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  1. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  2. Altered dopamine signaling in naturally occurring maternal neglect.

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    Stephen C Gammie

    , especially within regions involved in reward, is involved in naturally occurring neglect and that MaD1 mice are a useful model for understanding the basis of naturally occurring neglect.

  3. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes

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    Friedman, I.; Long, W.

    1984-01-01

    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  4. Bordetella pertussis naturally occurring isolates with altered lipooligosaccharide structure fail to fully mature human dendritic cells.

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    Brummelman, Jolanda; Veerman, Rosanne E; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Deuss, Anna J M; Schuijt, Tim J; Sloots, Arjen; Kuipers, Betsy; van Els, Cécile A C M; van der Ley, Peter; Mooi, Frits R; Han, Wanda G H; Pinelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Despite high vaccination coverage, outbreaks are being increasingly reported worldwide. Possible explanations include adaptation of this pathogen, which may interfere with recognition by the innate immune system. Here, we describe innate immune recognition and responses to different B. pertussis clinical isolates. By using HEK-Blue cells transfected with different pattern recognition receptors, we found that 3 out of 19 clinical isolates failed to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These findings were confirmed by using the monocytic MM6 cell line. Although incubation with high concentrations of these 3 strains resulted in significant activation of the MM6 cells, it was found to occur mainly through interaction with TLR2 and not through TLR4. When using live bacteria, these 3 strains also failed to activate TLR4 on HEK-Blue cells, and activation of MM6 cells or human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was significantly lower than activation induced by the other 16 strains. Mass spectrum analysis of the lipid A moieties from these 3 strains indicated an altered structure of this molecule. Gene sequence analysis revealed mutations in genes involved in lipid A synthesis. Findings from this study indicate that B. pertussis isolates that do not activate TLR4 occur naturally and that this phenotype may give this bacterium an advantage in tempering the innate immune response and establishing infection. Knowledge on the strategies used by this pathogen in evading the host immune response is essential for the improvement of current vaccines or for the development of new ones.

  5. Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing

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    Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar,…

  6. [Description of the mental processes occurring during clinical reasoning].

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    Pottier, P; Planchon, B

    2011-06-01

    Clinical reasoning is a highly complex system with multiple inter-dependent mental activities. Gaining a better understanding of those cognitive processes has two practical implications: for physicians, being able to analyse their own reasoning method may prove to be helpful in diagnostic dead end; for medical teachers, identifying problem-solving strategies used by medical students may foster an appropriate individual feed-back aiming at improving their clinical reasoning skills. On the basis of a detailed literature review, the main diagnostic strategies and their related pattern of mental processes are described and illustrated with a concrete example, going from the patient's complaint to the chosen solution. Inductive, abductive and deductive diagnostic approaches are detailed. Different strategies for collecting data (exhaustive or oriented) and for problem-building are described. The place of problem solving strategies such as pattern-recognition, scheme inductive process, using of clinical script, syndrome grouping and mental hypotheses test is considered. This work aims at breaking up mental activities in process within clinical reasoning reminding that expert reasoning is characterised by the ability to use and structure the whole of these activities in a coherent system, using combined strategies in order to guarantee a better accuracy of their diagnosis.

  7. Disseminated glioneuronal tumors occurring in childhood: treatment outcomes and BRAF alterations including V600E mutation.

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    Dodgshun, Andrew J; SantaCruz, Nadine; Hwang, Jaeho; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Malkin, Hayley; Bergthold, Guillaume; Manley, Peter; Chi, Susan; MacGregor, Duncan; Goumnerova, Liliana; Sullivan, Michael; Ligon, Keith; Beroukhim, Rameen; Herrington, Betty; Kieran, Mark W; Hansford, Jordan R; Bandopadhayay, Pratiti

    2016-06-01

    Disseminated glioneuronal tumors of childhood are rare. We present a retrospective IRB-approved review of the clinical course and frequency of BRAF mutations in disseminated glioneuronal tumors at two institutions. Defining features of our cohort include diffuse leptomeningeal-spread, often with a discrete spinal cord nodule and oligodendroglioma-like histologic features. Patients were identified through a pathology database search of all cases with disseminated low-grade neoplasms with an oligodendroglioma-like component. De-identified clinical information was collected by chart review and all imaging was reviewed. We retrieved the results of targeted genomic analyses for alterations in BRAF. Ten patients (aged 2-14 years) were identified from the Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Hospital and the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne pathology databases. Nine patients received chemotherapy. Eight patients are alive, although three have had episodes of progressive disease. We identified genomic alterations affecting the MAPK pathway in six patients. One patient had a germline RAF1 mutation and a clinical diagnosis of cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. BRAF duplications were identified in four and BRAF V600E mutation was identified in one. These data support the presence of targetable genomic alterations in this disease.

  8. Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response?

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    Lau, Evelyn; Soong, Yean Yean; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-15

    Bread is a staple food that is traditionally made from wheat flour. This study aimed to compare the starch digestibility of western baked bread and oriental steamed bread. Four types of bread were prepared: western baked bread (WBB) and oriental steamed bread (OSB), modified baked bread (MBB) made with the OSB recipe and WBB processing, and modified steamed bread (MSB) made with the WBB recipe and OSB processing. MBB showed the highest starch digestibility in vitro, followed by WBB, OSB and MSB. A similar trend was observed for glycaemic response in vivo. MBB, WBB, OSB and MSB had a glycaemic index of 75±4, 71±5, 68±5 and 65±4, respectively. Processing differences had a more pronounced effect on starch digestibility in bread, and steamed bread was healthier in terms of glycaemic response. The manipulation of processing conditions could be an innovative route to alter the glycaemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods.

  9. 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced glutathione alteration occurs via glutathione enzyme system in primary cultured astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji ZHANG; Jun HU; Jian-hua DING; Hong-hong YAO; Gang HU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To define the role of enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced glutathione alteration in primary cultured astrocytes.Methods: Total glutathione (GSx) levels were determined using the modified enzymatic microtiter plate assay.The mRNA levels ofγ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γGCS), γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), GR (glutathione reductase), and glutathione transferases (GST) were determined using RT-PCR.γGT activity was determined using γGT assay kits.Results: In primary cultured astrocytes, 6-OHDA induced a significant elevation of cellular GSx levels after treatment for 24 h.However, the GSx levels decreased after 24 h and the values were even lower than the value in the control group without 6-OHDA at 48 h.RT-PCR data showed that the mRNA levels of γGCS, the ratelimiting enzyme of γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH) synthesis, were increased by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; the mRNA levels of GPx, GR, and GST did not alter in 6-OHDA-treated astrocytes after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; and 6-OHDA increased the mRNA levels and the activity of γGT after treatment for 48 h,which induced a decrease in GSx levels, despite the up-regulation of γGCS after exposure to 6-OHDA for 48 h.Conclusion: The change in γGCS correlated with the increase in GSH levels induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h.GSx levels decreased because of increased γGT mRNA levels and γGT activity induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 48 h.

  10. Melon necrotic spot virus Replication Occurs in Association with Altered Mitochondria.

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    Gómez-Aix, Cristina; García-García, María; Aranda, Miguel A; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia

    2015-04-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) (genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that has become an experimental model for the analysis of cell-to-cell virus movement and translation of uncapped viral RNAs, whereas little is known about its replication. Analysis of the cytopathology after MNSV infection showed the specific presence of modified organelles that resemble mitochondria. Immunolocalization of the glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) P protein in these organelles confirmed their mitochondrial origin. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization experiments showed the specific localization of positive-sense viral RNA, capsid protein (CP), and double-stranded (ds)RNA in these organelles meaning that replication of the virus takes place in association with them. The three-dimensional reconstructions of the altered mitochondria showed the presence of large, interconnected, internal dilations which appeared to be linked to the outside cytoplasmic environment through pores and/or complex structures, and with lipid bodies. Transient expression of MNSV p29 revealed that its specific target is mitochondria. Our data document the extensive reorganization of host mitochondria induced by MNSV, which provides a protected environment to viral replication, and show that the MNSV p29 protein is the primary determinant of this effect in the host.

  11. Co-occurring manic symptomatology influences HPA axis alterations in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabben, Nienke; Nolen, Willem A.; Smit, Johannes H.; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Although dysfunctioning of the HPA axis is considered to be a core pathophysiological process in mood disorders, the evidence with regard to depression remains conflicting. This could partly be due to the large heterogeneity within mood disorders, since HPA axis abnormalities may also be associated

  12. Involvement of gut microbial fermentation in the metabolic alterations occurring in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-depleted mice

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    Carpentier Yvon A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Western diet is characterized by an insufficient n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA consumption which is known to promote the pathogenesis of several diseases. We have previously observed that mice fed with a diet poor in n-3 PUFA for two generations exhibit hepatic steatosis together with a decrease in body weight. The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of host energy metabolism, due to symbiotic relationship with fermentable nutrients provided in the diet. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that perturbations of the gut microbiota contribute to the metabolic alterations occurring in mice fed a diet poor in n-3 PUFA for two generations (n-3/- mice. Methods C57Bl/6J mice fed with a control or an n-3 PUFA depleted diet for two generations were supplemented with prebiotic (inulin-type Fructooligosaccharides, FOS, 0.20 g/day/mice during 24 days. Results n-3/-mice exhibited a marked drop in caecum weight, a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase in bifidobacteria in the caecal content as compared to control mice (n-3/+ mice. Dietary supplementation with FOS for 24 days was sufficient to increase caecal weight and bifidobacteria count in both n-3/+ and n-3/-mice. Moreover, FOS increased lactobacilli content in n-3/-mice, whereas it decreased their level in n-3/+ mice. Interestingly, FOS treatment promoted body weight gain in n-3/-mice by increasing energy efficiency. In addition, FOS treatment decreased fasting glycemia and lowered the higher expression of key factors involved in the fatty acid catabolism observed in the liver of n-3/-mice, without lessening steatosis. Conclusions the changes in the gut microbiota composition induced by FOS are different depending on the type of diet. We show that FOS may promote lactobacilli and counteract the catabolic status induced by n-3 PUFA depletion in mice, thereby contributing to restore efficient fat storage.

  13. Genetic and physiological alterations occurring in a yeast population continuously propagated at increasing temperatures with cell recycling.

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    Souza, Crisla S; Thomaz, Daniel; Cides, Elaine R; Oliveira, Karen F; Tognolli, João O; Laluce, Cecilia

    2007-12-01

    This work investigated the effects of increasing temperature from 30°C to 47°C on the physiological and genetic characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 63M after continuous fermentation with cell recycling in a system of five reactors in series. Steady state was attained at 30°C, and then the temperature of the system was raised so it ranged from 35°C in the last reactor to 43°C in the first reactor or feeding reactor with a 2°C difference between reactors. After 15 days at steady state, the temperature was raised from 37°C to 45°C for 25 days at steady state, then from 39°C to 47°C for 20 days at steady state. Starter strain 63M was a hybrid strain constructed to have a MAT a/α, LYS/lys, URA/ura genotype. This hybrid yeast showed vigorous growth on plates at 40°C, weak growth at 41°C, positive assimilation of melibiose, positive fermentation of galactose, raffinose and sucrose. Of 156 isolates obtained from this system at the end of the fermentation process, only 17.3% showed the same characteristics as starter strain 63M. Alterations in mating type reaction and in utilization of raffinose, melibiose, and sucrose were identified. Only 1.9% of the isolates lost the ability to grow at 40°C. Isolates showing requirements for lysine and uracil were also obtained. In addition, cell survival was observed at 39-47°C, but no isolates showing growth above 41°C were obtained.

  14. Sensitivity, child regulatory processes, and naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior across childhood.

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    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite considerable research on why antisocial behavior develops and interventions that reduce it, aspects of everyday family processes that may promote naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior or that may result from such declines in most children without intervention are poorly understood. The current study explored family processes that may enable children to replace antisocial tendencies and the effects that declines in antisocial behavior may have on parenting and child regulatory processes. Longitudinal data from 1,022 children (54 months-6th grade) from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were examined. Findings demonstrated that naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior both predicted and were predicted by maternal sensitivity, emotion regulation, and social skills. These declines predicted but were not predicted by declines in hostile attributions. The data revealed multiple indirect paths, which highlight the complex nature of these variables across development.

  15. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I. [Shell Research and Technology Centre, Amsterdam, (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Genetic alterations in uncommon low-grade neuroepithelial tumors: BRAF, FGFR1, and MYB mutations occur at high frequency and align with morphology.

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    Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Orisme, Wilda; Wen, Ji; Santiago, Teresa; Gupta, Kirti; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Haupfear, Kelly; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Easton, John; Mulder, Heather; Boggs, Kristy; Shao, Ying; Rusch, Michael; Becksfort, Jared; Gupta, Pankaj; Wang, Shuoguo; Lee, Ryan P; Brat, Daniel; Peter Collins, V; Dahiya, Sonika; George, David; Konomos, William; Kurian, Kathreena M; McFadden, Kathryn; Serafini, Luciano Neder; Nickols, Hilary; Perry, Arie; Shurtleff, Sheila; Gajjar, Amar; Boop, Fredrick A; Klimo, Paul D; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Baker, Suzanne J; Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Downing, James R; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Ellison, David W

    2016-06-01

    Low-grade neuroepithelial tumors (LGNTs) are diverse CNS tumors presenting in children and young adults, often with a history of epilepsy. While the genetic profiles of common LGNTs, such as the pilocytic astrocytoma and 'adult-type' diffuse gliomas, are largely established, those of uncommon LGNTs remain to be defined. In this study, we have used massively parallel sequencing and various targeted molecular genetic approaches to study alterations in 91 LGNTs, mostly from children but including young adult patients. These tumors comprise dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs; n = 22), diffuse oligodendroglial tumors (d-OTs; n = 20), diffuse astrocytomas (DAs; n = 17), angiocentric gliomas (n = 15), and gangliogliomas (n = 17). Most LGNTs (84 %) analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) were characterized by a single driver genetic alteration. Alterations of FGFR1 occurred frequently in LGNTs composed of oligodendrocyte-like cells, being present in 82 % of DNETs and 40 % of d-OTs. In contrast, a MYB-QKI fusion characterized almost all angiocentric gliomas (87 %), and MYB fusion genes were the most common genetic alteration in DAs (41 %). A BRAF:p.V600E mutation was present in 35 % of gangliogliomas and 18 % of DAs. Pathogenic alterations in FGFR1/2/3, BRAF, or MYB/MYBL1 occurred in 78 % of the series. Adult-type d-OTs with an IDH1/2 mutation occurred in four adolescents, the youngest aged 15 years at biopsy. Despite a detailed analysis, novel genetic alterations were limited to two fusion genes, EWSR1-PATZ1 and SLMAP-NTRK2, both in gangliogliomas. Alterations in BRAF, FGFR1, or MYB account for most pathogenic alterations in LGNTs, including pilocytic astrocytomas, and alignment of these genetic alterations and cytologic features across LGNTs has diagnostic implications. Additionally, therapeutic options based upon targeting the effects of these alterations are already in clinical trials.

  17. Phenomenological Description of Acoustic Emission Processes Occurring During High-Pressure Sand Compaction

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    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea; Grande-García, Elisa; Rodríguez-Cedrún, Borja

    2016-04-01

    Compaction, pore collapse and grain crushing have a significant impact over the hydrodynamic properties of sand formations. The assessment of the crushing stress threshold constitutes valuable information in order to assess the behavior of these formations provided that it can be conveniently identified. Because of the inherent complexities of the direct observation of sand crushing, different authors have developed several indirect methods, being acoustic emission a promising one. However, previous researches have evidenced that there are different processes triggering acoustic emissions which need to be carefully accounted. Worth mentioning among them are grain bearing, grain to container friction, intergranular friction and crushing. The work presented here addresses this purpose. A broadband acoustic emission sensor (PA MicroHF200) connected to a high-speed data acquisition system and control software (AeWIN for PCI1 2.10) has been attached to a steel ram and used to monitor the different processes occurring during the oedometric compaction of uniform quartz sand up to an axial load of about 110 MPa and constant temperature. Load was stepwise applied using a servocontrolled hydraulic press acting at a constant load rate. Axial strain was simultaneously measured with the aid of a LDT device. Counts, energy, event duration, rise time and amplitude were recorded along each experiment and after completion selected waveforms were transformed from the time to the frequency domain via FFT transform. Additional simplified tests were performed in order to isolate the frequency characteristics of the dominant processes occurring during sand compaction. Our results show that, from simple tests, it is possible to determine process-dependent frequency components. When considering more complex experiments, many of the studied processes overlap but it is still possible to identify when a particular one dominates as well as the likely onset of crushing.

  18. Microbiological contamination and resistance genes in biofilms occurring during the drinking water treatment process.

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    Farkas, Anca; Butiuc-Keul, Anca; Ciatarâş, Dorin; Neamţu, Călin; Crăciunaş, Cornelia; Podar, Dorina; Drăgan-Bularda, Mihail

    2013-01-15

    Biofilms are the predominant mode of microbial growth in drinking water systems. A dynamic exchange of individuals occurs between the attached and planktonic populations, while lateral gene transfer mediates genetic exchange in these bacterial communities. Integrons are important vectors for the spread of antimicrobial resistance. The presence of class 1 integrons (intI1, qac and sul genes) was assessed in biofilms occurring throughout the drinking water treatment process. Isolates from general and specific culture media, covering a wide range of environmental bacteria, fecal indicators and opportunistic pathogens were tested. From 96 isolates tested, 9.37% were found to possess genetic determinants of putative antimicrobial resistance, and these occurred in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Class 1 integron integrase gene was present in 8.33% of bacteria, all positive for the qacEΔ1 gene. The sul1 gene was present in 3.12% of total isolates, representing 37.5% of the class 1 integron positive cells. The present study shows that biofilm communities in a drinking water treatment plant are a reservoir of class 1 integrons, mainly in bacteria that may be associated with microbiological contamination. Eight out of nine integron bearing strains (88.8%) were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing as either enteric bacteria or species that may be connected to animal and anthropogenic disturbance.

  19. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddow, H. [Geoscience Building, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: h.l.beddow@reading.ac.uk; Black, S. [Geoscience Building, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Read, D. [Enterpris Ltd., Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Old Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by {sup 238}U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations ({<=}8.8 Bq/g) of {sup 238}U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels ({<=}11 Bq/g) of {sup 226}Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  20. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD

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    Paul Frewen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A “4-D model” was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC. Methods: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD with (n=126 versus without (n=132 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Results: As measured by the Borderline Symptom List, consistent with the predictions of the 4-D model, in comparison with symptom endorsements theorized to be associated with NWC, measures of TRASC were less frequent, and more strongly correlated with both Dissociative Experience Scale scores and severity of childhood emotional neglect, particularly in persons with both BPD and PTSD. Our prediction that symptoms of TRASC would be less intercorrelated in comparison with distress associated with NWC symptoms, however, was not supported. Conclusions: Findings are discussed as they pertain to the symptomatology of BPD, PTSD, and dissociation.

  1. An altered antioxidant balance occurs in Down syndrome fetal organs: implications for the "gene dosage effect" hypothesis.

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    de Haan, J B; Susil, B; Pritchard, M; Kola, I

    2003-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the congenital birth defect responsible for the greatest number of individuals with mental retardation. It arises due to trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) or part thereof. To date there have been limited studies of HSA21 gene expression in trisomy 21 conceptuses. In this study we investigate the expression of the HSA21 antioxidant gene, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) in various organs of control and DS aborted conceptuses. We show that SOD1 mRNA levels are elevated in DS brain, lung, heart and thymus. DS livers show decreased SOD1 mRNA expression compared with controls. Since non-HSA21 antioxidant genes are reported to be concomitantly upregulated in certain DS tissues, we examined the expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) in control and DS fetal organs. Interestingly, GPX1 expression was unchanged in the majority of DS organs and decreased in DS livers. We examined the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio in individual organs, as both enzymes form part of the body's defense against oxidative stress, and because a disproportionate increase of SOD1 to GPX1 results in noxious hydroxyl radical damage. All organs investigated show an approximately 2-fold increase in the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio. We propose that it is the altered antioxidant ratio that contributes to certain aspects of the DS phenotype.

  2. Alteration of substrate specificity by a naturally-occurring aldolase B mutation (Ala337-->Val) in fructose intolerance.

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    Rellos, P; Ali, M; Vidailhet, M; Sygusch, J; Cox, T M

    1999-05-15

    A molecular analysis of human aldolase B genes in two newborn infants and a 4-year-old child with hereditary fructose intolerance, the offspring of a consanguineous union, has identified the novel mutation Ala337-->Val in homozygous form. This mutation was also detected independently in two other affected individuals who were compound heterozygotes for the prevalent aldolase B allele, Ala149-->Pro, indicating that the mutation causes aldolase B deficiency. To test for the effect of the mutation, catalytically active wild-type human aldolase B and the Val337 variant enzyme were expressed in Escherichia coli. The specific activities of the wild-type recombinant enzyme were 4.8 units/mg and 4.5 units/mg towards fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and fructose 1-phosphate (F-1-P) as substrates with Michaelis constants of 4 microM and 2.4 mM respectively. The specific activities of purified tetrameric Val337 aldolase B, which affects an invariant residue in the C-terminal region, were 4.2 units/mg and 2.6 units/mg towards FBP and F-1-P as substrates respectively; the corresponding Michaelis constants were 22 microM and 24 mM. The FBP-to-F-1-P substrate activity ratios were 0.98 and 1.63 for wild-type and Val337 variant enzymes respectively. The Val337 mutant aldolase had an increased susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage in E. coli and rapidly lost activity on storage. Comparative CD determinations showed that the Val337 protein had a distinct thermal denaturation profile with markedly decreased enthalpy, indicating that the mutant protein is partly unfolded. The undegraded mutant had preferentially decreased affinity and activity towards its specific F-1-P substrate and maintained appreciable activity towards FBP. In contrast, fluorescence studies of the mutant showed an increased binding affinity for products of the aldolase reaction, indicating a role for the C-terminus in mediating product release. These findings in a rare but widespread naturally occurring mutant

  3. Maltivariate Analysis of the Occurring Process of Skeletonema costatum Red Tide in the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀清; 蒋晓山; 陶然; 洪君超

    2001-01-01

    Using the SAS software, the data of environmental factors vs. red tide biomass were analysed during the process of Skeletonema costatum red tide which broke out in the Changjiang Estuary on June 9~15, 1990. The results of the multivariate statistical analysis show that the environmental factors are similar in their developing and maintenance periods and that the values of environmental factors begin to be restored to normal levels during the disappearing period.The results obtained from using the methods of correlation, variable cluster and main component analyses are basically identical. The important factors contributing to the occurrence of this red tide are atmospherical pressure, water temperature, salinity, pH, No3-, -N, Po43--P and Fe, among which,salinity, Fe and PO43--P are the leading factors which have triggered the occurrence of the red tide as determined by the step-by-step regression analysis. Meanwhile, the linear discrimination functions have been established for the red tide. The environmental factor data of another occurring process of Skeletonema costatum red tide in the Changjiang Estuary have been chosen for red tide discrimination with satisfactory results.

  4. Impaired information processing triggers altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, M

    2002-04-01

    Schizophrenia, intoxication with tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-THC), and cannabis psychosis induce characteristic time and space distortions suggesting a common psychotic dysfunction. Since genetic research into schizophrenia has led into disappointing dead ends, the present study is focusing on this phenotype. It is shown that information theory can account for the dynamical basis of higher sensorimotor information processing and consciousness under physiologic as well as pathologic conditions. If Kolmogorov entropy (inherent in the processing of action and time) breaks down in acute psychosis, it is predicted that Shannon entropy (inherent in the processing of higher dimensional perception) will increase, provoking positive symptoms and altered states of consciousness. In the search for candidate genes and the protection of vulnerable individuals from cannabis abuse, non-linear EEG analysis of Kolmogorov information could thus present us with a novel diagnostic tool to directly assess the breakdown of information processing in schizophrenia.

  5. Sustainability and the anthropogenic alteration of evolutionary processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Persuasive evidence indicates that Earth is now experiencing a major biotic crisis. Even if humankind ceases severe stress on natural systems, the crisis will probably disrupt the basic evolutionary processes that characterized the period preceding the agricultural and industrial revolutions.Proliferation of drug and pesticide resistant species and opportunistic species that thrive in human-dominated ecosystems will become increasingly common. The effect on humankind of altering basic evolutionary processes is uncertain because the understanding of these processes is not robust. The probable result will not be an environment as favorable to humans as the one that has existed for most of human history. Humans probably have altered the environment since Homo sapiens first appeared. However, only in the last two centuries has the degree and rate of change reached levels now considered by many people to be ‘normal’, even though the record shows they are not.Greatly improved technology has facilitated increased exploitation of natural resources to unsustainablelevels. This exploitation, in turn, has led to exponential human population growth, which has depleted natural capital (living systems and the services they provide. Economic globalization has ensured that ecosystems far distant from consumers can be and are profitably exploited. Economicgrowth has become a universal mantra that is coupled with a conviction that such growth can continue indefinitely on a finite planet. A major paradigm shift is essential if sustainable use of the planet is to become a reality.

  6. Prenatal IV Cocaine: Alterations in Auditory Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Mactutus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One clue regarding the basis of cocaine-induced deficits in attentional processing is provided by the clinical findings of changes in the infants’ startle response; observations buttressed by neurophysiological evidence of alterations in brainstem transmission time. Using the IV route of administration and doses that mimic the peak arterial levels of cocaine use in humans, the present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine on auditory information processing via tests of the acoustic startle response (ASR, habituation, and prepulse inhibition (PPI in the offspring. Nulliparous Long-Evans female rats, implanted with an IV access port prior to breeding, were administered saline, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/injection of cocaine HCL (COC from gestation day (GD8-20 (1x/day-GD8-14, 2x/day-GD15-20. COC had no significant effects on maternal/litter parameters or growth of the offspring. At 18-20 days of age, one male and one female, randomly selected from each litter displayed an increased ASR (>30% for males at 1.0 mg/kg and >30% for females at 3.0 mg/kg. When reassessed in adulthood (D90-100, a linear dose-response increase was noted on response amplitude. At both test ages, within-session habituation was retarded by prenatal cocaine treatment. Testing the females in diestrus vs. estrus did not alter the results. Prenatal cocaine altered the PPI response function across interstimulus interval (ISI and induced significant sex-dependent changes in response latency. Idazoxan, an alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ASR, but less enhancement was noted with increasing doses of prenatal cocaine. Thus, in utero exposure to cocaine, when delivered via a protocol designed to capture prominent features of recreational usage, causes persistent, if not permanent, alterations in auditory information processing, and suggests dysfunction of the central noradrenergic circuitry modulating, if not mediating, these responses.

  7. Betaine suppressed Aβ generation by altering amyloid precursor protein processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Ping; Qian, Xiang; Xie, Yue; Qi, Yan; Peng, Min-Feng; Zhan, Bi-Cui; Lou, Zheng-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Betaine was an endogenous catabolite of choline, which could be isolated from vegetables and marine products. Betaine could promote the metabolism of homocysteine in healthy subjects and was used for hyperlipidemia, coronary atherosclerosis, and fatty liver in clinic. Recent findings shown that Betaine rescued neuronal damage due to homocysteine induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) like pathological cascade, including tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. Aβ was derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and was a triggering factor for AD pathological onset. Here, we demonstrated that Betaine reduced Aβ levels by altering APP processing in N2a cells stably expressing Swedish mutant of APP. Betaine increased α-secretase activity, but decreased β-secretase activity. Our data indicate that Betaine might play a protective role in Aβ production.

  8. Altered lipid composition in cortical lipid rafts occurs at early stages of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and facilitates APP/BACE1 interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Marín, Raquel; Moreno, Dolores; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2014-08-01

    The presence of lipid alterations in lipid rafts from the frontal cortex in late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been recently demonstrated. Here, we have isolated and analyzed the lipid composition of lipid rafts from different brain areas from control and AD subjects at initial neuropathologic stages. We have observed that frontal cortex lipid rafts are profoundly altered in AD brains from the earliest stages of AD, namely AD I/II. These changes in the lipid matrix of lipid rafts affected both lipid classes and fatty acids and were also detected in the entorhinal cortex, but not in the cerebellum from the same subjects. Paralleling these changes, lipid rafts from AD frontal and entorhinal cortices displayed higher anisotropy for environment-sensitive probes, indicating that lipid changes in AD lipid rafts increased membrane order and viscosity in these domains. The pathophysiological consequences of these alterations in the development and progression of AD were strengthened by the significant, and specific, accumulation of β-secretase within the lipid rafts of AD subjects even at the earliest stages. Our results provide a mechanistic connection between lipid alterations in these microdomains and amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein.

  9. Altered lateralisation of emotional prosody processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R; Herdener, Marcus; Grandjean, Didier; Sander, David; Seifritz, Erich; Strik, Werner K

    2009-05-01

    Alterations of cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenia have been reported consistently, and a reduced left-lateralisation has been suggested for language functions. Speech contains non-verbal information, e.g. prosody, and on a behavioural level, the extraction of emotional information from prosody is often impaired in schizophrenia. A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study suggests increased left-lateralisation in schizophrenia during prosody processing, but did not disentangle effects of speech processing as such and emotional prosody processing. Here, we used meaningless syllables spoken with neutral, angry or fearful speech melody and measured blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in 15 in-patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants matched for age and gender. Lateralisation indices were calculated for responses to emotional versus neutral prosody, and for all types of prosody versus baseline. Compared to control participants, patients with schizophrenia showed an increased right-lateralisation of emotional and non-emotional prosody processing in the temporal and parietal cortex. This right-lateralisation was increased in patients with reduced right-handedness and decreased in patients with stronger negative symptoms, particularly affective blunting, and with longer hospitalisation. Although patients with schizophrenia performed worse in emotion identification, this deficit was not related to lateralisation indices. Enhanced right-lateralisation to prosody resembles previous findings on laterality changes in speech processing and might suggest a common underlying cause in the organization of language functions.

  10. Phase matching alters spatial multiphoton processes in dense atomic ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Leszczyński, Adam; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton processes in dense atomic vapors such as four-wave mixing or coherent blue light generation are typically viewed from single-atom perspective. Here we study the surprisingly important effect of phase matching near two-photon resonances that arises due to spatial extent of the atomic medium within which the multiphoton process occurs. The non-unit refractive index of the atomic vapor may inhibit generation of light in nonlinear processes, significantly shift the efficiency maxima in frequencies and redirect emitted beam. We present these effects on an example of four-wave mixing in dense rubidium vapors in a double-ladder configuration. By deriving a simple theory that takes into account essential spatial properties of the process, we give precise predictions and confirm their validity in the experiment. The model allows us to improve on the geometry of the experiment and engineer more efficient four-wave mixing.

  11. Phase matching alters spatial multiphoton processes in dense atomic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyński, Adam; Parniak, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2017-01-09

    Multiphoton processes in dense atomic vapors such as four-wave mixing or coherent blue light generation are typically viewed from single-atom perspective. Here we study the surprisingly important effect of phase matching near two-photon resonances that arises due to spatial extent of the atomic medium within which the multiphoton process occurs. The non-unit refractive index of the atomic vapor may inhibit generation of light in nonlinear processes, significantly shift the efficiency maxima in frequencies and redirect emitted beam. We present these effects on an example of four-wave mixing in dense rubidium vapors in a double-ladder configuration. By deriving a simple theory that takes into account essential spatial properties of the process, we give precise predictions and confirm their validity in the experiment. The model allows us to improve on the geometry of the experiment and engineer more efficient four-wave mixing.

  12. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection induces altered amphiregulin processing and release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Löfmark

    Full Text Available Adhesion of the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae has established effects on the host cell and evokes a variety of cellular events including growth factor activation. In the present study we report that infection with N. gonorrhoeae causes altered amphiregulin processing and release in human epithelial cells. Amphiregulin is a well-studied growth factor with functions in various cell processes and is upregulated in different forms cancer and proliferative diseases. The protein is prototypically cleaved on the cell surface in response to external stimuli. We demonstrate that upon infection, a massive upregulation of amphiregulin mRNA is seen. The protein changes its subcellular distribution and is also alternatively cleaved at the plasma membrane, which results in augmented release of an infection-specific 36 kDa amphiregulin product from the surface of human cervical epithelial cells. Further, using antibodies directed against different domains of the protein we could determine the impact of infection on pro-peptide processing. In summary, we present data showing that the infection of N. gonorrhoeae causes an alternative amphiregulin processing, subcellular distribution and release in human epithelial cervical cells that likely contribute to the predisposition cellular abnormalities and anti-apoptotic features of N. gonorrhoeae infections.

  13. Association with emotional information alters subsequent processing of neutral faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Lily; Fujioka, Takako; Chan, Jessica; McQuiggan, Douglas A; Anderson, Adam K; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2014-01-01

    The processing of emotional as compared to neutral information is associated with different patterns in eye movement and neural activity. However, the 'emotionality' of a stimulus can be conveyed not only by its physical properties, but also by the information that is presented with it. There is very limited work examining the how emotional information may influence the immediate perceptual processing of otherwise neutral information. We examined how presenting an emotion label for a neutral face may influence subsequent processing by using eye movement monitoring (EMM) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) simultaneously. Participants viewed a series of faces with neutral expressions. Each face was followed by a unique negative or neutral sentence to describe that person, and then the same face was presented in isolation again. Viewing of faces paired with a negative sentence was associated with increased early viewing of the eye region and increased neural activity between 600 and 1200 ms in emotion processing regions such as the cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, as well as posterior regions such as the precuneus and occipital cortex. Viewing of faces paired with a neutral sentence was associated with increased activity in the parahippocampal gyrus during the same time window. By monitoring behavior and neural activity within the same paradigm, these findings demonstrate that emotional information alters subsequent visual scanning and the neural systems that are presumably invoked to maintain a representation of the neutral information along with its emotional details.

  14. Chemical and Mineralogical Features of Smectite from the Morron de Mateo Bentonite Deposit (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) in Relation to the Parent Rocks and the Alteration Processes Occurred After the Bentonite Formation: Analogies and Implications for the Engineered Clayey Barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository; Naturaleza de las Esmectitas del Yacimiento de Morron de Mateo (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) en Relacion con la Roca Madre y con los Procesos Posteriores a la Bentonitizacion: Implicaciones Analogicas para la Barrera de Ingenieria de un Almacenamiento Geologico de Residuos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, M.; Labajo, M. A.; Garcia Romero, L.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2009-10-12

    The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on the clayey barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository (DGRR) after its closure, in relation to the radioactive decay of the fission products and the container corrosion. This bentonite deposit and their host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the bioclastic calcarenite beds close to the dome. Bentonite from the NE sector of the deposit have been chemically and mineralogically characterized. Pyroclastic rocks (white tuffs), epyclastic rocks (mass flow) and andesitic breccia all of them hydrothermally altered, have been studied at the site. Samples are composed of feldspars, quartz and amphybols, as inherited minerals, and phyllosilicates, zeolites, crystoballite and calcite, as new formed minerals. White tuffs have the highest phyllosilicate contents, mainly dioctahedral smectite of montmorillonite type. Epyclastic rocks and andesitic breccia have a highest proportion of inherited minerals, the new formed phillosilicates being di octahedral smectite of beidellite type and an ordered interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral, of corrensite type. Smectite from the epyclastic rocks have higher Fe and Mg contents and chemical variability, as a consequence of nature of their parent rocks. The presence of corrensite in the epyclastic rocks suggests that in the Morron de Mateo area a propilitic alteration process occurred after bentonite formation, which transformed Fe-Mg-rich smectite into corrensite. This transformation was probably favoured by the sub volcanic intrusion, which also produced a temperature increase in the geological media and a supply of Fe-Mg-rich solutions, which also were the responsible for the metasomatic transformations observed in the calcarenite beds. (Author) 57 refs.

  15. Altering automatic verbal processes with transcranial direct current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy D Vannorsdall

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Word retrieval during verbal fluency tasks utilizes both automatic and controlled cognitive processes. A distinction has been made between the generation of clusters and switches on verbal fluency tasks. Clusters, or the reporting of contiguous words within semantic or phonemic subcategories, are thought to reflect a relatively automatic processes In contrast, switching from one subcategory to another is thought to represent more controlled, effortful form of cognitive processing. Objective: In this single-blind experiment, we investigated whether tDCS can modify qualitative aspects of verbal fluency, such as clustering and switching, in healthy adults. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to receive 1mA of either anodal/excitatory or cathodal/inhibitory active tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex in addition to sham stimulation. In the last segment of each 30-minute session, participants completed letter- and category-cued fluency tasks.Results: Anodal tDCS increased both overall productivity and the number and proportion of words in clusters during category-guided verbal fluency, whereas cathodal stimulation produced the opposite effect. Conclusions: tDCS can selectively alter automatic aspects of speeded lexical retrieval in a polarity-dependent fashion during a category-guided fluency task.  

  16. Altered Auditory and Multisensory Temporal Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakye, Leslie D.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Cascio, Carissa J.; Stone, Wendy L.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficits in social reciprocity and communication, as well as by repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Unusual responses to sensory input and disruptions in the processing of both unisensory and multisensory stimuli also have been reported frequently. However, the specific aspects of sensory processing that are disrupted in ASD have yet to be fully elucidated. Recent published work has shown that children with ASD can integrate low-level audiovisual stimuli, but do so over an extended range of time when compared with typically developing (TD) children. However, the possible contributions of altered unisensory temporal processes to the demonstrated changes in multisensory function are yet unknown. In the current study, unisensory temporal acuity was measured by determining individual thresholds on visual and auditory temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks, and multisensory temporal function was assessed through a cross-modal version of the TOJ task. Whereas no differences in thresholds for the visual TOJ task were seen between children with ASD and TD, thresholds were higher in ASD on the auditory TOJ task, providing preliminary evidence for impairment in auditory temporal processing. On the multisensory TOJ task, children with ASD showed performance improvements over a wider range of temporal intervals than TD children, reinforcing prior work showing an extended temporal window of multisensory integration in ASD. These findings contribute to a better understanding of basic sensory processing differences, which may be critical for understanding more complex social and cognitive deficits in ASD, and ultimately may contribute to more effective diagnostic and interventional strategies. PMID:21258617

  17. Altered auditory and multisensory temporal processing in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie D Kwakye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by deficits in social reciprocity and communication, as well as repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Unusual responses to sensory input and disruptions in the processing of both unisensory and multisensory stimuli have also frequently been reported. However, the specific aspects of sensory processing that are disrupted in ASD have yet to be fully elucidated. Recent published work has shown that children with ASD can integrate low-level audiovisual stimuli, but do so over an extended range of time when compared with typically-developing (TD children. However, the possible contributions of altered unisensory temporal processes to the demonstrated changes in multisensory function are yet unknown. In the current study, unisensory temporal acuity was measured by determining individual thresholds on visual and auditory temporal order judgment (TOJ tasks, and multisensory temporal function was assessed through a cross-modal version of the TOJ task. Whereas no differences in thresholds for the visual TOJ task were seen between children with ASD and TD, thresholds were higher in ASD on the auditory TOJ task, providing preliminary evidence for impairment in auditory temporal processing. On the multisensory TOJ task, children with ASD showed performance improvements over a wider range of temporal intervals than TD children, reinforcing prior work showing an extended temporal window of multisensory integration in ASD. These findings contribute to a better understanding of basic sensory processing differences, which may be critical for understanding more complex social and cognitive deficits in ASD, and ultimately may contribute to more effective diagnostic and interventional strategies.

  18. Biochemical aspects of overtraining in endurance sports : the metabolism alteration process syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibois, Cyril; Cazorla, Georges; Poortmans, Jacques-Rémi; Déléris, Gérard

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that endurance overtraining could result from successive and cumulative alterations in metabolism, which become chronic during training. The onset of this process is a biochemical alteration in carbohydrate (saccharide) metabolism. During endurance exercises, the amount of saccharide chains from two blood glycoproteins (alpha(2)-macroglobulin and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein) was found to have decreased, i.e. concentrations of these proteins remained unchanged but their quality changed. These saccharide chains were probably used for burning liver glycogen stores during exercise. This step was followed by alterations in lipid metabolism. The most relevant aspect of this step was that the mean chain length of blood fatty acids decreased, i.e. the same amount of fatty acids were found within the blood, but overtrained individuals presented shorter fatty acids than well-trained individuals. This suggests that alterations appeared in the liver synthesis of long-chain fatty acids or that higher peroxidation of blood lipoparticles occurred. For the final step of this overtraining process, it was found that these dysfunctions in carbohydrate/lipid metabolism led to the higher use of amino acids, which probably resulted from protein catabolism. The evolution of three protein concentrations (alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, alpha(2)-macroglobulin and IgG(3)) correlated with this amino acid concentration increase, suggesting a specific catabolism of these proteins. At this time only, overtraining was clinically diagnosed through conventional symptoms. Therefore, this process described successive alterations in exercise metabolism that shifted from the main energetic stores of exercise (carbohydrates and lipids) towards molecular pools (proteins) normally not substantially used for the energetic supply of skeletal muscles. Now, a general biochemical model of the overtraining process may be proposed which includes most of the previously identified metabolic

  19. A Simple Reduction Process for the Normal Vibrational Modes Occurring in Linear Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerny, William

    2005-01-01

    The students in molecular spectroscopy courses are often required to determine the permitted normal vibrations for linear molecules that belong to particular groups. The reducible group representations generated by the use of Cartesian coordinates can be reduced by the use of a simple algebraic process applied to the group representations. The…

  20. Are volatility correlations in financial markets related to Omori processes occurring on all scales?

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, P; Stanley, H E; Vodenska-Chitkushev, I; Wang, F; Havlin, Shlomo; Vodenska-Chitkushev, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Weber, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the memory in volatility by studying volatility return intervals, defined as the time between two consecutive fluctuations larger than a given threshold, in time periods following stock market crashes. Such an aftercrash period is characterized by the Omori law, which describes the decay in the rate of aftershocks of a given size with time t by a power law with exponent close to 1. A shock followed by such a power law decay in the rate is here called Omori process. Studying several aftercrash time series, we show that the Omori law holds not only after significant market crashes, but also after ``intermediate shocks''. Moreover, we find self-similar features in the volatility. Specifically, within the aftercrash period there are smaller shocks that themselves constitute Omori processes on smaller scales, similar to the Omori process after the large crash. We call these smaller shocks subcrashes, which are followed by their own aftershocks. We also find similar Omori processes after intermediate cra...

