the leaf litter indirectly influence litter decomposition. On the drier site there was no interaction between rainfall and the indirect effect of predators on decomposition. In contrast, on the moister site spiders accelerated the disappearance rate of deciduous leaf litter under low rainfall, but had no, or possibly a negative, indirect effect under high rainfall. Thus, changes resulting from the more intense hydrological cycle expected to occur with climate change will likely influence how predators indirectly affect an essential ecosystem process. PMID:17023538

  7. Altered lipid composition in cortical lipid rafts occurs at early stages of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and facilitates APP/BACE1 interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Marín, Raquel; Moreno, Dolores; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2014-08-01

    The presence of lipid alterations in lipid rafts from the frontal cortex in late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been recently demonstrated. Here, we have isolated and analyzed the lipid composition of lipid rafts from different brain areas from control and AD subjects at initial neuropathologic stages. We have observed that frontal cortex lipid rafts are profoundly altered in AD brains from the earliest stages of AD, namely AD I/II. These changes in the lipid matrix of lipid rafts affected both lipid classes and fatty acids and were also detected in the entorhinal cortex, but not in the cerebellum from the same subjects. Paralleling these changes, lipid rafts from AD frontal and entorhinal cortices displayed higher anisotropy for environment-sensitive probes, indicating that lipid changes in AD lipid rafts increased membrane order and viscosity in these domains. The pathophysiological consequences of these alterations in the development and progression of AD were strengthened by the significant, and specific, accumulation of β-secretase within the lipid rafts of AD subjects even at the earliest stages. Our results provide a mechanistic connection between lipid alterations in these microdomains and amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein.

  8. Theoretical study of electronic processes occurring in atom and molecule collisions: the non-perturbative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is composed of 2 parts. The first part is dedicated to the study of ion collisions with atoms or molecules and the second part deals with electron-atom collisions in intense laser radiation. The 2 issues are not so independent as it seems since both involve diffusion processes or the dynamic of electronic structures of atoms and molecules in a non-perturbative framework. The first chapter describes the main collisional processes that happen in ion collisions with atoms and molecules. The eikonal method that is used to compute integral and differential cross-sections is presented in the second chapter. The third chapter reports the various concepts and methods used for studying the dynamics of quantum systems. The fourth chapter deals with the electronic capture in a mono-electronic molecular system and with the interference phenomena that may take place in the differential cross-sections. The fifth chapter studies the ionizing ion-molecule collisions with high impact energy, in such collisions very low amplitude interference structures have been observed experimentally. These structures can be explained by the multiple scattering of the wave packet representing the ejected electron by the 2 centers of the molecular target. The sixth chapter deals with ion-atom collisions in which 2 electrons are active for simple and double electronic capture. The second part of this work begins with chapter 7. The study of electron-atom collisions in intense laser radiation field implies to take into account 3 different interactions: first the interaction between the free electron and the atom, secondly the interaction between the laser field and the incident electron and thirdly, the interaction between the atom and the laser field. The seventh chapter presents a mathematical formalism able to describe the interaction of the atom with the laser field. This formalism is a non-perturbative approach based on the Floquet theorem. In chapter 8 we present an application to

  9. Altered lateralisation of emotional prosody processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R; Herdener, Marcus; Grandjean, Didier; Sander, David; Seifritz, Erich; Strik, Werner K

    2009-05-01

    Alterations of cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenia have been reported consistently, and a reduced left-lateralisation has been suggested for language functions. Speech contains non-verbal information, e.g. prosody, and on a behavioural level, the extraction of emotional information from prosody is often impaired in schizophrenia. A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study suggests increased left-lateralisation in schizophrenia during prosody processing, but did not disentangle effects of speech processing as such and emotional prosody processing. Here, we used meaningless syllables spoken with neutral, angry or fearful speech melody and measured blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in 15 in-patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants matched for age and gender. Lateralisation indices were calculated for responses to emotional versus neutral prosody, and for all types of prosody versus baseline. Compared to control participants, patients with schizophrenia showed an increased right-lateralisation of emotional and non-emotional prosody processing in the temporal and parietal cortex. This right-lateralisation was increased in patients with reduced right-handedness and decreased in patients with stronger negative symptoms, particularly affective blunting, and with longer hospitalisation. Although patients with schizophrenia performed worse in emotion identification, this deficit was not related to lateralisation indices. Enhanced right-lateralisation to prosody resembles previous findings on laterality changes in speech processing and might suggest a common underlying cause in the organization of language functions.

  10. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection induces altered amphiregulin processing and release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Löfmark

    Full Text Available Adhesion of the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae has established effects on the host cell and evokes a variety of cellular events including growth factor activation. In the present study we report that infection with N. gonorrhoeae causes altered amphiregulin processing and release in human epithelial cells. Amphiregulin is a well-studied growth factor with functions in various cell processes and is upregulated in different forms cancer and proliferative diseases. The protein is prototypically cleaved on the cell surface in response to external stimuli. We demonstrate that upon infection, a massive upregulation of amphiregulin mRNA is seen. The protein changes its subcellular distribution and is also alternatively cleaved at the plasma membrane, which results in augmented release of an infection-specific 36 kDa amphiregulin product from the surface of human cervical epithelial cells. Further, using antibodies directed against different domains of the protein we could determine the impact of infection on pro-peptide processing. In summary, we present data showing that the infection of N. gonorrhoeae causes an alternative amphiregulin processing, subcellular distribution and release in human epithelial cervical cells that likely contribute to the predisposition cellular abnormalities and anti-apoptotic features of N. gonorrhoeae infections.

  11. Chemical and Mineralogical Features of Smectite from the Morron de Mateo Bentonite Deposit (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) in Relation to the Parent Rocks and the Alteration Processes Occurred After the Bentonite Formation: Analogies and Implications for the Engineered Clayey Barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository; Naturaleza de las Esmectitas del Yacimiento de Morron de Mateo (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) en Relacion con la Roca Madre y con los Procesos Posteriores a la Bentonitizacion: Implicaciones Analogicas para la Barrera de Ingenieria de un Almacenamiento Geologico de Residuos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, M.; Labajo, M. A.; Garcia Romero, L.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2009-10-12

    The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on the clayey barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository (DGRR) after its closure, in relation to the radioactive decay of the fission products and the container corrosion. This bentonite deposit and their host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the bioclastic calcarenite beds close to the dome. Bentonite from the NE sector of the deposit have been chemically and mineralogically characterized. Pyroclastic rocks (white tuffs), epyclastic rocks (mass flow) and andesitic breccia all of them hydrothermally altered, have been studied at the site. Samples are composed of feldspars, quartz and amphybols, as inherited minerals, and phyllosilicates, zeolites, crystoballite and calcite, as new formed minerals. White tuffs have the highest phyllosilicate contents, mainly dioctahedral smectite of montmorillonite type. Epyclastic rocks and andesitic breccia have a highest proportion of inherited minerals, the new formed phillosilicates being di octahedral smectite of beidellite type and an ordered interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral, of corrensite type. Smectite from the epyclastic rocks have higher Fe and Mg contents and chemical variability, as a consequence of nature of their parent rocks. The presence of corrensite in the epyclastic rocks suggests that in the Morron de Mateo area a propilitic alteration process occurred after bentonite formation, which transformed Fe-Mg-rich smectite into corrensite. This transformation was probably favoured by the sub volcanic intrusion, which also produced a temperature increase in the geological media and a supply of Fe-Mg-rich solutions, which also were the responsible for the metasomatic transformations observed in the calcarenite beds. (Author) 57 refs.

  12. Biochemical aspects of overtraining in endurance sports : the metabolism alteration process syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibois, Cyril; Cazorla, Georges; Poortmans, Jacques-Rémi; Déléris, Gérard

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that endurance overtraining could result from successive and cumulative alterations in metabolism, which become chronic during training. The onset of this process is a biochemical alteration in carbohydrate (saccharide) metabolism. During endurance exercises, the amount of saccharide chains from two blood glycoproteins (alpha(2)-macroglobulin and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein) was found to have decreased, i.e. concentrations of these proteins remained unchanged but their quality changed. These saccharide chains were probably used for burning liver glycogen stores during exercise. This step was followed by alterations in lipid metabolism. The most relevant aspect of this step was that the mean chain length of blood fatty acids decreased, i.e. the same amount of fatty acids were found within the blood, but overtrained individuals presented shorter fatty acids than well-trained individuals. This suggests that alterations appeared in the liver synthesis of long-chain fatty acids or that higher peroxidation of blood lipoparticles occurred. For the final step of this overtraining process, it was found that these dysfunctions in carbohydrate/lipid metabolism led to the higher use of amino acids, which probably resulted from protein catabolism. The evolution of three protein concentrations (alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, alpha(2)-macroglobulin and IgG(3)) correlated with this amino acid concentration increase, suggesting a specific catabolism of these proteins. At this time only, overtraining was clinically diagnosed through conventional symptoms. Therefore, this process described successive alterations in exercise metabolism that shifted from the main energetic stores of exercise (carbohydrates and lipids) towards molecular pools (proteins) normally not substantially used for the energetic supply of skeletal muscles. Now, a general biochemical model of the overtraining process may be proposed which includes most of the previously identified metabolic

  13. U Mineral Hosts and Enrichment Processes in Altered Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, L. C.; Plank, T.; Kelley, K.; Alt, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    The U-Pb-Th isotopic system is a primary tool for understanding mantle and continental evolution and for quantifying the flow of mass and heat through the Earth's reservoirs. One of the major sites of U-Pb-Th fractionation is the oceanic crust, which is a sink for seawater U. For example, the upper, oxidized oceanic crust (U ~0.4ppm) may be as much as 4x enriched over pristine igneous values (U ~0.09ppm) with a minor net change in Pb and Th. Little, however, is understood about the mechanisms controlling uranium enrichment, its mineral hosts, or the timing of the process. We have used laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron microprobe data to study the distribution of U in the oldest sampled crust in the Pacific, Jurassic mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from ODP Site 801C (1000 km seaward of the Mariana trench), formed at fast spreading rates. Seventeen thin sections, 8 with the highest whole rock U content (HUC) (0.61-1.7ppm) and 9 with low U content (LUC) (U laser beam was rastered across various alteration zones, such as halos, veins, and the surrounding host to provide in-situ multi-element analysis (U, Th, Pb, REE, alkalis, etc). HUC are exclusively associated with low-Mg calcites (enrichment, whereas LUC inherit the LREE depletion of the MORB host. Thus, there appear to be distinct generations of fluids that precipitate carbonate; those with the high Sr and low REE of seawater tend to precipitate U-rich calcites (up to 4.5 ppm U). Four thin sections containing Fe-oxide veins ± celadonite and carbonates were also analyzed. Initial analysis suggests high U ( ~1.8ppm) is associated with Fe-oxides, halos immediately surrounding the mixed Fe-oxide veins, or redox fronts further into the basaltic hosts (up to 0.5mm from the oxide veins). Thus, U in altered MORB is associated with three types of alteration phases: 1) carbonate veins, 2) halos surrounding mixed Fe-oxide veins, and 3) Fe-oxide phases. Of the excess U in the upper

  14. Prion replication occurs in endogenous adult neural stem cells and alters their neuronal fate: involvement of endogenous neural stem cells in prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroa Relaño-Ginès

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are irreversible progressive neurodegenerative diseases, leading to severe incapacity and death. They are characterized in the brain by prion amyloid deposits, vacuolisation, astrocytosis, neuronal degeneration, and by cognitive, behavioural and physical impairments. There is no treatment for these disorders and stem cell therapy therefore represents an interesting new approach. Gains could not only result from the cell transplantation, but also from the stimulation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSC or by the combination of both approaches. However, the development of such strategies requires a detailed knowledge of the pathology, particularly concerning the status of the adult neurogenesis and endogenous NSC during the development of the disease. During the past decade, several studies have consistently shown that NSC reside in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS and that adult neurogenesis occurs throughout the adulthood in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle or the Dentate Gyrus of the hippocampus. Adult NSC are believed to constitute a reservoir for neuronal replacement during normal cell turnover or after brain injury. However, the activation of this system does not fully compensate the neuronal loss that occurs during neurodegenerative diseases and could even contribute to the disease progression. We investigated here the status of these cells during the development of prion disorders. We were able to show that NSC accumulate and replicate prions. Importantly, this resulted in the alteration of their neuronal fate which then represents a new pathologic event that might underlie the rapid progression of the disease.

  15. Are volatility correlations in financial markets related to Omori processes occurring on all scales?

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, P; Stanley, H E; Vodenska-Chitkushev, I; Wang, F; Havlin, Shlomo; Vodenska-Chitkushev, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Weber, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the memory in volatility by studying volatility return intervals, defined as the time between two consecutive fluctuations larger than a given threshold, in time periods following stock market crashes. Such an aftercrash period is characterized by the Omori law, which describes the decay in the rate of aftershocks of a given size with time t by a power law with exponent close to 1. A shock followed by such a power law decay in the rate is here called Omori process. Studying several aftercrash time series, we show that the Omori law holds not only after significant market crashes, but also after ``intermediate shocks''. Moreover, we find self-similar features in the volatility. Specifically, within the aftercrash period there are smaller shocks that themselves constitute Omori processes on smaller scales, similar to the Omori process after the large crash. We call these smaller shocks subcrashes, which are followed by their own aftershocks. We also find similar Omori processes after intermediate cra...

  16. Biomineralization process occurring in iron mud of coastal seepase area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZiJun; JIA Nan; YUAN LinXi; SUN LiGuang

    2008-01-01

    The biomineralization process of iron oxidizing bacteria and its influence on accumulation of metals were investigated by modern biological observation techniques (i.e., SEM and TEM) and geochemical methods, in coastal area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang province where a thick ancient wood layers were buried, Results show that the iron mud samples mainly contain Leptothrix-like sheaths and Gal-lionella-like stalks, which are known as neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria. These two bacteria are present as obviously different abundance in two sampling sites, which may be regulated by the geo-chemistry of seepage water. The biomineralization product of iron oxidizing bacteria is ferrihydrite, a poorly ordered iron oxide, and formation of amorphous mineral is affected by the factors of bacteria, minor Si and temperature preventing any further transformation into more crystalline phases. Organic functional groups, extracellular polymers and surface charges can provide favorable nucleation sites or template for formation of iron precipitates on the bacterial surface. The mineralization process of the iron oxidizing bacteria is divided into different stages,i.e., extracellular mineralization, intracellular mineralization and the whole cell mineralization. Furthermore, due to BIOS containing the bacterial organic matter, the accumulation capacity of metals specially Fe and Co is highly increased, suggest-ing that BIOS exert a degree of controlling in the cycling of metal elements in seepage area.

  17. Rupture process of four medium-sized earthquakes that occurred in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    RodríGuez-Lozoya, HéCtor E.; Quintanar, Luis; Ortega, Roberto; Rebollar, Cecilio J.; Yagi, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    Four medium-sized earthquakes (Mw Global CMT project 5.5, 5.6, 5.9, 6.3; hereinafter named Topolobampo, Angel de la Guarda, San Lorenzo, and Loreto earthquakes, respectively) located in the Gulf of California Extensional Province were studied to obtain their kinematic rupture processes. A network of broadband seismic stations located around the Gulf of California recorded the events (Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs-Baja and Red Sísmica de Banda Ancha). Inversion of the seismic moment tensor and body waveform modeling were used to obtain the fault geometry and slip distribution on the fault plane, respectively. From these analyses, we obtained source depths of the order of 5.5 ± 0.5 km. We found also that the source rupture processes of the Topolobampo and Angel de la Guarda events have simple moment rate functions and source time durations of 5.0 ± 1.2 and 4.2 ± 1.2 s, respectively. The Topolobampo event was a right-lateral strike-slip event, and Angel de la Guarda was a normal event. The San Lorenzo and Loreto shocks show a rather complex rupture, with source time durations of 7.5 ± 1.2 and 9.0 ± 1.2 s, respectively. For these earthquakes, we tested the resolution of numerical results, performing an extra inversion with smoother waveforms. The new inversions do not show the separated patches of slip, as in the first analysis, but the slip distribution has an elongated shape not characteristic of simple events. We cannot therefore conclude rupture propagation for the San Lorenzo event, although the extent of the patch for the Loreto earthquake agrees with aftershock locations. Estimates of source time durations for these earthquakes are at the upper limit of the values found for earthquakes elsewhere. Directions of P axes are in the same order of magnitude as the maximum horizontal stress obtained for the so-called Gulf of California stress province from borehole elongations, focal plane solutions, and fault slip data.

  18. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: a tutorial on the i(V e) profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Doe W.; Bhadra, Narendra; Hudak, Eric M.; Kelley, Shawn C.; Untereker, Darrel F.; Mortimer, J. Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this tutorial is to encourage members of the neuroprosthesis community to incorporate electron transfer processes into their thinking and provide them with the tools to do so when they design and work with neurostimulating devices. The focus of this article is on platinum because it is the most used electrode metal for devices in commercial use. The i(V e) profile or cyclic voltammogram contains information about electron transfer processes that can occur when the electrode-electrolyte interface, V e, is at a specific potential, and assumed to be near steady-state conditions. For the engineer/designer this means that if the potential is not in the range of a specific electron transfer process, that process cannot occur. An i(V e) profile, recorded at sweep rates greater than 0.1 mVs-1, approximates steady-state conditions. Rapid transient potential excursions, like that seen with neural stimulation pulses, may be too fast for the reaction to occur, however, this means that if the potential is in the range of a specific electron transfer process it may occur and should be considered. The approach described here can be used to describe the thermodynamic electron transfer processes on other candidate electrode metals, e.g. stainless steel, iridium, carbon-based, etc.

  19. On alterations in the refractive index and scattering properties of biological tissue caused by histological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Htet; DeAngelo, Bianca; Soldano, John; Kostyk, Piotr; Rodriguez, Braulio; Xu, M.

    2013-02-01

    Clinical tissue processing such as formalin fixing, paraffin-embedding and histological staining alters significantly the optical properties of the tissue. We document the alterations in the optical properties of prostate cancer tissue specimens in the 500nm to 700nm spectral range caused by histological processing with quantitative differential interference contrast (qDIC) microscopy. A simple model to explain these alterations is presented at the end.

  20. Epicatechin gallate, a naturally occurring polyphenol, alters the course of infection with β-lactam-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the zebrafish embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina S Stevens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available (--epicatechin gallate (ECg substantially modifies the properties of Staphylococcus aureus and reversibly abrogates β-lactam resistance in methicillin/oxacillin resistant (MRSA isolates. We have determined the capacity of ECg to alter the course of infection in zebrafish embryos challenged with epidemic clinical isolate EMRSA-16. At 30 hours post fertilization (hpf, embryos were infected by injection of 1-5 × 103 colony forming units (CFU of EMRSA-16 into the circulation valley or yolk sac. Infection by yolk sac injection was lethal with a challenge dose above 3 × 103 CFU, with no survivors at 70 hpf . In contrast, survival at 70 hpf after injection into the circulation was 83% and 44% following challenge with 3 × 103 and 1-5 × 103 CFU respectively. No significant increases in survival were noted when infected embryos were maintained in medium containing 12.5-100 µg/mL ECg with or without 4 or 16 µg/mL oxacillin. However, when EMRSA-16 was grown in medium containing 12.5 µg/mL ECg and the bacteria used to infect embryos by either the circulation valley or yolk sac, there were significant increases in embryo survival in both the presence and absence of oxacillin. ECg-modified and unmodified, GFP-transformed EMRSA-16 bacteria were visualized within phagocytic cells in the circulation and yolk sac; pre-treatment with ECg also significantly increased induction of the respiratory burst and suppressed increases in IL-1β expression typical of infection with untreated EMRSA-16. We conclude that exposure to ECg prior to infection reduces the lethality of EMRSA-16, renders cells more susceptible to elimination by immune processes and compromises their capacity to establish an inflammatory response in comparison to non-exposed bacteria.

  1. THE TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES INVOLVING MOTOR SKILLS THAT OCCUR UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF BASIC PRELIMINARY TRAINING IN YOUNG HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Sasa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The population from which we extracted a sample of 76 subjects consisted of elementary school students in Kursumlija, all male, aged 12-13, who were divided into a sub-sample consisting of 38 young handball players who took part in the training sessions of a school of handball and another sub-sample consisting of 38 non-athletes, who only took part in their regular physical education classes. The aim of the research was to determine the transformation processes involving motor skills, which occur under the influence of basic preliminary training in young handball players. The subject matter of the study was to examine whether a statistically significant increase in the level of motor skills would occur under the influence of physical exercise as part of basic preliminary training in the final as compared to the initial state. Six motor tests which define the dimensions of explosive and repetitive strength were used. The results of the research indicate that significant transformational processes involving the motor skills of young handball players occurred in the final as compared to the initial measuring, under the influence of basic preliminary training.

  2. Alteration, adsorption and nucleation processes on clay-water interfaces: Mechanisms for the retention of uranium by altered clay surfaces on the nanometer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Michael; Legrand, Christine A.; Hochella, Michael F.

    2015-03-01

    Nano-scale processes on the solid-water interface of clay minerals control the mobility of metals in the environment. These processes can occur in confined pore spaces of clay buffers and barriers as well as in contaminated sediments and involve a combination of alteration, adsorption and nucleation processes of multiple species and phases. This study characterizes nano-scale processes on the interface between clay minerals and uranyl-bearing solution near neutral pH. Samples of clay minerals with a contact pH of ∼6.7 are collected from a U mill and mine tailings at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. The tailings material contains Cu-, As-, Co-, Mo-, Ni-, Se-bearing polymetallic phases and has been deposited with a surplus of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3 slaked lime. Small volumes of mill-process solutions containing sulfuric acid and U are occasionally discharged onto the surface of the tailings and are neutralized after discharge by reactions with the slaked lime. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with the focused ion beam (FIB) technique and other analytical methods (SEM, XRD, XRF and ICP-OES) are used to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of phases within confined pore spaces of the clay minerals montmorillonite and kaolinite and in the surrounding tailings material. Alteration zones around the clay minerals are characterized by different generations of secondary silicates containing variable proportions of adsorbed uranyl- and arsenate-species and by the intergrowth of the silicates with the uranyl-minerals cuprosklodowskite, Cu[(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2](H2O)6 and metazeunerite, Cu[(UO2)(AsO4)2](H2O)8. The majority of alteration phases such as illite, illite-smectite, kaolinite and vermiculite have been most likely formed in the sedimentary basin of the U-ore deposit and contain low amounts of Fe (10 at.%) formed most likely in the limed tailings at high contact pH (∼10.5) and their structure is characterized by a low degree of long

  3. Alterations of Cloud Microphysics Due to Cloud Processed CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Tabor, S. S.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution CCN spectra have revealed bimodality (Hudson et al. 2015) similar to aerosol size spectra (e.g., Hoppel et al. 1985). Bimodality is caused by chemical and physical cloud processes that increase mass or hygroscopicity of only CCN that produced activated cloud droplets. Bimodality is categorized by relative CCN concentrations (NCCN) within the two modes, Nu-Np; i.e., NCCN within the higher critical supersaturation, Sc, mode that did not undergo cloud processing minus NCCN within the lower Sc mode that was cloud processed. Lower, especially negative, Nu-Np designates greater processing. The table shows regressions between Nu-Np and characteristics of clouds nearest the CCN measurements. ICE-T MASE parameter R SL R SL Nc 0.17 93.24 -0.26 98.65 MD -0.31 99.69 0.33 99.78 σ -0.27 99.04 0.48 100.00 Ld -0.31 99.61 0.38 99.96 Table. Correlation coefficients, R, and one-tailed significance levels in percent, SL, for Nu-Np with microphysics of the clouds closest to each CCN measurement, 75 ICE-T and 74 MASE cases. Nc is cloud droplet concentration, MD is cloud droplet mean diameter, σ is standard deviation of cloud droplet spectra, Ldis drizzle drop LWC. Two aircraft field campaigns, Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) and Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) show opposite R signs because coalescence dominated cloud processing in low altitude ICE-T cumuli whereas chemical transformations predominated in MASE low altitude polluted stratus. Coalescence reduces Nc and NCCN, which thus increases MD, and σ, which promote Ld. Chemical transformations, e.g., SO2 to SO4, increase CCN hygroscopicity, thus reducing Sc, but not affecting Nc or NCCN. Lower Sc CCN are capable of producing greater Nc in subsequent cloud cycles, which leads to lower MD and σ which reduce Ld (figure). These observations are consistent with cloud droplet growth models for the higher vertical wind (W) of cumuli and lower W of stratus. Coalescence thus reduces the indirect

  4. Digoxin Suppresses HIV-1 Replication by Altering Viral RNA Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Raymond W; Ahalya Balachandran; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Alan Cochrane

    2013-01-01

    Author Summary Antiretroviral therapies (ART) for HIV/AIDS are successful in slowing disease progression by inhibiting viral proteins. However, the ability of HIV to adapt to ARTs has given rise to drug-resistant virus strains that now represent ≥16% of newly infected people. This development calls for the generation of new treatment strategies. Since HIV is dependent upon RNA processing under control of the host, we searched for compounds/drugs that inhibit HIV-1 replication at this step. We...

  5. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Spielberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala, but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues—which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences.

  6. Cortisol alters reward processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Valerie L; Wolf, Oliver T; Merz, Christian J

    2016-08-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing is known to play a central role for the development of psychiatric disorders. Glucocorticoids that are secreted in response to stress have been shown to attenuate reward sensitivity and thereby might promote the onset of psychopathology. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating stress hormone effects on reward processing as well as potential sex differences remain elusive. In this neuroimaging study, we administered 30mg cortisol or a placebo to 30 men and 30 women and subsequently tested them in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task. Cortisol attenuated anticipatory neural responses to a verbal and a monetary reward in the left pallidum and the right anterior parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, in men, activation in the amygdala, the precuneus, the anterior cingulate, and in hippocampal regions was reduced under cortisol, whereas in cortisol-treated women a signal increase was observed in these regions. Behavioral performance also indicated that reward learning in men is impaired under high cortisol concentrations, while it is augmented in women. These findings illustrate that the stress hormone cortisol substantially diminishes reward anticipation and provide first evidence that cortisol effects on the neural reward system are sensitive to sex differences, which might translate into different vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders. PMID:27170428

  7. Experience acquired over a four-year period using Vichi's scoring system in chest alterations occurring in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classification of chest alterations in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and related score proposed by Chrispin and Norman has been widely adopted in Europe and is still applied (although slightly modified) in most European Centres. Brasfield classification instead has been monstly used in the USA. Lately, however, to revise both classifications, the need has been felt, for a more precise correlation to anatomo-radiological data as well as for inclusion of headings which have not been taken into account so far. In 1980 one of the authors (Vichi) worked out a new scoring system for the chest alterations of CF. Results are reported from a follow-up of 15 patients with CF carried out at the FC Center of Meyer Ospedale in Florence from the late 1981 to 1985. The patients underwent periodic checking including determination of clinical scoring system-according to Shwachman and Kulczychi modified by Doershuk-respiratory function tests, chest X-rays evaluated by three radiologists separately, following both Chrispin and Norman and Vichi scoring systems. The latter system has proved to be well correlated to clinical data and to the ordinary pulmonary function tests but it mainly presents a high observer reproducibility

  8. Marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA): Quantifying processes in the sea at the spatio-temporal scales on which they occur

    KAUST Repository

    Godøl, Olav Rune

    2014-07-22

    Sustainable management of fisheries resources requires quantitative knowledge and understanding of species distribution, abundance, and productivity-determining processes. Conventional sampling by physical capture is inconsistent with the spatial and temporal scales on which many of these processes occur. In contrast, acoustic observations can be obtained on spatial scales from centimetres to ocean basins, and temporal scales from seconds to seasons. The concept of marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA) is founded on the basic capability of acoustics to detect, classify, and quantify organisms and biological and physical heterogeneities in the water column. Acoustics observations integrate operational technologies, platforms, and models and can generate information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology with advanced operational capabilities and tailored modelling integrated into a flexible tool for ecosystem research and monitoring. Case studies are presented to illustrate application of the MEA concept in quantification of biophysical coupling, patchiness of organisms, predator-prey interactions, and fish stock recruitment processes. Widespread implementation of MEA will have a large impact on marine monitoring and assessment practices and it is to be hoped that they also promote and facilitate interaction among disciplines within the marine sciences.

  9. Permission of alteration of business to process nuclear fuel substances in Tokai Works, Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Commission presented the report to the Prime Minister after the prudent investigation and deliberation about this alteration, on which the inquiry was made on October 20, 1987. As the result of examination, it was recognized that the technical capability of the applicant is adequate. As the result of examination, it was jedged that the safety after this alteration of business can be ensured. The outline of the alteration is the partial change of the processing facilities and processing method to carry out the processing of the blanket fuel for FBRs, and the partial change of the processing facilities to improve the work processes. The main matters examined were the aseismatic capability, the prevention of fires and explosions, criticality control, the evaluation of the exposure dose of general public at normal time, and the evaluation of accidents. It was confirmed that the accidents that cause excessive radiation exposure to general public never occur, and there is not change in the evaluation of a largest hypothetical accident. (Kako, I.)

  10. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  11. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  12. Altered BOLD Response during Inhibitory and Error Processing in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Wierenga; Amanda Bischoff-Grethe; A James Melrose; Emily Grenesko-Stevens; Zoë Irvine; Angela Wagner; Alan Simmons; Scott Matthews; Wai-Ying Wendy Yau; Christine Fennema-Notestine; Kaye, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error proces...

  13. Altered Negative Unconscious Processing in Major Depressive Disorder: An Exploratory Neuropsychological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Yang; Jinping Zhao; Yi Jiang; Chunbo Li; Jijun Wang; Xuchu Weng; Georg Northoff

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been characterized by abnormalities in emotional processing. However, what remains unclear is whether MDD also shows deficits in the unconscious processing of either positive or negative emotions. We conducted a psychological study in healthy and MDD subjects to investigate unconscious emotion processing and its valence-specific alterations in MDD patients. METHODS: We combined a well established paradigm for unconscious visual processing, the co...

  14. Selective translational repression of HIV-1 RNA by Sam68DeltaC occurs by altering PABP1 binding to unspliced viral RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soros Vanessa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 structural proteins are translated from incompletely spliced 9 kb and 4 kb mRNAs, which are transported to the cytoplasm by Crm1. It has been assumed that once in the cytoplasm, translation of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs occurs in the same manner as host mRNAs. Previous analyses have demonstrated that Sam68 and a mutant thereof, Sam68ΔC, have dramatic effects on HIV gene expression, strongly enhancing and inhibiting viral structural protein synthesis, respectively. While investigating the inhibition of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs by Sam68ΔC, we determined that the effect was independent of the perinuclear bundling of the viral RNA. Inhibition was dependent upon the nuclear export pathway used, as translation of viral RNA exported via the Tap/CTE export pathway was not blocked by Sam68ΔC. We demonstrate that inhibition of HIV expression by Sam68ΔC is correlated with a loss of PABP1 binding with no attendant change in polyadenosine tail length of the affected RNAs. The capacity of Sam68ΔC to selectively inhibit translation of HIV-1 RNAs exported by Crm1 suggests that it is able to recognize unique characteristics of these viral RNPs, a property that could lead to new therapeutic approaches to controlling HIV-1 replication.

  15. Effect of natural and synthetic iron corrosion products on silicate glass alteration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillmann, Philippe; Gin, Stéphane; Neff, Delphine; Gentaz, Lucile; Rebiscoul, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Glass long term alteration in the context of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage is influenced by near-field materials and environmental context. As previous studies have shown, the extent of glass alteration is strongly related to the presence of iron in the system, mainly provided by the steel overpack around surrounding the HLW glass package. A key to understanding what will happen to the glass-borne elements in the geological disposal lies in the relationship between the iron-bearing phases and the glass alteration products formed. In this study, we focus on the influence of the formation conditions (synthetized or in-situ) and the age of different iron corrosion products on SON68 glass alteration. Corrosion products obtained from archaeological iron artifacts are considered here to be true analogues of the corrosion products in a waste disposal system due to the similarities in formation conditions and physical properties. These representative corrosion products (RCP) are used in the experiment along with synthetized iron anoxic corrosion products and pristine metallic iron. The model-cracks of SON68 glass were altered in cell reactors, with one of the different iron-sources inserted in the crack each time. The study was successful in reproducing most of the processes observed in the long term archaeological system. Between the different systems, alteration variations were noted both in nature and intensity, confirming the influence of the iron-source on glass alteration. Results seem to point to a lesser effect of long term iron corrosion products (RCP) on the glass alteration than that of the more recent products (SCP), both in terms of general glass alteration and of iron transport.

  16. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation.

  17. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF INNOVATION IN THE PERFORMANCE OF IPO PROCESSES THAT OCCURRED IN BRAZIL DURING THE LAST DECADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a challenge sought by all economically developed societies. National systems articulate public and private resources so as to shape a more innovative society, capable of ideating and promoting processes, products and services with increasing levels of differentiation before those existing. The search for innovation and the creation of competitive advantages is even greater in the corporate environment, a microeconomic locus where innovation can be measured by efforts and results obtained. Likewise, the number of companies that seek to open themselves to the capital market with views to accumulating resources so as to sustain their strategic growth plans, increases. During the last decade, 245 companies opened their capital in Brazil but only 40% of these went to São Paulo´s Stock Exchange Market (Bovespa negotiate their shares. Upon making its Initial Public Offering (IPO the company has to expose to the stock exchange market its true situation in several areas which are ruled by the Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM. They produce extensive documentation in the form of a robust prospect that is made available to any potential investor. The prospect is known at the capital market as the source that portrays the largest amount of information concerning the company that announced their IPO. It is a legal document but, at the same time, one that in highlight contains, all the attributes and differentials that the company expects the market to evaluate. Thus, by means of secondary sources, all ground on the prospects of IPOs that took place, research was conducted to acknowledge the level of innovation each company presented at the time of their IPO and, at the same time, to measure the performance of the value of stocks that the respective IPO obtained. Subsequently a set of structured qualitative interviews posing to evaluate the results of the quantitative research, was conducted. The quantitative analysis of data collected

  19. Itataia's phosphorous-uraniferous deposit - Alteration and argilization influence in physical processing of the mineralized lithologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was developed by NUCLEBRAS, firstly defining the quality and quantity of the Itataia ore body untill the 480 m level of the future pit, considering the lithological types, the P2O5 and U3O8 contents and the alteration and argillization of the rocks. The following step was to establish the physicochemical character of the mineralized lithologies according to the phases of alteration/argillization. Finally it was compared the results of these two stages with the results of the pilot treatment, related to the gangue in the phosphoric acid concentrate. The method showed the difficulties in each host rock, differently altered/argillized for future process and allowed to the identification of seven types of material to supply the Itataia pilot plant. (author)

  20. Investigating wettability alteration during MEOR process, a micro/macro scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahvash; Mahmoodi, Maziyar; Niazi, Ali; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2012-06-15

    Wettability alteration is considered to be one of the important mechanisms that lead to increased oil recovery during microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. Changes in wettability will greatly influence the petrophysical properties of the reservoir rocks and determine the location, flow and distribution of different fluids inside the porous media. Understanding the active mechanisms of surface wettability changes by the bacteria would help to optimize the condition for more oil recovery. As the mechanisms behind wettability alteration are still poorly understood, the objective of this study is to investigate the wettability alteration at pore scale and find the most effective mechanism of wettability changes in different cases. The experiments were performed on different substrates at fresh condition or aged in crude oil to mimic various wetting conditions. Using an Enterobacter cloacae strain, the influence of bacterial metabolites, bacterial adhesion and bacterial solution with two different carbon sources on wettability were determined for different aging periods. Contact angle measurements were used to quantify the wettability alteration of the solid surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were also utilized to combine the macroscopic measurements of wettability with the microscopic study of the surface changes. It was found that the surface wettability could vary from neutral- or oil-wet to water-wet state. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation seems to be the dominant mechanism of wettability alteration. The aged glass surfaces regained their initial water wetness where the bacteria could remove the polar and asphaltene compounds from them. PMID:22445747

  1. Altered BOLD Response during Inhibitory and Error Processing in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Melrose, A. James; Grenesko-Stevens, Emily; Irvine, Zoë; Wagner, Angela; Simmons, Alan; Matthews, Scott; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Kaye, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error processing is altered in AN individuals is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, ill adolescent AN females (n = 11) and matched healthy comparison adolescents (CA) with no history of an eating disorder (n = 12) performed a validated stop signal task (SST) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore differences in error and inhibitory processing. The groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables or on SST performance. During inhibitory processing, a significant group x difficulty (hard, easy) interaction was detected in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during hard trials. During error processing, a significant group x accuracy (successful inhibit, failed inhibit) interaction in bilateral MFG and right PCC was observed, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during error (i.e., failed inhibit) trials. Conclusion/Significance Consistent with our prior findings in recovered AN, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, showed less inhibition-related activation within the dorsal ACC, MFG and PCC as inhibitory demand increased. In addition, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, also showed reduced activation to errors in the bilateral MFG and left PCC. These findings suggest that altered prefrontal and cingulate activation during

  2. Altered BOLD response during inhibitory and error processing in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wierenga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error processing is altered in AN individuals is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, ill adolescent AN females (n = 11 and matched healthy comparison adolescents (CA with no history of an eating disorder (n = 12 performed a validated stop signal task (SST during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore differences in error and inhibitory processing. The groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables or on SST performance. During inhibitory processing, a significant group x difficulty (hard, easy interaction was detected in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during hard trials. During error processing, a significant group x accuracy (successful inhibit, failed inhibit interaction in bilateral MFG and right PCC was observed, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during error (i.e., failed inhibit trials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Consistent with our prior findings in recovered AN, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, showed less inhibition-related activation within the dorsal ACC, MFG and PCC as inhibitory demand increased. In addition, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, also showed reduced activation to errors in the bilateral MFG and left PCC. These findings suggest that altered prefrontal and cingulate activation during

  3. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility

  4. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  5. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  6. Public and Occupational Exposure to Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials from Mining and Mineral Processing in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining has been identified as one of the potential sources of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). However, mining companies are not being regulated for NORM in Sierra Leone until when recently the Protection from radiation Act 2001 was revised and repeated as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Integrated Regulatory Review Service mission in Sierra Leone. Now Sierra Leone can be proud of one of the best laws in radiation protection that is the Nuclear Safety and radiation protection act, 2012. This law gave enforcement powers to the regulatory authority and a wider scope of control not excluding NORMS. Whilst the developed countries have identified NORM as potential problems and measures are being taken to address the issues, very little is being done in the developing countries. (author)

  7. Pump Linewidth Requirements for Processing Dispersion-Altered DQPSK Signals using FWM

    CERN Document Server

    Dúill, Séan Ó; Barry, Liam P

    2015-01-01

    We report on a potentially deleterious issue regarding the four-wave mixing based processing of dispersion-altered signals. We estimate the baudrate-dependent pump linewidth tolerances by calculating the extra optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) penalty with respect to the propagation distance. We find that the issue is not important for 10 Gbaud differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signals, though for 28 Gbaud (and 56 Gbaud) DQPSK signals we find that the pump linewidth requirements to implement FWM based optical signal processing needs to be in the sub-MHz range in order to avoid excessive OSNR penalties for the case of dispersion-altered signals. These results are pertinent for systems employing FWM, which could be all-optical wavelength converters for packet switching or mid-span spectral inversion techniques.

  8. Influence of hydrothermal alteration on phreatic eruption processes in Solfatara (Campi Flegrei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K.; Scheu, B.; Montanaro, C.; Isaia, R.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    The strong hydrothermal activity exhibited at Campi Flegrei by the Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles points to a significant risk for phreatic eruptions in this densely populated area. Phreatic eruptions, triggered by various processes are hardly predictable in occurrence time and size. Despite their hazard potential, these eruptions, as well as the influence of hydrothermal alteration on their likelihood, magnitude and style, have so far been largely overlooked in experimental volcanology. The physical properties and the mechanical behavior of volcanic rocks are highly dependent on their original magmatic microstructure and on any eventual alteration of those microstructures due to hydrothermal reactions. We have therefore investigated the potential effects of hydrothermal alteration on rock microstructure and, as a consequence, on fragmentation dynamics. Rock samples from the vicinity of the Solfatara fumaroles have been characterized 1) geochemically (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction), 2) physically (density, porosity, permeability and elastic wave velocity) and 3) mechanically (uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength). We have investigated the effects of hydrothermal alteration on fragmentation processes using a shock-tube apparatus, operating with Argon gas, water vapor and superheated water at temperatures up to 400°C and maximum pressures of 20 MPa. The three different energy sources within the pores initiating fragmentation, have been investigated: overpressure by 1) Argon gas; or 2) water vapor and due to 3) steam flashing of water. Fragmentation speed, fragmentation efficiency and fragmented particle ejection velocity were measured. Our results indicate, that steam flashing provides the highest energy - resulting in increased particle ejection velocity and higher fragmentation efficiency. Based on our results, we aim to constrain the influence of hydrothermal alteration on the dynamics of phreatic explosions and the effect on the amount of

  9. RESEARCH CONCERNING INSTALATION OF ALTERATIVE PROCESSES IN COW AND BUFFALO BUTTER DURING FREEZING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lup Dragomir; Flavia Pop

    2009-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and freshness indicators of cow and buffalo butter during freezing (-15 ... -18oC) storage were studied. Changes in freshness parameters and alterative processes installation, when butter becomes improperly for consumption were studied, inducing acidity, peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) andthe presence of epyhidrinic aldehyde. There was an increase of titrable acidity during storage, cow butter hydrolysis was installed after 35 days and after 30 days for ...

  10. Surface processing technique based on opto-hydrodynamic phenomena occurring in laser-induced breakdown of a microdroplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Daehwan; Jang, Deoksuk; Choi, Tae-Youl; Kim, Dongsik

    2012-03-01

    We report the development of a surface processing technique based on the optical breakdown of a microdroplet and subsequent ejection of a pulsed microjet. The microjet was sufficiently fast to remove nanoparticles from surfaces and erode most materials. The small volume of the droplet enabled precise and selective treatment of surfaces. When the jet was impinged onto a laser spot focused by the droplet, ablation rates substantially larger than those in conventional pulsed laser ablation were obtained with significantly reduced thermal effects. The jet could remove 20 nm particles and an oxide layer from solid surfaces by hydrodynamic impact only.

  11. Differentiation of Tetragenococcus populations occurring in products and manufacturing processes of puffer fish ovaries fermented with rice-bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Kimura, B; Fujii, T

    2000-06-01

    Tetragenococcus strains isolated from the manufacturing process of Japanese puffer fish ovaries fermented with rice-bran were characterized and differentiated phenotypically and genotypically. A total of 413 Tetragenococcus isolates were evaluated. On the basis of five representative substrates, the isolates were grouped into seven groups. An RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of representative strains of major groups revealed that they could be grouped into two groups: one was identified as the most prominent halophilic lactic acid coccus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, and the other as T. muriaticus, which has recently been added to the genus Tetragenococcus as a new species. Physiologically, the major differences between the two groups were found in the ability to grow in medium not supplemented with NaCl and the fermentation of L-arabinose, sucrose and D-mannitol, and several other carbohydrates. PMID:10857547

  12. Why chlorate occurs in potable water and processed foods: a critical assessment and challenges faced by the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettlitz, Beate; Kemendi, Gabriella; Thorgrimsson, Nigel; Cattoor, Nele; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Le Bail-Collet, Yves; Maphosa, Farai; Perrichet, Aurélie; Christall, Birgit; Stadler, Richard H

    2016-06-01

    Recently, reports have been published on the occurrence of chlorate mainly in fruits and vegetables. Chlorate is a by-product of chlorinating agents used to disinfect water, and can be expected to be found in varying concentrations in drinking water. Data on potable water taken at 39 sampling points across Europe showed chlorate to range from foods of 0.01 mg kg(-1). This default MRL has now led to significant problems in the EU, where routinely disinfected water, used in the preparation of food products such as vegetables or fruits, leaves chlorate residues in excess of the default MRL, and in strict legal terms renders the food unmarketable. Due to the paucity of data on the chlorate content of prepared foods in general, we collated chlorate data on more than 3400 samples of mainly prepared foods, including dairy products, meats, fruits, vegetables and different food ingredients/additives. In total, 50.5% of the food samples contained chlorate above 0.01 mg kg(-1), albeit not due to the use of chlorate as a pesticide but mainly due to the occurrence of chlorate as an unavoidable disinfectant by-product. A further entry point of chlorate into foods may be via additives/ingredients that may contain chlorate as a by-product of the manufacturing process (e.g. electrolysis). Of the positive samples in this study, 22.4% revealed chlorate above 0.1 mg kg(-1). In the absence of EU levels for chlorate in water, any future EU regulations must consider the already available WHO guideline value of 0.7 mg l(-1) in potable water, and the continued importance of the usage of oxyhalides for disinfection purposes.

  13. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects. PMID:25799565

  14. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Enzi

    Full Text Available Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15 and in healthy control subjects (n = 15 with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects.

  15. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects.

  16. Short Range-Ordered Minerals: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R. V.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    involved. The style of aqueous alteration (hydrolytic vs. acid sulfate) impacts which phases will form (e.g., oxides, oxysulfates, and oxyhydroxides). Knowledge on the formation processes of SRO phases in basaltic materials on Earth has allowed significant enhancement in our understanding of the aqueous processes at work on Mars. The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will provide an instrument suite that should improve our understanding of the mineralogical and chemical compositions of SRO phases. CheMin is an X-ray diffraction instrument that may provide broad X-ray diffraction peaks for SRO phases; e.g., broad peaks around 0.33 and 0.23 nm for allophane. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) heats samples and detects evolved gases of volatile-bearing phases including SRO phases (i.e., carbonates, sulfates, hydrated minerals). The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and ChemCam element analyzers will provide chemical characterization of samples. The identification of SRO phases in surface materials on MSL will be challenging due to their nanocrystalline properties; their detection and identification will require utilizing the MSL instrument suite in concert. Ultimately, sample return missions will be required to definitively identify and fully characterize SRO minerals with state-of-the-art laboratory instrumentation back on Earth.