  1. Prion replication occurs in endogenous adult neural stem cells and alters their neuronal fate: involvement of endogenous neural stem cells in prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroa Relaño-Ginès

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are irreversible progressive neurodegenerative diseases, leading to severe incapacity and death. They are characterized in the brain by prion amyloid deposits, vacuolisation, astrocytosis, neuronal degeneration, and by cognitive, behavioural and physical impairments. There is no treatment for these disorders and stem cell therapy therefore represents an interesting new approach. Gains could not only result from the cell transplantation, but also from the stimulation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSC or by the combination of both approaches. However, the development of such strategies requires a detailed knowledge of the pathology, particularly concerning the status of the adult neurogenesis and endogenous NSC during the development of the disease. During the past decade, several studies have consistently shown that NSC reside in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS and that adult neurogenesis occurs throughout the adulthood in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle or the Dentate Gyrus of the hippocampus. Adult NSC are believed to constitute a reservoir for neuronal replacement during normal cell turnover or after brain injury. However, the activation of this system does not fully compensate the neuronal loss that occurs during neurodegenerative diseases and could even contribute to the disease progression. We investigated here the status of these cells during the development of prion disorders. We were able to show that NSC accumulate and replicate prions. Importantly, this resulted in the alteration of their neuronal fate which then represents a new pathologic event that might underlie the rapid progression of the disease.

  2. The characteristics of the combustion process occurring under real operating conditions of traction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwic, R.; Sander, P.

    2016-09-01

    The authors deal with the issues of the Diesel engine under dynamic conditions. The conditions of the dynamic operation of the engine have most frequently been mapped by the method of free acceleration of the engine caused by the change of the position of the fuel dose lever. The article presents the results of indication of the traction Diesel engine under real operating conditions. This allows for the use of a mobile system to indicate the AVL engine built in the vehicle in research. We analysed a number of thermodynamic parameters of the combustion process in various dynamic states, typical for the process of actual operation of the engine, such as working in start-up conditions and immediately after, working in conditions of acceleration and coasting. Formulated conclusions significantly expand the area of knowledge concerning the functioning of the internal combustion engine in dynamic conditions.

  3. Biomineralization process occurring in iron mud of coastal seepase area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZiJun; JIA Nan; YUAN LinXi; SUN LiGuang

    2008-01-01

    The biomineralization process of iron oxidizing bacteria and its influence on accumulation of metals were investigated by modern biological observation techniques (i.e., SEM and TEM) and geochemical methods, in coastal area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang province where a thick ancient wood layers were buried, Results show that the iron mud samples mainly contain Leptothrix-like sheaths and Gal-lionella-like stalks, which are known as neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria. These two bacteria are present as obviously different abundance in two sampling sites, which may be regulated by the geo-chemistry of seepage water. The biomineralization product of iron oxidizing bacteria is ferrihydrite, a poorly ordered iron oxide, and formation of amorphous mineral is affected by the factors of bacteria, minor Si and temperature preventing any further transformation into more crystalline phases. Organic functional groups, extracellular polymers and surface charges can provide favorable nucleation sites or template for formation of iron precipitates on the bacterial surface. The mineralization process of the iron oxidizing bacteria is divided into different stages,i.e., extracellular mineralization, intracellular mineralization and the whole cell mineralization. Furthermore, due to BIOS containing the bacterial organic matter, the accumulation capacity of metals specially Fe and Co is highly increased, suggest-ing that BIOS exert a degree of controlling in the cycling of metal elements in seepage area.

  4. Biodestructive processes occurring in the organic matter of lowland peat in the arctic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarovskaya, L. I.; Altunina, L. K.; Serebrennikova, O. V.

    2016-11-01

    A model experiment was carried on in laboratory conditions. The biodestruction of organic matter was studied using lowland peat samples collected in Kolguev Island in Barents Sea. Here the purpose was to obtain information about the species range and the activity of bacterial complex involved in the destruction processes of lowland peat organic matter from the natural environment by simulating the Arctic zone climate. The species range is found to include bacteria dominant species, i.e. Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. In order to stimulate the biodestruction of organic matter, inoculate was added to the culture medium containing peat; its composition and dose were determined by the trial-and-error method. The catalytic activity of bacterial ferments was initiated in the presence of inoculate; hence, the desired effect was achieved. The composition of the organic matter of bacterial biomass and peat was analyzed by the method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  5. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: a tutorial on the i(V e) profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Doe W.; Bhadra, Narendra; Hudak, Eric M.; Kelley, Shawn C.; Untereker, Darrel F.; Mortimer, J. Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this tutorial is to encourage members of the neuroprosthesis community to incorporate electron transfer processes into their thinking and provide them with the tools to do so when they design and work with neurostimulating devices. The focus of this article is on platinum because it is the most used electrode metal for devices in commercial use. The i(V e) profile or cyclic voltammogram contains information about electron transfer processes that can occur when the electrode-electrolyte interface, V e, is at a specific potential, and assumed to be near steady-state conditions. For the engineer/designer this means that if the potential is not in the range of a specific electron transfer process, that process cannot occur. An i(V e) profile, recorded at sweep rates greater than 0.1 mVs-1, approximates steady-state conditions. Rapid transient potential excursions, like that seen with neural stimulation pulses, may be too fast for the reaction to occur, however, this means that if the potential is in the range of a specific electron transfer process it may occur and should be considered. The approach described here can be used to describe the thermodynamic electron transfer processes on other candidate electrode metals, e.g. stainless steel, iridium, carbon-based, etc.

  6. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: a tutorial on the i(V e) profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Doe W; Bhadra, Narendra; Hudak, Eric M; Kelley, Shawn C; Untereker, Darrel F; Mortimer, J Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this tutorial is to encourage members of the neuroprosthesis community to incorporate electron transfer processes into their thinking and provide them with the tools to do so when they design and work with neurostimulating devices. The focus of this article is on platinum because it is the most used electrode metal for devices in commercial use. The i(V e) profile or cyclic voltammogram contains information about electron transfer processes that can occur when the electrode-electrolyte interface, V e, is at a specific potential, and assumed to be near steady-state conditions. For the engineer/designer this means that if the potential is not in the range of a specific electron transfer process, that process cannot occur. An i(V e) profile, recorded at sweep rates greater than 0.1 mVs(-1), approximates steady-state conditions. Rapid transient potential excursions, like that seen with neural stimulation pulses, may be too fast for the reaction to occur, however, this means that if the potential is in the range of a specific electron transfer process it may occur and should be considered. The approach described here can be used to describe the thermodynamic electron transfer processes on other candidate electrode metals, e.g. stainless steel, iridium, carbon-based, etc.

  7. Epicatechin gallate, a naturally occurring polyphenol, alters the course of infection with β-lactam-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the zebrafish embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina S Stevens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available (--epicatechin gallate (ECg substantially modifies the properties of Staphylococcus aureus and reversibly abrogates β-lactam resistance in methicillin/oxacillin resistant (MRSA isolates. We have determined the capacity of ECg to alter the course of infection in zebrafish embryos challenged with epidemic clinical isolate EMRSA-16. At 30 hours post fertilization (hpf, embryos were infected by injection of 1-5 × 103 colony forming units (CFU of EMRSA-16 into the circulation valley or yolk sac. Infection by yolk sac injection was lethal with a challenge dose above 3 × 103 CFU, with no survivors at 70 hpf . In contrast, survival at 70 hpf after injection into the circulation was 83% and 44% following challenge with 3 × 103 and 1-5 × 103 CFU respectively. No significant increases in survival were noted when infected embryos were maintained in medium containing 12.5-100 µg/mL ECg with or without 4 or 16 µg/mL oxacillin. However, when EMRSA-16 was grown in medium containing 12.5 µg/mL ECg and the bacteria used to infect embryos by either the circulation valley or yolk sac, there were significant increases in embryo survival in both the presence and absence of oxacillin. ECg-modified and unmodified, GFP-transformed EMRSA-16 bacteria were visualized within phagocytic cells in the circulation and yolk sac; pre-treatment with ECg also significantly increased induction of the respiratory burst and suppressed increases in IL-1β expression typical of infection with untreated EMRSA-16. We conclude that exposure to ECg prior to infection reduces the lethality of EMRSA-16, renders cells more susceptible to elimination by immune processes and compromises their capacity to establish an inflammatory response in comparison to non-exposed bacteria.

  8. THE TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES INVOLVING MOTOR SKILLS THAT OCCUR UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF BASIC PRELIMINARY TRAINING IN YOUNG HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Sasa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The population from which we extracted a sample of 76 subjects consisted of elementary school students in Kursumlija, all male, aged 12-13, who were divided into a sub-sample consisting of 38 young handball players who took part in the training sessions of a school of handball and another sub-sample consisting of 38 non-athletes, who only took part in their regular physical education classes. The aim of the research was to determine the transformation processes involving motor skills, which occur under the influence of basic preliminary training in young handball players. The subject matter of the study was to examine whether a statistically significant increase in the level of motor skills would occur under the influence of physical exercise as part of basic preliminary training in the final as compared to the initial state. Six motor tests which define the dimensions of explosive and repetitive strength were used. The results of the research indicate that significant transformational processes involving the motor skills of young handball players occurred in the final as compared to the initial measuring, under the influence of basic preliminary training.

  9. Assessment of alteration processes on circumstellar and interstellar grains in Queen Alexandra Range 97416

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Maitrayee; Zega, Thomas J.; Williams, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Insight into the presolar and interstellar grain inventory of the CO3 chondrite Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 97416 is gained through correlated secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Only one presolar silicate grain [O17/O16=(9.96±0.75)×10-4; O18/O16=(19.49±0.96)×10-4] that may have formed in a low-mass Red Giant or Asymptotic Giant Branch star occurs in the coarse-grained matrix of QUE 97416. No other presolar grains were identified. Although presolar grains are rare in QUE 97416, numerous (898±259 ppm) 15N-rich domains (δN15∼+1447‰ to +3069‰) occur in the thin section. Based on TEM of an extracted section, two 15N-rich domains are amorphous, C-bearing, and texturally uniform, and they are embedded in a ferromagnesian silicate matrix with varied grain sizes. The individual 15N-rich organic regions with high δN15 (+2942±107‰ and +2341±140‰) exhibit diverse carbon functional groups, such as aromatic, vinyl-keto, amidyl, and carboxylic functionality, while the nitrogen XANES reveals traces of nitrile functionality. QUE 97416 appears to have escaped aqueous alteration based on the absence of hydrated minerals but is thermally altered, which could have resulted in the destruction of presolar grains. However, this process at >400 °C metamorphic temperatures was inefficient in destroying the carriers of N isotope anomalies, which may indicate the resistant nature of the organic carriers and/or the limited extent of thermal metamorphism on the QUE 97416 parent body.

  10. Early Visual Deprivation Alters Multisensory Processing in Peripersonal Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Olivier; Charbonneau, Genevieve; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepore, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Multisensory peripersonal space develops in a maturational process that is thought to be influenced by early sensory experience. We investigated the role of vision in the effective development of audiotactile interactions in peripersonal space. Early blind (EB), late blind (LB) and sighted control (SC) participants were asked to lateralize…

  11. Alterations of Cloud Microphysics Due to Cloud Processed CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Tabor, S. S.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution CCN spectra have revealed bimodality (Hudson et al. 2015) similar to aerosol size spectra (e.g., Hoppel et al. 1985). Bimodality is caused by chemical and physical cloud processes that increase mass or hygroscopicity of only CCN that produced activated cloud droplets. Bimodality is categorized by relative CCN concentrations (NCCN) within the two modes, Nu-Np; i.e., NCCN within the higher critical supersaturation, Sc, mode that did not undergo cloud processing minus NCCN within the lower Sc mode that was cloud processed. Lower, especially negative, Nu-Np designates greater processing. The table shows regressions between Nu-Np and characteristics of clouds nearest the CCN measurements. ICE-T MASE parameter R SL R SL Nc 0.17 93.24 -0.26 98.65 MD -0.31 99.69 0.33 99.78 σ -0.27 99.04 0.48 100.00 Ld -0.31 99.61 0.38 99.96 Table. Correlation coefficients, R, and one-tailed significance levels in percent, SL, for Nu-Np with microphysics of the clouds closest to each CCN measurement, 75 ICE-T and 74 MASE cases. Nc is cloud droplet concentration, MD is cloud droplet mean diameter, σ is standard deviation of cloud droplet spectra, Ldis drizzle drop LWC. Two aircraft field campaigns, Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) and Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) show opposite R signs because coalescence dominated cloud processing in low altitude ICE-T cumuli whereas chemical transformations predominated in MASE low altitude polluted stratus. Coalescence reduces Nc and NCCN, which thus increases MD, and σ, which promote Ld. Chemical transformations, e.g., SO2 to SO4, increase CCN hygroscopicity, thus reducing Sc, but not affecting Nc or NCCN. Lower Sc CCN are capable of producing greater Nc in subsequent cloud cycles, which leads to lower MD and σ which reduce Ld (figure). These observations are consistent with cloud droplet growth models for the higher vertical wind (W) of cumuli and lower W of stratus. Coalescence thus reduces the indirect

  12. Marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA): Quantifying processes in the sea at the spatio-temporal scales on which they occur

    KAUST Repository

    Godøl, Olav Rune

    2014-07-22

    Sustainable management of fisheries resources requires quantitative knowledge and understanding of species distribution, abundance, and productivity-determining processes. Conventional sampling by physical capture is inconsistent with the spatial and temporal scales on which many of these processes occur. In contrast, acoustic observations can be obtained on spatial scales from centimetres to ocean basins, and temporal scales from seconds to seasons. The concept of marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA) is founded on the basic capability of acoustics to detect, classify, and quantify organisms and biological and physical heterogeneities in the water column. Acoustics observations integrate operational technologies, platforms, and models and can generate information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology with advanced operational capabilities and tailored modelling integrated into a flexible tool for ecosystem research and monitoring. Case studies are presented to illustrate application of the MEA concept in quantification of biophysical coupling, patchiness of organisms, predator-prey interactions, and fish stock recruitment processes. Widespread implementation of MEA will have a large impact on marine monitoring and assessment practices and it is to be hoped that they also promote and facilitate interaction among disciplines within the marine sciences.

  13. Deformation- and temperature-related processes that occur upon the collapse of a thick cylindrical shell made of steel 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zel'dovich, V. I.; Frolova, N. Yu.; Kheifets, A. E.; Dolgikh, S. M.; Gaan, K. V.; Shorokhov, E. V.

    2015-03-01

    An experiment has been performed on the collapse of a thick steel cylindrical shell into a continuous cylinder under the action of a sliding detonation wave. The process of the collapse has been recorded via X-ray photography, and it has been found that the time of collapse in one section is equal to 30 μs. The average degree of deformation is 77% and the rate of deformation is 104 s-1. The structure of steel 20 in the transverse section of the cylinder consists of three zones. In the outer zone, the initial ferrite-pearlite structure changes under the effect of compressive shock wave and localized shears. The shock wave leads to the formation of a high-pressure ɛ phase and twins. Upon the subsequent inertial collapse of the shell, substantial shear deformations arise in the surface layer, which are localized in directions located at angles of 60° to the cylindrical surface. The structure of the middle zone changes under the action of severe plastic deformation, which occurs predominantly in the radial direction. The deformation leads to the appearance of an internal pressure and to an increase in the temperature. As a result of the action of three factors (pressure, temperature, and deformation), the temperature of the formation of austenite decreases by several hundred kelvins. In the free ferrite, an α → γ transformation occurs and quenching takes place following a subsequent sharp decrease in pressure (barothermic quenching). The pearlitic regions suffer plastic deformation. The microhardness of the steel with this structure is equal to the microhardness of quenched steel. The structure of the third, i.e., central, zone, changes under the action of a significant increase in temperature caused by the further increase in the degree of deformation. The complete transformation of ferrite into austenite occurs at the center of this zone, which means that the temperature in this zone reaches 850-900°C or greater. The microhardness decreases to values typical

  14. Timescales of magma processes occurred prior to recent Campi Flegrei caldera eruptions: first results from diffusion profiles on plagioclase phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Massimo; Arienzo, Ilenia; Fedele, Lorenzo; Iovine, Raffaella; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Civetta, Lucia; Orsi, Giovanni; Wörner, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the timescales of magma rising and stagnation, as well as mingling/mixing processes occurring in the shallow plumbing system of an active volcano is crucial for volcanic hazard assessment and risk mitigation. Among few recently developed methodologies, high-precision, high spatial resolution analysis of major-, minor- and trace elements on zoned phenocrysts through electron microprobe techniques represents a powerful tool to provide good estimates of timescales of pre-eruptive magma rising, stagnation and/or mingling/mixing processes. To this purpose, volcanic rock samples of trachytic composition representative of the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (4.7 ka CAL BP) occurred at the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy) have been selected. The investigation has been carried out in the framework of Project V2 - Precursori di Eruzioni, funded by the Italian Dipartimento per la Protezione Civile - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The investigated rock samples are pumice fragments from which double-polished, 100 µm thick thin sections have been prepared for analytical purposes. Back-scattered electrons (BSE) images have been acquired at the scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to identify the plagioclase phenocrysts suitable to be analyzed successively, selected among those that best display their zoning. After a careful observation of the BSE images, major-, minor- and selected trace element contents have been determined through combined energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive system electron microprobe analyses (EDS-WDS-EMPA) on transects crossing the growth zones of the selected phenocrysts. This methodology has allowed reconstructing the diffusion profile of some key-elements through the growth zones of the investigated phenocrysts. Successively, the diffusion profiles have been combined with textural features obtained through BSE images in order to obtain diffusion models aimed at estimating the timescales of crystals

  15. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  16. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  17. Effects of Rhythmic and Melodic Alterations and Selected Musical Experiences on Rhythmic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sink, Patricia E.

    1984-01-01

    Study showed that music listening habits and preferences and instrument training may affect ways an individual processes the multiple dimensions of rhythm. Apparent alterations in tempo, duration and pitch characteristics, rhythmic and melodic phrase patterning, and monotony may serve as organizers of rhythmic processing. (Author/RM)

  18. Floodplain geomorphic processes and environmental impacts of human alteration along coastal plain rivers, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, C.R.; Pierce, A.R.; Noe, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    Human alterations along stream channels and within catchments have affected fluvial geomorphic processes worldwide. Typically these alterations reduce the ecosystem services that functioning floodplains provide; in this paper we are concerned with the sediment and associated material trapping service. Similarly, these alterations may negatively impact the natural ecology of floodplains through reductions in suitable habitats, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. Dams, stream channelization, and levee/canal construction are common human alterations along Coastal Plain fluvial systems. We use three case studies to illustrate these alterations and their impacts on floodplain geomorphic and ecological processes. They include: 1) dams along the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina, 2) stream channelization in west Tennessee, and 3) multiple impacts including canal and artificial levee construction in the central Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. Human alterations typically shift affected streams away from natural dynamic equilibrium where net sediment deposition is, approximately, in balance with net erosion. Identification and understanding of critical fluvial parameters (e.g., stream gradient, grain-size, and hydrography) and spatial and temporal sediment deposition/erosion process trajectories should facilitate management efforts to retain and/or regain important ecosystem services. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  19. Selective translational repression of HIV-1 RNA by Sam68DeltaC occurs by altering PABP1 binding to unspliced viral RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soros Vanessa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 structural proteins are translated from incompletely spliced 9 kb and 4 kb mRNAs, which are transported to the cytoplasm by Crm1. It has been assumed that once in the cytoplasm, translation of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs occurs in the same manner as host mRNAs. Previous analyses have demonstrated that Sam68 and a mutant thereof, Sam68ΔC, have dramatic effects on HIV gene expression, strongly enhancing and inhibiting viral structural protein synthesis, respectively. While investigating the inhibition of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs by Sam68ΔC, we determined that the effect was independent of the perinuclear bundling of the viral RNA. Inhibition was dependent upon the nuclear export pathway used, as translation of viral RNA exported via the Tap/CTE export pathway was not blocked by Sam68ΔC. We demonstrate that inhibition of HIV expression by Sam68ΔC is correlated with a loss of PABP1 binding with no attendant change in polyadenosine tail length of the affected RNAs. The capacity of Sam68ΔC to selectively inhibit translation of HIV-1 RNAs exported by Crm1 suggests that it is able to recognize unique characteristics of these viral RNPs, a property that could lead to new therapeutic approaches to controlling HIV-1 replication.

  20. Alteration processes in igneous rocks of the michilla mining area, coastal range, northern chile, and their relation with copper mineralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, V.; Aguirre, L.; Townley, B.

    2003-04-01

    A 10 km thick homoclinal sequence of intermediate volcanic and sedimentary Jurassic rocks crops out in the Michilla mining area, Coastal Range, northern Chile (22-22°45S, 70-70°15W). Cretaceous plutons, intermediate to acid in composition, intrude this sequence together with numerous small basic to acid dykes and stocks. Main deposits are stratabound Cu-(Ag) with the ore minerals emplaced at the porous tops of the volcanic flows. However, some discordant orebodies, e.g. hydrothermal breccias, exist within the manto-type deposits. The volcanic sequence, and a minor part of the plutonic rocks, have been affected by three different alteration processes, each of them with their distinct mineral assemblages reflecting that every process was developed under different physicochemical conditions. The volcanic rocks far from the mining area are affected by a regional scale alteration process, basically isochemical. Its products are typical of a low-grade event: chl + ep +qtz + ttn (+- ab +- cal) with no ore minerals associated. The temperature interval, estimated by the chlorite geothermometer, ranges between 250 and 350°C. This alteration is either due to very low grade burial metamorphism or to hydrothermalism related to the Late Jurassic - Cretaceous plutonism. Inside the mining district the volcanic rocks are affected by a local scale alteration process originated by the intrusion of small stocks and dykes. This event is characterized by strong sodic metasomatism and minor Mg mobility. Two stages probably occurred as suggested by the two main mineral assemblages present, a propylitic (ab + ep + chl + act + ttn + qtz) and a quartz-sericitic one (ab + ser + qtz + tnn). They would reflect the changes in temperature, water/rock ratio and pH conditions during the whole process. Ore minerals related to this alteration are chalcopyrite, chalcocite and minor bornite and native silver. A temperature interval of 200-300°C is indicated by the chlorite geothermometer for the

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF INNOVATION IN THE PERFORMANCE OF IPO PROCESSES THAT OCCURRED IN BRAZIL DURING THE LAST DECADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a challenge sought by all economically developed societies. National systems articulate public and private resources so as to shape a more innovative society, capable of ideating and promoting processes, products and services with increasing levels of differentiation before those existing. The search for innovation and the creation of competitive advantages is even greater in the corporate environment, a microeconomic locus where innovation can be measured by efforts and results obtained. Likewise, the number of companies that seek to open themselves to the capital market with views to accumulating resources so as to sustain their strategic growth plans, increases. During the last decade, 245 companies opened their capital in Brazil but only 40% of these went to São Paulo´s Stock Exchange Market (Bovespa negotiate their shares. Upon making its Initial Public Offering (IPO the company has to expose to the stock exchange market its true situation in several areas which are ruled by the Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM. They produce extensive documentation in the form of a robust prospect that is made available to any potential investor. The prospect is known at the capital market as the source that portrays the largest amount of information concerning the company that announced their IPO. It is a legal document but, at the same time, one that in highlight contains, all the attributes and differentials that the company expects the market to evaluate. Thus, by means of secondary sources, all ground on the prospects of IPOs that took place, research was conducted to acknowledge the level of innovation each company presented at the time of their IPO and, at the same time, to measure the performance of the value of stocks that the respective IPO obtained. Subsequently a set of structured qualitative interviews posing to evaluate the results of the quantitative research, was conducted. The quantitative analysis of data collected

  2. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  3. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation.

  4. Alteration of Fractured Rocks Due to Coupled Chemical and Mechanical Processes: High-Resolution Simulations and Experimental Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Pasha

    Engineering activities such as enhanced geothermal energy production and improved oil recovery techniques are heavily dependent on the permeability of the subsurface, while others such as CO2 sequestration and nuclear waste disposal rely on the efficiency of rock formations as transport barriers. In either case fractures provide the main pathways for fluid flow and transport, especially in rocks with lower matrix porosity. Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying the chemo-mechanical responses of fractures have shown a range of results, some of which contradict simple conceptual models. For example, under conditions favoring mineral dissolution, where one would expect an overall increase in permeability, experiments show that permeability increases under some conditions and decreases under others. Recent experiments have attempted to link these core-scale observations to the relevant small-scale processes occurring within fractures. Results suggest that the loss of mechanical strength in asperities due to chemical alteration may cause non-uniform deformation and alteration of fracture apertures. However, due to the lack of direct micro-scale measurements of the coupled chemical and mechanical processes that lead to alteration of contacting fracture surfaces, our ability to predict the long-term evolution of fractures is still limited. To explore the processes that control permeability evolution, I developed a computational model that uses micro-scale surface roughness and explicitly couples dissolution and elastic deformation to calculate local alterations in fracture aperture under chemical and mechanical stresses. A depth-averaged algorithm of fracture flow is used to model reactive transport and chemical alteration of the fracture surfaces. Then, I deform the resulting altered fracture-surfaces using an algorithm that calculates the elastic deformation. The results of the model are compared with flow-through experiments conducted on fractured limestone. The

  5. Altered BOLD response during inhibitory and error processing in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wierenga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error processing is altered in AN individuals is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, ill adolescent AN females (n = 11 and matched healthy comparison adolescents (CA with no history of an eating disorder (n = 12 performed a validated stop signal task (SST during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore differences in error and inhibitory processing. The groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables or on SST performance. During inhibitory processing, a significant group x difficulty (hard, easy interaction was detected in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during hard trials. During error processing, a significant group x accuracy (successful inhibit, failed inhibit interaction in bilateral MFG and right PCC was observed, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during error (i.e., failed inhibit trials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Consistent with our prior findings in recovered AN, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, showed less inhibition-related activation within the dorsal ACC, MFG and PCC as inhibitory demand increased. In addition, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, also showed reduced activation to errors in the bilateral MFG and left PCC. These findings suggest that altered prefrontal and cingulate activation during

  6. Altered BOLD Response during Inhibitory and Error Processing in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Melrose, A. James; Grenesko-Stevens, Emily; Irvine, Zoë; Wagner, Angela; Simmons, Alan; Matthews, Scott; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Kaye, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error processing is altered in AN individuals is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, ill adolescent AN females (n = 11) and matched healthy comparison adolescents (CA) with no history of an eating disorder (n = 12) performed a validated stop signal task (SST) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore differences in error and inhibitory processing. The groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables or on SST performance. During inhibitory processing, a significant group x difficulty (hard, easy) interaction was detected in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during hard trials. During error processing, a significant group x accuracy (successful inhibit, failed inhibit) interaction in bilateral MFG and right PCC was observed, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during error (i.e., failed inhibit) trials. Conclusion/Significance Consistent with our prior findings in recovered AN, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, showed less inhibition-related activation within the dorsal ACC, MFG and PCC as inhibitory demand increased. In addition, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, also showed reduced activation to errors in the bilateral MFG and left PCC. These findings suggest that altered prefrontal and cingulate activation during

  7. Associations between Prenatal and Early Childhood Fish and Processed Food Intake, Conduct Problems, and Co-Occurring Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesirow, Maurissa Sc; Cecil, Charlotte; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D

    2016-11-03

    Little is known about early life diet as a risk factor for early-onset persistent conduct problems (EOP CP). To investigate this, we used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK-based prospective epidemiological birth cohort. 5727 mother-child pairs (49.9 % boys) monitored since pregnancy (delivery date between 1 April, 1991 and 31 December, 1992) reported intake of fish and processed foods at 32 weeks gestation and, for the child, at 3 years; EOP (n = 666) and Low conduct problem (Low CP, n = 5061) trajectories were measured from 4 to 13 years; hyperactivity and emotional difficulties were assessed in childhood (4-10 years) and early adolescence (12-13 years), in addition to potential confounding factors (family adversity, birth complications, income). Compared to Low CP, mothers of EOP children consumed less fish (p processed food (p processed food at 3 years (p processed food (vs. less than one serving/day, p < 0.01), was associated with higher emotional difficulties in early adolescence.

  8. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  9. Assessment of quality and geochemical processes occurring in groundwaters near central air conditioning plant site in Trombay, Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirumalesh, K; Shivanna, K; Sriraman, A K; Tyagi, A K

    2010-04-01

    This paper summarizes the findings obtained in a monitoring study to understand the sources and processes affecting the quality of shallow and deep groundwater near central air conditioning plant site in Trombay region by making use of physicochemical and biological analyses. All the measured parameters of the groundwaters indicate that the groundwater quality is good and within permissible limits set by (Indian Bureau of Standards 1990). Shallow groundwater is dominantly of Na-HCO(3) type whereas deep groundwater is of Ca-Mg-HCO(3) type. The groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by dissolution of minerals and base exchange processes. High total dissolved solids in shallow groundwater compared to deeper ones indicate faster circulation of groundwater in deep zone preferably through fissures and fractures whereas groundwater flow is sluggish in shallow zone. The characteristic ionic ratio values and absence of bromide point to the fact that seawater has no influence on groundwater system.

  10. Pump Linewidth Requirements for Processing Dispersion-Altered DQPSK Signals using FWM

    CERN Document Server

    Dúill, Séan Ó; Barry, Liam P

    2015-01-01

    We report on a potentially deleterious issue regarding the four-wave mixing based processing of dispersion-altered signals. We estimate the baudrate-dependent pump linewidth tolerances by calculating the extra optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) penalty with respect to the propagation distance. We find that the issue is not important for 10 Gbaud differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signals, though for 28 Gbaud (and 56 Gbaud) DQPSK signals we find that the pump linewidth requirements to implement FWM based optical signal processing needs to be in the sub-MHz range in order to avoid excessive OSNR penalties for the case of dispersion-altered signals. These results are pertinent for systems employing FWM, which could be all-optical wavelength converters for packet switching or mid-span spectral inversion techniques.

  11. Induction and reversion process of molecular and cytological alterations after highly irradiated food ingestion in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo M, M.I. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones de los Isotopos y Radiaciones); Fernandez C, M. (Chile Univ., Santiago. Dept. de Fisica)

    1984-04-01

    The molecular and cytological alterations induced in a mammal (Mus musculus) fed ad libitum with a balanced pellet diet irradiated with 50 KGy gamma radiation from weaning, for different periods, are analyzed. The transient chromosomal changes that recall tumor-like phenomena could be the expression of the damage and repair processes induced by changed molecules present in irradiated food. The reversible alterations of DNA structure and cytoplasmatic soluble proteins observed in mice fed with irradiated pellet diet could be interpreted as a result of the enhancement of the repair processes which could also explain the significant increase of the radioresistance of DNA found at 200 days after irradiated food ingestion. Finally, our results would suggest an induction of a pseudo-neoplasia due to a prolongated and exclusive ingestion of food irradiated with sterilizing gamma dose. Moreover, the maintenance of the irradiated diet induce the reversion of the observed phenomena by an eventual activation of the repair mechanisms.

  12. Influence of hydrothermal alteration on phreatic eruption processes in Solfatara (Campi Flegrei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K.; Scheu, B.; Montanaro, C.; Isaia, R.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    The strong hydrothermal activity exhibited at Campi Flegrei by the Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles points to a significant risk for phreatic eruptions in this densely populated area. Phreatic eruptions, triggered by various processes are hardly predictable in occurrence time and size. Despite their hazard potential, these eruptions, as well as the influence of hydrothermal alteration on their likelihood, magnitude and style, have so far been largely overlooked in experimental volcanology. The physical properties and the mechanical behavior of volcanic rocks are highly dependent on their original magmatic microstructure and on any eventual alteration of those microstructures due to hydrothermal reactions. We have therefore investigated the potential effects of hydrothermal alteration on rock microstructure and, as a consequence, on fragmentation dynamics. Rock samples from the vicinity of the Solfatara fumaroles have been characterized 1) geochemically (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction), 2) physically (density, porosity, permeability and elastic wave velocity) and 3) mechanically (uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength). We have investigated the effects of hydrothermal alteration on fragmentation processes using a shock-tube apparatus, operating with Argon gas, water vapor and superheated water at temperatures up to 400°C and maximum pressures of 20 MPa. The three different energy sources within the pores initiating fragmentation, have been investigated: overpressure by 1) Argon gas; or 2) water vapor and due to 3) steam flashing of water. Fragmentation speed, fragmentation efficiency and fragmented particle ejection velocity were measured. Our results indicate, that steam flashing provides the highest energy - resulting in increased particle ejection velocity and higher fragmentation efficiency. Based on our results, we aim to constrain the influence of hydrothermal alteration on the dynamics of phreatic explosions and the effect on the amount of

  13. Why chlorate occurs in potable water and processed foods: a critical assessment and challenges faced by the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettlitz, Beate; Kemendi, Gabriella; Thorgrimsson, Nigel; Cattoor, Nele; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Le Bail-Collet, Yves; Maphosa, Farai; Perrichet, Aurélie; Christall, Birgit; Stadler, Richard H

    2016-06-01

    Recently, reports have been published on the occurrence of chlorate mainly in fruits and vegetables. Chlorate is a by-product of chlorinating agents used to disinfect water, and can be expected to be found in varying concentrations in drinking water. Data on potable water taken at 39 sampling points across Europe showed chlorate to range from foods of 0.01 mg kg(-1). This default MRL has now led to significant problems in the EU, where routinely disinfected water, used in the preparation of food products such as vegetables or fruits, leaves chlorate residues in excess of the default MRL, and in strict legal terms renders the food unmarketable. Due to the paucity of data on the chlorate content of prepared foods in general, we collated chlorate data on more than 3400 samples of mainly prepared foods, including dairy products, meats, fruits, vegetables and different food ingredients/additives. In total, 50.5% of the food samples contained chlorate above 0.01 mg kg(-1), albeit not due to the use of chlorate as a pesticide but mainly due to the occurrence of chlorate as an unavoidable disinfectant by-product. A further entry point of chlorate into foods may be via additives/ingredients that may contain chlorate as a by-product of the manufacturing process (e.g. electrolysis). Of the positive samples in this study, 22.4% revealed chlorate above 0.1 mg kg(-1). In the absence of EU levels for chlorate in water, any future EU regulations must consider the already available WHO guideline value of 0.7 mg l(-1) in potable water, and the continued importance of the usage of oxyhalides for disinfection purposes.

  14. Alteration of bioelectrically-controlled processes in the embryo: a teratogenic mechanism for anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Levin, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Maternal use of anticonvulsants during the first trimester of pregnancy has been associated with an elevated risk of major congenital malformations in the offspring. Whether the increased risk is caused by the specific pharmacological mechanisms of certain anticonvulsants, the underlying epilepsy, or common genetic or environmental risk factors shared by epilepsy and malformations has been controversial. We hypothesize that anticonvulsant therapies during pregnancy that attain more successful inhibition of neurotransmission might lead to both better seizure control in the mother and stronger alteration of bioelectrically-controlled processes in the embryo that result in structural malformations. We propose that development of pharmaceuticals that do not alter cell resting transmembrane voltage levels could result in safer drugs.

  15. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects.

  16. Modulation of ROS levels in fibroblasts by altering mitochondria regulates the process of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Jaroslav; Nfonsam, Valentine; Calienes, Fernanda; Sligh, James E; Jandova, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fibroblasts which are thought to be crucial regulators of wound healing with a potential to affect the expression of nuclear genes involved in this process. ROS generated by mitochondria are involved in all stages of tissue repair process but the regulation of ROS-generating system in fibroblasts still remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to better understand molecular mechanisms of how the regulation of ROS levels generated by mitochondria may influence the process of wound repair. Cybrid model system of mtDNA variations was used to study the functional consequences of altered ROS levels on wound healing responses in a uniform nuclear background of cultured ρ(0) fibroblasts. Mitochondrial ROS in cybrids were modulated by antioxidants that quench ROS to examine their ability to close the wound. Real-time PCR arrays were used to investigate whether ROS generated by specific mtDNA variants have the ability to alter expression of some key nuclear-encoded genes central to the wound healing response and oxidative stress. Our data suggest levels of mitochondrial ROS affect expression of some nuclear encoded genes central to wound healing response and oxidative stress and modulation of mitochondrial ROS by antioxidants positively affects in vitro process of wound closure. Thus, regulation of mitochondrial ROS-generating system in fibroblasts can be used as effective natural redox-based strategy to help treat non-healing wounds.

  17. Cryotherapy Reduces Inflammatory Response Without Altering Muscle Regeneration Process and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling of Rat Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ramos, Gracielle; Pinheiro, Clara Maria; Messa, Sabrina Peviani; Delfino, Gabriel Borges; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Salvini, Tania de Fátima; Durigan, Joao Luiz Quagliotti

    2016-01-04

    The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury. It was observed that the intermittent application of cryotherapy (three 30-minute sessions, every 2 h) in the first 48 h post-injury decreased inflammatory processes (mRNA levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β and MMP-9 and macrophage percentage). Cryotherapy did not alter regeneration markers such as injury area, desmin and Myod expression. Despite regulating Collagen I and III and their growth factors, cryotherapy did not alter collagen deposition. In summary, clinical-like cryotherapy reduces the inflammatory process through the decrease of macrophage infiltration and the accumulation of the inflammatory key markers without influencing muscle injury area and ECM remodeling.

  18. Mindfulness meditation associated with alterations in bottom-up processing: psychophysiological evidence for reduced reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Paul A M; Janssen, Barbara H; Giommi, Fabio; Barendregt, Henk P; Gielen, Stan C

    2010-11-01

    Mental training by meditation has been related to changes in high-level cognitive functions that involve top-down processing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the practice of meditation is also related to alterations in low-level, bottom-up processing. Therefore, intersensory facilitation (IF) effects in a group of mindfulness meditators (MM) were compared to IF effects in an age- and gender-matched control group. Smaller and even absent IF effects were found in the MM group, which suggests that changes in bottom-up processing are associated with MM. Furthermore, reduced interference of a visual warning stimulus with the IF effects was found, which suggests an improved allocation of attentional resources in mindfulness meditators, even across modalities.

  19. Effects of a hypnotically altered state of consciousness on intensification of semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendi, István; Kovács, Zoltán Ambrus; Szekeres, György; Galsi, Gabriella; Boda, Krisztina; Boncz, István; Janka, Zoltán

    2009-10-01

    In a study of the linguistic processes involved in hypnosis, 22 volunteer medical students performed semantic and phonologic fluency tasks and then associative priming tests with 2 delay-lengths in waking alert and hypnotic conditions as well. The participants performed better during semantic than phonological fluency tests in alert and also in hypnotic states, and this difference was significantly greater in hypnosis. The increased semantic performance in hypnosis was accompanied by a decrease of the rule-offending errors. Significant semantic priming effects were detected in both states of consciousness in direct and indirect relations as well as in the automatic, intralexical level, and also when the extralexical control processes were activated. Overall, the results appear to show that the hypnotically altered state of consciousness produces significantly better performance in semantic information processing than can be elicited in alert waking conditions.

  20. Disturbances of visual information processing in early states of psychosis and experimental delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, Dagmar; Gerth, Christoph W; Neatby, Miriam A; Haensel, Anita; Thies, Martin; Schneider, Udo; Emrich, Hinderk M; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Leweke, F Markus

    2006-12-01

    Recent data on alterations of the endogenous cannabinoid system in schizophrenia have raised the question of its functional role in this disease. The psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), has been shown to induce psychotic symptoms, but it is unknown to what extend prodromal states of psychoses are reflected by these experimental approaches. This study compares four groups of subjects: antipsychotic-naïve patients suffering from acute paranoid schizophrenic or schizophreniform psychosis (SZ), patients in the prodromal state (IPS), healthy controls without any pharmacological intervention (HC) and a second group of healthy volunteers who were orally administered synthetic Delta9-THC (Dronabinol) (HC-THC). Neither SZ and IPS nor HC received the experimental drug. All subjects were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Binocular Depth Inversion Illusion Test (BDII). The latter represents a sensitive measure of impaired visual information processing that manifests in various experimental and naturally occurring psychotic states. BDII values were well comparable in SZ, IPS and HC-THC, and all groups differed significantly to HC. The BPRS revealed no significant difference between HC-THC and IPS while both were significantly different from SZ and HC, respectively. Our results suggest that Delta9-THC-induced altered states of consciousness may serve as a useful tool for modeling psychotic disorders, particularly their prodromal states. Furthermore, they provide insight into the perceptual and psychopathological alterations induced by Delta9-THC, which is essential for the understanding of the pro-psychotic effects of herbal cannabis preparations with highly enriched Delta9-THC content.

  1. Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2012-11-05

    Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda, and this is associated with the degree of consumption. These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity.

  2. Alteration of mTOR signaling occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD): analysis of brain from subjects with pre-clinical AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and late-stage AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramutola, Antonella; Triplett, Judy C; Di Domenico, Fabio; Niedowicz, Dana M; Murphy, Michael P; Coccia, Raffaella; Perluigi, Marzia; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-06-01

    The clinical symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) include a gradual memory loss and subsequent dementia, and neuropathological deposition of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. At the molecular level, AD subjects present overt amyloid β (Aβ) production and tau hyperphosphorylation. Aβ species have been proposed to overactivate the phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis, which plays a central role in proteostasis. The current study investigated the status of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in post-mortem tissue from the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) at three different stages of AD: late AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and pre-clinical AD (PCAD). Our findings suggest that the alteration of mTOR signaling and autophagy occurs at early stages of AD. We found a significant increase in Aβ (1-42) levels, associated with reduction in autophagy (Beclin-1 and LC-3) observed in PCAD, MCI, and AD subjects. Related to the autophagy impairment, we found a hyperactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in IPL of MCI and AD subjects, but not in PCAD, along with a significant decrease in phosphatase and tensin homolog. An increase in two mTOR downstream targets, p70S6K and 4EBP1, occurred in AD and MCI subjects. Both AD and MCI subjects showed increased, insulin receptor substrate 1, a candidate biomarker of brain insulin resistance, and GSK-3β, a kinase targeting tau phosphorylation. Nevertheless, tau phosphorylation was increased in the clinical groups. The results hint at a link between Aβ and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and provide further insights into the relationship between AD pathology and insulin resistance. In addition, we speculate that the alteration of mTOR signaling in the IPL of AD and MCI subjects, but not in PCAD, is due to the lack of substantial increase in oxidative stress. The figure represents the three different stages of Alzheimer Disease: Preclinical Alzheimer Disease (PCAD), Mild cognitive impairment (MCI

  3. Production of personalized protein microarrays : optimized production of protein microarrays and the establishment of processes for the representation of protein conformations that occur in individual patients

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in understanding biology and disease at the level of nucleic acids, insights into the relevant biochemical processes frequently remain preliminary, since much regulation and activity occurs at the protein level through control of gene expression and variations of protein conformation. In particular, the effect of such variations on protein interactions is critical for a better description of biology and disease. Protein microarray technology provides a means to suc...

  4. Process-induced extracellular matrix alterations affect the mechanisms of soft tissue repair and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Q Sun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrices derived from animal tissues for human tissue repairs are processed by various methods of physical, chemical, or enzymatic decellularization, viral inactivation, and terminal sterilization. The mechanisms of action in tissue repair vary among bioscaffolds and are suggested to be associated with process-induced extracellular matrix modifications. We compared three non-cross-linked, commercially available extracellular matrix scaffolds (Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix, and correlated extracellular matrix alterations to in vivo biological responses upon implantation in non-human primates. Structural evaluation showed significant differences in retaining native tissue extracellular matrix histology and ultrastructural features among bioscaffolds. Tissue processing may cause both the condensation of collagen fibers and fragmentation or separation of collagen bundles. Calorimetric analysis showed significant differences in the stability of bioscaffolds. The intrinsic denaturation temperature was measured to be 51°C, 38°C, and 44°C for Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix, respectively, demonstrating more extracellular matrix modifications in the Veritas and XenMatrix scaffolds. Consequently, the susceptibility to collagenase degradation was increased in Veritas and XenMatrix when compared to their respective source tissues. Using a non-human primate model, three bioscaffolds were found to elicit different biological responses, have distinct mechanisms of action, and yield various outcomes of tissue repair. Strattice permitted cell repopulation and was remodeled over 6 months. Veritas was unstable at body temperature, resulting in rapid absorption with moderate inflammation. XenMatrix caused severe inflammation and sustained immune reactions. This study demonstrates that extracellular matrix alterations significantly affect biological responses in soft tissue repair and regeneration. The data offer useful insights into the

  5. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko eMaekawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli.Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant and white circle (target stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard, 10% (deviant, and 10% (target probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus.Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls.Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli.Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD.

  6. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  7. Moment tensor inversion and source rupture process of the September 27, 2003 MS=7.9 earthquake occurred in the border area of China, Russia and Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Cui-ping; CHEN Zhang-li; ZHENG Si-hua; LIU Jie

    2005-01-01

    We conducted moment tensor inversion and studied source rupture process for MS=7.9 earthquake occurred in the border area of China, Russia and Mongolia on September 27 2003, by using digital teleseismic P-wave seismograms recorded by long-period seismograph stations of the global seismic network. Considering the aftershock distribution and the tectonic settings around the epicentral area, we propose that the MS=7.9 earthquake occurred on a fault plane with the strike of 127°, the dip of 79° and the rake of 171°. The rupture process inversion result of MS=7.9 earthquake shows that the total rupture duration is about 37 s, the scalar moment tensor is M0=0.97°×1020 N°m. Rupture mainly occurred on the shallow area with 110 km long and 30 km wide, the location in which the rupture initiated is not where the main rupture took place, and the area with slip greater than 0.5 m basically lies within 35 km deep middle-crust under the earth surface. The maximum static slip is 3.6 m. There are two distinct areas with slip larger than 2.0 m. We noticed that when the rupture propagated towards northwest and closed to the area around the MS=7.3 hypocenter, the slip decreased rapidly, which may indicate that the rupture process was stopped by barriers. The consistence of spatial distribution of slip on the fault plane with the distribution of aftershocks also supports that the rupture is a heterogeneous process owing to the presence of barriers.

  8. From Hills to Holes: How Climate Change and Mining are Altering Runoff Processes in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Canadian environments are under considerable pressure from both climate and land-use change. While warming temperatures are widespread and amplified in the north, surface mining has resulted in large-scale landscape disturbance. How these changes affect catchment response is profound, fundamentally altering the cycling and delivery of water and geochemicals to the drainage network. In permafrost-underlain environments, coupled mass and energy processes control runoff response, and as ground thaw increases, new subsurface pathways become accessible while changing overall catchment storage. With surface mining, watersheds are altered such that they bare little resemblance to what existed prior to mining. In this presentation, data will be presented from long-term experiments exploring the impact of climate and mining on runoff processes in cold catchments using stable isotopes of water and associated hydrometric measurements. In southern Yukon, results from the Wolf Creek Research Basin highlights the influence of surface energy balances on controlling the timing and magnitude of flow response, with inter-annual variability largely driven by how atmospheric forcing interacts with permafrost-underlain areas of the catchment. In mountainous areas of southern British Columbia, surface mining reconfigures landscapes as valleys are filled with waste-rock. Mine-influenced catchments exhibit attenuated flows with delays in spring freshet and a more muted to precipitation. Stable isotopes in stream water suggests that both waste-rock and reference catchments are well mixed, however reference catchments are more responsive to enrichment and depletion events and that mine-influenced catchments had a heavier isotope signature than reference watersheds, suggesting enhanced influence of rainfall on recharge. In both cases, snow storage and release exerts considerable control on streamflow responses, and future changes in streamflow regimes will reflect both a changes in the snow

  9. Anatomical alterations of the visual motion processing network in migraine with and without aura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Granziera

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from migraine with aura (MWA and migraine without aura (MWoA show abnormalities in visual motion perception during and between attacks. Whether this represents the consequences of structural changes in motion-processing networks in migraineurs is unknown. Moreover, the diagnosis of migraine relies on patient's history, and finding differences in the brain of migraineurs might help to contribute to basic research aimed at better understanding the pathophysiology of migraine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To investigate a common potential anatomical basis for these disturbances, we used high-resolution cortical thickness measurement and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the motion-processing network in 24 migraine patients (12 with MWA and 12 MWoA and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. We found increased cortical thickness of motion-processing visual areas MT+ and V3A in migraineurs compared to HCs. Cortical thickness increases were accompanied by abnormalities of the subjacent white matter. In addition, DTI revealed that migraineurs have alterations in superior colliculus and the lateral geniculate nucleus, which are also involved in visual processing. CONCLUSIONS: A structural abnormality in the network of motion-processing areas could account for, or be the result of, the cortical hyperexcitability observed in migraineurs. The finding in patients with both MWA and MWoA of thickness abnormalities in area V3A, previously described as a source in spreading changes involved in visual aura, raises the question as to whether a "silent" cortical spreading depression develops as well in MWoA. In addition, these experimental data may provide clinicians and researchers with a noninvasively acquirable migraine biomarker.

  10. Biological soil crust as a bio-mediator alters hydrological processes in stabilized dune system of the Tengger Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinrong

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crust (BSC) is a vital component in the stabilized sand dunes with a living cover up to more than 70% of the total, which has been considered as a bio-mediator that directly influences and regulates the sand dune ecosystem processes. However, its influences on soil hydrological processes have been long neglected in Chinese deserts. In this study, BSCs of different successional stages were chose to test their influence on the hydrological processes of stabilized dune, where the groundwater deep exceeds 30m, further to explore why occur the sand-binding vegetation replacement between shrubs and herbs. Our long-term observation (60 years) shows that cyanobacteria crust has been colonized and developed after 3 years since the sand-binding vegetation has been established and dune fixation using planted xerophytic shrubs and made sand barrier (straw-checkerboard) on shifting dune surface, lichen and moss crust occurred after 20 years, and the cover of moss dominated crust could reach 70 % after 50 years. The colonization and development of BSC altered the initial soil water balance of revegetated areas by influencing rainfall infiltration, soil evaporation and dew water entrapment. The results show that BSC obviously reduced the infiltration that occurred during most rainfall events (80%), when rainfall was greater than 5 mm or less than 20 mm. The presence of BSC reduced evaporation of topsoil after small rainfall (BSC. Moreover, the effect of the later successional BSC to dew entrapment, rainfall infiltration and evaporation was more obvious than the early successional BSC on stabilized dunes. In general, BSC reduced the amount of rainfall water that reached deeper soil (0.4-3m), which is where the roots of shrubs are primarily distributed. These changes in the soil moisture pattern induced shifting of sand-binding vegetation from initial planted xerophytic shrub communities with higher coverage (35%) to complex communities dominated by shallow

  11. PDGF supplementation alters oxidative events in wound healing process: a time course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltalioglu, Kaan; Coskun-Cevher, Sule; Tugcu-Demiroz, Fatmanur; Celebi, Nevin

    2013-07-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), an important stimulant, plays a role in almost all stages of wound healing process. In various studies, it has been shown that PDGF has healing effects in this process. In the present study, we especially focused on investigating the effects of exogenous PDGF administration on oxidative events during cutaneous wound healing process. Experiments were performed on 42 female Wistar-albino rats. Animals were divided into four groups: control, untreated, chitosan-treated and chitosan + PDGF-treated. Two uniform full-thickness excisional skin wounds were made under anesthesia in all animals except control group. In the chitosan + PDGF-treated groups, the wounds were treated topically with a single daily dose PDGF-BB (7 ng/ml) after wounding. In the chitosan-treated groups, the wounds were treated topically with equal amount of blank chitosan gel. After that, on the 3rd and 7th days of wound healing, the animals were killed. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NOx), ascorbic acid (AA), glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured spectrophotometrically in the wound tissues. PDGF significantly increased TBARS levels in early phase of wound healing. In contrast, it significantly decreased TBARS levels in later phase of healing. In the chitosan + PDGF-treated group, NOx levels decreased on days 3 and 7 when compared with the chitosan-treated groups. Non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were increased by PDGF administration and this may have contributed to increase in wound tissue antioxidant capacity. In the light of these findings, PDGF supplementation may have altering effects on oxidative events depending on the time in wound healing process.

  12. HIV Protease Inhibitor-Induced Cathepsin Modulation Alters Antigen Processing and Cross-Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourjian, Georgio; Rucevic, Marijana; Berberich, Matthew J; Dinter, Jens; Wambua, Daniel; Boucau, Julie; Le Gall, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    Immune recognition by T cells relies on the presentation of pathogen-derived peptides by infected cells, but the persistence of chronic infections calls for new approaches to modulate immune recognition. Ag cross-presentation, the process by which pathogen Ags are internalized, degraded, and presented by MHC class I, is crucial to prime CD8 T cell responses. The original degradation of Ags is performed by pH-dependent endolysosomal cathepsins. In this article, we show that HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) prescribed to HIV-infected persons variably modulate cathepsin activities in human APCs, dendritic cells and macrophages, and CD4 T cells, three cell subsets infected by HIV. Two HIV PIs acted in two complementary ways on cathepsin hydrolytic activities: directly on cathepsins and indirectly on their regulators by inhibiting Akt kinase activities, reducing NADPH oxidase 2 activation, and lowering phagolysosomal reactive oxygen species production and pH, which led to enhanced cathepsin activities. HIV PIs modified endolysosomal degradation and epitope production of proteins from HIV and other pathogens in a sequence-dependent manner. They altered cross-presentation of Ags by dendritic cells to epitope-specific T cells and T cell-mediated killing. HIV PI-induced modulation of Ag processing partly changed the MHC self-peptidome displayed by primary human cells. This first identification, to our knowledge, of prescription drugs modifying the regulation of cathepsin activities and the MHC-peptidome may provide an alternate therapeutic approach to modulate immune recognition in immune disease beyond HIV.

  13. Altered Topology in Information Processing of a Narrated Story in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Oren, Noga; Ash, Elissa L; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Lerner, Yulia

    2016-05-03

    The ability to store, integrate, and manipulate information declines with aging. These changes occur earlier, faster, and to a greater degree as a result of neurodegeneration. One of the most common and early characteristics of cognitive decline is difficulty with comprehension of information. The neural mechanisms underlying this breakdown of information processing are poorly understood. Using functional MRI and natural stimuli (e.g., stories), we mapped the neural mechanisms by which the human brain accumulates and processes information with increasing duration and complexity in participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy older adults. To explore the mechanisms of information processing, we measured the reliability of brain responses elicited by listening to different versions of a narrated story created by segmenting the story into words, sentences, and paragraphs and then scrambling the segments. Comparing healthy older adults and participants with aMCI revealed that in both groups, all types of stimuli similarly recruited primary auditory areas. However, prominent differences between groups were found at the level of processing long and complex stimuli. In healthy older adults, parietal and frontal regions demonstrated highly synchronized responses in both the paragraph and full story conditions, as has been previously reported in young adults. Participants with aMCI, however, exhibited a robust functional shift of long time scale processing to the pre- and post-central sulci. Our results suggest that participants with aMCI experienced a functional shift of higher order auditory information processing, possibly reflecting a functional response to concurrent or impending neuronal or synaptic loss. This observation might assist in understanding mechanisms of cognitive decline in aMCI.

  14. Hydrothermal Alteration Zoning and Kinetic Process of Mineral-Water Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣华; 胡书敏; 苏艳丰

    2002-01-01

    This study reports the kinetic experimental results of albite in water and in KCl solution at 22 MPa in the temperature range of 25 to 400(C. Kinetic experiments have been carried out in an open flow-through reaction system (packed bed reactor). Albite dissolution is always incongruent in water at most temperatures, but becomes congruent at 300(C (close to the critical point 374(C). At temperatures from 25 to 300(C, the incongruent dissolution of albite is reflected by the fact that sodium and aluminum are easily dissolved into water; from 300 to 400(C it is reflected by silicon being more easily dissolved in water than Al and Na. Maximum albite dissolution rates in the flow hydrothermal systems have been repeatedly observed at 300(C, independent of flow rates.The kinetic experiments of albite dissolution in a KCl aqueous solution (0.1 mol KCl) indicate that the dissolution rate of albite increases with increasing temperature. Maximum silicon release rates of albite have been observed at 400(C, while maximum aluminum release rates of albite at 374(C. The reaction rates of albite also depend on the potassium concentration in the aqueous solution.These results can be used to interpret the mechanism for forming hydrothermal alteration. The kinetic experiments of mineral-aqueous solutions interactions in the hydrothermal system from 25 to 400(C and at 22 MPa indicate that the formation of the feldspar-mica-kaolinite zoning occurring in some ore deposits may depend not only on the mineral stability but also on the kinetics of feldspar hydration, which is affected by the water property variation when crossing the critical point.

  15. Quantification of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from fossil carbonate shells and laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesshaber, Erika; Casella, Laura; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at reconstructions of past climate dynamics and environmental change. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and create local chemical environments where physiologic processes such as biomineralization takes place. After the death of the organism the former physiologic disequilibrium conditions are not sustained any more and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration according to the surrounding environment: diagenesis. With increasing diagenetic alteration, the biogenic structure and fingerprint fades away and is replaced by inorganic features. Thus, recrystallization of organism-specific microstructure is a clear indicator for diagenetic overprint. Microstructural data, which mirror recrystallization, are of great value for interpreting geochemical proxies for paleo-environment reconstruction. Despite more than a century of research dealing with carbonate diagenesis, many of the controlling processes and factors are only understood in a qualitative manner. One of the main issues is that diagenetically altered carbonates are usually present as the product of a complex preceding diagenetic pathway with an unknown number of intermediate steps. In this contribution we present and discuss laboratory based alteration experiments with the aim to investigate time-series data sets in a controlled manner. We conducted hydrothermal alteration experiments with modern Arctica islandica (bivalvia) and Notosaria nigricans (brachiopoda) in order to mimic diagenetic overprint. We explore first the potential of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements together with statistical data evaluation as a tool to quantify diagenetic alteration of carbonate skeletons. Subsequently, we compare microstructural patterns obtained from experimentally altered shell material with those of fossil specimens that have undergone variable degrees of

  16. Altered food-cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Danner, Unna N; van Meer, Floor; Hoek, Hans W; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.'s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food

  17. Correlation between altered central pain processing and concentration of peritoneal fluid inflammatory cytokines in endometriosis patients with chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neziri, Alban Y; Bersinger, Nick A; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mueller, Michael D; Curatolo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Translational research has not yet elucidated whether alterations in central pain processes are related to peripheral inflammatory processes in chronic pain patients. We tested the hypothesis that the concentration of cytokines in the peritoneal fluid of endometriosis patients with chronic pain correlate with parameters of hyperexcitability of the nociceptive system. The concentrations of 15 peritoneal fluid cytokines were measured in 11 patients with chronic pelvic pain and a diagnosis of endometriosis. Six parameters assessing central pain processes were recorded. Positive correlations between concentration of some cytokines in the peritoneal fluid and amplification of central pain processing were found. The results suggest that inflammatory mechanisms may be important in the pathophysiology of altered central pain processes and that cytokines produced in the environment of endometriosis could act as mediators between the peripheral lesion and changes in central nociceptive processes.

  18. Altered frontocingulate activation during aversive interoceptive processing in young adults transitioning to problem stimulant use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lorraine Stewart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with stimulant use have been linked to frontocingulate, insular, and thalamic dysfunction during decision-making and alterations in interoceptive processing. However, little is known about how interoception and decision-making interact and contribute to dysfunctions that promote the transition from recreational drug use to abuse or dependence. Here, we investigate brain activation in response to reward, punishment, and uncertainty during an aversive interoceptive challenge in current and former stimulant (cocaine and amphetamine users using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young adults previously identified as recreational users (n=184 were followed up three years later. Of these, 18 individuals progressed to problem stimulant use (PSU, whereas 15 desisted stimulant use (DSU. PSU, DSU, and 14 healthy comparison subjects (CTL performed a two-choice prediction task at three fixed error rates (20%=reward, 50%=uncertainty, 80%=punishment during which they anticipated and experienced episodes of inspiratory breathing load. Although groups did not differ in insula activation or subjective breathing load ratings, PSU exhibited lower right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and bilateral anterior cingulate (ACC activation than DSU and CTL during aversive interoceptive processing as well as lower right IFG in response to decision making involving uncertainty. However, PSU exhibited greater bilateral IFG activation than DSU and CTL while making choices within the context of punishing feedback, and both PSU and DSU showed lower thalamic activation during breathing load than CTL. Findings suggest that frontocingulate attenuation, reflecting reduced resources devoted to goal maintenance and action selection in the presence of uncertainty and interoceptive perturbations, may be a biomarker for susceptibility to problem stimulant use.

  19. Role of neurotrophic factor alterations in the neurodegenerative process in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Jerel; Dumaop, Wilmar; Langford, T D; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, E

    2014-03-01

    Migration of HIV infected cells into the CNS is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders, ranging from milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) to HIV-associated dementia (HAD). These neuro-psychiatric syndromes are related to the neurodegenerative pathology triggered by the release of HIV proteins and cytokine/chemokines from monocytes/macrophages into the CNS -a condition known as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). As a result of more effective combined anti-retroviral therapy patients with HIV are living longer and thus the frequency of HAND has increased considerably, resulting in an overlap between the neurodegenerative pathology associated with HIV and that related to aging. In fact, HIV infection is believed to hasten the aging process. The mechanisms through which HIV and aging lead to neurodegeneration include: abnormal calcium flux, excitotoxicity, signaling abnormalities, oxidative stress and autophagy defects. Moreover, recent studies have shown that defects in the processing and transport of neurotrophic factors such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), neural growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) might also play a role. Recent evidence implicates alterations in neurotrophins in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with HAND in the context of aging. Here, we report FGF overexpression curtails gp120-induced neurotoxicity in a double transgenic mouse model. Furthermore, our data show disparities in brain neurotrophic factor levels may be exacerbated in HIV patients over 50 years of age. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on neurotrophins and HAND in the context of developing new therapies to combat HIV infection in the aging population.

  20. Cell surface glycan alterations in epithelial mesenchymal transition process of Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Due to recurrence and metastasis, the mortality of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is high. It is well known that the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT and glycan of cell surface glycoproteins play pivotal roles in tumor metastasis. The goal of this study was to identify HCC metastasis related differential glycan pattern and their enzymatic basis using a HGF induced EMT model. METHODOLOGY: HGF was used to induce HCC EMT model. Lectin microarray was used to detect the expression of cell surface glycan and the difference was validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. The mRNA expression levels of glycotransferases were determined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: After HGF treatment, the Huh7 cell lost epithelial characteristics and obtained mesenchymal markers. These changes demonstrated that HGF could induce a typical cell model of EMT. Lectin microarray analysis identified a decreased affinity in seven lectins ACL, BPL, JAC, MPL, PHA-E, SNA, and SBA to the glycan of cell surface glycoproteins. This implied that glycan containing T/Tn-antigen, NA2 and bisecting GlcNAc, Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc, terminal α or βGalNAc structures were reduced. The binding ability of thirteen lectins, AAL, LCA, LTL, ConA, NML, NPL, DBA, HAL, PTL II, WFL, ECL, GSL II and PHA-L to glycan were elevated, and a definite indication that glycan containing terminal αFuc and ± Sia-Le, core fucose, α-man, gal-β(α GalNAc, β1,6 GlcNAc branching and tetraantennary complex oligosaccharides structures were increased. These results were further validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of Mgat3 decreased while that of Mgat5, FucT8 and β3GalT5 increased. Therefore, cell surface glycan alterations in the EMT process may coincide with the expression of glycosyltransferase. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study systematically clarify the alterations of cell surface

  1. A multi-faceted approach to characterize acid-sulfate alteration processes in volcanic hydrothermal systems on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Emma Cordts

    Acid-sulfate alteration is a dominant weathering process in high temperature, low pH, sulfur-rich volcanic environments. Additionally, hydrothermal environments have been proposed as locations where life could have originated on Earth. Based on the extensive evidence of flowing surface water and persistent volcanism, similar locations and processes could have existed on early Mars. Globally observed alteration mineral assemblages likely represent relic Martian hydrothermal settings. Yet the limited understanding of environmental controls, limits the confidence of interpreting the paleoconditions of these hydrothermal systems and assessing their habitability to support microbial life. This thesis presents a series of laboratory experiments, geochemical models, analog fieldwork, and Martian remote sensing to characterize distinguishing features and controls of acid-sulfate alteration. The experiments and models were designed to replicate alteration is a highly acidic, sulfurous, and hot field sites. The basaltic minerals were individually reacted in both experimental and model simulations with varying initial parameters to infer the geochemical pathways of acid-sulfate alteration on Earth and Mars. It was found that for a specific starting material, secondary mineralogies were consistent. Variations in pH, temperature and duration affected the abundance, shape, and size of mineral products. Additionally evaporation played a key role in secondary deposits; therefore, both alteration and evaporitic processes need to be taken into consideration. Analog volcanic sites in Nicaragua were used to supplement this work and highlight differences between natural and simulated alteration. In situ visible near-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that primary lithology and gas chemistry were dominant controls of alteration, with secondary effects from environmental controls, such as temperature and pH. The spectroscopic research from the field was directly related to Mars

  2. Igneous Hydrothermal Alteration and Ore-Forming Processes in the Land's End Granite, Nanjizal

    OpenAIRE

    Eik, Marte

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the hydrothermal alteration and mineralization related to a system of tourmaline-quartz veins intersecting biotite-granite in Nanjizal, in the Land s End granites of the cornubian batholith. Nanjizal is an important site as it is one of the few locations in the southern segment of the Land s End Granite where magmatic-hydrothermal tin mineralizations have been mined. The aim is to identify the alteration-patterns and their correlation with hydrothermal ore-forming events ...

  3. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars. Recording Aqueous and Surface-atmosphere Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Kenneth M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Mustard, John F. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Salvatore, Mark R. [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-03-05

    The rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. Moreover, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water–rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water–rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. These results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  4. Sulfur and carbon geochemistry of the Santa Elena peridotites: Comparing oceanic and continental processes during peridotite alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Gazel, Esteban; Madrigal, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Ultramafic rocks exposed on the continent serve as a window into oceanic and continental processes of water-peridotite interaction, so called serpentinization. In both environments there are active carbon and sulfur cycles that contain abiogenic and biogenic processes, which are eventually imprinted in the geochemical signatures of the basement rocks and the calcite and magnesite deposits associated with fluids that issue from these systems. Here, we present the carbon and sulfur geochemistry of ultramafic rocks and carbonate deposits from the Santa Elena ophiolite in Costa Rica. The aim of this study is to leverage the geochemistry of the ultramafic sequence and associated deposits to distinguish between processes that were dominant during ocean floor alteration and those dominant during low-temperature, continental water-peridotite interaction. The peridotites are variably serpentinized with total sulfur concentrations up to 877 ppm that is typically dominated by sulfide over sulfate. With the exception of one sample the ultramafic rocks are characterized by positive δ34Ssulfide (up to + 23.1‰) and δ34Ssulfate values (up to + 35.0‰). Carbon contents in the peridotites are low and are isotopically distinct from typical oceanic serpentinites. In particular, δ13C of the inorganic carbon suggests that the carbon is not derived from seawater, but rather the product of the interaction of meteoric water with the ultramafic rocks. In contrast, the sulfur isotope data from sulfide minerals in the peridotites preserve evidence for interaction with a hydrothermal fluid. Specifically, they indicate closed system abiogenic sulfate reduction suggesting that oceanic serpentinization occurred with limited input of seawater. Overall, the geochemical signatures preserve evidence for both oceanic and continental water-rock interaction with the majority of carbon (and possibly sulfate) being incorporated during continental water-rock interaction. Furthermore, there is

  5. The Autophagic Process Occurs in Human Bone Metastasis and Implicates Molecular Mechanisms Differently Affected by Rab5a in the Early and Late Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Maroni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy favours metastatic growth through fuelling energy and nutrients and resistance to anoikis, typical of disseminated-tumour cells. The autophagic process, mediated by a unique organelle, the autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes, is divided into three steps. Several stages, especially early omegasome formation and isolation-membrane initiation, remain controversial; molecular mechanisms involve the small-GTPase Rab5a, which regulates vesicle traffic for autophagosome formation. We examined Rab5a involvement in the function of key members of ubiquitin-conjugation systems, Atg7 and LC3-lipidated, interacting with the scaffold-protein p62. Immunohistochemistry of Rab5a was performed in human specimens of bone metastasis and pair-matched breast carcinoma; the autophagic-molecular mechanisms affected by Rab5a were evaluated in human 1833 bone metastatic cells, derived from breast-carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells. To clarify the role of Rab5a, 1833 cells were transfected transiently with Rab5a-dominant negative, and/or stably with the short-hairpin RNA Atg7, were exposed to two inhibitors of autolysosome function, and LC3II and p62 expression was measured. We showed basal autophagy in bone-metastatic cells and the pivotal role of Rab5a together with Beclin 1 between the early stages, elongation of isolation membrane/closed autophagosome mediated by Atg7, and the late-degradative stages. This regulatory network might occur in bone-metastasis and in high-grade dysplastic lesions, preceding invasive-breast carcinoma and conferring phenotypic characteristics for dissemination.

  6. The Autophagic Process Occurs in Human Bone Metastasis and Implicates Molecular Mechanisms Differently Affected by Rab5a in the Early and Late Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Resnati, Massimo; Matteucci, Emanuela; Milan, Enrico; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy favours metastatic growth through fuelling energy and nutrients and resistance to anoikis, typical of disseminated-tumour cells. The autophagic process, mediated by a unique organelle, the autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes, is divided into three steps. Several stages, especially early omegasome formation and isolation-membrane initiation, remain controversial; molecular mechanisms involve the small-GTPase Rab5a, which regulates vesicle traffic for autophagosome formation. We examined Rab5a involvement in the function of key members of ubiquitin-conjugation systems, Atg7 and LC3-lipidated, interacting with the scaffold-protein p62. Immunohistochemistry of Rab5a was performed in human specimens of bone metastasis and pair-matched breast carcinoma; the autophagic-molecular mechanisms affected by Rab5a were evaluated in human 1833 bone metastatic cells, derived from breast-carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells. To clarify the role of Rab5a, 1833 cells were transfected transiently with Rab5a-dominant negative, and/or stably with the short-hairpin RNA Atg7, were exposed to two inhibitors of autolysosome function, and LC3II and p62 expression was measured. We showed basal autophagy in bone-metastatic cells and the pivotal role of Rab5a together with Beclin 1 between the early stages, elongation of isolation membrane/closed autophagosome mediated by Atg7, and the late-degradative stages. This regulatory network might occur in bone-metastasis and in high-grade dysplastic lesions, preceding invasive-breast carcinoma and conferring phenotypic characteristics for dissemination. PMID:27023526

  7. Partial sleep deprivation does not alter processes involved in semantic word priming: event-related potential evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Sleep deprivation has generally been observed to have a detrimental effect on tasks that require sustained attention for successful performance. It might however be possible to counter these effects by altering cognitive strategies. A recent semantic word priming study indicated that subjects used an effortful predictive-expectancy search of semantic memory following normal sleep, but changed to an automatic, effortless strategy following total sleep deprivation. Partial sleep deprivation occurs much more frequently than total sleep deprivation. The present study therefore employed a similar priming task following either 4h of sleep or following normal sleep. The purpose of the study was to determine whether partial sleep deprivation would also lead to a shift in cognitive strategy to compensate for an inability to sustain attention and effortful processing necessary for using the predicative expectancy strategy. Sixteen subjects were presented with word pairs, a prime and a target that were either strongly semantically associated (cat...dog), weakly associated (cow...barn) or not associated (apple...road). The subject's task was to determine if the target word was semantically associated to the prime. A strong priming effect was observed in both conditions. RTs were slower, accuracy lower, and N400 larger to unassociated targets, independent of the amount of sleep. The overall N400 did not differ as a function of sleep. The scalp distribution of the N400 was also similar following both normal sleep and sleep loss. There was thus little evidence of a difference in the processing of the target stimulus as a function of the amount sleep. Similarly, ERPs in the period between the onset of the prime and the subsequent target also did not differ between the normal sleep and sleep loss conditions. In contrast to total sleep deprivation, subjects therefore appeared to use a common predictive expectancy strategy in both conditions. This strategy does however require an

  8. Immunoendocrine alterations following Marine Corps Martial Arts training are associated with changes in moral cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Clopton, Aaron W; Gigliotti, Nicole; Chan, Marcia A; Benedict, Stephen H; Herda, Trent J; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P

    2016-02-01

    Combined physical and psychological stress events have been associated with exacerbated endocrine responses and increased alterations in immune cell trafficking when compared to exercise stress alone. Military training programs are rigorous in nature and often purposefully delivered in environments combining high levels of both physical and mental stress. The objective of this study was to assess physiological and cognitive changes following U.S. Marine Corps Martial Arts training. Seven active-duty, male Marines were observed during a typical Marine Corps Martial Arts training session. Immune parameters, including immunomodulatory cytokines, and hormone concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained at baseline, immediately post training (IP) and at 15min intervals post-training to 1h (R15, R30, R45, R60). Assessments of cognitive moral functioning (moral judgment and intent) were recorded at intervals during recovery. There were significant fluctuations in immunoendocrine parameters. Peak endocrine measures were observed within the IP-R15 time interval. Distributions of circulating immune cells were significantly altered with neutrophils and all lymphocyte subsets elevated at IP. IFN-γ and IL-17a exhibited small, non-significant, parallel increases over the recovery period. Moral functioning was informed by different social identities during the recovery resulting in changes in moral decision-making. These data demonstrate that the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program induces significant alterations in lymphocyte and leukocyte distributions, but does not shift the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines or induce a systemic inflammatory response. The program does, however, induce alterations in moral decision-making ability associated with the observed endocrine responses, even suggesting a potential interaction between one's social identities and endocrine responses upon moral decision-making.

  9. Aqueous alteration in CR chondrites: Meteorite parent body processes as analogue for long-term corrosion processes relevant for nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlok, Andreas; Libourel, Guy

    2013-02-01

    Aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites is one of the fundamental processes on accreting planetesimals that changes pristine materials from the formation of the Solar System. The study of mineralogical, petrological and chemical changes resulting from this alteration provides insight into the physical and chemical setting of forming planetesimals. CR chondrites provide samples for all stages of aqueous alteration, from type 3 to 1 (entirely hydrated), and are thus suited to study the alteration of pristine materials in a coherent sequence. Vitrification is a common way to store and stabilize fission products and minor actinides resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear spent fuel in a nuclear boro-silica glass in steel containers. The waste material has to be stored safely for a period of at least 105-106 years in a clay-rich geological repository. Laboratory experiments being too short to follow the long-term evolution of these materials, we analyzed the mineralogical, petrological and chemical changes in a series of CR chondrites (Renazzo CR2, Al Rais CR2, and GRO 95577 CR1) to serve as analogues. Rims of secondary materials around metal grains in contact to the fine-grained matrix serve as analogue to the interface between steel containment and the surrounding clay-rich geological layer, while chondrule glassy mesostasis is used as a proxy of the nuclear glass. With increasing degree of aqueous alteration in the sequence, Renazzo → Al Rais → GRO 95577, the size of the rims increase. Fe-rich alteration rims are ˜10 μm in thickness around metal grains in the fine-grained matrix in Renazzo. In Al Rais, multi-layered structures of interchanging Fe, S and P/Ca-rich layers appear, with a thickness of up to ˜30 μm. In the highly altered GRO 95577, extensive inner and external rims of secondary phases reach up to ˜200 μm into the surrounding matrix. In chondrules, metal in contact with the altered mesostasis shows similar trends, but with thinner

  10. Fate of naturally occurring Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other zoonotic pathogens during minimally managed bovine feedlot manure composting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in livestock manures before application to cropland is critical for reducing the risk of foodborne illness associated with produce. Our objective was to determine the fate of naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogens during minimally managed on-farm bo...

  11. Personal exploration: Serendipity and intentionality as altering positions in a creative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Mäkelä

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Artists and designers have recently begun to take an active role in contextualising the creative process in relation to their practice. Thus, understanding how the creative mind proceeds has been supplemented with knowledge obtained inside the creative process. In this way, the spheres of knowledge, material thinking and experience that are fostered through creative work have become entangled and embedded as elemental parts of the research process. This article is based on documentation and reflection of the author’s creative practice in contemporary ceramic art at the beginning of 2015. The article discusses how the creative process proceeds by alternating between two positions: serendipity and intentionality. By describing the different phases of the process, it reveals the interplay between the diverse range of activities and how these gradually construct the creative process

  12. Expertise in folk music alters the brain processing of Western harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, M; Tupala, T; Brattico, E

    2012-04-01

    In various paradigms of modern neurosciences of music, experts of Western classical music have displayed superior brain architecture when compared with individuals without explicit training in music. In this paper, we show that chord violations embedded in musical cadences were neurally processed in a facilitated manner also by musicians trained in Finnish folk music. This result, obtained by using early right anterior negativity (ERAN) as an index of harmony processing, suggests that tonal processing is advanced in folk musicians by their long-term exposure to both Western and non-Western music.

  13. Climate-induced changes in bottom-up and top-down processes independently alter a marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Malte; Schneider, Florian D; Crowe, Tasman P; Brose, Ulrich; O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2012-11-05

    Climate change has complex structural impacts on coastal ecosystems. Global warming is linked to a widespread decline in body size, whereas increased flood frequency can amplify nutrient enrichment through enhanced run-off. Altered population body-size structure represents a disruption in top-down control, whereas eutrophication embodies a change in bottom-up forcing. These processes are typically studied in isolation and little is known about their potential interactive effects. Here, we present the results of an in situ experiment examining the combined effects of top-down and bottom-up forces on the structure of a coastal marine community. Reduced average body mass of the top predator (the shore crab, Carcinus maenas) and nutrient enrichment combined additively to alter mean community body mass. Nutrient enrichment increased species richness and overall density of organisms. Reduced top-predator body mass increased community biomass. Additionally, we found evidence for an allometrically induced trophic cascade. Here, the reduction in top-predator body mass enabled greater biomass of intermediate fish predators within the mesocosms. This, in turn, suppressed key micrograzers, which led to an overall increase in microalgal biomass. This response highlights the possibility for climate-induced trophic cascades, driven by altered size structure of populations, rather than species extinction.

  14. Alterations in welding process voltage affect the generation of ultrafine particles, fume composition, and pulmonary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, James M; Keane, Michael; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G; Sriram, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    The goal was to determine if increasing welding voltage changes the physico-chemical properties of the fume and influences lung responses. Rats inhaled 40 mg/m³ (3 h/day × 3 days) of stainless steel (SS) welding fume generated at a standard voltage setting of 25 V (regular SS) or at a higher voltage (high voltage SS) of 30 V. Particle morphology, size and composition were characterized. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at different times after exposures to assess lung injury. Fumes collected from either of the welding conditions appeared as chain-like agglomerates of nanometer-sized primary particles. High voltage SS welding produced a greater number of ultrafine-sized particles. Fume generated by high voltage SS welding was higher in manganese. Pulmonary toxicity was more substantial and persisted longer after exposure to the regular SS fume. In summary, a modest raise in welding voltage affected fume size and elemental composition and altered the temporal lung toxicity profile.

  15. Altered miRNA processing disrupts brown/white adipocyte determination and associates with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Marcelo A; Thomou, Thomas; Boucher, Jeremie; Lee, Kevin Y; Lallukka, Susanna; Kim, Jason K; Torriani, Martin; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Grinspoon, Steven K; Cypess, Aaron M; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-08-01

    miRNAs are important regulators of biological processes in many tissues, including the differentiation and function of brown and white adipocytes. The endoribonuclease dicer is a major component of the miRNA-processing pathway, and in adipose tissue, levels of dicer have been shown to decrease with age, increase with caloric restriction, and influence stress resistance. Here, we demonstrated that mice with a fat-specific KO of dicer develop a form of lipodystrophy that is characterized by loss of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous white fat, severe insulin resistance, and enlargement and "whitening" of interscapular brown fat. Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte-like phenotype and reduced expression of several miRNAs. Brown preadipocyte whitening was partially reversed by expression of miR-365, a miRNA known to promote brown fat differentiation; however, introduction of other miRNAs, including miR-346 and miR-362, also contributed to reversal of the loss of the dicer phenotype. Interestingly, fat samples from patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy exhibited a substantial downregulation of dicer mRNA expression. Together, these findings indicate the importance of miRNA processing in white and brown adipose tissue determination and provide a potential link between this process and HIV-related lipodystrophy.

  16. Diets of differentially processed wheat alter ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S Z; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, C Y; Liu, X M; Wan, F C

    2015-11-01

    The influences of differently processed wheat products on rumen fermentation, microbial populations, and serum biochemistry profiles in beef cattle were studied. Four ruminally cannulated Limousin × Luxi beef cattle (400 ± 10 kg) were used in the experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental diets contained (on a DM basis) 60% corn silage as a forage source and 40% concentrate with 4 differently processed wheat products (extruded, pulverized, crushed, and rolled wheat). Concentrations of ruminal NH-N and microbial protein (MCP) in cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat were greater ( cattle fed pulverized and extruded wheat. Ruminal concentrations of total VFA and acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased ( cattle fed extruded wheat had the lowest concentrations of total VFA and acetate among all treatments. The relative abundance of , , ciliated protozoa, and was lower in cattle fed the pulverized wheat diet than in the other 3 diets ( cattle fed extruded wheat compared with cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat ( 0.05). Our findings suggest that the method of wheat processing could have a significant effect on ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle and that crushed and rolled processing is better in terms of ruminal NH-N and MCP content, acetate-to-propionate ratio, and relative abundance of rumen microorganisms.

  17. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.

    1996-01-01

    ), sulfates (anhydrite) and halides (halite). The cooling calculations produce: (a) anhydrite, halite, sylvite; (b) Cu, Mo, Fe and Zn sulfides; (c) Mg fluoride at high temperature (> 370??C); (d) chlorides, fluorides and sulfates of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Al at intermediate temperature (170-370??C); and (e) hydrated sulfates, liquid sulfur, crystalline sulfur, hydrated sulfuric acid and water at low temperature ( 0.41 (> 628??C). This is followed by precipitation of sulfates of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Al at lg/a ratios between 0.41 and -0.4 (628-178??C). At a lg/r ratio of low g/a ratios, hydrated sulfuric acid becomes the dominant phase in the system. Comparison of the thermochemical modeling results with the natural samples suggests that the alteration assemblages include: (1) minerals that precipitate from direct cooling of the volcanic gas; (2) phases that form by volcanic gases mixing with air; and (3) phases that form by volcanic gas-air-rock reaction. A complex interplay of the three processes produces the observed mineral zoning. Another implication of the numerical simulation results is that most of the observed incrustation and sublimate minerals apparently formed below 700??C.

  18. Alpha-band oscillations reflect altered multisensory processing of the McGurk illusion in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira eRoa Romero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of coherent multisensory percepts requires integration of stimuli across the multiple senses. Patients with schizophrenia (ScZ often experience a loss of coherent perception and hence, they might also show dysfunctional multisensory processing. In this high-density electroencephalography study we investigated the neural signatures of the McGurk illusion, as a phenomenon of speech-specific multisensory processing. In the McGurk illusion lip movements are paired with incongruent auditory syllables, which can induce a fused percept. In ScZ patients and healthy controls we compared neural oscillations and event-related potentials (ERPs to congruent audiovisual speech stimuli and McGurk illusion trials, where a visual /ga/ and an auditory /pa/ was often perceived as /ka/. There were no significant group differences in illusion rates. However, we found larger short latency ERPs to McGurk illusion compared with congruent trials in controls, whereas they were reduced in ScZ patients, indicating an early audiovisual processing deficit. Moreover, we observed stronger suppression of medio-central alpha-band power (8-10 Hz, 550-700 ms in response to McGurk illusion compared with control trials in the control group. The reversed pattern was found in SCZ patients. Within groups, alpha-band suppression was negatively correlated with the McGurk illusion rate in ScZ patients, while the correlation tended to be positive in controls. The topography of alpha-band effects suggests an involvement of auditory and/or frontal structures. Our study suggests that early ERPs and later alpha-band oscillations reflect abnormal multisensory processing of the McGurk illusion in schizophrenia.

  19. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  20. Alteration assemblages in Martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, J.C.; Catling, D.C.; Saxton, J M; Swindle, T. D.; Lyon, I C; Grady, M.M

    2001-01-01

    The SNC (Shergotty-Nakhla-Chassigny) meteorites have recorded interactions between martian crustal fluids and the parent igneous rocks. The resultant secondary minerals – which comprise up to 1 vol.% of the meteorites – provide information about the timing and nature of hydrous activity and atmospheric processes on Mars. We suggest that the most plausible models for secondary mineral formation involve the evaporation of low temperature (25 – 150 °C) brines. This is consistent with the simple ...