  17. Mindfulness meditation associated with alterations in bottom-up processing: psychophysiological evidence for reduced reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Paul A M; Janssen, Barbara H; Giommi, Fabio; Barendregt, Henk P; Gielen, Stan C

    2010-11-01

    Mental training by meditation has been related to changes in high-level cognitive functions that involve top-down processing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the practice of meditation is also related to alterations in low-level, bottom-up processing. Therefore, intersensory facilitation (IF) effects in a group of mindfulness meditators (MM) were compared to IF effects in an age- and gender-matched control group. Smaller and even absent IF effects were found in the MM group, which suggests that changes in bottom-up processing are associated with MM. Furthermore, reduced interference of a visual warning stimulus with the IF effects was found, which suggests an improved allocation of attentional resources in mindfulness meditators, even across modalities.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Non-Stationary Hydraulic Process Occurring in the Gas Centrifuge Cascade During the Separation of Multicomponent Isotope Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, A. A.; Ushakov, A. A.; Sovach, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents results of development of the mathematical model of nonstationary separation processes occurring in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. This model was used for the calculation parameters of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of germanium isotopes. Comparison of obtained values with results of other authors revealed that developed mathematical model is adequate to describe nonstationary separation processes in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures.

  19. Altered Co-Translational Processing Plays a Role in Huntington's Pathogenesis—A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissley, Daniel A.; O'Brien, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG codon repeat region in the HTT gene's first exon that results in huntingtin protein aggregation and neuronal cell death. The development of therapeutic treatments for HD is hindered by the fact that while the etiology and symptoms of HD are understood, the molecular processes connecting this genotype to its phenotype remain unclear. Here, we propose the novel hypothesis that the perturbation of a co-translational process affects mutant huntingtin due to altered translation-elongation kinetics. These altered kinetics arise from the shift of a proline-induced translational pause site away from Htt's localization sequence due to the expansion of the CAG-repeat segment between the poly-proline and localization sequences. Motivation for this hypothesis comes from recent experiments in the field of protein biogenesis that illustrate the critical role that temporal coordination of co-translational processes plays in determining the function, localization, and fate of proteins in cells. We show that our hypothesis is consistent with various experimental observations concerning HD pathology, including the dependence of the age of symptom onset on CAG repeat number. Finally, we suggest three experiments to test our hypothesis. PMID:27458341

  20. Long-term alterations in neural and endocrine processes induced by motherhood in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". The reproductive experience of pregnancy, lactation and motherhood can significantly remodel the female's biological state, affecting endocrine, neuroendocrine, neural, and immunological processes. The brain, pituitary gland, liver, thymus, and mammary tissue are among the structures that are modified by reproductive experience. The present review that focuses on rodent research, but also includes pertinent studies in sheep and other species, identifies specific changes in these processes brought about by the biological states of pregnancy, parturition, and lactation and how the components of reproductive experience contribute to the remodeling of the maternal brain and organ systems. Findings indicate that prior parity alters key circulating hormone levels and neural receptor gene expression. Moreover, reproductive experience results in modifications in neural processes and glial support. The possible role of pregnancy-induced neurogenesis is considered in the context of neuroplasticity and behavior, and the effects of reproductive experience on maternal memory, i.e. the retention of maternal behavior, together with anxiety and learning are presented. Together, these sets of findings support the concept that the neural and biological state of the adult female is significantly and dramatically altered on a long-term basis by the experiences of parity and motherhood. Remodeling of the maternal brain and other biological systems is posited to help facilitate adaptations to environmental/ecological challenges as the female raises young and ages. PMID:26388065

  1. Altered Co-Translational Processing Plays a Role in Huntington's Pathogenesis-A Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissley, Daniel A; O'Brien, Edward P

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG codon repeat region in the HTT gene's first exon that results in huntingtin protein aggregation and neuronal cell death. The development of therapeutic treatments for HD is hindered by the fact that while the etiology and symptoms of HD are understood, the molecular processes connecting this genotype to its phenotype remain unclear. Here, we propose the novel hypothesis that the perturbation of a co-translational process affects mutant huntingtin due to altered translation-elongation kinetics. These altered kinetics arise from the shift of a proline-induced translational pause site away from Htt's localization sequence due to the expansion of the CAG-repeat segment between the poly-proline and localization sequences. Motivation for this hypothesis comes from recent experiments in the field of protein biogenesis that illustrate the critical role that temporal coordination of co-translational processes plays in determining the function, localization, and fate of proteins in cells. We show that our hypothesis is consistent with various experimental observations concerning HD pathology, including the dependence of the age of symptom onset on CAG repeat number. Finally, we suggest three experiments to test our hypothesis. PMID:27458341

  2. Composition and microstructure alteration of triticale grain surface after processing by enzymes of cellulase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the pericarp tissue of grain have considerable strength and stiffness, that has an adverse effect on quality of whole-grain bread. Thereby, there exists the need for preliminary chemical and biochemical processing of durable cell walls before industrial use. Increasingly used in the production of bread finds an artificial hybrid of the traditional grain crops of wheat and rye - triticale, grain which has high nutritional value. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of cellulose complex (Penicillium canescens enzymes on composition and microstructure alteration of triticale grain surface, for grain used in baking. Triticale grain was processed by cellulolytic enzyme preparations with different composition (producer is Penicillium canescens. During experiment it is found that triticale grain processing by enzymes of cellulase complex leads to an increase in the content of water-soluble pentosans by 36.3 - 39.2%. The total amount of low molecular sugars increased by 3.8 - 10.5 %. Studies show that under the influence of enzymes the microstructure of the triticale grain surface is changing. Microphotographs characterizing grain surface structure alteration in dynamic (every 2 hours during 10 hours of substrate hydrolysis are shown. It is found that the depth and direction of destruction process for non-starch polysaccharides of grain integument are determined by the composition of the enzyme complex preparation and duration of exposure. It is found, that xylanase involved in the modification of hemicelluloses fiber having both longitudinal and radial orientation. Hydrolysis of non-starch polysaccharides from grain shells led to increase of antioxidant activity. Ferulic acid was identified in alcoholic extract of triticale grain after enzymatic hydrolysis under the influence of complex preparation containing cellulase, xylanase and β-glucanase. Grain processing by independent enzymes containing in complex

  3. Alteration of mTOR signaling occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD): analysis of brain from subjects with pre-clinical AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and late-stage AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramutola, Antonella; Triplett, Judy C; Di Domenico, Fabio; Niedowicz, Dana M; Murphy, Michael P; Coccia, Raffaella; Perluigi, Marzia; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-06-01

    The clinical symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) include a gradual memory loss and subsequent dementia, and neuropathological deposition of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. At the molecular level, AD subjects present overt amyloid β (Aβ) production and tau hyperphosphorylation. Aβ species have been proposed to overactivate the phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis, which plays a central role in proteostasis. The current study investigated the status of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in post-mortem tissue from the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) at three different stages of AD: late AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and pre-clinical AD (PCAD). Our findings suggest that the alteration of mTOR signaling and autophagy occurs at early stages of AD. We found a significant increase in Aβ (1-42) levels, associated with reduction in autophagy (Beclin-1 and LC-3) observed in PCAD, MCI, and AD subjects. Related to the autophagy impairment, we found a hyperactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in IPL of MCI and AD subjects, but not in PCAD, along with a significant decrease in phosphatase and tensin homolog. An increase in two mTOR downstream targets, p70S6K and 4EBP1, occurred in AD and MCI subjects. Both AD and MCI subjects showed increased, insulin receptor substrate 1, a candidate biomarker of brain insulin resistance, and GSK-3β, a kinase targeting tau phosphorylation. Nevertheless, tau phosphorylation was increased in the clinical groups. The results hint at a link between Aβ and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and provide further insights into the relationship between AD pathology and insulin resistance. In addition, we speculate that the alteration of mTOR signaling in the IPL of AD and MCI subjects, but not in PCAD, is due to the lack of substantial increase in oxidative stress. The figure represents the three different stages of Alzheimer Disease: Preclinical Alzheimer Disease (PCAD), Mild cognitive impairment (MCI

  4. Altered negative unconscious processing in major depressive disorder: an exploratory neuropsychological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD has been characterized by abnormalities in emotional processing. However, what remains unclear is whether MDD also shows deficits in the unconscious processing of either positive or negative emotions. We conducted a psychological study in healthy and MDD subjects to investigate unconscious emotion processing and its valence-specific alterations in MDD patients. METHODS: We combined a well established paradigm for unconscious visual processing, the continuous flash suppression, with positive and negative emotional valences to detect the attentional preference evoked by the invisible emotional facial expressions. RESULTS: Healthy subjects showed an attentional bias for negative emotions in the unconscious condition while this valence bias remained absent in MDD patients. In contrast, this attentional bias diminished in the conscious condition for both healthy subjects and MDD. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate for the first time valence-specific deficits specifically in the unconscious processing of emotions in MDD; this may have major implications for subsequent neurobiological investigations as well as for clinical diagnosis and therapy.

  5. Understanding the processes involved in weathering and experimental alteration of glassy materials. The case of some volcanic glasses from eastern Sicily (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this thesis is to study the effects of weathering and experimental alteration in order to understand the geochemical processes involved and the variation of mineral phases in altered natural glasses. For the first time, five samples of natural volcanic glasses having different composition were collected in eastern Sicily (Italy) in order to be artificially altered and analyzed. The study of naturally altered samples has allowed to observe the effects of weathering after a period of time corresponding to the age of the sample. Moreover, the use of samples of natural glass of volcanic origin has allowed to obtain some powder or thin plates of fresh silicate glass that have been subjected to artificial alteration in the laboratory, in order to model the geochemical processes that have occurred. Alteration experiments were conducted in pure water at 90 C; samples have been altered from 1 to 1000 days of experiment. The characterization of the samples was obtained by Raman spectroscopy, which showed the effects of the devitrification and the presence of some secondary minerals such as carbonates and anatase on the obsidian thin plates, but also phillipsite and chabazite, two varieties of zeolite usually found in the cavities of oldest basalts. Solid modifications were observed by SEM. The analysis showed the formation of several secondary minerals having a composition compatible with smectites, determined by EDS spectroscopy. All these results allow to test the geochemical modeling in the long term. Further analysis will be needed to reach a full understanding of the weathering of glassy materials. (author)

  6. An Eye in the Palm of Your Hand: Alterations in Visual Processing Near the Hand, a Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Carolyn J.; Amarasooriya, Prakash; Fallah, Mazyar

    2016-01-01

    Feedback within the oculomotor system improves visual processing at eye movement end points, also termed a visual grasp. We do not just view the world around us however, we also reach out and grab things with our hands. A growing body of literature suggests that visual processing in near-hand space is altered. The control systems for moving either the eyes or the hands rely on parallel networks of fronto-parietal regions, which have feedback connections to visual areas. Since the oculomotor system effects on visual processing occur through feedback, both through the motor plan and the motor efference copy, a parallel system where reaching and/or grasping motor-related activity also affects visual processing is likely. Areas in the posterior parietal cortex, for example, receive proprioceptive and visual information used to guide actions, as well as motor efference signals. This trio of information channels is all that would be necessary to produce spatial allocation of reach-related visual attention. We review evidence from behavioral and neurophysiological studies that support the hypothesis that feedback from the reaching and/or grasping motor control networks affects visual processing while noting ways in which it differs from that seen within the oculomotor system. We also suggest that object affordances may represent the neural mechanism through which certain object features are selected for preferential processing when stimuli are near the hand. Finally, we summarize the two effector-based feedback systems and discuss how having separate but parallel effector systems allows for efficient decoupling of eye and hand movements. PMID:27148034

  7. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  8. Interaction matters: A perceived social partner alters the neural processing of human speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that social interaction changes how communicative behaviors (e.g., spoken language, gaze) are processed, but the precise neural bases by which social-interactive context may alter communication remain unknown. Various perspectives suggest that live interactions are more rewarding, more attention-grabbing, or require increased mentalizing-thinking about the thoughts of others. Dissociating between these possibilities is difficult because most extant neuroimaging paradigms examining social interaction have not directly compared live paradigms to conventional "offline" (or recorded) paradigms. We developed a novel fMRI paradigm to assess whether and how an interactive context changes the processing of speech matched in content and vocal characteristics. Participants listened to short vignettes--which contained no reference to people or mental states--believing that some vignettes were prerecorded and that others were presented over a real-time audio-feed by a live social partner. In actuality, all speech was prerecorded. Simply believing that speech was live increased activation in each participant's own mentalizing regions, defined using a functional localizer. Contrasting live to recorded speech did not reveal significant differences in attention or reward regions. Further, higher levels of autistic-like traits were associated with altered neural specialization for live interaction. These results suggest that humans engage in ongoing mentalizing about social partners, even when such mentalizing is not explicitly required, illustrating how social context shapes social cognition. Understanding communication in social context has important implications for typical and atypical social processing, especially for disorders like autism where social difficulties are more acute in live interaction. PMID:26608245

  9. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko eMaekawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli.Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant and white circle (target stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard, 10% (deviant, and 10% (target probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus.Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls.Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli.Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD.

  10. Environmental lighting alters the infection process in an animal model of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachron, D L; Tumas, K M; Blank, K J; Prystowsky, M B

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of altered environmental lighting on the infection process of a murine leukemia virus, E-55(+), which induces a thymic lymphoma/leukemia in 100% of BALB.K mice inoculated as adults. One to two weeks after inoculation, high levels of proviral DNA are usually found. This is followed by an asymptomatic period of many weeks during which proviral DNA becomes essentially undetectable. Leukemia develops approximately 28 weeks postinoculation. In this experiment, one group of mice was exposed a consistent 10L: 14D cycle while a second was maintained in constant light (LL). A third group was exposed to a rotating cycle characterized by phase shifting a 10L: 14D cycle every three 24-h days (rLD). All cycles began 2 weeks prior to inoculation and were maintained thereafter. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks, and hematopoietic tissue was examined for proviral DNA content. At 1 week, LL- and rLD-exposed animals showed considerably less proviral DNA in bone marrow and spleen compared with controls. At 15 weeks, thymuses from controls were showing signs of infection whereas tissue from LL and rLD mice remained at background levels. We conclude that environmental lighting does alter the infective pattern displayed by this retrovirus, although whether this effect is mediated by changes in the target stem cells or through immunoenhancement has not yet been determined. PMID:7675882

  11. Altered neural reward and loss processing and prediction error signalling in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Bettina; Kuehner, Christine; Kirsch, Peter; Ruttorf, Michaela; Diener, Carsten; Flor, Herta

    2015-08-01

    Dysfunctional processing of reward and punishment may play an important role in depression. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown heterogeneous results for reward processing in fronto-striatal regions. We examined neural responsivity associated with the processing of reward and loss during anticipation and receipt of incentives and related prediction error (PE) signalling in depressed individuals. Thirty medication-free depressed persons and 28 healthy controls performed an fMRI reward paradigm. Regions of interest analyses focused on neural responses during anticipation and receipt of gains and losses and related PE-signals. Additionally, we assessed the relationship between neural responsivity during gain/loss processing and hedonic capacity. When compared with healthy controls, depressed individuals showed reduced fronto-striatal activity during anticipation of gains and losses. The groups did not significantly differ in response to reward and loss outcomes. In depressed individuals, activity increases in the orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens during reward anticipation were associated with hedonic capacity. Depressed individuals showed an absence of reward-related PEs but encoded loss-related PEs in the ventral striatum. Depression seems to be linked to blunted responsivity in fronto-striatal regions associated with limited motivational responses for rewards and losses. Alterations in PE encoding might mirror blunted reward- and enhanced loss-related associative learning in depression. PMID:25567763

  12. The first pre-rRNA-processing event occurs in a large complex: Analysis by gel retardation, sedimentation, and UV cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first processing event that mouse pre-rRNA undergoes occurs within the external transcribed spacer and is efficiently reproduced in vitro. Analysis with nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels revealed the formation of heparin-resistant complexes of retarded electrophoretic mobility on the substrate rRNA. The specificity of these complexes was demonstrated by their elimination due to competition with processing-competent, but not with processing-incompetent, rRNAs. Furthermore, complex formation, like the processing cleavage, required only 28 nucleotides of rRNA sequence adjacent to the processing site but was stimulated by additional downstream conserved sequences. These processing complexes formed in a time-dependent manner, and once assembled, they were stable to challenge by competitor rRNA and remained on the processed rRNA. Their sedimentation coefficient was approximately 20S. UV cross-linking studies with 4-thiouridine-substituted rRNA have identified six polypeptides, 52 to 250 kilodaltons, that are specifically bound to the rRNA processing substrate

  13. Altered processing of contextual information during fear extinction in PTSD: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Linnman, Clas; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Zeidan, Mohamed A; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Rodriguez-Romaguera, Jose; Rauch, Scott L; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2011-08-01

    Medial prefrontal cortical areas have been hypothesized to underlie altered contextual processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated brain signaling of contextual information in this disorder. Eighteen PTSD subjects and 16 healthy trauma-exposed subjects underwent a two-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. On day 1, within visual context A, a conditioned stimulus (CS) was followed 60% of the time by an electric shock (conditioning). The conditioned response was then extinguished (extinction learning) in context B. On day 2, recall of the extinction memory was tested in context B. Skin conductance response (SCR) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected during context presentations. There were no SCR group differences in any context presentation. Concerning fMRI data, during late conditioning, when context A signaled danger, PTSD subjects showed dorsal anterior cingulate cortical (dACC) hyperactivation. During early extinction, when context B had not yet fully acquired signal value for safety, PTSD subjects still showed dACC hyperactivation. During late extinction, when context B had come to signal safety, they showed ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) hypoactivation. During early extinction recall, when context B signaled safety, they showed both vmPFC hypoactivation and dACC hyperactivation. These findings suggest that PTSD subjects show alterations in the processing of contextual information related to danger and safety. This impairment is manifest even prior to a physiologically-measured, cue-elicited fear response, and characterized by hypoactivation in vmPFC and hyperactivation in dACC. PMID:20406268

  14. From Hills to Holes: How Climate Change and Mining are Altering Runoff Processes in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Canadian environments are under considerable pressure from both climate and land-use change. While warming temperatures are widespread and amplified in the north, surface mining has resulted in large-scale landscape disturbance. How these changes affect catchment response is profound, fundamentally altering the cycling and delivery of water and geochemicals to the drainage network. In permafrost-underlain environments, coupled mass and energy processes control runoff response, and as ground thaw increases, new subsurface pathways become accessible while changing overall catchment storage. With surface mining, watersheds are altered such that they bare little resemblance to what existed prior to mining. In this presentation, data will be presented from long-term experiments exploring the impact of climate and mining on runoff processes in cold catchments using stable isotopes of water and associated hydrometric measurements. In southern Yukon, results from the Wolf Creek Research Basin highlights the influence of surface energy balances on controlling the timing and magnitude of flow response, with inter-annual variability largely driven by how atmospheric forcing interacts with permafrost-underlain areas of the catchment. In mountainous areas of southern British Columbia, surface mining reconfigures landscapes as valleys are filled with waste-rock. Mine-influenced catchments exhibit attenuated flows with delays in spring freshet and a more muted to precipitation. Stable isotopes in stream water suggests that both waste-rock and reference catchments are well mixed, however reference catchments are more responsive to enrichment and depletion events and that mine-influenced catchments had a heavier isotope signature than reference watersheds, suggesting enhanced influence of rainfall on recharge. In both cases, snow storage and release exerts considerable control on streamflow responses, and future changes in streamflow regimes will reflect both a changes in the snow

  15. Dynamic Processes of Altered Layer Formation in Cu-Pt Alloys Under Ion Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfei; Asahata, Tatsuya; Shimizu, Ryuichi

    Three different experimental approaches have been developed to study the dynamic process of subsurface altered layer formation in a Cu-Pt alloy under Ar+ ion bombardment: (1) sputter neutral mass spectrometry by multiphoton ionization (MPI-SNMS) for the study of preferential sputtering caused by the collision cascade process in the very initial stage of sputtering; (2) ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS)-Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) sequential measurements for investigating radiation-enhanced Gibbsian segregation in the transient stage of sputtering; (3) an approach based on ISS monitoring by prompt switching of the ion bombardment with (He++Ar+) ions to that with He+ ions, for revealing the cooling effect in radiation-enhanced diffusion in the final steady state of sputtering. For this we have developed a specific coevaporating device for depositing Cu and Pt simultaneously on a substrate at constant deposition rate. The coevaporating device was attached to both of the specimen chambers of the Auger microprobe, JAMP-3, and of the MPI-SNMS apparatus. The results have clearly revealed: (i) ion bombardment causes a preferential sputtering of Cu atoms in the very initial stage of sputtering, (ii) followed by gradual formation of an altered layer as ion sputtering proceeds in the transient stage, and (iii) finally the alloy system approaches a steady state where the composition profile is controlled by cascade mixing, radiation-enhanced Gibbsian segregation and radiation-enhanced diffusion to satisfy the mass balance law. In the steady state the approach (3) has, first, revealed that the cooling effect does exist in radiation-enhanced diffusion.

  16. Mechanosensory responses of osteocytes to physiological forces occur along processes and not cell body and require αVβ3 integrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Mia M; Suadicani, Sylvia O; Schaffler, Mitchell B; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Spray, David C

    2013-12-24

    Osteocytes in the lacunar-canalicular system of the bone are thought to be the cells that sense mechanical loading and transduce mechanical strain into biomechanical responses. The goal of this study was to evaluate the extent to which focal mechanical stimulation of osteocyte cell body and process led to activation of the cells, and determine whether integrin attachments play a role in osteocyte activation. We use a novel Stokesian fluid stimulus probe to hydrodynamically load osteocyte processes vs. cell bodies in murine long bone osteocyte Y4 (MLO-Y4) cells with physiological-level forces <10 pN without probe contact, and measured intracellular Ca(2+) responses. Our results indicate that osteocyte processes are extremely responsive to piconewton-level mechanical loading, whereas the osteocyte cell body and processes with no local attachment sites are not. Ca(2+) signals generated at stimulated sites spread within the processes with average velocity of 5.6 μm/s. Using the near-infrared fluorescence probe IntegriSense 750, we demonstrated that inhibition of αVβ3 integrin attachment sites compromises the response to probe stimulation. Moreover, using apyrase, an extracellular ATP scavenger, we showed that Ca(2+) signaling from the osteocyte process to the cell body was greatly diminished, and thus dependent on ATP-mediated autocrine signaling. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that osteocytes in situ are highly polarized cells, where mechanotransduction occurs at substrate attachment sites along the processes at force levels predicted to occur at integrin attachment sites in vivo. We also demonstrate the essential role of αVβ3 integrin in osteocyte-polarized mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. PMID:24324138

  17. Moment tensor inversion and source rupture process of the September 27, 2003 MS=7.9 earthquake occurred in the border area of China, Russia and Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Cui-ping; CHEN Zhang-li; ZHENG Si-hua; LIU Jie

    2005-01-01

    We conducted moment tensor inversion and studied source rupture process for MS=7.9 earthquake occurred in the border area of China, Russia and Mongolia on September 27 2003, by using digital teleseismic P-wave seismograms recorded by long-period seismograph stations of the global seismic network. Considering the aftershock distribution and the tectonic settings around the epicentral area, we propose that the MS=7.9 earthquake occurred on a fault plane with the strike of 127°, the dip of 79° and the rake of 171°. The rupture process inversion result of MS=7.9 earthquake shows that the total rupture duration is about 37 s, the scalar moment tensor is M0=0.97°×1020 N°m. Rupture mainly occurred on the shallow area with 110 km long and 30 km wide, the location in which the rupture initiated is not where the main rupture took place, and the area with slip greater than 0.5 m basically lies within 35 km deep middle-crust under the earth surface. The maximum static slip is 3.6 m. There are two distinct areas with slip larger than 2.0 m. We noticed that when the rupture propagated towards northwest and closed to the area around the MS=7.3 hypocenter, the slip decreased rapidly, which may indicate that the rupture process was stopped by barriers. The consistence of spatial distribution of slip on the fault plane with the distribution of aftershocks also supports that the rupture is a heterogeneous process owing to the presence of barriers.

  18. Anatomical alterations of the visual motion processing network in migraine with and without aura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Granziera

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from migraine with aura (MWA and migraine without aura (MWoA show abnormalities in visual motion perception during and between attacks. Whether this represents the consequences of structural changes in motion-processing networks in migraineurs is unknown. Moreover, the diagnosis of migraine relies on patient's history, and finding differences in the brain of migraineurs might help to contribute to basic research aimed at better understanding the pathophysiology of migraine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To investigate a common potential anatomical basis for these disturbances, we used high-resolution cortical thickness measurement and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the motion-processing network in 24 migraine patients (12 with MWA and 12 MWoA and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. We found increased cortical thickness of motion-processing visual areas MT+ and V3A in migraineurs compared to HCs. Cortical thickness increases were accompanied by abnormalities of the subjacent white matter. In addition, DTI revealed that migraineurs have alterations in superior colliculus and the lateral geniculate nucleus, which are also involved in visual processing. CONCLUSIONS: A structural abnormality in the network of motion-processing areas could account for, or be the result of, the cortical hyperexcitability observed in migraineurs. The finding in patients with both MWA and MWoA of thickness abnormalities in area V3A, previously described as a source in spreading changes involved in visual aura, raises the question as to whether a "silent" cortical spreading depression develops as well in MWoA. In addition, these experimental data may provide clinicians and researchers with a noninvasively acquirable migraine biomarker.

  19. Biological soil crust as a bio-mediator alters hydrological processes in stabilized dune system of the Tengger Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinrong

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crust (BSC) is a vital component in the stabilized sand dunes with a living cover up to more than 70% of the total, which has been considered as a bio-mediator that directly influences and regulates the sand dune ecosystem processes. However, its influences on soil hydrological processes have been long neglected in Chinese deserts. In this study, BSCs of different successional stages were chose to test their influence on the hydrological processes of stabilized dune, where the groundwater deep exceeds 30m, further to explore why occur the sand-binding vegetation replacement between shrubs and herbs. Our long-term observation (60 years) shows that cyanobacteria crust has been colonized and developed after 3 years since the sand-binding vegetation has been established and dune fixation using planted xerophytic shrubs and made sand barrier (straw-checkerboard) on shifting dune surface, lichen and moss crust occurred after 20 years, and the cover of moss dominated crust could reach 70 % after 50 years. The colonization and development of BSC altered the initial soil water balance of revegetated areas by influencing rainfall infiltration, soil evaporation and dew water entrapment. The results show that BSC obviously reduced the infiltration that occurred during most rainfall events (80%), when rainfall was greater than 5 mm or less than 20 mm. The presence of BSC reduced evaporation of topsoil after small rainfall (facilitated topsoil evaporation when rainfall reached 10 mm. The amount of dew entrapment increases with the succession of BSC. Moreover, the effect of the later successional BSC to dew entrapment, rainfall infiltration and evaporation was more obvious than the early successional BSC on stabilized dunes. In general, BSC reduced the amount of rainfall water that reached deeper soil (0.4-3m), which is where the roots of shrubs are primarily distributed. These changes in the soil moisture pattern induced shifting of sand-binding vegetation from

  20. Biological soil crust as a bio-mediator alters hydrological processes in stabilized dune system of the Tengger Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinrong

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crust (BSC) is a vital component in the stabilized sand dunes with a living cover up to more than 70% of the total, which has been considered as a bio-mediator that directly influences and regulates the sand dune ecosystem processes. However, its influences on soil hydrological processes have been long neglected in Chinese deserts. In this study, BSCs of different successional stages were chose to test their influence on the hydrological processes of stabilized dune, where the groundwater deep exceeds 30m, further to explore why occur the sand-binding vegetation replacement between shrubs and herbs. Our long-term observation (60 years) shows that cyanobacteria crust has been colonized and developed after 3 years since the sand-binding vegetation has been established and dune fixation using planted xerophytic shrubs and made sand barrier (straw-checkerboard) on shifting dune surface, lichen and moss crust occurred after 20 years, and the cover of moss dominated crust could reach 70 % after 50 years. The colonization and development of BSC altered the initial soil water balance of revegetated areas by influencing rainfall infiltration, soil evaporation and dew water entrapment. The results show that BSC obviously reduced the infiltration that occurred during most rainfall events (80%), when rainfall was greater than 5 mm or less than 20 mm. The presence of BSC reduced evaporation of topsoil after small rainfall (BSC. Moreover, the effect of the later successional BSC to dew entrapment, rainfall infiltration and evaporation was more obvious than the early successional BSC on stabilized dunes. In general, BSC reduced the amount of rainfall water that reached deeper soil (0.4-3m), which is where the roots of shrubs are primarily distributed. These changes in the soil moisture pattern induced shifting of sand-binding vegetation from initial planted xerophytic shrub communities with higher coverage (35%) to complex communities dominated by shallow

  1. Hydrothermal Alteration Zoning and Kinetic Process of Mineral-Water Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣华; 胡书敏; 苏艳丰

    2002-01-01

    This study reports the kinetic experimental results of albite in water and in KCl solution at 22 MPa in the temperature range of 25 to 400(C. Kinetic experiments have been carried out in an open flow-through reaction system (packed bed reactor). Albite dissolution is always incongruent in water at most temperatures, but becomes congruent at 300(C (close to the critical point 374(C). At temperatures from 25 to 300(C, the incongruent dissolution of albite is reflected by the fact that sodium and aluminum are easily dissolved into water; from 300 to 400(C it is reflected by silicon being more easily dissolved in water than Al and Na. Maximum albite dissolution rates in the flow hydrothermal systems have been repeatedly observed at 300(C, independent of flow rates.The kinetic experiments of albite dissolution in a KCl aqueous solution (0.1 mol KCl) indicate that the dissolution rate of albite increases with increasing temperature. Maximum silicon release rates of albite have been observed at 400(C, while maximum aluminum release rates of albite at 374(C. The reaction rates of albite also depend on the potassium concentration in the aqueous solution.These results can be used to interpret the mechanism for forming hydrothermal alteration. The kinetic experiments of mineral-aqueous solutions interactions in the hydrothermal system from 25 to 400(C and at 22 MPa indicate that the formation of the feldspar-mica-kaolinite zoning occurring in some ore deposits may depend not only on the mineral stability but also on the kinetics of feldspar hydration, which is affected by the water property variation when crossing the critical point.

  2. Quantification of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from fossil carbonate shells and laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesshaber, Erika; Casella, Laura; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at reconstructions of past climate dynamics and environmental change. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and create local chemical environments where physiologic processes such as biomineralization takes place. After the death of the organism the former physiologic disequilibrium conditions are not sustained any more and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration according to the surrounding environment: diagenesis. With increasing diagenetic alteration, the biogenic structure and fingerprint fades away and is replaced by inorganic features. Thus, recrystallization of organism-specific microstructure is a clear indicator for diagenetic overprint. Microstructural data, which mirror recrystallization, are of great value for interpreting geochemical proxies for paleo-environment reconstruction. Despite more than a century of research dealing with carbonate diagenesis, many of the controlling processes and factors are only understood in a qualitative manner. One of the main issues is that diagenetically altered carbonates are usually present as the product of a complex preceding diagenetic pathway with an unknown number of intermediate steps. In this contribution we present and discuss laboratory based alteration experiments with the aim to investigate time-series data sets in a controlled manner. We conducted hydrothermal alteration experiments with modern Arctica islandica (bivalvia) and Notosaria nigricans (brachiopoda) in order to mimic diagenetic overprint. We explore first the potential of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements together with statistical data evaluation as a tool to quantify diagenetic alteration of carbonate skeletons. Subsequently, we compare microstructural patterns obtained from experimentally altered shell material with those of fossil specimens that have undergone variable degrees of

  3. Report of the Committee of inquiry into a fire which occurred on 18 March 1987 in a radioisotope processing cell, Building 54 at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At about 1745 hours on Wednesday, 18 March 1987 a fire occurred in a small charcoal filter inside a processing cell (hot cell) in Building 54 at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL). This cell was being used to process irradiated uranium to separate the radioactive isotope molybdenum-99. Some radioactive contamination escaped from the hot cell into the operating area and three AAEC officers were found to have minor radioactive contamination on their skin/hair. The majority of the radioactive material released from the fire was trapped by the main filters outside the cell. The total amounts of radioactive noble gas and of radioiodine released to the environment during the week in which the fire occurred were within the normal range of discharge and were 53% and 2.1%, respectively, of the weekly limit authorised by the NSW Department of Health. On the evidence available to it, the Committee concludes that the fire was caused by spontaneous combustion in the charcoal filter used to trap radioactive gases released by the operations in the hot cell; the mechanism causing the fire cannot be clearly established at this stage; no member of AAEC staff, NSW emergency services personnel or the general public suffered, or will suffer, any adverse health effects from radioactivity as a result of the accident

  4. Altered Topology in Information Processing of a Narrated Story in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Oren, Noga; Ash, Elissa L; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Lerner, Yulia

    2016-05-01

    The ability to store, integrate, and manipulate information declines with aging. These changes occur earlier, faster, and to a greater degree as a result of neurodegeneration. One of the most common and early characteristics of cognitive decline is difficulty with comprehension of information. The neural mechanisms underlying this breakdown of information processing are poorly understood. Using functional MRI and natural stimuli (e.g., stories), we mapped the neural mechanisms by which the human brain accumulates and processes information with increasing duration and complexity in participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy older adults. To explore the mechanisms of information processing, we measured the reliability of brain responses elicited by listening to different versions of a narrated story created by segmenting the story into words, sentences, and paragraphs and then scrambling the segments. Comparing healthy older adults and participants with aMCI revealed that in both groups, all types of stimuli similarly recruited primary auditory areas. However, prominent differences between groups were found at the level of processing long and complex stimuli. In healthy older adults, parietal and frontal regions demonstrated highly synchronized responses in both the paragraph and full story conditions, as has been previously reported in young adults. Participants with aMCI, however, exhibited a robust functional shift of long time scale processing to the pre- and post-central sulci. Our results suggest that participants with aMCI experienced a functional shift of higher order auditory information processing, possibly reflecting a functional response to concurrent or impending neuronal or synaptic loss. This observation might assist in understanding mechanisms of cognitive decline in aMCI.

  5. Altered food cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eSanders

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia Nervosa (AN is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss.This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012, that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD when compared to long term recovered AN (REC and healthy controls (HC. Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 y, 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 yr and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, after fasting overnight. Functional ROIs (fROIs were defined in BU (e.g. striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus and cerebellum, TD (e.g. medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, the insula and visual processing areas (VPA. Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs.We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.’s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC fROIs across BU, TD and VPA areas clustered, in AN one cluster span across BU, TD and insula, one across BU, TD and VPA areas and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC BU, TD and VPA or VPA and insula clustered.In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food cues is also altered in recovered AN patient

  6. Altered food-cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Danner, Unna N; van Meer, Floor; Hoek, Hans W; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.'s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food

  7. Altered food-cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Danner, Unna N; van Meer, Floor; Hoek, Hans W; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.'s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food

  8. Vesicular Trafficking Defects, Developmental Abnormalities, and Alterations in the Cellular Death Process Occur in Cell Lines that Over-Express Dictyostelium GTPase, Rab2, and Rab2 Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Maringer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small molecular weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, however, the function of Rab2 in Dictyostelium has yet to be fully characterized. Using cell lines that over-express DdRab2, as well as cell lines over-expressing constitutively active (CA, and dominant negative (DN forms of the GTPase, we report a functional role in vesicular transport specifically phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab2 like other GTPases cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. We found that this GTP/GDP cycle for DdRab2 is crucial for normal Dictyostelium development and cell–cell adhesion. Similar to Rab5 and Rab7 in C. elegans, we found that DdRab2 plays a role in programmed cell death, possibly in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic corpses.

  9. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) alters histiotrophic nutrition pathways and epigenetic processes in the developing conceptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Karilyn E; Dolinoy, Dana C; Jilek, Joseph L; Shay, Brian J; Harris, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Histiotrophic nutrition pathways (HNPs) are processes by which the organogenesis-stage conceptus obtains nutrients, amino acids, vitamins and cofactors required for protein biosynthesis and metabolic activities. Nutrients are captured from the maternal milieu as whole proteins and cargoes via receptor-mediated endocytosis in the visceral yolk sac (VYS), degraded by lysosomal proteolysis and delivered to the developing embryo (EMB). Several nutrients obtained by HNPs are required substrates for one-carbon (C1) metabolism and supply methyl groups required for epigenetic processes, including DNA and histone methylation. Increased availability of methyl donors has been associated with reduced risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). Here, we show that mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) treatment (100 or 250μM) alters HNPs, C1 metabolism and epigenetic programming in the organogenesis-stage conceptus. Specifically, 3-h MEHP treatment of mouse EMBs in whole culture resulted in dose-dependent reduction of HNP activity in the conceptus. To observe nutrient consequences of decreased HNP function, C1 components and substrates and epigenetic outcomes were quantified at 24h. Treatment with 100-μM MEHP resulted in decreased dietary methyl donor concentrations, while treatment with 100- or 250-μM MEHP resulted in dose-dependent elevated C1 products and substrates. In MEHP-treated EMBs with NTDs, H3K4 methylation was significantly increased, while no effects were seen in treated VYS. DNA methylation was reduced in MEHP-treated EMB with and without NTDs. This research suggests that environmental toxicants such as MEHP decrease embryonic nutrition in a time-dependent manner and that epigenetic consequences of HNP disruption may be exacerbated in EMB with NTDs. PMID:26507544

  10. Altered frontocingulate activation during aversive interoceptive processing in young adults transitioning to problem stimulant use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lorraine Stewart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with stimulant use have been linked to frontocingulate, insular, and thalamic dysfunction during decision-making and alterations in interoceptive processing. However, little is known about how interoception and decision-making interact and contribute to dysfunctions that promote the transition from recreational drug use to abuse or dependence. Here, we investigate brain activation in response to reward, punishment, and uncertainty during an aversive interoceptive challenge in current and former stimulant (cocaine and amphetamine users using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young adults previously identified as recreational users (n=184 were followed up three years later. Of these, 18 individuals progressed to problem stimulant use (PSU, whereas 15 desisted stimulant use (DSU. PSU, DSU, and 14 healthy comparison subjects (CTL performed a two-choice prediction task at three fixed error rates (20%=reward, 50%=uncertainty, 80%=punishment during which they anticipated and experienced episodes of inspiratory breathing load. Although groups did not differ in insula activation or subjective breathing load ratings, PSU exhibited lower right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and bilateral anterior cingulate (ACC activation than DSU and CTL during aversive interoceptive processing as well as lower right IFG in response to decision making involving uncertainty. However, PSU exhibited greater bilateral IFG activation than DSU and CTL while making choices within the context of punishing feedback, and both PSU and DSU showed lower thalamic activation during breathing load than CTL. Findings suggest that frontocingulate attenuation, reflecting reduced resources devoted to goal maintenance and action selection in the presence of uncertainty and interoceptive perturbations, may be a biomarker for susceptibility to problem stimulant use.

  11. Cell surface glycan alterations in epithelial mesenchymal transition process of Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell.

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    Shan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Due to recurrence and metastasis, the mortality of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is high. It is well known that the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT and glycan of cell surface glycoproteins play pivotal roles in tumor metastasis. The goal of this study was to identify HCC metastasis related differential glycan pattern and their enzymatic basis using a HGF induced EMT model. METHODOLOGY: HGF was used to induce HCC EMT model. Lectin microarray was used to detect the expression of cell surface glycan and the difference was validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. The mRNA expression levels of glycotransferases were determined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: After HGF treatment, the Huh7 cell lost epithelial characteristics and obtained mesenchymal markers. These changes demonstrated that HGF could induce a typical cell model of EMT. Lectin microarray analysis identified a decreased affinity in seven lectins ACL, BPL, JAC, MPL, PHA-E, SNA, and SBA to the glycan of cell surface glycoproteins. This implied that glycan containing T/Tn-antigen, NA2 and bisecting GlcNAc, Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc, terminal α or βGalNAc structures were reduced. The binding ability of thirteen lectins, AAL, LCA, LTL, ConA, NML, NPL, DBA, HAL, PTL II, WFL, ECL, GSL II and PHA-L to glycan were elevated, and a definite indication that glycan containing terminal αFuc and ± Sia-Le, core fucose, α-man, gal-β(α GalNAc, β1,6 GlcNAc branching and tetraantennary complex oligosaccharides structures were increased. These results were further validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of Mgat3 decreased while that of Mgat5, FucT8 and β3GalT5 increased. Therefore, cell surface glycan alterations in the EMT process may coincide with the expression of glycosyltransferase. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study systematically clarify the alterations of cell surface

  12. Synaptic plasticity, neural circuits and the emerging role of altered short-term information processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg W. Crabtree

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity alters the strength of information flow between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons and thus modifies the likelihood that action potentials in a presynaptic neuron will lead to an action potential in a postsynaptic neuron. As such, synaptic plasticity and pathological changes in synaptic plasticity impact the synaptic computation which controls the information flow through the neural microcircuits responsible for the complex information processing necessary to drive adaptive behaviors. As current theories of neuropsychiatric disease suggest that distinct dysfunctions in neural circuit performance may critically underlie the unique symptoms of these diseases, pathological alterations in synaptic plasticity mechanisms may be fundamental to the disease process. Here we consider mechanisms of both short-term and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission and their possible roles in information processing by neural microcircuits in both health and disease. As paradigms of neuropsychiatric diseases with strongly implicated risk genes, we discuss the findings in schizophrenia and autism and consider the alterations in synaptic plasticity and network function observed in both human studies and genetic mouse models of these diseases. Together these studies have begun to point towards a likely dominant role of short-term synaptic plasticity alterations in schizophrenia while dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders may be due to a combination of both short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity alterations.

  13. Altered emotional information processing in borderline personality disorder: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Meuleman, Linda; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2010-03-30

    Emotional dysregulation is one of the key symptoms of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study it is hypothesized that borderline patients display a cortical hyper-responsivity to emotional stimuli compared with a healthy control group. Further, we aimed to examine whether BPD patients were able to suppress stimuli with negative emotional valence as well as healthy control participants could. This is the first study addressing the electrophysiological processing of emotional stimuli in BPD. The electrophysiological response to emotional information was studied among 30 BPD patients and compared with the response in 30 normal controls using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were shown pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System with neutral, positive, and negative valence. After performing an attentional task, the participants were asked to perform a reappraisal task. The assignment was to consciously suppress emotions that might occur after viewing pictures with an unpleasant content. Borderline patients displayed larger late positive potentials (LPP) to pictures with an unpleasant valence as compared with the control group, indicating an enhanced elaborative processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, they did not differ on the reappraisal task. Borderline patients show an enhanced emotional cortical reactivity to unpleasant stimuli as compared with a control group. This suggests an emotional dysfunctioning in BPD patients. This feature might be an important focus in the treatment of BPD. PMID:20153144

  14. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars. Recording Aqueous and Surface-atmosphere Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Kenneth M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Mustard, John F. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Salvatore, Mark R. [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-03-05

    The rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. Moreover, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water–rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water–rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. These results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  15. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars: Recording aqueous and surface-atmosphere processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kevin M.; Mustard, John F.; Salvatore, Mark R.

    2015-05-01

    Rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. However, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water-rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water-rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. Our results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  16. Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., m...

  17. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe; Matthew eSacchet; Elizabeth eHastings; Harold eRoth; Willoughby eBritton

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. ...

  18. Sulfur and carbon geochemistry of the Santa Elena peridotites: Comparing oceanic and continental processes during peridotite alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Gazel, Esteban; Madrigal, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Ultramafic rocks exposed on the continent serve as a window into oceanic and continental processes of water-peridotite interaction, so called serpentinization. In both environments there are active carbon and sulfur cycles that contain abiogenic and biogenic processes, which are eventually imprinted in the geochemical signatures of the basement rocks and the calcite and magnesite deposits associated with fluids that issue from these systems. Here, we present the carbon and sulfur geochemistry of ultramafic rocks and carbonate deposits from the Santa Elena ophiolite in Costa Rica. The aim of this study is to leverage the geochemistry of the ultramafic sequence and associated deposits to distinguish between processes that were dominant during ocean floor alteration and those dominant during low-temperature, continental water-peridotite interaction. The peridotites are variably serpentinized with total sulfur concentrations up to 877 ppm that is typically dominated by sulfide over sulfate. With the exception of one sample the ultramafic rocks are characterized by positive δ34Ssulfide (up to + 23.1‰) and δ34Ssulfate values (up to + 35.0‰). Carbon contents in the peridotites are low and are isotopically distinct from typical oceanic serpentinites. In particular, δ13C of the inorganic carbon suggests that the carbon is not derived from seawater, but rather the product of the interaction of meteoric water with the ultramafic rocks. In contrast, the sulfur isotope data from sulfide minerals in the peridotites preserve evidence for interaction with a hydrothermal fluid. Specifically, they indicate closed system abiogenic sulfate reduction suggesting that oceanic serpentinization occurred with limited input of seawater. Overall, the geochemical signatures preserve evidence for both oceanic and continental water-rock interaction with the majority of carbon (and possibly sulfate) being incorporated during continental water-rock interaction. Furthermore, there is

  19. Accumulation of planets into the proto-planetary cloud as a process of occurring an amount of characteristic scales into the nonlinear self organized dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Two characteristic times are significant for evolution the interior of the homogeneous proto-planetary cloud: the time of bodies free fall towards the clouds mass center and the time of sound distribution through the cloud. With the beginning of proto-planetary disk fragmentation and accumulation of the proto-planets from the bodies and particles there are formed matter content heterogeneities of the finite dimension, heterogeneities of temperature, density and values of kinetic coefficients. The system became more and more complicated with interior interconnections. By the growing of the bodies the difference between the values of the characteristic times and dimensions become larger. The dynamical evolution of the system we could observe with use the numerical modeling of the Earth and Moon formation into the 3-D model [1,2]. The fact, that the linear dimensions of the objects during the accumulation process change from the centimeter and meter dimensions to some thousands of kilometers significantly prevent the mathematical description of these processes. The corresponding values of the no dimensional similarity criterions, which are included into the systems of differential equations, which describe the proto-planetary growing, the conditions for entropy and mass on the growing surface, the equations of the impulse balance, energy and mass into the interior parts of the planet change on an orders of values. Therefore we used very detailed space and time grids for solution the problem using the method of finite differences. The additional complications occur according to necessity to take into account the nonlinear dependence of matter viscosity from the temperature, pressure and chemical matter content. At last we took into account the principal random distribution of heterogeneities, stipulated by bodies and particles falling. Only progression towards that direction and constructing corresponding systems of observation and interpretation allow to hope

  20. Permission of alteration of business to process nuclear fuel substances in Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Commission presented the report to the Prime Minister after the prudent investigation and deliberation about this alteration, on which the inquiry was made on September 30, 1987. As the result of examination, it was recognized that the technical capability of the applicant is appropriate. As the result of examination, it was judged that the safety after this alteration of business can be ensured. The outline of the alteration is the partial change of facilities in No.1 and No.2 processing buildings to make No.2 processing building into the major facility, the change of the maximum preserving capacity of radioactive solid wastes and the maximum storing capacity of nuclear fuel substances in the storage building to stop the preservation of solid wastes in No.1 store, and the partial change of the method of processing to process the blanket fuel pellets for FBRs. The main matters examined were the aseismatic capability, the prevention of fires and explosions, criticality control, the treatment of radioactive wastes, the evaluation of the exposure dose of public at normal time and the evaluation of accidents. (Kako, I.)