  1. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-09-26

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  2. Amphetamine Sensitization Alters Reward Processing in the Human Striatum and Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Daly, Owen G.; Joyce, Daniel; Tracy, Derek K.; Azim, Adnan; Stephan, Klaas E.; Murray, Robin M.; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission is implicated in a number of psychiatric illnesses characterised by disruption of reward processing and goal-directed behaviour, including schizophrenia, drug addiction and impulse control disorders associated with chronic use of dopamine agonists. Amphetamine sensitization (AS) has been proposed to model the development of this aberrant dopamine signalling and the subsequent dysregulation of incentive motivational processes. However, in humans the effects of AS on the dopamine-sensitive neural circuitry associated with reward processing remains unclear. Here we describe the effects of acute amphetamine administration, following a sensitising dosage regime, on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in dopaminoceptive brain regions during a rewarded gambling task performed by healthy volunteers. Using a randomised, double-blind, parallel-groups design, we found clear evidence for sensitization to the subjective effects of the drug, while rewarded reaction times were unchanged. Repeated amphetamine exposure was associated with reduced dorsal striatal BOLD signal during decision making, but enhanced ventromedial caudate activity during reward anticipation. The amygdala BOLD response to reward outcomes was blunted following repeated amphetamine exposure. Positive correlations between subjective sensitization and changes in anticipation- and outcome-related BOLD signal were seen for the caudate nucleus and amygdala, respectively. These data show for the first time in humans that AS changes the functional impact of acute stimulant exposure on the processing of reward-related information within dopaminoceptive regions. Our findings accord with pathophysiological models which implicate aberrant dopaminergic modulation of striatal and amygdala activity in psychosis and drug-related compulsive disorders. PMID:24717936

  3. Amphetamine sensitization alters reward processing in the human striatum and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen G O'Daly

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission is implicated in a number of psychiatric illnesses characterised by disruption of reward processing and goal-directed behaviour, including schizophrenia, drug addiction and impulse control disorders associated with chronic use of dopamine agonists. Amphetamine sensitization (AS has been proposed to model the development of this aberrant dopamine signalling and the subsequent dysregulation of incentive motivational processes. However, in humans the effects of AS on the dopamine-sensitive neural circuitry associated with reward processing remains unclear. Here we describe the effects of acute amphetamine administration, following a sensitising dosage regime, on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in dopaminoceptive brain regions during a rewarded gambling task performed by healthy volunteers. Using a randomised, double-blind, parallel-groups design, we found clear evidence for sensitization to the subjective effects of the drug, while rewarded reaction times were unchanged. Repeated amphetamine exposure was associated with reduced dorsal striatal BOLD signal during decision making, but enhanced ventromedial caudate activity during reward anticipation. The amygdala BOLD response to reward outcomes was blunted following repeated amphetamine exposure. Positive correlations between subjective sensitization and changes in anticipation- and outcome-related BOLD signal were seen for the caudate nucleus and amygdala, respectively. These data show for the first time in humans that AS changes the functional impact of acute stimulant exposure on the processing of reward-related information within dopaminoceptive regions. Our findings accord with pathophysiological models which implicate aberrant dopaminergic modulation of striatal and amygdala activity in psychosis and drug-related compulsive disorders.

  4. From symptom to process: how the PDM alters goals and strategies in psychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2011-03-01

    In many respects the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) P and M Axes represent psychoanalytic versions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Axes II and V: Whereas the DSM axes focus on surface behaviors and their associated mental states (e.g., thought patterns, affective responses), the PDM axes emphasize underlying psychodynamic processes (e.g., implicit motives, conflicts, defenses), with more modest attention to expressed behavior. The paradigmatic shift envisioned by the PDM creates tremendous opportunities for clinicians and researchers, and significant assessment challenges as well. This article discusses those opportunities and challenges. After briefly contrasting the DSM and PDM conceptualizations of personality pathology and global psychological functioning, I discuss the implications of these contrasting perspectives for diagnosis and psychological assessment, outline strategies for documenting the construct validity of DSM and PDM symptom criteria using symptom-focused and process-focused methods, and offer suggestions for how DSM symptom-focused data can be integrated with PDM process-focused data to facilitate case conceptualization and treatment planning.

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Alters the mRNA Translation Processing in L-02 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min HONG; Yan-chun CHE; Gui-zhen TANG; Wei CUN; Xue-mei ZHANG; Long-ding LIU; Qi-han LI

    2008-01-01

    HSV-1 infection-mediated regulation of mRNA translation in host cells is a systematic and complicated process. Investigation of the details of this mechanism will facilitate understanding of biological variations in the viral replication process and host cells. In this study, a comparative proteomics technology platform was applied by two-dimension electrophoresis of HSV-1 infected normal human L-02 cell and control cell lysates. The observed protein spots were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by the PDQuest software package. A number of the different observed protein spots closely associated with cellular protein synthesis were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The expression levels of the RPLP1 protein, which is required for mRNA translation, and KHSRP protein, which is involved in rapid decay of mRNA, were up-regulated, whereas the expression level of RNP H2, which is involved in positive regulation on the mRNA splicing process, was down-regulated. All of these results suggest that HSV-1 infection can influence cellular protein synthesis via modulation of cellular regulatory proteins involved in RNA splicing, translation and decay, resulting in optimisation of viral protein synthesis when cellular protein synthesis is shut off. Although there is need for further investigations regarding the detailed mechanisms of cellular protein control, our studies provide new insight into the targeting of varied virus signaling pathways involved in host cellular protein synthesis.

  6. Radioactivity and radiological risk associated with effluent sediment containing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials in amang (tin tailings) processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Ismail; Mohsen, Nasirian; Abdullah, Pauzi

    2007-01-01

    The processing of amang, or tin tailings, for valuable minerals has been shown to technologically enhance NORM and this has stirred significant radiological safety and health concerns among Malaysia's regulatory authority. A growing radiological concern is now focused on the amang effluent containing NORM in recycling ponds, since these ponds may be reclaimed for future residential developments. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk associated with amang processing and the accumulated effluent in the recycling ponds. Twenty-six sediment samples from the recycling ponds of two amang plants in the states of Selangor and Perak, Malaysia, were collected and analyzed. The maximum activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K recorded in sediments from these ponds were higher than Malaysia's and the world's natural highest. Correspondingly, the mean radium equivalent activity concentration indices, Ra(eq), and gamma radiation representative level index, I(gammar), were higher than the world's average. The enhancement of NORM in effluent sediments as a consequence of amang processing, and the use of a closed water management recycling system created Effective Dose Rates, E (nSv h(-1)), that signal potential environmental radiological risks in these ponds, should they be reclaimed for future land use.

  7. Altered joint tribology in osteoarthritis: Reduced lubricin synthesis due to the inflammatory process. New horizons for therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychlinska, M A; Leonardi, R; Al-Qahtani, M; Mobasheri, A; Musumeci, G

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. This review aimed to consolidate the current evidence that implicates the inflammatory process in the attenuation of synovial lubrication and joint tissue homeostasis in OA. Moreover, with these findings, we propose some evidence for novel therapeutic strategies for preventing and/or treating this complex disorder. The studies reviewed support that inflammatory mediators participate in the onset and progression of OA after joint injury. The flow of pro-inflammatory cytokines following an acute injury seems to be directly associated with altered lubricating ability in the joint tissue. The latter is associated with reduced level of lubricin, one of the major joint lubricants. Future research should focus on the development of new therapies that attenuate the inflammatory process and restore lubricin synthesis and function. This approach could support joint tribology and synovial lubrication leading to improved joint function and pain relief.

  8. Altered processing of rewarding and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Prinster, Anna; Volpe, Umberto; Cantone, Elena; Pellegrino, Francesca; Canna, Antonietta; Milano, Walter; Aiello, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Maj, Mario

    2017-02-21

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have displayed a dysregulation in the way in which the brain processes pleasant taste stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, exactly how the brain processes disgusting basic taste stimuli has never been investigated, even though disgust plays a role in food intake modulation and AN and BN patients exhibit high disgust sensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the activation of brain areas following the administration of pleasant and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic AN and BN patients compared to healthy subjects. Twenty underweight AN women, 20 symptomatic BN women and 20 healthy women underwent fMRI while tasting 0.292 M sucrose solution (sweet taste), 0.5 mM quinine hydrochloride solution (bitter taste) and water as a reference taste. In symptomatic AN and BN patients the pleasant sweet stimulus induced a higher activation in several brain areas than that induced by the aversive bitter taste. The opposite occurred in healthy controls. Moreover, compared to healthy controls, AN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left anterior cingulate cortex, while BN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left insula. These results show an altered processing of rewarding and aversive taste stimuli in ED patients, which may be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of AN and BN.

  9. Glycation alter the process of Tau phosphorylation to change Tau isoforms aggregation property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kefu; Liu, Yutong; Li, Lingyun; Qin, Peibin; Iqbal, Javed; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2016-02-01

    The risk of tauopathies depends in part on the levels and modified composition of six Tau isoforms in the human brain. Abnormal phosphorylation of the Tau protein and the shift of the ratio of 3R Tau to 4R Tau are presumed to result in neurofibrillary pathology and neurodegeneration. Glycation has recently been linked to dementia and metabolic syndrome. To determine the contribution of Tau protein glycation and phosphorylation on Tau aggregation propensity, the assembled kinetics were examined in vitro using Thioflavin T fluorescence assays. We found that glycation and phosphorylation have different effects on aggregation propensity in different Tau isoforms. Different Tau proteins play important parts in each tauopathies, but 3R0N, fetal Tau protein, has no effect on tauopathies. Conversely, 4R2N has more modified sites and a higher tendency to aggregate, playing the most important role in 4R tauopathies. Finally, Glycation, which could modulate Tau phosphorylation, may occur before any other modification. It also regulates the 3R to 4R ratio and promotes 4R2N Tau protein aggregation. Decreasing the sites of glycation, as well as shifting other Tau proteins to 3R0N Tau proteins has potential therapeutic implications for tauopathies.

  10. Altered processing of self-related emotional stimuli in mindfulness meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J; Brühl, A B; Doerig, N; Scheerer, H; Achermann, R; Weibel, A; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U

    2016-01-01

    Mental health benefits of mindfulness techniques are thought to involve changes in self-processing, such as decreased attachment to the self, higher self-compassion and lower emotional reactivity to inner experience. However, self-related emotion processing in regular mindfulness practitioners is not extensively studied. In the current work we investigate differential neural and behavioral correlates of self-criticism and self-praise in 22 mid-to-long-term mindfulness meditators (LTM) compared to 22 matched meditation-naïve participants (MNP). In an fMRI experiment, participants were presented with blocks of individually selected positive (self-praise, SP), negative (self-critical, SC), negative but not-self-critical (NNSC), and general, neutral (NT) adjectives, and reported their affective state after the blocks. On the neural level, both SP and SC yielded more activation in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in LTM compared to MNP. Activation in this region correlated positively with non-react scores of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and showed decreased functional connectivity to posterior midline and parietal regions in LTM compared to MNP during both self-related appraisals. Further, we found evidence for emotional reactivity in LTM on the neural level, particularly during SP. On the behavioral level, a mixed effects analysis revealed significantly higher differences in affective ratings after blocks of SC compared to SP in MNP compared to LTM. Differences in DMPFC activation and affective ratings point towards increased awareness, potentially mindful regulation of SC and SP in LTM, while decreased connectivity to other regions of the default mode network could reflect a decreased self-focus in this group. As such, our results illustrate differences in self-related emotional processes in meditators and offer clinically relevant insights into mechanisms of mindful emotion regulation when facing self-criticism and self-praise.

  11. Cesium Toxicity Alters MicroRNA Processing and AGO1 Expressions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Lae Jung

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short RNA fragments that play important roles in controlled gene silencing, thus regulating many biological processes in plants. Recent studies have indicated that plants modulate miRNAs to sustain their survival in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, such as biotic stresses, cold, drought, nutritional starvation, and toxic heavy metals. Cesium and radio-cesium contaminations have arisen as serious problems that both impede plant growth and enter the food chain through contaminated plants. Many studies have been performed to define plant responses against cesium intoxication. However, the complete profile of miRNAs in plants during cesium intoxication has not been established. Here we show the differential expression of the miRNAs that are mostly down-regulated during cesium intoxication. Furthermore, we found that cesium toxicity disrupts both the processing of pri-miRNAs and AGONOUTE 1 (AGO1-mediated gene silencing. AGO 1 seems to be especially destabilized by cesium toxicity, possibly through a proteolytic regulatory pathway. Our study presents a comprehensive profile of cesium-responsive miRNAs, which is distinct from that of potassium, and suggests two possible mechanisms underlying the cesium toxicity on miRNA metabolism.

  12. Biomedical implications of altered product composition in advanced coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Mahlum, D.D.; Pelroy, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Chemical and toxicologic characteristics of direct coal liquefaction materials are highly dependent upon the specific process operations by which the coal liquids were produced, including, in particular, those that affect boiling point range and degree of hydrogen incorporation. Recent advances in direct coal liquefaction technology, such as the use of catalytic hydrogenation, reduced liquefaction severity and lowering the upper temperature cut point for the distillation of fuels, have resulted in products with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios and lower heteroatom content. These higher-quality fuels tend to be less mutagenic and carcinogenic in laboratory assays than earlier coal liquefaction products. It is likely that application of postproduction hydrotreatment, as well as restriction of upper distillation temperature, for coal-based fuel products could result in materials that exhibit mutagenic or carcinogenic activity which is no greater than that of their petroleum-derived counterparts. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs.

  13. Acute stress alters transcript expression pattern and reduces processing of proBDNF to mature BDNF in Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroglia Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress involves alterations of brain functioning that may precipitate to mood disorders. The neurotrophin Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF has recently been involved in stress-induced adaptation. BDNF is a key regulator of neuronal plasticity and adaptive processes. Regulation of BDNF is complex and may reflect not only stress-specific mechanisms but also hormonal and emotional responses. For this reason we used, as an animal model of stress, a fish whose brain organization is very similar to that of higher vertebrates, but is generally considered free of emotional reactions. Results We provide a comprehensive characterization of BDNF gene in the Dicentrarchus labrax and its transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation following acute stress. While total BDNF mRNA levels are unchanged, BDNF transcripts 1c and 1d resulted down regulated after acute stress. Acute stress induces also a significant increase in proBDNF levels and reduction in mature BDNF suggesting altered regulation of proBDNF proteolytic processing. Notably, we provide here the first evidence that fishes possess a simplified proteolytic regulation of BDNF since the pro28Kda form, generated by the SKI-1 protease in mammals, is absent in fishes because the cleavage site has first emerged in reptilians. Finally, we show that the proBDNF/totBDNF ratio is a highly predictive novel quantitative biomarker to detect stress in fishes with sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 87%, and Negative Predictive Value = 100%. Conclusion The high predictivity of proBDNF/totBDNF ratio for stress in lower vertebrates indicates that processing of BDNF is a central mechanism in adaptation to stress and predicts that a similar regulation of pro/mature BDNF has likely been conserved throughout evolution of vertebrates from fish to man.

  14. Altered Onset Response Dynamics in Somatosensory Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sheraz; Hashmi, Javeria A; Mamashli, Fahimeh; Bharadwaj, Hari M; Ganesan, Santosh; Michmizos, Konstantinos P; Kitzbichler, Manfred G; Zetino, Manuel; Garel, Keri-Lee A; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kenet, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical connectivity and evoked responses have been extensively documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, specific signatures of these cortical abnormalities remain elusive, with data pointing toward abnormal patterns of both increased and reduced response amplitudes and functional connectivity. We have previously proposed, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, that apparent inconsistencies in prior studies could be reconciled if functional connectivity in ASD was reduced in the feedback (top-down) direction, but increased in the feedforward (bottom-up) direction. Here, we continue this line of investigation by assessing abnormalities restricted to the onset, feedforward inputs driven, component of the response to vibrotactile stimuli in somatosensory cortex in ASD. Using a novel method that measures the spatio-temporal divergence of cortical activation, we found that relative to typically developing participants, the ASD group was characterized by an increase in the initial onset component of the cortical response, and a faster spread of local activity. Given the early time window, the results could be interpreted as increased thalamocortical feedforward connectivity in ASD, and offer a plausible mechanism for the previously observed increased response variability in ASD, as well as for the commonly observed behaviorally measured tactile processing abnormalities associated with the disorder.

  15. Suppression of savanna ants alters invertebrate composition and influences key ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, C L; Eggleton, P; Davies, A B; Evans, T A; Holdsworth, S

    2016-06-01

    In almost every ecosystem, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are the dominant terrestrial invertebrate group. Their functional value was highlighted by Wilson (1987) who famously declared that invertebrates are the "little things that run the world." However, while it is generally accepted that ants fulfil important functions, few studies have tested these assumptions and demonstrated what happens in their absence. We report on a novel large-scale field experiment in undisturbed savanna habitat where we examined how ants influence the abundance of other invertebrate taxa in the system, and affect the key processes of decomposition and herbivory. Our experiment demonstrated that ants suppressed the abundance and activity of beetles, millipedes, and termites, and also influenced decomposition rates and levels of herbivory. Our study is the first to show that top-down control of termites by ants can have important ecosystem consequences. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects ant communities have on other aspects of the ecosystem (e.g., soils, nutrient cycling, the microbial community) and how their relative importance for ecosystem function varies among ecosystem types (e.g., savanna vs. forest).

  16. Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon

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    S. C. Neubauer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced roughly 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent

  17. Alteration processes of medieval stained glass windows. Study and protection treatments

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    Fernández Navarro, J. María

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The anxiety caused by the fast growing decay of historical stained glass windows as a consequence of increasing environmental pollution, encouraged institutions of several countries to sponsor a series of scientific works aimed both to slow down this fast forwarding deterioration and to develop repair and preservation methods. After an initial review of the chemical composition of the stained glass windows and of the differences depending on historical epochs and origins, a discussion about chemical attack mechanisms, degradation processes and formation of superficial crusts opens up. Finally, the methodology used in their cleaning and restoration is briefly exposed and some criteria on the still polemic quest.

    La inquietud creada por la creciente alteración que, como consecuencia del aumento de la contaminación atmosférica, están sufriendo las vidrieras históricas, ha movido a las instituciones de varios países a patrocinar la realización de una serie de trabajos científicos dirigidos, por una parte, a detener el avance de este deterioro y, por otra, a desarrollar métodos para su restauración y conservación. Tras una revisión inicial sobre la composición química de las vidrieras y sus diferencias según las distintas épocas y lugares de procedencia, se discuten los mecanismos de ataque químico, los procesos de degradación y la formación de costras superficiales. Finalmente se expone brevemente la metodología seguida para su limpieza y restauración y se comentan algunos de los criterios sobre la todavía polémica cuestión de los tratamientos de protección.

  18. APEX (Aqueous Photochemistry of Environmentally occurring Xenobiotics): a free software tool to predict the kinetics of photochemical processes in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrato, Marco; Vione, Davide

    2014-04-01

    The APEX software predicts the photochemical transformation kinetics of xenobiotics in surface waters as a function of: photoreactivity parameters (direct photolysis quantum yield and second-order reaction rate constants with transient species, namely ˙OH, CO₃(-)˙, (1)O₂ and the triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, (3)CDOM*), water chemistry (nitrate, nitrite, bicarbonate, carbonate, bromide and dissolved organic carbon, DOC), and water depth (more specifically, the optical path length of sunlight in water). It applies to well-mixed surface water layers, including the epilimnion of stratified lakes, and the output data are average values over the considered water column. Based on intermediate formation yields from the parent compound via the different photochemical pathways, the software can also predict intermediate formation kinetics and overall yield. APEX is based on a photochemical model that has been validated against available field data of pollutant phototransformation, with good agreement between model predictions and field results. The APEX software makes allowance for different levels of knowledge of a photochemical system. For instance, the absorption spectrum of surface water can be used if known, or otherwise it can be modelled from the values of DOC. Also the direct photolysis quantum yield can be entered as a detailed wavelength trend, as a single value (constant or average), or it can be defined as a variable if unknown. APEX is based on the free software Octave. Additional applications are provided within APEX to assess the σ-level uncertainty of the results and the seasonal trend of photochemical processes.

  19. Some processes of energy saving and expenditure occurring during ethanol perfusion in the isolated liver of fed rats; a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study.

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    Gin Henri

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the isolated liver of fed rats, a 10 mM ethanol perfusion rapidly induced a rapid 25% decrease in the total ATP content, the new steady state resulting from both synthesis and consumption. The in situ rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis without activation of the respiration was increased by 27%, implying an increased energy demand. An attempt to identify the ethanol-induced ATP-consuming pathways was performed using 31P and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Results Ethanol (i transiently increased sn-glycerol-3-phosphate formation whereas glycogenolysis was continuously maintained; (ii decreased the glycolytic ATP supply and (iii diminished the intracellular pH in a dose-dependent manner in a slight extend. Although the cytosolic oxidation of ethanol largely generated H+ (and NADH, intracellular pHi was maintained by (i the large and passive excretion of cellular acetic acid arising from ethanol oxidation (evidenced by exogenous acetate administration, without energetic cost or (ii proton extrusion via the Na+-HCO3- symport (implying the indirect activation of the Na+-K+-ATPase pump and thus an energy use, demonstrated during the addition of their specific inhibitors SITS and ouabaïn, respectively. Conclusion Various cellular mechanisms diminish the cytosolic concentration of H+ and NADH produced by ethanol oxidation, such as (i the large but transient contribution of the dihydroxyacetone phosphate / sn-glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle between cytosol and mitochondria, mainly implicated in the redox state and (ii the major participation of acetic acid in passive proton extrusion out of the cell. These processes are not ATP-consuming and the latter is a cellular way to save some energy. Their starting in conjunction with the increase in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in ethanol-perfused whole liver was however insufficient to alleviate either the inhibition of glycolytic ATP synthesis and/or the implication of Na+-HCO3- symport and

  20. Lutein transport by Caco-2 TC-7 cells occurs partly by a facilitated process involving the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Emmanuelle; Abou, Lydia; Mikail, Céline; Ghiringhelli, Odette; André, Marc; Portugal, Henri; Jourdheuil-Rahmani, Dominique; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Lairon, Denis; Borel, Patrick

    2005-04-15

    The carotenoid lutein is thought to play a role in the human eye and to protect against age-related macular degeneration. Lutein transport in the human intestine has not been characterized. We examined lutein transport processes using Caco-2 TC-7 monolayers as a model for human intestinal epithelium. Purified lutein was mixed with phospholipids, lysophospholipids, cholesterol, mono-olein, oleic acid and taurocholate to obtain lutein-rich mixed micelles that mimicked those found under physiological conditions. The micelles were added to the apical side of Caco-2 TC-7 cell monolayers for 30 min or 3 h at 37 degrees C. Absorbed lutein, i.e. the sum of lutein recovered in the scraped cells and in the basolateral chamber, was quantified by HPLC. Transport rate was measured (i) as a function of time (from 15 to 60 min), (ii) as a function of micellar lutein concentration (from 1.5 to 15 microM), (iii) at 4 degrees C, (iv) in the basolateral to apical direction, (v) after trypsin pretreatment, (vi) in the presence of beta-carotene and/or lycopene, (vii) in the presence of increasing concentrations of antibody against SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B type 1) and (viii) in the presence of increasing concentrations of a chemical inhibitor of the selective transfer of lipids mediated by SR-BI, i.e. BLT1 (blocks lipid transport 1). The rate of transport of lutein as a function of time and as a function of concentration was saturable. It was significantly lower at 4 degrees C than at 37 degrees C (approx. 50%), in the basal to apical direction than in the opposite direction (approx. 85%), and after trypsin pretreatment (up to 45%). Co-incubation with beta-carotene, but not lycopene, decreased the lutein absorption rate (approx. 20%) significantly. Anti-SR-BI antibody and BLT1 significantly impaired the absorption rate (approx. 30% and 57% respectively). Overall, these results indicate that lutein absorption is, at least partly, protein-mediated and that some lutein is taken up

  1. Cellular hyper-excitability caused by mutations that alter the activation process of voltage-gated sodium channels

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    Mohamed-Yassine eAMAROUCH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav are widely expressed as macro-molecular complexes in both excitable and non-excitable tissues. In excitable tissues, the upstroke of the action potential is the result of the passage of a large and rapid influx of sodium ions through these channels. NaV dysfunction has been associated with an increasingly wide range of neurological, muscular and cardiac disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently identified sodium channel mutations that are linked to hyper-excitability phenotypes and associated with the alteration of the activation process of voltage gated sodium channels. Indeed, several clinical manifestations that demonstrate an alteration of tissue excitability were recently shown to be strongly associated with the presence of mutations that affect the activation process of the voltage-gated sodium channels. These emerging genotype-phenotype correlations have expanded the clinical spectrum of sodium channelopathies to include disorders which feature a hyper-excitability phenotype that may or may not be associated with a cardiomyopathy. The p.I141V mutation in SCN4A and SCN5A, as well as its homologous p.I136V mutation in SCN9A, are interesting examples of mutations that have been linked to inherited hyperexcitability myotonia, exercise-induced polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and erythromelalgia, respectively. Regardless of which sodium channel isoform is investigated, the substitution of the isoleucine to valine in the locus 141 induces similar modifications in the biophysical properties of the voltage-gated sodium channels by shifting the voltage-dependence of steady state activation towards more negative potentials.

  2. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG-Treated Mice

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    René J. Hernández-Bautista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old, the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline.

  3. Retinal aging in the diurnal Chilean rodent (Octodon degus: histological, ultrastructural and neurochemical alterations of the vertical information processing pathway

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    Krisztina eSzabadfi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The retina is sensitive to age-dependent degeneration. To find suitable animal models to understand and map this process has particular importance. The degu (Octodon degus is a diurnal rodent with dichromatic color vision. Its retinal structure is similar to that in humans in many respects, therefore, it is well suited to study retinal aging. Histological, cell type-specific and ultrastructural alterations were examined in 6, 12 and 36 months old degus. The characteristic layers of the retina were present at all ages, but slightly loosened tissue structure could be observed in 36-month-old animals both at light and electron microscopic levels. Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein expression was observed in Müller glial cells in aging retinas. The number of rod bipolar cells and the ganglion cells was reduced in the aging specimens, while that of cone bipolar cells remained unchanged. Other age-related differences were detected at ultrastructural level: alteration of the retinal pigment epithelium and degenerated photoreceptor cells were evident. Ribbon synapses were sparse and often differed in morphology from those in the young animals. These results support our hypothesis that (i the rod pathway seems to be more sensitive than the cone pathway to age-related cell loss; (ii structural changes in the basement membrane of pigment epithelial cells can be one of the early signs of degenerative processes; (iii the loss of synaptic proteins especially from those of the ribbon synapses are characteristic and (iv the degu retina may be a suitable model for studying retinal aging.

  4. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Treated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bautista, René J.; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Escobar-Villanueva, María Del C.; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C.; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  5. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

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    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. memory biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions.Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years participated in either a 12-week course containing a "meditation laboratory" or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music. Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course.Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .02. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [(F(1, 56 = 3.0, p = .09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being [r = 0.31, p = .02] and decreased clinical symptoms [r = -0.29, p = .03].Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing.

  6. Effect of compositional alteration of food matrices and processing on availability of selected nutrients and bioactive components in rice products.

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    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2011-05-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of compositional alteration and processing on the digestibility/availability of nutrients and bioactive components [protein (IVPD), starch (IVSD), iron, calcium, polyphenols, flavonoids] in rice products. The compositional changes representing fortified foods in 'wafers' and 'noodles' were addition of iron, rice bran, onion and cabbage. The moisture content of wafer and noodles ranged from 4.1 to 4.8% and from 73.3 to 82.1%, respectively. Wafer control (73.9-75.9%) and noodle with iron and control (85.4-87.0%) showed the highest IVPD and IVSD. Addition of rice bran decreased nutrient digestibility. The control and iron-added products exhibited least and highest available iron (2.50-2.69% and 5.99-7.07%). Total and available bioactive components increased in proportion to added external source. Overall availability of all components was better in noodles than in wafers, indicating high moisture supported higher availability. In conclusion, it can be said that both composition of the food matrix and processing influenced the availability of analyzed components.

  7. A translation system reconstituted with human factors proves that processing of encephalomyocarditis virus proteins 2A and 2B occurs in the elongation phase of translation without eukaryotic release factors.

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    Machida, Kodai; Mikami, Satoshi; Masutani, Mamiko; Mishima, Kurumi; Kobayashi, Tominari; Imataka, Hiroaki

    2014-11-14

    The genomic RNA of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) encodes a single polyprotein, and the primary scission of the polyprotein occurs between nonstructural proteins 2A and 2B by an unknown mechanism. To gain insight into the mechanism of 2A-2B processing, we first translated the 2A-2B region in vitro with eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation systems. The 2A-2B processing occurred only in the eukaryotic systems, not in the prokaryotic systems, and the unprocessed 2A-2B protein synthesized by a prokaryotic system remained uncleaved when incubated with a eukaryotic cell extract. These results suggest that 2A-2B processing is a eukaryote-specific, co-translational event. To define the translation factors required for 2A-2B processing, we constituted a protein synthesis system with eukaryotic elongation factors 1 and 2, eukaryotic release factors 1 and 3 (eRF1 and eRF3), aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, tRNAs, ribosome subunits, and a plasmid template that included the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site. We successfully reproduced 2A-2B processing in the reconstituted system even without eRFs. Our results indicate that this unusual event occurs in the elongation phase of translation.

  8. Matrix density alters zyxin phosphorylation, which limits peripheral process formation and extension in endothelial cells invading 3D collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Colette A; Bayless, Kayla J

    2014-09-01

    integrate signals from multiple exogenous factors, including changes in matrix density, to accomplish successful sprouting responses. We show here for the first time that zyxin limited the formation and extension of fine peripheral processes used by ECs for matrix interrogation, providing a molecular explanation for altered EC responses to high and low density collagen matrices.

  9. Photoinhibition induced alterations in energy transfer process in phycobilisomes of PS II in the cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Duvvuri Prasanna; Murthy, Sistla D S

    2007-09-30

    Exposure of algae or plants to irradiance from above the light saturation point of photosynthesis is known as high light stress. This high light stress induces various responses including photoinhibition of the photosynthetic apparatus. The degree of photoinhibition could be clearly determined by measuring the parameters such as absorption and fluorescence of chromoproteins. In cyanobacteria and red algae, most of the photosystem (PS) II associated light harvesting is performed by a membrane attached complex called the phycobilisome (PBS). The effects of high intensity light (1000-4000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on excitation energy transfer from PBSs to PS II in a cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were studied by measuring room temperature PC fluorescence emission spectra. High light (3000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) stress had a significant effect on PC fluorescence emission spectra. On the other hand, light stress induced an increase in the ratio of PC fluorescence intensity of PBS indicating that light stress inhibits excitation energy transfer from PBS to PS II. The high light treatment to 3000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) caused disappearance of 31.5 kDa linker polypeptide which is known to link PC discs together. In addition we observed the similar decrease in the other polypeptide contents. Our data concludes that the Spirulina cells upon light treatment causes alterations in the phycobiliproteins (PBPs) and affects the energy transfer process within the PBSs.

  10. Inactivation of a single copy of Crebbp selectively alters pre-mRNA processing in mouse hematopoietic stem cells.

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    Madeleine E Lemieux

    Full Text Available Global expression analysis of fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells (FL HSCs revealed the presence of unspliced pre-mRNA for a number of genes in normal FL HSCs. In a subset of these genes, Crebbp+/- FL HSCs had less unprocessed pre-mRNA without a corresponding reduction in total mRNA levels. Among the genes thus identified were the key regulators of HSC function Itga4, Msi2 and Tcf4. A similar but much weaker effect was apparent in Ep300+/- FL HSCs, indicating that, in this context as in others, the two paralogs are not interchangeable. As a group, the down-regulated intronic probe sets could discriminate adult HSCs from more mature cell types, suggesting that the underlying mechanism is regulated with differentiation stage and is active in both fetal and adult hematopoiesis. Consistent with increased myelopoiesis in Crebbp hemizygous mice, targeted reduction of CREBBP abundance by shRNA in the multipotent EML cell line triggered spontaneous myeloid differentiation in the absence of the normally required inductive signals. In addition, differences in protein levels between phenotypically distinct EML subpopulations were better predicted by taking into account not only the total mRNA signal but also the amount of unspliced message present. CREBBP thus appears to selectively influence the timing and degree of pre-mRNA processing of genes essential for HSC regulation and thereby has the potential to alter subsequent cell fate decisions in HSCs.

  11. Alteration causes and processes in the stone material from the pavement in Baelo Claudia archeological site, Cadiz/Spain

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    Hoyos, M.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the alteration causes in the stone material used in buildings and pavements from the ancient roman town of Baelo Claudia (Cádiz, South Spain was carried out to establish their degree of conservation. Slabs from the pavement of the Forum showed in general a high and irreversible degree of degradation. In order to palliate the action of processes of degradation in subaerial conditions, in this work some measures are proposed to try to preserve the slabs in better conditions.

    En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de un estudio detallado sobre el estado de conservación de los materiales pétreos usados en construcciones y pavimentos de la antigua ciudad romana de Baelo Claudia (Cádiz, Sur de España. En especial, las losas del pavimento del Foro romano mostraron, en general, un alto e irreversible grado de alteración. En este estudio, se proponen medidas correctoras para una mejor preservación de las losas, amortiguando la acción de los procesos de degradación propios de condiciones subaéreas.

  12. Evidence for mechanical and chemical alteration of iron-nickel meteorites on Mars: Process insights for Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, James W.; Golombek, M.P.; Christensen, P.R.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.J.; Schroder, C.; Fleischer, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Parker, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    The weathering of meteorites found on Mars involves chemical and physical processes that can provide clues to climate conditions at the location of their discovery. Beginning on sol 1961, the Opportunity rover encountered three large iron meteorites within a few hundred meters of each other. In order of discovery, these rocks have been assigned the unofficial names Block Island, Shelter Island, and Mackinac Island. Each rock presents a unique but complimentary set of features that increase our understanding of weathering processes at Meridiani Planum. Significant morphologic characteristics interpretable as weathering features include (1) a large pit in Block Island, lined with delicate iron protrusions suggestive of inclusion removal by corrosive interaction; (2) differentially eroded kamacite and taenite lamellae in Block Island and Shelter Island, providing relative timing through crosscutting relationships with deposition of (3) an iron oxide-rich dark coating; (4) regmaglypted surfaces testifying to regions of minimal surface modification, with other regions in the same meteorites exhibiting (5) large-scale, cavernous weathering (in Shelter Island and Mackinac Island). We conclude that the current size of the rocks is approximate to their original postfall contours. Their morphology thus likely results from a combination of atmospheric interaction and postfall weathering effects. Among our specific findings is evidence supporting (1) at least one possible episode of aqueous acidic exposure for Block Island; (2) ripple migration over portions of the meteorites; (3) a minimum of two separate episodes of wind abrasion; alternating with (4) at least one episode of coating-forming chemical alteration, most likely at subzero temperatures. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria-Beatrice Wintermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Panic Disorder (PD direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD. METHODS: A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat as non-fearful non-body odors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear

  14. Altered brain processing of decision-making in healthy first-degree biological relatives of suicide completers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y; Pereira, F; Hoehne, A; Beaulieu, M-M; Lepage, M; Turecki, G; Jollant, F

    2016-12-13

    Suicidal behavior is heritable, with the transmission of risk being related to the transmission of vulnerability traits. Previous studies suggest that risky decision-making may be an endophenotype of suicide. Here, we aimed at investigating brain processing of decision-making in relatives of suicide completers in order to shed light on heritable mechanisms of suicidal vulnerability. Seventeen healthy first-degree biological relatives of suicide completers with no personal history of suicidal behavior, 16 relatives of depressed patients without any personal or family history of suicidal behavior, and 19 healthy controls were recruited. Functional 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired while participants underwent the Iowa Gambling Task, an economic decision-making test. Whole-brain analyses contrasting activations during risky vs safe choices were conducted with AFNI and FSL. Individuals with a family history of suicide in comparison to control groups showed altered contrasts in left medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern was different from the neural basis of familial depression. Moreover, controls in comparison to relatives showed increased contrast in several regions including the post-central gyrus, posterior cingulate and parietal cortices, and cerebellum (culmen) in familial suicide; and inferior parietal, temporal, occipital, anteromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and cerebellum (vermis) in familial depression. These findings most likely represent a complex combination of vulnerability and protective mechanisms in relatives. They also support a significant role for deficient risk processing, and ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortex functioning in the suicidal diathesis.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 13 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.221.

  15. Preterrestrial aqueous alteration of the Lafayette (SNC) meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Barrett, Ruth A.; Gooding, James L.

    1993-01-01

    The structure and chemical composition of the Lafayette meteorite were examined using several methods. The meteorite contains abundant hydrous post-magnetic alteration material consisting of ferroan smectite clays, magnetite, and ferrihydrite. The textural relations, mineralogy, and composition of these materials were examined and their preterrestrial nature was documented. Olivine, pyroxene, and glass alteration are described and the bulk compositions of the alteration veinlets is discussed. Essential features of the geochemistry of the alteration processes are described. It is suggested that the alteration of the Lafayette meteorite occurred during episodic infiltrations of small volumes of saline water. Constraints placed on water chemistry and water-rock interactions in the Martian crust are outlined.

  16. β-carotene treatment alters the cellular death process in oxidative stress-induced K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçakaya, Handan; Tok, Sabiha; Dal, Fulya; Cinar, Suzan Adin; Nurten, Rustem

    2017-03-01

    Oxidizing agents (e.g., H2 O2 ) cause structural and functional disruptions of molecules by affecting lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. As a result, cellular mechanisms related to disrupted macro molecules are affected and cell death is induced. Oxidative damage can be prevented at a certain point by antioxidants or the damage can be reversed. In this work, we studied the cellular response against oxidative stress induced by H2 O2 and antioxidant-oxidant (β-carotene-H2 O2 ) interactions in terms of time, concentration, and treatment method (pre-, co-, and post) in K562 cells. We showed that co- or post-treatment with β-carotene did not protect cells from the damage of oxidative stress furthermore co- and post-β-carotene-treated oxidative stress induced cells showed similar results with only H2 O2 treated cells. However, β-carotene pre-treatment prevented oxidative damage induced by H2 O2 at concentrations lower than 1,000 μM compared with only H2 O2 -treated and co- and post-β-carotene-treated oxidative stress-induced cells in terms of studied cellular parameters (mitochondrial membrane potential [Δψm ], cell cycle and apoptosis). Prevention effect of β-carotene pre-treatment was lost at concentrations higher than 1,000 μM H2 O2 (2-10 mM). These findings suggest that β-carotene pre-treatment alters the effects of oxidative damage induced by H2 O2 and cell death processes in K562 cells.

  17. Hydrothermal alteration of surficial rocks at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei): Petrophysical properties and implications for phreatic eruption processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Isaia, Roberto; Aßbichler, Donjá; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-06-01

    Solfatara crater is located within the Campi Flegrei caldera to the west of Naples (Italy). It is one of the largest fumarolic manifestations known, and the rocks hosting the hydrothermal system are affected by intense hydrothermal alteration. Alteration can result in changes of degassing behavior, and in the formation of a cap rock thereby increasing the probability of phreatic eruptions. Here, we investigate the effects of alunitic (solfataric) alteration on the mineralogy, the physical properties (porosity, density, permeability) and the mechanical properties (strength) of the rocks involved, as well as its influence on fragmentation and ejection behavior. Our results show that the pristine mineralogy of deposits from the vicinity of the Solfatara cryptodome and from Pisciarelli is almost completely replaced by amorphous silica and alunite. The differences in the degree of alteration among the samples series are reflected in the investigated properties and behavior as well as in the analysis of the experimentally generated particles. Alunitic alteration increases porosity and permeability, whereas it reduces density, elastic wave velocity and strength leading to higher fragmentation and ejection speeds for the sample series examined in this study. Our results also show that alteration results in the generation of a high fraction of fines (particle sizes < 10 μm) during fragmentation, mainly composed of alunite crystals. Due to their potential for inducing chronic disease, dispersion of such material should represent a serious health hazard on a local scale and the evaluation of precautions should be considered.

  18. Alteration Information Extraction by Applying Synthesis Processing Techniques to Landsat ETM+Data: Case Study of Zhaoyuan Gold Mines,Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fujiang; Wu Xincai; Sun Huashan; Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data are usually used to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of geological structures and generally serve as a significant means for the identification of alteration zones. Based on the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data, which have better spectral resolution (8 bands) and spatial resolution (15 m in PAN band), the synthesis processing techniques were presented to fulfill alteration information extraction: data preparation, vegetation indices and band ratios, and expert classifier-based classification. These techniques have been implemented in the MapGIS-RSP software (version 1.0), developed by the Wuhan Zondy Cyber Technology Co., Ltd,China. In the study area application of extracting alteration information in the Zhaoyuan (招远) gold mines, Shandong (山东) Province, China, several hydorthermally altered zones (included two new sites) were found after satellite imagery interpretation coupled with field surveys. It is concluded that these synthesis processing techniques are useful approaches and are applicable to a wide range of gold-mineralized alteration information extraction.

  19. Prevalência de alteração morfológica do processo estilóide em pacientes com desordem temporomandibular Prevalence of morphological alterations of the styloid process in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Ragone Guimarães

    2006-12-01

    concerned, 113 elongated, 21 pseudoarticulated and 19 segmented were observed. Also, it was noticed that the morphological alterations of the styloid process develop in a symmetrical fashion. CONCLUSION: In individuals with temporomandibular joint disorder, styloid process alterations occur symmetrically and in a different way for each patient, independently from sex and age.

  20. Growth hormone and melatonin prevent age-related alteration in apoptosis processes in the dentate gyrus of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    R A Kireev; Vara, E. (E.); Tresguerres, J. A. F.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the age-related decrease in the number of neurons in the hippocampus that leads to alterations in brain function, may be associated with an increase in apoptosis due to the reduced secretion of growth hormone (GH) and/or melatonin in old animals. In order to investigate this possibility, male Wistar rats of 22 months of age were divided into three groups. One group remained untreated and acted as the control group. The second was treated with growth hormone (hGH) fo...

  1. Developmental changes in reading do not alter the development of visual processing skills: An application of explanatory item response models in grades K-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Santi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual processing has been widely studied in regard to its impact on a students’ ability to read. A less researched area is the role of reading in the development of visual processing skills. A cohort-sequential, accelerated-longitudinal design was utilized with 932 kindergarten, first, and second grade students to examine the impact of reading acquisition on the processing of various types of visual discrimination and visual motor test items. Students were assessed four times per year on a variety of reading measures and reading precursors and two popular measures of visual processing over a three-year period. Explanatory item response models were used to examine the roles of person and item characteristics on changes in visual processing abilities and changes in item difficulties over time. Results showed different developmental patterns for five types of visual processing test items, but most importantly failed to show consistent effects of learning to read on changes in item difficulty. Thus, the present study failed to find support for the hypothesis that learning to read alters performance on measures of visual processing. Rather, visual processing and reading ability improved together over time with no evidence to suggest cross-domain influences from reading to visual processing. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories of visual processing and brain-based research on the role of visual skills in learning to read.

  2. Raman-Mössbauer-XRD studies of selected samples from "Los Azulejos" outcrop: A possible analogue for assessing the alteration processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, E. A.; Sanz-Arranz, A.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Sansano, A.; Medina, J.; Schmanke, D.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Rull, F.

    2016-06-01

    The outcrop of "Los Azulejos" is visible at the interior of the Cañadas Caldera in Tenerife Island (Spain). It exhibits a great variety of alteration processes that could be considered as terrestrial analogue for several geological processes on Mars. This outcrop is particularly interesting due to the content of clays, zeolite, iron oxides, and sulfates corresponding to a hydrothermal alteration catalogued as "Azulejos" type alteration. A detailed analysis by portable and laboratory Raman systems as well as other different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy has been carried out (using twin-instruments from Martian lander missions: Mössbauer spectrometer MIMOS-II from the NASA-MER mission of 2001 and the XRD diffractometer from the NASA-MSL Curiosity mission of 2012). The mineral identification presents the following mineral species: magnetite, goethite, hematite, anatase, rutile, quartz, gregoryite, sulfate (thenardite and hexahydrite), diopside, feldspar, analcime, kaolinite and muscovite. Moreover, the in-situ Raman and Micro-Raman measurements have been performed in order to compare the capabilities of the portable system specially focused for the next ESA Exo-Mars mission. The mineral detection confirms the sub-aerial alteration on the surface and the hydrothermal processes by the volcanic fluid circulations in the fresh part. Therefore, the secondary more abundant mineralization acts as the color agent of the rocks. Thus, the zeolite-illite group is the responsible for the bluish coloration, as well as the feldspars and carbonates for the whitish and the iron oxide for the redish parts. The XRD system was capable to detect a minor proportion of pyroxene, which is not visible by Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy due to the "Azulejos" alteration of the parent material on the outcrop. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy was capable of detecting different types of iron-oxides (Fe3+/2+-oxide phases). These analyses

  3. Altered Neural Correlates of Emotion Associated Pain Processing in Persistent Somatoform Pain Disorder: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanli; Yan, Chao; Huang, Tianming; Fan, Mingxia; Liu, Liang; Zhao, Zhiyong; Ni, Kaiji; Jiang, Hong; Huang, Xiao; Lu, Zheng; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Mingyuan; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2016-09-19

    Patients with persistent somatoform pain disorder (PSPD) suffer from long-term pain and emotional conflicts. Recently, accumulating evidence indicated that emotion has a significant role in pain perception of somatoform pain disorder. To further understand the association between emotion and pain-related brain activities, functional activities of patients with PSPD fulfilling ICD-10 criteria and healthy controls were assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging technology, while participants viewed a series of positive, neutral, or negative pictures with or without pinprick pain stimulation. Results showed that patients with PSPD had altered brain activities in the parietal gyrus, temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampus in response to pinprick pain stimuli during different emotions compared with the healthy control group. Moreover, patients with PSPD consistently showed hyperactivities in the prefrontal, the fusiform gyrus and the insula in response to negative stimuli under pinprick pain vs. non-pain condition. The current findings provide some insights into the underlying relationship between emotion and pain-related brain activity in patients with PSPD, which is of both theoretical and clinical importance.

  4. Elephant Moraine 96029, a very mildly aqueously altered and heated CM carbonaceous chondrite: Implications for the drivers of parent body processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martin R.; Lindgren, Paula; King, Ashley J.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Sparkes, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Elephant Moraine (EET) 96029 is a CM carbonaceous chondrite regolith breccia with evidence for unusually mild aqueous alteration, a later phase of heating and terrestrial weathering. The presence of phyllosilicates and carbonates within chondrules and the fine-grained matrix indicates that this meteorite was aqueously altered in its parent body. Features showing that water-mediated processing was arrested at a very early stage include a matrix with a low magnesium/iron ratio, chondrules whose mesostasis contains glass and/or quench crystallites, and a gehlenite-bearing calcium- and aluminium-rich inclusion. EET 96029 is also rich in Fe,Ni metal relative to other CM chondrites, and more was present prior to its partial replacement by goethite during Antarctic weathering. In combination, these properties indicate that EET 96029 is one of the least aqueously altered CMs yet described (CM2.7) and so provides new insights into the original composition of its parent body. Following aqueous alteration, and whilst still in the parent body regolith, the meteorite was heated to ∼400-600 °C by impacts or solar radiation. Heating led to the amorphisation and dehydroxylation of serpentine, replacement of tochilinite by magnetite, loss of sulphur from the matrix, and modification to the structure of organic matter that includes organic nanoglobules. Significant differences between samples in oxygen isotope compositions, and water/hydroxyl contents, suggests that the meteorite contains lithologies that have undergone different intensities of heating. EET 96029 may be more representative of the true nature of parent body regoliths than many other CM meteorites, and as such can help interpret results from the forthcoming missions to study and return samples from C-complex asteroids.

  5. Insights into magmatic processes and hydrothermal alteration of in situ superfast spreading ocean crust at ODP/IODP site 1256 from a cluster analysis of rock magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Mark J.; Heslop, David; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Acton, Gary; Krasa, David

    2014-08-01

    analyze magnetic properties from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated ODP (IODP) Hole 1256D (6°44.1' N, 91°56.1' W) on the Cocos Plate in ˜15.2 Ma oceanic crust generated by superfast seafloor spreading, the only drill hole that has sampled all three oceanic crust layers in a tectonically undisturbed setting. Fuzzy c-means cluster analysis and nonlinear mapping are utilized to study down-hole trends in the ratio of the saturation remanent magnetization and the saturation magnetization, the coercive force, the ratio of the remanent coercive force and coercive force, the low-field magnetic susceptibility, and the Curie temperature, to evaluate the effects of magmatic and hydrothermal processes on magnetic properties. A statistically robust five cluster solution separates the data predominantly into three clusters that express increasing hydrothermal alteration of the lavas, which differ from two distinct clusters mainly representing the dikes and gabbros. Extensive alteration can obliterate magnetic property differences between lavas, dikes, and gabbros. The imprint of thermochemical alteration on the iron-titanium oxides is only partially related to the porosity of the rocks. Thus, the analysis complements interpretation based on electrofacies analysis. All clusters display rock magnetic characteristics compatible with an ability to retain a stable natural remanent magnetization suggesting that the entire sampled sequence of ocean crust can contribute to marine magnetic anomalies. Paleointensity determination is difficult because of the propensity of oxyexsolution during laboratory heating and/or the presence of intergrowths. The upper part of the extrusive sequence, the granoblastic dikes, and moderately altered gabbros may contain a comparatively uncontaminated thermoremanent magnetization.

  6. Sinorhizobium meliloti mutants lacking phosphotransferase system enzyme HPr or EIIA are altered in diverse processes, including carbon metabolism, cobalt requirements, and succinoglycan production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Bringhurst, Ryan M; Gage, Daniel J

    2008-04-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a member of the Alphaproteobacteria that fixes nitrogen when it is in a symbiotic relationship. Genes for an incomplete phosphotransferase system (PTS) have been found in the genome of S. meliloti. The genes present code for Hpr and ManX (an EIIA(Man)-type enzyme). HPr and EIIA regulate carbon utilization in other bacteria. hpr and manX in-frame deletion mutants exhibited altered carbon metabolism and other phenotypes. Loss of HPr resulted in partial relief of succinate-mediated catabolite repression, extreme sensitivity to cobalt limitation, rapid die-off during stationary phase, and altered succinoglycan production. Loss of ManX decreased expression of melA-agp and lac, the operons needed for utilization of alpha- and beta-galactosides, slowed growth on diverse carbon sources, and enhanced accumulation of high-molecular-weight succinoglycan. A strain with both hpr and manX deletions exhibited phenotypes similar to those of the strain with a single hpr deletion. Despite these strong phenotypes, deletion mutants exhibited wild-type nodulation and nitrogen fixation when they were inoculated onto Medicago sativa. The results show that HPr and ManX (EIIA(Man)) are involved in more than carbon regulation in S. meliloti and suggest that the phenotypes observed occur due to activity of HPr or one of its phosphorylated forms.

  7. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization.

  8. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls.

  9. Growth hormone and melatonin prevent age-related alteration in apoptosis processes in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, R A; Vara, E; Tresguerres, J A F

    2013-08-01

    It has been suggested that the age-related decrease in the number of neurons in the hippocampus that leads to alterations in brain function, may be associated with an increase in apoptosis due to the reduced secretion of growth hormone (GH) and/or melatonin in old animals. In order to investigate this possibility, male Wistar rats of 22 months of age were divided into three groups. One group remained untreated and acted as the control group. The second was treated with growth hormone (hGH) for 10 weeks (2 mg/kg/d sc) and the third was subjected to melatonin treatment (1 mg/kg/d) in the drinking water for the same time. A group of 2-months-old male rats was used as young controls. All rats were killed by decapitation at more than 24 month of age and dentate gyri of the hippocampi were collected. Aging in the dentate gyrus was associated with an increase in apoptosis promoting markers (Bax, Bad and AIF) and with the reduction of some anti-apoptotic ones (XIAP, NIAP, Mcl-1). Expressions of sirtuin 1 and 2 (SIRT1 and 2) as well as levels of HSP 70 were decreased in the dentate gyrus of old rats. GH treatment was able to reduce the pro/anti-apoptotic ratio to levels observed in young animals and also to increase SIRT2. Melatonin reduced also expression of pro-apoptotic genes and proteins (Bax, Bad and AIF), and increased levels of myeloid cell leukemia-1 proteins and SIRT1. Both treatments were able to reduce apoptosis and to enhance survival markers in this part of the hippocampus.

  10. Matching plant and animal processes to alter nutrient supply in strip-grazed cattle: timing of herbage and fasting allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2008-04-01

    This work aimed to assess the impact of timing of herbage allocation and fasting on patterns of ingestive behavior, herbage intake, ruminal fermentation, nutrient flow to the duodenum, and site and extent of digestion. Treatments were daily herbage allocation in the afternoon (1500 h, AHA), morning (0800 h, MHA), AHA after 20 h of fasting (AHAF), and MHA after 20 h of fasting (MHAF). Four ruminally and duodenally fistulated heifers (279 +/- 99 kg of BW) individually strip-grazed wheat pastures in a Latin-square design. Eating, rumination, and idling behavior were recorded every 2 min, and bite and eating step rates were measured hourly while the heifers were grazing (11 h MHA and AHA; 4 h MHAF and AHAF). Ruminal DM pools were measured 4 times daily (0800, 1200, 1500, and 1900 h) to estimate daily herbage DMI and its pattern. Ruminal fluid was sampled at these same times and also at 2300 h. Duodenal digesta was sampled over 2 d to determine the site of herbage digestibility. Treatments did not affect daily herbage DMI (16.5 g/ kg of BW, SE = 0.0025; P > 0.05). However, they altered the eating pattern; the evening grazing bout of AHA and AHAF was greater (P 0.05) among MHA, MHAF, and AHAF; however, it averaged 970, 40, 300, and 540 g/d, respectively, greater (P 0.05) for MHA, AHA, and AHAF, but was lower for MHAF (P 0.05) within fasted and nonfasted treatments; however, it was greater (P 0.05) among MHA, MHAF, and AHAF, but was greater (P nutrient supply. At the same amount of resource allocation, nutrient supply to grazing cattle can be modified through strategic grazing management.

  11. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects

  12. A computational account of altered error processing in older age: Dopamine and the error-related negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Talsma, Durk; Coles, Michael G.H.; Holroyd, Clay B.; Kok, Albert; Molen, van der Maurits W.

    2002-01-01

    When participants commit errors or receive feedback signaling that they have made an error, a negative brain potential is elicited. According to Holroyd and Coles’s (in press) neurocomputational model of error processing, this error-related negativity (ERN) is elicited when the brain first detects t

  13. A computational account of altered error processing in older age: Dopamine and the error-related negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Talsma, D.; Coles, M.G.; Holroyd, C.B.; Kok, A.

    2002-01-01

    When participants commit errors or receive feedback signaling that they have made an error, a negative brain potential is elicited. According to Holroyd and Coles's (in press) neurocomputational model of error processing, this error-related negativity (ERN) is elicited when the brain first detects t

  14. Acute serotonin 2A receptor blocking alters the processing of fearful faces in the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornboll, Bettina; Macoveanu, Julian; Rowe, James;

    2013-01-01

    blockade reduced the neural response to fearful faces in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), independently of 5-HT2A receptor occupancy or neocortical 5-HT2A receptor BPp . The medial OFC also showed increased functional coupling with the left amygdala during processing of fearful faces depending...

  15. Angiodysplasia Occurring in Jejunal Diverticulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Edward A Jones; Hugh Chaun; Phillip Switzer; David J Clow; Ronald J Hancock

    1990-01-01

    The first case of angiodysplasia occurring in acquired jejunal diverticulosis is reported. The patient presented with occult gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic anemia, and was created successfully by resection of a 25 cm long segment of jejunum. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms for both angiodysplasia and jejunal diverticulosis are discussed.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL KINETICS IN ALTERATION AND RECOVERY OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES FROM A CHRONIC SLEEP RESTRICTION IN YOUNG HEALTHY MEN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Alexandre Rabat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep restriction (CSR induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e. attention, executive under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8h TIB followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4h TIB, 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8h TIB and 2 more ones 8 days later (R12-R13. Subjective sleepiness (KSS, maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT were evaluated 4 times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m. and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m. and evening (6:30 p.m. sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13 and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12 samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1, tardily (after R2 and no recovered (R13. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741.

  17. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject's capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12-R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject's age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject's performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject's capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741).

  18. Balancing bilateral sensory activity: callosal processing modulates sensory transmission through the contralateral thalamus by altering the response threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Ebner, Ford F

    2006-07-01

    Rats tactually explore a nearly spherical space field around their heads with their whiskers. The information sampled by the two sets of whiskers is integrated bilaterally at the cortical level in an activity dependent manner via the corpus callosum. We have recently shown that sensory activity in one barrel field cortex (BFC) modulates the processing of incoming sensory information to the other BFC. Whether interhemispheric integration is dynamically linked with corticothalamic modulation of incoming sensory activity is an important hypothesis to test, since subcortical relay neurons are directly modulated by cortical neurons through top-down processes. In the present study, we compared the direct sensory responses of single thalamic relay neurons under urethane anesthesia before and after inactivating the BFC contralateral to a thalamic neuron. The data show that silencing one BFC reduces response magnitude in contralateral thalamic relay neurons, significantly and reversibly, in response to test stimuli applied to the principal whisker at two times response threshold (2T) intensity for each unit. Neurons in the ventral posterior medial (VPM) nucleus and the medial division of the posterior nucleus (POm) react in a similar manner, although POm neurons are more profoundly depressed by inactivation of the contralateral BFC than VPM neurons. The results support the novel idea that the subcortical relay of sensory information to one hemisphere is strongly modulated by activity levels in the contralateral as well as in the ipsilateral SI cortex. The mechanism of the modulation appears to be based on shifting the stimulus-response curves of thalamic neurons, thereby rendering them more or less sensitive to sensory stimuli. We conclude that global sensory processing is created by combining activity in each cerebral hemisphere and continually balancing the flow of information to cortex by adjusting the responsiveness of ascending sensory pathways.

  19. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  20. Adults with high social anhedonia have altered neural connectivity with ventral lateral prefrontal cortex when processing positive social signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong eYin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social anhedonia (SA is a debilitating characteristic of schizophrenia and a vulnerability for developing schizophrenia among people at risk. Prior work (Hooker et al, 2014 has revealed neural deficits in ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC during processing of positive emotion in a community sample of people with high social anhedonia. Deficits in VLPFC neural activity are related to worse self-reported schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms and worse mood and behavior after social stress. In the current study, psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis was applied to investigate the neural mechanisms mediated by VLPFC during emotion processing. PPI analysis revealed that, compared to low SA controls, participants with high SA displayed reduced VLPFC integration, specifically reduced connectivity between VLPFC and premotor cortex, inferior parietal and posterior temporal regions when viewing positive relative to neutral emotion. Across all participants, connectivity between VLPFC and inferior parietal region when viewing positive (versus neutral emotion was significantly correlated with measures of emotion management and attentional control. Additionally connectivity between VLPFC and superior temporal sulcus was related to reward and pleasure anticipation, and connectivity between VLPFC and inferior temporal sulcus correlated with attentional control measure. Our results suggest that impairments to VLPFC mediated neural circuitry underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits.

  1. Altered threat and safety neural processing linked to persecutory delusions in schizophrenia: a two-task fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, David L.; Pan, Hong; Weisholtz, Daniel S.; Root, James C.; Tuescher, Oliver; Fischer, David B.; Butler, Tracy; Vago, David R.; Isenberg, Nancy; Epstein, Jane; Landa, Yulia; Smith, Thomas E.; Savitz, Adam J.; Silbersweig, David A.; Stern, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Persecutory delusions are a clinically important symptom in schizophrenia associated with social avoidance and increased violence. Few studies have investigated the neurobiology of persecutory delusions, which is a prerequisite for developing novel treatments. The aim of this two-paradigm functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study is to characterize social “real world” and linguistic threat brain activations linked to persecutory delusions in schizophrenia (n=26) using instructed-fear/safety and emotional word paradigms. Instructed-fear/safety activations correlated to persecutory delusion severity demonstrated significant increased lateral orbitofrontal cortex and visual association cortex activations for the instructed-fear vs. safety and instructed-fear vs. baseline contrasts; decreased lateral orbitofrontal cortex and ventral occipital-temporal cortex activations were observed for the instructed-safety stimuli vs. baseline contrast. The salience network also showed divergent fear and safety cued activations correlated to persecutory delusions. Emotional word paradigm analyses showed positive correlations between persecutory delusion severity and left-lateralized linguistic and hippocampal-parahippocampal activations for the threat vs. neutral word contrast. Visual word form area activations correlated positively with persecutory delusions for both threat and neutral word vs. baseline contrasts. This study links persecutory delusions to enhanced neural processing of threatening stimuli and decreased processing of safety cues, and helps elucidate systems-level activations associated with persecutory delusions in schizophrenia. PMID:26208746

  2. The beta-receptor blocker metoprolol alters detoxification processes in the non-target organism Dreissena polymorpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska, E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: pflugmacher@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Nuetzmann, Gunnar, E-mail: nuetzmann@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecohydrology, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Kloas, Werner, E-mail: werner.kloas@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Wiegand, Claudia, E-mail: wiegand@biology.sdu.d [University of Southern Denmark Institute of Biology, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-06-15

    Due to increasing amounts of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment, their largely unknown effects to non-target organisms need to be assessed. This study examined physiological changes in the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha exposed to increasing concentrations (0.534, 5.34, 53.4 and 534 mug L{sup -1}) of the beta-blocker metoprolol in a flow-through system for seven days. The two lower concentrations represent the environmentally relevant range. Surprisingly, metallothionein mRNA was immediately up-regulated in all treatments. For the two higher concentrations mRNA up-regulation in gills was found for P-glycoprotein after one day, and after four days for pi class glutathione S-transferase, demonstrating elimination and biotransformation processes, respectively. Additionally, catalase and superoxide dismutase were up-regulated in the digestive gland indicating oxidative stress. In all treated mussels a significant up-regulation of heat shock protein mRNA was observed in gills after four days, which suggests protein damage and the requirement for repair processes. Metoprolol was 20-fold bioaccumulated for environmentally relevant concentrations. - Evidence for significant physiological changes in an aquatic mollusc due to exposure to a pharmaceutically active compound detected by real-time PCR.

  3. Altered reward processing in the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, J; Knorr, U; Skimminge, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (rMD+) show brain structure and functional response anomalies and have elevated risk for developing depression, a disorder linked to abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission and reward processing. METHOD: In a two...... in rMD+ but not in rMD- individuals. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) displayed a stronger neural response when subjects missed a large reward after a low-risk choice in the rMD+ group compared to the rMD- group. The enhanced orbitofrontal response to negative outcomes was reversed following escitalopram...... intervention compared to placebo. Conversely, for positive outcomes, the left hippocampus showed attenuated response to high wins in the rMD+ compared to the rMD- group. The SSRI intervention reinforced the hippocampal response to large wins. A subsequent structural analysis revealed that the abnormal neural...

  4. Untangling Magmatic Processes and Hydrothermal Alteration of in situ Superfast Spreading Ocean Crust at ODP/IODP Site 1256 with Fuzzy c-means Cluster Analysis of Rock Magnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, M. J.; Heslop, D.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Acton, G.; Krasa, D.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated ODP (IODP) Hole 1256D (6.44.1' N, 91.56.1' W) on the Cocos Plate occurs in 15.2 Ma oceanic crust generated by superfast seafloor spreading. Presently, it is the only drill hole that has sampled all three oceanic crust layers in a tectonically undisturbed setting. Here we interpret down-hole trends in several rock-magnetic parameters with fuzzy c-means cluster analysis, a multivariate statistical technique. The parameters include the magnetization ratio, the coercivity ratio, the coercive force, the low-field susceptibility, and the Curie temperature. By their combined, multivariate, analysis the effects of magmatic and hydrothermal processes can be evaluated. The optimal number of clusters - a key point in the analysis because there is no a priori information on this - was determined through a combination of approaches: by calculation of several cluster validity indices, by testing for coherent cluster distributions on non-linear-map plots, and importantly by testing for stability of the cluster solution from all possible starting points. Here, we consider a solution robust if the cluster allocation is independent of the starting configuration. The five-cluster solution appeared to be robust. Three clusters are distinguished in the extrusive segment of the Hole that express increasing hydrothermal alteration of the lavas. The sheeted dike and gabbro portions are characterized by two clusters, both with higher coercivities than in lava samples. Extensive alteration, however, can obliterate magnetic property differences between lavas, dikes, and gabbros. The imprint of thermochemical alteration on the iron-titanium oxides is only partially related to the porosity of the rocks. All clusters display rock magnetic characteristics in line with a stable NRM. This implies that the entire sampled sequence of ocean crust can contribute to marine magnetic anomalies. Determination of the absolute paleointensity with thermal techniques is

  5. Alterations in soil microbial activity and N-transformation processes due to sulfadiazine loads in pig-manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotzerke, Anja [Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Franklinstrasse 29, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: anja.kotzerke@tu-berlin.de; Sharma, Shilpi [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: shilpi.sharma@gsf.de; Schauss, Kristina [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: kristina.schauss@gsf.de; Heuer, Holger [Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA), Messeweg 11-12, 38104 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: h.heuer@bba.de; Thiele-Bruhn, Soeren [Trier University, Soil Science, Behringstrasse 21, 54286 Trier (Germany)], E-mail: thiele@uni-trier.de; Smalla, Kornelia [Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA), Messeweg 11-12, 38104 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: k.smalla@bba.de; Wilke, Berndt-Michael [Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Franklinstrasse 29, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: bmwilke@tu-berlin.de; Schloter, Michael [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: michael.schloter@gsf.de

    2008-05-15

    Most veterinary drugs enter the environment via manure application. However, it is unclear how these substances interact with soil biota. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to investigate the effects of manure containing different concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) on the soil microbial communities. It was shown that manure alone has a stimulating effect on microbial activity. Only potential nitrification was negatively influenced by manure application. The addition of SDZ to the manure reduced microbial activity. Depending on the SDZ concentration, levels of activity were in the range of the control soil without manure application. Also, selected processes in nitrogen turnover were negatively influenced by the addition of SDZ to the manure, with nitrification being the only exception. The effects were visible for up to 4 days after application of the manure with or without SDZ and were correlated with the bioavailability of the antibiotic. - This study gives first insights into the effects of manure containing the antibiotic sulfadiazine on microbial activity and nitrogen transformation potentials in soil.

  6. Perlecan/Hspg2 deficiency alters the pericellular space of the lacunocanalicular system surrounding osteocytic processes in cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William R; Modla, Shannon; Grindel, Brian J; Czymmek, Kirk J; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B; Wang, Liyun; Duncan, Randall L; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2011-03-01

    Osteocytes project long, slender processes throughout the mineralized matrix of bone, where they connect and communicate with effector cells. The interconnected cellular projections form the functional lacunocanalicular system, allowing fluid to pass for cell-to-cell communication and nutrient and waste exchange. Prevention of mineralization in the pericellular space of the lacunocanalicular pericellular space is crucial for uninhibited interstitial fluid movement. Factors contributing to the ability of the pericellular space of the lacunocanalicular system to remain open and unmineralized are unclear. Immunofluorescence and immunogold localization by transmission electron microscopy demonstrated perlecan/Hspg2 signal localized to the osteocyte lacunocanalicular system of cortical bone, and this proteoglycan was found in the pericellular space of the lacunocanalicular system. In this study we examined osteocyte lacunocanalicular morphology in mice deficient in the large heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan/Hspg2 in this tissue. Ultrastructural measurements with electron microscopy of perlecan/Hspg2-deficient mice demonstrated diminished osteocyte canalicular pericellular area, resulting from a reduction in the total canalicular area. Additionally, perlecan/Hspg2-deficient mice showed decreased canalicular density and a reduced number of transverse tethering elements per canaliculus. These data indicated that perlecan/Hspg2 contributed to the integrity of the osteocyte lacunocanalicular system by maintaining the size of the pericellular space, an essential task to promote uninhibited interstitial fluid movement in this mechanosensitive environment. This work thus identified a new barrier function for perlecan/Hspg2 in murine cortical bone.

  7. Modulating the RNA processing and decay by the exosome: altering Rrp44/Dis3 activity and end-product.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa P Reis

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the exosome plays a central role in RNA maturation, turnover, and quality control. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the core exosome is composed of nine catalytically inactive subunits constituting a ring structure and the active nuclease Rrp44, also known as Dis3. Rrp44 is a member of the ribonuclease II superfamily of exoribonucleases which include RNase R, Dis3L1 and Dis3L2. In this work we have functionally characterized three residues located in the highly conserved RNB catalytic domain of Rrp44: Y595, Q892 and G895. To address their precise role in Rrp44 activity, we have constructed Rrp44 mutants and compared their activity to the wild-type Rrp44. When we mutated residue Q892 and tested its activity in vitro, the enzyme became slightly more active. We also showed that when we mutated Y595, the final degradation product of Rrp44 changed from 4 to 5 nucleotides. This result confirms that this residue is responsible for the stacking of the RNA substrate in the catalytic cavity, as was predicted from the structure of Rrp44. Furthermore, we also show that a strain with a mutation in this residue has a growth defect and affects RNA processing and degradation. These results lead us to hypothesize that this residue has an important biological role. Molecular dynamics modeling of these Rrp44 mutants and the wild-type enzyme showed changes that extended beyond the mutated residues and helped to explain these results.

  8. Age-related alterations of relaxation processes and non-Markov effects in stochastic dynamics of R-R intervals variability from human ECGs

    CERN Document Server

    Yulmetyev, R M; Panischev, O Y; Hänggi, P; Yulmetyev, Renat M.; Demin, Sergey A.; Panischev, Oleg Yu.; H\\"anggi, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the age-related alterations of heart rate variability on the basis of the study of non-Markovian effects. The age dynamics of relaxation processes is quantitatively described by means of local relaxation parameters, calculated by the specific localization procedure. We offer a quantitative informational measure of non-Markovity to evaluate the change of statistical effects of memory. Local relaxation parameters for young and elderly people differ by 3.3 times, and quantitative measures of non-Markovity differ by 4.2 times. The comparison of quantitative parameters allows to draw conclusions about the reduction of relaxation rate with ageing and the higher degree of the Markovity of heart rate variability of elderly people.

  9. Experimental study of gold activation-transportation in the process of potash metasomatism-alteration ——North China platform gold deposit taken as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yurong; HU; Shouxi

    2001-01-01

    Chemical reactions of plagioclase, biotite and their single minerals, as well as a mineral mixture of (plagioclase +biotite+quartz), with KCl and (KCl+KHCO3) solutions were carried out at 150400℃ and 5080 MPa. Experiments show that alkaline fluid promotes plagioclase’s changing into potash feldspar, while acid fluid helps plagioclase, potash feldspar and biotite alteration form chlorite and sericite. After chemical reaction the acidity-alkalinity of solutions often changes reversely. It was observed that gold dissolved from the tube wall and recrystallized on the surfaces of biotite and pyrite. Therefore the transportation and enrichment of gold are related to the elementary effect of the fluid-mineral interfaces. Fe3+-Fe2+, as an oxidition-reduction agent, and volatile components Cl? and CO2 play important roles in the reaction process.

  10. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpu, Yannick; Hanoun, Naïma; Lulka, Hubert; Sicard, Flavie; Selves, Janick; Buscail, Louis; Torrisani, Jérôme; Cordelier, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Despite significant progresses in the last decades, the origin of this cancer remains unclear and no efficient therapy exists. PDAC does not arise de novo: three remarkable different types of pancreatic lesions can evolve towards pancreatic cancer. These precursor lesions include: Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) that are microscopic lesions of the pancreas, Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMN) and Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms (MCN) that are both macroscopic lesions. However, the cellular origin of these lesions is still a matter of debate. Classically, neoplasm initiation or progression is driven by several genetic and epigenetic alterations. The aim of this review is to assemble the current information on genetic mutations and epigenetic disorders that affect genes during pancreatic carcinogenesis. We will further discuss the interest of the genetic and epigenetic alterations for the diagnosis and prognosis of PDAC. Large genetic alterations (chromosomal deletion/amplification) and single point mutations are well described for carcinogenesis inducers. Mutations classically occur within key regions of the genome. Consequences are various and include activation of mitogenic pathways or silencing of apoptotic processes. Alterations of K-RAS, P16 and DPC4 genes are frequently observed in PDAC samples and have been described to arise gradually during carcinogenesis. DNA methylation is an epigenetic process involved in imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. Alteration of DNA methylation patterns leads to deregulation of gene expression, in the absence of mutation. Both genetic and epigenetic events influence genes and non-coding RNA expression, with dramatic effects on proliferation, survival and invasion. Besides improvement in our fundamental understanding of PDAC development, highlighting the molecular alterations that occur in pancreatic carcinogenesis could

  11. Altered attentional and perceptual processes as indexed by N170 during gaze perception in schizophrenia: Relationship with perceived threat and paranoid delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Ivy F; Calwas, Anita M; Chun, Jinsoo; Mueller, Savanna A; Taylor, Stephan F; Deldin, Patricia J

    2015-08-01

    Using gaze information to orient attention and guide behavior is critical to social adaptation. Previous studies have suggested that abnormal gaze perception in schizophrenia (SCZ) may originate in abnormal early attentional and perceptual processes and may be related to paranoid symptoms. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), this study investigated altered early attentional and perceptual processes during gaze perception and their relationship to paranoid delusions in SCZ. Twenty-eight individuals with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder and 32 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs) completed a gaze-discrimination task with face stimuli varying in gaze direction (direct, averted), head orientation (forward, deviated), and emotion (neutral, fearful). ERPs were recorded during the task. Participants rated experienced threat from each face after the task. Participants with SCZ were as accurate as, though slower than, HCs on the task. Participants with SCZ displayed enlarged N170 responses over the left hemisphere to averted gaze presented in fearful relative to neutral faces, indicating a heightened encoding sensitivity to faces signaling external threat. This abnormality was correlated with increased perceived threat and paranoid delusions. Participants with SCZ also showed a reduction of N170 modulation by head orientation (normally increased amplitude to deviated faces relative to forward faces), suggesting less integration of contextual cues of head orientation in gaze perception. The psychophysiological deviations observed during gaze discrimination in SCZ underscore the role of early attentional and perceptual abnormalities in social information processing and paranoid symptoms of SCZ.

  12. Altered composition of bone as triggered by irradiation facilitates the rapid erosion of the matrix by both cellular and physicochemical processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Green

    Full Text Available Radiation rapidly undermines trabecular architecture, a destructive process which proceeds despite a devastated cell population. In addition to the 'biologically orchestrated' resorption of the matrix by osteoclasts, physicochemical processes enabled by a damaged matrix may contribute to the rapid erosion of bone quality. 8w male C57BL/6 mice exposed to 5 Gy of Cs(137 γ-irradiation were compared to age-matched control at 2d, 10d, or 8w following exposure. By 10d, irradiation had led to significant loss of trabecular bone volume fraction. Assessed by reflection-based Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI, chemical composition of the irradiated matrix indicated that mineralization had diminished at 2d by -4.3±4.8%, and at 10d by -5.8±3.2%. These data suggest that irradiation facilitates the dissolution of the matrix through a change in the material itself, a conclusion supported by a 13.7±4.5% increase in the elastic modulus as measured by nanoindentation. The decline in viable cells within the marrow of irradiated mice at 2d implies that the immediate collapse of bone quality and inherent increased risk of fracture is not solely a result of an overly-active biologic process, but one fostered by alterations in the material matrix that predisposes the material to erosion.

  13. When Yawning Occurs in Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Zoë T.; Hart, Benjamin L.; Greco, Brian J.; Young, Debbie; Padfield, Clare; Weidner, Lisa; Gates, Jennifer; Hart, Lynette A.

    2017-01-01

    Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June–September and in December. In the daytime, handlers managed seven of the elephants for guided interactions with visitors. At night, all elephants were maintained in a large enclosure with six having limited outdoor access. With infrared illumination, the elephants were continuously recorded by video cameras. During the nights, the elephants typically had 1–3 recumbent sleeping/resting bouts, each lasting 1–2 h. Yawning was a regular occurrence upon arousal from a recumbency, especially in the final recumbency of the night. Yawning was significantly more frequent in some elephants. Yawning was rare during the daytime and during periods of standing around in the enclosure at night. In six occurrences of likely contagious yawning, one elephant yawned upon seeing another elephant yawning upon arousal from a final recumbency; we recorded the sex and age category of the participants. The generality of yawning in both African and Asian elephants in other environments was documented in video recordings from 39 zoological facilities. In summary, the study provides evidence that yawning does occur in both African and Asian elephants, and in African elephants, yawning was particularly associated with arousal from nighttime recumbencies. PMID:28293560

  14. Mobile Technologies Altering All Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Android and Apple devices. The third source for apps iden- tified by the CSDA project is from the users themselves. The Army hosted the “Apps for...instruction were converted into digital media on a variety of devices ranging from iPods , readers, tablets and phones. The eighth pilot focused on

  15. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the oil and gas processing and production facilities; La contaminacion radiactiva de origen natural (CRON) en las instalaciones de produccion y procesamiento de aceite y gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera F, J. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Lima (Peru)

    1994-12-31

    NORM contamination is produced by concentration in petroleum facilities of naturally occurring radioactive materials. The presence of NORM in petroleum reservoirs and in the oil and gas industry has been widely recognized. It`s not a critical technical problem if you proceed timely to solve it. NORM is a great but controllable hazard to the human health and the environment, and represents a severe waste management problem. We suggest to the latino american oil companies to conduct studies to detect NORM contamination in their facilities an use to them to plan the appropriate actions to control the situation. (author). 15 refs.

  16. Sequestration of DROSHA and DGCR8 by Expanded CGG RNA Repeats Alters MicroRNA Processing in Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Sellier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of 55–200 CGG repeats in the 5′ UTR of FMR1. These expanded CGG repeats are transcribed and accumulate in nuclear RNA aggregates that sequester one or more RNA-binding proteins, thus impairing their functions. Here, we have identified that the double-stranded RNA-binding protein DGCR8 binds to expanded CGG repeats, resulting in the partial sequestration of DGCR8 and its partner, DROSHA, within CGG RNA aggregates. Consequently, the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs is reduced, resulting in decreased levels of mature miRNAs in neuronal cells expressing expanded CGG repeats and in brain tissue from patients with FXTAS. Finally, overexpression of DGCR8 rescues the neuronal cell death induced by expression of expanded CGG repeats. These results support a model in which a human neurodegenerative disease originates from the alteration, in trans, of the miRNA-processing machinery.

  17. Sequestration of DROSHA and DGCR8 by expanded CGG RNA repeats alters microRNA processing in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Chantal; Freyermuth, Fernande; Tabet, Ricardos; Tran, Tuan; He, Fang; Ruffenach, Frank; Alunni, Violaine; Moine, Herve; Thibault, Christelle; Page, Adeline; Tassone, Flora; Willemsen, Rob; Disney, Matthew D; Hagerman, Paul J; Todd, Peter K; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas

    2013-03-28

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5' UTR of FMR1. These expanded CGG repeats are transcribed and accumulate in nuclear RNA aggregates that sequester one or more RNA-binding proteins, thus impairing their functions. Here, we have identified that the double-stranded RNA-binding protein DGCR8 binds to expanded CGG repeats, resulting in the partial sequestration of DGCR8 and its partner, DROSHA, within CGG RNA aggregates. Consequently, the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs) is reduced, resulting in decreased levels of mature miRNAs in neuronal cells expressing expanded CGG repeats and in brain tissue from patients with FXTAS. Finally, overexpression of DGCR8 rescues the neuronal cell death induced by expression of expanded CGG repeats. These results support a model in which a human neurodegenerative disease originates from the alteration, in trans, of the miRNA-processing machinery.

  18. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: pulsing experiments for cathodic-first/charge-balanced/biphasic pulses for 0.566 ≤ k ≥ 2.3 in oxygenated and deoxygenated sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Doe W.; Montague, Fred W.; Hudak, Eric M.; Mortimer, J. Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The application of a train of cathodic-first/charge-balanced/biphasic pulses applied to a platinum electrode resulted in a positive creep of the anodic phase potential that increases with increasing charge injection but reaches a steady-state value before 1000 pulses have been delivered. The increase follows from the fact that charge going into irreversible reactions occurring during the anodic phase must equal the charge going into irreversible reactions during the cathodic phase for charge-balanced pulses. In an oxygenated electrolyte the drift of the measured positive potential moved into the platinum oxidation region of the i(V e) profile when the charge injection level exceeds k = 1.75. Platinum dissolution may occur in this region and k = 1.75 defines a boundary between damaging and non-damaging levels on the Shannon Plot. In a very low oxygen environment, the positive potential remained below the platinum oxidation region for the highest charge injection values studied, k = 2.3. The results support the hypothesis that platinum dissolution is the defining factor for the Shannon limit, k = 1.75. Numerous instrumentation issues were encountered in the course of making measurements. The solutions to these issues are provided.

  19. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: pulsing experiments for cathodic-first/charge-balanced/biphasic pulses for 0.566 ≤ k ≤ 2.3 in oxygenated and deoxygenated sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Doe W; Montague, Fred W; Hudak, Eric M; Mortimer, J Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The application of a train of cathodic-first/charge-balanced/biphasic pulses applied to a platinum electrode resulted in a positive creep of the anodic phase potential that increases with increasing charge injection but reaches a steady-state value before 1000 pulses have been delivered. The increase follows from the fact that charge going into irreversible reactions occurring during the anodic phase must equal the charge going into irreversible reactions during the cathodic phase for charge-balanced pulses. In an oxygenated electrolyte the drift of the measured positive potential moved into the platinum oxidation region of the i(V e) profile when the charge injection level exceeds k = 1.75. Platinum dissolution may occur in this region and k = 1.75 defines a boundary between damaging and non-damaging levels on the Shannon Plot. In a very low oxygen environment, the positive potential remained below the platinum oxidation region for the highest charge injection values studied, k = 2.3. The results support the hypothesis that platinum dissolution is the defining factor for the Shannon limit, k = 1.75. Numerous instrumentation issues were encountered in the course of making measurements. The solutions to these issues are provided.

  20. Silicones used in permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes to reduce the fading and color change process of dyed hair occurred by wash-out or UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Arndt

    2004-01-01

    Different kinds of silicones were incorporated directly into permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes. To ensure that the silicone was deposited to the hair fibers Si deposition was measured. Hair treated with a silicone free control or the silicone modified hair dyes was tested for color and lightness change (fading) by washing the treated tresses several times and measuring the color change. In a second experiment, hair treated with permanent hair dye was treated with UV radiation to show if silicones can reduce the color change initiated by UV light. The influence of the silicones to dry combing forces of permanent dyed hair untreated and treated with UV was also investigated. The tests showed that dimethiconol/dimethicone mixtures can reduce the washout of hair colorant clearly and silicone resins like trimethylsiloxysilcate or propylphenylsilsesquioxane are able to decrease the color change occurred by UV radiation in dyed hair.

  1. HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) alters processive single-stranded DNA scanning of the retroviral restriction factor APOBEC3G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuqing; Love, Robin P; Chelico, Linda

    2013-03-01

    APOBEC3G is a retroviral restriction factor that can inhibit the replication of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) in the absence of the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein. Virion-encapsidated APOBEC3G can deaminate cytosine to uracil in viral (-)DNA, which leads to hypermutation and inactivation of the provirus. APOBEC3G catalyzes these deaminations processively on single-stranded DNA using sliding and jumping movements. Vif is thought to primarily overcome APOBEC3G through an interaction that mediates APOBEC3G ubiquitination and results in its proteasomal degradation. However, Vif may also inhibit APOBEC3G mRNA translation, virion encapsidation, and deamination activity. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of VifIIIB- and VifHXB2-mediated inhibition of APOBEC3G deamination activity. Biochemical assays using a model HIV-1 replication assay and synthetic single-stranded or partially double-stranded DNA substrates demonstrated that APOBEC3G has an altered processive mechanism in the presence of Vif. Specifically, VifHXB2 inhibited the jumping and VifIIIB inhibited the sliding movements of APOBEC3G. The absence of such an effect by Vif on degradation-resistant APOBEC3G D128K indicates that a Vif-APOBEC3G interaction mediates this effect. That the partially processive APOBEC3G was less effective at inducing mutagenesis in a model HIV-1 replication assay suggests that Vif co-encapsidation with APOBEC3G can promote sublethal mutagenesis of HIV-1 proviral DNA.

  2. Altered effects of perspective-taking on functional connectivity during self- and other-referential processing in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryu-Ichiro; Itahashi, Takashi; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Kanai, Chieko; Nakamura, Motoaki; Watanabe, Hiromi; Kato, Nobumasa

    2016-08-30

    In interactive social situations, it is often crucial to be able to take another person's perspective when evaluating one's own or another person's specific trait; individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) critically lack this social skill. To examine how perspective-dependent self- and other-evaluation processes modulate functional connectivity in ASD, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which 26 high-functioning adults with ASD and 24 typically developed (TD) controls were asked to decide whether an adjective describing a personality trait correctly described the participant himself/herself ("self") or the participant's mother ("other") by taking either the first (1P) or third person (3P) perspective. We observed that functional connectivity between the left sensorimotor cortex and the left middle cingulate cortex was enhanced in TD control individuals taking the 3P perspective, this enhancement was significantly reduced in ASD, and the degree of reduction was significantly correlated with the severity of autistic traits. Furthermore, the self-reference effect on functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal cortex and frontopolar cortices was significantly enhanced in TD control individuals taking the 3P perspective, whereas such effect was reversed in ASD. These findings indicate altered effects of perspective on the functional connectivity, which may underlie the deficits in social interaction and communication observed in individuals with ASD.