  1. Immunoendocrine alterations following Marine Corps Martial Arts training are associated with changes in moral cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Clopton, Aaron W; Gigliotti, Nicole; Chan, Marcia A; Benedict, Stephen H; Herda, Trent J; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P

    2016-02-01

    Combined physical and psychological stress events have been associated with exacerbated endocrine responses and increased alterations in immune cell trafficking when compared to exercise stress alone. Military training programs are rigorous in nature and often purposefully delivered in environments combining high levels of both physical and mental stress. The objective of this study was to assess physiological and cognitive changes following U.S. Marine Corps Martial Arts training. Seven active-duty, male Marines were observed during a typical Marine Corps Martial Arts training session. Immune parameters, including immunomodulatory cytokines, and hormone concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained at baseline, immediately post training (IP) and at 15min intervals post-training to 1h (R15, R30, R45, R60). Assessments of cognitive moral functioning (moral judgment and intent) were recorded at intervals during recovery. There were significant fluctuations in immunoendocrine parameters. Peak endocrine measures were observed within the IP-R15 time interval. Distributions of circulating immune cells were significantly altered with neutrophils and all lymphocyte subsets elevated at IP. IFN-γ and IL-17a exhibited small, non-significant, parallel increases over the recovery period. Moral functioning was informed by different social identities during the recovery resulting in changes in moral decision-making. These data demonstrate that the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program induces significant alterations in lymphocyte and leukocyte distributions, but does not shift the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines or induce a systemic inflammatory response. The program does, however, induce alterations in moral decision-making ability associated with the observed endocrine responses, even suggesting a potential interaction between one's social identities and endocrine responses upon moral decision-making.

  2. Immunoendocrine alterations following Marine Corps Martial Arts training are associated with changes in moral cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Clopton, Aaron W; Gigliotti, Nicole; Chan, Marcia A; Benedict, Stephen H; Herda, Trent J; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P

    2016-02-01

    Combined physical and psychological stress events have been associated with exacerbated endocrine responses and increased alterations in immune cell trafficking when compared to exercise stress alone. Military training programs are rigorous in nature and often purposefully delivered in environments combining high levels of both physical and mental stress. The objective of this study was to assess physiological and cognitive changes following U.S. Marine Corps Martial Arts training. Seven active-duty, male Marines were observed during a typical Marine Corps Martial Arts training session. Immune parameters, including immunomodulatory cytokines, and hormone concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained at baseline, immediately post training (IP) and at 15min intervals post-training to 1h (R15, R30, R45, R60). Assessments of cognitive moral functioning (moral judgment and intent) were recorded at intervals during recovery. There were significant fluctuations in immunoendocrine parameters. Peak endocrine measures were observed within the IP-R15 time interval. Distributions of circulating immune cells were significantly altered with neutrophils and all lymphocyte subsets elevated at IP. IFN-γ and IL-17a exhibited small, non-significant, parallel increases over the recovery period. Moral functioning was informed by different social identities during the recovery resulting in changes in moral decision-making. These data demonstrate that the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program induces significant alterations in lymphocyte and leukocyte distributions, but does not shift the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines or induce a systemic inflammatory response. The program does, however, induce alterations in moral decision-making ability associated with the observed endocrine responses, even suggesting a potential interaction between one's social identities and endocrine responses upon moral decision-making. PMID:26577267

  3. Afforestation alters the composition of functional genes in soil and biogeochemical processes in South American grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthrong, Sean T [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Pineiro, Gervasio [Duke University; Jackson, Robert B [Duke University

    2009-01-01

    Soil microbes are highly diverse and control most soil biogeochemical reactions. We examined how microbial functional genes and biogeochemical pools responded to the altered chemical inputs accompanying land use change. We examined paired native grasslands and adjacent Eucalyptus plantations (previously grassland) in Uruguay, a region that lacked forests before European settlement. Along with measurements of soil carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial diversity, we analyzed functional genes using the GeoChip 2.0 microarray, which simultaneously quantified several thousand genes involved in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. Plantations and grassland differed significantly in functional gene profiles, bacterial diversity, and biogeochemical pool sizes. Most grassland profiles were similar, but plantation profiles generally differed from those of grasslands due to differences in functional gene abundance across diverse taxa. Eucalypts decreased ammonification and N fixation functional genes by 11% and 7.9% (P < 0.01), which correlated with decreased microbial biomass N and more NH{sub 4}{sup +} in plantation soils. Chitinase abundance decreased 7.8% in plantations compared to levels in grassland (P = 0.017), and C polymer-degrading genes decreased by 1.5% overall (P < 0.05), which likely contributed to 54% (P < 0.05) more C in undecomposed extractable soil pools and 27% less microbial C (P < 0.01) in plantation soils. In general, afforestation altered the abundance of many microbial functional genes, corresponding with changes in soil biogeochemistry, in part through altered abundance of overall functional gene types rather than simply through changes in specific taxa. Such changes in microbial functional genes correspond with altered C and N storage and have implications for long-term productivity in these soils.

  4. The Autophagic Process Occurs in Human Bone Metastasis and Implicates Molecular Mechanisms Differently Affected by Rab5a in the Early and Late Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Maroni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy favours metastatic growth through fuelling energy and nutrients and resistance to anoikis, typical of disseminated-tumour cells. The autophagic process, mediated by a unique organelle, the autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes, is divided into three steps. Several stages, especially early omegasome formation and isolation-membrane initiation, remain controversial; molecular mechanisms involve the small-GTPase Rab5a, which regulates vesicle traffic for autophagosome formation. We examined Rab5a involvement in the function of key members of ubiquitin-conjugation systems, Atg7 and LC3-lipidated, interacting with the scaffold-protein p62. Immunohistochemistry of Rab5a was performed in human specimens of bone metastasis and pair-matched breast carcinoma; the autophagic-molecular mechanisms affected by Rab5a were evaluated in human 1833 bone metastatic cells, derived from breast-carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells. To clarify the role of Rab5a, 1833 cells were transfected transiently with Rab5a-dominant negative, and/or stably with the short-hairpin RNA Atg7, were exposed to two inhibitors of autolysosome function, and LC3II and p62 expression was measured. We showed basal autophagy in bone-metastatic cells and the pivotal role of Rab5a together with Beclin 1 between the early stages, elongation of isolation membrane/closed autophagosome mediated by Atg7, and the late-degradative stages. This regulatory network might occur in bone-metastasis and in high-grade dysplastic lesions, preceding invasive-breast carcinoma and conferring phenotypic characteristics for dissemination.

  5. The Autophagic Process Occurs in Human Bone Metastasis and Implicates Molecular Mechanisms Differently Affected by Rab5a in the Early and Late Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Resnati, Massimo; Matteucci, Emanuela; Milan, Enrico; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy favours metastatic growth through fuelling energy and nutrients and resistance to anoikis, typical of disseminated-tumour cells. The autophagic process, mediated by a unique organelle, the autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes, is divided into three steps. Several stages, especially early omegasome formation and isolation-membrane initiation, remain controversial; molecular mechanisms involve the small-GTPase Rab5a, which regulates vesicle traffic for autophagosome formation. We examined Rab5a involvement in the function of key members of ubiquitin-conjugation systems, Atg7 and LC3-lipidated, interacting with the scaffold-protein p62. Immunohistochemistry of Rab5a was performed in human specimens of bone metastasis and pair-matched breast carcinoma; the autophagic-molecular mechanisms affected by Rab5a were evaluated in human 1833 bone metastatic cells, derived from breast-carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells. To clarify the role of Rab5a, 1833 cells were transfected transiently with Rab5a-dominant negative, and/or stably with the short-hairpin RNA Atg7, were exposed to two inhibitors of autolysosome function, and LC3II and p62 expression was measured. We showed basal autophagy in bone-metastatic cells and the pivotal role of Rab5a together with Beclin 1 between the early stages, elongation of isolation membrane/closed autophagosome mediated by Atg7, and the late-degradative stages. This regulatory network might occur in bone-metastasis and in high-grade dysplastic lesions, preceding invasive-breast carcinoma and conferring phenotypic characteristics for dissemination. PMID:27023526

  6. The Autophagic Process Occurs in Human Bone Metastasis and Implicates Molecular Mechanisms Differently Affected by Rab5a in the Early and Late Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Resnati, Massimo; Matteucci, Emanuela; Milan, Enrico; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy favours metastatic growth through fuelling energy and nutrients and resistance to anoikis, typical of disseminated-tumour cells. The autophagic process, mediated by a unique organelle, the autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes, is divided into three steps. Several stages, especially early omegasome formation and isolation-membrane initiation, remain controversial; molecular mechanisms involve the small-GTPase Rab5a, which regulates vesicle traffic for autophagosome formation. We examined Rab5a involvement in the function of key members of ubiquitin-conjugation systems, Atg7 and LC3-lipidated, interacting with the scaffold-protein p62. Immunohistochemistry of Rab5a was performed in human specimens of bone metastasis and pair-matched breast carcinoma; the autophagic-molecular mechanisms affected by Rab5a were evaluated in human 1833 bone metastatic cells, derived from breast-carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells. To clarify the role of Rab5a, 1833 cells were transfected transiently with Rab5a-dominant negative, and/or stably with the short-hairpin RNA Atg7, were exposed to two inhibitors of autolysosome function, and LC3II and p62 expression was measured. We showed basal autophagy in bone-metastatic cells and the pivotal role of Rab5a together with Beclin 1 between the early stages, elongation of isolation membrane/closed autophagosome mediated by Atg7, and the late-degradative stages. This regulatory network might occur in bone-metastasis and in high-grade dysplastic lesions, preceding invasive-breast carcinoma and conferring phenotypic characteristics for dissemination. PMID:27023526

  7. Synaptic plasticity, neural circuits, and the emerging role of altered short-term information processing in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, Gregg W.; Gogos, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity alters the strength of information flow between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons and thus modifies the likelihood that action potentials in a presynaptic neuron will lead to an action potential in a postsynaptic neuron. As such, synaptic plasticity and pathological changes in synaptic plasticity impact the synaptic computation which controls the information flow through the neural microcircuits responsible for the complex information processing necessary to drive adapt...

  8. A common SNP in ER aminopeptidase 2 induces a specificity switch that leads to altered antigen processing

    OpenAIRE

    Evnouchidou, Irini; Birtley, James; Seregin, Sergey; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Giastas, Petros; Petrakis, Olivia; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Amalfitano, Andrea; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Mavridis, Irene M.; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    ER aminopeptidases 1 and 2 (ERAP1 and ERAP2) cooperate to trim antigenic peptide precursors for loading onto MHC class I molecules and help regulate the adaptive immune response. Common coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERAP1 and ERAP2 have been linked with predisposition to human diseases ranging from viral and bacterial infections to autoimmunity and cancer. It has been hypothesized that altered antigen processing by these enzymes is a causal link to disease etiology but the ...

  9. Retinal aging in the diurnal Chilean rodent (Octodon degus): histological, ultrastructural and neurochemical alterations of the vertical information processing pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina eSzabadfi; Cristina eEstrada; Emiliano eFernandez-Villalba; Ernesto eTarragon; Gyorgy eSetalo; Virginia eIzura; Dora eReglodi; Andrea eTamas; Robert eGabriel; Maria Trinidad eHerrero

    2015-01-01

    The retina is sensitive to age-dependent degeneration. To find suitable animal models to understand and map this process has particular importance. The degu (Octodon degus) is a diurnal rodent with dichromatic color vision. Its retinal structure is similar to that in humans in many respects, therefore, it is well suited to study retinal aging. Histological, cell type-specific and ultrastructural alterations were examined in 6-, 12- and 36-months old degus. The characteristic layers of the ret...

  10. Bentonite alteration due to thermal-hydro-chemical processes during the early thermal period in a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    After closure of an underground nuclear waste repository, the decay of radionuclides will raise temperature in the repository, and the bentonite buffer will resaturate by water inflow from the surrounding host rock. The perturbations from these thermal and hydrological processes are expected to dissipate within hundreds to a few thousand years. Here, we investigate coupled thermal-hydro-chemical processes and their effects on the short-term performance of a potential nuclear waste repository located in a clay formation. Using a simplified geometric configuration and abstracted hydraulic parameters of the clayey formation, we examine geochemical processes, coupled with thermo-hydrologic phenomena, and potential changes in porosity near the waste container during the early thermal period. The developed models were used for evaluating the mineral alterations and potential changes in porosity of the buffer, which can affect the repository performance. The results indicate that mineral alteration and associated changes in porosity induced by early thermal and hydrological processes are relatively small and are expected to not significantly affect flow and transport properties. Chlorite precipitation was obtained in all simulation cases. A maximum of one percent volume fraction of chlorite could be formed, whose process may reduce swelling and sorption capacity of bentonite clay, affecting the performance of the repository. llitisation process was not obtained from the present simulations.

  11. Early stages of sensory processing but not semantic integration is altered in dyslexic adults

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Botelho Da Silva; Karen eUeki; Darlene Godoy Oliveira; Paulo Sérgio Boggio; Elizeu Coutinho de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairm...

  12. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Patrícia B.; Ueki, Karen; de Oliveira, Darlene G.; Boggio, Paulo S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairm...

  13. Disruption of Broca's Area Alters Higher-order Chunking Processing during Perceptual Sequence Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamia, Andrea; Solopchuk, Oleg; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Van Bever, Violette; Fadiga, Luciano; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Because Broca's area is known to be involved in many cognitive functions, including language, music, and action processing, several attempts have been made to propose a unifying theory of its role that emphasizes a possible contribution to syntactic processing. Recently, we have postulated that Broca's area might be involved in higher-order chunk processing during implicit learning of a motor sequence. Chunking is an information-processing mechanism that consists of grouping consecutive items in a sequence and is likely to be involved in all of the aforementioned cognitive processes. Demonstrating a contribution of Broca's area to chunking during the learning of a nonmotor sequence that does not involve language could shed new light on its function. To address this issue, we used offline MRI-guided TMS in healthy volunteers to disrupt the activity of either the posterior part of Broca's area (left Brodmann's area [BA] 44) or a control site just before participants learned a perceptual sequence structured in distinct hierarchical levels. We found that disruption of the left BA 44 increased the processing time of stimuli representing the boundaries of higher-order chunks and modified the chunking strategy. The current results highlight the possible role of the left BA 44 in building up effector-independent representations of higher-order events in structured sequences. This might clarify the contribution of Broca's area in processing hierarchical structures, a key mechanism in many cognitive functions, such as language and composite actions. PMID:26765778

  14. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia B.; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G.; Boggio, Paulo S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  15. Early stages of sensory processing but not semantic integration is altered in dyslexic adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Botelho Da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia, in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures. From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean

  16. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia B; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G; Boggio, Paulo S; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  17. Adolescent social rejection alters pain processing in a CB1 receptor dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peggy; Pätz, Monique; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2016-07-01

    Experiences of social rejection represent a major source of distress and in particular peer rejection during adolescence has been implicated in various psychiatric disorders. Moreover, experimentally induced acute social rejection alters pain perception in humans, implicating overlapping neurocircuits for social and physical pains. We recently demonstrated that rearing of adolescent Wistar rats with inadequate, less playful play partners (Fischer 344) persistently decreases pain sensitivity, although the detailed mechanisms mediating the aversiveness during the social encounter remained unsettled. With the present study we examined the behavioral performance during acute interaction of female adolescent Wistar rats with either age-matched same-strain partners or rats from the Fischer 344 strain. We here identify the low responsiveness upon playful attacks, which appears to be characteristic for social play in the Fischer 344 strain, as one of the main aversive components for adolescent Wistar animals during cross-strain encounters, which subsequently diminishes thermal pain reactivity. A detailed behavioral analysis further revealed increased ultrasonic vocalization at 50kHz and an increased frequency of playful attacks for adolescent Wistar animals paired with a Fischer 344 rat compared to same-strain control pairs. Finally, an acute injection of a subthreshold dose of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist SR141716 before the social encounter abolished enhanced play-soliciting behavior in Wistar/Fischer 344 pairs as well as the behavioral consequences of the rejection experience in adolescent Wistar rats, further emphasizing an important modulatory role of the endocannabinoid system in mediating the effects of social behavior and social pain. PMID:27157075

  18. Diagenetic alteration process of chlorite in Tyr Member sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Hansen, Jens Peter Vind

    quartz overgrowths, calcite and chlorite and also minor amount of diagenetic K-feldspar. The investigated materials were core samples of Palaeocene sands referred to the Ty Member from the well Rau 1A. Chlorite was formed as pervasive grain-coating cement, but much porosity was still present. In the oil...... zone and deeper, porous samples were later cemented by macro quartz, with larger amounts in the water zone. Chlorite is found in varying amounts in Rau 1A samples. It can be recognized in SEM as a platy or bladed precipitate, which is mostly rich in iron. Chlorite is present in most samples, although...... only in traceable amounts in the samples which are dominated by microquartz cement. There seem to be two chlorite phases: The first phase occurs as rosettes in a grain coating growth pattern. It is partially intergrown with microquartz or forms a dense mixture of small chlorite rosettes and scattered...

  19. Processing and storage of Indian cereal and cereal products alters its resistant starch content

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ruchi H.; Sheth, Mini K.

    2010-01-01

    Resistant Starch (RS) is prebiotic in nature and is defined as the sum of starch and products of starch degradation not absorbed in small intestine of healthy individuals but later are fermented by natural microflora of the colon to produce short chain fatty acids. RS acts as a nutraceutical and its consumption leads to many health benefits. The aim of the study is to analyze the RS content in raw and processed cereals and cereal products and determine various processing and storage effects o...

  20. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). C...

  1. Altered miRNA processing disrupts brown/white adipocyte determination and associates with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Marcelo A; Thomou, Thomas; Boucher, Jeremie; Lee, Kevin Y; Lallukka, Susanna; Kim, Jason K; Torriani, Martin; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Grinspoon, Steven K; Cypess, Aaron M; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-08-01

    miRNAs are important regulators of biological processes in many tissues, including the differentiation and function of brown and white adipocytes. The endoribonuclease dicer is a major component of the miRNA-processing pathway, and in adipose tissue, levels of dicer have been shown to decrease with age, increase with caloric restriction, and influence stress resistance. Here, we demonstrated that mice with a fat-specific KO of dicer develop a form of lipodystrophy that is characterized by loss of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous white fat, severe insulin resistance, and enlargement and "whitening" of interscapular brown fat. Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte-like phenotype and reduced expression of several miRNAs. Brown preadipocyte whitening was partially reversed by expression of miR-365, a miRNA known to promote brown fat differentiation; however, introduction of other miRNAs, including miR-346 and miR-362, also contributed to reversal of the loss of the dicer phenotype. Interestingly, fat samples from patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy exhibited a substantial downregulation of dicer mRNA expression. Together, these findings indicate the importance of miRNA processing in white and brown adipose tissue determination and provide a potential link between this process and HIV-related lipodystrophy.

  2. Diets of differentially processed wheat alter ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S Z; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, C Y; Liu, X M; Wan, F C

    2015-11-01

    The influences of differently processed wheat products on rumen fermentation, microbial populations, and serum biochemistry profiles in beef cattle were studied. Four ruminally cannulated Limousin × Luxi beef cattle (400 ± 10 kg) were used in the experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental diets contained (on a DM basis) 60% corn silage as a forage source and 40% concentrate with 4 differently processed wheat products (extruded, pulverized, crushed, and rolled wheat). Concentrations of ruminal NH-N and microbial protein (MCP) in cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat were greater ( cattle fed pulverized and extruded wheat. Ruminal concentrations of total VFA and acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased ( cattle fed extruded wheat had the lowest concentrations of total VFA and acetate among all treatments. The relative abundance of , , ciliated protozoa, and was lower in cattle fed the pulverized wheat diet than in the other 3 diets ( cattle fed extruded wheat compared with cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat ( 0.05). Our findings suggest that the method of wheat processing could have a significant effect on ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle and that crushed and rolled processing is better in terms of ruminal NH-N and MCP content, acetate-to-propionate ratio, and relative abundance of rumen microorganisms.

  3. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  4. Inhibitors of glycoprotein processing alter T-cell proliferative responses to antigen and to interleukin 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, K A; Pierce, J D; Elbein, A D

    1988-01-01

    Most of the cell-surface molecules involved in T-cell immune responses are N-linked glycoproteins. We have investigated the effects of inhibitors of glycoprotein processing on specific T-cell functions, with the dual aims of examining the functional role of carbohydrate and of testing the usefulness of such compounds as immunomodulators. Treatment of a cloned murine helper T-cell line with these inhibitors differentially affects the proliferative response of the cell, depending upon the natur...

  5. Thermal Nociceptive Threshold Testing Detects Altered Sensory Processing in Broiler Chickens with Spontaneous Lameness

    OpenAIRE

    Becky Hothersall; Gina Caplen; Parker, Richard M. A.; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Claire A Weeks; Joanna C Murrell

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT...

  6. Amphetamine sensitization alters reward processing in the human striatum and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen G O'Daly

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission is implicated in a number of psychiatric illnesses characterised by disruption of reward processing and goal-directed behaviour, including schizophrenia, drug addiction and impulse control disorders associated with chronic use of dopamine agonists. Amphetamine sensitization (AS has been proposed to model the development of this aberrant dopamine signalling and the subsequent dysregulation of incentive motivational processes. However, in humans the effects of AS on the dopamine-sensitive neural circuitry associated with reward processing remains unclear. Here we describe the effects of acute amphetamine administration, following a sensitising dosage regime, on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in dopaminoceptive brain regions during a rewarded gambling task performed by healthy volunteers. Using a randomised, double-blind, parallel-groups design, we found clear evidence for sensitization to the subjective effects of the drug, while rewarded reaction times were unchanged. Repeated amphetamine exposure was associated with reduced dorsal striatal BOLD signal during decision making, but enhanced ventromedial caudate activity during reward anticipation. The amygdala BOLD response to reward outcomes was blunted following repeated amphetamine exposure. Positive correlations between subjective sensitization and changes in anticipation- and outcome-related BOLD signal were seen for the caudate nucleus and amygdala, respectively. These data show for the first time in humans that AS changes the functional impact of acute stimulant exposure on the processing of reward-related information within dopaminoceptive regions. Our findings accord with pathophysiological models which implicate aberrant dopaminergic modulation of striatal and amygdala activity in psychosis and drug-related compulsive disorders.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Alters the mRNA Translation Processing in L-02 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min HONG; Yan-chun CHE; Gui-zhen TANG; Wei CUN; Xue-mei ZHANG; Long-ding LIU; Qi-han LI

    2008-01-01

    HSV-1 infection-mediated regulation of mRNA translation in host cells is a systematic and complicated process. Investigation of the details of this mechanism will facilitate understanding of biological variations in the viral replication process and host cells. In this study, a comparative proteomics technology platform was applied by two-dimension electrophoresis of HSV-1 infected normal human L-02 cell and control cell lysates. The observed protein spots were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by the PDQuest software package. A number of the different observed protein spots closely associated with cellular protein synthesis were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The expression levels of the RPLP1 protein, which is required for mRNA translation, and KHSRP protein, which is involved in rapid decay of mRNA, were up-regulated, whereas the expression level of RNP H2, which is involved in positive regulation on the mRNA splicing process, was down-regulated. All of these results suggest that HSV-1 infection can influence cellular protein synthesis via modulation of cellular regulatory proteins involved in RNA splicing, translation and decay, resulting in optimisation of viral protein synthesis when cellular protein synthesis is shut off. Although there is need for further investigations regarding the detailed mechanisms of cellular protein control, our studies provide new insight into the targeting of varied virus signaling pathways involved in host cellular protein synthesis.

  8. Altered joint tribology in osteoarthritis: Reduced lubricin synthesis due to the inflammatory process. New horizons for therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychlinska, M A; Leonardi, R; Al-Qahtani, M; Mobasheri, A; Musumeci, G

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. This review aimed to consolidate the current evidence that implicates the inflammatory process in the attenuation of synovial lubrication and joint tissue homeostasis in OA. Moreover, with these findings, we propose some evidence for novel therapeutic strategies for preventing and/or treating this complex disorder. The studies reviewed support that inflammatory mediators participate in the onset and progression of OA after joint injury. The flow of pro-inflammatory cytokines following an acute injury seems to be directly associated with altered lubricating ability in the joint tissue. The latter is associated with reduced level of lubricin, one of the major joint lubricants. Future research should focus on the development of new therapies that attenuate the inflammatory process and restore lubricin synthesis and function. This approach could support joint tribology and synovial lubrication leading to improved joint function and pain relief.

  9. Priorities for modeling biological processes in climates altered by nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detling, J.K.; Kercher, J.R.; Post, W.M.; Cowles, S.W.; Harwell, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research that has been accomplished or currently models the effects of reduced light and temperature on terrestrial systems. We shall divide the systems to be studied into cultivated lands and uncultivated lands. The cultivated class consists of monoculture systems in which the individual plants belong to the same age and size class. The systems in the uncultivated class consist of uneven age, multi-species assemblies of interacting plants and animals. The uncultivated class ranges from minimally managed systems, e.g., rangelands and some forests, to completely unmanaged wildlands. For the cultivated case, the variable of concern is the annual yield of the crop under consideration. The models should be able to estimate percent yield loss as a function of reductions of light and temperature. The models should be accurate for the range of environments predicted for the growing season immediately following or during which the hypothetical nuclear exchange occurs. The models should be able to estimate yield loss in any subsequent year for which climatic conditions still differ significantly from normal. For the uncultivated case, the modelling program needs to be able to predict the effects on individual plants much the same as in the cultivated case; but in addition, the modelling program will have the task of estimating the effect that these changes in individual organisms will have at higher levels of organization, i.e., on populations, communities, and regional distributions of species. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Rayed craters on Dione: Implication for the dominant surface alteration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Naoyuki; Miyamoto, Hideaki

    2016-08-01

    From recently-acquired, high-resolution images obtained by the Cassini spacecraft, we examine the patterns and spatial distributions of rayed craters on Dione. We identify 29 rayed craters with diameters larger than 2 km on Dione's surface. The density of rayed craters and theoretical cratering rates indicate that the retention time for rays on Dione can be approximately 1-50 My. Such a short retention time is interpreted to be due to bombardment of plasma and E-ring particles, as well as implantation of dark particles (presumably the same dark material found on Hyperion, Iapetus, and other saturnian satellites). We also find that when the ray system of Creusa crater was formed, it extended over most of the surface of Dione. Later, the ray system deposited on the trailing hemisphere might have been partially erased, mostly due to implantation of dark particles, which may have also removed other bright ray systems in that region. The pattern of Creusa's ray system implies that the implantation of the dark material occurred more recent than both the age of Creusa crater and the typical retention time for rays on Dione.

  11. Altered processing of self-related emotional stimuli in mindfulness meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J; Brühl, A B; Doerig, N; Scheerer, H; Achermann, R; Weibel, A; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U

    2016-01-01

    Mental health benefits of mindfulness techniques are thought to involve changes in self-processing, such as decreased attachment to the self, higher self-compassion and lower emotional reactivity to inner experience. However, self-related emotion processing in regular mindfulness practitioners is not extensively studied. In the current work we investigate differential neural and behavioral correlates of self-criticism and self-praise in 22 mid-to-long-term mindfulness meditators (LTM) compared to 22 matched meditation-naïve participants (MNP). In an fMRI experiment, participants were presented with blocks of individually selected positive (self-praise, SP), negative (self-critical, SC), negative but not-self-critical (NNSC), and general, neutral (NT) adjectives, and reported their affective state after the blocks. On the neural level, both SP and SC yielded more activation in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in LTM compared to MNP. Activation in this region correlated positively with non-react scores of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and showed decreased functional connectivity to posterior midline and parietal regions in LTM compared to MNP during both self-related appraisals. Further, we found evidence for emotional reactivity in LTM on the neural level, particularly during SP. On the behavioral level, a mixed effects analysis revealed significantly higher differences in affective ratings after blocks of SC compared to SP in MNP compared to LTM. Differences in DMPFC activation and affective ratings point towards increased awareness, potentially mindful regulation of SC and SP in LTM, while decreased connectivity to other regions of the default mode network could reflect a decreased self-focus in this group. As such, our results illustrate differences in self-related emotional processes in meditators and offer clinically relevant insights into mechanisms of mindful emotion regulation when facing self-criticism and self-praise. PMID

  12. Altered Food-Cue Processing in Chronically Ill and Recovered Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole eSanders; Smeets, Paul A. M.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Danner, Unna N; Floor evan Meer; Hoek, Hans W.; Roger A Adan

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Thr...

  13. Cesium Toxicity Alters MicroRNA Processing and AGO1 Expressions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Lae Jung

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short RNA fragments that play important roles in controlled gene silencing, thus regulating many biological processes in plants. Recent studies have indicated that plants modulate miRNAs to sustain their survival in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, such as biotic stresses, cold, drought, nutritional starvation, and toxic heavy metals. Cesium and radio-cesium contaminations have arisen as serious problems that both impede plant growth and enter the food chain through contaminated plants. Many studies have been performed to define plant responses against cesium intoxication. However, the complete profile of miRNAs in plants during cesium intoxication has not been established. Here we show the differential expression of the miRNAs that are mostly down-regulated during cesium intoxication. Furthermore, we found that cesium toxicity disrupts both the processing of pri-miRNAs and AGONOUTE 1 (AGO1-mediated gene silencing. AGO 1 seems to be especially destabilized by cesium toxicity, possibly through a proteolytic regulatory pathway. Our study presents a comprehensive profile of cesium-responsive miRNAs, which is distinct from that of potassium, and suggests two possible mechanisms underlying the cesium toxicity on miRNA metabolism.

  14. Reduced risk avoidance and altered neural correlates of feedback processing in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Tanja; Schuermann, Beate; Roepke, Stefan; Kessler-Scheil, Sonia; Kathmann, Norbert

    2016-09-30

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show deficits in reward-guided decision making and learning. The present study examined risk-taking behavior in combination with feedback processing. Eighteen BPD patients and 18 healthy controls performed a probabilistic two-choice gambling task, while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Options differed in risk, but were identical in expected value and outcome probability. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the feedback-related P300 were analyzed. Healthy controls preferred low-risk over high-risk options, whereas BPD patients chose both option with equal probability. FRN amplitudes were reduced in BPD, but effects of feedback valence and risk did not differ between groups. This suggests attenuated outcome processing in the anterior cingulate cortex, but intact reward prediction error signaling. Furthermore, the modulation of the feedback-related P300 with feedback valence and risk was smaller in BPD patients, and decreased P300 amplitudes were associated with increased behavioral risk-taking behavior. These findings could relate to the reduced ability of BPD patients to learn and adequately adjust their behavior based on feedback information, possibly due to reduced significance of negative feedback. PMID:27344588

  15. Comparative characterization of the deamidation of carboxylic acid deamidated wheat gluten by altering the processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lan; Han, Xueyue; Chen, Lin-Ping; Ni, Li; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Qing

    2016-11-01

    The physicochemical, structural and functional properties of citric-acid-deamidated wheat gluten at controlled degrees of deamidation (25%, 40% and 55%), which were obtained by using different acid concentrations (3.93×10(-5), 3.14×10(-3) and 2.36×10(-2)mol/L) and temperatures (70°C 2h, 90°C 1h and 110°C 40min), were compared. Various deamidation processing conditions leading to the same degree of deamidation resulted in proteins with different physicochemical and structural characteristics, as indicted by the degree of hydrolysis, Z-potential, surface hydrophobicity, particle size, SDS-PAGE results, SEC-HPLC results, intrinsic fluorescence and FTIR spectra. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis qualitatively indicated a significant effect of pH on protein deamidation. Three samples at 40% deamidation, which were produced by a moderate acid concentration, showed the best emulsifying and foaming properties. Processes conducted at greater than 90°C causing protein aggregation and at a high acid concentration rupturing peptide bonds, impaired protein quality. These findings demonstrated that a limited amount of H(+) could function well in the catalysis of the deamidation of amide groups without an excess of H(+), which hydrolyses peptide bonds in a stronger hydrothermal treatment. PMID:27211678

  16. Point process time-frequency analysis of respiratory sinus arrhythmia under altered respiration dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodituwakku, Sandun; Lazar, Sara W; Indic, Premananda; Brown, Emery N; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is largely mediated by the autonomic nervous system through its modulating influence on the heartbeat. We propose an algorithm for quantifying instantaneous RSA as applied to heart beat interval and respiratory recordings under dynamic respiration conditions. The blood volume pressure derived heart beat series (pulse intervals, PI) are modeled as an inverse gaussian point process, with the instantaneous mean PI modeled as a bivariate regression incorporating both past PI and respiration values observed at the beats. A point process maximum likelihood algorithm is used to estimate the model parameters, and instantaneous RSA is estimated by a frequency domain transfer function approach. The model is statistically validated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) goodness-of-fit analysis, as well as independence tests. The algorithm is applied to subjects engaged in meditative practice, with distinctive dynamics in the respiration patterns elicited as a result. Experimental results confirm the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory interactions elicited during meditation, otherwise not evidenced in control resting states.

  17. Radioactivity and radiological risk associated with effluent sediment containing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials in amang (tin tailings) processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processing of amang, or tin tailings, for valuable minerals has been shown to technologically enhance NORM and this has stirred significant radiological safety and health concerns among Malaysia's regulatory authority. A growing radiological concern is now focused on the amang effluent containing NORM in recycling ponds, since these ponds may be reclaimed for future residential developments. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk associated with amang processing and the accumulated effluent in the recycling ponds. Twenty-six sediment samples from the recycling ponds of two amang plants in the states of Selangor and Perak, Malaysia, were collected and analyzed. The maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K recorded in sediments from these ponds were higher than Malaysia's and the world's natural highest. Correspondingly, the mean radium equivalent activity concentration indices, Raeq, and gamma radiation representative level index, I γr, were higher than the world's average. The enhancement of NORM in effluent sediments as a consequence of amang processing, and the use of a closed water management recycling system created Effective Dose Rates, E (nSv h-1), that signal potential environmental radiological risks in these ponds, should they be reclaimed for future land use

  18. Postnatal manganese exposure alters dopamine transporter function in adult rats: Potential impact on nonassociative and associative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S A; Reichel, C M; Farley, C M; Flesher, M M; Der-Ghazarian, T; Cortez, A M; Wacan, J J; Martinez, C E; Varela, F A; Butt, A E; Crawford, C A

    2008-06-23

    In the present study, we examined whether exposing rats to a high-dose regimen of manganese chloride (Mn) during the postnatal period would depress presynaptic dopamine functioning and alter nonassociative and associative behaviors. To this end, rats were given oral supplements of Mn (750 microg/day) on postnatal days (PD) 1-21. On PD 90, dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity and [3H]dopamine uptake were assayed in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, while in vivo microdialysis was used to measure dopamine efflux in the same brain regions. The effects of postnatal Mn exposure on nigrostriatal functioning were evaluated by assessing rotorod performance and amphetamine-induced stereotypy in adulthood. In terms of associative processes, both cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and sucrose-reinforced operant responding were examined. Results showed that postnatal Mn exposure caused persistent declines in DAT protein expression and [3H]dopamine uptake in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, as well as long-term reductions in striatal dopamine efflux. Rotorod performance did not differ according to exposure condition, however Mn-exposed rats did exhibit substantially more amphetamine-induced stereotypy than vehicle controls. Mn exposure did not alter performance on any aspect of the CPP task (preference, extinction, or reinstatement testing), nor did Mn affect progressive ratio responding (a measure of motivation). Interestingly, acquisition of a fixed ratio task was impaired in Mn-exposed rats, suggesting a deficit in procedural learning. In sum, these results indicate that postnatal Mn exposure causes persistent declines in various indices of presynaptic dopaminergic functioning. Mn-induced alterations in striatal functioning may have long-term impact on associative and nonassociative behavior. PMID:18485605

  19. A Proposed Process Model for Removing IP Address Conflicts when Different MANETs merge: Check the Performance of Server when Address Conflict Occurs

    OpenAIRE

    Chand Mukesh H. L. Mandoria

    2012-01-01

    As the number of nodes increases the complexity of MANET [1, 11] increases in various issues. For this reason various approaches has been produced to reduce the complexity such as cluster head technique and dominating set based gateway technique. Another issue is distribution of IP in MANET. There are various approaches is given to assign the IP address but they are not much effective and each and every approach has its limitation. In this paper a conflict free process model is proposed to so...

  20. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Youn Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh pressure (UHP treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS. Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples.

  1. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee Youn; Singh, Digar; Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB) using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples. PMID:27338333

  2. Altered Onset Response Dynamics in Somatosensory Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sheraz; Hashmi, Javeria A; Mamashli, Fahimeh; Bharadwaj, Hari M; Ganesan, Santosh; Michmizos, Konstantinos P; Kitzbichler, Manfred G; Zetino, Manuel; Garel, Keri-Lee A; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kenet, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical connectivity and evoked responses have been extensively documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, specific signatures of these cortical abnormalities remain elusive, with data pointing toward abnormal patterns of both increased and reduced response amplitudes and functional connectivity. We have previously proposed, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, that apparent inconsistencies in prior studies could be reconciled if functional connectivity in ASD was reduced in the feedback (top-down) direction, but increased in the feedforward (bottom-up) direction. Here, we continue this line of investigation by assessing abnormalities restricted to the onset, feedforward inputs driven, component of the response to vibrotactile stimuli in somatosensory cortex in ASD. Using a novel method that measures the spatio-temporal divergence of cortical activation, we found that relative to typically developing participants, the ASD group was characterized by an increase in the initial onset component of the cortical response, and a faster spread of local activity. Given the early time window, the results could be interpreted as increased thalamocortical feedforward connectivity in ASD, and offer a plausible mechanism for the previously observed increased response variability in ASD, as well as for the commonly observed behaviorally measured tactile processing abnormalities associated with the disorder.

  3. Suppression of savanna ants alters invertebrate composition and influences key ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, C L; Eggleton, P; Davies, A B; Evans, T A; Holdsworth, S

    2016-06-01

    In almost every ecosystem, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are the dominant terrestrial invertebrate group. Their functional value was highlighted by Wilson (1987) who famously declared that invertebrates are the "little things that run the world." However, while it is generally accepted that ants fulfil important functions, few studies have tested these assumptions and demonstrated what happens in their absence. We report on a novel large-scale field experiment in undisturbed savanna habitat where we examined how ants influence the abundance of other invertebrate taxa in the system, and affect the key processes of decomposition and herbivory. Our experiment demonstrated that ants suppressed the abundance and activity of beetles, millipedes, and termites, and also influenced decomposition rates and levels of herbivory. Our study is the first to show that top-down control of termites by ants can have important ecosystem consequences. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects ant communities have on other aspects of the ecosystem (e.g., soils, nutrient cycling, the microbial community) and how their relative importance for ecosystem function varies among ecosystem types (e.g., savanna vs. forest). PMID:27459790

  4. Towards the kinetics of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration of modern Arctica islandica shell material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Laura A.; Griesshaber, Erika; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang W.

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at paleo-environment reconstructions. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium as they form local chemical environments for physiologic processes such as biological mineralization of their hard tissues. This disequilibrium is not sustained after death and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration with the surrounding environment: diagenesis. To understand transformation during diagenesis we performed laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments on Arctica islandica shells at four different temperatures between 100 °C and 175 °C treated in simulated meteoric and burial waters, respectively. We investigated, relative to unaltered shells, the kinetics of Arctica islandica bioaragonite to calcite transition as well as microstructural- and nanostructural characteristics of the altered shells with X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, high-resolution SEM and EBSD. At hydrothermal treatment at 100 °C bioaragonite - although metastable at 1 bar - does not transform to calcite, even in meteoric fluids and over a time period of 28 days. We noted a drastic recrystallization from the initial fine-grained fractal microstructure and pronounced axial texture to a new and still fine-grained microstructure with an almost randomized orientation distribution. At 175 °C the transformation to coarse-grained calcite is complete after 8 days. Calcite formation starts after a passive incubation period of 4 days; after 6 days the aragonite is almost completely transformed. In solutions simulating meteoric water the grain size of the newly formed calcite reaches 100-150 μm, while in burial fluids the calcite reaches sizes in the 1mm range during 28 days of alteration. Phase transformation proceeds where the hydrothermal fluid is in contact with the aragonite: at shell surfaces, around pores and in growth lines. Our observations lead us to the

  5. A Proposed Process Model for Removing IP Address Conflicts when Different MANETs merge: Check the Performance of Server when Address Conflict Occurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand Mukesh H. L. Mandoria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As the number of nodes increases the complexity of MANET [1, 11] increases in various issues. For this reason various approaches has been produced to reduce the complexity such as cluster head technique and dominating set based gateway technique. Another issue is distribution of IP in MANET. There are various approaches is given to assign the IP address but they are not much effective and each and every approach has its limitation. In this paper a conflict free process model is proposed to solve the configuration problem where two or more than two MANET merge and remove the limitation from the above-mentioned approaches .And also the performance of server due IP address conflict is tested with the help of a scenario to solve IP address configuration [2, 4, 8, 13, and 16] problem in mobile adhoc network.

  6. A High-avidity WT1-reactive T-Cell Receptor Mediates Recognition of Peptide and Processed Antigen but not Naturally Occurring WT1-positive Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaigirdar, Adnan; Rosenberg, Steven A; Parkhurst, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) is an attractive target antigen for cancer immunotherapy because it is overexpressed in many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors but has limited, low-level expression in normal adult tissues. Multiple HLA class I and class II restricted epitopes have been identified in WT1, and multiple investigators are pursuing the treatment of cancer patients with WT1-based vaccines and adoptively transferred WT1-reactive T cells. Here we isolated an HLA-A*0201-restricted WT1-reactive T-cell receptor (TCR) by stimulating peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors with the peptide WT1:126-134 in vitro. This TCR mediated peptide recognition down to a concentration of ∼0.1 ng/mL when pulsed onto T2 cells as well as recognition of HLA-A*0201 target cells transfected with full-length WT1 cDNA. However, it did not mediate consistent recognition of many HLA-A*0201 tumor cell lines or freshly isolated leukemia cells that endogeneously expressed WT1. We dissected this pattern of recognition further and observed that WT1:126-134 was more efficiently processed by immunoproteasomes compared with standard proteasomes. However, pretreatment of WT1 tumor cell lines with interferon gamma did not appreciably enhance recognition by our TCR. In addition, we highly overexpressed WT1 in several leukemia cell lines by electroporation with full-length WT1 cDNA. Some of these lines were still not recognized by our TCR suggesting possible antigen processing defects in some leukemias. These results suggest WT1:126-134 may not be a suitable target for T-cell based tumor immunotherapies. PMID:26938944

  7. Alteration processes of medieval stained glass windows. Study and protection treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Navarro, J. María

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The anxiety caused by the fast growing decay of historical stained glass windows as a consequence of increasing environmental pollution, encouraged institutions of several countries to sponsor a series of scientific works aimed both to slow down this fast forwarding deterioration and to develop repair and preservation methods. After an initial review of the chemical composition of the stained glass windows and of the differences depending on historical epochs and origins, a discussion about chemical attack mechanisms, degradation processes and formation of superficial crusts opens up. Finally, the methodology used in their cleaning and restoration is briefly exposed and some criteria on the still polemic quest.

    La inquietud creada por la creciente alteración que, como consecuencia del aumento de la contaminación atmosférica, están sufriendo las vidrieras históricas, ha movido a las instituciones de varios países a patrocinar la realización de una serie de trabajos científicos dirigidos, por una parte, a detener el avance de este deterioro y, por otra, a desarrollar métodos para su restauración y conservación. Tras una revisión inicial sobre la composición química de las vidrieras y sus diferencias según las distintas épocas y lugares de procedencia, se discuten los mecanismos de ataque químico, los procesos de degradación y la formación de costras superficiales. Finalmente se expone brevemente la metodología seguida para su limpieza y restauración y se comentan algunos de los criterios sobre la todavía polémica cuestión de los tratamientos de protección.

  8. Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Neubauer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced roughly 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent

  9. Effect of alteration processes on the distribution of radionuclides in uraniferous sedimentary rocks and their environmental impact, southwestern Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of natural radionuclides in various types of sedimentary rocks in Um Bogma Formation and base of El Hashash Formation were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Three types of lower Carboniferous sedimentary rocks were investigated; sandstone (El Hashash Formation), dolostone and argillaceous sediments (Um Bogma Formation). The alteration processes are dolomitization, dedolomitization, karstification and lateritization. The specific radioactivity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K determined in different samples, indicate that 238U and its decay products contribute primarily to the high natural radioactivity of rocks. The maximum concentration of 238U reached up to 2129.36 ppm in argillaceous sediments. The average concentrations of determined radionuclides (238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K) are 8.34 ppm, 7.88 ppm, 4.68 ppm and 0.3%, respectively in sandstone. In dolostones the average concentrations are 418.69 ppm, 808.75 ppm, 3.14 ppm and 0.29%, respectively. For argillaceous sediments are 276.88 ppm, 419.49 ppm, 11.47 ppm and 0.93%, respectively. The 238U/226Ra ratio in sandstone ranges between 0.89 and 1.25, while in dolostones and argillaceous sediments are 0.27-2.63 and 0.27-1.83, respectively. These variations in the concentrations of radioelements and their ratios are due to the action of the alteration processes affected these different sedimentary rocks in different times. Environmentally, the Raeq in dolostones and argillaceous sediments exceeds the permitted limits, while in the sandstone samples; it is within the permissible levels. (author)

  10. Cellular hyper-excitability caused by mutations that alter the activation process of voltage-gated sodium channels

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    Mohamed-Yassine eAMAROUCH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav are widely expressed as macro-molecular complexes in both excitable and non-excitable tissues. In excitable tissues, the upstroke of the action potential is the result of the passage of a large and rapid influx of sodium ions through these channels. NaV dysfunction has been associated with an increasingly wide range of neurological, muscular and cardiac disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently identified sodium channel mutations that are linked to hyper-excitability phenotypes and associated with the alteration of the activation process of voltage gated sodium channels. Indeed, several clinical manifestations that demonstrate an alteration of tissue excitability were recently shown to be strongly associated with the presence of mutations that affect the activation process of the voltage-gated sodium channels. These emerging genotype-phenotype correlations have expanded the clinical spectrum of sodium channelopathies to include disorders which feature a hyper-excitability phenotype that may or may not be associated with a cardiomyopathy. The p.I141V mutation in SCN4A and SCN5A, as well as its homologous p.I136V mutation in SCN9A, are interesting examples of mutations that have been linked to inherited hyperexcitability myotonia, exercise-induced polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and erythromelalgia, respectively. Regardless of which sodium channel isoform is investigated, the substitution of the isoleucine to valine in the locus 141 induces similar modifications in the biophysical properties of the voltage-gated sodium channels by shifting the voltage-dependence of steady state activation towards more negative potentials.