  3. Alteration in Hawaiian Drill Core: An analog for Martian basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Fraeman, A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Lautze, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    . Similar alteration might occur at the surface with limited water exposure, or in the subsurface where materials are subsequently exhumed through impact processes.

  4. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W.L.

    1997-10-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. It is important to understand the mechanism by which alteration phases affect glass corrosion behavior and the glass dissolution rate to reliably predict whether or not similar effects will occur in a disposal environment and the impact of phase formation on the long-term performance of waste glass. While solid state transformation of a glass to thermodynamically more stable phases in kinetically prohibitive, contact by water provides an energetically favorable pathway for this transformation to occur by a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. The kinetics of the transformation depends on the dissolution kinetics of the glass and the precipitation kinetics of the alteration phases. The rates of these two processes are linked primarily through the solution activity of orthosilicic acid (and perhaps also that of an aluminum-bearing species).

  5. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  6. Alterations in the mir-15a/16-1 Loci Impairs Its Processing and Augments B-1 Expansion in De Novo Mouse Model of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddha Kasar

    Full Text Available New Zealand Black (NZB mice, a de novo model of CLL, share multiple characteristics with CLL patients, including decreased expression of miR-15a/16-1. We previously discovered a point mutation and deletion in the 3' flanking region of mir-16-1 of NZB and a similar mutation has been found in a small number of CLL patients. However, it was unknown whether the mutation is the cause for the reduced miR-15a/16-1 expression and CLL development. Using PCR and in vitro microRNA processing assays, we found that the NZB sequence alterations in the mir-15a/16-1 loci result in deficient processing of the precursor forms of miR-15a/16-1, in particular, we observe impaired conversion of pri-miR-15a/16-1 to pre-miR-15a/16-1. The in vitro data was further supported by derivation of congenic strains with replaced mir-15a/16-1 loci at one or both alleles: NZB congenic mice (NmiR+/- and DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-. The level of miR-15a/16-1 reflected the configuration of the mir-15a/16-1 loci with DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/- showing reduced miR-15a levels compared to homozygous wild-type allele, while the NZB congenic mice (NmiR+/- showed an increase in miR-15a levels relative to homozygous mutant allele. Similar to Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis (MBL, the precursor stage of the human disease, an overall expansion of the B-1 population was observed in DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/- relative to wild-type (DmiR+/+. These studies support our hypothesis that the mutations in the mir-15a/16-1 loci are responsible for decreased expression of this regulatory microRNA leading to B-1 expansion and CLL development.

  7. Alteration of the digestive motility linked with radiation-induced inflammatory processes in rats; Alterations de la motricite digestive associees aux processus inflammatoires induits par les rayonnements ionisants chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, C

    2000-12-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation, whether accidental or for medical reasons, may lead to gastro-intestinal injury, characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps. The aetiology of radiation-induced diarrhea remains to date unclear. In this study, we have investigated the acute effects of a 10 Gy abdominal irradiation on rat digestive functions. The objective of the first study was to evaluate the role of sensory afferent neurons, capsaicin-sensitive, on morphological changes and the inflammatory response following exposure. Three days after irradiation, we observed an inflammatory response characterized by neutrophils infiltration and mast cells de-granulation. No effect of capsaicin pre-treatment was seen on these parameters. However, neutrophils infiltration was increased as early as one day after irradiation in capsaicin-treated rats. No difference in severity of diarrhea was observed after denervation nor in morphological changes. These data demonstrate that abdominal irradiation results in diarrhea concomitant with an inflammatory response, and that sensory innervation does not play a major protective role. The objective of the rest of the work was in the first instance to characterize radiation-induced alterations of intestinal and colonic motility leading to diarrhea and secondly to evaluate the role of serotonin in such disorders. Perturbations in intestinal (MMC) and colonic (LSB) motor profiles were observed from the first day onwards. Migrating motor complexes (MMC) were completely disrupted at three days at the same time as the onset of diarrhea. In addition to inhibition of LSB, colonic fluid absorptive capacity was decreased and serotonin colonic tissue levels were increased three days after irradiation. Radiation-induced diarrhea was reduced by treatment with an antagonist of 5-HT{sub 3} receptors, granisetron, as were alterations of colonic motility and serotonin tissue levels. However, this treatment did not significantly ameliorate

  8. Geochemical modelling of the weathering zone of the 'Mina Fe' U deposit (Spain): A natural analogue for nuclear spent fuel alteration and stability processes in radwaste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, D. [AMPHOS XXI Consulting S.L., Passeig de Rubi, 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: david.arcos@amphos21.com; Perez del Villar, L. [CIEMAT, Dpto.de Medio Ambiente, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bruno, J.; Domenech, C. [AMPHOS XXI Consulting S.L., Passeig de Rubi, 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The 'Mina Fe' U deposit (Salamanca, Spain) has been studied in the context of Enresa's programme for U-mine sites restoration and also as a natural analogue for processes in high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) geological disposal. The investigations encompassed an array of geoscience disciplines, such as structural geology, mineralogy, hydrogeology and elemental and isotopic geochemistry and hydrogeochemistry of the site. Based on the obtained results, a conceptual mineralogical and geochemical model was performed integrating the main geochemical processes occurring at the site: the interaction between oxidised and slightly acidic water with pyrite, pitchblende, calcite and dolomite, as essential minerals of the U fracture-filling mineralisation, and hydroxyapatite from the host rock, as the main source of P. This conceptual model has been tested in a systematic numerical model, which includes the main kinetic (pyrite and pitchblende dissolution) and equilibrium processes (carbonate mineral dissolution, and goethite, schoepite and autunite secondary precipitation). The results obtained from the reactive-transport model satisfactorily agree with the conceptual model previously established. The assumption of the precipitation of coffinite as a secondary mineral in the system cannot be correctly evaluated due to the lack of hydrochemical data from the reducing zone of the site and valid thermodynamic and kinetic data for this hydrated U(IV)-silicate. This precipitation can also be hampered by the probable existence of dissolved U(IV)-organic matter and/or uranyl carbonate complexes, which are thermodynamically stable under the alkaline and reducing conditions that prevail in the reducing zone of the system. Finally, the intense downwards oxic and acidic alteration in the upper part of the system is of no relevance for the performance assessment of a HLNW disposal. However, the acidic and oxidised conditions are quickly buffered to neutral-alkaline and

  9. A study of the alterability of terminal residues stabilized by a mineral-binder-based solidification/stabilization process; Etude de l`alterabilite de residus ultimes stabilises par un procede de solidification, stabilisation a base de liants mineraux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humez, N.; Prost, R. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 78 - Versailles (France). Unite de Science du Sol; Piketty, L.; Schnuriger, B.; Benchara, A.; Pichat, P. [Centre de Solidification, Stabilisation et Stockage, Sarp Industries, 78 - Limay (France)

    1997-12-31

    A new laboratory approach has been developed for the study of the long term behaviour of stabilized terminal residues, and is based on the experimental method for the study of rock alteration. The method consists in examining the migration of elements that are present in the solution contained in the pores, and studying the structural modifications which result from the dissolution of certain constituents, the transformation and the neo-formation of other ones in the material. The method allows for the evaluation, in a short time, of the alterability and perenniality of stabilized terminal wastes. Results show that the long term alterability of solidified/stabilized samples that have been processed using the ECOFIX method, is low

  10. Electrodermal Reactivity to Emotion Processing in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, B. E.; Wicker, B.; Monfardini, E.; Deruelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    Although alterations of emotion processing are recognized as a core component of autism, the level at which alterations occur is still debated. Discrepant results suggest that overt assessment of emotion processing is not appropriate. In this study, skin conductance response (SCR) was used to examine covert emotional processes. Both behavioural…

  11. Naturally occurring glasses: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Haaker, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    Volcanic glasses are very often altered by weathering and leaching and recrystallize to their fine-grained equivalents (rhyolites, felsites). The oldest volcanic glasses are dated at 40 million years before the present, but the majority are much younger. Devitrification textures was produced experimentally; and hydration rates for volcanic glasses were determined as a function of composition, temperature, and climate. Presence of water and temperature are the most important rate controlling variables. Even material that may still be described as glassy often exhibits evidence of alteration and recrystallization. Of the volcanic glasses that are preserved in the geologic record, it would be rare to describe such a glass as pristine. Despite the common alteration and recrystallization effects observed in volcanic glasses, glasses formed as a result of impact, tektites and lunar glasses, may occur in substantially unaltered form. In the case of tektites, their resistance to alteration is a result of their high SiO/sub 2/ content and low alkali content. Lunar glasses have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years because they exist in an environment with a low oxygen fugacity and an extremely low water vapor partial presssure. Thus one might expect glasses of particular compositions or in specific types of environment to be stable for long periods of time. These conclusions are applied to radioactive waste disposal over several time periods (0-30h, 30h-20y, 20-200y).

  12. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of microRNAs and implications for human cancers and other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Musaffe; Machado, Andreia S; Calin, George A

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a well-studied group of noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by interacting mainly with messenger RNA. It is known that miRNAs and their biogenesis regulatory machineries have crucial roles in multiple cell processes; thus, alterations in these genes often lead to disease, such as cancer. Disruption of these genes can occur through epigenetic and genetic alterations, resulting in aberrant expression of miRNAs and subsequently of their target genes. This review focuses on the disruption of miRNAs and their key regulatory machineries by genetic alterations, with emphasis on mutations and epigenetic changes in cancer and other diseases.

  13. Disturbance Distance: Using a process based ecosystem model to estimate and map potential thresholds in disturbance rates that would give rise to fundamentally altered ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, K. A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J.; Flanagan, S.; LePage, Y.; Sahajpal, R.

    2014-12-01

    Disturbance plays a critical role in shaping the structure and function of forested ecosystems as well as the ecosystem services they provide, including but not limited to: carbon storage, biodiversity habitat, water quality and flow, and land atmosphere exchanges of energy and water. As recent studies highlight novel disturbance regimes resulting from pollution, invasive pests and climate change, there is a need to include these alterations in predictions of future forest function and structure. The Ecosystem Demography (ED) model is a mechanistic model of forest ecosystem dynamics in which individual-based forest dynamics can be efficiently implemented over regional to global scales due to advanced scaling methods. We utilize ED to characterize the sensitivity of potential vegetation structure and function to changes in rates of density independent mortality. Disturbance rate within ED can either be altered directly or through the development of sub-models. Disturbance sub-models in ED currently include fire, land use and hurricanes. We use a tiered approach to understand the sensitivity of North American ecosystems to changes in background density independent mortality. Our first analyses were conducted at half-degree spatial resolution with a constant rate of disturbance in space and time, which was altered between runs. Annual climate was held constant at the site level and the land use and fire sub-models were turned off. Results showed an ~ 30% increase in non-forest area across the US when disturbance rates were changed from 0.6% a year to 1.2% a year and a more than 3.5 fold increase in non-forest area when disturbance rates doubled again from 1.2% to 2.4%. Continued runs altered natural background disturbance rates with the existing fire and hurricane sub models turned on as well as historic and future land use. By quantify differences between model outputs that characterize ecosystem structure and function related to the carbon cycle across the US, we

  14. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  15. Radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration haloes in albite: implications for alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization and element mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. C.; Chaudhuri, T.

    2016-12-01

    Uraninite, besides occurring in other modes, occurs as inclusions in albite in feldspathic schist in the Bagjata uranium deposits, Singhbhum shear zone, India. The feldspathic schist, considered the product of Na-metasomatism, witnessed multiple hydrothermal events, the signatures of which are preserved in the alteration halo in albite surrounding uraninite. Here we report radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration halo in albite and its various geological implications. Microscopic observation and SRIM/TRIM simulations reveal that the dimension of the alteration halo is dependent collectively on the zone of maximum cumulative α dose that albite was subjected to and by the extent of dissolution of uraninite during alteration. In well-preserved alteration haloes, from uraninite to the unaltered part of albite, the alteration minerals are systematically distributed in different zones; zone-1: K-feldspar; zone-2: chlorite; zone-3: LREE-phase/pyrite/U-Y-silicate. Based on textures of alteration minerals in the alteration microdomain, we propose a generalized Na+➔K+➔H+ alteration sequence, which is in agreement with the regional-scale alteration pattern. Integrating distribution of ore and alteration minerals in the alteration zone and their geochemistry, we further propose multiple events of U, REE, and sulfide mineralization/mobilization in the Bagjata deposit. The alteration process also involved interaction of the hydrothermal fluid with uraninite inclusions resulting in resorption of uraninite, redistribution of elements, including U and Pb, and resetting of isotopic clock. Thus, our study demonstrates that alteration halo is a miniature scale-model of the regional hydrothermal alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization/mobilization. This study further demonstrates that albite is vulnerable to radiation damage and damage-controlled fluid-assisted alteration, which may redistribute metals, including actinides, from radioactive minerals

  16. Mitochondrial Morphology and Fundamental Parameters of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Are Altered in Caenorhabditis elegans Strains Deficient in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Homeostasis Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anthony L; Rooney, John P; Kubik, Laura L; Gonzalez, Claudia P; Song, Dong Hoon; Meyer, Joel N

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors), carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler) and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1)-, fusion (fzo-1)-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1)-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1)-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes.

  17. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  18. Hydrothermal Alteration at Lonar Crater, India and Elemental Variations in Impact Crater Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, H. E.; Nelson, M. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Misra, S.; Narasimham, V.

    2005-01-01

    The role of hydrothermal alteration and chemical transport involving impact craters could have occurred on Mars, the poles of Mercury and the Moon, and other small bodies. We are studying terrestrial craters of various sizes in different environments to better understand aqueous alteration and chemical transport processes. The Lonar crater in India (1.8 km diameter) is particularly interesting being the only impact crater in basalt. In January of 2004, during fieldwork in the ejecta blanket around the rim of the Lonar crater we discovered alteration zones not previously described at this crater. The alteration of the ejecta blanket could represent evidence of localized hydrothermal activity. Such activity is consistent with the presence of large amounts of impact melt in the ejecta blanket. Map of one area on the north rim of the crater containing highly altered zones at least 3 m deep is shown.

  19. ST elevation occurring during stress testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Malouf

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A case is presented of significant reversible ST elevation occurring during treadmill testing, and the coronary anatomy and subsequent course are described, indicating that ischemia is a potential cause of this electrocardiographic finding.

  20. Trichotillomania and Co-occurring Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Redden, Sarah A.; Leppink, Eric W.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Trichotillomania appears to be a fairly common disorder, with high rates of co-occurring anxiety disorders. Many individuals with trichotillomania also report that pulling worsens during periods of increased anxiety. Even with these clinical links to anxiety, little research has explored whether trichotillomania with co-occurring anxiety is a meaningful subtype. Methods 165 adults with trichotillomania were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, functioning, and comorbidity. Participants also underwent cognitive testing assessing motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Clinical features and cognitive functioning were compared between those with current co-occurring anxiety disorders (i.e. social anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and anxiety disorder NOS) (n=38) and those with no anxiety disorder (n=127). Results Participants with trichotillomania and co-occurring anxiety reported significantly worse hair pulling symptoms, were more likely to have co-occurring depression, and were more likely to have a first-degree relative with obsessive compulsive disorder. Those with anxiety disorders also exhibited significantly worse motor inhibitory performance on a task of motor inhibition (stop-signal task). Conclusions This study suggests that anxiety disorders affect the clinical presentation of hair pulling behavior. Further research is needed to validate our findings and to consider whether treatments should be specially tailored differently for adults with trichotillomania who have co-occurring anxiety disorders, or more pronounced cognitive impairment. PMID:27668531

  1. Motor sequence learning occurs despite disrupted visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has demonstrated the importance of proprioception for the development of internal representations of the forces encountered during a task. Evidence also exists for a significant role for proprioception in the execution of sequential movements. However, little work has explored the role of proprioceptive sensation during the learning of continuous movement sequences. Here, we report that the repeated segment of a continuous tracking task can be learned despite peripherally altered arm proprioception and severely restricted visual feedback regarding motor output. Methods Healthy adults practiced a continuous tracking task over 2 days. Half of the participants experienced vibration that altered proprioception of shoulder flexion/extension of the active tracking arm (experimental condition and half experienced vibration of the passive resting arm (control condition. Visual feedback was restricted for all participants. Retention testing was conducted on a separate day to assess motor learning. Results Regardless of vibration condition, participants learned the repeated segment demonstrated by significant improvements in accuracy for tracking repeated as compared to random continuous movement sequences. Conclusion These results suggest that with practice, participants were able to use residual afferent information to overcome initial interference of tracking ability related to altered proprioception and restricted visual feedback to learn a continuous motor sequence. Motor learning occurred despite an initial interference of tracking noted during acquisition practice.

  2. A methodological report from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study: development and evaluation of altered routines in dietary data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallström Peter

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Malmö Diet and Cancer study, information on dietary habits was obtained through a modified diet history method, combining a 7-day menu book for cooked meals and a diet questionnaire for foods with low day-to-day variation. Half way through the baseline data collection, a change of interview routines was implemented in order to reduce interview time. Methods Changes concentrated on portion-size estimation and recipe coding of mixed dishes reported in the menu book. All method development and tests were carefully monitored, based on experiential knowledge, and supplemented with empirical data. A post hoc evaluation study using "real world" data compared observed means of selected dietary variables before and after the alteration of routines handling dietary data, controlling for potential confounders. Results These tests suggested that simplified coding rules and standard portion-sizes could be used on a limited number of foods, without distortions of the group mean nutrient intakes, or the participants' ranking. The post hoc evaluation suggested that mean intakes of energy-adjusted fat were higher after the change in routines. The impact appeared greater in women than in men. Conclusions Future descriptive studies should consider selecting subsets assessed with either method version to avoid distortion of observed mean intakes. The impact in analytical studies may be small, because method version and diet assistant explained less than 1 percent of total variation. The distribution of cases and non-cases across method versions should be monitored.

  3. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation.

  4. Enhanced neuropeptide Y synthesis during intermittent hypoxia in the rat adrenal medulla: role of reactive oxygen species-dependent alterations in precursor peptide processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuraman, Gayatri; Kalari, Apeksha; Dhingra, Rishi; Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Kumar, Ganesh K

    2011-04-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with recurrent apneas often leads to cardiovascular abnormalities. Previously, we showed that IH treatment elevates blood pressure and increases plasma catecholamines (CAs) in rats via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent enhanced synthesis and secretion from the adrenal medulla (AM). Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic neurotransmitter that colocalizes with CA in the AM, has been implicated in blood pressure regulation during persistent stress. Here, we investigated whether IH facilitates NPY synthesis in the rat AM and assessed the role of ROS signaling. IH increased NPY-like immunoreactivity in many dopamine-β-hydroxylase-expressing chromaffin cells with a parallel increase in preproNPY mRNA and protein. IH increased the activities of proNPY-processing enzymes, which were due, in part, to elevated protein expression and increased proteolytic processing. IH increased ROS generation, and antioxidants reversed IH-induced increases in ROS, preproNPY, and its processing to bioactive NPY in the AM. IH treatment increased blood pressure and antioxidants and inhibition of NPY amidation prevented this response. These findings suggest that IH-induced elevation in NPY expression in the rat AM is mediated by ROS-dependent augmentation of preproNPY mRNA expression and proNPY-processing enzyme activities and contributes to IH-induced elevation of blood pressure.

  5. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  6. Hypogene and supergene alteration of the zeolite-bearing pyroclastic deposits at Tell Rimah, Jordan, and rift-related processes along the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System during the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

    2012-09-01

    The boundary between the Arabian and African plates, is marked in the Middle East by one of the most prominent deep-seated lineamentary structures, called the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System (DSTFS). Structural and mineralogical processes related to the DSTFS were correlated with equivalent processes leading to the alteration of pyroclastic deposits of alkali-olivine basaltic to nepheline basaltic composition which formed during a time span of less than 0.5 Ma. The large deposit of Tell Rimah, Jordan, is operated for the exploitation of zeolites, tuffs, and as pozzolana raw material. Four discrete stages of mineralizations have been distinguished from each other within these volcanic-hosted mineral deposits. (1) Hypogene syneruptive alteration of pyroclastic rocks produced siliceous gels ("allophane"), smectite, analcime, and phillipsite in vesicles when the groundwater level was low in the rift basin of the DSTFS. The lake-level lowstand caused the fluid system in the pyroclastic cone to become self-sufficient and it has been considered as a closed hydrothermal system. (2) Periods of tectonic and magmatic quiescence grinded the detrital sedimentation in the rift basin to a halt, while triggering a supergene alteration in the eruptive cones on the adjacent Arabian Plate. (3) Epigenetic alteration affected the pyroclastic rocks in the distal part of the DSTFS as a result of a rising water level. The water gradually filled the pore space of the permeable pyroclastic deposits almost to completeness and caused meniscus and blocky cements of calcite, phillipsite and chabazite to develop. In the rift basin, contemporaneously with the alteration of the pyroclastic rocks, freshwater limestones formed on calcareous bedrocks. Ba and Mn minerals in these freshwater limestones were supplied by subaquatic brines. Subsequently, a drastic lowering of the lake water level in the DSTFS converted the system of subaquatic freshwater limestones into subaerial tufa and travertine. As

  7. Ethical issues occurring within nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Marsha D; Davis, Anne J

    2013-03-01

    The large body of literature labeled "ethics in nursing education" is entirely devoted to curricular matters of ethics education in nursing schools, that is, to what ought to be the ethics content that is taught and what theory or issues ought to be included in all nursing curricula. Where the nursing literature actually focuses on particular ethical issues, it addresses only single topics. Absent from the literature, however, is any systematic analysis and explication of ethical issues or dilemmas that occur within the context of nursing education. The objective of this article is to identify the spectrum of ethical issues in nursing education to the end of prompting a systematic and thorough study of such issues, and to lay the groundwork for research by identifying and provisionally typologizing the ethical issues that occur within the context of academic nursing.

  8. Mutations altering a structurally conserved loop-helix-loop region of a viral packaging motor change DNA translocation velocity and processivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, James M; Sippy, Jean; DelToro, Damian; Andrews, Benjamin T; Draper, Bonnie; Rao, Venigalla; Catalano, Carlos E; Feiss, Michael; Smith, Douglas E

    2010-07-30

    Many double-stranded DNA viruses employ ATP-driven motors to translocate their genomes into small, preformed viral capsids against large forces resisting confinement. Here, we show via direct single-molecule measurements that a mutation T194M downstream of the Walker B motif in the phage lambda gpA packaging motor causes an 8-fold reduction in translocation velocity without substantially changing processivity or force dependence, whereas the mutation G212S in the putative C (coupling) motif causes a 3-fold reduction in velocity and a 6-fold reduction in processivity. Meanwhile a T194M pseudorevertant (T194V) showed a near restoration of the wild-type dynamics. Structural comparisons and modeling show that these mutations are in a loop-helix-loop region that positions the key residues of the catalytic motifs, Walker B and C, in the ATPase center and is structurally homologous with analogous regions in chromosome transporters and SF2 RNA helicases. Together with recently published studies of SpoIIIE chromosome transporter and Ded1 RNA helicase mutants, these findings suggest the presence of a structurally conserved region that may be a part of the mechanism that determines motor velocity and processivity in several different types of nucleic acid translocases.

  9. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L Beilharz

    Full Text Available The body image concern (BIC continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing. Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD.

  10. The interconnection of wet and dry deposition and the alteration of deposition budgets due to incorporation of new process understanding in regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. L.; Bash, J. O.; Foley, K. M.; Gilliam, R.; Pinder, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Deposition is affected by the chemical and physical processes represented in the regional models as well as source strength. The overall production and loss budget (wet and dry deposition) is dynamically connected and adjusts internally to changes in process representation. In addition, the scrubbing of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is one of several processes that remove pollutants, creating a coupling with the atmospheric aqueous and gas phase chemistry that can influence wet deposition rates in a nonlinear manner. We explore through model sensitivities with the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model the influence on wet and dry deposition, and the overall continental nitrogen budget, of changes in three process representations in the model: (1) incorporation of lightning generated NO, (2) improved representation of convective precipitation, and (3) replacement of the typical unidirectional dry deposition of NH3 with a state of the science representation of NH3 bi-directional air-surface exchange. Results of the sensitivity studies will be presented. (1) Incorporation of lightning generated NO significantly reduces a negative bias in summer wet nitrate deposition, but is sensitive to the choice of convective parameterization. (2) Use of a less active trigger of convective precipitation in the WRF meteorological model to reduce summertime precipitation over prediction bias reduces the generation of NO from lightning. It also reduces the wet deposition of nitrate and increases the dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen, as well as changing (reducing) the surface level exposure to ozone. Improvements in the convective precipitation processes also result in more non-precipitating clouds leading to an increase in SO4 production through the aqueous pathway resulting in improvements in summertime SO4 ambient aerosol estimates.(3) Incorporation of state of the science ammonia bi-directional air surface exchange affects both the dry

  11. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  12. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA Alterations and Reduced Mitochondrial Function in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert, Sadie L.; Lanza, Ian R.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA increases with aging. This damage has the potential to affect mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription which could alter the abundance or functionality of mitochondrial proteins. This review describes mitochondrial DNA alterations and changes in mitochondrial function that occur with aging. Age-related alterations in mitochondrial DNA as a possible contributor to the reduction in mitochondrial function are discussed.

  14. Naturally occurring radionuclides and Earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ferrara

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring radionuclides are used in Earth sciences for two fundamental purposes: age determination of rocks and minerals and studies of variation of the isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides. The methodologies that are in use today allow us to determine ages spanning from the Earth's age to the late Quaternary. The variations of isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides can be applied to problems of mantle evolution, magma genesis and characterization with respect to different geodynamic situations and can provide valuable information not obtainable by elemental geochemistry.

  15. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, E; Stopper, H

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Because some other bioflavonoids are known to have estrogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine the estrogenic activity of the anthocyanine aglycones. Binding affinity to the estrogen receptor-alpha was 10,000- to 20,000-fold lower than that of the endogenous estrogen estradiol. In the estrogen receptor-positive cell line MCF-7, the anthocyanidins induced expression of a reporter gene. The tested anthocyanidins showed estrogen-inducible cell proliferation in two cell lines (MCF-7 and BG-1), but not in the receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The phytoestrogen-induced cell proliferation could be blocked by addition of the receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Combination treatments with the endogenous estrogen estradiol resulted in a reduction of estradiol-induced cell proliferation. Overall, the tested anthocyanidins exert estrogenic activity, which might play a role in altering the development of hormone-dependent adverse effects.

  16. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-01

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  17. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  18. Geomorphic and Land Management Effects on Channel Altering Events in the Klamath Mountain, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A.; Mikulovsky, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Channel altering events have many impacts on stream channels and can be the result of debris flows, hyper-concentrated flows or severe flooding. They play a major role in coarse woody debris delivery to fish bearing streams and provide a mix of sediment to the higher order streams. Channel altering events can reduce or even temporarily eliminate riparian vegetation along the stream channel and create changes in the stream bed such as aggradation and degradation. These processes are a natural part of steep, rugged landscapes such as that of the Klamath Mountains and have long-term benefits to the stream systems. The process can be accelerated however, by land management activities or severe wildfire events. Previous investigations have focused on the impacts to landsliding rates as a result of timber harvest, wildfire and forest roads. These studies are limited in spatial extent and have not combined timber harvest, wildfire, forest roads, storm intensity and geomorphic characteristics in the same investigation. In addition, previous studies have not included areas where landslides did not occur for comparison. This study investigates the relationships between landform, timber harvest, forest roads, wildfire, and storm intensity over the Klamath Mountains in Northern California. The study investigates the initiation points of channel altering events that occurred in the flood of December 1996/January 1997. Channel altering event initiation points are the uppermost point of an altered channel segment (highest elevation) as apparent on aerial photos. The initiation points are compared to stratified random points in and near channels where no channel altering event occurred. The initiation points and random points were attributed with information such as aspect, hillslope gradient, elevation, bedrock type, landform, storm intensity and land management practices. A logistic regression analysis will determine if there is a suite of characteristics that separated the

  19. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  20. Modification, adsorption, and geochemistry processes on altered minerals and amorphous phases on the nanometer scale: examples from copper mining refuse, Touro, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civeira, Matheus; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Hower, James C; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana M; Taffarel, Silvio R; Ramos, Claudete G; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-04-01

    The sulfide oxidation and precipitation of Al-Fe-secondary minerals associated with abandoned acid mine drainage (AMD) from the abandoned copper mine waste pile at Touro, Spain, has been studied by sequential extraction (SE) combined with several techniques with the intent of understanding the role of these processes play in the natural attenuation of hazardous element contaminants in the AMD. In addition, the fragile nature of nanominerals and ultrafine particle (UFP) assemblages from contaminated sediment systems from the abandoned copper mine required novel techniques and experimental approaches. The investigation of the geochemistry of complex nanominerals and UFP assemblages was a prerequisite to accurately assess the environmental and human health risks of contaminants and cost-effective chemical and biogeological remediation strategies. Particular emphasis was placed on the study and characterization of the complex mixed nanominerals and UFP containing potentially toxic elements. Nanometer-sized phases in sediments were characterized using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. The identification of the geochemical and mineralogical composition of AMD in Touro, as well as the different formation mechanisms proposed, complement the existing literature on secondary mineral assemblages and provide new emphasis to increase the understanding of extreme environments. The results also demonstrated that variations in the geochemical fractionation of hazardous elements in AMD were more influenced by the secondary mineral proportion and by AMD pH.

  1. [Effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test under conditions of altered photoperiod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopova, I Iu; Zamorskiĭ, I I

    2011-03-01

    The effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei (the nucleus caudatus, globus pallidus. nucleus accumbens. amygdaloid complex) of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test has been studied under conditions of altered photoperiod. It has been shown that constant darkness levels the effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of lipid peroxidation, preserves the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase at a higher level, lowers the activity of glutathione peroxidase. Under light, the sensitivity of basal nuclei neurons to acute hypoxia is enhanced, the latter being reflected in intensification of lipid peroxidation at the expense of increased formation of dien conjugates. The activity of catalase at that considerably exceeds the level of even intact rats in all the structures. It has been established that an altered photoperiod modulates the effect of acute hypoxia on the parameters of rat's activity in the open field, the character of their change depending on the nature of a photophase change.

  2. Succession planning: when an academic merger occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschling, Jane Marie; Rodgers, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    Optimal positioning of nursing in an interdisciplinary college calls for an expanded concept of succession planning that includes broad-gauged organizational and staff development strategies. The process requires time, openness to incremental change, effective leadership within the academic unit, and a well-thought-through faculty committee structure and budgetary authority. At the University of Southern Maine College of Nursing and Health Professions, succession planning has led to structural and budgetary changes and has required a flexible process, responsive to larger university priorities and fiscal challenges, that is shaped by a vision for the future of the college and of nursing.

  3. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    As long as the load to a power system is linear which has been the case before 80's, typically no harmonics are produced. However, the modern power electronic equipment for controlled power consumption produces harmonic disturbances, these devices/equipment possess nonlinear voltage/current chara...... using Kalman filter. This may be very useful for example to quickly switching on certain filters based on the harmonic present. We are using a unique technique to detect the occurrence of harmonics......./current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...

  4. Tetrahydroberberine, a pharmacologically active naturally occurring alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingali, Subramanya; Donahue, James P; Payton-Stewart, Florastina

    2015-04-01

    Tetrahydroberberine (systematic name: 9,10-dimethoxy-5,8,13,13a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[g][1,3]benzodioxolo[5,6-a]quinolizine), C20H21NO4, a widely distributed naturally occurring alkaloid, has been crystallized as a racemic mixture about an inversion center. A bent conformation of the molecule is observed, with an angle of 24.72 (5)° between the arene rings at the two ends of the reduced quinolizinium core. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds that play an apparent role in crystal packing are 1,3-benzodioxole -CH2···OCH3 and -OCH3···OCH3 interactions between neighboring molecules.

  5. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of chlorpyrifos is altered in embryos of Japanese medaka exposed to oil sands process-affected water: evidence for inhibition of P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Alcorn, Jane; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B

    2016-10-24

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated during extraction of bitumen in the surface mining oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada. Studies were performed in vitro by use of Caco-2 cells, and in vivo with larvae of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to determine if organic compounds from the aqueous phase of OSPW inhibit ATP binding cassette protein ABCB1 (permeability-glycoprotein, P-gp). Neutral and basic fractions of OSPW inhibited activity of P-gp in Caco-2 cells by 1.9- and 2.0-fold, respectively, while the acidic fraction had the least effect. The organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos (a substrate of P-gp) and malathion (not a substrate of P-gp), were used as model chemicals to investigate inhibition of P-gp in larvae. Co-exposure to chlorpyrifos and an extract of OSPW containing basic and neutral compounds reduced survival of larvae to 26.5% compared to survival of larvae exposed only to chlorpyrifos, which was 93.7%. However, co-exposure to malathion and the extract of OSPW did not cause acute lethality compared to exposure only to malathion. Accumulation and bioconcentration of chlorpyrifos, but not malathion, was greater in larvae co-exposed with the extract of OSPW. The terminal elimination half-life of chlorpyrifos in larvae exposed to chlorpyrifos in freshwater was 5 days compared with 11.3 days in larvae exposed to chlorpyrifos in OSPW. Results suggest that in non-acute exposures, basic and neutral organic compounds in the water-soluble fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of P-gp, which suggests that OSPW has the potential to cause adverse effects by chemosensitization. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Pieranna; Bonfiglio, Luca; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Cantore, Nicoletta; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Piccotti, Emily; Rossi, Bruno; Andre, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ) is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error), at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance) became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects) suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi-naturalistic motor

  7. Toxic Knowledge: Self-Alteration Through Child Abuse Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change.

  8. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieranna Arrighi

    Full Text Available Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error, at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi

  9. Insights into secondary reactions occurring during atmospheric ablation of micrometeoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Richard W.; Tan, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Ablation of micrometeoroids during atmospheric entry yields volatile gases such as water, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, capable of altering atmospheric chemistry and hence the climate and habitability of the planetary surface. While laboratory experiments have revealed the yields of these gases during laboratory simulations of ablation, the reactions responsible for the generation of these gases have remained unclear, with a typical assumption being that species simply undergo thermal decomposition without engaging in more complex chemistry. Here, pyrolysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals that mixtures of meteorite-relevant materials undergo secondary reactions during simulated ablation, with organic matter capable of taking part in carbothermic reduction of iron oxides and sulfates, resulting in yields of volatile gases that differ from those predicted by simple thermal decomposition. Sulfates are most susceptible to carbothermic reduction, producing greater yields of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide at lower temperatures than would be expected from simple thermal decomposition, even when mixed with meteoritically relevant abundances of low-reactivity Type IV kerogen. Iron oxides were less susceptible, with elevated yields of water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide only occurring when mixed with high abundances of more reactive Type III kerogen. We use these insights to reinterpret previous ablation simulation experiments and to predict the reactions capable of occurring during ablation of carbonaceous micrometeoroids in atmospheres of different compositions.

  10. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  11. Major epigenetic development distinguishing neuronal and non-neuronal cells occurs postnatally in the murine hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal and early postnatal environment can persistently alter one's risk of obesity. Environmental effects on hypothalamic developmental epigenetics constitute a likely mechanism underlying such 'developmental programming' of energy balance regulation. To advance our understanding of these process...

  12. Identification of networks of co-occurring, tumor-related DNA copy number changes using a genome-wide scoring approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Klijn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a multi-step process in which normal cells transform into malignant tumors following the accumulation of genetic mutations that enable them to evade the growth control checkpoints that would normally suppress their growth or result in apoptosis. It is therefore important to identify those combinations of mutations that collaborate in cancer development and progression. DNA copy number alterations (CNAs are one of the ways in which cancer genes are deregulated in tumor cells. We hypothesized that synergistic interactions between cancer genes might be identified by looking for regions of co-occurring gain and/or loss. To this end we developed a scoring framework to separate truly co-occurring aberrations from passenger mutations and dominant single signals present in the data. The resulting regions of high co-occurrence can be investigated for between-region functional interactions. Analysis of high-resolution DNA copy number data from a panel of 95 hematological tumor cell lines correctly identified co-occurring recombinations at the T-cell receptor and immunoglobulin loci in T- and B-cell malignancies, respectively, showing that we can recover truly co-occurring genomic alterations. In addition, our analysis revealed networks of co-occurring genomic losses and gains that are enriched for cancer genes. These networks are also highly enriched for functional relationships between genes. We further examine sub-networks of these networks, core networks, which contain many known cancer genes. The core network for co-occurring DNA losses we find seems to be independent of the canonical cancer genes within the network. Our findings suggest that large-scale, low-intensity copy number alterations may be an important feature of cancer development or maintenance by affecting gene dosage of a large interconnected network of functionally related genes.

  13. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  14. Altered cortical activation from the hand after facial Botulinum Toxin treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Haenzi, Sara; Stefanics, Gabor; Lanaras, Tatjana; Calcagni, Maurizio; Ghosh, Arko

    2014-01-01

    Plastic interactions between face and hand cortical tactile circuits occur after severe injuries that affect the hand such as in amputation or spinal cord injury. However, whether loss of facial movements alters the cortical circuits involved in processing tactile inputs from the hand remains unknown. In this prospective observational study we used electroencephalography (EEG) to measure cortical activity evoked by tactile stimulation of the hands before and after botulinum toxin-A-induced fa...

  15. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  16. Development of potentiometric equipment for the identification of altered dry-cured hams: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, Joel; Gil-Sánchez, Luís; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Pagán, M Jesús; Barat, José M; Grau, Raúl

    2015-08-01

    Microbiological contamination in dry-cured ham can occur in the early stages of the process, a large number of microorganisms involved in spoilage can produce alterations in the product. These include non-common odours, which are detected at the end of the process by a procedure called "cala", consisting of a sharp instrument punctured in every ham; this is smelled by an expert taster, who classifies hams as good and altered hams. An electronic device would be suitable for this process given the large amount of hams. The present research aims to develop objective equipment based on the potentiometry technique that identifies altered hams. A probe was developed, containing silver, nickel and copper electrodes, and was employed to classify altered and unaltered hams prior to classification by a tester. The results shown lower Ag and higher Cu potential values for altered hams. The differences in potentiometric response reveal a classification model, although further studies are required to obtain a reliable classification model.

  17. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-12-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children.

  18. Pyrogenic organic matter can alter microbial communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Caroline; Gao, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Silberg, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbes communicate with each other to manage a large range of processes that occur more efficiently when microbes are able to act simultaneously. This coordination occurs through the continuous production of signaling compounds that are easily diffused into and out of cells. As the number of microbes in a localized environment increases, the internal cellular concentration of these signaling compounds increases, and when a threshold concentration is reached, gene expression shifts, leading to altered (and coordinated) microbial behaviors. Many of these coordinated behaviors have biogeochemically important outcomes. For example, methanogenesis, denitrification, biofilm formation, and the development of plant-rhizobial symbioses are all regulated by a simple class of cell-cell signaling molecules known as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Pyrogenic organic matter in soils can act to disrupt microbial communication through multiple pathways. In the case of AHLs, charcoal's very high surface area can sorb these signaling compounds, preventing microbes from detecting each others' presence (Masiello et al., 2014). In addition, the lactone ring in AHLs is vulnerable to pH increases accompanying PyOM inputs, with soil pH values higher than 7-8 leading to ring opening and compound destabilization. Different microbes use different classes of signaling compounds, and not all microbial signaling compounds are pH-vulnerable. This implies that PyOM-driven pH increases may trigger differential outcomes for Gram negative bacteria vs fungi, for example. A charcoal-driven reduction in microbes' ability to detect cell-cell communication compounds may lead to a shift in the ability of microbes to participate in key steps of C and N cycling. For example, an increase in an archaeon-specific AHL has been shown to lead to a cascade of metabolic processes that eventually results in the upregulation of CH4 production (Zhang et al., 2012). Alterations in similar AHL compounds leads to

  19. Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B CAI: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of CAIs is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of CAIs in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this CAI consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the CAI (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the CAI, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded CAI primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This CAI also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the CAI, but also penetrates more deeply into the CAI. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the CAI have been extensively metasomatized.

  20. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  1. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  2. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  3. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  4. Early maladaptive schema-related impairment and co-occurring current major depressive episode-related enhancement of mental state decoding ability in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD.

  5. Genetic alterations in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula; Lima, Jorge; Preto, Ana; Castro, Patricia; Vinagre, João; Celestino, Ricardo; Couto, Joana P; Prazeres, Hugo; Eloy, Catarina; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    2011-12-01

    Thyroid gland presents a wide spectrum of tumours derived from follicular cells that range from well differentiated, papillary and follicular carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively), usually carrying a good prognosis, to the clinically aggressive, poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC).It is usually accepted that PDTC and UTC occur either de novo or progress from a pre-existing well differentiated carcinoma through a multistep process of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to clonal expansion and neoplastic development. Mutations and epigenetic alterations in PDTC and UTC are far from being totally clarified. Assuming that PDTC and UTC may derive from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC), it is expected that some PDTC and UTC would harbour genetic alterations that are typical of PTC and FTC. This is the case for some molecular markers (BRAF and NRAS) that are present in WDTC, PDTC and UTC. Other genes, namely P53, are almost exclusively detected in less differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumours, supporting a diagnosis of PDTC or, much more often, UTC. Thyroid-specific rearrangements RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ, on the other hand, are rarely found in PDTC and UTC, suggesting that these genetic alterations do not predispose cells to dedifferentiation. In the present review we have summarized the molecular changes associated with the two most aggressive types of thyroid cancer.

  6. Cellular Alterations in Shock and Ischemia and Their Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Irshad H.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in cellular alterations in shock to help physicians and physiologists keep abreast of current research. Specifically addresses changes occurring as a result of hemorrhagic shock and possible ways such lesions could be corrected. (DH)

  7. Epigenetic Alterations in Muscular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Lanzuolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms, acting via chromatin organization, fix in time and space different transcriptional programs and contribute to the quality, stability, and heritability of cell-specific transcription programs. In the last years, great advances have been made in our understanding of mechanisms by which this occurs in normal subjects. However, only a small part of the complete picture has been revealed. Abnormal gene expression patterns are often implicated in the development of different diseases, and thus epigenetic studies from patients promise to fill an important lack of knowledge, deciphering aberrant molecular mechanisms at the basis of pathogenesis and diseases progression. The identification of epigenetic modifications that could be used as targets for therapeutic interventions could be particularly timely in the light of pharmacologically reversion of pathological perturbations, avoiding changes in DNA sequences. Here I discuss the available information on epigenetic mechanisms that, altered in neuromuscular disorders, could contribute to the progression of the disease.