  11. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René J. Hernández-Bautista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old, the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline.

  12. Retinal aging in the diurnal Chilean rodent (Octodon degus: histological, ultrastructural and neurochemical alterations of the vertical information processing pathway

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    Krisztina eSzabadfi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The retina is sensitive to age-dependent degeneration. To find suitable animal models to understand and map this process has particular importance. The degu (Octodon degus is a diurnal rodent with dichromatic color vision. Its retinal structure is similar to that in humans in many respects, therefore, it is well suited to study retinal aging. Histological, cell type-specific and ultrastructural alterations were examined in 6, 12 and 36 months old degus. The characteristic layers of the retina were present at all ages, but slightly loosened tissue structure could be observed in 36-month-old animals both at light and electron microscopic levels. Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein expression was observed in Müller glial cells in aging retinas. The number of rod bipolar cells and the ganglion cells was reduced in the aging specimens, while that of cone bipolar cells remained unchanged. Other age-related differences were detected at ultrastructural level: alteration of the retinal pigment epithelium and degenerated photoreceptor cells were evident. Ribbon synapses were sparse and often differed in morphology from those in the young animals. These results support our hypothesis that (i the rod pathway seems to be more sensitive than the cone pathway to age-related cell loss; (ii structural changes in the basement membrane of pigment epithelial cells can be one of the early signs of degenerative processes; (iii the loss of synaptic proteins especially from those of the ribbon synapses are characteristic and (iv the degu retina may be a suitable model for studying retinal aging.

  13. APEX (Aqueous Photochemistry of Environmentally occurring Xenobiotics): a free software tool to predict the kinetics of photochemical processes in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrato, Marco; Vione, Davide

    2014-04-01

    The APEX software predicts the photochemical transformation kinetics of xenobiotics in surface waters as a function of: photoreactivity parameters (direct photolysis quantum yield and second-order reaction rate constants with transient species, namely ˙OH, CO₃(-)˙, (1)O₂ and the triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, (3)CDOM*), water chemistry (nitrate, nitrite, bicarbonate, carbonate, bromide and dissolved organic carbon, DOC), and water depth (more specifically, the optical path length of sunlight in water). It applies to well-mixed surface water layers, including the epilimnion of stratified lakes, and the output data are average values over the considered water column. Based on intermediate formation yields from the parent compound via the different photochemical pathways, the software can also predict intermediate formation kinetics and overall yield. APEX is based on a photochemical model that has been validated against available field data of pollutant phototransformation, with good agreement between model predictions and field results. The APEX software makes allowance for different levels of knowledge of a photochemical system. For instance, the absorption spectrum of surface water can be used if known, or otherwise it can be modelled from the values of DOC. Also the direct photolysis quantum yield can be entered as a detailed wavelength trend, as a single value (constant or average), or it can be defined as a variable if unknown. APEX is based on the free software Octave. Additional applications are provided within APEX to assess the σ-level uncertainty of the results and the seasonal trend of photochemical processes.

  14. Some processes of energy saving and expenditure occurring during ethanol perfusion in the isolated liver of fed rats; a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin Henri

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the isolated liver of fed rats, a 10 mM ethanol perfusion rapidly induced a rapid 25% decrease in the total ATP content, the new steady state resulting from both synthesis and consumption. The in situ rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis without activation of the respiration was increased by 27%, implying an increased energy demand. An attempt to identify the ethanol-induced ATP-consuming pathways was performed using 31P and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Results Ethanol (i transiently increased sn-glycerol-3-phosphate formation whereas glycogenolysis was continuously maintained; (ii decreased the glycolytic ATP supply and (iii diminished the intracellular pH in a dose-dependent manner in a slight extend. Although the cytosolic oxidation of ethanol largely generated H+ (and NADH, intracellular pHi was maintained by (i the large and passive excretion of cellular acetic acid arising from ethanol oxidation (evidenced by exogenous acetate administration, without energetic cost or (ii proton extrusion via the Na+-HCO3- symport (implying the indirect activation of the Na+-K+-ATPase pump and thus an energy use, demonstrated during the addition of their specific inhibitors SITS and ouabaïn, respectively. Conclusion Various cellular mechanisms diminish the cytosolic concentration of H+ and NADH produced by ethanol oxidation, such as (i the large but transient contribution of the dihydroxyacetone phosphate / sn-glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle between cytosol and mitochondria, mainly implicated in the redox state and (ii the major participation of acetic acid in passive proton extrusion out of the cell. These processes are not ATP-consuming and the latter is a cellular way to save some energy. Their starting in conjunction with the increase in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in ethanol-perfused whole liver was however insufficient to alleviate either the inhibition of glycolytic ATP synthesis and/or the implication of Na+-HCO3- symport and

  15. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

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    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. memory biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions.Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years participated in either a 12-week course containing a "meditation laboratory" or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music. Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course.Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .02. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [(F(1, 56 = 3.0, p = .09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being [r = 0.31, p = .02] and decreased clinical symptoms [r = -0.29, p = .03].Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing.

  16. The surfactant protein C mutation A116D alters cellular processing, stress tolerance, surfactant lipid composition, and immune cell activation

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    Zarbock Ralf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein C (SP-C is important for the function of pulmonary surfactant. Heterozygous mutations in SFTPC, the gene encoding SP-C, cause sporadic and familial interstitial lung disease (ILD in children and adults. Mutations mapping to the BRICHOS domain located within the SP-C proprotein result in perinuclear aggregation of the proprotein. In this study, we investigated the effects of the mutation A116D in the BRICHOS domain of SP-C on cellular homeostasis. We also evaluated the ability of drugs currently used in ILD therapy to counteract these effects. Methods SP-CA116D was expressed in MLE-12 alveolar epithelial cells. We assessed in vitro the consequences for cellular homeostasis, immune response and effects of azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Results Stable expression of SP-CA116D in MLE-12 alveolar epithelial cells resulted in increased intracellular accumulation of proSP-C processing intermediates. SP-CA116D expression further led to reduced cell viability and increased levels of the chaperones Hsp90, Hsp70, calreticulin and calnexin. Lipid analysis revealed decreased intracellular levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC and increased lyso-PC levels. Treatment with methylprednisolone or hydroxychloroquine partially restored these lipid alterations. Furthermore, SP-CA116D cells secreted soluble factors into the medium that modulated surface expression of CCR2 or CXCR1 receptors on CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils, suggesting a direct paracrine effect of SP-CA116D on neighboring cells in the alveolar space. Conclusions We show that the A116D mutation leads to impaired processing of proSP-C in alveolar epithelial cells, alters cell viability and lipid composition, and also activates cells of the immune system. In addition, we show that some of the effects of the mutation on cellular homeostasis can be antagonized by application of pharmaceuticals commonly applied in ILD therapy

  17. Photoinhibition induced alterations in energy transfer process in phycobilisomes of PS II in the cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Duvvuri Prasanna; Murthy, Sistla D S

    2007-09-30

    Exposure of algae or plants to irradiance from above the light saturation point of photosynthesis is known as high light stress. This high light stress induces various responses including photoinhibition of the photosynthetic apparatus. The degree of photoinhibition could be clearly determined by measuring the parameters such as absorption and fluorescence of chromoproteins. In cyanobacteria and red algae, most of the photosystem (PS) II associated light harvesting is performed by a membrane attached complex called the phycobilisome (PBS). The effects of high intensity light (1000-4000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on excitation energy transfer from PBSs to PS II in a cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were studied by measuring room temperature PC fluorescence emission spectra. High light (3000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) stress had a significant effect on PC fluorescence emission spectra. On the other hand, light stress induced an increase in the ratio of PC fluorescence intensity of PBS indicating that light stress inhibits excitation energy transfer from PBS to PS II. The high light treatment to 3000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) caused disappearance of 31.5 kDa linker polypeptide which is known to link PC discs together. In addition we observed the similar decrease in the other polypeptide contents. Our data concludes that the Spirulina cells upon light treatment causes alterations in the phycobiliproteins (PBPs) and affects the energy transfer process within the PBSs.

  18. Alteration causes and processes in the stone material from the pavement in Baelo Claudia archeological site, Cadiz/Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyos, M.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the alteration causes in the stone material used in buildings and pavements from the ancient roman town of Baelo Claudia (Cádiz, South Spain was carried out to establish their degree of conservation. Slabs from the pavement of the Forum showed in general a high and irreversible degree of degradation. In order to palliate the action of processes of degradation in subaerial conditions, in this work some measures are proposed to try to preserve the slabs in better conditions.

    En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de un estudio detallado sobre el estado de conservación de los materiales pétreos usados en construcciones y pavimentos de la antigua ciudad romana de Baelo Claudia (Cádiz, Sur de España. En especial, las losas del pavimento del Foro romano mostraron, en general, un alto e irreversible grado de alteración. En este estudio, se proponen medidas correctoras para una mejor preservación de las losas, amortiguando la acción de los procesos de degradación propios de condiciones subaéreas.

  19. Dissolution studies of natural analogues spent fuel and U(VI)-Silicon phases of and oxidative alteration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the long-term behavior of the nuclear spent fuel in geological repository conditions, we have performed dissolution studies with natural analogues to UO2 as well as with solid phases representatives of the oxidative alteration pathway of uranium dioxide, as observed in both natural environment and laboratory studies. In all cases, we have studied the influence of the bicarbonate concentration in the dissolution process, as a first approximation to the groundwater composition of a granitic environment, where carbonate is one of the most important complexing agents. As a natural analogue to the nuclear spent fuel some uraninite samples from the Oklo are deposit in Gabon, where chain fission reactions took place 2000 millions years ago, as well as a pitchblende sample from the mine Fe ore deposit, in Salamanca (spain) have been studied. The studies have been performed at 25 and 60 deg C and 60 deg C, and they have focussed on the determination of both the thermodynamic and the kinetic properties of the different samples studied, using batch and continuous experimental methodologies, respectively. (Author)

  20. CI chondrite-like clasts in the Nilpena polymict ureilite - Implications for aqueous alteration processes in CI chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Prinz, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Petrographic studies of Nilpena polymict ureilite have revealed the presence of small quantities of carbonaceous chondrite matrix clasts. Detailed electron microprobe and TEM studies show that the chemistry and fine-scale mineralogy of one of these clasts is consistent with CI carbonaceous chondrite matrix. Compared to Orgeuil, the phyllosilicate, sulfide, and oxide mineralogy suggests that the Nilpena clasts may represent a less altered type of CI matrix. It is suggested that increased oxidation and aqueous alteration of Nilpena-type materials could result in the formation of the type of mineral assemblage observed in Orgueil. Increased alteration produces progressive more Mg-rich phyllosilicates and more Fe(3+)-rich iron oxides, such as ferrihydrite. As a function of increased alteration, Ca is also progressively leached from the matrix material to form carbonate veins. The depletion of Ca in CI chondrite matrices suggests the Ivuna and Alais may be intermediate in their degree of alteration to Nilpena and Orgueil.

  1. Evidence for mechanical and chemical alteration of iron-nickel meteorites on Mars: Process insights for Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, James W.; Golombek, M.P.; Christensen, P.R.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.J.; Schroder, C.; Fleischer, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Parker, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    The weathering of meteorites found on Mars involves chemical and physical processes that can provide clues to climate conditions at the location of their discovery. Beginning on sol 1961, the Opportunity rover encountered three large iron meteorites within a few hundred meters of each other. In order of discovery, these rocks have been assigned the unofficial names Block Island, Shelter Island, and Mackinac Island. Each rock presents a unique but complimentary set of features that increase our understanding of weathering processes at Meridiani Planum. Significant morphologic characteristics interpretable as weathering features include (1) a large pit in Block Island, lined with delicate iron protrusions suggestive of inclusion removal by corrosive interaction; (2) differentially eroded kamacite and taenite lamellae in Block Island and Shelter Island, providing relative timing through crosscutting relationships with deposition of (3) an iron oxide-rich dark coating; (4) regmaglypted surfaces testifying to regions of minimal surface modification, with other regions in the same meteorites exhibiting (5) large-scale, cavernous weathering (in Shelter Island and Mackinac Island). We conclude that the current size of the rocks is approximate to their original postfall contours. Their morphology thus likely results from a combination of atmospheric interaction and postfall weathering effects. Among our specific findings is evidence supporting (1) at least one possible episode of aqueous acidic exposure for Block Island; (2) ripple migration over portions of the meteorites; (3) a minimum of two separate episodes of wind abrasion; alternating with (4) at least one episode of coating-forming chemical alteration, most likely at subzero temperatures. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria-Beatrice Wintermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Panic Disorder (PD direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD. METHODS: A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat as non-fearful non-body odors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear

  3. X-ray Amorphous Phases in Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Quinn, J. E.; Graff, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument onboard the Mars Curiosity rover has detected abundant amounts (approx. 25-30 wt. %) of X-ray amorphous materials in a windblown deposit (Rocknest) and in a sedimentary mudstone (Cumberland and John Klein) in Gale crater. On Earth, X-ray amorphous components are common in soils and sediments, but usually not as abundant as detected in Gale crater. One hypothesis for the abundant X-ray amorphous materials on Mars is limited interaction of liquid water with surface materials, kinetically inhibiting maturation to more crystalline phases. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy of soils formed in the Antarctica Dry Valleys, one of the driest locations on Earth. Two soils were characterized from different elevations, including a low elevation, coastal, subxerous soil in Taylor Valley and a high elevation, ultraxerous soil in University Valley. A variety of techniques were used to characterize materials from each soil horizon, including Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data. For Taylor Valley soil, the X-ray amorphous component ranged from about 4 wt. % in the upper horizon to as high as 15 wt. % in the lowest horizon just above the permafrost layer. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the presence of short-range ordered (SRO) smectite was the most likely candidate for the X-ray amorphous materials in the Taylor Valley soils. The SRO smectite is likely an aqueous alteration product of mica inherited from granitic materials during glaciation of Taylor Valley. The drier University Valley soil had lower X-ray amorphous contents of about 5 wt. % througout the profile. The X-ray amorphous materials in University Valley are attributed to nanoparticles of TiO2 and possibly amorphous SiO2. The high abundance of X-ray amorphous materials in Taylor Valley is surprising for one of the driest places on Earth. These materials may have been physically and chemical altered during

  4. Hydrothermal alteration of surficial rocks at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei): Petrophysical properties and implications for phreatic eruption processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Isaia, Roberto; Aßbichler, Donjá; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-06-01

    Solfatara crater is located within the Campi Flegrei caldera to the west of Naples (Italy). It is one of the largest fumarolic manifestations known, and the rocks hosting the hydrothermal system are affected by intense hydrothermal alteration. Alteration can result in changes of degassing behavior, and in the formation of a cap rock thereby increasing the probability of phreatic eruptions. Here, we investigate the effects of alunitic (solfataric) alteration on the mineralogy, the physical properties (porosity, density, permeability) and the mechanical properties (strength) of the rocks involved, as well as its influence on fragmentation and ejection behavior. Our results show that the pristine mineralogy of deposits from the vicinity of the Solfatara cryptodome and from Pisciarelli is almost completely replaced by amorphous silica and alunite. The differences in the degree of alteration among the samples series are reflected in the investigated properties and behavior as well as in the analysis of the experimentally generated particles. Alunitic alteration increases porosity and permeability, whereas it reduces density, elastic wave velocity and strength leading to higher fragmentation and ejection speeds for the sample series examined in this study. Our results also show that alteration results in the generation of a high fraction of fines (particle sizes < 10 μm) during fragmentation, mainly composed of alunite crystals. Due to their potential for inducing chronic disease, dispersion of such material should represent a serious health hazard on a local scale and the evaluation of precautions should be considered.

  5. Alteration Information Extraction by Applying Synthesis Processing Techniques to Landsat ETM+Data: Case Study of Zhaoyuan Gold Mines,Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fujiang; Wu Xincai; Sun Huashan; Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data are usually used to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of geological structures and generally serve as a significant means for the identification of alteration zones. Based on the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data, which have better spectral resolution (8 bands) and spatial resolution (15 m in PAN band), the synthesis processing techniques were presented to fulfill alteration information extraction: data preparation, vegetation indices and band ratios, and expert classifier-based classification. These techniques have been implemented in the MapGIS-RSP software (version 1.0), developed by the Wuhan Zondy Cyber Technology Co., Ltd,China. In the study area application of extracting alteration information in the Zhaoyuan (招远) gold mines, Shandong (山东) Province, China, several hydorthermally altered zones (included two new sites) were found after satellite imagery interpretation coupled with field surveys. It is concluded that these synthesis processing techniques are useful approaches and are applicable to a wide range of gold-mineralized alteration information extraction.

  6. Opportunities for Process-Based Management of Rivers Below Water Diversions: Exploring and Exploiting Coupled Alteration of Flow and Sediment Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, K. M.; Alipour, M.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous, rural catchments throughout the world, small to medium-sized rivers are being developed for diversion hydropower. Previous study indicates that in the absence of careful management, consequences to rivers downstream of diversion hydropower dams can be severe. However, patterns of hydrologic alteration below diversion hydropower dams have not been well described. In addition, diversion hydropower projects typically require some form of sediment management to maintain relatively small impoundments at diversion sites. Investigation of principal coupled processes, notably flow and sediment dynamics, in the context of alteration by diversion schemes may elucidate potential for working with natural processes to mitigate consequences to rivers. This analysis characterizes hydrologic alteration by diversion hydropower dams, investigating flows below 31 diversion dams. Diversion for hydropower production generated distinctive signatures of hydrologic alteration in sample rivers. For instance, flow signals were characterized by reduced low to moderate flows and steep transitions between low and high stages. In a number of rivers, small floods were reduced in number and size. However, effect to magnitude and timing of large floods was minimal across all rivers investigated. Sediments were stored in impoundments and released in pulses annually through lower sediment gates. The hydrologic signatures observed were strongly linked to diversion designs and may be transferable to other rivers developed with similar infrastructure. Understanding characteristic flow alterations due to diversion hydropower, in combination with cycles of sediment storage and release, may inform management practices for simultaneously maintaining reservoirs and downstream channels. In particular, investigating altered flood magnitudes and frequencies in the context of geomorphic work may indicate potential for maintaining natural hydrogeomorphic processes. Detailed study of sediment

  7. Enterobacter cloacae as biosurfactant producing bacterium: differentiating its effects on interfacial tension and wettability alteration Mechanisms for oil recovery during MEOR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafzadeh, Pegah; Hezave, Ali Zeinolabedini; Ravanbakhsh, Moosa; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process utilizes microorganisms or their metabolites to mobilize the trapped oil in the oil formation after primary and secondary oil recovery stages. MEOR technique is considered as more environmentally friendly and low cost process. There are several identified mechanisms for more oil recovery using MEOR processes however; wettability alteration and interfacial tension (IFT) reduction are the important ones. Enterobacter Cloacae, a facultative bio-surfactant producer bacterium, was selected as a bacterial formulation due to its known performance on IFT reduction and wettability alteration. To quantify the effects of these two mechanisms, different tests including oil spreading, in situ and ex situ core flooding, wettability measurement (Amott), IFT, viscosity and pH measurements were performed. The obtained results revealed that the experimental procedure used in this study was able to quantitatively identify the individual effects of both mechanisms on the ultimate microbial oil recovery. The results demonstrated considerable effects of both mechanisms on the tertiary oil recovery; however after a proper shut in time period, more tertiary oil was recovered because of wettability alteration mechanism. Finally, SEM images taken from the treated cores showed biofilm formation on the rock pore surfaces, which is responsible for rock surface wettability alteration. PMID:23376749

  8. First-aid and Nursing of Febrile Convulsion Children Occurred in the Process of Transfusion%儿童输液过程发生高热惊厥的急救护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀珍

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨儿童输液过程发生高热惊厥的急救护理方法与效果。方法选择2011年9月~2014年8月在我院进行输液发生高热惊厥的18例小儿作为研究对象,所有患儿都给予急诊干预与积极的急救护理。结果所有患儿都急救成功,无死亡情况发生,也无任何并发症发生,痊愈后出院。结论儿童输液过程发生高热惊厥时,需要积极观察病情,进行对症处理,从而使患儿转危为安。%Objective To investigate the ef ect of first-aid and nursing methods of children with febrile convulsion occur ed in the process of transfusion. Methods 18 cases febrile convulsion children form September 2011 to August 2014 in our hospital were chosen, al patients were given first-aid and nursing. Results Al patients had successful emergency, no death case occurred, no cases occur ed complications. Conclusion The purpose of first-aid and nursing,active observation and symptomatic treatment is to save febrile convulsion children's life.

  9. Core flooding tests to investigate the effects of IFT reduction and wettability alteration on oil recovery during MEOR process in an Iranian oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Arash; Sharifinik, Milad; Niazi, Ali; Hashemi, Abdolnabi; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-07-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) refers to the process of using bacterial activities for more oil recovery from oil reservoirs mainly by interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration mechanisms. Investigating the impact of these two mechanisms on enhanced oil recovery during MEOR process is the main objective of this work. Different analytical methods such as oil spreading and surface activity measurements were utilized to screen the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from the brine of a specific oil reservoir located in the southwest of Iran. The isolates identified by 16S rDNA and biochemical analysis as Enterobacter cloacae (Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) 1798) and Enterobacter hormaechei (PTCC 1799) produce 1.53 g/l of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant caused substantial surface tension reduction of the growth medium and interfacial tension reduction between oil and brine to 31 and 3.2 mN/m from the original value of 72 and 29 mN/m, respectively. A novel set of core flooding tests, including in situ and ex situ scenarios, was designed to explore the potential of the isolated consortium as an agent for MEOR process. Besides, the individual effects of wettability alteration and IFT reduction on oil recovery efficiency by this process were investigated. The results show that the wettability alteration of the reservoir rock toward neutrally wet condition in the course of the adsorption of bacteria cells and biofilm formation are the dominant mechanisms on the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. PMID:23553033

  10. Postnatal Manganese Exposure Alters Dopamine Transporter Function in Adult Rats: Potential Impact on Nonassociative and Associative Processes

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, S. A.; Reichel, C. M.; Farley, C M; Flesher, M. M.; Der-Ghazarian, T.; Cortez, A. M.; Wacan, J. J.; Martinez, C. E.; VARELA, F. A.; Butt, A E; Crawford, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether exposing rats to a high-dose regimen of manganese chloride (Mn) during the postnatal period would depress presynaptic dopamine functioning and alter nonassociative and associative behaviors. To this end, rats were given oral supplements of Mn (750 μg/day) on postnatal days (PD) 1–21. On PD 90, dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity and [3H]dopamine uptake were assayed in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, while in vivo microdialysis was used to ...

  11. Disturbed Neuronal ER-Golgi Sorting of Unassembled Glycine Receptors Suggests Altered Subcellular Processing Is a Cause of Human Hyperekplexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Natascha; Kluck, Christoph J.; Price, Kerry L.; Meiselbach, Heike; Vornberger, Nadine; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Hartmann, Stephanie; Langlhofer, Georg; Schulz, Solveig; Schlegel, Nadja; Brockmann, Knut; Lynch, Bryan; Becker, Cord-Michael; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the pathogenic mechanisms of recessive hyperekplexia indicate disturbances in glycine receptor (GlyR) α1 biogenesis. Here, we examine the properties of a range of novel glycine receptor mutants identified in human hyperekplexia patients using expression in transfected cell lines and primary neurons. All of the novel mutants localized in the large extracellular domain of the GlyR α1 have reduced cell surface expression with a high proportion of receptors being retained in the ER, although there is forward trafficking of glycosylated subpopulations into the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi compartment. CD spectroscopy revealed that the mutant receptors have proportions of secondary structural elements similar to wild-type receptors. Two mutants in loop B (G160R, T162M) were functional, but none of those in loop D/β2–3 were. One nonfunctional truncated mutant (R316X) could be rescued by coexpression with the lacking C-terminal domain. We conclude that a proportion of GlyR α1 mutants can be transported to the plasma membrane but do not necessarily form functional ion channels. We suggest that loop D/β2–3 is an important determinant for GlyR trafficking and functionality, whereas alterations to loop B alter agonist potencies, indicating that residues here are critical elements in ligand binding. PMID:25568133

  12. Developmental changes in reading do not alter the development of visual processing skills: an application of explanatory item response models in grades K-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Kristi L; Kulesz, Paulina A; Khalaf, Shiva; Francis, David J

    2015-01-01

    Visual processing has been widely studied in regard to its impact on a students' ability to read. A less researched area is the role of reading in the development of visual processing skills. A cohort-sequential, accelerated-longitudinal design was utilized with 932 kindergarten, first, and second grade students to examine the impact of reading acquisition on the processing of various types of visual discrimination and visual motor test items. Students were assessed four times per year on a variety of reading measures and reading precursors and two popular measures of visual processing over a 3-year period. Explanatory item response models were used to examine the roles of person and item characteristics on changes in visual processing abilities and changes in item difficulties over time. Results showed different developmental patterns for five types of visual processing test items, but most importantly failed to show consistent effects of learning to read on changes in item difficulty. Thus, the present study failed to find support for the hypothesis that learning to read alters performance on measures of visual processing. Rather, visual processing and reading ability improved together over time with no evidence to suggest cross-domain influences from reading to visual processing. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories of visual processing and brain-based research on the role of visual skills in learning to read. PMID:25717311

  13. Developmental changes in reading do not alter the development of visual processing skills: An application of explanatory item response models in grades K-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Santi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual processing has been widely studied in regard to its impact on a students’ ability to read. A less researched area is the role of reading in the development of visual processing skills. A cohort-sequential, accelerated-longitudinal design was utilized with 932 kindergarten, first, and second grade students to examine the impact of reading acquisition on the processing of various types of visual discrimination and visual motor test items. Students were assessed four times per year on a variety of reading measures and reading precursors and two popular measures of visual processing over a three-year period. Explanatory item response models were used to examine the roles of person and item characteristics on changes in visual processing abilities and changes in item difficulties over time. Results showed different developmental patterns for five types of visual processing test items, but most importantly failed to show consistent effects of learning to read on changes in item difficulty. Thus, the present study failed to find support for the hypothesis that learning to read alters performance on measures of visual processing. Rather, visual processing and reading ability improved together over time with no evidence to suggest cross-domain influences from reading to visual processing. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories of visual processing and brain-based research on the role of visual skills in learning to read.

  14. Raman-Mössbauer-XRD studies of selected samples from "Los Azulejos" outcrop: A possible analogue for assessing the alteration processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, E. A.; Sanz-Arranz, A.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Sansano, A.; Medina, J.; Schmanke, D.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Rull, F.

    2016-06-01

    The outcrop of "Los Azulejos" is visible at the interior of the Cañadas Caldera in Tenerife Island (Spain). It exhibits a great variety of alteration processes that could be considered as terrestrial analogue for several geological processes on Mars. This outcrop is particularly interesting due to the content of clays, zeolite, iron oxides, and sulfates corresponding to a hydrothermal alteration catalogued as "Azulejos" type alteration. A detailed analysis by portable and laboratory Raman systems as well as other different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy has been carried out (using twin-instruments from Martian lander missions: Mössbauer spectrometer MIMOS-II from the NASA-MER mission of 2001 and the XRD diffractometer from the NASA-MSL Curiosity mission of 2012). The mineral identification presents the following mineral species: magnetite, goethite, hematite, anatase, rutile, quartz, gregoryite, sulfate (thenardite and hexahydrite), diopside, feldspar, analcime, kaolinite and muscovite. Moreover, the in-situ Raman and Micro-Raman measurements have been performed in order to compare the capabilities of the portable system specially focused for the next ESA Exo-Mars mission. The mineral detection confirms the sub-aerial alteration on the surface and the hydrothermal processes by the volcanic fluid circulations in the fresh part. Therefore, the secondary more abundant mineralization acts as the color agent of the rocks. Thus, the zeolite-illite group is the responsible for the bluish coloration, as well as the feldspars and carbonates for the whitish and the iron oxide for the redish parts. The XRD system was capable to detect a minor proportion of pyroxene, which is not visible by Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy due to the "Azulejos" alteration of the parent material on the outcrop. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy was capable of detecting different types of iron-oxides (Fe3+/2+-oxide phases). These analyses

  15. Conversion of a CHO cell culture process from perfusion to fed-batch technology without altering product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwly, F; Weber, U; Ziegler, T; Gervais, A; Mastrangeli, R; Crisci, C; Rossi, M; Bernard, A; von Stockar, U; Kadouri, A

    2006-05-01

    During the development of a new drug product, it is a common strategy to develop a first-generation process with the aim to rapidly produce material for pre-clinical and early stage clinical trials. At a later stage of the development, a second-generation process is then introduced with the aim to supply late-stage clinical trials as well as market needs. This work was aimed at comparing the performance of two different CHO cell culture processes (perfusion and fed-batch) used for the production of a therapeutically active recombinant glycoprotein at industrial pilot-scale. The first-generation process was based on the Fibra-Cel packed-bed perfusion technology. It appeared during the development of the candidate drug that high therapeutic doses were required (>100mg per dose), and that future market demand would exceed 100 kg per year. This exceeded by far the production capacity of the first-generation process, and triggered a change of technology from a packed-bed perfusion process with limited scale-up capabilities to a fed-batch process with scale-up potential to typical bioreactor sizes of 15m(3) or more. The productivity per bioreactor unit volume (in product m(-3)year(-1)) of the fed-batch process was about 70% of the level reached with the first-generation perfusion process. However, since the packed-bed perfusion system was limited in scale (0.6m(3) maximum) compared to the volumes reached in suspension cultures (15m(3)), the fed-batch was selected as second-generation process. In fact, the overall process performance (in product year(-1)) was about 18-fold higher for the fed-batch compared to the perfusion mode. Data from perfusion and fed-batch harvests samples indicated that comparable product quality (relative abundance of monomers dimers and aggregates; N-glycan sialylation level; isoforms distribution) was obtained in both processes. To further confirm this observation, purification to homogeneity of the harvest material from both processes, followed

  16. 2011年4月中旬华南一次超级单体风暴过程分析%Analysis of a Supercell Storm Process Occurred in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奕铭; 谷文龙; 吴风波

    2015-01-01

    A supercell storm process occurred in Southern China on April 17,2011 was analyzed based on the conventional observation data and WRF model simulation outputs. The results showed that this process was triggered by the combined action of 850 hPa shear line and the surface front. The interaction between high level positive potential vorticity cold air decling along the inclinedθse surface and the low level warm-moist air, which aroused significant convergence and ascent movement area to promote the development of the strong convective. The new supercell was continuously generated in the right front of the former suppercell and maintained longer life of severe convective, which presented a southeast movement.%利用常规资料和WRF模式计算的结果,对2011年4月17日华南地区一次超级单体风暴过程进行综合分析。结果表明,此次强对流发生在高空槽、切变线配合地面锋面的天气背景条件下,切变线和地面锋面共同作用触发了强对流天气的发生;沿倾斜的等θse面下滑的高层正位涡冷空气与低层暖湿空气相互作用,产生明显的辐合上升区,促使强对流不断发展;新的超级单体在原有单体的右前方不断生成,从而维持了强对流较长的生命史,使得超级单体风暴在移动过程中呈现东南向移动的特点。

  17. Elephant Moraine 96029, a very mildly aqueously altered and heated CM carbonaceous chondrite: Implications for the drivers of parent body processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martin R.; Lindgren, Paula; King, Ashley J.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Sparkes, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Elephant Moraine (EET) 96029 is a CM carbonaceous chondrite regolith breccia with evidence for unusually mild aqueous alteration, a later phase of heating and terrestrial weathering. The presence of phyllosilicates and carbonates within chondrules and the fine-grained matrix indicates that this meteorite was aqueously altered in its parent body. Features showing that water-mediated processing was arrested at a very early stage include a matrix with a low magnesium/iron ratio, chondrules whose mesostasis contains glass and/or quench crystallites, and a gehlenite-bearing calcium- and aluminium-rich inclusion. EET 96029 is also rich in Fe,Ni metal relative to other CM chondrites, and more was present prior to its partial replacement by goethite during Antarctic weathering. In combination, these properties indicate that EET 96029 is one of the least aqueously altered CMs yet described (CM2.7) and so provides new insights into the original composition of its parent body. Following aqueous alteration, and whilst still in the parent body regolith, the meteorite was heated to ∼400-600 °C by impacts or solar radiation. Heating led to the amorphisation and dehydroxylation of serpentine, replacement of tochilinite by magnetite, loss of sulphur from the matrix, and modification to the structure of organic matter that includes organic nanoglobules. Significant differences between samples in oxygen isotope compositions, and water/hydroxyl contents, suggests that the meteorite contains lithologies that have undergone different intensities of heating. EET 96029 may be more representative of the true nature of parent body regoliths than many other CM meteorites, and as such can help interpret results from the forthcoming missions to study and return samples from C-complex asteroids.

  18. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization. PMID:15998127

  19. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization.

  20. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls. PMID:27345597

  1. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls.

  2. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects

  3. A computational account of altered error processing in older age: Dopamine and the error-related negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Talsma, Durk; Coles, Michael G.H.; Holroyd, Clay B.; Kok, Albert; Molen, van der Maurits W.

    2002-01-01

    When participants commit errors or receive feedback signaling that they have made an error, a negative brain potential is elicited. According to Holroyd and Coles’s (in press) neurocomputational model of error processing, this error-related negativity (ERN) is elicited when the brain first detects t

  4. A computational account of altered error processing in older age: Dopamine and the error-related negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Nieuwenhuis; K.R. Ridderinkhof; D. Talsma; M.G. Coles; C.B. Holroyd; A. Kok

    2002-01-01

    When participants commit errors or receive feedback signaling that they have made an error, a negative brain potential is elicited. According to Holroyd and Coles's (in press) neurocomputational model of error processing, this error-related negativity (ERN) is elicited when the brain first detects t

  5. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J.; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1–R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12–R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (Clinical

  6. DIFFERENTIAL KINETICS IN ALTERATION AND RECOVERY OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES FROM A CHRONIC SLEEP RESTRICTION IN YOUNG HEALTHY MEN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Alexandre Rabat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep restriction (CSR induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e. attention, executive under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8h TIB followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4h TIB, 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8h TIB and 2 more ones 8 days later (R12-R13. Subjective sleepiness (KSS, maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT were evaluated 4 times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m. and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m. and evening (6:30 p.m. sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13 and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12 samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1, tardily (after R2 and no recovered (R13. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741.

  7. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject's capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12-R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject's age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject's performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject's capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741

  8. Altered reward processing in the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, J; Knorr, U; Skimminge, A;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (rMD+) show brain structure and functional response anomalies and have elevated risk for developing depression, a disorder linked to abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission and reward processing. METHOD: In a two......-step functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation, we first evaluated whether positive and negative monetary outcomes were differentially processed by rMD+ individuals compared to healthy first-degree relatives of control probands (rMD-). Second, in a double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized...... trial we investigated whether a 4-week intervention with the selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram had a normalizing effect on behavior and brain responses of the rMD+ individuals. RESULTS: Negative outcomes increased the probability of risk-averse choices in the subsequent trial...

  9. 改变再生方式提高催化裂化装置处理量%ALTERING OPERATING MODE TO ENHANCE PROCESSING CAPACITY OF FCCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建平; 侯玉宝

    2001-01-01

    中国石化股份公司洛阳分公司的同轴式重油催化裂化装置因设备利旧而达不到1.40 Mt/a的设计处理量。把再生方式由完全再生改为常规再生后,装置处理能力由1.38 Mt/a提高到1.49 Mt/a。%The co-axial RFCCU can't reach the design processing capacity of 1400000 t/yr. Altering the mode of complete catalyst regeneration to conventional catalyst regeneration's, the processing capacity of the unit enhanced from 1380000 t/yr to 1490000 t/yr.

  10. Balancing bilateral sensory activity: callosal processing modulates sensory transmission through the contralateral thalamus by altering the response threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Ebner, Ford F

    2006-07-01

    Rats tactually explore a nearly spherical space field around their heads with their whiskers. The information sampled by the two sets of whiskers is integrated bilaterally at the cortical level in an activity dependent manner via the corpus callosum. We have recently shown that sensory activity in one barrel field cortex (BFC) modulates the processing of incoming sensory information to the other BFC. Whether interhemispheric integration is dynamically linked with corticothalamic modulation of incoming sensory activity is an important hypothesis to test, since subcortical relay neurons are directly modulated by cortical neurons through top-down processes. In the present study, we compared the direct sensory responses of single thalamic relay neurons under urethane anesthesia before and after inactivating the BFC contralateral to a thalamic neuron. The data show that silencing one BFC reduces response magnitude in contralateral thalamic relay neurons, significantly and reversibly, in response to test stimuli applied to the principal whisker at two times response threshold (2T) intensity for each unit. Neurons in the ventral posterior medial (VPM) nucleus and the medial division of the posterior nucleus (POm) react in a similar manner, although POm neurons are more profoundly depressed by inactivation of the contralateral BFC than VPM neurons. The results support the novel idea that the subcortical relay of sensory information to one hemisphere is strongly modulated by activity levels in the contralateral as well as in the ipsilateral SI cortex. The mechanism of the modulation appears to be based on shifting the stimulus-response curves of thalamic neurons, thereby rendering them more or less sensitive to sensory stimuli. We conclude that global sensory processing is created by combining activity in each cerebral hemisphere and continually balancing the flow of information to cortex by adjusting the responsiveness of ascending sensory pathways.

  11. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  12. Adults with high social anhedonia have altered neural connectivity with ventral lateral prefrontal cortex when processing positive social signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong eYin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social anhedonia (SA is a debilitating characteristic of schizophrenia and a vulnerability for developing schizophrenia among people at risk. Prior work (Hooker et al, 2014 has revealed neural deficits in ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC during processing of positive emotion in a community sample of people with high social anhedonia. Deficits in VLPFC neural activity are related to worse self-reported schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms and worse mood and behavior after social stress. In the current study, psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis was applied to investigate the neural mechanisms mediated by VLPFC during emotion processing. PPI analysis revealed that, compared to low SA controls, participants with high SA displayed reduced VLPFC integration, specifically reduced connectivity between VLPFC and premotor cortex, inferior parietal and posterior temporal regions when viewing positive relative to neutral emotion. Across all participants, connectivity between VLPFC and inferior parietal region when viewing positive (versus neutral emotion was significantly correlated with measures of emotion management and attentional control. Additionally connectivity between VLPFC and superior temporal sulcus was related to reward and pleasure anticipation, and connectivity between VLPFC and inferior temporal sulcus correlated with attentional control measure. Our results suggest that impairments to VLPFC mediated neural circuitry underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits.

  13. The beta-receptor blocker metoprolol alters detoxification processes in the non-target organism Dreissena polymorpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska, E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: pflugmacher@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Nuetzmann, Gunnar, E-mail: nuetzmann@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecohydrology, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Kloas, Werner, E-mail: werner.kloas@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Wiegand, Claudia, E-mail: wiegand@biology.sdu.d [University of Southern Denmark Institute of Biology, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-06-15

    Due to increasing amounts of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment, their largely unknown effects to non-target organisms need to be assessed. This study examined physiological changes in the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha exposed to increasing concentrations (0.534, 5.34, 53.4 and 534 mug L{sup -1}) of the beta-blocker metoprolol in a flow-through system for seven days. The two lower concentrations represent the environmentally relevant range. Surprisingly, metallothionein mRNA was immediately up-regulated in all treatments. For the two higher concentrations mRNA up-regulation in gills was found for P-glycoprotein after one day, and after four days for pi class glutathione S-transferase, demonstrating elimination and biotransformation processes, respectively. Additionally, catalase and superoxide dismutase were up-regulated in the digestive gland indicating oxidative stress. In all treated mussels a significant up-regulation of heat shock protein mRNA was observed in gills after four days, which suggests protein damage and the requirement for repair processes. Metoprolol was 20-fold bioaccumulated for environmentally relevant concentrations. - Evidence for significant physiological changes in an aquatic mollusc due to exposure to a pharmaceutically active compound detected by real-time PCR.

  14. Modulating the RNA processing and decay by the exosome: altering Rrp44/Dis3 activity and end-product.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa P Reis

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the exosome plays a central role in RNA maturation, turnover, and quality control. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the core exosome is composed of nine catalytically inactive subunits constituting a ring structure and the active nuclease Rrp44, also known as Dis3. Rrp44 is a member of the ribonuclease II superfamily of exoribonucleases which include RNase R, Dis3L1 and Dis3L2. In this work we have functionally characterized three residues located in the highly conserved RNB catalytic domain of Rrp44: Y595, Q892 and G895. To address their precise role in Rrp44 activity, we have constructed Rrp44 mutants and compared their activity to the wild-type Rrp44. When we mutated residue Q892 and tested its activity in vitro, the enzyme became slightly more active. We also showed that when we mutated Y595, the final degradation product of Rrp44 changed from 4 to 5 nucleotides. This result confirms that this residue is responsible for the stacking of the RNA substrate in the catalytic cavity, as was predicted from the structure of Rrp44. Furthermore, we also show that a strain with a mutation in this residue has a growth defect and affects RNA processing and degradation. These results lead us to hypothesize that this residue has an important biological role. Molecular dynamics modeling of these Rrp44 mutants and the wild-type enzyme showed changes that extended beyond the mutated residues and helped to explain these results.

  15. Age-related alterations of relaxation processes and non-Markov effects in stochastic dynamics of R-R intervals variability from human ECGs

    CERN Document Server

    Yulmetyev, R M; Panischev, O Y; Hänggi, P; Yulmetyev, Renat M.; Demin, Sergey A.; Panischev, Oleg Yu.; H\\"anggi, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the age-related alterations of heart rate variability on the basis of the study of non-Markovian effects. The age dynamics of relaxation processes is quantitatively described by means of local relaxation parameters, calculated by the specific localization procedure. We offer a quantitative informational measure of non-Markovity to evaluate the change of statistical effects of memory. Local relaxation parameters for young and elderly people differ by 3.3 times, and quantitative measures of non-Markovity differ by 4.2 times. The comparison of quantitative parameters allows to draw conclusions about the reduction of relaxation rate with ageing and the higher degree of the Markovity of heart rate variability of elderly people.

  16. Experimental study of gold activation-transportation in the process of potash metasomatism-alteration ——North China platform gold deposit taken as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yurong; HU; Shouxi

    2001-01-01

    Chemical reactions of plagioclase, biotite and their single minerals, as well as a mineral mixture of (plagioclase +biotite+quartz), with KCl and (KCl+KHCO3) solutions were carried out at 150400℃ and 5080 MPa. Experiments show that alkaline fluid promotes plagioclase’s changing into potash feldspar, while acid fluid helps plagioclase, potash feldspar and biotite alteration form chlorite and sericite. After chemical reaction the acidity-alkalinity of solutions often changes reversely. It was observed that gold dissolved from the tube wall and recrystallized on the surfaces of biotite and pyrite. Therefore the transportation and enrichment of gold are related to the elementary effect of the fluid-mineral interfaces. Fe3+-Fe2+, as an oxidition-reduction agent, and volatile components Cl? and CO2 play important roles in the reaction process.

  17. Alteration of Mevalonate Pathway in Proliferated Vascular Smooth Muscle from Diabetic Mice: Possible Role in High-Glucose-Induced Atherogenic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ping Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs is one of the main features of atherosclerosis induced by high glucose. Mevalonate pathway is an important metabolic pathway that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes. The aim of this study was to define whether the enzyme expression in mevalonate pathway is changed in proliferated VSMCs during atherogenic process in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced in BALB/c mice with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days. Induction of diabetes with STZ was associated with an increase of lesion area and media thickness after 8 and 16 weeks of diabetes. In aorta, there were overexpressions of some enzymes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS, farnesyltransferase (FNT, and geranylgeranyltransferase-1 (GGT-1, and unchanged expression of squalene synthase (SQS and phosphor-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (P-HMGR in 8 and 16 weeks of diabetes. In vitro, VSMCs were cultured and treated with different glucose concentrations for 48 h. High glucose (22.2 mM induced VSMC proliferation and upregulation of HMGR, FPPS, GGPPS, FNT, and GGT-1 but did not change the expressions of SQS and P-HMGR. In conclusion, altered expression of several key enzymes in the mevalonate pathway may play a potential pathophysiological role in atherogenic process of diabetes macrovascular complication.

  18. Altered composition of bone as triggered by irradiation facilitates the rapid erosion of the matrix by both cellular and physicochemical processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Green

    Full Text Available Radiation rapidly undermines trabecular architecture, a destructive process which proceeds despite a devastated cell population. In addition to the 'biologically orchestrated' resorption of the matrix by osteoclasts, physicochemical processes enabled by a damaged matrix may contribute to the rapid erosion of bone quality. 8w male C57BL/6 mice exposed to 5 Gy of Cs(137 γ-irradiation were compared to age-matched control at 2d, 10d, or 8w following exposure. By 10d, irradiation had led to significant loss of trabecular bone volume fraction. Assessed by reflection-based Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI, chemical composition of the irradiated matrix indicated that mineralization had diminished at 2d by -4.3±4.8%, and at 10d by -5.8±3.2%. These data suggest that irradiation facilitates the dissolution of the matrix through a change in the material itself, a conclusion supported by a 13.7±4.5% increase in the elastic modulus as measured by nanoindentation. The decline in viable cells within the marrow of irradiated mice at 2d implies that the immediate collapse of bone quality and inherent increased risk of fracture is not solely a result of an overly-active biologic process, but one fostered by alterations in the material matrix that predisposes the material to erosion.