  8. A comparison of substorms occurring during magnetic storms with those occurring during quiet times

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherron, R. L.; Hsu, T.-S.

    2002-09-01

    It has been suggested that there may be a fundamental difference between substorms that occur during magnetic storms and those that occur at other times. [1996] presented evidence that there is no obvious change in lobe field in "quiet time" substorms but that "storm time" substorms exhibit the classic pattern of storage and release of lobe field energy. This result led them to speculate that the former are caused by current sheet disruption, while the latter are caused by reconnection of lobe flux. In this paper we examine their hypothesis with a much larger data set using definitions of the two types of substorms similar to theirs, as well as additional more restrictive definitions of these classes of events. Our results show that the only differences between the various classes are the absolute value of the lobe field and the size of the changes. When the data are normalized to unit field amplitude, we find that the percent change during storm time and non-storm time substorms is nearly the same. The above conclusions are demonstrated with superposed epoch analysis of lobe field (Bt and Bz) for four classes of substorms: active times (Dst -25 nT), and quiet time substorms (no evidence of storm in Dst). Epoch zero for the analysis was taken as the main substorm onset (Pi2 onset closest to sharp break in AL index). Our results suggest that there is no qualitative distinction between the various classes of substorms, and so they are all likely to be caused by the same mechanism.

  9. 中蒙边境查夫—甲乌拉地区中生代银多金属矿床成矿作用%Ore-Forming Processes of Silver-Polymetallic Deposits Occurring Within Tsav- Jiawula Region Along China- Mongolian Border

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂凤军; 刘勇; 刘翼飞; 江思宏; 张可; 刘妍

    2011-01-01

    Tsav, Jiawula, Chaganbulagen Ag-Pb-Zn deposits as well as Errentaolegai Ag deposit are located at northeastern part of the Northern China- Mongolia block (NCMB), and constitute the most important Ag-polymetalic ore cluster along the China - Mongolia border. The Ag-polymetallic ore deposits occur mainly in the Jurassic volcano-sedimentary rocks as thin veins, veinlets, sulfide-enriched pockets, breccias and lenses. The mineralization can be classified into two types: quartz-sulfide veins and carbonate-sulfide veins. Both of the two type veins have characteristics typical of intermediate sulfidation deposits worldwide. One of the most prominent features for the Ag-polymetallic deposits mentioned above is that they are spatially and temporally associated with Mesozoic Yanshanian alkaline or high-K calc-alkaline intrusive dykes (or sills). It should be pointed out that Jurassic volcanic strata consist of mainly shoshonite, trachyandesite, latite, and high-K, andesite, dacite and rhyolite as well as ignimbrite and tuffaceous rocks, while Yanshanian intrusions include monzonite, monzodiorite, diorite, granodiorite, granite and syenite. All these ore-bearing intrusive rocks are enriched in K,Ba, Th, Rb,Sr, Nb, La, Ag, Zn and Nd, and depleted in Ca, Mg, Co, Ni and Cr. All these geological evidences indicate that the collision of the amalgamated NCMB and Siberian plate is likely to occur during the time span of Late Middle to Early Late Jurassic. Subsequent, post-collision lithospheric and crustal extension may lead to a large-scale magmatic activity and a great volume of fluid ascent. As a result, a number of Ag-polymetallic deposits and prospects were fromed in Tsav - Jiawula region. Tsav, Jiawula, Chaganbulagen and Errentaolegai deposits have differences on their geographic location, ore body geometry and mineral assemblage, but they have a lot of similarities on geodynamic setting, genetic type, and ore-forming process. Our studies show that most of Ag

  10. On the Mechanical Friction Losses Occurring in Automotive Differential Gearboxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the automobile industry, the mechanical losses resulting from friction are largely responsible for various kinds of surface damage, such as the scuffing occurring in some mechanical assemblies. These scuffing processes seem to be due to a local loss of lubrication between certain mechanical elements of the same assembly, leading to a sharp increase in the friction, which can lead to a surface and volume damage in some of them, and even can cause, in the worst case, the whole destruction of the mechanical system if it has continued to operate. Predicting and checking the occurrence of this kind of undesirable phenomena, especially in some principal systems of the vehicle, represents nowadays, a crucial challenge in terms of automobile reliability and safety. This study focuses on the mechanical friction losses liable to occur in differential automobile gearboxes, which can lead in the long term to the scuffing of these mechanical systems. The friction losses involved were modeled, using a simple analytical approach, which is presented and discussed.

  11. Multifaceted ability of naturally occurring polyphenols against metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingyu; Bennett, Lunawati L; Zhou, Shufeng

    2016-04-01

    Although cancer metastases are known to be the main cause of cancer-related deaths, truly effective antimetastatic therapeutics remain scarce in clinical practice. Naturally occurring polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diets. Many of them possess chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against various types of cancer. Recent advances in understanding the molecular pathways that mediate cancer development and progression have led to an increase of interest in preclinical investigations on the mechanisms underlying anticancer activity of polyphenols. In particular, an increasing number of preclinical studies using cultured cells and animal models have demonstrated the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on tumour cell invasion and metastasis, thereby highlighting the potential of polyphenols against metastatic cancer. This review specifically addresses growing evidence of the capability of polyphenols to impair the invasion and migration of tumour cells through a diverse set of mechanisms, including downregulation of expression of matrix metalloproteinases, modulation of regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, interference with Met signalling, inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B mediated transcription, and so on. Given that metastasis occurs through a multistep process in which each step is regulated by a complex network of signalling pathways, the multi-function and multi-target characteristics of polyphenols render those promising candidates for effective adjuvant therapy against metastatic cancer.

  12. A naturally-occurring 'cold earth' spot in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fujun; Cheng, Guodong; Niu, Yonghong; Zhang, Mingyi; Luo, Jing; Lin, Zhanju

    2016-09-29

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth's surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about -1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time. The deposit is covered by a 30-cm-thick peaty soil layer dated (carbon C-14) to between 1,000 to 1,600 years ago. The layer also contributes to the permafrost's existence due to the peat's thermal conductivity offset when frozen and thawed. The existence of permafrost under such warm climatic conditions confirms the effectiveness of using crushed rock layer as basement or slope cover to protect the warm permafrost subgrade of the recently-constructed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), even under the predicted climate warming conditions.

  13. Aqueous alteration on main belt primitive asteroids: Results from visible spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M. A.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-05-01

    This work focuses on the study of the aqueous alteration process which acted in the main belt and produced hydrated minerals on the altered asteroids. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on main belt primitive asteroids and possibly also on few TNOs. These materials have been produced by hydration of pristine anhydrous silicates during the aqueous alteration process, that, to be active, needed the presence of liquid water under low temperature conditions (below 320 K) to chemically alter the minerals. The aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times of the Solar System history, as it can give information both on the asteroids thermal evolution and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt. To investigate this process, we present reflected light spectral observations in the visible region (0.4-0.94 μm) of 80 asteroids belonging to the primitive classes C (prevalently), G, F, B and P, following the Tholen (Tholen, D.J. [1984]. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson). classification scheme. We find that about 65% of the C-type and all the G-type asteroids investigated reveal features suggesting the presence of hydrous materials, mainly a band centered around 0.7 μm, while we do not find evidence of hydrated materials in the other low albedo asteroids (B, F, and P) investigated. We combine the present observations with the visible spectra of asteroids available in the literature for a total of 600 primitive main belt asteroids. We analyze all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption band parameters (band center, depth and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo and sizes. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and

  14. Epigenetic Alterations in Parathyroid Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelli, Chiara; Corbetta, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Parathyroid cancers (PCas) are rare malignancies representing approximately 0.005% of all cancers. PCas are a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, which is the third most common endocrine disease, mainly related to parathyroid benign tumors. About 90% of PCas are hormonally active hypersecreting parathormone (PTH); consequently patients present with complications of severe hypercalcemia. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult due to clinical features shared with benign parathyroid lesions. Surgery provides the current best chance of cure, though persistent or recurrent disease occurs in about 50% of patients with PCas. Somatic inactivating mutations of CDC73/HRPT2 gene, encoding parafibromin, are the most frequent genetic anomalies occurring in PCas. Recently, the aberrant DNA methylation signature and microRNA expression profile have been identified in PCas, providing evidence that parathyroid malignancies are distinct entities from parathyroid benign lesions, showing an epigenetic signature resembling some embryonic aspects. The present paper reviews data about epigenetic alterations in PCas, up to now limited to DNA methylation, chromatin regulators and microRNA profile. PMID:28157158

  15. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes.

  16. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life.

  17. Gene expression alterations in brains of mice infected with three strains of scrapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Race Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which occur in humans and various animal species. Examples include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep, and experimental mice. To gain insights into TSE pathogenesis, we made and used cDNA microarrays to identify disease-associated alterations in gene expression. Brain gene expression in scrapie-infected mice was compared to mock-infected mice at pre-symptomatic and symptomatic time points. Three strains of mouse scrapie that show striking differences in neuropathology were studied: ME7, 22L, and Chandler/RML. Results In symptomatic mice, over 400 significant gene expression alterations were identified. In contrast, only 22 genes showed significant alteration in the pre-symptomatic animals. We also identified genes that showed significant differences in alterations in gene expression between strains. Genes identified in this study encode proteins that are involved in many cellular processes including protein folding, endosome/lysosome function, immunity, synapse function, metal ion binding, calcium regulation and cytoskeletal function. Conclusion These studies shed light on the complex molecular events that occur during prion disease, and identify genes whose further study may yield new insights into strain specific neuropathogenesis and ante-mortem tests for TSEs.

  18. Ressourcenorientierte Diagnostik im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Trotz der im Alter zunehmenden körperlichen, kognitiven und sozialen Verlusten bleibt das subjektive Wohlbefinden relativ stabil. Dies weist auf die vielen Ressourcen älterer Menschen hin. Dieser Artikel stellt für die klinische Ressourcendiagnostik relevante Verfahren vor und erläutert die zugrunde liegenden Konzepte. Berücksichtigt werden Aktivitäten und Erlebnisse als Ressourcen, emotionale Ressourcen (positiver Affekt, Lebenszufriedenheit, Selbstwerterleben, Lebensqualität), motivationale...

  19. Altered cortical activation from the hand after facial botulinum toxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenzi, Sara; Stefanics, Gabor; Lanaras, Tatjana; Calcagni, Maurizio; Ghosh, Arko

    2014-01-01

    Plastic interactions between face and hand cortical tactile circuits occur after severe injuries that affect the hand such as in amputation or spinal cord injury. However, whether loss of facial movements alters the cortical circuits involved in processing tactile inputs from the hand remains unknown. In this prospective observational study we used electroencephalography (EEG) to measure cortical activity evoked by tactile stimulation of the hands before and after botulinum toxin-A-induced facial paralysis. We found a reduction in the tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) 6 weeks after the treatment. This suggests that the limited paralysis of facial muscles induced during cosmetic interventions designed to smooth lines and wrinkles on the face is sufficient to alter the cortical processing of tactile inputs from the hand.

  20. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was

  1. Investigation of a miRNA-Induced Gene Silencing Technique in Petunia Reveals Alterations in miR173 Precursor Processing and the Accumulation of Secondary siRNAs from Endogenous Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Han

    Full Text Available MIGS (miRNA-induced gene silencing is a straightforward and efficient gene silencing technique in Arabidopsis. It works by exploiting miR173 to trigger the production of phasiRNAs (phased small interfering RNAs. MIGS can be used in plant species other than Arabidopsis by co-expression of miR173 and target gene fragments fused to an upstream miR173 target site. However, the efficiency and technical mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated in other plants. In this work, two vectors, pMIGS-chs and pMIGS-pds, were constructed and transformed into petunia plants. The transgenic plants showed CHS (chalcone synthase and PDS (phytoene desaturase gene-silencing phenotypes respectively, indicating that MIGS functions in petunia. MIGS-chs plants were used to investigate the mechanisms of this technique in petunia. Results of 5'- RACE showed that the miR173 target site was cleaved at the expected position and that endogenous CHS genes were cut at multiple positions. Small RNA deep sequencing analysis showed that the processing of Arabidopsis miR173 precursors in MIGS-chs transgenic petunia plants did not occur in exactly the same way as in Arabidopsis, suggesting differences in the machinery of miRNA processing between plant species. Small RNAs in-phase with the miR173 cleavage register were produced immediately downstream from the cleavage site and out-of-phase small RNAs were accumulated at relatively high levels from processing cycle 5 onwards. Secondary siRNAs were generated from multiple sites of endogenous CHS-A and CHS-J genes, indicating that miR173 cleavage induced siRNAs have the same ability to initiate siRNA transitivity as the siRNAs functioning in co-suppression and hpRNA silencing. On account of the simplicity of vector construction and the transitive amplification of signals from endogenous transcripts, MIGS is a good alternative gene silencing method for plants, especially for silencing a cluster of homologous genes with redundant

  2. Changes in Neuronal Oscillations Accompany the Loss of Hippocampal LTP that Occurs in an Animal Model of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalweit, Alexander N.; Amanpour-Gharaei, Bezhad; Colitti-Klausnitzer, Jens; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2017-01-01

    The first-episode of psychosis is followed by a transient time-window of ca. 60 days during which therapeutic interventions have a higher likelihood of being effective than interventions that are started with a greater latency. This suggests that, in the immediate time-period after first-episode psychosis, functional changes occur in the brain that render it increasingly resistant to intervention. The precise mechanistic nature of these changes is unclear, but at the cognitive level, sensory and hippocampus-based dysfunctions become increasingly manifest. In an animal model of first-episode psychosis that comprises acute treatment of rats with the irreversible N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-antagonist, MK801, acute but also chronic deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory occur. Neuronal oscillations, especially in the form of information transfer through θ and γ frequency oscillations are an intrinsic component of normal information processing in the hippocampus. Changes in θ-γ coupling and power are known to accompany deficits in hippocampal plasticity. Here, we examined whether changes in δ, θ, α, β and γ oscillations, or θ-γ coupling accompany the chronic loss of LTP that is observed in the MK801-animal model of psychosis. One and 4 weeks after acute systemic treatment of adult rats with MK801, a potent loss of hippocampal in vivo LTP was evident compared to vehicle-treated controls. Overall, the typical pattern of θ-γ oscillations that are characteristic for the successful induction of LTP was altered. In particular, θ-power was lower and an uncoupling of θ-γ oscillations was evident in MK801-treated rats. The alterations in network oscillations that accompany LTP deficits in this animal model may comprise a mechanism through which disturbances in sensory information processing and hippocampal function occur in psychosis. These data suggest that the hippocampus is likely to comprise a very early locus of functional

  3. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mancusi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products. In this study forty-eight samples of tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, fresh or processed were sampled from fish shops and supermarkets in the City of Bologna in the period from January to July 2010. Concentration of histamine was assessed using ELISA quantitative test and presence of psicrotrophic histamine forming bacteria was searched using a modified Niven agar medium which allow detection of suspect colonies that were confirmed by PCR for detecting the presence of the histidine decarboxylase genes in their DNA. The positive colonies were then identified on the basis of their morphology, Gram reaction and biochemical characteristics with API20E. The differential capability of the Niven agar was found to be low and approximately one fifth of the suspect colonies were confirmed by the PCR test, which however included both strong and weak histamine producing strains. The presence of Morganella morganii was associated with concentration of histamine 460 mg∙kg-1 above the allowed limit in a sample of tuna sampled from a fish shop. The same bacterium was found in samples of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. High histamine concentration (between 258 and > 300 mg∙kg-1 were observed in salted European pilchard and European anchovy (228 mg∙kg-1 sold loose in supermarkets. Because temperature abuse could occur when Tuna (fresh/defrozen are hold on chopping board to sell fresh cuts and during shelf life of salted pilchard and pickled anchovies held in opened cans in chilled display cabinets for extended period, which might results in very high histamine concentration, controls on time and temperature at the retail, in addition to those done during the harvest and processing are needed. The studies aiming at

  4. Aqueous alteration on main belt primitive asteroids: results from visible spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasier, S; Barucci, M A; Lazzarin, M

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the study of the aqueous alteration process which acted in the main belt and produced hydrated minerals on the altered asteroids. The aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times of the Solar System history, as it can give information both on the asteroids thermal evolution and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt. We present new spectral observations in the visible region of 80 asteroids belonging to the primitive classes C, G, F, B and P. We combine the present observations with the visible spectra of asteroids available in the literature for a total of 600 primitive main belt asteroids. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the F, B, C, and G asteroids. Around 50% of the observed C-type asteroids show absorption features in the vis. range due to hydrated silicates, implying that more than 70% of them will ha...

  5. Genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer of the exocrine pancreas represents the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the Western population with an average survival after diagnosis of 3 to 6 months and a five-year survival rate under 5%. Our understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis has improved in the last few years due to the development of novel molecular biological techniques. Pancreatic cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from the accumulation of genetic changes in the somatic DNA of normal cells. In this article we describe major genetic alterations of pancreatic cancer, mutations in the proto-oncogene K-RAS and the tumor suppressors INK4A, TP53 and DPC4/SMAD4. The accumulation of these genetic changes leads to a profound disturbance in cell cycle regulation and continuous growth. The knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms will offer new therapeutic and diagnostic options and hopefully improve the outcome of this aggressive disease.

  6. Alteration and mineralization of an oceanic forearc and the ophiolite-ocean crust analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Teagle, D.A.H.; Brewer, T.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Halliday, A.

    1998-01-01

    Mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic (O, C, S, and Sr) analyses were performed on minerals and bulk rocks from a forearc basement section to understand alteration processes and compare with mid-ocean ridges (MOR) and ophiolites. Ocean Drilling Program Hole 786B in the Izu-Bonin forearc penetrates 103 m of sediment and 725 m into volcanic flows, breccias, and basal dikes. The rocks comprise boninites and andesites to rhyolites. Most of the section was affected by low-temperature (Mg, Fe, Sr, and Y, and elevated ??18O and 87Sr/86Sr. Higher temperatures (???150??C) in the basal dikes below 750 m led to more intense alteration and formation of chlorite-smectite, corrensite, albite, K-feldspar, and quartz (??chlorite). A 5 m thick hydrothermally altered and pyritized zone at 815 m in the basal dikes reacted with mixtures of seawater and hydrothermal fluids to Mg-chlorite, albite, and pyrite, and gained Mg and S and lost Si and Ca. Focused flow of hydrothermal fluids produced sericitization halos (Na-K sericite, quartz, pyrophyllite, K-feldspar, and pyrite) along quartz veins at temperatures of 200??-250??C. High 87Sr/86Sr ratios of chloritized (???0.7055) and sericitized (???0.7065) rocks indicate involvement of seawater via mixing with hydrothermal fluids. Low ??34S of sulfide (???2 to -5.5???) and sulfate (12.5???) are consistent with input of magmatic SO2 into hydrothermal fluids and disproportionation to sulfide and sulfate. Alteration processes were generally similar to those at MORs, but the arc section is more intensively altered, in part because of the presence of abundant glassy rocks and mafic phases. The increase in alteration grade below 750 m and the mineralization in the basal dikes are analogous to changes that occur near the base of the volcanic section in MOR and the Troodos ophiolite.

  7. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study.

  8. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  9. Alterações na qualidade de raízes de mandioca(Manihot esculenta Crantz minimamente processadas Quality alterations in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Alves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A conservação pós-colheita das raízes de mandioca tem sido uma preocupação das indústrias e produtores, devido ao curto tempo de estocagem e a alta perecibilidade das raízes. Dois fenômenos são apontados como responsáveis pela deterioração das raízes, um de ordem fisiológica, provocando a perda inicial da qualidade por meio do desenvolvimento da descoloração vascular do tecido parenquimatoso, e o outro, de ordem microbiana, que se segue à fisiologia, responsável pela decomposição do produto. Dessa forma, com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a conservação das raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, submetidas à higienização em água clorada e armazenadas em três tipos de embalagens, bandeja de isopor envolta em filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC, embalagem multicamada (poliéster Saram-13,5µ/polietileno-100µ com e sem vácuo e resfriadas (5 ± 0,5°C, mediante análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas, fisiológicas e sensoriais. A conservação de mandioca minimamente processada sob refrigeração para os tratamentos realizados, é possível diferenciando-se o período de armazenamento, sendo que para as amostras armazenadas em bandeja, o período de armazenamento foi de 7 dias, no selado e a vácuo foi de aproximadamente 24 dias, respectivamente.Post harvest of cassava roots has been a great concern in food industries and producers due to the short shelf life and high perishability. Several phenomena have been pointed out as responsible for root deterioration. Among them there are physiological aspects, that lead to losses in initial quality through vascular discoloration of parenchymatous tissue. On the other hand, phenomena from microbial origin, which follow the physiological alterations, are responsible for product decomposition. In this context, this work was aimed at investigating the conservation of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz submitted to chlorinated water, and stored using

  10. 暂态技术研究高含H2S和CO2近中性溶液中套管钢的界面反应%Electrochemical Transient Technique of Processes Occurring in Tubular Steel-Neutral Solution Interface in H2S and CO2 Containing Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓洪达; 李春福; 曹献龙; 唐笑

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical transient technique was used to study the processes in tubular steel-solution interface in the neutral solution containing H2S and CO2. The processes consisted of anion desorption, hydrogen adsorption and hydrogen absorption were analysized using steel-solution interface models. The process in the metal-solution interface was controlled by hydrogen adsorption at the potential step of - 50 mV, however, by anion desorption at the potential step higher than-50 mV in the solution containing H2S and CO2. The results show that adding C()2 increased anion desorption rate, and enhanced hydrogen adsorbing and absorbing in high H2S containing solutioa%采用电位阶跃技术研究在H2S和CO2共存的近中性溶液中套管钢/溶液界面和反应过程.应用数学模型分析界面反应中氢吸附过程、负离子脱附过程和氢吸收过程的变化规律.当阶跃电位为50 mV,界面反应由氢吸附过程控制,当阶跃电位超过50 mV,界面反应由负离子脱附过程控制.研究显示,在含50% H2S(pH=5.9)环境中,加入CO2提高了界面负离子脱附、氢吸附和氢吸收反应速率.

  11. Analysis of the Meteoro-logical Service of a Cold Dew Wind Process Oc-curring on September, 2011 in Jiangxi Province%江西省2011年9月寒露风天气过程气象服务分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕晨; 詹华斌; 周芳; 郭瑞鸽; 胡菊芳

    2015-01-01

    对2011年9月17—20日江西寒露风天气过程及其影响进行分析,介绍了相关部门对此次寒露风天气所做的预报预警、气象服务情况、气象服务反馈情况,并从成功经验、存在问题、改进措施3个方面对此次寒露风天气过程气象服务进行分析,以供参考。%The cold dew wind process during September 17 to 20, 2011 in Jiangxi Province was analyzed, and its forecast and early warning, meteorologi-cal service and meteorological service feedback by related departments were introduced. Finally, the successful expe-riences, existing problems and improve-ment measures in the meteorological ser-vice of the cold dew wind process were analyzed.

  12. Alterations of the Erythrocyte Membrane during Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Serroukh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes have been long considered as “dead” cells with transport of oxygen (O2 as their only function. However, the ability of red blood cells (RBCs to modulate the microcirculation is now recognized as an important additional function. This capacity is regulated by a key element in the rheologic process: the RBC membrane. This membrane is a complex unit with multiple interactions between the extracellular and intracellular compartments: blood stream, endothelium, and other blood cells on the one hand, and the intracytoplasmic compartment with possible rapid adaptation of erythrocyte metabolism on the other. In this paper, we review the alterations in the erythrocyte membrane observed in critically ill patients and the influence of these alterations on the microcirculatory abnormalities observed in such patients. An understanding of the mechanisms of RBC rheologic alterations in sepsis and their effects on blood flow and on oxygen transport may be important to help reduce morbidity and mortality from severe sepsis.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  14. Epigenetic Alterations in Density Selected Human Spermatozoa for Assisted Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolan Yu

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates that assisted reproductive technologies (ART may be associated with several epigenetic diseases such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS or Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS. Selection of sperm by density-gradients in ART has improved DNA integrity and sperm quality; however, epigenetic alterations associated with this approach are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated DNA methylation and histone retention profiles in raw sperm and selected sperm derived from the same individual and separated by using density-gradients. Results from a study group consisting of 93 males demonstrated that both global DNA methylation and histone retention levels decreased in density selected sperm. Compared to unselected raw sperm, histone transition rates decreased by an average of 27.2% in selected sperm, and the global methylation rate was 3.8% in unselected sperm and 3.3% in the selected sperm. DNA methylation and histone retention location profiling analyses suggested that these alterations displayed specific location patterns in the human genome. Changes in the pattern of hypomethylation largely occurred in transcriptional factor gene families such as HOX, FOX, and GATA. Histone retention increased in 67 genes, whereas it was significantly clustered in neural development-related gene families, particularly the olfactory sensor gene family. Although a causative relationship could not be established, the results of the present study suggest the possibility that sperm with good density also possess unique epigenetic profiles, particularly for genes involved in neural and olfactory development. As increasing evidence demonstrates that epigenetics plays a key role in embryonic development and offspring growth characteristics, the specific epigenetic alterations we observed in selected sperm may influence the transcriptional process and neural development in embryos.

  15. Chapter 9--face sensorimotor cortex neuroplasticity associated with intraoral alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sessle, Barry J

    2011-01-01

    Loss of teeth or dental attrition is a common clinical occurrence associated with altered somatosensation and impaired oral motor behavior (e.g., mastication, deglutition, phonation). Oral rehabilitation aims at restoring these sensorimotor functions to improve patients' quality of life. Recent studies have implicated neuroplastic changes within the primary motor cortex (M1) in the control of limb motor behaviors following manipulations of sensory inputs to or motor outputs from the central nervous system as well as in learning and adaptation processes. However, limited data are available of the neuroplastic capabilities of face-M1 in relation to orofacial motor functions. The overall objective of our series of studies was to use intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and recordings of evoked muscle electromyographic activity to test if neuroplastic changes occur in the ICMS-defined motor representations of the tongue-protrusive (genioglossus, GG) and jaw-opening (anterior digastric, AD) muscles within the rat face-M1 and adjacent face primary somatosensory cortex (face-S1) following several different types of intraoral manipulations. We found that a change in diet consistency was not associated with statistically significant changes in AD and GG motor representations. However, incisor extraction resulted, one week later, in a significantly increased AD representation within the contralateral face-M1 and face-S1, and incisor trimming produced time-dependent changes in the AD motor representation. These novel findings underscore the neuroplastic capabilities of the face sensorimotor cortex and point to its possible role in adaptation to an altered peripheral state or altered sensorimotor behavior. Further insights into the neuroplastic capabilities of the face sensorimotor cortex promise to improve therapeutic strategies aimed at the restoration of oral functions, particularly in patients suffering from orofacial sensorimotor deficits or pain.

  16. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the pe

  17. Iron Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration on Mars from the MER Moessbauer Spectrometers. Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Klingelhoefer, Goestar

    2007-01-01

    The twin Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit (Gusev crater) and Opportunity (Meridiani Planum) used MIMOS II Moessbauer spectrometers to analyze martian surface materials in the first application of extraterrestrial Moessbauer spectroscopy. The instruments acquired spectra that identified the speciation of Fe according to oxidation state, coordination state, and mineralogical composition and provided quantitative information about the distribution of Fe among oxidation states, coordination states, and Fe-bearing phases. A total of 12 unique Fe-bearing phases were identified: Fe(2+) in olivine, pyroxene, and ilmenite; Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in magnetite and chromite; Fe(3+) in nanophase ferric oxide (npOx), hematite, goethite, jarosite, an unassigned Fe3+ sulfate, and an unassigned Fe(3+) phase associated with jarosite; and Fe(0) in kamacite. Weakly altered basalts at Gusev crater (SO3 = 2.5 +/- 1.4 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.24 +/- 0.11) are widespread on the Gusev plains and occur in less abundance on West Spur and Husband Hill in the Columbia Hills. Altered low-S rocks (SO3 = 5.2 +/- 2.0 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.63 +/- 0.18) are the most common type of rock in the Columbia Hills. Ilm-bearing, weakly altered basalts were detected only in the Columbia Hills, as was the only occurrence of chromite in an altered low-S rock named Assemblee. Altered high-S rocks (SO3 > 14.2 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.83 +/- 0.05) are the outcrop rocks of the ubiquitous Burns formation at Meridiani Planum. Two Fe(0)-bearing rocks at Meridiani Planum (Barberton and Heat Shield Rock) are meteorites. Laguna Class soil is weakly altered (SO3 = 6 +/- 2 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.29 +/- 0.08) and widely distributed at both Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum, implying efficient global mixing processes or a global distribution of precursor rocks with comparable Fe mineralogical compositions. Paso Robles Class soil is heavily altered (SO3 approx. 31 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.83 +/- 0

  18. Angular cheilitis occurring during orthodontic treatment: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, David L; Short, Laura J

    2008-12-01

    Clinical experience has shown that angular cheilitis can occur during orthodontic treatment and may persist into retention, but the incidence of the condition is unknown. The purpose of this paper is to increase the awareness among clinicians of angular cheilitis occurring during orthodontic treatment. It also proposes a treatment regime which may be used.

  19. Hypersexuality or altered sexual preference following brain injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, B.L.; Cummings, J L; McIntyre, H.; Ebers, G; Grode, M

    1986-01-01

    Eight patients are described in whom either hypersexuality (four cases) or change in sexual preference (four cases) occurred following brain injury. In this series disinhibition of sexual activity and hypersexuality followed medial basal-frontal or diencephalic injury. This contrasted with the patients demonstrating altered sexual preference whose injuries involved limbic system structures. In some patients altered sexual behaviour may be the presenting or dominant feature of brain injury.

  20. Identifying associations between genomic alterations in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Joshy; Gorringe, Kylie L; Smyth, Gordon K; Bowtell, David D L

    2013-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping arrays are a reliable method for identifying somatic copy number alterations in cancer samples. Though this is immensely useful to identify potential driver genes, it is not sufficient to identify genes acting in a concerted manner. In cancer cells, co-amplified genes have been shown to provide synergistic effects, and genomic alterations targeting a pathway have been shown to occur in a mutually exclusive manner. We therefore developed a bioinformatic method for detecting such gene pairs using an integrated analysis of genomic copy number and gene expression data. This approach allowed us to identify a gene pair that is co-amplified and co-expressed in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. This finding provided information about the interaction of specific genetic events that contribute to the development and progression of this disease.

  1. Molecular Alterations in Sporadic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Alvelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is a frequent endocrine disorder characterized by an excessive autonomous production and release of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid glands. This endocrinopathy may result from the development of a benign lesion (adenoma or hyperplasia or from a carcinoma. Most of the PHPT cases occur sporadically; however, approximately 10% of the patients present a familial form of the disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of sporadic PHPT are incompletely understood, even though somatic alterations in MEN1 gene and CCND1 protein overexpression are frequently observed. The MEN1 gene is mutated in about 30% of the parathyroid tumours and the protooncogene CCND1 is implicated in parathyroid neoplasia by rearrangements, leading to an overexpression of CCND1 protein in parathyroid cells. The aim of this work is to briefly update the molecular alterations underlying sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

  2. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  3. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in the Southern Polar Ocean: Naturally occurring tracers of biological and hydrographical processes in the surface waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea; Polonium-210 und Blei-210 im Suedpolarmeer: Natuerliche Tracer fuer biologische und hydrographische Prozesse im Oberflaechenwasser des Antarktischen Zirkumpolarstroms und des Weddellmeeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis the distribution of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in the upper 600 m of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea was investigated along north-south transects in austral spring and autumn. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb can serve as sensitive tracers for the special hydrographic conditions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea as well as for biological processes during phytoplankton blooms. The {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb disequilibrium was used as a tracer for particle export. This tracer integrates export on a timescale of 276 days because of the 138 day half-life of {sup 210}Po and complements the {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U disequilibrium as another tracer for plankton production and export on a shorter timescale of several weeks. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Verteilung von Blei-210 und seinem Enkelnuklid Polonium-210 im Antarktischen Zirkumpolarstrom und im Weddellmeer bis 600 m Tiefe in mehreren meridionalen Transekten im australen Fruehjahr und Herbst waehrend der `Polarstern`-Expeditionen ANT-X/6 und ANT-XI/4 untersucht. Die Verteilung von {sup 210}Pb und {sup 210}Po wird von mehreren Faktoren beeinflusst, sowohl durch die Advektion von Wassermassen im Antarktischen Zirkumpolarstrom und im Weddellmeer als auch von biologischen Prozessen z.B. innerhalb einer Planktonbluete. Bevor die Verteilungsmuster von {sup 210}Pb und {sup 210}Po jedoch als Tracer fuer einen Prozess genutzt werden koennen, muss der Effekt der einzelnen Faktoren auf die Verteilung betrachtet werden. (orig.)

  4. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J., E-mail: p.french@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3000 CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-07

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes.

  5. Altered intrinsic organisation of brain networks implicated in attentional processes in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state study of attention, default mode and salience network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in task-related attentional engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been hypothesised to be due to altered interrelationships between attention, default mode and salience networks. We examined the intrinsic connectivity during rest within and between these networks. Six-minute resting-state scans were obtained. Using a network-based approach, connectivity within and between the dorsal and ventral attention, the default mode and the salience networks was compared between the ADHD and control group. The ADHD group displayed hyperconnectivity between the two attention networks and within the default mode and ventral attention network. The salience network was hypoconnected to the dorsal attention network. There were trends towards hyperconnectivity within the dorsal attention network and between the salience and ventral attention network in ADHD. Connectivity within and between other networks was unrelated to ADHD. Our findings highlight the altered connectivity within and between attention networks, and between them and the salience network in ADHD. One hypothesis to be tested in future studies is that individuals with ADHD are affected by an imbalance between ventral and dorsal attention systems with the former playing a dominant role during task engagement, making individuals with ADHD highly susceptible to distraction by salient task-irrelevant stimuli.

  6. Are extremes of consumption in eating disorders related to an altered balance between reward and inhibition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E Wierenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary defining characteristic of a diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED is the disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food (DSM V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. There is a spectrum, ranging from those who severely restrict eating and become emaciated on one end to those who binge and overconsume, usually accompanied by some form of compensatory behaviors, on the other. How can we understand reasons for such extremes of food consummatory behaviors? Recent work on obesity and substance use disorders has identified behaviors and neural pathways that play a powerful role in human consummatory behaviors. That is, corticostriatal limbic and dorsal cognitive neural circuitry can make drugs and food rewarding, but also engage self-control mechanisms that may inhibit their use. Importantly, there is considerable evidence that alterations of these systems also occur in ED. This paper explores the hypothesis that an altered balance of reward and inhibition contributes to altered extremes of response to salient stimuli, such as food. We will review recent studies that show altered sensitivity to reward and punishment in ED, with evidence of altered activity in corticostriatal and insula processes with respect to monetary gains or losses, and tastes of palatable foods. We will also discuss evidence for a spectrum of extremes of inhibition and dysregulation behaviors in ED supported by studies suggesting that this is related to top-down self-control mechanisms. The lack of a mechanistic understanding of ED has thwarted efforts for evidence-based approaches to develop interventions. Understanding how ED behavior is encoded in neural circuits would provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches.

  7. Nail alterations during pregnancy: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpolat, Seval; Eser, Ayla; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Balci, Hatice; Kosus, Aydin; Kosus, Nermin

    2016-10-01

    During pregnancy, cutaneous and appendageal alterations manifest and may cause concern in the subject. The nails may be affected by pregnancy. This study investigated the frequency and nature of nail changes occurring during pregnancy in 312 healthy, 18-40-year-old pregnant women in gestation weeks 16-40. After a routine obstetric examination at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at the study institution, all subjects submitted to an examination of all fingernails and toenails. Only nail alterations that had developed during pregnancy were recorded. Any nail changes that had occurred before the start of gestation were not considered. Data were presented as percentages. The Shapiro-Wilk and chi-squared tests were used to make categorical comparisons. A P-value of nail pathologies were detected in 116 (37.2%) of the 312 subjects. The most commonly found nail change was leukonychia (24.4%). Ingrown toenail (9.0%) and onychoschizia (9.0%) represented the second most common nail changes. Rapid nail growth and subungual hyperkeratosis were observed in 6.7% and 4.2%, respectively, of subjects. When the alterations were evaluated according to gestational age, the most common nail pathology was leukonychia at both 14-28 weeks (16.3%) and 29-42 weeks (27.4%) of pregnancy. Leukonychia, onychoschizia, onycholysis, and brittle nail pathologies were frequently observed at 29-42 weeks of pregnancy (P = 0.047). A large proportion of nail changes that occur during pregnancy are benign and do not require treatment. However, these changes may cause significant cosmetic stress in women.

  8. Alterations in choice behavior by manipulations of world model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. S.; Benson, C.; Kersten, D.; Schrater, P.

    2010-01-01

    How to compute initially unknown reward values makes up one of the key problems in reinforcement learning theory, with two basic approaches being used. Model-free algorithms rely on the accumulation of substantial amounts of experience to compute the value of actions, whereas in model-based learning, the agent seeks to learn the generative process for outcomes from which the value of actions can be predicted. Here we show that (i) “probability matching”—a consistent example of suboptimal choice behavior seen in humans—occurs in an optimal Bayesian model-based learner using a max decision rule that is initialized with ecologically plausible, but incorrect beliefs about the generative process for outcomes and (ii) human behavior can be strongly and predictably altered by the presence of cues suggestive of various generative processes, despite statistically identical outcome generation. These results suggest human decision making is rational and model based and not consistent with model-free learning. PMID:20805507

  9. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  10. Chemical and Mechanical Alteration of Fractures: Micro-Scale Simulations and Comparison to Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, P.; Detwiler, R. L.; Elkhoury, J. E.; Morris, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Fractures are often the main pathways for subsurface fluid flow especially in rocks with low matrix porosity. Therefore, the hydro-mechanical properties of fractures are of fundamental concern for subsurface CO2 sequestration, enhanced geothermal energy production, enhanced oil recovery, and nuclear waste disposal. Chemical and mechanical stresses induced during these applications may lead to significant alteration of the hydro-mechanical properties of fractures. Laboratory experiments aimed at understanding the chemo-hydro-mechanical response of fractures have shown a range of results that contradict simple conceptual models. For example, under conditions favoring mineral dissolution, where one would expect an overall increase in permeability and fracture aperture, permeability increases under some conditions and decreases under others. Recent experiments have attempted to link these core-scale observations to the relevant small-scale processes occurring within fractures. Results suggest that the loss of mechanical strength in asperities due to chemical alteration may cause non-uniform deformation and alteration of fracture apertures. However, it remains difficult to directly measure the coupled chemical and mechanical processes that lead to alteration of contacting fracture surfaces, which challenges our ability to predict the long-term evolution of the hydro-mechanical properties of fractures. Here, we present a computational model that uses micro-scale surface roughness and explicitly couples dissolution and elastic deformation to calculate local alterations in fracture aperture under chemical and mechanical stresses. Chemical alteration of the fracture surfaces is modeled using a depth-averaged algorithm of fracture flow and reactive transport. Then, we deform the resulting altered fracture-surfaces using an algorithm that calculates the elastic deformation. Nonuniform dissolution may cause the location of the resultant force between the two contacting

  11. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  12. MICROSATELLITE ALTERATION AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS IN COLORECTAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the role of microsatellite alterations incarcinogenesis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Methods: Alterations of 10 microsatellite loci from 5 different chromosomes were detected in 92 colorectal cancers and their paired normal mucosa by PCR, denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. Associations of microsatellite alterations with clinopathologic parameters were statistically clarified.Results: Alterations of microsatellite were classified into microsatellite instability type I, type II and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The carcinoma with ≥30% loci microsatellite alterations was defined as replication error(RER) positive tumors. Of 92 cases, 14 were RER+. Microsatellite alterations of P53(1) and D18S363 loci (64.29% ) was most commonly identified in the RER+ tumors. RER+ were more commonly seen in poorly differentiated carcinomas and tended to occur in mucoid carcinomas. The type of microsatellite alterations varied in different histological types of CRC. Conclusions: Microsatellite alteration is a common molecular event in CRC. Different microsatellite loci showed various biologic significance. P53(1) and D18S363 should be essentially detected loci that can show the RER status of tumors.

  13. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  14. Remote Sensing Analysis of Mineralized Alteration in the Ramand Area (Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolfazl Ezzati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Ramand area, southwest of Buin- Zahra, about 60 kilometers from Qazvin, lies in the igneous belt of the Urmieh-Dokhtar region, the main structural zone of north-central Iran. Rhyodacite and rhyolite lava flows are the principal host rocks of mineralization and alteration of the area, most of which occurs in faulted and brecciated zones alongmaj or northwest-trending fault systems (such as Kour-Cheshmeh, Hassan Abad and their branches. Clay minerals determined from satellite images indicated principally argillic hydrothermal alteration before laboratory mineralogical analysis. According to instrumental analyses, mineralized alteration with greater amounts of argillic halos and lesser amounts of sericitic-propylitic minerals contains quartz veinlets in the vertical and lateral sections. Initially, alteration in the Ramand area was revealed in ETM images by using the SPCA technique of Crosta and Moore, 1990 (Selective Principle Component Analysis. Compared with other techniques, SPCA results have reliable spectral signatures for identifying argillic minerals and Fe-oxides as the main mineralogical association in hydrothermal environments. Subsequently, multispectral images (ASTER were analyzed using band ratios.The results indicated silicification alteration along the faulted regions in the Ramand area. Later, areas of silicification alteration were prospected for precious and base metal mineralization.Sampling results suggested that the altered areas have some potential for epithermal mineralization, according to instrumental analyses and micrographic evidence. Materials and methods 1- Collecting satellite images, geological evidence and related documents 2- Image processing to reveal and identify the mineralized alteration. 3- Sampling of the mineralized zones indicated by the remote sensing. 4- Thin- and polished section microscopic studies. 5- X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD (19 samples, inductively coupled plasma mass

  15. Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: Relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Andrew H.; Jolliff, Brad L.; Farrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Clark, Benton C.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M. P.; Grotzinger, John P.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; McLennan, Scott M.; Morris, Richard; Squyres, Steven W.; Sullivan, Robert; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Yen, Albert; Learner, Zoe

    2008-05-01

    Veneers and thicker rinds that coat outcrop surfaces and partially cemented fracture fills formed perpendicular to bedding document relatively late stage alteration of ancient sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The chemistry of submillimeter thick, buff-colored veneers reflects multiple processes at work since the establishment of the current plains surface. Veneer composition is dominated by the mixing of silicate-rich dust and sulfate-rich outcrop surface, but it has also been influenced by mineral precipitation, including NaCl, and possibly by limited physical or chemical weathering of sulfate minerals. Competing processes of chemical alteration (perhaps mediated by thin films of water or water vapor beneath blanketing soils) and sandblasting of exposed outcrop surfaces determine the current distribution of veneers. Dark-toned rinds several millimeters thick reflect more extensive surface alteration but also indicate combined dust admixture, halite precipitation, and possible minor sulfate removal. Cemented fracture fills that are differentially resistant to erosion occur along the margins of linear fracture systems possibly related to impact. These appear to reflect limited groundwater activity along the margins of fractures, cementing mechanically introduced fill derived principally from outcrop rocks. The limited thickness and spatial distribution of these three features suggest that aqueous activity has been rare and transient or has operated at exceedingly low rates during the protracted interval since outcropping Meridiani strata were exposed on the plains surface.