  19. Analyzing randomly occurring voltage breakdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During acceptance testing of high-vacuum neutron tubes, 40% of the tubes failed after experiencing high-voltage breakdowns during the aging process. Use of a digitizer in place of an oscilloscope revealed two types of breakdowns, only one of which affected acceptance testing. This information allowed redesign of the aging sequence to prevent tube damage and improve yield and quality of the final product

  20. Sequestration of DROSHA and DGCR8 by Expanded CGG RNA Repeats Alters MicroRNA Processing in Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Sellier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of 55–200 CGG repeats in the 5′ UTR of FMR1. These expanded CGG repeats are transcribed and accumulate in nuclear RNA aggregates that sequester one or more RNA-binding proteins, thus impairing their functions. Here, we have identified that the double-stranded RNA-binding protein DGCR8 binds to expanded CGG repeats, resulting in the partial sequestration of DGCR8 and its partner, DROSHA, within CGG RNA aggregates. Consequently, the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs is reduced, resulting in decreased levels of mature miRNAs in neuronal cells expressing expanded CGG repeats and in brain tissue from patients with FXTAS. Finally, overexpression of DGCR8 rescues the neuronal cell death induced by expression of expanded CGG repeats. These results support a model in which a human neurodegenerative disease originates from the alteration, in trans, of the miRNA-processing machinery.

  1. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the oil and gas processing and production facilities; La contaminacion radiactiva de origen natural (CRON) en las instalaciones de produccion y procesamiento de aceite y gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera F, J. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Lima (Peru)

    1994-12-31

    NORM contamination is produced by concentration in petroleum facilities of naturally occurring radioactive materials. The presence of NORM in petroleum reservoirs and in the oil and gas industry has been widely recognized. It`s not a critical technical problem if you proceed timely to solve it. NORM is a great but controllable hazard to the human health and the environment, and represents a severe waste management problem. We suggest to the latino american oil companies to conduct studies to detect NORM contamination in their facilities an use to them to plan the appropriate actions to control the situation. (author). 15 refs.

  2. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: pulsing experiments for cathodic-first/charge-balanced/biphasic pulses for 0.566 ≤ k ≥ 2.3 in oxygenated and deoxygenated sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Doe W.; Montague, Fred W.; Hudak, Eric M.; Mortimer, J. Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The application of a train of cathodic-first/charge-balanced/biphasic pulses applied to a platinum electrode resulted in a positive creep of the anodic phase potential that increases with increasing charge injection but reaches a steady-state value before 1000 pulses have been delivered. The increase follows from the fact that charge going into irreversible reactions occurring during the anodic phase must equal the charge going into irreversible reactions during the cathodic phase for charge-balanced pulses. In an oxygenated electrolyte the drift of the measured positive potential moved into the platinum oxidation region of the i(V e) profile when the charge injection level exceeds k = 1.75. Platinum dissolution may occur in this region and k = 1.75 defines a boundary between damaging and non-damaging levels on the Shannon Plot. In a very low oxygen environment, the positive potential remained below the platinum oxidation region for the highest charge injection values studied, k = 2.3. The results support the hypothesis that platinum dissolution is the defining factor for the Shannon limit, k = 1.75. Numerous instrumentation issues were encountered in the course of making measurements. The solutions to these issues are provided.

  3. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  4. Can color changes alter the neural correlates of recognition memory? Manipulation of processing affects an electrophysiological indicator of conceptual implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Gao, Chuanji; Zhou, Jianshe; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-09-28

    It has been widely shown that recognition memory includes two distinct retrieval processes: familiarity and recollection. Many studies have shown that recognition memory can be facilitated when there is a perceptual match between the studied and the tested items. Most event-related potential studies have explored the perceptual match effect on familiarity on the basis of the hypothesis that the specific event-related potential component associated with familiarity is the FN400 (300-500 ms mid-frontal effect). However, it is currently unclear whether the FN400 indexes familiarity or conceptual implicit memory. In addition, on the basis of the findings of a previous study, the so-called perceptual manipulations in previous studies may also involve some conceptual alterations. Therefore, we sought to determine the influence of perceptual manipulation by color changes on recognition memory when the perceptual or the conceptual processes were emphasized. Specifically, different instructions (perceptually or conceptually oriented) were provided to the participants. The results showed that color changes may significantly affect overall recognition memory behaviorally and that congruent items were recognized with a higher accuracy rate than incongruent items in both tasks, but no corresponding neural changes were found. Despite the evident familiarity shown in the two tasks (the behavioral performance of recognition memory was much higher than at the chance level), the FN400 effect was found in conceptually oriented tasks, but not perceptually oriented tasks. It is thus highly interesting that the FN400 effect was not induced, although color manipulation of recognition memory was behaviorally shown, as seen in previous studies. Our findings of the FN400 effect for the conceptual but not perceptual condition support the explanation that the FN400 effect indexes conceptual implicit memory. PMID:27489100

  5. Determination of pharmacokinetic processes in body organs on the basis of the box model and, by analogy, of laws of radioactive disintegration of naturally occurring and artificially activated isotope families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work described is based on the simple law of degradation and disintegration for pharmaceutical substances. The transport, storage and, possibly, accumulation of beneficial and harmful pharmaceuticals in the organs of the human body are analysed using the box model. The studies are not restricted to asymptotic conditions occurring after continuous treatment with a particular drug but also investigate into the so-called stabilisation phase immediately after the beginning of medication, which is described mathematically. This phase is shown to be subject to a set of rules that are much more complex than those responsible for asymptotic substance levels. The analytical procedures used here are described on the basis of typical cases drawn from medical practice. The laws derived from these observations can, by analogy, also be applied to the radioactive disintegration of isotope families. They also permit formulas to be determined for the activity of multiple-link chain members. The report proceeds by discussing cases, where the baseline substance is the result of nuclear chain reacting. The last issue to be treated within the scope of this study is the radioactive disintegration and simultaneous activation of isotope families. (orig./MG)

  6. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  7. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in the Southern Polar Ocean: Naturally occurring tracers of biological and hydrographical processes in the surface waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the distribution of 210Po and 210Pb in the upper 600 m of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea was investigated along north-south transects in austral spring and autumn. 210Po and 210Pb can serve as sensitive tracers for the special hydrographic conditions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea as well as for biological processes during phytoplankton blooms. The 210Po/210Pb disequilibrium was used as a tracer for particle export. This tracer integrates export on a timescale of 276 days because of the 138 day half-life of 210Po and complements the 234Th/238U disequilibrium as another tracer for plankton production and export on a shorter timescale of several weeks. (orig.)

  8. In-Situ pH Measurements in Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Fluids: Constraints on Subseafloor Alteration Processes at Crustal Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaen, A. T.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    constraints imposed by the full range of chemical components in the vent fluids sampled and analyzed in association with pH (in-situ) measurements. Since pH is a master variable in all geochemical systems, the novel approach proposed here may provide new insight on hydrothermal alteration processes at conditions difficult or impossible to assess by more traditional means, ultimately influencing hydrothermal fluid fluxes.

  9. Aqueous Alteration of Basalts: Earth, Moon, and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    2007-01-01

    The geologic processes responsible for aqueous alteration of basaltic materials on Mars are modeled beginning with our knowledge of analog processes on Earth, i.e., characterization of elemental and mineralogical compositions of terrestrial environments where the alteration and weathering pathways related to aqueous activity are better understood. A key ingredient to successful modeling of aqueous processes on Mars is identification of phases that have formed by those processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe what is known about the elemental and mineralogical composition of aqueous alteration products of basaltic materials on Mars and their implications for specific aqueous environments based upon our knowledge of terrestrial systems. Although aqueous alteration has not occurred on the Moon, it is crucial to understand the behaviors of basaltic materials exposed to aqueous environments in support of human exploration to the Moon over the next two decades. Several methods or indices have been used to evaluate the extent of basalt alteration/weathering based upon measurements made at Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Moessbauer and Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometers. The Mineralogical Alteration Index (MAI) is based upon the percentage of total Fe (Fe(sub T)) present as Fe(3+) in alteration products (Morris et al., 2006). A second method is the evaluation of compositional trends to determine the extent to which elements have been removed from the host rock and the likely formation of secondary phases (Nesbitt and Young, 1992; Ming et al., 2007). Most of the basalts that have been altered by aqueous processes at the two MER landing sites in Gusev crater and on Meridiani Planum have not undergone extensive leaching in an open hydrolytic system with the exception of an outcrop in the Columbia Hills. The extent of aqueous alteration however ranges from relatively unaltered to pervasively altered materials. Several experimental studies have focused upon

  10. Localized Chemical Redistribution During Aqueous Alteration in CR2 Carbonaceous Chondrites EET 87770 and EET 92105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Paul V.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2005-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are primitive meteorites that are valuable because they preserve evidence of processes that occurred in the solar nebula and on asteroidal parent bodies. Among the carbonaceous chondrite groups, the CR group appears to contain a particularly pristine record of early solar system processes. Distinguishing characteristics of CR2 chondrites include a high abundance of chondrules (50-60 vol.%) and Fe, Ni metal (5-8 vol. %). These meteorites preserve evidence for varying degrees of aqueous alteration, manifested by progressive replacement of chondrule mesostasis by phyllosilicates. Recent studies have suggested that even in weakly altered chondrites, mass transfer occurred between chondrules and fine-grained matrices, implying that aqueous alteration must have followed lithification of the final meteorite parent body. Although petrographic characteristics of alteration in CR chondrites have been documented, mechanisms of alteration are still only poorly understood. For example, the relative rates and scales of elemental mobility as well as the sources and sinks for key elements are currently not constrained. An improved knowledge of these issues will contribute to an increased understanding of aqueous alteration reactions on meteorite parent bodies. This study expands on research conducted on Type IIA chondrules and chondrule fragments from two CR2 chondrites, EET 87770 and EET 92105. These chondrites have been weakly altered; chondrule mesostases show incipient alteration primarily where they are in direct contact with fine-grained matrices.

  11. Electrodermal Reactivity to Emotion Processing in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, B. E.; Wicker, B.; Monfardini, E.; Deruelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    Although alterations of emotion processing are recognized as a core component of autism, the level at which alterations occur is still debated. Discrepant results suggest that overt assessment of emotion processing is not appropriate. In this study, skin conductance response (SCR) was used to examine covert emotional processes. Both behavioural…

  12. Naturally occurring glasses: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Haaker, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    Volcanic glasses are very often altered by weathering and leaching and recrystallize to their fine-grained equivalents (rhyolites, felsites). The oldest volcanic glasses are dated at 40 million years before the present, but the majority are much younger. Devitrification textures was produced experimentally; and hydration rates for volcanic glasses were determined as a function of composition, temperature, and climate. Presence of water and temperature are the most important rate controlling variables. Even material that may still be described as glassy often exhibits evidence of alteration and recrystallization. Of the volcanic glasses that are preserved in the geologic record, it would be rare to describe such a glass as pristine. Despite the common alteration and recrystallization effects observed in volcanic glasses, glasses formed as a result of impact, tektites and lunar glasses, may occur in substantially unaltered form. In the case of tektites, their resistance to alteration is a result of their high SiO/sub 2/ content and low alkali content. Lunar glasses have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years because they exist in an environment with a low oxygen fugacity and an extremely low water vapor partial presssure. Thus one might expect glasses of particular compositions or in specific types of environment to be stable for long periods of time. These conclusions are applied to radioactive waste disposal over several time periods (0-30h, 30h-20y, 20-200y).

  13. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of microRNAs and implications for human cancers and other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Musaffe; Machado, Andreia S; Calin, George A

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a well-studied group of noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by interacting mainly with messenger RNA. It is known that miRNAs and their biogenesis regulatory machineries have crucial roles in multiple cell processes; thus, alterations in these genes often lead to disease, such as cancer. Disruption of these genes can occur through epigenetic and genetic alterations, resulting in aberrant expression of miRNAs and subsequently of their target genes. This review focuses on the disruption of miRNAs and their key regulatory machineries by genetic alterations, with emphasis on mutations and epigenetic changes in cancer and other diseases.

  14. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  15. TWO STAGE FRAMEWORK FOR ALTERED FINGERPRINT MATCHING

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. Anoop; M.G. Mini

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint alteration is the process of masking one’s identity from personal identification systems especially in boarder control security systems. Failure of matching the altered fingerprint of the criminals against the watch list of fingerprints can help them to break the security system. This fact leads to the need of a method for altered fingerprint matching. This paper presents a two stage method for altered fingerprint matching. In first stage, approximated global ridge orientation fie...

  16. Radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration haloes in albite: implications for alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization and element mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. C.; Chaudhuri, T.

    2016-07-01

    Uraninite, besides occurring in other modes, occurs as inclusions in albite in feldspathic schist in the Bagjata uranium deposits, Singhbhum shear zone, India. The feldspathic schist, considered the product of Na-metasomatism, witnessed multiple hydrothermal events, the signatures of which are preserved in the alteration halo in albite surrounding uraninite. Here we report radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration halo in albite and its various geological implications. Microscopic observation and SRIM/TRIM simulations reveal that the dimension of the alteration halo is dependent collectively on the zone of maximum cumulative α dose that albite was subjected to and by the extent of dissolution of uraninite during alteration. In well-preserved alteration haloes, from uraninite to the unaltered part of albite, the alteration minerals are systematically distributed in different zones; zone-1: K-feldspar; zone-2: chlorite; zone-3: LREE-phase/pyrite/U-Y-silicate. Based on textures of alteration minerals in the alteration microdomain, we propose a generalized Na+➔K+➔H+ alteration sequence, which is in agreement with the regional-scale alteration pattern. Integrating distribution of ore and alteration minerals in the alteration zone and their geochemistry, we further propose multiple events of U, REE, and sulfide mineralization/mobilization in the Bagjata deposit. The alteration process also involved interaction of the hydrothermal fluid with uraninite inclusions resulting in resorption of uraninite, redistribution of elements, including U and Pb, and resetting of isotopic clock. Thus, our study demonstrates that alteration halo is a miniature scale-model of the regional hydrothermal alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization/mobilization. This study further demonstrates that albite is vulnerable to radiation damage and damage-controlled fluid-assisted alteration, which may redistribute metals, including actinides, from radioactive minerals

  17. Mitochondrial Morphology and Fundamental Parameters of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Are Altered in Caenorhabditis elegans Strains Deficient in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Homeostasis Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anthony L; Rooney, John P; Kubik, Laura L; Gonzalez, Claudia P; Song, Dong Hoon; Meyer, Joel N

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors), carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler) and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1)-, fusion (fzo-1)-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1)-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1)-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes. PMID:26106885

  18. Mitochondrial Morphology and Fundamental Parameters of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Are Altered in Caenorhabditis elegans Strains Deficient in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Homeostasis Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L Luz

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor, we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1-, fusion (fzo-1-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes.

  19. WHERE DOES WATERBORNE GIARDIASIS OCCUR, AND WHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 60 outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis occurred in the United States between 1965 and 1982, mainly in the Northeast, the Rocky Mountain states, and the Pacific states. Outbreaks most often occurred as a result of inadequate or interrupted treatment. Disinfection problems and ...

  20. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  1. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included

  2. Drill machine guidance using natural occurring radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A drilling machine guidance system is described which uses only the naturally occuring radiation within the seam or stratum of interest. The apparatus can be used for guiding horizontal drilling machines through coal seams and the like. (U.K.)

  3. Motor sequence learning occurs despite disrupted visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has demonstrated the importance of proprioception for the development of internal representations of the forces encountered during a task. Evidence also exists for a significant role for proprioception in the execution of sequential movements. However, little work has explored the role of proprioceptive sensation during the learning of continuous movement sequences. Here, we report that the repeated segment of a continuous tracking task can be learned despite peripherally altered arm proprioception and severely restricted visual feedback regarding motor output. Methods Healthy adults practiced a continuous tracking task over 2 days. Half of the participants experienced vibration that altered proprioception of shoulder flexion/extension of the active tracking arm (experimental condition and half experienced vibration of the passive resting arm (control condition. Visual feedback was restricted for all participants. Retention testing was conducted on a separate day to assess motor learning. Results Regardless of vibration condition, participants learned the repeated segment demonstrated by significant improvements in accuracy for tracking repeated as compared to random continuous movement sequences. Conclusion These results suggest that with practice, participants were able to use residual afferent information to overcome initial interference of tracking ability related to altered proprioception and restricted visual feedback to learn a continuous motor sequence. Motor learning occurred despite an initial interference of tracking noted during acquisition practice.

  4. Data for mitochondrial proteomic alterations in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Lance M; Stauch, Kelly L; Fox, Howard S

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria are a critical organelle involved in many cellular processes, and due to the nature of the brain, neuronal cells are almost completely reliant on these organelles for energy generation. Due to the fact that biomedical research tends to investigate disease state pathogenesis, one area of mitochondrial research commonly overlooked is homeostatic responses to energy demands. Therefore, to elucidate mitochondrial alterations occurring during the developmentally important phase of E18 to P7 in the brain, we quantified the proteins in the mitochondrial proteome as well as proteins interacting with the mitochondria. We identified a large number of significantly altered proteins involved in a variety of pathways including glycolysis, mitochondrial trafficking, mitophagy, and the unfolded protein response. These results are important because we identified alterations thought to be homeostatic in nature occurring within mitochondria, and these results may be used to identify any abnormal deviations in the mitochondrial proteome occurring during this period of brain development. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article "Proteomic analysis of mitochondria from embryonic and postnatal rat brains reveals response to developmental changes in energy demands" in the Journal of Proteomics. PMID:26217684

  5. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Nanni, Valentina; Reina, Giacomo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Canini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin), and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. PMID:26893562

  6. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismondi A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Angelo Gismondi,1 Valentina Nanni,1 Giacomo Reina,2 Silvia Orlanducci,2 Maria Letizia Terranova,2 Antonella Canini1 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy Abstract: For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. Keywords: citropten, cytoskeletal structure, plant secondary metabolite, melanoma, internalization kinetics

  7. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  8. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation.

  9. Percieved functions of naturally occurring autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, L. S.; Henriksen, J. R.; Lundhus, S.;

    2005-01-01

    The main empirical reference on functions of autobiographical memories is still Hyman & Faries (1992) who used the cue-word-method and retrospective judgements. We used diaries to sample naturally occurring autobiographical memories and participants? perceived use of these. Results partly replica...... a pattern found by Hyman and Faries, suggest self-related functions to be primary, and indicate possible gender differences...

  10. Phonetic Recalibration Only Occurs in Speech Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroomen, Jean; Baart, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    Upon hearing an ambiguous speech sound dubbed onto lipread speech, listeners adjust their phonetic categories in accordance with the lipread information (recalibration) that tells what the phoneme should be. Here we used sine wave speech (SWS) to show that this tuning effect occurs if the SWS sounds are perceived as speech, but not if the sounds…

  11. Hypogene and supergene alteration of the zeolite-bearing pyroclastic deposits at Tell Rimah, Jordan, and rift-related processes along the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System during the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

    2012-09-01

    The boundary between the Arabian and African plates, is marked in the Middle East by one of the most prominent deep-seated lineamentary structures, called the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System (DSTFS). Structural and mineralogical processes related to the DSTFS were correlated with equivalent processes leading to the alteration of pyroclastic deposits of alkali-olivine basaltic to nepheline basaltic composition which formed during a time span of less than 0.5 Ma. The large deposit of Tell Rimah, Jordan, is operated for the exploitation of zeolites, tuffs, and as pozzolana raw material. Four discrete stages of mineralizations have been distinguished from each other within these volcanic-hosted mineral deposits. (1) Hypogene syneruptive alteration of pyroclastic rocks produced siliceous gels ("allophane"), smectite, analcime, and phillipsite in vesicles when the groundwater level was low in the rift basin of the DSTFS. The lake-level lowstand caused the fluid system in the pyroclastic cone to become self-sufficient and it has been considered as a closed hydrothermal system. (2) Periods of tectonic and magmatic quiescence grinded the detrital sedimentation in the rift basin to a halt, while triggering a supergene alteration in the eruptive cones on the adjacent Arabian Plate. (3) Epigenetic alteration affected the pyroclastic rocks in the distal part of the DSTFS as a result of a rising water level. The water gradually filled the pore space of the permeable pyroclastic deposits almost to completeness and caused meniscus and blocky cements of calcite, phillipsite and chabazite to develop. In the rift basin, contemporaneously with the alteration of the pyroclastic rocks, freshwater limestones formed on calcareous bedrocks. Ba and Mn minerals in these freshwater limestones were supplied by subaquatic brines. Subsequently, a drastic lowering of the lake water level in the DSTFS converted the system of subaquatic freshwater limestones into subaerial tufa and travertine. As

  12. Mineralogical and structural transformations related to alterations in hydrothermal and climatological conditions of basic vulcanic rocks from northern Parana (Ribeirao Preto region, SP, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies of the basic vulcanic rocks of northern Parana basin (Region of Ribeirao Preto, SP) reveled that these rocks were affected by pre-meteoric activity (hydrothermal alteration) before being exposed to the supergene system of alteration linked to the lithosphere/atmosphere interface. Mineralogical and structural transformation are studied. The appearance of sequential crystalline-chemical paragenesis in zones suggest that the hydrothermal activity occurred during two successives processes of alteration: the expulsion of the water from the rock during the later stages of magma cooling and the continous process of dissolution of the rock wall and the ionic diffusion involving the rock sistem of structural voids. The hydro-thermal action was followed by weathering action developing a thin 'front' of superficial alteration. This alteration system, can lead to the formation of three major levels of alteration horizons and superficial accumulations: alterites, glebular and suil surface materials. (C.D.G.)

  13. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L Beilharz

    Full Text Available The body image concern (BIC continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing. Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD.

  14. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Francesca L; Atkins, Kelly J; Duncum, Anna J F; Mundy, Matthew E

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  15. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, Anna J. F.; Mundy, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  16. Altered emotional interference processing in the amygdala and insula in women with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ☆ ☆☆

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Steven E.; Buchholz, Katherine R.; Brown, Wilson J.; Yan, Laura; Durbin, Anthony; Sheline, Yvette I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterized by distinct behavioral and physiological changes. Given the significant impairments related to PTSD, examination of the biological underpinnings is crucial to the development of theoretical models and improved treatments of PTSD. Methods We used an attentional interference task using emotional distracters to test for top-down versus bottom-up dysfunction in the interaction of cognitive-control circuitry and emotion-processing c...

  17. The interconnection of wet and dry deposition and the alteration of deposition budgets due to incorporation of new process understanding in regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. L.; Bash, J. O.; Foley, K. M.; Gilliam, R.; Pinder, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Deposition is affected by the chemical and physical processes represented in the regional models as well as source strength. The overall production and loss budget (wet and dry deposition) is dynamically connected and adjusts internally to changes in process representation. In addition, the scrubbing of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is one of several processes that remove pollutants, creating a coupling with the atmospheric aqueous and gas phase chemistry that can influence wet deposition rates in a nonlinear manner. We explore through model sensitivities with the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model the influence on wet and dry deposition, and the overall continental nitrogen budget, of changes in three process representations in the model: (1) incorporation of lightning generated NO, (2) improved representation of convective precipitation, and (3) replacement of the typical unidirectional dry deposition of NH3 with a state of the science representation of NH3 bi-directional air-surface exchange. Results of the sensitivity studies will be presented. (1) Incorporation of lightning generated NO significantly reduces a negative bias in summer wet nitrate deposition, but is sensitive to the choice of convective parameterization. (2) Use of a less active trigger of convective precipitation in the WRF meteorological model to reduce summertime precipitation over prediction bias reduces the generation of NO from lightning. It also reduces the wet deposition of nitrate and increases the dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen, as well as changing (reducing) the surface level exposure to ozone. Improvements in the convective precipitation processes also result in more non-precipitating clouds leading to an increase in SO4 production through the aqueous pathway resulting in improvements in summertime SO4 ambient aerosol estimates.(3) Incorporation of state of the science ammonia bi-directional air surface exchange affects both the dry

  18. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  19. Hyperglycaemia Alters Thymic Epithelial Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alexandrovna Abramova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is considered to be a consequence of unchecked auto-immune processes. Alterations in immune system responses are thought to be the cause of the disease, but the possibility that altered metabolite levels (glucose can establish the disease by specifically acting on and altering thymus stroma functions has not been investigated. Therefore, the direct effect of hyperglycaemia (HG on central tolerance mechanisms as a causative agent needs to be investigated.

  20. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs.

  1. Naturally occurring radionuclides and Earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ferrara

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring radionuclides are used in Earth sciences for two fundamental purposes: age determination of rocks and minerals and studies of variation of the isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides. The methodologies that are in use today allow us to determine ages spanning from the Earth's age to the late Quaternary. The variations of isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides can be applied to problems of mantle evolution, magma genesis and characterization with respect to different geodynamic situations and can provide valuable information not obtainable by elemental geochemistry.

  2. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, E; Stopper, H

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Because some other bioflavonoids are known to have estrogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine the estrogenic activity of the anthocyanine aglycones. Binding affinity to the estrogen receptor-alpha was 10,000- to 20,000-fold lower than that of the endogenous estrogen estradiol. In the estrogen receptor-positive cell line MCF-7, the anthocyanidins induced expression of a reporter gene. The tested anthocyanidins showed estrogen-inducible cell proliferation in two cell lines (MCF-7 and BG-1), but not in the receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The phytoestrogen-induced cell proliferation could be blocked by addition of the receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Combination treatments with the endogenous estrogen estradiol resulted in a reduction of estradiol-induced cell proliferation. Overall, the tested anthocyanidins exert estrogenic activity, which might play a role in altering the development of hormone-dependent adverse effects.

  3. Hydrothermal alteration styles in ancient and modern orogenic gold deposits, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orogenic hydrothermal systems in the South Island of New Zealand were active during Mesozoic and late Cenozoic collisional deformation and metamorphism of greywacke/schist terranes. Observations on the currently active mountain-building environment yield insights on processes occurring in the upper 5-15 km of the crust, and observations on an adjacent lithologically identical exhumed ancient mountain belt provide information on processes at 10-20 km in the crust. Hydrothermal fluids were mainly derived from metamorphic dehydration reactions and/or circulating topographically driven meteoric water in these mountain belts. Three geochemically and mineralogically different types of hydrothermal alteration and vein mineralisation occurred in these orogenic belts, and gold enrichment (locally economic) occurred in some examples of each of these three types. The first type of alteration involved fluids that were in or near chemical equilibrium with their greenschist facies host rocks. Fluid flow was controlled by discontinuous fractures, and by microshears and grain boundaries in host rocks, in zones from metres to hundreds of metres thick. Vein and alteration mineralogy was similar to that of the host rocks, and included calcite and chlorite. The second type of alteration occurred where the fluids were in distinct disequilibrium with the host rocks. Fracture permeability was important for fluid flow, but abundant host rock alteration occurred as well. The alteration zones were characterised by decomposition of chlorite and replacement by ankeritic carbonate in zones up to tens of metres thick. The mineralising fluid was deep-sourced and initially rock-equilibrated, with some meteoric input. The third type of mineralisation was controlled almost exclusively by fracture permeability, and host rock alteration was minor (centimetre scale). This mineralisation type commonly involved calcite and chlorite as vein and alteration minerals, and mineralisation fluids had a major

  4. Naturally Occurring Xanthones: Chemistry and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Negi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthones are one of the biggest classes of compounds in natural product chemistry. A number of xanthones have been isolated from natural sources of higher plants, fungi, ferns, and lichens. They have gradually risen to great importance because of their medicinal properties. This review focuses on the types, isolation, characterization, biological applications, and biosynthesis of naturally occurring xanthones isolated so far. Different physicochemical and instrumental methods such as liquid-solid and liquid-liquid extraction, TLC, flash chromatography, column chromatography, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, GLC, HPLC, GC, and LCMS have been widely used for isolation and structural elucidation of xanthones. Hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, antileprosy, antimalarial, antioxidant, anticholinergic, mutagenicity, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, antibone resorption, antiparasitic, neuraminidase inhibitory, anticomplement, antibacterial, antifungal, algicidal, anti-HIV, cardioprotective, antitumoral, antidiabetes, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, analgesic, antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, antiamoebic, diuretic, antidiarrheal, larvicidal, and ovicidal activities have been reported for natural occurring xanthones. To a certain extent, this review provides necessary foundation for further research and development of new medicines.

  5. Toxic Knowledge: Self-Alteration Through Child Abuse Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change. PMID:25381277

  6. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-01

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  7. [Effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test under conditions of altered photoperiod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopova, I Iu; Zamorskiĭ, I I

    2011-03-01

    The effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei (the nucleus caudatus, globus pallidus. nucleus accumbens. amygdaloid complex) of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test has been studied under conditions of altered photoperiod. It has been shown that constant darkness levels the effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of lipid peroxidation, preserves the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase at a higher level, lowers the activity of glutathione peroxidase. Under light, the sensitivity of basal nuclei neurons to acute hypoxia is enhanced, the latter being reflected in intensification of lipid peroxidation at the expense of increased formation of dien conjugates. The activity of catalase at that considerably exceeds the level of even intact rats in all the structures. It has been established that an altered photoperiod modulates the effect of acute hypoxia on the parameters of rat's activity in the open field, the character of their change depending on the nature of a photophase change.

  8. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  9. Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Occurring in the Third Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA is a rare central nervous system tumor that has been included in the 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Due to its more aggressive behavior, PMA is classified as Grade II neoplasm by the World Health Organization. PMA predominantly affects the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region and occurs in children (mean age of occurrence = 10 months. We report a case of a 24-year-old man who presented with headache, nausea, and vomiting. Brain CT and MRI revealed a mass occupying only the third ventricle. We performed partial resection. Histological findings, including monophasic growth with a myxoid background, and absence of Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies, as well as the strong positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein were consistent with PMA.

  10. Succession planning: when an academic merger occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschling, Jane Marie; Rodgers, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    Optimal positioning of nursing in an interdisciplinary college calls for an expanded concept of succession planning that includes broad-gauged organizational and staff development strategies. The process requires time, openness to incremental change, effective leadership within the academic unit, and a well-thought-through faculty committee structure and budgetary authority. At the University of Southern Maine College of Nursing and Health Professions, succession planning has led to structural and budgetary changes and has required a flexible process, responsive to larger university priorities and fiscal challenges, that is shaped by a vision for the future of the college and of nursing.

  11. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Pieranna; Bonfiglio, Luca; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Cantore, Nicoletta; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Piccotti, Emily; Rossi, Bruno; Andre, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ) is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error), at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance) became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects) suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi-naturalistic motor

  12. Insights into secondary reactions occurring during atmospheric ablation of micrometeoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Richard W.; Tan, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Ablation of micrometeoroids during atmospheric entry yields volatile gases such as water, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, capable of altering atmospheric chemistry and hence the climate and habitability of the planetary surface. While laboratory experiments have revealed the yields of these gases during laboratory simulations of ablation, the reactions responsible for the generation of these gases have remained unclear, with a typical assumption being that species simply undergo thermal decomposition without engaging in more complex chemistry. Here, pyrolysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals that mixtures of meteorite-relevant materials undergo secondary reactions during simulated ablation, with organic matter capable of taking part in carbothermic reduction of iron oxides and sulfates, resulting in yields of volatile gases that differ from those predicted by simple thermal decomposition. Sulfates are most susceptible to carbothermic reduction, producing greater yields of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide at lower temperatures than would be expected from simple thermal decomposition, even when mixed with meteoritically relevant abundances of low-reactivity Type IV kerogen. Iron oxides were less susceptible, with elevated yields of water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide only occurring when mixed with high abundances of more reactive Type III kerogen. We use these insights to reinterpret previous ablation simulation experiments and to predict the reactions capable of occurring during ablation of carbonaceous micrometeoroids in atmospheres of different compositions.

  13. Major epigenetic development distinguishing neuronal and non-neuronal cells occurs postnatally in the murine hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal and early postnatal environment can persistently alter one's risk of obesity. Environmental effects on hypothalamic developmental epigenetics constitute a likely mechanism underlying such 'developmental programming' of energy balance regulation. To advance our understanding of these process...

  14. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  15. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. Some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to exclamation point We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these

  16. PROBLEMS AND DISORDERS THAT OCCUR DURING TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Andevski; Olivera Gajić; Spomenka Budić

    2012-01-01

    Problems in teaching are all those events that disturb, interrupt of disable the processof teaching and learning by abolishing partially or entirely the pre-conditions necessaryfor execution of teaching process. Factors that affect the possibility of learning processdevelopment are classified into external and internal, such as physical and psychologicalstability (security), peace, attention, concentration. Problems can be caused both by studentsand teachers and external factors: loud shoutin...

  17. Uranium occurence in California near Bucaramanga (Columbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining district of California, Bucaramanga, is on the west side of the Cordillera Oriental in the Santander massif region. The oldest rocks of the area form a complex of metamorphites and migmatites of the predevonic age. Amphibolite various types of paragneiss and orthogneiss are represented. Several stages of metamorphism can be documented in some rocks, as well as double anatexis. Triassic to jurassic quarz diorites and leukogranites show wide distribution. Porphyric rocks of granodioritic to granitic composition, to which the uranium mineralization is mainly bonded, intruded into the sediments of the lower cretaceous. Atomic absorption spectral analyses were carried out for the elements Cu, Zn and Li, as well as the uranium contents of some samples using fluorimetry. Uranium is primarily bonded to pitch blende and coffinite. The latter mostly occur in fine distribution grown in quarz and belong to the most recent mineralization phase. Autunite, meta-autunite, torbernite, meta-torbernite, zeunerite, meta-zeunerite and meta uranocircite detected as secondary uranium minerals. (orig./HP)

  18. On general systems with randomly occurring incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Wang; Hu, J.; Dong, H.

    2016-01-01

    In the system and control community, the incomplete information is generally regarded as the results of (1) our limited knowledge in modelling real-world systems; and (2) the physical constraints on the devices for collecting, transmitting, storing and processing information. In terms of system modelling, the incomplete information typically includes the parameter uncertainties and norm-bounded non-linearities that occur with certain bounds. As for the physical constraints, two well-...

  19. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane

    1998-08-01

    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa

  20. Alteration geochemistry of the volcanic-hosted Dedeninyurdu, Yergen and Fındıklıyar Fe-Cu mineralization at Gökçedoǧan, Çorum-Kargi region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Lokman; Öztürk, Sercan; Yalçın, Cihan; Abdelnasser, Amr; Hanilçi, Nurullah; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This study is to determine the mass/volume gain and loss of the major and trace elements during the alteration processes on Dedeninyurdu, Yergen and Fındıklıyar Fe-Cu mineralizations of the area. Fe-Cu mineralization occurred in the spilitic volcanic a rock of Saraycık Formation is associated with the different types of alteration zones which are pyritization, silicification and sericitization. The study area comprises Bekirli Formation, Saraycık Formation, Beşpınar Formation, and Ilgaz Formation. Saraycık formation consists of spilitic volcanic rocks with pelagic limestone, siltstone and chert. The ore mineralogical data show that the pyrite, chalcopyrite, covellite, hematite, malachite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization. As well as the geologic and petrographic studies reveal three alteration zones with definite mineral assemblages; phyllic alteration (quartz + sericite + pyrite) that represents the main alteration and mineralized zone; propylitic alteration; and carbonatized sericitic alteration zone. The boundaries between these zones are gradual. Mass balance calculations suggested that the phyllic alteration zone represented by gain in Si, Fe, K, S, and LOI and loss in Mg, Ca, and Na refers to silicification, sericitization and pyritization as well as replacement of Fe-Mg silicate and plagioclase. While, in the propylitic alteration zone, enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, LOI and S occurred with depletions of Ca, Na, and K reflecting chloritization alteration type. On the other hand, carbonatized sericitic alteration zone shows local gain in Si, CaO and K reflects the occurrence of calc-silicate alteration. All alteration zones contain a large proportion of sulfide minerals (gain in S) with increase in loss on ignition (LOI). Keywords: Alteration geochemistry; Mass balance calculation, Fe-Cu mineralization; phyllic alteration, propylitic alteration.

  1. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  2. Development of potentiometric equipment for the identification of altered dry-cured hams: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, Joel; Gil-Sánchez, Luís; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Pagán, M Jesús; Barat, José M; Grau, Raúl

    2015-08-01

    Microbiological contamination in dry-cured ham can occur in the early stages of the process, a large number of microorganisms involved in spoilage can produce alterations in the product. These include non-common odours, which are detected at the end of the process by a procedure called "cala", consisting of a sharp instrument punctured in every ham; this is smelled by an expert taster, who classifies hams as good and altered hams. An electronic device would be suitable for this process given the large amount of hams. The present research aims to develop objective equipment based on the potentiometry technique that identifies altered hams. A probe was developed, containing silver, nickel and copper electrodes, and was employed to classify altered and unaltered hams prior to classification by a tester. The results shown lower Ag and higher Cu potential values for altered hams. The differences in potentiometric response reveal a classification model, although further studies are required to obtain a reliable classification model.

  3. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  4. Remote Sensing Analysis of Mineralized Alteration in the Ramand Area (Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolfazl Ezzati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Ramand area, southwest of Buin- Zahra, about 60 kilometers from Qazvin, lies in the igneous belt of the Urmieh-Dokhtar region, the main structural zone of north-central Iran. Rhyodacite and rhyolite lava flows are the principal host rocks of mineralization and alteration of the area, most of which occurs in faulted and brecciated zones alongmaj or northwest-trending fault systems (such as Kour-Cheshmeh, Hassan Abad and their branches. Clay minerals determined from satellite images indicated principally argillic hydrothermal alteration before laboratory mineralogical analysis. According to instrumental analyses, mineralized alteration with greater amounts of argillic halos and lesser amounts of sericitic-propylitic minerals contains quartz veinlets in the vertical and lateral sections. Initially, alteration in the Ramand area was revealed in ETM images by using the SPCA technique of Crosta and Moore, 1990 (Selective Principle Component Analysis. Compared with other techniques, SPCA results have reliable spectral signatures for identifying argillic minerals and Fe-oxides as the main mineralogical association in hydrothermal environments. Subsequently, multispectral images (ASTER were analyzed using band ratios.The results indicated silicification alteration along the faulted regions in the Ramand area. Later, areas of silicification alteration were prospected for precious and base metal mineralization.Sampling results suggested that the altered areas have some potential for epithermal mineralization, according to instrumental analyses and micrographic evidence. Materials and methods 1- Collecting satellite images, geological evidence and related documents 2- Image processing to reveal and identify the mineralized alteration. 3- Sampling of the mineralized zones indicated by the remote sensing. 4- Thin- and polished section microscopic studies. 5- X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD (19 samples, inductively coupled plasma mass

  5. Pyrogenic organic matter can alter microbial communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Caroline; Gao, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Silberg, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbes communicate with each other to manage a large range of processes that occur more efficiently when microbes are able to act simultaneously. This coordination occurs through the continuous production of signaling compounds that are easily diffused into and out of cells. As the number of microbes in a localized environment increases, the internal cellular concentration of these signaling compounds increases, and when a threshold concentration is reached, gene expression shifts, leading to altered (and coordinated) microbial behaviors. Many of these coordinated behaviors have biogeochemically important outcomes. For example, methanogenesis, denitrification, biofilm formation, and the development of plant-rhizobial symbioses are all regulated by a simple class of cell-cell signaling molecules known as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Pyrogenic organic matter in soils can act to disrupt microbial communication through multiple pathways. In the case of AHLs, charcoal's very high surface area can sorb these signaling compounds, preventing microbes from detecting each others' presence (Masiello et al., 2014). In addition, the lactone ring in AHLs is vulnerable to pH increases accompanying PyOM inputs, with soil pH values higher than 7-8 leading to ring opening and compound destabilization. Different microbes use different classes of signaling compounds, and not all microbial signaling compounds are pH-vulnerable. This implies that PyOM-driven pH increases may trigger differential outcomes for Gram negative bacteria vs fungi, for example. A charcoal-driven reduction in microbes' ability to detect cell-cell communication compounds may lead to a shift in the ability of microbes to participate in key steps of C and N cycling. For example, an increase in an archaeon-specific AHL has been shown to lead to a cascade of metabolic processes that eventually results in the upregulation of CH4 production (Zhang et al., 2012). Alterations in similar AHL compounds leads to

  6. Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B CAI: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of CAIs is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of CAIs in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this CAI consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the CAI (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the CAI, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded CAI primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This CAI also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the CAI, but also penetrates more deeply into the CAI. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the CAI have been extensively metasomatized.

  7. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

  8. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-12-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children.

  9. Chondrule Glass Alteration in Type IIA Chondrules in the CR2 Chondrites EET 87770 and EET 92105: Insights into Elemental Exchange Between Chondrules and Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Paul V.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2004-01-01

    CR2 carbonaceous chondrites are a primitive group of meteorites that preserve evidence of a variety of processes that occurred in the solar nebula as well as on asteroidal parent bodies. CR2 chondrites are distinct from other carbonaceous chondrites by (among other properties) their relatively high abundance of chondrules (50-60 vol. %) and Fe,Ni metal (5-8 vol. %) [1]. Like the CM2 chondrites, the CRs have been affected by aqueous alteration and according to [2] show a range of degrees of alteration. In weakly- altered CR chondrites, fine-grained matrices and chondrule rims have been partially altered and chondrule mesostases show evidence of incipient aqueous alteration. In these meteorites, glassy mesostasis is still common. However, some CR chondrites, (e.g. Renazzo and Al Rais) show evidence of much more extensive alteration with complete replacement of chondrule mesostasis [2] by chlorite and serpentine. Although the general characteristics of alteration of the CR chondrites have been described, the details of alteration reactions in these meteorites remain unclear. In addition, the setting for aqueous alteration is poorly understood: both asteroidal and preaccretionary alteration scenarios have been proposed [2].

  10. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  11. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  12. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska, Małgorzata;

    2012-01-01

    to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency...... of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy...

  13. Seeing Blue As Red: A Hypnotic Suggestion Can Alter Visual Awareness of Colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Sakari; Koivisto, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Some highly hypnotizable individuals have reported changes in objects' color with suggestions given in normal waking state. However, it is not clear whether this occurs only in their imagination. The authors show that, although subjects could imagine colors, a posthypnotic suggestion was necessary for seeing altered colors, even for a hypnotic virtuoso. She reported posthypnotic color alterations also selectively in response to specific target shapes in briefly presented object arrays. Surprisingly, another highly hypnotizable person showed a very different pattern of results. The control participants could not simulate virtuosos' results by applying cognitive strategies. The results imply that hypnosis can alter the functioning of automatic visual processes but only in some of the most hypnotizable individuals. PMID:27267673

  14. Genetic alterations in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula; Lima, Jorge; Preto, Ana; Castro, Patricia; Vinagre, João; Celestino, Ricardo; Couto, Joana P; Prazeres, Hugo; Eloy, Catarina; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    2011-12-01

    Thyroid gland presents a wide spectrum of tumours derived from follicular cells that range from well differentiated, papillary and follicular carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively), usually carrying a good prognosis, to the clinically aggressive, poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC).It is usually accepted that PDTC and UTC occur either de novo or progress from a pre-existing well differentiated carcinoma through a multistep process of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to clonal expansion and neoplastic development. Mutations and epigenetic alterations in PDTC and UTC are far from being totally clarified. Assuming that PDTC and UTC may derive from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC), it is expected that some PDTC and UTC would harbour genetic alterations that are typical of PTC and FTC. This is the case for some molecular markers (BRAF and NRAS) that are present in WDTC, PDTC and UTC. Other genes, namely P53, are almost exclusively detected in less differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumours, supporting a diagnosis of PDTC or, much more often, UTC. Thyroid-specific rearrangements RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ, on the other hand, are rarely found in PDTC and UTC, suggesting that these genetic alterations do not predispose cells to dedifferentiation. In the present review we have summarized the molecular changes associated with the two most aggressive types of thyroid cancer. PMID:22654560

  15. Physiological alterations in UV-irradiated cells: liquid holding recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biochemical and physiological alterations that occur in ultraviolet irradiated cells, during liquid holding have been studied. Incubation in buffer acts not to interfer directly with the mechanic repairs but by promoting metabolic alterations that would block some irreversible and lethal physiological responses. (L.M.J.)

  16. Alteration features in natural zirconolite from carbonatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nature, zirconolite occurs as an accessory mineral in many different rock types, but the majority of reported occurrences are from carbonatites (magmatic carbonates) of geological age varying from a few million years to 2 billion years old. Within these 19 carbonatite occurrences, of which 15 have been studied in some detail, zirconolite displays varying degrees of alteration in six samples. This alteration ranges from incipient minor effects to major corrosion, recrystallization and complete replacement by secondary phases. The degree of alteration broadly correlates with either the age, or actinide content of the zirconolite (or both), and thus the extent and degree of metamictization. Changes in zirconolite composition with alteration include an increase in hydration (H2O), Si, Ba and Pb (possibly radiogenic in origin), and a decrease primarily in Ca and Fe. Th can be remobilized, and of the rare earth elements (REE), there is evidence that the heavy-REE are mobilized more readily than the light-REE. Using backscattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses, this study documents and illustrates the range of alteration features observed in zirconolite from several carbonatites, in terms of both compositional and textural changes, and provides some physico-chemical information on the fluids responsible for the alteration. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  17. Early maladaptive schema-related impairment and co-occurring current major depressive episode-related enhancement of mental state decoding ability in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD.

  18. Altered brain energetics induces mitochondrial fission arrest in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Trushin, Sergey; Christensen, Trace A; Bachmeier, Benjamin V; Gateno, Benjamin; Schroeder, Andreas; Yao, Jia; Itoh, Kie; Sesaki, Hiromi; Poon, Wayne W; Gylys, Karen H; Patterson, Emily R; Parisi, Joseph E; Diaz Brinton, Roberta; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Trushina, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Altered brain metabolism is associated with progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Mitochondria respond to bioenergetic changes by continuous fission and fusion. To account for three dimensional architecture of the brain tissue and organelles, we applied 3-dimensional electron microscopy (3D EM) reconstruction to visualize mitochondrial structure in the brain tissue from patients and mouse models of AD. We identified a previously unknown mitochondrial fission arrest phenotype that results in elongated interconnected organelles, "mitochondria-on-a-string" (MOAS). Our data suggest that MOAS formation may occur at the final stages of fission process and was not associated with altered translocation of activated dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria but with reduced GTPase activity. Since MOAS formation was also observed in the brain tissue of wild-type mice in response to hypoxia or during chronological aging, fission arrest may represent fundamental compensatory adaptation to bioenergetic stress providing protection against mitophagy that may preserve residual mitochondrial function. The discovery of novel mitochondrial phenotype that occurs in the brain tissue in response to energetic stress accurately detected only using 3D EM reconstruction argues for a major role of mitochondrial dynamics in regulating neuronal survival. PMID:26729583

  19. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes.

  20. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes

  1. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life.

  2. Aqueous alteration on main belt primitive asteroids: Results from visible spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M. A.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-05-01

    This work focuses on the study of the aqueous alteration process which acted in the main belt and produced hydrated minerals on the altered asteroids. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on main belt primitive asteroids and possibly also on few TNOs. These materials have been produced by hydration of pristine anhydrous silicates during the aqueous alteration process, that, to be active, needed the presence of liquid water under low temperature conditions (below 320 K) to chemically alter the minerals. The aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times of the Solar System history, as it can give information both on the asteroids thermal evolution and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt. To investigate this process, we present reflected light spectral observations in the visible region (0.4-0.94 μm) of 80 asteroids belonging to the primitive classes C (prevalently), G, F, B and P, following the Tholen (Tholen, D.J. [1984]. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson). classification scheme. We find that about 65% of the C-type and all the G-type asteroids investigated reveal features suggesting the presence of hydrous materials, mainly a band centered around 0.7 μm, while we do not find evidence of hydrated materials in the other low albedo asteroids (B, F, and P) investigated. We combine the present observations with the visible spectra of asteroids available in the literature for a total of 600 primitive main belt asteroids. We analyze all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption band parameters (band center, depth and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo and sizes. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and

  3. 中蒙边境查夫—甲乌拉地区中生代银多金属矿床成矿作用%Ore-Forming Processes of Silver-Polymetallic Deposits Occurring Within Tsav- Jiawula Region Along China- Mongolian Border

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂凤军; 刘勇; 刘翼飞; 江思宏; 张可; 刘妍

    2011-01-01

    Tsav, Jiawula, Chaganbulagen Ag-Pb-Zn deposits as well as Errentaolegai Ag deposit are located at northeastern part of the Northern China- Mongolia block (NCMB), and constitute the most important Ag-polymetalic ore cluster along the China - Mongolia border. The Ag-polymetallic ore deposits occur mainly in the Jurassic volcano-sedimentary rocks as thin veins, veinlets, sulfide-enriched pockets, breccias and lenses. The mineralization can be classified into two types: quartz-sulfide veins and carbonate-sulfide veins. Both of the two type veins have characteristics typical of intermediate sulfidation deposits worldwide. One of the most prominent features for the Ag-polymetallic deposits mentioned above is that they are spatially and temporally associated with Mesozoic Yanshanian alkaline or high-K calc-alkaline intrusive dykes (or sills). It should be pointed out that Jurassic volcanic strata consist of mainly shoshonite, trachyandesite, latite, and high-K, andesite, dacite and rhyolite as well as ignimbrite and tuffaceous rocks, while Yanshanian intrusions include monzonite, monzodiorite, diorite, granodiorite, granite and syenite. All these ore-bearing intrusive rocks are enriched in K,Ba, Th, Rb,Sr, Nb, La, Ag, Zn and Nd, and depleted in Ca, Mg, Co, Ni and Cr. All these geological evidences indicate that the collision of the amalgamated NCMB and Siberian plate is likely to occur during the time span of Late Middle to Early Late Jurassic. Subsequent, post-collision lithospheric and crustal extension may lead to a large-scale magmatic activity and a great volume of fluid ascent. As a result, a number of Ag-polymetallic deposits and prospects were fromed in Tsav - Jiawula region. Tsav, Jiawula, Chaganbulagen and Errentaolegai deposits have differences on their geographic location, ore body geometry and mineral assemblage, but they have a lot of similarities on geodynamic setting, genetic type, and ore-forming process. Our studies show that most of Ag

  4. Gene expression alterations in brains of mice infected with three strains of scrapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Race Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which occur in humans and various animal species. Examples include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep, and experimental mice. To gain insights into TSE pathogenesis, we made and used cDNA microarrays to identify disease-associated alterations in gene expression. Brain gene expression in scrapie-infected mice was compared to mock-infected mice at pre-symptomatic and symptomatic time points. Three strains of mouse scrapie that show striking differences in neuropathology were studied: ME7, 22L, and Chandler/RML. Results In symptomatic mice, over 400 significant gene expression alterations were identified. In contrast, only 22 genes showed significant alteration in the pre-symptomatic animals. We also identified genes that showed significant differences in alterations in gene expression between strains. Genes identified in this study encode proteins that are involved in many cellular processes including protein folding, endosome/lysosome function, immunity, synapse function, metal ion binding, calcium regulation and cytoskeletal function. Conclusion These studies shed light on the complex molecular events that occur during prion disease, and identify genes whose further study may yield new insights into strain specific neuropathogenesis and ante-mortem tests for TSEs.

  5. Sticking Phenomenon Occurring during Hot Rolling of Ferritic Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sticking phenomenon occurring during hot rolling of two ferritic stainless steels, STS 430J1L and STS 436L, was investigated in this study. A hot rolling simulation test was carried out using a high-temperature wear tester capable of controlling rolling speed, load, and temperature. The simulation test results at 900 .deg. C and 1000 .deg. C revealed that the sticking process proceeded with three stages, i.e., nucleation, growth, and saturation, for the both stainless steels, and that STS 430J1L had a smaller number of sticking nucleation sites than the STS436L because of higher high-temperature hardness, thereby leading to a smaller amount of the sticking. When the test temperature was 1070 .deg. C, the sticking hardly occurred in both stainless steels as Fe-Cr oxide layers were formed on the surface of the rolled materials. These findings suggested that the improvement of high-temperature properties of stainless steels and the appropriate rolling conditions for readily forming oxide layers on the rolled material surface were required in order to prevent or minimize the sticking

  6. On the Mechanical Friction Losses Occurring in Automotive Differential Gearboxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the automobile industry, the mechanical losses resulting from friction are largely responsible for various kinds of surface damage, such as the scuffing occurring in some mechanical assemblies. These scuffing processes seem to be due to a local loss of lubrication between certain mechanical elements of the same assembly, leading to a sharp increase in the friction, which can lead to a surface and volume damage in some of them, and even can cause, in the worst case, the whole destruction of the mechanical system if it has continued to operate. Predicting and checking the occurrence of this kind of undesirable phenomena, especially in some principal systems of the vehicle, represents nowadays, a crucial challenge in terms of automobile reliability and safety. This study focuses on the mechanical friction losses liable to occur in differential automobile gearboxes, which can lead in the long term to the scuffing of these mechanical systems. The friction losses involved were modeled, using a simple analytical approach, which is presented and discussed.

  7. Sticking Phenomenon Occurring during Hot Rolling of Ferritic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Chang Young; Kim, Chang Kyu; Ha, Dae Jin; Lee, Sung Hak [Pohang Univ. of Institute of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seog; Kim, Kwang Tae; Lee, Yong Deuk [POSCO Technical Research Lab., Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    Sticking phenomenon occurring during hot rolling of two ferritic stainless steels, STS 430J1L and STS 436L, was investigated in this study. A hot rolling simulation test was carried out using a high-temperature wear tester capable of controlling rolling speed, load, and temperature. The simulation test results at 900 .deg. C and 1000 .deg. C revealed that the sticking process proceeded with three stages, i.e., nucleation, growth, and saturation, for the both stainless steels, and that STS 430J1L had a smaller number of sticking nucleation sites than the STS436L because of higher high-temperature hardness, thereby leading to a smaller amount of the sticking. When the test temperature was 1070 .deg. C, the sticking hardly occurred in both stainless steels as Fe-Cr oxide layers were formed on the surface of the rolled materials. These findings suggested that the improvement of high-temperature properties of stainless steels and the appropriate rolling conditions for readily forming oxide layers on the rolled material surface were required in order to prevent or minimize the sticking.

  8. Effects of later-occurring nonlinguistic sounds on speech categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Travis; Holt, Lori L

    2005-09-01

    Nonspeech stimuli influence phonetic categorization, but effects observed so far have been limited to precursors' influence on perception of following speech. However, both preceding and following speech affect phonetic categorization. This asymmetry raises questions about whether general auditory processes play a role in context-dependent speech perception. This study tested whether the asymmetry stems from methodological issues or genuine mechanistic limitations. To determine whether and how backward effects of nonspeech context on speech may occur, one experiment examined perception of CVC words with [ga]-[da] series onsets followed by one of two possible embedded tones and one of two possible final consonants. When the tone was separated from the target onset by 100 ms, contrastive effects of tone frequency similar to those of previous studies were observed; however, when the tone was moved closer to the target segment assimilative effects were observed. In another experiment, contrastive effects of a following tone were observed in both CVC words and CV nonwords, although the size of the effects depended on syllable structure. Results are discussed with respect to contrastive mechanisms not speech-specific but operating at a relatively high level, taking into account spectrotemporal patterns occurring over extended periods before and after target events. PMID:16240828

  9. Reference Material IAEA 434: Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. The discharge of phosphogypsum on earth surface deposits is a potential source of enhanced natural radiation and heavy metals, and the resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. In addition, phosphogypsum can be used to make several building materials and it is used in agriculture as a conditioner to maintain soil productivity in areas where soils are poor and erode easily. A reliable determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA-434 will assist laboratories in the IAEA Member States in validating their analytical methods for the determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum and to control the quality of the produced analytical results. Reference values for the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties were established for: Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238. During sample production and certification, the requirements for reference material production and certification as stated in ISO guides 34 and 35 were taken into account. This report summarizes the preparation and certification process

  10. Postoperative Alterations in Taste and Smell

    OpenAIRE

    Elterman, Kelly Galina; Mallampati, Seshagiri Rao; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Alterations in taste and smell, including but not limited to anosmia, ageusia, hypogeusia, and dysgeusia, have been described in association with various medications, including anesthetic agents. Frequently, these symptoms occur 1-2 weeks after medication administration and last several months. While such a phenomenon is a rare occurrence, it nonetheless can significantly impact patients’ satisfaction and quality of life. Evidence Acquisition: The methodology consisted of a thorough ...

  11. Altering prolactin concentrations in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C

    2016-07-01

    Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows. On the other hand, injections of dopamine antagonists can enhance circulating prolactin concentrations. Besides pharmacologic agents, many other factors can also alter prolactin concentrations in sows. The use of Chinese-derived breeds, for instance, leads to increased prolactin concentrations in lactating sows compared with standard European white breeds. Numerous husbandry and feeding practices also have a potential impact on prolactin concentrations in sows. Factors, such as provision of nest-building material prepartum, housing at farrowing, high ambient temperature, stress, transient weaning, exogenous thyrotropin-releasing factor, exogenous growth hormone-releasing factor, nursing frequency, prolonged photoperiod, fasting, increased protein and/or energy intake, altered energy sources, feeding high-fiber diets, sorghum ergot or plant extracts, were all studied with respect to their prolactinemic properties. Although some of these practices do indeed affect circulating prolactin concentrations, none leads to changes as drastic as those brought about by dopamine agonists or antagonists. It appears that the numerous factors regulating prolactin concentrations in sows are still not fully elucidated, and that studies to develop novel applicable ways of increasing prolactin concentrations in sows are warranted.

  12. An examination of co-occurring conditions and management of psychotropic medication use in soldiers with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinde, Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    There are approximately 1.4 million cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) per year in the United States, with about 23 000 survivors requiring hospitalization. The incidence of TBI has increased in the patient population of the Department of Defense and Veterans Healthcare Administration as a result of injuries suffered during recent military and combat operations. Within the past few years, TBI has emerged as a common form of injury in service members with a subset of patients experiencing postinjury symptoms that greatly affect their quality of life. Traumatic brain injury can occur when sudden trauma (ie, penetration blast or blunt) causes damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injury produces a cascade of potentially injurious processes that include focal contusions and cytotoxic damage. The results of TBI can include impaired physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning, which may or may not require the initiation of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions when deemed appropriate. Associated outcomes of TBI include alterations in mental state at the time of injury (confusion, disorientation, slowed thinking, and alteration of consciousness). Neurological deficits include loss of balance, praxis, aphasia, change in vision that may or may not be transient. Individuals who sustain a TBI are more likely to have or developed co-occurring conditions (ie, sleep problems, headaches, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) that may require the administration of multiple medications. It has been identified that veterans being discharged on central nervous system and muscular skeletal drug classes can develop addiction and experience medication misadventures. With the severity of TBI being highly variable but typically categorized as either mild, moderate, or severe, it can assist health care providers in determining which patients are more susceptible to medication misadventures compared with others. The unique development of

  13. Patients with Chronic Visceral Pain Show Sex-Related Alterations in Intrinsic Oscillations of the Resting Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Labus, Jennifer; Gupta, Arpana; Jiang, Zhiguo; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Stains, Jean; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; EBRAT, BAHAR; Smith, Suzanne; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal responses of the brain to delivered and expected aversive gut stimuli have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a visceral pain syndrome occurring more commonly in women. Task-free resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide information about the dynamics of brain activity that may be involved in altered processing and/or modulation of visceral afferent signals. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation is a meas...

  14. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  15. Investigation of a miRNA-Induced Gene Silencing Technique in Petunia Reveals Alterations in miR173 Precursor Processing and the Accumulation of Secondary siRNAs from Endogenous Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Han

    Full Text Available MIGS (miRNA-induced gene silencing is a straightforward and efficient gene silencing technique in Arabidopsis. It works by exploiting miR173 to trigger the production of phasiRNAs (phased small interfering RNAs. MIGS can be used in plant species other than Arabidopsis by co-expression of miR173 and target gene fragments fused to an upstream miR173 target site. However, the efficiency and technical mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated in other plants. In this work, two vectors, pMIGS-chs and pMIGS-pds, were constructed and transformed into petunia plants. The transgenic plants showed CHS (chalcone synthase and PDS (phytoene desaturase gene-silencing phenotypes respectively, indicating that MIGS functions in petunia. MIGS-chs plants were used to investigate the mechanisms of this technique in petunia. Results of 5'- RACE showed that the miR173 target site was cleaved at the expected position and that endogenous CHS genes were cut at multiple positions. Small RNA deep sequencing analysis showed that the processing of Arabidopsis miR173 precursors in MIGS-chs transgenic petunia plants did not occur in exactly the same way as in Arabidopsis, suggesting differences in the machinery of miRNA processing between plant species. Small RNAs in-phase with the miR173 cleavage register were produced immediately downstream from the cleavage site and out-of-phase small RNAs were accumulated at relatively high levels from processing cycle 5 onwards. Secondary siRNAs were generated from multiple sites of endogenous CHS-A and CHS-J genes, indicating that miR173 cleavage induced siRNAs have the same ability to initiate siRNA transitivity as the siRNAs functioning in co-suppression and hpRNA silencing. On account of the simplicity of vector construction and the transitive amplification of signals from endogenous transcripts, MIGS is a good alternative gene silencing method for plants, especially for silencing a cluster of homologous genes with redundant

  16. Alteration kinetics of the glass-ceramic zirconolite and role of the alteration film Comparison with the SON68 glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Ribet, I.; Frugier, P.; Gin, S.

    2007-06-01

    The glass-ceramic zirconolite is being considered for specific conditioning of plutonium or the minor actinides. The actinides are distributed throughout the zirconolite crystals and the residual glass phase. Since zirconolite alteration is extremely limited, actinide release from the glass-ceramic material is mainly attributable to alteration of the residual glass. Specimens corresponding to the residual glass phase alone were therefore altered under different conditions to compare their kinetics with the one of the SON68 glass (inactive R7T7 type glass). Glass-ceramic zirconolite presents a more important rate decrease occuring more rapidly and that induces a quantity of glass altered at least 10 times as small as for SON68 glass. This slowdown of the alteration rate is attributed to the formation of an alteration film that has been the subject of a specific study. We have in particular identified a dense phase enriched in titanium and neodymium that probably influences deeply the kinetics.

  17. Genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer of the exocrine pancreas represents the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the Western population with an average survival after diagnosis of 3 to 6 months and a five-year survival rate under 5%. Our understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis has improved in the last few years due to the development of novel molecular biological techniques. Pancreatic cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from the accumulation of genetic changes in the somatic DNA of normal cells. In this article we describe major genetic alterations of pancreatic cancer, mutations in the proto-oncogene K-RAS and the tumor suppressors INK4A, TP53 and DPC4/SMAD4. The accumulation of these genetic changes leads to a profound disturbance in cell cycle regulation and continuous growth. The knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms will offer new therapeutic and diagnostic options and hopefully improve the outcome of this aggressive disease.

  18. Aqueous alteration on main belt primitive asteroids: results from visible spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasier, S; Barucci, M A; Lazzarin, M

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the study of the aqueous alteration process which acted in the main belt and produced hydrated minerals on the altered asteroids. The aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times of the Solar System history, as it can give information both on the asteroids thermal evolution and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt. We present new spectral observations in the visible region of 80 asteroids belonging to the primitive classes C, G, F, B and P. We combine the present observations with the visible spectra of asteroids available in the literature for a total of 600 primitive main belt asteroids. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the F, B, C, and G asteroids. Around 50% of the observed C-type asteroids show absorption features in the vis. range due to hydrated silicates, implying that more than 70% of them will ha...

  19. SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRUSION – OPPORTUNITIES FOR FOOD AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion cooking is a high temperature, short time processing method. During extrusion processing, many chemical and structural changes of the feed materials occur inside the barrel due to high temperatures, shear rates, and pressures. These alterations affect bonding between molecules, which in...

  20. Increased BOLD signal in the fusiform gyrus during implicit emotion processing in anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Fonville

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Neuroimaging findings would suggest that alterations in implicit emotion processing in AN occur during early perceptual processing of social signals and illustrate greater engagement on the FEPT. The lack of separate components using PCA suggests that the questionnaires used might not be suited as predictive measures.

  1. The influence of mitochondria in epigenetics revealed through naturally occurring fish cybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernard ANGERS; Antoine DALLAIRE; Simon VERVAET; Francis VALLIERES; Annie ANGERS

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic processes are important mechanisms for phenotypic changes that occur in response to the environment.As such,it is expected that the alteration of cytoplasmic composition (the immediate environment of nuclei) results in the modification of the methylome and the expression of the nuclear genome.Cytoplasmic hybrids (or cybrids) are an ideal model to study the influence of mitochondria on gene expression.In this study,we take advantage of the natural co-occurrence of two biotypes that have a similar nuclear genome type Chrosomus eos,but harbor mitochondria from different species (C.eos in wild type or C.neogaeus in cybrids) to assess the effects of mitoehondria on DNA methylation profiles and protein expression of the nuclear genome.Comparison between these biotypes is particularly relevant given their recent divergence and their low level of genetic differentiation.Variations of DNA methylation assessed on tissues from different embryonic origins revealed the distinct profiles of cybrid and wild type populations.Differences are more pronounced between wild type and cybrids than between populations of a given biotype.The proteome is also more different between biotypes than within a given biotype.These results indicate a strong influence of mitochondria on the nuclear genome,which remains detectable in different genetic and environmental contexts.These changes in the methylome and proteome of cybrids are expected to reflect the adjustments imposed by the coexistence of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes from different species [Current Zoology 58 (1):138-145,2012].

  2. A New Modal Analysis Method to put Constraints on the Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites and Estimate the Unaltered CR Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perronnet, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Gounelle, M.; Schwandt, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    carbonaceous chondrites are of the major interest since they contain one of the most primitive organic matters. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needed to be assessed. That was done in the present study by comparing the mineralogy of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2, Renazzo. Their modal analyses were achieved thanks to a new method, based on X-ray elemental maps acquired on electron microprobe, and on IDL image treatment. It allowed the collection of new data on the composition of Renazzo and confirmed the classification of GRO 95577 as a CR1. New alteration products for CRs, vermiculite and clinochlore, were observed. The homogeneity of the Fe-poor clays in the CR1 and the distinctive matrix composition in the two chondrites suggest a wide-range of aqueous alteration on CRs. The preservation of the outlines of the chondrules in GRO 95577 and the elemental transfers of Al, Fe and Ca throughout the chondrule and of Fe and S from the matrix to the chondrule favor the idea of an asteroidal location of the aqueous alteration. From their mineralogical descriptions and modal abundances, the element repartitions in Renazzo and GRO 95577 were computed. It indicates a possible relationship between these two chondrites via an isochemical alteration process. Knowing the chemical reactions that occurred during the alteration, it was thus possible to decipher the mineralogical modal abundances in the unaltered CR body.

  3. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mancusi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products. In this study forty-eight samples of tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, fresh or processed were sampled from fish shops and supermarkets in the City of Bologna in the period from January to July 2010. Concentration of histamine was assessed using ELISA quantitative test and presence of psicrotrophic histamine forming bacteria was searched using a modified Niven agar medium which allow detection of suspect colonies that were confirmed by PCR for detecting the presence of the histidine decarboxylase genes in their DNA. The positive colonies were then identified on the basis of their morphology, Gram reaction and biochemical characteristics with API20E. The differential capability of the Niven agar was found to be low and approximately one fifth of the suspect colonies were confirmed by the PCR test, which however included both strong and weak histamine producing strains. The presence of Morganella morganii was associated with concentration of histamine 460 mg∙kg-1 above the allowed limit in a sample of tuna sampled from a fish shop. The same bacterium was found in samples of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. High histamine concentration (between 258 and > 300 mg∙kg-1 were observed in salted European pilchard and European anchovy (228 mg∙kg-1 sold loose in supermarkets. Because temperature abuse could occur when Tuna (fresh/defrozen are hold on chopping board to sell fresh cuts and during shelf life of salted pilchard and pickled anchovies held in opened cans in chilled display cabinets for extended period, which might results in very high histamine concentration, controls on time and temperature at the retail, in addition to those done during the harvest and processing are needed. The studies aiming at

  4. Alterações na qualidade de raízes de mandioca(Manihot esculenta Crantz minimamente processadas Quality alterations in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Alves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A conservação pós-colheita das raízes de mandioca tem sido uma preocupação das indústrias e produtores, devido ao curto tempo de estocagem e a alta perecibilidade das raízes. Dois fenômenos são apontados como responsáveis pela deterioração das raízes, um de ordem fisiológica, provocando a perda inicial da qualidade por meio do desenvolvimento da descoloração vascular do tecido parenquimatoso, e o outro, de ordem microbiana, que se segue à fisiologia, responsável pela decomposição do produto. Dessa forma, com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a conservação das raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, submetidas à higienização em água clorada e armazenadas em três tipos de embalagens, bandeja de isopor envolta em filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC, embalagem multicamada (poliéster Saram-13,5µ/polietileno-100µ com e sem vácuo e resfriadas (5 ± 0,5°C, mediante análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas, fisiológicas e sensoriais. A conservação de mandioca minimamente processada sob refrigeração para os tratamentos realizados, é possível diferenciando-se o período de armazenamento, sendo que para as amostras armazenadas em bandeja, o período de armazenamento foi de 7 dias, no selado e a vácuo foi de aproximadamente 24 dias, respectivamente.Post harvest of cassava roots has been a great concern in food industries and producers due to the short shelf life and high perishability. Several phenomena have been pointed out as responsible for root deterioration. Among them there are physiological aspects, that lead to losses in initial quality through vascular discoloration of parenchymatous tissue. On the other hand, phenomena from microbial origin, which follow the physiological alterations, are responsible for product decomposition. In this context, this work was aimed at investigating the conservation of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz submitted to chlorinated water, and stored using

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  6. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  7. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study.

  8. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  9. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the pe

  10. Naturally occurring muscle pain during exercise: assessment and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D B; O'Connor, P J; Eubanks, S A; Smith, J C; Lee, M

    1997-08-01

    The objectives were: (i) to present a method for assessing muscle pain during exercise, (ii) to provide reliability and validity data in support of the measurement tool, (iii) to test whether leg muscle pain threshold during exercise was related to a commonly used measure of pain threshold pain during test, (iv) to examine the relationship between pain and exertion ratings, (v) to test whether leg muscle pain is related to performance, and (vi) to test whether a large dose of aspirin would delay leg muscle pain threshold and/or reduce pain ratings during exercise. In study 1, seven females and seven males completed three 1-min cycling bouts at three different randomly ordered power outputs. Pain was assessed using a 10-point pain scale. High intraclass correlations (R from 0.88 to 0.98) indicated that pain intensity could be rated reliably using the scale. In study 2, 11 college-aged males (age 21.3 +/- 1.3 yr) performed a ramped (24 W.min-1) maximal cycle ergometry test. A button was depressed when leg muscle pain threshold was reached. Pain threshold occurred near 50% of maximal capacity: 50.3 (+/- 12.9% Wmax), 48.6 (+/- 14.8% VO2max), and 55.8 (+/- 12.9% RPEmax). Pain intensity ratings obtained following pain threshold were positively accelerating function of the relative exercise intensity. Volitional exhaustion was associated with pain ratings of 8.2 (+/- 2.5), a value most closely associated with the verbal anchor "very strong pain." In study 3, participants completed the same maximal exercise test as in study 2 as well as leg cycling at 60 rpm for 8 s at four randomly ordered power outputs (100, 150, 200, and 250 W) on a separate day. Pain and RPE ratings were significantly lower during the 8-s bouts compared to those obtained at the same power outputs during the maximal cycle test. The results suggest that noxious metabolites of muscle contraction play a role in leg muscle pain during exercise. In study 4, moderately active male subjects (N = 19) completed

  11. Iron Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration on Mars from the MER Moessbauer Spectrometers. Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Klingelhoefer, Goestar

    2007-01-01

    The twin Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit (Gusev crater) and Opportunity (Meridiani Planum) used MIMOS II Moessbauer spectrometers to analyze martian surface materials in the first application of extraterrestrial Moessbauer spectroscopy. The instruments acquired spectra that identified the speciation of Fe according to oxidation state, coordination state, and mineralogical composition and provided quantitative information about the distribution of Fe among oxidation states, coordination states, and Fe-bearing phases. A total of 12 unique Fe-bearing phases were identified: Fe(2+) in olivine, pyroxene, and ilmenite; Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in magnetite and chromite; Fe(3+) in nanophase ferric oxide (npOx), hematite, goethite, jarosite, an unassigned Fe3+ sulfate, and an unassigned Fe(3+) phase associated with jarosite; and Fe(0) in kamacite. Weakly altered basalts at Gusev crater (SO3 = 2.5 +/- 1.4 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.24 +/- 0.11) are widespread on the Gusev plains and occur in less abundance on West Spur and Husband Hill in the Columbia Hills. Altered low-S rocks (SO3 = 5.2 +/- 2.0 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.63 +/- 0.18) are the most common type of rock in the Columbia Hills. Ilm-bearing, weakly altered basalts were detected only in the Columbia Hills, as was the only occurrence of chromite in an altered low-S rock named Assemblee. Altered high-S rocks (SO3 > 14.2 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.83 +/- 0.05) are the outcrop rocks of the ubiquitous Burns formation at Meridiani Planum. Two Fe(0)-bearing rocks at Meridiani Planum (Barberton and Heat Shield Rock) are meteorites. Laguna Class soil is weakly altered (SO3 = 6 +/- 2 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.29 +/- 0.08) and widely distributed at both Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum, implying efficient global mixing processes or a global distribution of precursor rocks with comparable Fe mineralogical compositions. Paso Robles Class soil is heavily altered (SO3 approx. 31 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.83 +/- 0

  12. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem. PMID:21808092

  13. Human alteration of natural light cycles: causes and ecological consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston, Kevin J; Duffy, James P.; Gaston, Sian; Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Artificial light at night is profoundly altering natural light cycles, particularly as perceived by many organisms, over extensive areas of the globe. This alteration comprises the introduction of light at night at places and times at which it has not previously occurred, and with different spectral signatures. Given the long geological periods for which light cycles have previously been consistent, this constitutes a novel environmental pressure, and one for which there is evidence for biolo...

  14. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  15. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.)

  16. The Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites: Experiments and Geochemical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perronnet, M.; Berger, G.; Zolensky, M. E.; Toplis, M. J.; Kolb, V. M.; Bajagic, M.

    2007-01-01

    CR carbonaceous chondrites are of major interest since they contain some of the most primitive organic matter known. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needs to be assessed. This study was initiated by comparing the mineralogy and modal abundances of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2. Calculated element distributions imply that GRO 95577 may result from aqueous alteration of Renazzo by an isochemical process on their parent asteroid, whose mineralogical composition was estimated ( Unaltered CR shown included table).

  17. Are extremes of consumption in eating disorders related to an altered balance between reward and inhibition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E Wierenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary defining characteristic of a diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED is the disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food (DSM V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. There is a spectrum, ranging from those who severely restrict eating and become emaciated on one end to those who binge and overconsume, usually accompanied by some form of compensatory behaviors, on the other. How can we understand reasons for such extremes of food consummatory behaviors? Recent work on obesity and substance use disorders has identified behaviors and neural pathways that play a powerful role in human consummatory behaviors. That is, corticostriatal limbic and dorsal cognitive neural circuitry can make drugs and food rewarding, but also engage self-control mechanisms that may inhibit their use. Importantly, there is considerable evidence that alterations of these systems also occur in ED. This paper explores the hypothesis that an altered balance of reward and inhibition contributes to altered extremes of response to salient stimuli, such as food. We will review recent studies that show altered sensitivity to reward and punishment in ED, with evidence of altered activity in corticostriatal and insula processes with respect to monetary gains or losses, and tastes of palatable foods. We will also discuss evidence for a spectrum of extremes of inhibition and dysregulation behaviors in ED supported by studies suggesting that this is related to top-down self-control mechanisms. The lack of a mechanistic understanding of ED has thwarted efforts for evidence-based approaches to develop interventions. Understanding how ED behavior is encoded in neural circuits would provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches.

  18. Are Extremes of Consumption in Eating Disorders Related to an Altered Balance between Reward and Inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E.; Ely, Alice; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Bailer, Ursula F.; Simmons, Alan N.; Kaye, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary defining characteristic of a diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) is the “disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food” (DSM V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). There is a spectrum, ranging from those who severely restrict eating and become emaciated on one end to those who binge and overconsume, usually accompanied by some form of compensatory behaviors, on the other. How can we understand reasons for such extremes of food consummatory behaviors? Recent work on obesity and substance use disorders has identified behaviors and neural pathways that play a powerful role in human consummatory behaviors. That is, corticostriatal limbic and dorsal cognitive neural circuitry can make drugs and food rewarding, but also engage self-control mechanisms that may inhibit their use. Importantly, there is considerable evidence that alterations of these systems also occur in ED. This paper explores the hypothesis that an altered balance of reward and inhibition contributes to altered extremes of response to salient stimuli, such as food. We will review recent studies that show altered sensitivity to reward and punishment in ED, with evidence of altered activity in corticostriatal and insula processes with respect to monetary gains or losses, and tastes of palatable foods. We will also discuss evidence for a spectrum of extremes of inhibition and dysregulation behaviors in ED supported by studies suggesting that this is related to top-down self-control mechanisms. The lack of a mechanistic understanding of ED has thwarted efforts for evidence-based approaches to develop interventions. Understanding how ED behavior is encoded in neural circuits would provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches. PMID:25538579

  19. Widespread hypomethylation occurs early and synergizes with gene amplification during esophageal carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Hector; Opalinska, Joanna; Zhou, Li;

    2011-01-01

    Although a combination of genomic and epigenetic alterations are implicated in the multistep transformation of normal squamous esophageal epithelium to Barrett esophagus, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma, the combinatorial effect of these changes is unknown. By integrating genome-wide DNA methylation......," but may also occur through a mechanism of differential methylation outside of these regions. Finally, validation of novel upregulated targets (CXCL1 and 3, GATA6, and DMBT1) in a larger independent panel of samples confirms the utility of integrative analysis in cancer biomarker discovery....

  20. Alterations in oropharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEP) with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa; Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Sapienza, Christine M; Bolser, Donald C; Davenport, Paul W

    2016-07-15

    Movement of a food bolus from the oral cavity into the oropharynx activates pharyngeal sensory mechanoreceptors. Using electroencephalography, somatosensory cortical-evoked potentials resulting from oropharyngeal mechanical stimulation (PSEP) have been studied in young healthy individuals. However, limited information is known about changes in processing of oropharyngeal afferent signals with Parkinson's disease (PD). To determine if sensory changes occurred with a mechanical stimulus (air-puff) to the oropharynx, two stimuli (S1-first; S2-s) were delivered 500ms apart. Seven healthy older adults (HOA; 3 male and 4 female; 72.2±6.9 years of age), and thirteen persons diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD; 11 male and 2 female; 67.2±8.9 years of age) participated. Results demonstrated PSEP P1, N1, and P2 component peaks were identified in all participants, and the N2 peak was present in 17/20 participants. Additionally, the PD participants had a decreased N2 latency and gated the P1, P2, and N2 responses (S2/S1 under 0.6). Compared to the HOAs, the PD participants had greater evidence of gating the P1 and N2 component peaks. These results suggest that persons with PD experience changes in sensory processing of mechanical stimulation of the pharynx to a greater degree than age-matched controls. In conclusion, the altered processing of sensory feedback from the pharynx may contribute to disordered swallow in patients with PD. PMID:27090350

  1. Alterations in choice behavior by manipulations of world model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. S.; Benson, C.; Kersten, D.; Schrater, P.

    2010-01-01

    How to compute initially unknown reward values makes up one of the key problems in reinforcement learning theory, with two basic approaches being used. Model-free algorithms rely on the accumulation of substantial amounts of experience to compute the value of actions, whereas in model-based learning, the agent seeks to learn the generative process for outcomes from which the value of actions can be predicted. Here we show that (i) “probability matching”—a consistent example of suboptimal choice behavior seen in humans—occurs in an optimal Bayesian model-based learner using a max decision rule that is initialized with ecologically plausible, but incorrect beliefs about the generative process for outcomes and (ii) human behavior can be strongly and predictably altered by the presence of cues suggestive of various generative processes, despite statistically identical outcome generation. These results suggest human decision making is rational and model based and not consistent with model-free learning. PMID:20805507

  2. Prion disease induced alterations in gene expression in spleen and brain prior to clinical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon O Kim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyeon O Kim1, Greg P Snyder1, Tyler M Blazey1, Richard E Race2, Bruce Chesebro2, Pamela J Skinner11Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, USA; 2NIH Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, Montana, USAAbstract: Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect animals and humans. There is a need to gain understanding of prion disease pathogenesis and to develop diagnostic assays to detect prion diseases prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. The goal of this study was to identify genes that show altered expression early in the disease process in the spleen and brain of prion disease-infected mice. Using Affymetrix microarrays, we identified 67 genes that showed increased expression in the brains of prion disease-infected mice prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. These genes function in many cellular processes including immunity, the endosome/lysosome system, hormone activity, and the cytoskeleton. We confirmed a subset of these gene expression alterations using other methods and determined the time course in which these changes occur. We also identified 14 genes showing altered expression prior to the onset of clinical symptoms in spleens of prion disease infected mice. Interestingly, four genes, Atp1b1, Gh, Anp32a, and Grn, were altered at the very early time of 46 days post-infection. These gene expression alterations provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying prion disease pathogenesis and may serve as surrogate markers for the early detection and diagnosis of prion disease.Keywords: prion disease, microarrays, gene expression

  3. Siliceous microfossil extraction from altered Monterey rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.O.; Casey, R.E.

    1986-04-01

    Samples of altered Monterey rocks of differing lithologies were processed by various methods to develop new techniques for extracting siliceous microfossils. The preliminary use of thin sections made from the same rocks reduced the number of probable samples (samples worth further processing) by about one-third. Most of the siliceous microfossils contained in altered Monterey rocks appear to be highly recrystallized and are extremely fragile; however, some contained silicified and silica-infilled radiolarians and planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, which are very tough. In general the most useful techniques were gently hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, formic acid, monosodium glutamate, and regular siliceous microfossil extraction techniques. Unsuccessful techniques and a new siliceous microfossil flotation technique are also documented.

  4. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in the Southern Polar Ocean: Naturally occurring tracers of biological and hydrographical processes in the surface waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea; Polonium-210 und Blei-210 im Suedpolarmeer: Natuerliche Tracer fuer biologische und hydrographische Prozesse im Oberflaechenwasser des Antarktischen Zirkumpolarstroms und des Weddellmeeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis the distribution of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in the upper 600 m of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea was investigated along north-south transects in austral spring and autumn. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb can serve as sensitive tracers for the special hydrographic conditions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea as well as for biological processes during phytoplankton blooms. The {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb disequilibrium was used as a tracer for particle export. This tracer integrates export on a timescale of 276 days because of the 138 day half-life of {sup 210}Po and complements the {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U disequilibrium as another tracer for plankton production and export on a shorter timescale of several weeks. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Verteilung von Blei-210 und seinem Enkelnuklid Polonium-210 im Antarktischen Zirkumpolarstrom und im Weddellmeer bis 600 m Tiefe in mehreren meridionalen Transekten im australen Fruehjahr und Herbst waehrend der `Polarstern`-Expeditionen ANT-X/6 und ANT-XI/4 untersucht. Die Verteilung von {sup 210}Pb und {sup 210}Po wird von mehreren Faktoren beeinflusst, sowohl durch die Advektion von Wassermassen im Antarktischen Zirkumpolarstrom und im Weddellmeer als auch von biologischen Prozessen z.B. innerhalb einer Planktonbluete. Bevor die Verteilungsmuster von {sup 210}Pb und {sup 210}Po jedoch als Tracer fuer einen Prozess genutzt werden koennen, muss der Effekt der einzelnen Faktoren auf die Verteilung betrachtet werden. (orig.)

  5. When Does A Gait Transition Occur During Human Locomotion?

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Hreljac; Rodney T. Imamura; Escamilla, Rafael F.; Brent Edwards, W.

    2007-01-01

    When a treadmill accelerates continuously, the walk-run transition has generally been assumed to occur at the instant when a flight phase is first observed, while the run-walk transition has been assumed to occur at the instant of the first double support period. There is no theoretical or empirical evidence to suggest that gait transitions occur at the instant of these events, nor even whether transitions are abrupt events. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the gait transiti...

  6. MICROSATELLITE ALTERATION AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS IN COLORECTAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the role of microsatellite alterations incarcinogenesis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Methods: Alterations of 10 microsatellite loci from 5 different chromosomes were detected in 92 colorectal cancers and their paired normal mucosa by PCR, denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. Associations of microsatellite alterations with clinopathologic parameters were statistically clarified.Results: Alterations of microsatellite were classified into microsatellite instability type I, type II and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The carcinoma with ≥30% loci microsatellite alterations was defined as replication error(RER) positive tumors. Of 92 cases, 14 were RER+. Microsatellite alterations of P53(1) and D18S363 loci (64.29% ) was most commonly identified in the RER+ tumors. RER+ were more commonly seen in poorly differentiated carcinomas and tended to occur in mucoid carcinomas. The type of microsatellite alterations varied in different histological types of CRC. Conclusions: Microsatellite alteration is a common molecular event in CRC. Different microsatellite loci showed various biologic significance. P53(1) and D18S363 should be essentially detected loci that can show the RER status of tumors.

  7. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  8. Microvascular alterations in transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Khairoun, Meriem

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial injury and repair are most important concepts for our understanding of renal disease and allograft injury. The concept that injury to the endothelium may precede renal fibrosis strongly suggests that interventions to maintain vascular integrity are of major importance for renal function. This thesis focuses on the mechanisms involved in the process of endothelial damage and repair in renal disease, (early) diabetes mellitus (DM) and renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Further...

  9. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  10. Unilateral eruptive vellus hair cysts occurring on the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, B-L; Lee, M-H; Haw, C-R

    2006-11-01

    Eruptive vellus hair cysts (EVHC) are small, cystic papules that usually occur on the chest and extremities. Their aetiology is unknown. Fewer than 10 cases of a variant form of EVHC that occur exclusively on the face have been reported. We describe a case of EVHC limited to the right side of the face. To the best of our knowledge, no case of unilateral EVHC has been reported. PMID:17062051

  11. Internet Censorship in China: Where Does the Filtering Occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueyang; Mao, Z. Morley; Halderman, J. Alex

    China filters Internet traffic in and out of the country. In order to circumvent the firewall, it is helpful to know where the filtering occurs. In this work, we explore the AS-level topology of China's network, and probe the firewall to find the locations of filtering devices. We find that even though most filtering occurs in border ASes, choke points also exist in many provincial networks. The result suggests that two major ISPs in China have different approaches placing filtering devices.

  12. Hemostasis alterations in metabolic syndrome (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Iván; Alarcón, Marcelo; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Argilés, Josep M

    2006-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by the presence of at least three of the following alterations: enlargement of the waist diameter, higher levels of arterial pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycemia, and reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of MS reaches 23% in young adults, a percentage that increases with age. People with MS have a greater risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD). The physiopathologic alterations now found to exist in MS are diverse; among them is endothelial dysfunction, which triggers atherogenic lesions and hypercoagulability characterized by alterations of the coagulation factors and the regulatory proteins of fibrinolysis such as the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). The increase in oxidative stress and/or the reactive oxygen species in patients with MS is partially related to the oxidation state of the lipoproteins, especially of the low density lipoproteins. This fact favors atherogenesis. Moreover, the oxidative stress produces alterations in the production of adipokines, cytokines secreted by the adipose tissues. The abnormality in the transport of lipoprotein diminishes the catabolism of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and increases the catabolism of the high density lipoprotein (HDL), which creates insulin resistance. This process is associated with a lower concentration of adiponectin that in turn regulates the catabolism of VLDL and HDL; consequently increasing the flow of fatty acids from the adipose tissue to the liver and muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines, among them tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), are of great importance in MS regulating different processes and molecules such as PAI-1. PAI-1 is controlled by the group of transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), especially by PPAR gamma and alpha ligands. In summary, MS includes multiple alterations related to insulin resistance at several levels: hepatic

  13. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E; Langan, Paul; Art J. Ragauskas; Kumar, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Background Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial kn...

  14. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  15. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  16. Regional alterations of brain biogenic amines in young rats following chronic lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubas, T.C.; Stevenson, A.; Singhal, R.L.; Hrdina, P.D.

    1978-02-01

    An examination was made of neurochemical changes that occur in discrete brain regions of rats that have been chronically exposed to low levels of lead from birth, in order to provide further information on the involvement of brain biogenic amines in lead-induced neurotoxicity. Results indicate a relationship between exposure to lead and alterations in the brain levels of various putative neurotransmitters. However, changes in the functional activity of the neurotransmitter may not be adequately reflected in the change of its steady-state levels or may occur even in the absence of any changes in the actual concentrations. Lead may influence central neurotransmitter function by affecting one or several of the processes involved in the synthesis, release and/or disposition of biogenic amines.

  17. Modelling the multiphase chemistry occurring in orographic hill cap clouds during HCCT-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, A.; Herrmann, H.; Bräuer, P.; Wolke, R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric clouds and deliquesced particles are a complex multiphase and multi-component environment with simultaneously occurring gas and aqueous phase chemical transformations. Such aqueous phase chemical processes in cloud droplets are expected to proceed very efficient on short timescales and hence they are able to alter the chemical aerosol composition and the deduced physical properties on a global scale. Besides the physico-chemical aerosol processing, chemical aerosol-cloud interactions have significant effects on the whole multiphase oxidation budget. In order to improve the still limited understanding of the aerosol-cloud interactions, Lagrangian-type field experiments, where an orographic cloud is used as a natural flow-through reactor, are used for studying such processes in more detail. In Sept./Oct. 2010, the cloud passage experiment HCCT-2010 (Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010) was conducted at Mt. Schmücke in Thuringia, Germany to study aerosol cloud interactions. As known from former cloud passage experiments, particularly associated model investigations including comparisons of model results with observations have considerably contributed to the interpretation of the measured field data. In the present study, the parcel model SPACCIM (SPectral Aerosol Cloud Chemistry Interaction Model) was applied to investigate the effects of multiphase chemical processing of tropospheric aerosol particles and trace gases resulting from a passage through an orographic cloud at Mt. Schmücke during HCCT-2010. The applied model combines a complex microphysical scheme with the detailed near-explicit multiphase chemistry mechanism MCMv3.1- CAPRAM3.5α with 11381 gas phase and over 3700 aqueous phase reactions. The measured physical and chemical data at the upwind site provided the basis for the model initialisation under real environmental conditions. SPACCIM simulations have been carried out for few cloud events, which provided appropriate meteorological and overflow

  18. Review: 2-mercaptoethanol alteration of in vitro immune functions of species other than murine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, Robert E

    2014-01-15

    Descriptions that organosulfurs could alter biologically relevant cellular functions began some 40years ago when cell mediated and humoral murine in vitro immune responses were reported to be dramatically enhanced by any of four xenobiotic, sulfhydryl compounds-2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), dithiothreitol, glutathione, and l-cysteine; the most effective of the four was 2-ME. These findings triggered a plethora of reports defining 2-ME benefits for a multitude of immunological processes, primarily with murine models. This led to investigations on 2-ME alterations of (a) immune functions in other species, (b) activities of other cell-types, and (c) in situ diseases. In addition, the early findings may have been instrumental in the identification of the previously undefined anticarcinogenic chemicals in specific foods as organosulfurs. Outside the plant organosulfurs, there are no comprehensive reviews of these areas to help define mechanisms by which organosulfurs function as well as identify potential alternative uses. Therefore, the present review will focus on 2-ME alterations of in vitro immune functions in species other than murine; namely, fish, amphibian, reptile, avian, whales, dolphins, rat, hamster, rabbit, guinea pig, feline, canine, porcine, ovine, bovine, and human. Processes, some unique to a given species, were in general, enhanced and in some cases dependent upon the presence of 2-ME. The largest benefits occurred in media that were serum free, followed by those in autologous serum and then fetal bovine serum supplemented medium. Concentrations of 2-ME were generally in the low μM range, with exceptions of those for salamander (20mM), turtles (70mM) and dolphins (7mM). The few studies designed to assess mechanisms found that changes induced by 2-ME were generally accompanied by alterations of reduced/oxidized glutathione cellular concentrations. The major benefit for most studies, however, was to increase the sensitivity of the culture environment, which

  19. On co-design of filter and fault estimator against randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Liu, Steven; Ji, Donghai; Li, Shanqiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the co-design problem of filter and fault estimator is studied for a class of time-varying non-linear stochastic systems subject to randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks. Two mutually independent random variables obeying the Bernoulli distribution are employed to characterize the phenomena of the randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks, respectively. By using the augmentation approach, the co-design problem of the robust filter and fault estimator is converted into the recursive filter design problem. A new compensation scheme is proposed such that, for both randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks, an upper bound of the filtering error covariance is obtained and such an upper bound is minimized by properly designing the filter gain at each sampling instant. Moreover, the explicit form of the filter gain is given based on the solution to two Riccati-like difference equations. It is shown that the proposed co-design algorithm is of a recursive form that is suitable for online computation. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the usefulness of the developed filtering approach.

  20. Altered Human Memory Modification in the Presence of Normal Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censor, Nitzan; Buch, Ethan R; Nader, Karim; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2016-09-01

    Following initial learning, the memory is stabilized by consolidation mechanisms, and subsequent modification of memory strength occurs via reconsolidation. Yet, it is not clear whether consolidation and memory modification are the same or different systems-level processes. Here, we report disrupted memory modification in the presence of normal consolidation of human motor memories, which relate to differences in lesioned brain structure after stroke. Furthermore, this behavioral dissociation was associated with macrostructural network architecture revealed by a graph-theoretical approach, and with white-matter microstructural integrity measured by diffusion-weighted MRI. Altered macrostructural network architecture and microstructural integrity of white-matter underlying critical nodes of the related network predicted disrupted memory modification. To the best of our knowledge, this provides the first evidence of mechanistic differences between consolidation, and subsequent memory modification through reconsolidation, in human procedural learning. These findings enable better understanding of these memory processes, which may guide interventional strategies to enhance brain function and resulting behavior. PMID:26271110

  1. Genetic alterations and epigenetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Stella Hoyos Giraldo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Hepatocarcinogenesis as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with background of chronic liver disease usually in association with cirrhosis, marked hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV and/or hepatitis virus (HCV infection, chronic inflammation, Aflatoxin B1(AFB1 exposure, chronic alcoholism, metabolic disorder of the liver and necroinflamatory liver disease. Hepatocarcinogenesis involve two mechanisms, genetic alterations (with changes in the cell's DNA sequence and epigenetic changes (without changes in the cell's DNA sequence, but changes in the pattern of gene expression that can persist through one or more generations (somatic sense. Hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oncogenes and decreased expression of tumor suppressor genes (TSG; include those involved in cell cycle control, apoptosis, DNA repair, immortalization and angiogenesis. AFB1 is metabolized in the liver into a potent carcinogen, aflatoxin 8, 9-epoxide, which is detoxified by epoxide hydrolase (EPHX and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1.

    A failure of detoxification processes can allow to mutagenic metabolite to bind to DNA and inducing P53 mutation. Genetic polymorphism of EPHX and GSTM1 can make individuals more susceptible to AFB1. Epigenetic inactivation of GSTP1 by promoter hypermethylation plays a role in the development of HCC because, it leads that electrophilic metabolite increase DNA damage and mutations. HBV DNA integration into the host chromosomal DNA of hepatocytes has been detected in HBV-related HCC.

    DNA tumor viruses cause cancer mainly by interfering with cell cycle controls, and activating the cell's replication machinery by blocking the action of key TSG. HBx protein is a

  2. Why Does Bureaucratic Corruption Occur in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...

  3. Pulmonary alterations in Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aims to demonstrate pulmonary alterations (PA) in patients with Behcet's disease by using CT. Materials and methods: CTs of 50 patients with Behcet's disease and 20 others in a control group have been evaluated retrospectively for PA (septal, reticular, nodular, atelectatic opacities). Results: Eight out of 50 patients (16%) with Behcet's disease showed PA. Three out of 20 (15%) in the control group showed PA. No differences were observed between Behcet's disease patients and the control group regarding pulmonary alterations (p = 0.917). No differences were observed in the disease duration, ages and sex in either group in those with and without PA. Conclusion: Pulmonary alterations can be seen in patients with Behcet's disease, but these alterations are not significant.

  4. The processes occurring under electric erosion dispersion of WC-Co hard alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric erosion dispersion (EED) of WC-Co hard alloys leads to melt and migration of Co under the action of capillary forces to the surface and, as a consequence, the surface cracking as well as α-WC crystallites fragmentation. The value of effect is increased with Co content rising. Highest possible level of the macrostresses (3230 and 3030 MPa) was found to be in alloys with 6 and 8 wt.%Co respectively that explained by carbide skeleton existence. In WC-20 wt.% alloy value of the stresses is decreased to 2212 MPa, possible due to for lack of the carbide skeleton. Contents of β-WC phase in hard alloys increased with Co contents decreased. After EED η1-phase of W-Co carbide formation has been established

  5. Dust occurring in the processing of asbestos cement as complex mixture of toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedelsperger, K.; Manke, J.; Brueckel, B.; Knecht, U.; Woitowitz, H.J.

    1982-10-01

    In a study on construction sites in Hessen asbestos cement fine and total dust mass concentrations were measured on 89 construction sites by static and personal sampling. For craftsmen themselves cutting with the grinding machine the mean fine dust mass concentration amounts to 1,8 mg/m/sup 3/ during roof coverings with corrugated sheets, 1,3 mg/m/sup 3/ during siding work, 2,8 mg/m/sup 3/ during installation of ventilation shafts and 1,8 mg/m/sup 3/ during installation of pipes. During fire insulation 1,5 mg/m/sup 3/ were reached without the grinding machine. The analysis of harmful components was performed by infrared spectroscopy, analytical electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Asbestos fine dust mass concentration above the limit value (TRK) especially resulted from personal sampling during the use of the grinding machine and from operation within doors.

  6. Analysis of Confined Random Walkers with Applications to Processes Occurring in Molecular Aggregates and Immunological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Matthew; Spendier, Kathrin; Kenkre, V M

    2016-03-31

    Explicit solutions are presented in the Laplace and time domains for a one-variable Fokker-Planck equation governing the probability density of a random walker moving in a confining potential. Illustrative applications are discussed in two unrelated physical contexts: quantum yields in a doped molecular crystal or photosynthetic system, and the motion of signal receptor clusters on the surface of a cell encountered in a problem in immunology. An interesting counterintuitive effect concerning the consequences of confinement is found in the former, and some insights into the driving force for microcluster centralization are gathered in the latter application. PMID:26885727

  7. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W;

    2015-01-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological...

  8. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  9. CLEARANCE OF INDOMETHACIN OCCURS PREDOMINANTLY BY RENAL GLUCURONIDATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOOLENAAR, F; CRANCRINUS, S; VISSER, J; DEZEEUW, D; MEIJER, DKF

    1992-01-01

    In this report we describe the conditions of collection, storage and handling of urine samples, collected after oral dosing with indometacin in man, in order to maintain the integrity of the labile glucuronide formed. We found that the body clearance occurs predominantly by renal metabolism, due to

  10. Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

  11. Why does plate tectonics occur only on Earth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plate tectonics governs the topography and motions of the surface of Earth, and the loss of heat from Earth's interior, but appears to be found uniquely on Earth in the Solar System. Why does plate tectonics occur only on Earth? This is one of the major questions in earth and planetary sciences research, and raises a wide range of related questions: has plate tectonics ever occurred on other planets in the past? How did plate tectonics start on Earth? Will it ever end? In the absence of plate tectonics, how do planets lose their heat? This article provides a brief introduction to the ways in which planets lose their heat and discusses our current understanding of plate tectonics and the challenges that lie ahead

  12. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  13. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs often in cryptogenic ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L M; Krieger, D W; Højberg, S;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial...... patients (16.1%). In three patients PAF was detected by other methods before or after monitoring and was undiscovered due to device sensitivity in one case. The first event of PAF was documented at a mean of 109 days (SD ±48) after stroke onset. PAF was asymptomatic in all cases and occurred in episodes...... lasting predominantly between 1 and 4 h. Four recurrent strokes were observed, three in patients with PAF; all three patients were on oral anticoagulation (OAC). CONCLUSIONS: One in five patients with CS had PAF, which occurred at low burden and long after stroke. Future studies should determine the role...

  14. New data about historical earthquakes occurred on the Romanian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the present paper is to enrich qualitatively and quantitatively the existing database about historical earthquakes occurred on the Romanian territory and in the adjacent areas by reevaluating and completing it with new information obtained after some complex research activities. In this respect there were studied the old book funds existing in Bucharest, especially those from the religious and cultural institutions - monasteries, libraries, archives and museums, starting with the documents existing under the custody of the Romanian Patriarchy. For the beginning there were researched three thousand books appeared between 1683-1902 where there were found information about some earthquakes occurred between 1802 and 1913. By this research, there is achieved the extension in the past of the database regarding the seismicity of the Romania's territory, by emphasizing seismic events that, according to some seismicity schemes, can repeat in the future, thus, being taken into account the major contribution of the historical seismicity to the seismic hazard assessment. (authors)

  15. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alina-Mihaela Badescu; Alexandra Saftoiu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect that naturally occurring impurities in salt mines have both on effective permittivity of the medium and on radio wave propagation at ∼200 MHz. The effective permittivity is determined based on the dielectric properties of salt and the characteristics of the main impurities. We conclude that at such frequencies the scattering is negligible compared to absorptions. The effect of trapped water in different forms is also evaluated.

  16. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  17. Ab initio simulations of reactions occurring in molecular crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Kochman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Although the solid state may not usually be thought of as an environment suitable for chemical reactions under mild conditions, a growing number of organic compounds are known to undergo interesting and, in many cases, practically useful chemistry in the molecular crystal phase. Of particular interest are photochemical reactions occurring in molecular crystals, which possess a number of characteristic features that make them attractive to study using the methods of theoretical chemistry. Firs...

  18. Oral tolerance in the absence of naturally occurring Tregs

    OpenAIRE

    Mucida, Daniel; Kutchukhidze, Nino; Erazo, Agustin; Russo, Momtchilo; Lafaille, Juan J.; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A

    2005-01-01

    Mucosal tolerance prevents pathological reactions against environmental and food antigens, and its failure results in exacerbated inflammation typical of allergies and asthma. One of the proposed mechanisms of oral tolerance is the induction of Tregs. Using a mouse model of hyper-IgE and asthma, we found that oral tolerance could be effectively induced in the absence of naturally occurring thymus-derived Tregs. Oral antigen administration prior to i.p. immunization prevented effector/memory T...

  19. Interpreting Human Rights: Are Human Rights Violations Occurring in Tibet?

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jens; Viuf Christiansen, Emil; Pliniussen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the ongoing conflict between China and Tibet concerning human rights. UN advocates and Tibetans claims that violations of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights have occurred. In opposition the Chinese government justifies its actions in Tibet, the government argues that human rights are enforced in Tibet. The purpose of this investigation is to obtain a broad objective understanding of the conflict. Our aim is to understand the conflict from all sides. T...

  20. Naturally Occurring Animal Models with Outer Retina Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Baehr, Wolfgang; Frederick, Jeanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Naturally occurring and laboratory generated animal models serve as powerful tools with which to investigate the etiology of human retinal degenerations, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), cone dystrophies (CD) and macular degeneration (MD). Much progress has been made in elucidating gene defects underlying disease, in understanding mechanisms leading to disease, and in designing molecules for translational research and gene-based therapy to interfere with...

  1. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in a Crohn’s disease patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuaki; Ishida; Shigeyuki; Naka; Hisanori; Shiomi; Tomoyuki; Tsujikawa; Akira; Andoh; Tamio; Nakahara; Yasuharu; Saito; Yoshi-hide; Fujiyama; Mikiko; Takikita-Suzuki; Fumiyoshi; Kojima; Machiko; Hotta; Tohru; Tani; Yoshimasa; Kurumi; Hidetoshi; Okabe

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in a patient with Crohn’s disease (CD) without chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, and review the clinicopathological features of HCC in CD patients. A 37-year-old Japanese man with an 8-year history of CD and a medication history of azathioprine underwent resection of a liver tumor. The histopathology of the liver tumor was pseudoglandular type HCC. In the nonneoplastic liver, focal hepatocyte glycogenosis (FHG) was observed, however, there was...

  3. Point patterns occurring on complex structures in space and space-time: An alternative network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Eckardt, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach of analyzing possibly multitype point patterns in space and space-time that occur on network structures, and introduces several different graph-related intensity measures. The proposed formalism allows to control for processes on undirected, directional as well as partially directed network structures and is not restricted to linearity or circularity.

  4. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Set Shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Individuals with SPD and BDD exhibited significantly worse picking, significantly worse overall psychosocial functioning, and significantly greater dysfunction on aspects of cognitive flexibility. These results indicate that when SPD co-occurs with BDD unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes. PMID:26070103

  5. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  6. Extensive Adaptive Changes Occur in the Transcriptome of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) in Response to Incubation with Human Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Mereghetti; Izabela Sitkiewicz; Nicole M Green; Musser, James M.

    2008-01-01

    To enhance understanding of how Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) adapts during invasive infection, we performed a whole-genome transcriptome analysis after incubation with whole human blood. Global changes occurred in the GBS transcriptome rapidly in response to blood contact following shift from growth in a rich laboratory medium. Most (83%) of the significantly altered transcripts were down-regulated after 30 minutes of incubation in blood, and all functional categories...

  7. Genomic alterations in pancreatic cancer and their relevance to therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erina; Takai; Shinichi; Yachida

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal cancer type, for which there are few viable therapeutic options. But, with the advance of sequencing technologies for global genomic analysis, the landscape of genomic alterations in pancreatic cancer is becoming increasingly well understood. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of genomic alterations in 12 core signaling pathways or cellular processes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which is the most common type of malignancy in the pancreas, including four commonly mutated genes and many other genes that are mutated at low frequencies. We also describe the potential implications of these genomic alterations for development of novel therapeutic approaches in the context of personalized medicine.

  8. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  9. Alterations in the antigen processing-presenting machinery of transformed plasma cells are associated with reduced recognition by CD8+ T cells and characterize the progression of MGUS to multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Racanelli, Vito; Leone, Patrizia; Frassanito, Maria Antonia; Brunetti, Claudia; Perosa, Federico; Ferrone, Soldano; Dammacco, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to multiple myeloma (MM) reflects the escape of transformed plasma cells from T-cell recognition because of impaired antigen processing-presenting machinery (APM). We studied plasma cells and CD8+ T cells from bone marrow of 20 MGUS patients, 20 MM patients, and 10 control patients. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry revealed significantly different patterns of APM component expression in plasma c...

  10. Multispectral processing of ERTS-A (LANDSAT) data for uranium exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming: a visible region ratio to enhance surface alteration associated with roll-type uraium deposits. Final report, June 1974--July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document possible detection capabilities of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner data for use in exploration for uranium roll-type deposits. Spectral reflectivity, mineralogy, iron content, and color paramenters were measured for twenty natural surface samples collected from a semiarid region. The relationships of these properties to LANDSAT response-weighted reflectances and to reflectance ratios are discussed. It was found that the single ratio technique of multispectral processing is likely to be sensitive enough to separate hematitic stain, but not limonitic. A combination of the LANDSAT R/sub 5,4/ and R/sub 7,6/ ratios, and a processing technique sensitive to vegetative cover is recommended for detecting areas of limonitic stain. Digital level slicing of LANDSAT R/sub 5,4/ over the Wind River Basin, after geometric correction, resulted in adequate enhancement of Triassic redbeds and lighter red materials, but not for limonitic areas. No recommendations for prospects in the area were made. Information pertaining to techniques of evaluating laboratory reflectance spectra for remote sensing applications, ratio processing, and planimetric correction of LANDSAT data is presented qualitatively

  11. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  12. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Einen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004. The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group

  13. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC SWALLOWING STUDY: esophageal alterations in patients with dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Context Videofluoroscopic swallowing study is a dynamic exam and allows the evaluation of the complete swallowing process. However, most published studies have only reported alterations in the oropharynx and pharyngoesophageal transition, leaving the analysis of the esophagus as a secondary goal. Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alterations in the esophageal phase thorough videofluoroscopic swallowing study in patients with dysphagia. Methods Consecut...

  14. Altered Proteolysis in Fibroblasts of Alzheimer Patients with Predictive Implications for Subjects at Risk of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mocali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in developing reliable biomarkers to support antemortem diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Early prediction and diagnosis of AD might be improved by the detection of a proteolytic dysfunction in extracts from cultured AD fibroblasts, producing altered isoelectrophoretic forms of the enzyme transketolase (TK-alkaline bands. The TK profile and apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype were examined in fibroblasts from 36 clinically diagnosed probable late-onset sporadic AD patients and 38 of their asymptomatic relatives, 29 elderly healthy individuals, 12 neurological non-AD patients, and 5 early-onset AD patients. TK alterations occurred in (i several probable AD patients regardless of age-of-onset and severity of disease; (ii all early-onset AD patients and APOE ε4/4 carriers; and (iii nearly half of asymptomatic AD relatives. Normal subjects and non-AD patients were all negative. Notably, culture conditions promoting TK alterations were also effective in increasing active BACE1 levels. Overall, the TK assay might represent a low-cost laboratory tool useful for supporting AD differential diagnosis and identifying asymptomatic subjects who are at greater risk of AD and who should enter a follow-up study. Moreover, the cultured fibroblasts were confirmed as a useful in vitro model for further studies on the pathogenetic process of AD.

  15. National survey of potential scenarios for occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) unchanged in its natural state has been considered that can pose a problem from the radiological point of view; however, that are monitored by regulators has been rare. Furthermore, exposures to NORMs that have been altered during the exploitation of natural resources can in principle be regulated. The NORMs have found in some waste generated in various industries, e.g. metal scrap, sludge, slag and fluids. These materials, by-products and the end products of processing, can increase the exposure of both workers and members of the public. Besides, can have a significant environmental damage. Two important situations of exploitation of natural resources which may be present NORMs relevant in relation to the potential effects of these materials on human health and the environment, are: (1) when NORMs concentrations have risen above their natural levels in a product, byproduct or waste, (2) when the release of NORMs to the biosphere may increase due to physicochemical changes or the method by which the wastes are managed. This problem is considered and in Cuba has done a survey of all those potential scenarios of occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Documents and ongoing work carried out by the European Union and the International Atomic Energy Agency, have been taken as reference, to identify potential scenarios for occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in Cuba. The availability of information is taken into account, and the level of care that has received this problem within the community of nations. Recommendatory criteria are developed for countries that can serve as an excellent reference for a study of this type. This issue is still in development in other regions, its relevance and importance from the point of view of radiation safety. The handling, storage, transport and use of equipment or contaminated waste with NORMs

  16. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes. PMID:27197087

  17. Nucleolar proteins change in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Gonzalez-Camacho, F.; Medina, F. J.

    Discovery of gravisensitivity of cells no specified to gravity perception focused continuous attention on an elucidation of mechanisms involved in altered gravity effects at the different levels of cellular organization A nucleolus is the nuclear domain in which the major portion of ribosome biogenesis takes place This is a basic process for cell vitality beginning with the transcription of rDNA followed by processing newly synthesized pre-rRNA molecules A wide range of nucleolar proteins plays a highly significant role in all stages of biosynthesis of ribosomes Different steps of ribosome biogenesis should respond to various external factors affecting generally the cell metabolism Nevertheless a nucleolus remains not enough studied under the influence of altered environmental conditions For this reason we studied root apices from 2-day old Lepidium sativum seedlings germinated and grown under slow horizontal clinorotation and stationary conditions in darkness The extraction of cell nuclei followed by sequential fractionation of nuclear proteins according to their solubility in buffers of increasing ionic strength was carried out This procedure gave rise to 5 distinct fractions We analyzed nuclear subproteomes of the most soluble fraction called S2 It is actually a functionally significant fraction consisting of ribonucleoproteins actively engaged in pre-rRNA synthesis and processing 2D-electrophoresis of S2 fraction proteins was carried out The gels were silver stained and stained gels were scanned and analyzed

  18. Naturally occurring Trichogramma species in olive farms in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ESMATMOHAMEDHEGAZI; ANNETTEHERZ; SHERIFHASSAN; ESSAMAGAMY; WEDADKHAFAGI; SANIASHWEIL; AHMEDZAITUN; SAFAAMOSTAFA; MOHAMEDHAFEZ; AHMEDEL-SHAZLY; SOMAIAEL-SAID; LAMIAABO-ABDALA; NOHAKHAMIS; SAMIAEL-KEMNY

    2005-01-01

    A survey of two-year studies (2001-2003) was carried out in two olive groves sited at two representative olive growing areas, namely Paradise Park (arid area) and Burg E1-Arab farm (semi-arid area) to monitor the frequency of endemic Trichogramma species on olive moth (Prays oleae) and jasmine moth (Palpita unionalis). The suspended host bait traps were found to be a more practical and effective tool for collecting Trichogramma wasps than the attached ones. Four naturally occurring Trichogramma species were collected for the first time in Egypt from the olive groves, where releases have never been conducted. T.bourarachae was collected exclusively from Burg El-Arab farm. It seems that this wasp species adapts well to the semi-arid area. Three species, namely T. cordubensis, T. nr.pretiosum and T. cacociae were isolated from Paradise Park farm. All of these wasps were also bred from naturally parasitized host eggs during favorable and even at unfavorable temperature conditions of June-August. However, these endemic species did not occur naturally in sufficient numbers to keep the pest populations from reaching damaging levels.The excessive usage of insecticides and the oophagous predators (e.g., ants and lacewing larvae) are some factors that affect the performance of Trichogramma wasps in olive farms.The presence of warm weather wasp strains suggests the existence of well-adapted wasp species or swains which may be appropriate candidates for the control of target pests in olive groves. Additional study is required to determine the best “habitat-specific” species/strains of Trichogramma for augmentative release of naturally occurring wasps and to incorporate them into integrated pest management programs. Efforts should be made to conserve these endemic species from oophagous predators, hot weather and insecticides.The olive and jasmine moth-larvae and pupae found under tree canopies were bred and emerged parasitoids were listed.

  19. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  20. A case report of osteosarcoma occurred in the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor of bone, The mean age of occurrence of osteosarcoma in the jaws is around 30, somewhat older than for other sites in the body. These lesions occur about equally in the maxilla and mandible. They most frequently develop in the body in the mandible, and the antrum and the posterior portion of alveolar ridge in the maxilla. We report a case of osteosarcoma in 35 years old female complaining swelling of the left cheek. Radiographic features showed cotton wool appearance in upper left posterior area. Histopathologic findings exhibited pleomorphic malignant osteoblasts and neoplastic osteoid.

  1. Transient flows occurring during the accelerated crucible rotation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transient flows occurring after a change in the angular velocity of the cylindrical container are described. The dependence of the transient (known as spin-up or spin-down time) on experimental parameters as kinematic viscosity, cylinder dimensions and the cylinder's initial and final angular velocities are elucidates by a review of the literature. It is emphasized that with large Rossby numbers the spin-up time is longer and the amount of fluid mixing is greater than small and moderate Rossby numbers. It is also elucidated that most crystal growth crucibles cannot be considered as infinitely-long cylinders for the evaluation of the fluid dynamics (authors)

  2. Photoprotective substance occurs primarily in outer layers of fish skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.

  3. Spreading depolarizations occur in human ischemic stroke with high incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohmen, C.; Sakowitz, O.W.; Fabricius, M.;

    2008-01-01

    potential change spreading between adjacent channels was accompanied by transient depression of ECoG activity. In PID, a slow potential change spread between neighboring channels despite already established suppression of ECoG activity. Most CSDs and PIDs appeared repetitively in clusters. CSD or PID was......Objective: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and periinfarct depolarization (PID) have been shown in various experimental models of stroke to cause secondary neuronal damage and infarct expansion. For decades it has been questioned whether CSD or PID occur in human ischemic stroke. Here, we...

  4. A Rare Occurance with Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cimen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a congenital and herediter vesiculobullous disease. Dystrophic form of this disease is characterized by severe malnutrition, failure to thrive, adhesions at fingers, joint contractures related with the formation of scar tissues, carcinoma of the skin, anemia, hipoalbuminemia, wound enfections and sepsis. Rarely, mortal dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in patients. In this report we present a 13 year-old pediatric patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, clinically diagnosed with Epidermolysis bullosa as well as a review of recent related literature.

  5. Altered behavioral and neural responsiveness to counterfactual gains in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Michael J; Guo, Rong; Gläscher, Jan; Schwarze, Ulrike; Brassen, Stefanie; Büchel, Christian; Obermayer, Klaus; Sommer, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Counterfactual information processing refers to the consideration of events that did not occur in comparison to those actually experienced, in order to determine optimal actions, and can be formulated as computational learning signals, referred to as fictive prediction errors. Decision making and the neural circuitry for counterfactual processing are altered in healthy elderly adults. This experiment investigated age differences in neural systems for decision making with knowledge of counterfactual outcomes. Two groups of healthy adult participants, young (N = 30; ages 19-30 years) and elderly (N = 19; ages 65-80 years), were scanned with fMRI during 240 trials of a strategic sequential investment task in which a particular strategy of differentially weighting counterfactual gains and losses during valuation is associated with more optimal performance. Elderly participants earned significantly less than young adults, differently weighted counterfactual consequences and exploited task knowledge, and exhibited altered activity in a fronto-striatal circuit while making choices, compared to young adults. The degree to which task knowledge was exploited was positively correlated with modulation of neural activity by expected value in the vmPFC for young adults, but not in the elderly. These findings demonstrate that elderly participants' poor task performance may be related to different counterfactual processing. PMID:26864879

  6. Neural plasticity occurs in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun-tao; LI Xiao-zhao; HU Cheng-ping; WANG Jun; NIE Hua-ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Airway symptoms in asthma are related to decrease of epinephrine secretion, which may be ascribed to elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) in the organism.The aim of this study was to monitor the neuroendocrine alteration in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats.Methods Sixteen rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=8), control group and asthma group, and the asthmatic rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA).The levels of NGF, epinephrine and norepinephrine in serum were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NGF expression in adrenal medulla was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the changes in the ultrastructure of the adrenal medulla was observed by electron microscopy.Results The NGF expression was increased in asthmatic rats compared with control rats.Compared with control rats,the results indicated that the epinephrine level was decreased in asthmatic rats, but no significant difference was found in norepinephrine levels.We found more ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats than in control rats, with NGF immunostaining mainly located in these ganglion cells.Electron microscopic images showed the density of chromaffin granula decreased and there was shrunken nucleolemma in the adrenal medullary cells of asthmatic rats.Conclusion The innervation of the adrenal medulla is changed in asthmatic rats, and it may contribute to the epinephrine decrease in asthma.

  7. Food Processing and Allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.; Vissers, Y.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Fleys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wichers, H.J.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed.

    In this review the impact of processing (heat and non

  8. Naturally-occurring expressive suppression in daily life depletes executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchow, Emilie I; Suchy, Yana

    2015-02-01

    The depleting impact of experimentally manipulated expressive suppression (ES) on cognition (especially executive functioning and related processes) has been well established (Baumeister, 2002a). However, the impact of ES that occurs naturally in the course of daily life has not been examined. Sixty two adults (M = 22.89 years old) completed questions about recent ES burden (over the past 2 weeks and on the test day) and completed cognitive measures assessing executive functioning, working memory, and speed of information processing. Individuals with higher-than-usual burden of ES on the test day exhibited poorer executive performance and those with high ES over the past 2 weeks exhibited poorer processing speed above and beyond depression, suggesting that ES burden as it occurs in the course of daily life is associated with compromised cognitive performance. PMID:25111882

  9. Distinguishing solid bitumens formed by thermochemical sulfate reduction and thermal chemical alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Walters, C.C.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Afeworki, M.; Sansone, M.; Freund, H.; Pottorf, R.J.; Machel, H.G.; Zhang, T.; Ellis, G.S.; Tang, Y.; Peters, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Insoluble solid bitumens are organic residues that can form by the thermal chemical alteration (TCA) or thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) of migrated petroleum. TCA may actually encompass several low temperature processes, such as biodegradation and asphaltene precipitation, followed by thermal alteration. TSR is an abiotic redox reaction where petroleum is oxidized by sulfate. It is difficult to distinguish solid bitumens associated with TCA of petroleum from those associated with TSR when both processes occur at relatively high temperature. The focus of the present work was to characterize solid bitumen samples associated with TCA or TSR using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS is a surface analysis conducted on either isolated or in situ (>25 ??m diameter) solid bitumen that can provide the relative abundance and chemical speciation of carbon, organic and inorganic heteroatoms (NSO). In this study, naturally occurring solid bitumens from three locations, Nisku Fm. Brazeau River area (TSR-related), LaBarge Field Madison Fm. (TSR-related), and the Alaskan Brooks range (TCA-related), are compared to organic solids generated during laboratory simulation of the TSR and TCA processes. The abundance and chemical nature of organic nitrogen and sulfur in solid bitumens can be understood in terms of the nature of (1) petroleum precursor molecules, (2) the concentration of nitrogen by way of thermal stress and (3) the mode of sulfur incorporation. TCA solid bitumens originate from polar materials that are initially rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Aromaticity and nitrogen increase as thermal stress cleaves aliphatic moieties and condensation reactions take place. Organic sulfur in TCA organic solids remains fairly constant with increasing maturation (3.5 to ???17 sulfur per 100 carbons) into aromatic structures and to the low levels of nitrogen in their hydrocarbon precursors. Hence, XPS results provide organic chemical composition information that helps to

  10. Retinal Remodeling And Metabolic Alterations in Human AMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan William Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a progressive retinal degeneration resulting in central visual field loss, ultimately causing debilitating blindness. AMD affects 18% of Americans from 65 to 74, 30% older than 74 years of age and is the leading cause of severe vision loss and blindness in Western populations. While many genetic and environmental risk factors are known for AMD, we currently know less about the mechanisms mediating disease progression.The pathways and mechanisms through which genetic and non-genetic risk factors modulate development of AMD pathogenesis remain largely unexplored. Moreover, current treatment for AMD is palliative and limited to wet/exudative forms. Retina is a complex, heterocellular tissue and most retinal cell classes are impacted or altered in AMD. Defining disease and stage-specific cytoarchitectural and metabolic responses in AMD is critical for highlighting targets for intervention. The goal of this paper is to illustrate cell types impacted in AMD and demonstrate the implications of those changes, likely beginning in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, for remodeling of the the neural retina.Tracking heterocellular responses in disease progression is best achieved with computational molecular phenotyping (CMP, a tool that enables acquisition of a small molecule fingerprint for every cell in the retina. CMP uncovered critical cellular and molecular pathologies (remodeling and reprogramming in progressive retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP. We now applied these approaches to normal human and AMD tissues mapping progression of cellular and molecular changes in AMD retinas, including late-stage forms of the disease.Major findings: 1 Evidence of metabolic instability in RPE in dry-AMD.2 Photoreceptors show clear indications of stress prior to cell death.3 Cone opsin processing by the RPE in AMD retinas may be differentially compromised vs. rod opsin.4 Müller cells in AMD exhibit

  11. Age-related alterations in immunoreactivity of the midsized neurofilament subunit in the brainstem reticular formation of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J H; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1997-09-19

    In the present study, we compared the immunoreactivity of the midsized subunit of neurofilaments (NF-M) in the brainstem reticular formation of adult and old cats. There was a dramatic decrease in immunoreactivity in most reticular nuclei in the old cats. The most obvious reduction in these regions occurred in dendritic arborizations. In contrast, a small number of nuclei showed a slight increase in immunoreactivity in the aged animals. The age-related changes in immunoreactivity indicate that there is an alteration of NF-M content in reticular neurons and their processes in old age. Such changes in NF-M content may be the basis for the alterations in the morphology of reticular neurons in aged animals. PMID:9374292

  12. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis.

  13. Art as Alterity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  14. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  15. Early diagnosis of osteomyelitis occurred in the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis provide good prognosis and prevent severe complications. Therefore, it is important to early diagnose and treat before the bony changes are observed in conventional radiograms. Authors experienced three cases of early osteomyelitis, and scintigrams were useful to differentiate them from other diseases. The purpose of this report was to aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis occurred in the jaws. The characteristic features were as follows: 1. In clinical examination, the patients complained mild pain and localized swelling in the jaws. 2. In radiographic findings, the conventional radiograms showed relatively mild bony change in the jaws. 3. The more severe periosteal reactions were observed in radiograms in children than in adult patient. 4. It showed marked increased uptake of radioisotopes in all scintigrams. 5. The three phase bone scanning were helpful to differentiate osteomyelitis from soft tissue diseases.

  16. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  17. Designing a nanotube using naturally occurring protein building blocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Jung Tsai

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Here our goal is to carry out nanotube design using naturally occurring protein building blocks. Inspection of the protein structural database reveals the richness of the conformations of proteins, their parts, and their chemistry. Given target functional protein nanotube geometry, our strategy involves scanning a library of candidate building blocks, combinatorially assembling them into the shape and testing its stability. Since self-assembly takes place on time scales not affordable for computations, here we propose a strategy for the very first step in protein nanotube design: we map the candidate building blocks onto a planar sheet and wrap the sheet around a cylinder with the target dimensions. We provide examples of three nanotubes, two peptide and one protein, in atomistic model detail for which there are experimental data. The nanotube models can be used to verify a nanostructure observed by low-resolution experiments, and to study the mechanism of tube formation.

  18. Characterisation of natural occurring radioactive materials in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (U,Th and K) are known to be present in significant amounts in soil, building materials and recycled industrial waste products. These findings are of our concern since we are continuously being exposed to radiations from such radionuclides, be it at home or workplace. In the study, we have chosen several commonly used building materials such as; cement brick, roof asbestos, red-clay brick, ceiling asbestos and also cement produce which form a vital component in the construction industry. The gamma gross counting method was used to analyse gamma rays at energies 609 keV, 583 keV and 1460 keV using hyperpure germanium counter with 20% efficiency. The radium equivalent activity, Raeq were computed and our findings have shown that some of the samples exhibit a high level of radium equivalent activity, exceeding those of the normal limit recommended by UNSCEAR. (Author)

  19. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.

  20. Structural changes occurring during atresia in sheep ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M R; Cran, D G; Moor, R M

    1976-07-01

    The structural changes that characterize primary, secondary and tertiary atresia in sheep Graafian follicles have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and ultrastructural techniques. In primary atresia vacuoles representing swollen endoplasmic reticulum are prominent along the antral border together with disorganized granulosa cells containing pyknotic nuclei. Phagocytic cells, which increase in number as atresia progresses, were seen within the membrana granulosa and are considered to be transformed granulosa cells. Even in follicles classified as nonatretic, a few antral vacuoles and occasional pyknotic nuclei are present. During secondary atresia there is a large increase in the number of cells with pyknotic nuclei; many of these nuclei had been extruded and had fused to form the characteristic Feulgen-positive atretic bodies found along the edge of the antral cavity. These bodies usually have a diameter of up to 15 mum but occasionally reached as much as 400 mum. A second area of degeneration is frequently present in the membrana granulosa, two or three cell layers from the basal lamina, and it is at this level that exfoliation of granulosa cells occurs in tertiary atresia. In contrast to the membrana granulosa, there are during secondary atresia, only slight indications of degeneration in the cumulus. In tertiary atresia the membrana granulosa is highly disorganized; the atretic bodies are often fewer in number than at earlier stages. The basal lamina remains essentially intact. It is at this stage that the first clear signs of degeneration occur in the theca interna. Despite some disintegration of the cumulus, the integrity of the oocyte is maintained and its nucleus remains vesicular. Changes in the thecal microcirculation may plan a key role in atresia: adjacent to the basal lamina of non-atretic follicles, there is a well-developed capillary network which is significantly reduced as atresia progresses. PMID:991198

  1. Epigenetic Alterations in Colorectal Cancer: Emerging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Grady, William M; Goel, Ajay

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the fundamental processes driving the initiation and progression of CRC is the accumulation of a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes in colonic epithelial cells. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of cancer epigenetics, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation, microRNA (miRNA) and noncoding RNA deregulation, and alterations in histone modification states. Assessment of the colon cancer "epigenome" has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and altered miRNA expression. The average CRC methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes and dozens of altered miRNAs. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these epigenetic alterations, called driver events, are presumed to have a functional role in CRC. In addition, the advances in our understanding of epigenetic alterations in CRC have led to these alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in this field suggests that these epigenetic alterations will be commonly used in the near future to direct the prevention and treatment of CRC.

  2. Questa Baseline and Pre-mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation, 7. A Pictorial Record of Chemical Weathering, Erosional Processes, and Potential Debris-flow Hazards in Scar Areas Developed on Hydrothermally Altered Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ludington, Steve; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Livo, K. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Erosional scar areas developed along the lower Red River basin, New Mexico, reveal a complex natural history of mineralizing processes, rapid chemical weathering, and intense physical erosion during periodic outbursts of destructive, storm-induced runoff events. The scar areas are prominent erosional features with craggy headwalls and steep, denuded slopes. The largest scar areas, including, from east to west, Hottentot Creek, Straight Creek, Hansen Creek, Lower Hansen Creek, Sulfur Gulch, and Goat Hill Gulch, head along high east-west trending ridges that form the northern and southern boundaries of the lower Red River basin. Smaller, topographically lower scar areas are developed on ridge noses in the inner Red River valley. Several of the natural scar areas have been modified substantially as a result of large-scale open-pit and underground mining at the Questa Mine; for example, much of the Sulfur Gulch scar was removed by open pit mining, and several scars are now partially or completely covered by mine waste dumps.

  3. Historical decline and altered congener patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish and sediment in response to process changes at a pulp mill discharging into Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmer, Shari C; Tetreault, Gerald R; Hall, Roland I; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Improved regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents and an industry shift away from elemental chlorine bleaching in the 1990s greatly reduced the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into the environment. However, the high potential of these contaminants to persist in sediment and bioaccumulate in biota means that they have remained a concern. To document current contamination from bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, PCDD/Fs were measured in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. These values were contrasted to historically reported fish data as well as PCDD/F patterns from dated sediment cores. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores from Jackfish Bay and reference sites demonstrated a relationship between contamination and mill process changes. During the peak PCDD/F contamination period (1991), when the mill was still using elemental chlorine, the contamination patterns in fish and sediment were distinct and dominated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Following the reduction in the use of elemental chlorine during the early 1990s, a rapid decline was observed in PCDD/F contamination of fish tissue, and levels are now approaching background conditions with congener patterns more reflective of atmospheric sources. Although surface sediments from Jackfish Bay continue to have elevated PCDD/Fs, with some locations exceeding sediment quality guidelines, they do not appear to be highly bioavailable to benthic fish. PMID:26468966

  4. Biological Alteration of Basaltic Glass With Altered Composition and Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, B. E.; Staudigel, H.; Templeton, A.; Tebo, B. M.; Ryerson, F.; Plank, T.; Schroder, C.; Klingelhoefer, G.

    2004-12-01

    The ocean crust is an extreme and oligotrophic environment and yet recent studies have shown that reactions between oceanic crust and seawater are capable of supporting microbial life. We are specifically targeting volcanic glass as a source of energy and nutrients necessary to support endolithic microbial communities. A significant amount of chemical energy is available from the process of iron oxidation and our goal is to determine the ability of microorganisms to use Fe(II) as an energy source as well as liberate other essential nutrients from the host rock. In addition, microbes may oxidize Mn or use phosphate from glass. To explore the dependency of microbial life on these nutrients and energy sources, we produce basaltic glasses with varying Fe oxidation states and relative abundance of iron, manganese and phosphate and introduce them to microbial isolates and consortia both in the laboratory and in deep-ocean environments. The natural exposure experiments occur in a variety of settings including hydrothermal vents and cold deep seawater (Loihi Seamount), brines (Mediterranean), and basaltic flows at spreading ridges (EPR), when possible on submarine lava flows of recent and known age. Upon collection of the exposure experiments, we compare basalt colonizing microbial communities on our synthetic glasses with the in situ glass communities through a large culturing effort and molecular (t-RFLP) studies. So far we have produced a number of enrichment cultures and isolated several iron-oxidizing and manganese-oxidizing bacteria that were used to inoculate glasses in the laboratory. Laboratory experiments concentrate on biofilm formation and dissolution of the colonized glasses. Continued collection of exposure experiments on a yearly time-scale provides valuable information regarding spatial and temporal variations in microbial community diversity and structure. We have also analyzed the authigenic reaction products of seafloor, microbially mediated alteration

  5. A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-Based Exposure Therapy in OEF/OIF Combat Veterans with PTSD: Altered Medial Frontal Cortex and Amygdala Responses in Social–Emotional Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony P.; Block, Stefanie R.; Sripada, Rebecca K.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Porter, Katherine E.; Favorite, Todd K.; Giardino, Nicholas; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here, we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused) using a novel group therapy [mindfulness-based exposure therapy (MBET)] in Afghanistan (OEF) or Iraq (OIF) combat veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD (N = 23) were treated with MBET (N = 14) or a comparison group therapy [Present-centered group therapy (PCGT), N = 9]. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre- and post-therapy with Clinician Administered PTSD scale. Functional neuroimaging (3-T fMRI) before and after therapy examined responses to emotional faces (angry, fearful, and neutral faces). Patients treated with MBET had reduced PTSD symptoms (effect size d = 0.92) but effect was not significantly different from PCGT (d = 0.43). Improvement in PTSD symptoms from pre- to post-treatment in both treatment groups was correlated with increased activity in rostral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and left amygdala. The MBET group showed greater increases in amygdala and fusiform gyrus responses to Angry faces, as well as increased response in left mPFC to Fearful faces. These preliminary findings provide intriguing evidence that MBET group therapy for PTSD may lead to changes in neural processing of social–emotional threat related to symptom reduction. PMID:27703434

  6. Lipid Raft Alterations in Aged-Associated Neuropathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Raquel; Fabelo, Noemí; Fernández-Echevarría, Cecilia; Canerina-Amaro, Ana; Rodríguez-Barreto, Deiene; Quinto-Alemany, David; Mesa-Herrera, Fátima; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains particularly enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and saturated fatty acids. These microstructures play a key role in a plethora of mechanisms involved in cell signaling, synapsis, cell-cell communication and cell survival. In the last years, increasing evidence indicate that lipid rafts may be altered in age-related neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson disease even at asymptomatic stages. In particular, important changes in raft lipid composition are observed with the progression of these diseases, then inducing alterations in their physicochemical properties. Furthermore, these phenomena contribute to neuropathological events related to amyloidogenesis, aberrant protein aggregation and toxic cell signalling. In this review, we discuss some relevant data on the age-related molecular changes occurring in lipid rafts since the first stages of these neurodegenerative diseases. Further characterization of specific parameters associated with alterations of these microdomains may provide potential tools of diagnosis and prediction of these neuropathologies.

  7. Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Oghbaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are important part of dietaries and contribute substantially to nutrient intake of human beings. They are significant source of energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Primary processing of cereals and legumes is an essential component of their preparation before use. For some grains, dehusking is an essential step, whereas for others, it could be milling the grain into flour. Grains are subjected to certain processing treatments to impart special characteristics and improve organoleptic properties such as expanded cereals. All these treatments result in alteration of their nutritional quality which could either be reduction in nutrients, phytochemicals and antinutrients or an improvement in digestibility or availability of nutrients. It is important to understand these changes occurring in grain nutritional quality on account of pre-processing treatments to select appropriate techniques to obtain maximum nutritional and health benefits. This review attempts to throw light on nutritional alterations occurring in grains due to pre-processing treatments.

  8. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  9. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  10. Bladder uptake of liposomes after intravesical administration occurs by endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Raja Rajaganapathy

    Full Text Available Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery.

  11. Naturally-occurring anti-Jka in infant twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, D H; Nance, S J; Rubino, M; Sandler, S G

    1999-01-01

    Anti-Jka was detected by solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) antibody detection and identification tests in the plasma of a 9-month-old female infant during a routine presurgical evaluation. The patient and her nonidentical twin sister, who also had anti-Jka in her plasma, were products of an uncomplicated in vitro fertilization, full-term pregnancy, and vaginal delivery. Neither twin had been transfused, recently infected, or treated with medication. Their mother had no prior pregnancies or transfusions. Red blood cells (RBCs) from the patient and her sister typed as Jk(a-b+) by direct hemagglutination, and this phenotype was confirmed by negative adsorption and elution studies. Both infants' plasma samples were strongly reactive with 20 examples of Jk(a+) RBCs and nonreactive with 20 examples of Jk(a-) RBCs by SPRCA assays. Anti-Jka was not detected in either twins' plasma by indirect antiglobulin tests by tube method in low-ionic- strength saline solution or polyethylene glycol, or with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs. Monocyte monolayer assays using Jk(a+) RBCs sensitized by either twins' serum were nonreactive (0%). RBCs from both parents typed as Jk(a+b+). Both parents' antibody detection test results by SPRCA assay were negative. The absence of a history of exposure to allogeneic RBCs or possible passive transfer of maternal or other alloantibody classifies these antibodies as naturally-occurring anti-Jka.

  12. Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials: 1987 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From time to time, the issue as to whether the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials (NARM) is raised. Because NARM exists in the environment, in homes, in workplaces, in medical institutions, and in consumer products, the issue of Federal controls over NARM is very old and very complex. This report presents a review of NARM sources and uses as well as incidents and problems associated with those materials. A review of previous congressional and Federal agency actions on radiation protection matters, in general, and on NARM, in particular, is provided to develop an understanding of existing Federal regulatory activity in ionizing radiation and in control of NARM. In addition, State controls over NARM are reviewed. Eight questions are examined in terms of whether the NRC should seek legislative authority to regulate NARM. The assessment of these questions serves as the basis for developing and evaluating five options. The evaluation of those options leads to two recommendations

  13. GROWTH OF NATURALLY OCCURING Listeria innocua IN COPPA DI TESTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Merialdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Coppa di testa is a traditional cooked pork salami produced in different Italian regions. The main raw material is deboned meat of pork head with the addition of tongue and rind. After a long (3-5 h high temperature (97°C cooking, additives and flavourings are added and the salami is prepared. After cooling the salami is often portioned and vacuum- packaged. In this study the growth of naturally occurring contamination of Listeria innocua in three batches of vacuum packaged Coppa di testa, stored at 4°C for 80 days, is described. The average max was 0.24 (days-1 and the average doubling time was 2.87 days. The maximum growth level ranged from 4.90 to 8.17 (log10 cfu/g. These results indicate that Coppa di testa definitely supports the growth of Listeria innocua in the considered storage conditions. Taking into account that at 4°C Listeria monocytogenes strains are associated with higher grow rates than L. innocua, these results emphasize the importance of preventing Listeria monocytogenes contamination in the production stages following cooking.

  14. Mathematical modelling of the landslide occurred at Gagliano Castelferrato (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maugeri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow slopes in clayey colluvial covers are often involved in progressive downhill motion with discontinuous rate of movements, depending on fluctuations in pore-water pressure. In geotechnical engineering research on natural slopes, the main efforts have been concentrated on stability analysis, always with a rigid perfectly plastic body assumption. In case of slow slope movements, however, the notion of stability losses its sense, so the main question is not to evaluate a stability factor, but to model a velocity field and to define the kinematic and dynamic features of the movement (mobility analysis. Many authors, in their researches, deal with slow slope movements and for the complexity of the problem and the great number of parameters involved they agree about applying numerical techniques (FEM, FDM and advanced material modelling (elastoviscoplasticity and suggest to calibrate the involved parameters values with the help of ''back analyses'' of existing case histories. In this paper a mathematical model predicting the landslide body viscous deformations, is presented. The model has been implemented in a computer FDM code, and has been tested on some well known case histories. Here it is applied to the case of a landslide occurred at Gagliano Castelferrato (Sicily – Italy, where a great number of field measurements was available.

  15. Spontaneously occurring lymphohematopoietic tumors in three young Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-05-01

    To assess the toxicological and pharmacological effects of chemicals, it is important to know what kinds of neoplasms naturally occur in the early life of laboratory animals. In the present study, we identified three spontaneous hematopoietic tumors in three of 52 young female Sprague-Dawley rats used in a pharmacological study. These cases included two rats (Case 1 and 2) from a sesame oil-treated group and one rat (Case 3) from a chemical-treated group in the same single gavage study. Case 1 rapidly lost body weight at 13 weeks of age without any clinical signs and died. Round lymphoid tumor cells were found in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, and pancreas. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for CD3 and PCNA, which is suggestive of malignant T-cell lymphoma. Cases 2 and 3 had rapid body weight loss at 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively, exhibited severe anemia, hypolocomotion, and decreased body temperature, and were euthanized due to a poor prognosis based on severe clinical signs. Pleomorphic large tumor cells were found in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes, heart, kidneys, lung, pancreas, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, ovaries, Harderian gland, and/or eyes. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for CD34, lysozyme, and PCNA, which is suggestive of myeloid leukemia. These cases might provide useful historical control information for rat toxicity studies. PMID:26830545

  16. Mass transfer trends occurring in engineered ex vivo tissue scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marc; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; McFetridge, Peter

    2012-08-01

    In vivo the vasculature provides an effective delivery system for cellular nutrients; however, artificial scaffolds have no such mechanism, and the ensuing limitations in mass transfer result in limited regeneration. In these investigations, the regional mass transfer properties that occur through a model scaffold derived from the human umbilical vein (HUV) were assessed. Our aim was to define the heterogeneous behavior associated with these regional variations, and to establish if different decellularization technologies can modulate transport conditions to improve microenvironmental conditions that enhance cell integration. The effect of three decellularization methods [Triton X-100 (TX100), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and acetone/ethanol (ACE/EtOH)] on mass transfer, cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolic activity were assessed. Results show that regional variation in tissue structure and composition significantly affects both mass transfer and cell function. ACE/EtOH decellularization was shown to increase albumin mass flux through the intima and proximate-medial region (0-250 μm) when compared with sections decellularized with TX100 or SDS; although, mass flux remained constant over all regions of the full tissue thickness when using TX100. Scaffolds decellularized with TX100 were shown to promote cell migration up to 146% further relative to SDS decellularized samples. These results show that depending on scaffold derivation and expectations for cellular integration, specificities of the decellularization chemistry affect the scaffold molecular architecture resulting in variable effects on mass transfer and cellular response.

  17. Ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia occurs in serotonin-depleted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E B

    1987-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that serotonin mediated respiratory activity is involved in ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia, rats were treated with parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a potent, long-acting inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. In normoxia, a single, intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg PCPA/kg body weight decreased the Paco2 from a control level at 39.1 +/- 0.6 Torr (mean +/- 95% confidence limits) to 34.0 +/- 0.6 Torr measured during a period from 1 to 48 h following PCPA treatment. This PCPA-produced hyperventilation corresponds to an increase of 3.7 +/- 0.5 in the VA (BTPS)/Vco2 (STPD) ratio. Hyperventilation during ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia (PIO2 approximately equal to 90 Torr) was superimposed in an additive fashion on the underlying hyperventilation due to PCPA pretreatment. Specifically, PCPA pretreatment caused an average 3.5 +/- 1.2 increase in the VA/VCO2 ratio determined in acute (1 h) hypoxia, chronic (24 h) hypoxia and acute return to normoxia following chronic hypoxia. Since ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia occurred in rats treated with PCPA, the prolonged, serotonin mediated respiratory activity described by Millhorn et al. (1980b) is probably not important in ventilatory acclimatization to - or deacclimatization from - hypoxia. PMID:2957766

  18. Kinetochore assembly and heterochromatin formation occur autonomously in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William R A; Thomas, Geraint; Lee, Nicholas C O; Blythe, Martin; Liti, Gianni; Warringer, Jonas; Loose, Matthew W

    2014-02-01

    Kinetochores in multicellular eukaryotes are usually associated with heterochromatin. Whether this heterochromatin simply promotes the cohesion necessary for accurate chromosome segregation at cell division or whether it also has a role in kinetochore assembly is unclear. Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an important experimental system for investigating centromere function, but all of the previous work with this species has exploited a single strain or its derivatives. The laboratory strain and most other S. pombe strains contain three chromosomes, but one recently discovered strain, CBS 2777, contains four. We show that the genome of CBS 2777 is related to that of the laboratory strain by a complex chromosome rearrangement. As a result, two of the kinetochores in CBS 2777 contain the central core sequences present in the laboratory strain centromeres, but lack adjacent heterochromatin. The closest block of heterochromatin to these rearranged kinetochores is ∼100 kb away at new telomeres. Despite lacking large amounts of adjacent heterochromatin, the rearranged kinetochores bind CENP-A(Cnp1) and CENP-C(Cnp3) in similar quantities and with similar specificities as those of the laboratory strain. The simplest interpretation of this result is that constitutive kinetochore assembly and heterochromatin formation occur autonomously. PMID:24449889

  19. Characteristics of Cherenkov Radiation in Naturally Occuring Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkelsen, R E; Uggerhøj, U I; Klein, S R

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope - IceCube. Being located at the Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occuring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in ap...

  20. Coaggregation occurs between microorganisms isolated from different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R E; Luo, Ting L; Vornhagen, Jay; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Gilsdorf, Janet R; Marrs, Carl F; Møretrø, Trond; Rickard, Alexander H

    2015-11-01

    Coaggregation, the specific recognition and adherence of different microbial species, is thought to enhance biofilm formation. To date, no studies have focused on the ability of microorganisms isolated from a broad range of environments to coaggregate with each other and it is unclear whether coaggregation promotes the transmission of microorganisms between environmental niches. We aimed to evaluate the coaggregation ability of 29 bacteria and one fungus, isolated from a range of different environments, and to characterize the cell-surface polymers that mediate coaggregation between selected pairs. Strains were categorized as belonging to one of the four microbial archetypes: aquatic, broad environment, human opportunistic pathogen or human oral. A total of 23 of the 30 strains (77%) coaggregated with at least one other and 21/30 (70%) coaggregated with strains belonging to other archetypes. Nasopharyngeal bacteria belonging to the human opportunistic pathogen archetype showed the least number of coaggregations, and five Haemophilus influenzae strains did not coaggregate. Protease and sugar treatments indicated that coaggregation between strains of different archetypes was often mediated by lectin-saccharide interactions (9 of 15 evaluated pairs). In conclusion, coaggregation can occur between taxonomically disparate species isolated from discrete environments. We propose that these organisms be labeled as 'cross-environment coaggregating organisms'. The ability to coaggregate may aid species to colonize non-indigenous biofilms. PMID:26475462

  1. Characterisation of pleural inflammation occurring after primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, A; Vanderlinden, E; Demanet, C; De Waele, M; Goossens, A; Noppen, M

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the inflammatory reaction occurring in the pleural space of patients suffering from primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) using pleural lavage, which was performed in patients with PSP and in healthy control subjects (essential hyperhidrosis patients undergoing thoracoscopy for sympathicolysis treatment). Cellular and solute composition of lavage fluid, peripheral blood and parietal pleural biopsies were analysed. PSP lavage fluid showed an increase in all differentiated leucocytes, but most strikingly eosinophils and neutrophils. In the blood of patients with PSP, the total number of leucocytes and the absolute number of eosinophils, neutrophils and monocytes were also significantly increased. The time in which air was present in the pleural space was positively correlated with the increase of eosinophils in lavage fluid, parietal pleura and blood. Eosinophilic cationic protein was elevated after PSP and strongly correlated with the absolute number of lavage eosinophils. Chemo and cytokine analysis in lavage fluid showed differences in concentrations of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and RANTES, but not of eotaxin. Surprisingly, high levels of lipopolysaccharide binding protein were also measured. Primary spontaneous pnumothorax is associated with a substantial pleural inflammatory reaction. The authors hypothesise that mechanical stretch factors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein/lipopolysaccharide complexes or other environmental components trigger pleural inflammation after primary spontaneous pnumothorax. PMID:15219004

  2. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods. PMID:27404718

  3. Antimicrobial evaluation of selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Mara; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the antimicrobial activity of eight selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Results showed a moderate antimicrobial activity. The most active compounds were 3-(4-geranyloxyphenyl)-1-ethanol (4) and 3-(4-isopentenyloxyphenyl)-1-propanol (5) that were tested on mature and in-formation biofilms of all micro-organisms, moreover the cytotoxic activity was evaluated. Except for S. epidermidis, both compounds reduced significantly (p biofilm formation at 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC, in particular, compounds 4 and 5 at each concentration, inhibited E. coli biofilm formation to a greater extent, the biofilm formation was never more than 44% in respect to the control, moreover both compounds showed a low cytotoxic effect. Oxyprenylated derivatives may be of great interest for the development of novel antimicrobial therapeutic strategies and the synthesis of semi-synthetic analogues with anti-biofilm efficacy. PMID:27498831

  4. Hypokalaemia: common things occur commonly – a retrospective survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alasdair; Jones, Gareth; Isles, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To define the causes of hypokalaemia in an unselected adult population. Design Retrospective survey of biochemistry database. Setting District general hospital in southwest Scotland. Participants and main outcome measures There were 187,704 measurements of urea and electrolytes in 2010. Sixty-one patients had serum potassium feeding syndrome and inadequate potassium supplementation when patients were nil by mouth (37%). In 25% of patients a transient and profound fall in serum potassium appeared to coincide with their acute illness. Acute alcohol intoxication and/or alcohol withdrawal were prominent features in 11% of patients. More than one cause was commonly present. There were no cases of Bartter's, Gitelman's or Liddle's syndromes or of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis in this study. Conclusions Severe hypokalaemia <2.5 mmol/L occurs at least once a week in a district general hospital with a catchment population of around 150,000, suggesting there may be around 300 cases a week in the UK (population around 50,000,000). Diuretics, vomiting and diarrhoea are commonly implicated as are nutritional causes, acute illness and alcohol. Bartter's, Gitelman's, Liddle's syndrome and hypokalaemic period paralysis are all extremely uncommon. PMID:23323198

  5. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  6. Oral alterations among chemical dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vanessa COLODEL

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been daily observed a significant increase ofchemical dependent individuals, as well as the lack of depth on thisissue in the dentistry area. Nevertheless many times the dentalclinicians are the first professionals to diagnose possible alterations,which appear due to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs. Objectives: To make a literature review of oral alterations and to identify them on a specific group of persons, which are addicted to different types of drugs. Material and methods: The clinical history of the selected individuals was added to the answers of a questionnaire,comprising the data of the present research. Results: Besides other minor soft tissue alterations, a high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases were found in the studied population. Conclusion: It was concluded that the role of the dental clinician is very important to the health rehabilitation of drug addicts, individuals with physical and mental disorders that need specific oral care, which sometimes is neglected.

  7. Whistleblowing Need not Occur if Internal Voices Are Heard: From Deaf Effect to Hearer Courage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Sonja R.; Doyle, Kerrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Whistleblowing by health professionals is an infrequent and extraordinary event and need not occur if internal voices are heard. Mannion and Davies’ editorial on "Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations" asks the question whether whistleblowing ameliorates or exacerbates the ‘deaf effect’ prevalent in healthcare organisations. This commentary argues that the focus should remain on internal processes and hearer courage . PMID:26673652

  8. Spontaneous occurence of localized pulmonary interstitial and endolymphatic emphysema in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two infants are described with persistent pulmonary interstitial and endolymphatic emphysema of the localized, bullous type, occurring apparently spontaneously. Roentgenographically, the process simulated congenital lobar emphysema in the first patient and bilateral post-infectious pneumatoceles in the second. The histologic features of the lesion were identical to those seen in localized pulmonart interstitial emphysema caused by positive pressure ventilation in newborns with hyaline membrane disease. (orig.)

  9. Germline CDKN2A/ARF alterations in human melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Jamileh

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 10% of cases of human cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) have been estimated to occur in individuals with a familial predisposition, frequently in association with dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS). The genetics of familial melanoma is complex and heterogeneous. To date only two melanoma predisposing genes have been identified. The CDKN2A/ARF locus on human chromosome 9p21 encodes two distinct cell cycle regulatory proteins, p16 and p14ARF. Germline alterations i...

  10. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S;

    1993-01-01

    ventricular hypertrophy was maximal within 5 days. In immunohistochemical studies, fibronectin and laminin were increased and the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in both the subendothelial space and smooth muscle cell basement membranes of the aorta above the clip compared...... membrane components in the heart and vasculature peaked before maximal cardiac hypertrophy (5 days). These studies indicate that alterations in basement membrane component deposition in the hypertrophied vasculature occur at both transcriptional and translational levels and suggest that the cell attachment...

  11. The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): A new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, N.L.; Richter, B.D.; Arthington, A.H.; Bunn, S.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Kendy, E.; Acreman, M.; Apse, C.; Bledsoe, B.P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Henriksen, J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Kennen, J.G.; Merritt, D.M.; O'Keeffe, J. H.; Olden, J.D.; Rogers, K.; Tharme, R.E.; Warner, A.

    2010-01-01

    region are classified into a few distinctive flow regime types that are expected to have different ecological characteristics. These river types can be further subclassified according to important geomorphic features that define hydraulic habitat features. Third, the deviation of current-condition flows from baseline-condition flow is determined. Fourth, flow alteration-ecological response relationships are developed for each river type, based on a combination of existing hydroecological literature, expert knowledge and field studies across gradients of hydrologic alteration. 4. Scientific uncertainty will exist in the flow alteration-ecological response relationships, in part because of the confounding of hydrologic alteration with other important environmental determinants of river ecosystem condition (e.g. temperature). Application of the ELOHA framework should therefore occur in a consensus context where stakeholders and decision-makers explicitly evaluate acceptable risk as a balance between the perceived value of the ecological goals, the economic costs involved and the scientific uncertainties in functional relationships between ecological responses and flow alteration. 5. The ELOHA framework also should proceed in an adaptive management context, where collection of monitoring data or targeted field sampling data allows for testing of the proposed flow alteration-ecological response relationships. This empirical validation process allows for a fine-tuning of environmental flow management targets. The ELOHA framework can be used both to guide basic research in hydroecology and to further implementation of more comprehensive environmental flow management of freshwater sustainability on a global scale. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Co-occurring disorders: policy and practice in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Thomas; Mann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) with other mental disorders-what is often referred to as co-occurring disorders (COD)-is a common phenomenon, but for a long time, little attention has been paid to this problem in Germany. During the last 25 years, however, COD awareness has increased due to a shift toward community-based services. Scientific research has also demonstrated the significance and clinical relevance of COD. High prevalence rates and evidence of poor clinical outcomes were found in German studies. Many practitioners as well as policymakers acknowledge that changes in systems of care are necessary to meet the requirements of COD patients. The traditional German system is currently divided into addiction services and mental health services (predominantly in inpatient settings), often resulting in ineffective sequential treatment for COD patients. Research demonstrates that integrative treatment models are more appropriate, and the division of services should be reorganized to help COD patients appropriately. Efforts have already been made to restructure healthcare systems toward a more flexible approach with improved networking between in- and outpatient services. A further issue is the general attitude toward SUD patients. Many practitioners continue to hold negative opinions (eg, "SUD patients are only weak-minded") or feel insecure when confronted with SUD. This results in SUD problems being frequently ignored or depreciated. Educational programs have been intensive over recent years to address this problem (eg, Fachkunde Sucht, an advanced training program on SUD). In general, treatment conditions for COD patients are improving, but further efforts are necessary. Guidelines and treatment strategies for COD patients have been recently published in Germany.

  13. Antituberculosis Activity of a Naturally Occurring Flavonoid, Isorhamnetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Jeon, Dasom; Jeong, Min-Cheol; Lee, Eunjung; Jin, Bongwhan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Yoo, Jungheon; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-04-22

    Isorhamnetin (1) is a naturally occurring flavonoid having anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study demonstrated that 1 had antimycobacterial effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 158 and 316 μM, respectively. Mycobacteria mainly affect the lungs, causing an intense local inflammatory response that is critical to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We investigated the effects of 1 on interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Isorhamnetin suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12. A nontoxic dose of 1 reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Isorhamnetin inhibited IFN-γ-mediated stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and showed high-affinity binding to these kinases (binding constants: 4.46 × 10(6) M(-1) and 7.6 × 10(6) M(-1), respectively). The 4'-hydroxy group and the 3'-methoxy group of the B-ring and the 5-hydroxy group of the A-ring of 1 play key roles in these binding interactions. A mouse in vivo study of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation revealed that a nontoxic dose of 1 reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-γ in lung tissue. These data provide the first evidence that 1 could be developed as a potent antituberculosis drug. PMID:26974691

  14. Numerical analysis of an intense rainstorm occurred in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we conduct a numerical analysis of an intense and destructive storm that occurred over Calabria, southern Italy, on 10–12 December 2003. More than 250 mm of precipitation was recorded over a large area in southern Calabria and one station reported about 660 mm in two days (more than half of the yearly climatological value. Precipitation fell mainly during 11 and 12 December. The storm was characterized by the entrance of an Atlantic upper-level trough associated with a deep surface low that advected humid marine air toward steep Calabrian orography. The steep mountain ridges favoured landslides, which were reported in several villages. Property damage was extensive.

    We study the storm at the mesoscale by means of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS. The model was successful at representing the observed accumulated rainfall patterns. This justifies our use of RAMS for further analysis of the physical and dynamic factors involved in the storm event. In particular, we use RAMS to evaluate the roles of Calabrian orography, surface latent heat flux, and upper level forcing.

    The key role of a potential vorticity (PV streamer, which forced the entire meteorological system from the upper levels is assessed by the PV inversion technique in a Limited Area Model Ensemble Prediction System (LEPS framework.

    Results show that the roles of Calabrian orography and surface latent heat flux are important in our simulations. Indeed, humid marine air masses were advected by the synoptic flow toward Calabrian steep coastal mountain ranges determining intense and abundant rainfall.

  15. Loss of BAP1 Expression Occurs Frequently in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrici, Juliana; Goeppert, Benjamin; Sioson, Loretta; Clarkson, Adele; Renner, Marcus; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Tayao, Michael; Watson, Nicole; Farzin, Mahtab; Toon, Christopher W.; Smith, Ross C.; Mittal, Anubhav; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Hugh, Thomas J.; Chou, Angela; Lawlor, Rita T.; Weichert, Wilko; Schirmacher, Peter; Sperandio, Nicola; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Scarpa, Aldo; Gill, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that functions as a tumor suppressor gene. Double hit BAP1 inactivation has been reported in a range of tumor types, including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), sometimes in association with germline mutation. We performed immunohistochemistry for BAP1 on a well-characterized cohort of 211 ICC patients undergoing surgical resection with curative intent at 3 institutions based in 3 different countries. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range, 36.5–86) and 108 (51%) were men. Negative staining for BAP1 (defined as completely absent nuclear staining in the presence of positive internal controls in nonneoplastic cells) occurred in 55 ICCs (26%). BAP1 loss predicted a strong trend toward improved median survival of 40.80 months (95% CI, 28.14–53.46) versus 24.87 months (95% CI, 18.73–31.01), P = 0.059). In a multivariate model including age, sex, BAP1 status, tumor stage, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and tumor size, female sex was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34–0.85), while advanced tumor stage and lymphovascular invasion (HR 1.89; 95% CI, 1.09–3.28) correlated with decreased survival. In a multivariate analysis, high grade tumors were associated with BAP1 loss (odds ratio [OR] 3.32; 95% CI, 1.29–8.55), while lymphatic invasion was inversely associated with BAP1 loss (OR 0.36; 95% CI, 0.13–0.99). In conclusion, we observed a trend toward improved prognosis in ICC associated with absent expression of BAP1 and an association of BAP1 loss with higher histological grade and absent lymphatic invasion. Female sex was associated with improved survival while advanced tumor stage and lymphatic invasion were associated with decreased survival. PMID:26765459

  16. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2013-03-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets. PMID:23467094

  17. Death in pediatric Cushing syndrome is uncommon but still occurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkourogianni, Alexandra; Lodish, Maya B.; Zilbermint, Mihail; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is rare. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of CS may be associated with increased morbidity and, unfortunately, mortality. We performed a retrospective review of all patients with CS under the age of 18 referred to the NIH from 1998 to 2013 in order to describe deceased patients among cases of pediatric CS referred to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The deaths of 4 children (3 females and 1 male), aged 7.5–15.5 years (mean age 11.2 years) with length of disease 2–4 years were recorded among 160 (2.5%) children seen at, or referred to the NIH over the last 15 years. All died at different institutions, prior to coming to the NIH (two of them) or after leaving NIH (two of them). Presenting symptoms included increasing weight and decreasing height gain, facial plethora, dorsocervical fat pad (webbed neck), striae, headache, vision disturbances and depression and other mood or behavior changes; there were no differences between how these patients presented and the others in our cohort. The causes of CS in the deceased patients were also not different, in fact, they spanned the entire spectrum of CS: pituitary disease (on of them), ectopic corticotropin production (one of them), and primary adrenal hyperplasia (1). In one patient, the cause of CS could not be verified. Three died of sepsis and one due to residual disease and complications of the primary tumor. Conclusions Despite advances in early diagnosis and treatment of pediatric CS, a 2.5% mortality rate was identified in a large cohort of patients with this condition referred to an experienced, tertiary care referral center (although these deaths occurred elsewhere). Pediatricians need to recognize the possibility of death, primarily due to sepsis, in a patient with pediatric CS and act accordingly. PMID:25241829

  18. The genetic alteration of retinoblastoma gene in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Il; Shim, Yung Mok; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Retinoblastoma(RB) gene is the prototype of tumor suppressor gene and it`s alteration have been frequently observed in a large number of human tumors. To investigate the role of RB in esophageal cancer, we studied 36 esophageal cancer tissues with Southern blot analysis to detect gross LOH and PCR-SSCP method to find minute LOH and mutation, if any. In the cases with abnormalities, the nucleotide sequence analysis was performed. Allelic loss of chromosome 13q14 occurred in 20 out of 32 informative cases (62.5%) by Southern analysis. Furthermore, PCR-LOH added three positive cases. Mobility shift by PCR-SSCP was observed in one case at exon 22, which showed 1 bp deletion in codon 771 of RB gene resulting in frame shift mutation. Besides, nine PCR-band alteration in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue were observed in exon 14 and 22, but mutation was not found on sequencing analysis suggesting the epigenetic alteration in tumor tissue. Analysis of the clinical data did not show any difference depending upon RB alteration. However, the total incidence of RB gene may play an important role in the development of esophageal cancer. The main genetic alteration of RB gene was deletion detected by Southern blot and one bp deletion leading to frame shift was also observed. 8 figs, 5 tabs. (Author).

  19. Are histological alterations observed in the gallbladder precancerous lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lúcia Agnelli Meirelles-Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gallbladder cancer, which is characterized by rapid progression and a poor prognosis, is a complex disease to treat. Unfortunately, little is known currently about its etiology or pathogenesis. A better understanding of its carcinogenesis and determining risk factors that lead to its development could help improve the available treatment options. METHOD: Based on this better understanding, the histological alterations (such as acute cholecystitis, adenomyomatosis, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, polyps, pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, cancer and others in gallbladders from 1,689 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystolithiasis were analyzed. The association of these gallbladder histological alterations with clinical data was studied. RESULTS: Gender analysis revealed a greater incidence of inflammatory changes in males, while dysplasia and cancer were only found in women. The incidence of cholesterolosis was greater in the patients 60 years of age and under, and the incidence of adenomyomatosis and gangrene was greater in the elderly patients. A progressive increase in the average age was observed as alterations progressed through pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and then cancer, suggesting that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence may occur in gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder histological alterations were also observed in asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that there could be an association between some histological alterations of gallbladder and cancer, and they also suggest that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence could in fact be true in the case of gallbladder cancer. Nevertheless, further studies directed towards a perfect understanding of gallbladder carcinogenesis are required.

  20. Video processing of remote sensor data applied to uranium exploration in Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANDSAT satellite imagery and aerial photography can be used to map areas of altered sandstone associated with roll-front uranium deposits. Image data must be enhanced so that alteration spectral contrasts can be seen, and video image processing is a fast, low-cost, and efficient tool. For LANDSAT data, the 7/4 ratio produces the best enhancement of altered sandstone. The 6/4 ratio is most effective for color infrared aerial photography. Geochemical and mineralogical associations occur in unaltered, altered, and ore roll-front zones. Samples from Pumpkin Buttes show that iron is the primary coloring agent which makes alteration visually detectable. Eh and pH changes associated with passage of a roll front cause oxidation of magnetite and pyrite to hematite, goethite, and limonite in the host sandstone, thereby producing the alteration. Statistical analysis show that the detectability of geochemical and color zonation in host sands is weakened by soil-forming processes. Alteration can only be mapped in areas of thin soil cover and moderate to sparse vegetative cover

  1. Increased DNA methylation of neuropsychiatric genes occurs in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Gerhard; Teschler, Stefanie; Haag, Tanja; Altmüller, Franziska; Tuczek, Frederik; Dammann, Reinhard H

    2011-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex psychiatric disease of increasing importance. Epigenetic alterations are hallmarks for altered gene expression and could be involved in the etiology of BPD. In our study we analyzed DNA methylation patterns of 14 neuropsychiatric genes (COMT, DAT1, GABRA1, GNB3, GRIN2B, HTR1B, HTR2A, 5-HTT, MAOA, MAOB, NOS1, NR3C1, TPH1 and TH). DNA methylation was analyzed by bisulfite restriction analysis and pyrosequencing in whole blood samples of patients diagnosed with DSM-IV BPD and in controls. Aberrant methylation was not detectable using bisulfite restriction analysis, but a significantly increased methylation of HTR2A, NR3C1, MAOA, MAOB and soluble COMT (S-COMT) was revealed for BPD patients using pyrosequencing. For HTR2A the average methylation of four CpG sites was 0.8% higher in BPD patients compared to controls (p = 0.002). The average methylation of NR3C1 was 1.8% increased in BPD patients compared to controls (p = 0.0003) and was higher at 2 out of 8 CpGs (p ≤ 0.04). In females, an increased average methylation (1.5%) of MAOA was observed in BPD patients compared to controls (p = 0.046). A similar trend (1.4% higher methylation) was observed for MAOB in female BPD patients and increased methylation was significant for 1 out of 6 CpG sites. For S-COMT, a higher methylation of 2 out of 4 CpG sites was revealed in BPD patients (p ≤ 0.02). In summary, methylation signatures of several promoter regions were established and a significant increased average methylation (1.7%) occurred in blood samples of BPD patients (p < 0.0001). Our data suggest that aberrant epigenetic regulation of neuropsychiatric genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of BPD. PMID:22139575

  2. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    telomerase activity, and combinations of the top-ranking compounds were able to increase telomerase activity significantly, from 51% to 290%, relative to controls. Conclusions • The results have confirmed that many naturally occurring compounds hold the potential to activate telomerase and that certain of those compounds have demonstrated synergistic effects to produce more potent blends. Given the relationship between telomere shortening, aging, and the decline of tissue function, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such telomerase-activating blends may have health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to aging-associated conditions. Further investigation of such blends in human studies that are designed to evaluate safety and the effects on telomere length are thus warranted. PMID:27433836

  3. Mitochondrial catalase suppresses naturally occurring lung cancer in old mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuang Ge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is generally difficult to detect until the late stages of disease, when it is much more difficult to treat because of the more aggressive and invasive behavior. Advanced lung cancer is much more common in older adults making it even more challenging to treat. Adenocarcinoma belongs to a category of non-small cell lung cancers, which comprise up to 40% of all lung cancers, and about half of these have an activating K-ras mutation. Because treatment relapses are common, more effective unconventional treatment and prevention methods are needed. In this regard, the antioxidant enzyme catalase targeted to mitochondria (mCAT has been shown to delay aging and cancer in mice, and the progression of transgenic oncogene and syngeneic tumors was suppressed, helping support the notion that attenuation of mitochondria-generated hydrogen peroxide signaling is associated with an antitumor effect. In order to determine if mCAT has any effect on naturally occurring lung cancer of the adenocarcinoma type in old mice, the tumor incidence and progression were examined in the lungs of old mCAT transgenic and wild-type (WT mice with a CB6F1 (Balb/c X C57BL/6 background. CB6F1 mice with a WT genotype were found to have a high incidence of adenomas at 24 months of age, which progressed to adenocarcinomas at 32 months of age. CB6F1 mice with the mCAT genotype had significantly reduced incidence and severity of lung tumors at both ages. Fibroblasts isolated from the lungs of old mCAT mice, but not WT mice, were shown to secrete soluble factors that inhibited lung tumor cell growth suggesting that stromal fibroblasts play a role in mediating the antitumor effects of mCAT. The aged CB6F1 mouse, with its high incidence of K-ras mutant lung cancer, is an excellent model to further study the anticancer potential of mitochondria-targeted therapy.

  4. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role. PMID:19276043

  5. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role.

  6. Experimental Reproduction on the Hydrous Alteration with Super-Critical Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, H.

    2005-12-01

    Behavior of high-pressure fluid flow and permeability of rocks have close relation to volcanic eruptions. Especially, phreatomagmatic eruptions caused by excess pressures of the fluid degassed from magma body or heated water contacted with magma or high temperature rocks in volcanoes. Alteration, dissolution and / or precipitation processes of rocks and minerals coexisting with high temperature fluid can change permeability of rocks by spreading of the fluid path or obstruction with precipitated minerals. Kinetics of flowing super-critical fluid - rock interaction is essential to understand accumulation or release of excess pressure of the fluid. In this study, experimental reproduction on the hydration and alteration processes of rocks and minerals with super-critical fluid were carried out with a fluid flow apparatus. Starting materials of the experiments is powdered rhyolitic obsidian. Approximately 55g of the starting material are placed in a SUS316 sample tube sealed to an outlet of the pressure vessel with pure Ti gaskets. Inner diameter and length of the sample tube are 9.4mm and 572mm, respectively. Temperature gradient of the pressure vessel is controlled by triple electric furnaces. Run products of the powdered samples are retrieved by cutting off the sample tube. Experimental pressure is 50MPa. Flow rate of distilled water is 0.1ml / minute pumped by a low speed high-pressure pump at room temperature. Temperature of the sample is approximately 450°C at the first half of the sample tube, then decreased to approximately 310°C at the outlet of the sample tube. Run duration is 8 days or 3 days. Obsidian grains partially dissolved and changed to porous at most of the sample tube. Alteration products of the volcanic glass including clay minerals, cristobalite and plagioclase occur in grain boundaries and cemented grains within a few centimeters from the outlet of the sample tube. Effective sealing for fluid flow by the alteration products can be only found

  7. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  8. Female genital alteration: a compromise solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Jacobs, Allan J

    2016-03-01

    Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients. PMID:26902479

  9. Heavy metals and epigenetic alterations in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffo, Maria; Caruso, Gerardo; Fata, Giuseppe La; Barresi, Valeria; Visalli, Maria; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals and their derivatives can cause various diseases. Numerous studies have evaluated the possible link between exposure to heavy metals and various cancers. Recent data show a correlation between heavy metals and aberration of genetic and epigenetic patterns. From a literature search we noticed few experimental and epidemiological studies that evaluate a possible correlation between heavy metals and brain tumors. Gliomas arise due to genetic and epigenetic alterations of glial cells. Changes in gene expression result in the alteration of the cellular division process. Epigenetic alterations in brain tumors include the hypermethylation of CpG group, hypomethylation of specific genes, aberrant activation of genes, and changes in the position of various histones. Heavy metals are capable of generating reactive oxygen assumes that key functions in various pathological mechanisms. Alteration of homeostasis of metals could cause the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and induce DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and alteration of proteins. In this study we summarize the possible correlation between heavy metals, epigenetic alterations and brain tumors. We report, moreover, the review of relevant literature. PMID:25646073

  10. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces

    OpenAIRE

    Bultitude, Janet H.; Downing, Paul E.; Robert D. Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’) following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symp...

  11. Nicotinic alteration of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudé, Jérémie; Dongelmans, Malou; Faure, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Addiction to nicotine is characterized by impulses, urges and lack of self-control towards cigarettes. A key element in the process of addiction is the development of habits oriented towards nicotine consumption that surpass flexible systems as a consequence of a gradual adaptation to chronic drug exposure. However, the long-term effects of nicotine on brain circuits also induce wide changes in decision-making processes, affecting behaviors unrelated to cigarettes. This review aims at providing an update on the implications of nicotine on general decision-making processes, with an emphasis on impulsivity and risk-taking. As impulsivity is a rather ambiguous behavioral trait, we build on economic and normative theories to better characterize these nicotine-induced alterations in decision-making. Nonetheless, experimental data are sparse and often contradictory. We will discuss how the latest findings on the neurobiological basis of choice behavior may help disentangling these issues. We focus on the role of nicotine acetylcholine receptors and their different subunits, and on the spatio-temporal dynamics (i.e. diversity of the neural circuits, short- and long-term effects) of both endogenous acetylcholine and nicotine action. Finally, we try to link these neurobiological results with neuro-computational models of attention, valuation and action, and of the role of acetylcholine in these decision processes. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25498234

  12. Naturally occurring asbestos-A recurring public policy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  13. Altered Mental Status and Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Scott T; Ondrejka, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    Older patients who present to the emergency department frequently have acute or chronic alterations of their mental status, including their level of consciousness and cognition. Recognizing both acute and chronic changes in cognition are important for emergency physicians. Delirium is an acute change in attention, awareness, and cognition. Numerous life-threatening conditions can cause delirium; therefore, prompt recognition and treatment are critical. The authors discuss an organized approach that can lead to a prompt diagnosis within the time constraints of the emergency department. PMID:27475019

  14. Epigenetic alterations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus contribute to age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, Scott H; Zelinski, Erin L; Keeley, Robin J; Kovalchuk, Olga; McDonald, Robert J

    2015-09-15

    Circadian rhythm dysfunction and cognitive decline, specifically memory loss, frequently accompany natural aging. Circadian rhythms and memory are intertwined, as circadian rhythms influence memory formation and recall in young and old rodents. Although, the precise relationship between circadian rhythms and memory is still largely unknown, it is hypothesized that circadian rhythm disruption, which occurs during aging, contributes to age-associated cognitive decline, specifically memory loss. While there are a variety of mechanisms that could mediate this effect, changes in the epigenome that occur during aging has been proposed as a potential candidate. Interestingly, epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and sirtuin1 (SIRT1) are necessary for both circadian rhythms and memory. During aging, similar alterations of epigenetic mechanisms occur in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and hippocampus, which are necessary for circadian rhythm generation and memory, respectively. Recently, circadian rhythms have been linked to epigenetic function in the hippocampus, as some of these epigenetic mechanisms oscillate in the hippocampus and are disrupted by clock gene deletion. The current paper will review how circadian rhythms and memory change with age, and will suggest how epigenetic changes in these processes might contribute to age-related cognitive decline. PMID:26252151

  15. Radiation and Radioactivity Levels Survey of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) at PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI) is the largest oil company sharing contractor with Pertamina, located in Riau Province, Central Sumatera, employs about 6,800 employees and works together with 28,000 business partner employees. Currently CPI produces about 510,000 bbls crude oil. The production process mobilizes the naturally occurring radionuclides from deep reservoir rock that are deposited as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in well tubes, surface pipes, vessels and other processing equipment. NORM has a potential to be externally exposed during production process due to the accumulation of gamma emitting radionuclides and internal exposure to employees/business partners particularly during maintenance, sludge processing and decontamination of equipment. Understanding of the possible NORM hazards to human life, CPI initiated a NORM survey in order to obtain a clear picture of the magnitude of NORM in CPI operations. The survey has been conducted in 2001 and 2002 involved experts from Chevron Texaco USA, BATAN and BAPETEN Jakarta. The survey covered the determination of gamma exposure rates and the concentration of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K in several samples taken from scale, sludge, tank bottom and sand. To safely management of NORM, the Industrial Health Team of Corporate Health, Environment and Safety in coordination with Training Center Team and BATAN have conducted a NORM training for Industrial Hygienist and employees exposed to NORM, developed Standard Operating Procedure for NORM Handling and Disposal and continuously performed NORM survey and mapping of all suspected areas. (author)

  16. Geochemical characterization of tubular alteration features in subseafloor basalt glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Emily; Staudigel, Hubert; Templeton, Alexis

    2013-07-01

    There are numerous indications that subseafloor basalts may currently host a huge quantity of active microbial cells and contain biosignatures of ancient life in the form of physical and chemical basalt glass alteration. Unfortunately, technological challenges prevent us from observing the formation and mineralization of these alteration features in situ, or reproducing tubular basalt alteration processes in the laboratory. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical traces retained in mineralized tubules is currently the best approach for deciphering a record of glass alteration. We have used a number of high-resolution spectroscopic and microscopic methods to probe the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tubular alteration features in basalt glasses obtained from a suite of subseafloor drill cores that covers a range of different collection locations and ages. By combining three different synchrotron-based X-ray measurements - X-ray fluorescence microprobe mapping, XANES spectroscopy, and μ-XRD - with focused ion beam milling and transmission electron microscopy, we have spatially resolved the major and trace element distributions, as well as the oxidation state of Fe, determined the coordination chemistry of Fe, Mn and Ti at the micron-scale, and constrained the secondary minerals within these features. The tubular alteration features are characterized by strong losses of Fe2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ compared to fresh glass, oxidation of the residual Fe, and the accumulation of Ti and Cu. The predominant phases infilling the alteration regions are Fe3+-bearing silicates dominated by 2:1 clays, with secondary Fe- and Ti-oxides, and a partially oxidized Mn-silicate phase. These geochemical patterns observed within the tubular alteration features are comparable across a diverse suite of samples formed over the past 5-100 Ma, which shows that the microscale mineralization processes are common and consistent throughout the ocean basins and

  17. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  18. Saccadic Alterations in Severe Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pensiero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not sure if persons with dyslexia have ocular motor deficits in addition to their deficits in rapid visual information processing. A 15-year-old boy afflicted by severe dyslexia was submitted to saccadic eye movement recording. Neurological and ophthalmic examinations were normal apart from the presence of an esophoria for near and slightly longer latencies of pattern visual evoked potentials. Subclinical saccadic alterations were present, which could be at the basis of the reading pathology: (1 low velocities (and larger durations of the adducting saccades of the left eye with undershooting and long-lasting postsaccadic onward drift, typical of the internuclear ophthalmoplegia; (2 saccades interrupted in mid-flight and fixation instability, which are present in cases of brainstem premotor disturbances.

  19. Molecular Alterations Associated with Osteosarcoma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosei Ando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor characterized by a high potency to form lung metastases which is the main cause of death. Unfortunately, the conventional chemotherapy is not fully effective on osteosarcoma metastases. The progression of a primary tumor to metastasis requires multiple processes, which are neovascularization, proliferation, invasion, survival in the bloodstream, apoptosis resistance, arrest at a distant organ, and outgrowth in secondary sites. Consequently, recent studies have revealed new insights into the molecular mechanisms of metastasis development. The understanding of the mechanism of molecular alterations can provide the identification of novel therapeutic targets and/or prognostic markers for osteosarcoma treatment to improve the clinical outcome.

  20. Exploration of gold occurrences in alteration zones at Dungash district, Southeastern Desert of Egypt using ASTER data and geochemical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, S. M.; El Sharkawi, M.; El-Alfy, Z.; Soliman, N. M.; Ahmed, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The present study aims at exploration of new gold occurrences in the alteration zones at Dungash district. Processed ASTER images band ratios 7/6 × 4/6 and (7 + 9/8), field geology and mineralogical and geochemical data help characterize three types of alterations in three areas 1 to 3 that may be targeted for Au exploration. Area1 confined to the metavolcanics located in the SE of Dungash gold mine and revealed silicified and sericitized type alterations, composed of quartz, epidote, chlorite, biotite and opaque minerals mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite. Area2 occurs in the gabbro-diorite rocks at Abu Meraiwa area NE of Dungash gold mine, which are rich in kaolinite, illite, sericite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite that record kaolinitized alteration. Area3 is hosted in carbonaceous listwaenized serpentinite thus indicating the role of listwaenitization type alteration in ore genesis. It is composed of calcite, chromite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and Ni-bearing sulphides. Au contents in area 1 range between 0.12 and 14.91 ppm, and between 6.1 and 16.3 ppm in area 2, while gold values in area 3 vary from <0.01 to 0.03 ppm. Dungash district is comprised of Pan-African assemblages of ophiolitic ultramafics thrusted over the island arc metavolcanics of dacitic- andesite composition. Gabbro-diorite rocks are intruded in the ultramafics and the acidic metavolcanics as well as diorite-quartz diorite suite intruded in the intermediate metavolcanics. Several acidic dykes, granitic dykes and quartz veins cut through the different rocks types.

  1. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  2. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter

  3. Recovery curves of the lightning discharges occurring in the dissipation stage of thunderstorms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Pawar; A K Kamra

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of atmospheric electric field made below two thunderstorms show that all lightning discharges occurring in the dissipating stage of a thunderstorm occur at almost the same value of the predischarge electric field at the ground surface. The observation is explained on the basis of the shielding of the electric fields generated by the positive charge in the downdrafts by the negative charge in the screening layers formed around them in the subcloud layer. Our observations suggest that in the dissipating stage of the thunderstorm, the charge generating mechanisms in cloud have ceased to operate and the charge being transported from the upper to lower regions of cloud by downdrafts is the only in-cloud process affecting the surface electric field and/or enhancing the electric field stress in and below the cloud base to cause yet another lightning discharge.

  4. Epidermoid Cyst Occurring Within an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen. A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Horn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Epidermoid cysts occurring within intrapancreatic accessory spleens are exceptionally rare entities, with only 21 previously reported cases. Their clinical presentation prior to pathologic assessment can raise concern for possible malignancy; however, they behave in a benign fashion. Case report A 62-year-old male presented with complaints of abdominal pain. Imaging revealed leftsided retroperitoneal mass and surgical exploration was recommended. Surgery revealed a cystic cavity containing necrotic debris originating from the tail of the pancreas. Microscopy was consistent with an epidermoid cyst arising within an intrapancreatic accessory spleen with positive immunoperoxidase staining for CEA. Conclusion Epidermoid cysts occurring within intrapancreatic accessory spleens can mimic a malignant process both clinically and radiographically. Surgery with pathologic assessment is the only reliable means of diagnosis. While they are a very rare entity, it is an important component of a complete differential diagnosis for a patient presenting with a pancreatic tail mass.

  5. Sedimentological Aspects and Diagenetic Alterations of Beda "C" , Southwestern Sirt Basin, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlal, Osama

    2015-04-01

    The rock sequence of Tertiary Lower Beda Formation Beda "C" of southwest NC74B block in Sirt Basin has considered subdivided into facies and subfacies . These facies are dominated by muddy carbonates, such as skeletal mudstones, wackestones, and packstones with dolomites and anhydrite. Rock textures, faunal assemblages and sedimentary structures suggest open to partly open to shallow marine, lagoonal shelf , and upper subtidal to lower supratidal (Preitidal) environments. The Beda "C" Member represents a shallowing-upward sequence typical of lagoonal and tidal flat environments marked at the top by sabkha and brackish-water sediments. Petrographic and microfossils studies have been made by means of microscopic examination of (24) thin section. Microfossils include benthonic foraminifera, in addition ostracods, molluscs, echinoderms, and bryozoans. Dolomite, where present, is finely crystalline and an early replacement product. Anhydrite occurs as nodular, indicating supratidal sabkha deposition. Compaction, micritzation , dolomitization, cementation, and dissolution resulted in alteration and obliteration of primary sedimentary structures of the Beda "C" Member facies and subfacies. The study area is marked by several horsts and grabens; due to extensional tectonic activity. The area was tectonically active throughout the Tertiary period. Primary porosity is mainly interagranular, and dissolution diagenetic processes are significant enhancing the porosity. Primary porosity is intergranular and intragranular, and secondary processes are characterized by dissolution, intercrystalline, fracture. Diagenesis, through solution leaching and dolomitization, contributed greatly to development of porosity. Anhydrite occurs as replacement in top Member indicating supratidal deposition using a regular petrographic microscope, SEM and XRD analysis.

  6. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    OpenAIRE

    Halford, Nigel G.; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R.; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adap...

  7. The effects of naturally occurring acids on the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emma P; Lavkulich, L M Les

    2014-01-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is considered an environmental health hazard. It is postulated that the surface of chrysotile, with its inherent positive charge and chemical content of trace transition metals within the mineral is a causative factor of the concern. Weathering may reduce the negative health effects of chrysotile asbestos, by alteration of the outer brucite layer of the chrysotile. To assess the changes in the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos by simulated weathering, chrysotile was treated with oxalic, hydrochloric, and carbonic acids. Naturally occurring chrysotile, from a mine site and serpentinitic stream sediments from the Sumas River were analyzed and compared. Oxalic acid, a chelating acid, was the most effective at extracting the majority of the trace elements present in the chrysotile, reducing their positive surface charge and producing visible changes at the surface of the fibers as shown by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microsopy (FESEM). Carbonic acid had little effect on the surface properties. Stream environments had minor detectable effects on the surface properties on the chrysotile stream sediments. PMID:25072777

  8. Lysine Succinylation Is a Frequently Occurring Modification in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes and Extensively Overlaps with Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Weinert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that lysines can be posttranslationally modified by various types of acylations. However, except for acetylation, very little is known about their scope and cellular distribution. We mapped thousands of succinylation sites in bacteria (E. coli, yeast (S. cerevisiae, human (HeLa cells, and mouse liver tissue, demonstrating widespread succinylation in diverse organisms. A majority of succinylation sites in bacteria, yeast, and mouse liver were acetylated at the same position. Quantitative analysis of succinylation in yeast showed that succinylation was globally altered by growth conditions and mutations that affected succinyl-coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA metabolism in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, indicating that succinylation levels are globally affected by succinyl-CoA concentration. We preferentially detected succinylation on abundant proteins, suggesting that succinylation occurs at a low level and that many succinylation sites remain unidentified. These data provide a systems-wide view of succinylation and its dynamic regulation and show its extensive overlap with acetylation.

  9. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF

  10. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process<