  16. Ventilation filters as sources of air pollution – Processes occurring on surfaces of used filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Halás, Oto; Clausen, Geo;

    2004-01-01

    Ozone concentrations were monitored upstream and downstream of used filter samples following 24hours of ventilation with ozone- filtered air. The ozone concentration in the air upstream of the filters was maintained at ~75 ppb while the concentration downstream of the filters was initially between...... ~ 35 and 55 ppb and slowly increased over time. Within an hour the ozone concentration downstream of the filter had increased to ~ 70 ppb. In contrast, no change in ozone removal efficiency over time was observed for a new filter. The used filter samples were then placed for 24 hours in ambient air...... (ozone concentration ambient air at an elevated temperature (100°C); or nitrogen. When subsequently placed in the air stream containing 75 ppb of ozone partial regeneration of the filter’s ozone removal capabilities was observed. Regeneration was greatest for the sample that had sat...

  17. Degradation processes occur on the CdTe thin films solar elements

    CERN Document Server

    Mirsagatov, S A; Makhmudov, M; Muzapharova, S A

    1999-01-01

    It is shown the Cu in CdTe polycristalline films is diffusing on the complex mechanism. By bringing of W atoms in thin CdTe layers it is possible to operate diffusion's speed of Cu atoms. Initiation of the (Cu sup + W sub C sub d sup -) complexes under the conditions N(W sub C sub d sup -)>=N(Cu sub i sup +) hardly reduce the diffusion velocity of Cu atoms.

  18. Information processing occurs via critical avalanches in a model of the primary visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, G. S.; Girardi-Schappo, M.; Gonsalves, J. J.; Pinto, L. T.; Tragtenberg, M. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    We study a new biologically motivated model for the Macaque monkey primary visual cortex which presents power-law avalanches after a visual stimulus. The signal propagates through all the layers of the model via avalanches that depend on network structure and synaptic parameter. We identify four different avalanche profiles as a function of the excitatory postsynaptic potential. The avalanches follow a size-duration scaling relation and present critical exponents that match experiments. The structure of the network gives rise to a regime of two characteristic spatial scales, one of which vanishes in the thermodynamic limit.

  19. Properties of waste stillage from shochu distillery and waste water occurred sosei paper production process

    OpenAIRE

    山内, 正仁; 平田, 登基男; 前野, 祐二; 三原, めぐみ; 松藤, 康司

    1999-01-01

    As an effective utilization of waste stillage, which will be banned from being dumped into sea from the year of 2001, authors have been studied and succeeded to make the sosei paper by using waste stillage form shochu distillery. This research is tried to consider the property of waste stillage from shochu distillery ( sweet potato waste stillage and barley waste stillage) and the weight and property of waste water in compressing samples added some amount of old newspaper to waste stillage. F...

  20. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Set Shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Individuals with SPD and BDD exhibited significantly worse picking, significantly worse overall psychosocial functioning, and significantly greater dysfunction on aspects of cognitive flexibility. These results indicate that when SPD co-occurs with BDD unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes.

  1. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma.

  2. Gold mobility during Palaeoarchaean submarine alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Axel; Pitcairn, Iain; Wilson, Allan

    2017-03-01

    Seafloor alteration provides large amounts of solutes to the hydrosphere. In order to investigate gold mobility during water-rock interaction prior to 3-billion-years ago, low detection limit analysis of Au concentrations was carried out on rocks from marine alteration zones. Stratiform zones recording low-temperature (≤150 °C) seafloor alteration are a characteristic feature of greenstone belts older than 3.0 Ga. Hydrothermal processes were operating on, and immediately below, the seafloor, giving rise to extensive silicification of sub-seafloor volcanic rocks and silicification of seafloor sediments. In order to investigate gold mobility during silicification, unaltered and variably silicified volcanic rocks and associated cherts from Palaeoarchaean greenstone successions (c. 3.4 Ga) of South Africa were analyzed. Results show mobility of gold during silicification of mafic/ultramafic rocks and transfer to the Archaean ocean. Some gold was incorporated into carbonaceous marine sediments overlying the alteration zones. A combination of pervasive silicification, rarity of black shales, and low gold content in komatiites can explain the low mineralization potential of Palaeoarchaean greenstone belts for orogenic gold deposits.

  3. Can spontaneous symmetry breaking occur in potential with one minimum?

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs when the symmetry that a physical system possesses, is not preserved for the ground state of the system. Although the procedure of symmetry breaking is quite clear from the mathematical point of view, the physical interpretation of the phenomenon is worth to be better understood. In this note we present a simple and instructive example of the symmetry breaking in a mechanical system. It demonstrates that the spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur for the spatially extended solutions in a potential characterised by a single minimum.

  4. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological...... studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra...

  5. Why Does Bureaucratic Corruption Occur in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...

  6. Learning arm/hand coordination with an altered visual input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftime Nielsen, Simona Denisia; Dosen, Strahinja; Popović, Mirjana B; Popović, Dejan B

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to test a novel tool for the analysis of motor coordination with an altered visual input. The altered visual input was created using special glasses that presented the view as recorded by a video camera placed at various positions around the subject. The camera was positioned at a frontal (F), lateral (L), or top (T) position with respect to the subject. We studied the differences between the arm-end (wrist) trajectories while grasping an object between altered vision (F, L, and T conditions) and normal vision (N) in ten subjects. The outcome measures from the analysis were the trajectory errors, the movement parameters, and the time of execution. We found substantial trajectory errors and an increased execution time at the baseline of the study. We also found that trajectory errors decreased in all conditions after three days of practice with the altered vision in the F condition only for 20 minutes per day, suggesting that recalibration of the visual systems occurred relatively quickly. These results indicate that this recalibration occurs via movement training in an altered condition. The results also suggest that recalibration is more difficult to achieve for altered vision in the F and L conditions compared to the T condition. This study has direct implications on the design of new rehabilitation systems.

  7. Alteration and vein mineralization, Ladwig uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium ore at the Ladwig mine, Jefferson County, Colo., occurs in steeply dipping, northwest-striking faults and related fractures with a carbonate-adularia assemblage that forms in altered wallrocks and fills veins. The faults occur between large intrusive pegmatites and garnetiferous gneisses of Precambrian age, and were reactivated as the result of the early Paleocene uplift of the Front Range foothills. Mineralization in the deposit includes both wallrock alteration and vein filling. Alteration was intense but local, and chiefly involved the carbonatization of mafic minerals in the wallrocks. Felsic minerals in the wallrocks are relatively unaltered. The veins are filled with an adularia-pitchblende-carbonate assemblage with minor related sulfides and coffinite. Many of the iron-bearing carbonates in both the alteration and vein assemblages have been altered to hematite. The mineralization and alteration are believed to have formed in response to initially high amounts of CO2 and the subsequent release of dissolved CO2 by boiling or effervescence. Uranium, carried in a dicarbonate complex, was precipitated directly as pitchblende when the CO2 was released. The expulsion of H+ during boiling created a net oxidizing environment which oxidized the iron-bearing carbonates. Late stage calcite and sulfides were deposited in existing voids in the veins.

  8. CLEARANCE OF INDOMETHACIN OCCURS PREDOMINANTLY BY RENAL GLUCURONIDATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOOLENAAR, F; CRANCRINUS, S; VISSER, J; DEZEEUW, D; MEIJER, DKF

    1992-01-01

    In this report we describe the conditions of collection, storage and handling of urine samples, collected after oral dosing with indometacin in man, in order to maintain the integrity of the labile glucuronide formed. We found that the body clearance occurs predominantly by renal metabolism, due to

  9. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  10. Disseminated Fusariosis Occurring in Two Patients Despite Posaconazole Prophylaxis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Prithviraj; Parekh, Hiral D.; Holter, Jennifer L.; Greenfield, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Posaconazole is widely used for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy. Disseminated fusariosis is a serious invasive mold infection in such patients. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate activity of posaconazole against Fusarium. We describe two cases of disseminated fusariosis that occurred despite posaconazole prophylaxis.

  11. Botteri's Sparrow (Peucaea botterii) Occurs in Northern Coahuila, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Els, Paul; Canales-del-Castillo, Ricardo; Klicka, John

    2011-01-01

    Botteri’s Sparrow (Peucaea botterii) occurs widely in the shrub-grasslands of southern North America. We report a breeding population of the species in the Sierra de la Encantada of northern Coahuila, Mexico, ,80 km from the Big Bend area of Texas and .300 km from the nearest previously known breedi

  12. [Diagnosis of osteoporosis occurring in autoimmune thyroid gland disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojković, Ivan; Radojković, Jana; Djurica, Snezana

    2005-10-01

    Osteoporosis or porotic bone is a general, systemic bone disease, which is manifested by fracture as its consequence. The main characteristic of this disease is the loss of bone microarchitecture, bone mass reduction, and its increased fragility. The result, thereof, is susceptibility to fracture. Etiology of osteoporosis is polymorph. Its socio-medical importance is enormous, since there is one osteoporotic fracture every 20 sec. worldwide. Million and six hundred thousand osteoporotic fractures occur annualy throughout the world. Thyroid gland is susceptible to autoimmune reactions that lead to autoimmune diseases, just like many other organs. The autoimmune disorder is a final consequence of a failure, in some instance, within the crucial mechanism of regulation of self tissue tolerance. The main goal is to prove the presence of osteoporosis, its inexpensive and quick diagnostics; to make a distinction among the causes that lead to it. In addition, to indicate the importance of osteoporosis that is caused by normal, metabolic processes which are an inevitable part of ageing. Diagnosis of osteoporosis can be done through laboratory, which is a tiresome, time consuming task. Measurements of BMD could be also performed by using new devices. Osteometers could be constructed on the basis of X-ray photon energy or US. Utilization most contemporary one uses laser beam, and it approximates the distance of additional tissue that also absorbs part of energy changing absorption of the reception unit and thus making the measurement results accurate. In diagnosing BMD by osteometer, one faces with certain difficulties. When axial quantitative CT is used, the value may be falsely lower, because of the loss of energy absorbed by aorta which is often calcified in elderly people. In devices with transversal scanning, of the same nature and technology, a part of the energy is being absorbed by transversal and spinal vertebrals. After the research, one may conclude that the most

  13. Infrared monitoring of hydrothermal echanges occurring in a fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, Amélie; Flekkøy, Eirik; Galland, Olivier; Gundersen, Olav; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2014-05-01

    We aim to characterize the heat exchange that occurs when water flows through a fracture at a different temperature from that of the surrounding rock. This happens during many man-made or natural processes. For instance, injection of water in the context of geothermal power plants or sudden mechanical movements (e.g. rockfalls, landslides, earthquakes) that transport water. It is presently challenging to estimate the heat transfer and temperature inside a fractured medium where water is flowing, despite various numerical models which have been proposed [Neuville et al, 2010, 2013; Kolditz et Clauser, 1998; Heuer, 1991]. The difficulties arise from the complexity of the fracture network, the fracture topography, as well as complex hydraulic flow (e.g. recirculation) and heat exchanges. As a consequence, various hypotheses were made in the models. More experimental data are required in order to calibrate these models, validate or refute the hypotheses. Our work aims to provide temperature data at the fracture scale, in an experiment where the pressure gradient an fracture topography are controlled, with slow hydraulic flow. This required to develop a setup from scratch. An infrared camera and thermistors are used to monitor the temperature in space and time. Water is injected through a partly natural rough fracture with impermeable walls. The bottom part of the fracture is a larvikite stone with a rough surface (presumably this surface was obtained from mode I fracturing), and the top part is a layer which is transparent in the infrared range. As a consequence the infrared camera is expected to measure the temperature at the interface between this transparent layer and the water. The topography of the surface of the rock was reconstituted using a photogrammetry software [MicMac, IGN], and compared to measurements made with a mechanical profiler. Using this geometry we carefully localize the temperature observations (infrared camera and thermistors) and correlate the

  14. Genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Chul; Kang, Tae Woong; Lee, Jin Oh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studied the alteration of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. We found that alteration of Rb gene, APC were 33 %, 13 % respectively. But alterations of oncogenes such as myc, ras and mdm2 were rarely found. Our results suggests that HBV may act as oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis instead of oncogenes. 6 figs, 2 tabs. (Author).

  15. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  16. The characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Moudrakovski, I.; Udachin, K.; Enright, G.; Ratcliffe, C.; Ripmeester, J.

    2009-12-01

    In the past few years, extensive analyses have been carried out for characterizing the natural gas hydrate samples from Cascadia, offshore Vancouver Island; Mallik, Mackenzie Delta; Mount Elbert, Alaska North Slope; Nankai Trough, offshore Japan; Japan Sea and offshore India. With the results obtained, it is possible to give a general picture of the characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment. Gas hydrate can occur in sediments of various types, from sands to clay, although it is preferentially enriched in sediments of certain types, for example coarse sands and fine volcanic ash. Most of the gas hydrates in sediments are invisible, occurring in the pores of the sediments, while some hydrates are visible, appearing as massive, nodular, planar, vein-like forms and occurring around the seafloor, in the fractures related to fault systems, or any other large spaces available in sediments. Although methane is the main component of most of the natural gas hydrates, C2 to C7 hydrocarbons have been recognized in hydrates, sometimes even in significant amounts. Shallow marine gas hydrates have been found generally to contain minor amounts of hydrogen sulfide. Gas hydrate samples with complex gas compositions have been found to have heterogeneous distributions in composition, which might reflect changes in the composition of the available gas in the surrounding environment. Depending on the gas compositions, the structure type of a natural gas hydrate can be structure I, II or H. For structure I methane hydrate, the large cages are almost fully occupied by methane molecules, while the small cages are only partly occupied. Methane hydrates occurring in different environments have been identified with almost the same crystallographic parameters.

  17. Genetic alterations and epigenetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Stella Hoyos Giraldo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Hepatocarcinogenesis as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with background of chronic liver disease usually in association with cirrhosis, marked hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV and/or hepatitis virus (HCV infection, chronic inflammation, Aflatoxin B1(AFB1 exposure, chronic alcoholism, metabolic disorder of the liver and necroinflamatory liver disease. Hepatocarcinogenesis involve two mechanisms, genetic alterations (with changes in the cell's DNA sequence and epigenetic changes (without changes in the cell's DNA sequence, but changes in the pattern of gene expression that can persist through one or more generations (somatic sense. Hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oncogenes and decreased expression of tumor suppressor genes (TSG; include those involved in cell cycle control, apoptosis, DNA repair, immortalization and angiogenesis. AFB1 is metabolized in the liver into a potent carcinogen, aflatoxin 8, 9-epoxide, which is detoxified by epoxide hydrolase (EPHX and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1.

    A failure of detoxification processes can allow to mutagenic metabolite to bind to DNA and inducing P53 mutation. Genetic polymorphism of EPHX and GSTM1 can make individuals more susceptible to AFB1. Epigenetic inactivation of GSTP1 by promoter hypermethylation plays a role in the development of HCC because, it leads that electrophilic metabolite increase DNA damage and mutations. HBV DNA integration into the host chromosomal DNA of hepatocytes has been detected in HBV-related HCC.

    DNA tumor viruses cause cancer mainly by interfering with cell cycle controls, and activating the cell's replication machinery by blocking the action of key TSG. HBx protein is a

  18. Canine hepatozoonosis in Brazil: description of eight naturally occurring cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, L F; Kohayagawa, A; Alencar, N X; Biondo, A W; Takahira, R K; Franco, S R

    1998-01-31

    Eight cases of canine hepatozoonosis were diagnosed at the Veterinary Hospital (Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Botucatu), between October 1993 and April 1994. Clinical signs included anorexia, pale mucous membranes, weight loss, pain, diarrhoea, vomit, gait abnormalities, fever, polyuria and polydipsia. Haematologic findings revealed anaemia in seven cases, leucocytosis with neutrophilia in three cases, lymphopenia in three cases and monocytosis in four cases. Serum biochemistries included alterations in many parameters. The micrometry of Hepatozoon canis gametocytes ranged from 6.8 x 4.0 microns to 7.5 x 4.5 microns. Parasitaemia ranged from less than 0.5% to 2%. In all the cases reported other concurrent diseases were present. Diagnosis of canine hepatozoonosis was made by identifying H. canis gametocytes within leucocytes in stained blood smears.

  19. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Tsokos, M.D. CONTRACTING...Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) George Tsokos, M.D...a decreased level of disease. Further studies will expand upon these observations better outlining the function of platelets in the injury associated

  20. Immunoregulation by naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    -receptors on antigen-presenting cells and thereby regulate T-cell activity. Knowledge of the influence of NAbs against cytokines on immune homeostasis is likely to have wide-ranging implications both in understanding pathogenesis and in treatment of many immunoinflammatory disorders, including a number of autoimmune......The role of naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs) in homeostasis and in disease manifestations is poorly understood. In the present chapter, we review how NAbs may interfere with the cytokine network and how NAbs, through formation of complement-activating immune complexes with soluble self......-antigens, may promote the uptake and presentation of self-molecules by antigen-presenting cells. Both naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies against a variety of cytokines have been reported, including NAbs against interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony...

  1. Naturally occurring pentaoxygenated, hexaoxygenated and dimeric xanthones: a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Peres

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This review gives information on the chemical study of 71 pentaoxygenated, 11 hexaoxygenated and 9 dimeric and more complex xanthones naturally occurring in 7 families, 29 genus and 62 species of higher plants, and 11 described as fern and fungal metabolites. The value of these groups of substances in the connection with the pharmacological activity and the therapeutic use of some species is shown. The structural formulas of 23 isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are given.

  2. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alina-Mihaela Badescu; Alexandra Saftoiu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect that naturally occurring impurities in salt mines have both on effective permittivity of the medium and on radio wave propagation at ∼200 MHz. The effective permittivity is determined based on the dielectric properties of salt and the characteristics of the main impurities. We conclude that at such frequencies the scattering is negligible compared to absorptions. The effect of trapped water in different forms is also evaluated.

  3. Myelodysplastic Syndrome Occurring in a Patient with Gorlin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Jamie L; Madden, Lisa M; Bayliss, Susan J

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) occurring in an African American boy with Gorlin syndrome with a novel PTCH1 mutation. Before developing MDS, the patient had been treated with chemotherapy and radiation for a medulloblastoma. He received a bone marrow transplant for the MDS and eventually died of treatment complications. Secondary hematologic malignancies are a known complication of certain chemotherapeutics, although whether a patient with Gorlin syndrome has a greater propensity for the development of such malignancies is unclear.

  4. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  5. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in a Crohn’s disease patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuaki; Ishida; Shigeyuki; Naka; Hisanori; Shiomi; Tomoyuki; Tsujikawa; Akira; Andoh; Tamio; Nakahara; Yasuharu; Saito; Yoshi-hide; Fujiyama; Mikiko; Takikita-Suzuki; Fumiyoshi; Kojima; Machiko; Hotta; Tohru; Tani; Yoshimasa; Kurumi; Hidetoshi; Okabe

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in a patient with Crohn’s disease (CD) without chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, and review the clinicopathological features of HCC in CD patients. A 37-year-old Japanese man with an 8-year history of CD and a medication history of azathioprine underwent resection of a liver tumor. The histopathology of the liver tumor was pseudoglandular type HCC. In the nonneoplastic liver, focal hepatocyte glycogenosis (FHG) was observed, however, there was...

  7. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  8. Percutaneous treatment of complications occurring during hemodialysis graft recanalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T. E-mail: constant@pol.net; Schur, Israel; Koh, Elsie; Hinrichs, Clay; Cooper, Stanley G.; Welber, Adam; Brountzos, Elias; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2003-09-01

    Introduction/objective: To describe and evaluate percutaneous treatment methods of complications occurring during recanalization of thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of 579 thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts revealed 48 complications occurring during urokinase thrombolysis (512) or mechanical thrombectomy (67). These include 12 venous or venous anastomotic ruptures not controlled by balloon tamponade, eight arterial emboli, 12 graft extravasations, seven small hematomas, four intragraft pseudointimal 'dissections', two incidents of pulmonary edema, one episode of intestinal angina, one procedural death, and one distant hematoma. Results: Twelve cases of post angioplasty ruptures were treated with uncovered stents of which 10 resulted in graft salvage allowing successful hemodialysis. All arterial emboli were retrieved by Fogarty or embolectomy balloons. The 10/12 graft extravasations were successfully treated by digital compression while the procedure was completed and the graft flow was restored. Dissections were treated with prolonged Percutaneous Trasluminal Angioplasty (PTA) balloon inflation. Overall technical success was 39/48 (81%). Kaplan-Meier Primary and secondary patency rates were 72 and 78% at 30, 62 and 73% at 90 and 36 and 67% at 180 days, respectively. Secondary patency rates remained over 50% at 1 year. There were no additional complications caused by these maneuvers. Discussions and conclusion: The majority of complications occurring during percutaneous thrombolysis/thrombectomy of thrombosed access grafts, can be treated at the same sitting allowing completion of the recanalization procedure and usage of the same access for hemodialysis.

  9. Evolution of virulence when transmission occurs before disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnas, Erik E; Dobson, Andrew P

    2010-08-23

    Most models of virulence evolution assume that transmission and virulence are constant during an infection. In many viral (HIV and influenza), bacterial (TB) and prion (BSE and CWD) systems, disease-induced mortality occurs long after the host becomes infectious. Therefore, we constructed a model with two infected classes that differ in transmission rate and virulence in order to understand how the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the relative difference in transmission and virulence between classes, on the transition rate between classes and on the recovery rate from the second class. We find that ESS virulence decreases when expressed early in the infection or when transmission occurs late in an infection. When virulence occurred relatively equally in each class and there was disease recovery, ESS virulence increased with increased transition rate. In contrast, ESS virulence first increased and then decreased with transition rate when there was little virulence early in the infection and a rapid recovery rate. This model predicts that ESS virulence is highly dependent on the timing of transmission and pathology after infection; thus, pathogen evolution may either increase or decrease virulence after emergence in a new host.

  10. Innate immune responses of Drosophila melanogaster are altered by spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Marcu

    Full Text Available Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways.

  11. Food processing and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Vissers, Y.M.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Feys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, N. van der; Wichers, H.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat tre

  12. Food Processing and Allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.; Vissers, Y.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Fleys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wichers, H.J.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed.

    In this review the impact of processing (heat and non

  13. The Golgi-Localized γ-Ear-Containing ARF-Binding (GGA Proteins Alter Amyloid-β Precursor Protein (APP Processing through Interaction of Their GAE Domain with the Beta-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern von Einem

    Full Text Available Proteolytic processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP by beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 is the initial step in the production of amyloid beta (Aβ, which accumulates in senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Essential for this cleavage is the transport and sorting of both proteins through endosomal/Golgi compartments. Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding (GGA proteins have striking cargo-sorting functions in these pathways. Recently, GGA1 and GGA3 were shown to interact with BACE1, to be expressed in neurons, and to be decreased in AD brain, whereas little is known about GGA2. Since GGA1 impacts Aβ generation by confining APP to the Golgi and perinuclear compartments, we tested whether all GGAs modulate BACE1 and APP transport and processing. We observed decreased levels of secreted APP alpha (sAPPα, sAPPβ, and Aβ upon GGA overexpression, which could be reverted by knockdown. GGA-BACE1 co-immunoprecipitation was impaired upon GGA-GAE but not VHS domain deletion. Autoinhibition of the GGA1-VHS domain was irrelevant for BACE1 interaction. Our data suggest that all three GGAs affect APP processing via the GGA-GAE domain.

  14. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly 'protective' effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions.

  15. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  16. Yeasts and fungi occurring in ensiled whole-crop maize and other ensiled vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; de Jong, I M; de Winter, M

    1990-04-01

    The yeast flora of whole-crop maize ensiled for two weeks was predominated by Candida holmii, C. lambica, C. milleri, Hansenula anomala and Saccharomyces dairensis. Inoculation with other yeast species reported in the literature to prevail in maize or wheat silages did not alter the yeast flora. At 25 or 30 degrees C the ascomycetous fermentative species found at 20 degrees C were accompanied with ascomycetous non-fermentative fungi, i.c. Exophiala jeanselmei and Verticillium psalliotae, by the non-fermentative imperfect basidiomycetous yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and by the weakly fermentative imperfect ascomycetous yeast Trichosporon adeninovorans. The yeast flora of other vegetable crops, ensiled at 20 degrees C for two weeks, was predominated by the same species that prevailed in ensiled maize, provided the crop did not contain mustard oils or menthol. If these compounds occurred in the crops, the yeast flora was predominated by nonfermentative species like Candida famata, Stephanoascus ciferrii, Rhodotorula minuta, Rh. rubra and Trichosporon cutaneum.

  17. Naturally occurring Trichogramma species in olive farms in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ESMATMOHAMEDHEGAZI; ANNETTEHERZ; SHERIFHASSAN; ESSAMAGAMY; WEDADKHAFAGI; SANIASHWEIL; AHMEDZAITUN; SAFAAMOSTAFA; MOHAMEDHAFEZ; AHMEDEL-SHAZLY; SOMAIAEL-SAID; LAMIAABO-ABDALA; NOHAKHAMIS; SAMIAEL-KEMNY

    2005-01-01

    A survey of two-year studies (2001-2003) was carried out in two olive groves sited at two representative olive growing areas, namely Paradise Park (arid area) and Burg E1-Arab farm (semi-arid area) to monitor the frequency of endemic Trichogramma species on olive moth (Prays oleae) and jasmine moth (Palpita unionalis). The suspended host bait traps were found to be a more practical and effective tool for collecting Trichogramma wasps than the attached ones. Four naturally occurring Trichogramma species were collected for the first time in Egypt from the olive groves, where releases have never been conducted. T.bourarachae was collected exclusively from Burg El-Arab farm. It seems that this wasp species adapts well to the semi-arid area. Three species, namely T. cordubensis, T. nr.pretiosum and T. cacociae were isolated from Paradise Park farm. All of these wasps were also bred from naturally parasitized host eggs during favorable and even at unfavorable temperature conditions of June-August. However, these endemic species did not occur naturally in sufficient numbers to keep the pest populations from reaching damaging levels.The excessive usage of insecticides and the oophagous predators (e.g., ants and lacewing larvae) are some factors that affect the performance of Trichogramma wasps in olive farms.The presence of warm weather wasp strains suggests the existence of well-adapted wasp species or swains which may be appropriate candidates for the control of target pests in olive groves. Additional study is required to determine the best “habitat-specific” species/strains of Trichogramma for augmentative release of naturally occurring wasps and to incorporate them into integrated pest management programs. Efforts should be made to conserve these endemic species from oophagous predators, hot weather and insecticides.The olive and jasmine moth-larvae and pupae found under tree canopies were bred and emerged parasitoids were listed.

  18. A Rare Occurance with Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cimen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a congenital and herediter vesiculobullous disease. Dystrophic form of this disease is characterized by severe malnutrition, failure to thrive, adhesions at fingers, joint contractures related with the formation of scar tissues, carcinoma of the skin, anemia, hipoalbuminemia, wound enfections and sepsis. Rarely, mortal dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in patients. In this report we present a 13 year-old pediatric patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, clinically diagnosed with Epidermolysis bullosa as well as a review of recent related literature.

  19. Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma (acroangiodermatitis): occurring after bullous erysipelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Yardimci, Gürkan; Engin, Burhan; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Aydin, Övgü; Khatib, Rashid; Tuzun, Yalçın

    2015-05-18

    Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a benign reactive vascular proliferative disorder, which can be seen at any age. It occurs when the chronic venous pressure changes result in vascular proliferation in the upper and mid dermis. This disease is divided into two subtypes: the most frequent subtype is the Mali type and seen in early ages. The Mali type is seen in chronic venous insufficiency and in those patients with arteriovenous shunts. The rare subtype is the Stewart-Bluefarb type. This disease must be distinguished from Kaposi sarcoma because of their clinical resemblance. Herein, we present a patient with pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma, which developed after bullous erysipelas.

  20. Genomic alterations in pancreatic cancer and their relevance to therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erina; Takai; Shinichi; Yachida

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal cancer type, for which there are few viable therapeutic options. But, with the advance of sequencing technologies for global genomic analysis, the landscape of genomic alterations in pancreatic cancer is becoming increasingly well understood. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of genomic alterations in 12 core signaling pathways or cellular processes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which is the most common type of malignancy in the pancreas, including four commonly mutated genes and many other genes that are mutated at low frequencies. We also describe the potential implications of these genomic alterations for development of novel therapeutic approaches in the context of personalized medicine.

  1. From minisatellites and genes: When do germinal mutations occur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohrenweiser, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Utilization of molecular techniques has provided insight into the molecular techniques has provided insight into the molecular techniques has provided insight into the molecular character and origins of spontaneous and induced germinal mutations. Review of the variants and disease loci suggests differences among loci in the frequency of nucleotide substitutions and more complex events. Mechanistic features associated with the alterations in DNA structure are observed in each variant class. The spectrum of mutations identified reflects the gene structure and the selective pressure generating disease phenotypes, and the techniques employed to screen for variation. Locus specificity in spectra has the potential to compromise estimates of increases in germinal gene mutation rates. Recent studies have identified mosaicism, rather than de novo mutation, as the explanation for the non-traditional pattern of inheritance of disease in some families. Mosaicism is a concern for studies of induced mutation rates as it reflects embryonic exposure of the parent of the proband. This is in contrast to the {open_quotes}normal expectation{close_quotes} that induced mutations result from parental exposure to genotoxins in the environment. Observations suggest that the germ cell stage sensitivity may reflect interaction of the mutagen and the loci screened. The mosaicism and germ cell stage issues, in conjunction with incomplete ascertainment of mutational events, increase the complexity of efforts to estimate induced germinal mutation rates and associated health consequences in populations exposed to genotoxic agents.

  2. Neural plasticity occurs in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun-tao; LI Xiao-zhao; HU Cheng-ping; WANG Jun; NIE Hua-ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Airway symptoms in asthma are related to decrease of epinephrine secretion, which may be ascribed to elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) in the organism.The aim of this study was to monitor the neuroendocrine alteration in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats.Methods Sixteen rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=8), control group and asthma group, and the asthmatic rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA).The levels of NGF, epinephrine and norepinephrine in serum were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NGF expression in adrenal medulla was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the changes in the ultrastructure of the adrenal medulla was observed by electron microscopy.Results The NGF expression was increased in asthmatic rats compared with control rats.Compared with control rats,the results indicated that the epinephrine level was decreased in asthmatic rats, but no significant difference was found in norepinephrine levels.We found more ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats than in control rats, with NGF immunostaining mainly located in these ganglion cells.Electron microscopic images showed the density of chromaffin granula decreased and there was shrunken nucleolemma in the adrenal medullary cells of asthmatic rats.Conclusion The innervation of the adrenal medulla is changed in asthmatic rats, and it may contribute to the epinephrine decrease in asthma.

  3. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  4. Altered Proteolysis in Fibroblasts of Alzheimer Patients with Predictive Implications for Subjects at Risk of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mocali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in developing reliable biomarkers to support antemortem diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Early prediction and diagnosis of AD might be improved by the detection of a proteolytic dysfunction in extracts from cultured AD fibroblasts, producing altered isoelectrophoretic forms of the enzyme transketolase (TK-alkaline bands. The TK profile and apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype were examined in fibroblasts from 36 clinically diagnosed probable late-onset sporadic AD patients and 38 of their asymptomatic relatives, 29 elderly healthy individuals, 12 neurological non-AD patients, and 5 early-onset AD patients. TK alterations occurred in (i several probable AD patients regardless of age-of-onset and severity of disease; (ii all early-onset AD patients and APOE ε4/4 carriers; and (iii nearly half of asymptomatic AD relatives. Normal subjects and non-AD patients were all negative. Notably, culture conditions promoting TK alterations were also effective in increasing active BACE1 levels. Overall, the TK assay might represent a low-cost laboratory tool useful for supporting AD differential diagnosis and identifying asymptomatic subjects who are at greater risk of AD and who should enter a follow-up study. Moreover, the cultured fibroblasts were confirmed as a useful in vitro model for further studies on the pathogenetic process of AD.

  5. Alterations in Helicobacter pylori triggered by contact with gastric epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Johnson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori lives within the mucus layer of the human stomach, in close proximity to gastric epithelial cells. While a great deal is known about the effects of H. pylori on human cells and the specific bacterial products that mediate these effects, relatively little work has been done to investigate alterations in H. pylori that may be triggered by bacterial contact with human cells. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of changes in bacterial physiology and morphology that occur when H. pylori is in contact with gastric epithelial cells. Several studies have reported that cell contact causes alterations in H. pylori gene transcription. In addition, H. pylori contact with gastric epithelial cells promotes the formation of pilus-like structures at the bacteria-host cell interface. The formation of these structures requires multiple genes in the cag pathogenicity island, and these structures are proposed to have an important role in the type IV secretion system-dependent process through which CagA enters host cells. Finally, H. pylori contact with epithelial cells can promote bacterial replication and the formation of microcolonies, phenomena that are facilitated by the acquisition of iron and other nutrients from infected cells. In summary, the gastric epithelial cell surface represents an important niche for H. pylori, and upon entry into this niche, the bacteria alter their behavior in a manner that optimizes bacterial proliferation and persistent colonization of the host.

  6. Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: A UV-visible spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Bushra; Shah, S. W. H.; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Sakhawat Shah, S.

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids—the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, Kc. Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is energy efficient. A distortion in flavonoid's morphology occurs in case of kaempferol and apigenin in surfactant and water, exhibited in terms of a new band in the UV region of electronic spectra of these flavonoids. The partition coefficients of structurally related flavonoids are correlated with their antioxidant activities.

  7. Adaptation-Induced Compression of Event Time Occurs Only for Translational Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciai, Michele; Arrighi, Roberto; Burr, David C

    2016-03-22

    Adaptation to fast motion reduces the perceived duration of stimuli displayed at the same location as the adapting stimuli. Here we show that the adaptation-induced compression of time is specific for translational motion. Adaptation to complex motion, either circular or radial, did not affect perceived duration of subsequently viewed stimuli. Adaptation with multiple patches of translating motion caused compression of duration only when the motion of all patches was in the same direction. These results show that adaptation-induced compression of event-time occurs only for uni-directional translational motion, ruling out the possibility that the neural mechanisms of the adaptation occur at early levels of visual processing.

  8. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis.

  9. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Einen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004. The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group

  10. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  11. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einen, J.; Kruber, C.; Øvreås, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.

    2006-03-01

    Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004). The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group of prosthecate oligotrophic

  12. [Neurocutaneous syndrome with hair alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, F

    1997-09-01

    There are multiple neurocutaneous syndromes that may show hair alterations such as the interglabellar peak or 'widow's peak', which is an alteration of the hair implantation, in addition to the genohypotrichosis, hypertrichosis and hair shaft dysplasias. In this chapter we will focus on the latter. Out of the unspecific hair shaft dysplasias the only ones showing neurological alterations are trichorrhexis invaginata, observed in the syndrome of Netherton. Among the specific dysplasias we would like to point out monilethrix, and very especially the moniliform hair syndrome, the trichorrhexis nodosa, the pili torti and trichotiodystrophy. The latter is actually a group of syndromes which associates a series of diverse symptoms that have in common hair brittleness, fertility problems and physical and mental retardation, and they constitute the basic syndrome know as 'BIDS syndrome.

  13. Nucleolar proteins change in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Gonzalez-Camacho, F.; Medina, F. J.

    Discovery of gravisensitivity of cells no specified to gravity perception focused continuous attention on an elucidation of mechanisms involved in altered gravity effects at the different levels of cellular organization A nucleolus is the nuclear domain in which the major portion of ribosome biogenesis takes place This is a basic process for cell vitality beginning with the transcription of rDNA followed by processing newly synthesized pre-rRNA molecules A wide range of nucleolar proteins plays a highly significant role in all stages of biosynthesis of ribosomes Different steps of ribosome biogenesis should respond to various external factors affecting generally the cell metabolism Nevertheless a nucleolus remains not enough studied under the influence of altered environmental conditions For this reason we studied root apices from 2-day old Lepidium sativum seedlings germinated and grown under slow horizontal clinorotation and stationary conditions in darkness The extraction of cell nuclei followed by sequential fractionation of nuclear proteins according to their solubility in buffers of increasing ionic strength was carried out This procedure gave rise to 5 distinct fractions We analyzed nuclear subproteomes of the most soluble fraction called S2 It is actually a functionally significant fraction consisting of ribonucleoproteins actively engaged in pre-rRNA synthesis and processing 2D-electrophoresis of S2 fraction proteins was carried out The gels were silver stained and stained gels were scanned and analyzed

  14. Distinguishing solid bitumens formed by thermochemical sulfate reduction and thermal chemical alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Walters, C.C.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Afeworki, M.; Sansone, M.; Freund, H.; Pottorf, R.J.; Machel, H.G.; Zhang, T.; Ellis, G.S.; Tang, Y.; Peters, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Insoluble solid bitumens are organic residues that can form by the thermal chemical alteration (TCA) or thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) of migrated petroleum. TCA may actually encompass several low temperature processes, such as biodegradation and asphaltene precipitation, followed by thermal alteration. TSR is an abiotic redox reaction where petroleum is oxidized by sulfate. It is difficult to distinguish solid bitumens associated with TCA of petroleum from those associated with TSR when both processes occur at relatively high temperature. The focus of the present work was to characterize solid bitumen samples associated with TCA or TSR using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS is a surface analysis conducted on either isolated or in situ (>25 ??m diameter) solid bitumen that can provide the relative abundance and chemical speciation of carbon, organic and inorganic heteroatoms (NSO). In this study, naturally occurring solid bitumens from three locations, Nisku Fm. Brazeau River area (TSR-related), LaBarge Field Madison Fm. (TSR-related), and the Alaskan Brooks range (TCA-related), are compared to organic solids generated during laboratory simulation of the TSR and TCA processes. The abundance and chemical nature of organic nitrogen and sulfur in solid bitumens can be understood in terms of the nature of (1) petroleum precursor molecules, (2) the concentration of nitrogen by way of thermal stress and (3) the mode of sulfur incorporation. TCA solid bitumens originate from polar materials that are initially rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Aromaticity and nitrogen increase as thermal stress cleaves aliphatic moieties and condensation reactions take place. Organic sulfur in TCA organic solids remains fairly constant with increasing maturation (3.5 to ???17 sulfur per 100 carbons) into aromatic structures and to the low levels of nitrogen in their hydrocarbon precursors. Hence, XPS results provide organic chemical composition information that helps to

  15. Genesis of the vertebrate FoxP subfamily member genes occurred during two ancestral whole genome duplication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaowei; Tang, Yezhong; Wang, Yajun

    2016-08-22

    The vertebrate FoxP subfamily genes play important roles in the construction of essential functional modules involved in physiological and developmental processes. To explore the adaptive evolution of functional modules associated with the FoxP subfamily member genes, it is necessary to study the gene duplication process. We detected four member genes of the FoxP subfamily in sea lampreys (a representative species of jawless vertebrates) through genome screenings and phylogenetic analyses. Reliable paralogons (i.e. paralogous chromosome segments) have rarely been detected in scaffolds of FoxP subfamily member genes in sea lampreys due to the considerable existence of HTH_Tnp_Tc3_2 transposases. However, these transposases did not alter gene numbers of the FoxP subfamily in sea lampreys. The coincidence between the "1-4" gene duplication pattern of FoxP subfamily genes from invertebrates to vertebrates and two rounds of ancestral whole genome duplication (1R- and 2R-WGD) events reveal that the FoxP subfamily of vertebrates was quadruplicated in the 1R- and 2R-WGD events. Furthermore, we deduced that a synchronous gene duplication process occurred for the FoxP subfamily and for three linked gene families/subfamilies (i.e. MIT family, mGluR group III and PLXNA subfamily) in the 1R- and 2R-WGD events using phylogenetic analyses and mirror-dendrogram methods (i.e. algorithms to test protein-protein interactions). Specifically, the ancestor of FoxP1 and FoxP3 and the ancestor of FoxP2 and FoxP4 were generated in 1R-WGD event. In the subsequent 2R-WGD event, these two ancestral genes were changed into FoxP1, FoxP2, FoxP3 and FoxP4. The elucidation of these gene duplication processes shed light on the phylogenetic relationships between functional modules of the FoxP subfamily member genes.

  16. The neural correlates of altered consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Bagshaw, Andrew P; McCorry, Dougall

    2009-06-01

    Epileptic seizures are characterized by a multifaceted spectrum of alterations in the general level of awareness and/or the subjective contents of consciousness. Complete loss of consciousness occurs when epileptic activity involves both cortical and subcortical structures, as in generalized seizures. On the other hand, simple partial seizures can spare both the level and contents of consciousness. Finally, complex partial seizures associated with medial temporal lobe discharges can selectively impair the patient's subjective experiences with variable degrees of responsiveness. The differences in ictal semiology between patients with epilepsy offer unique avenues for understanding the relationship between pathological brain function and altered conscious states.

  17. Altered Inquiry: Discovering Arts-Based Research through an Altered Book

    OpenAIRE

    Gioia Chilton MA, ATR-BC

    2013-01-01

    I present altered book making and poetry as a process of imaginative inquiry into arts-based research. Through a personal narrative and a consideration of the literature on arts-based research, I reconstruct the artistic inquiry that traces my learning journey. Current issues in arts-based research are sketched through words and mixed media artwork, including issues of terminology, philosophy, ethics, and purpose in arts-based research practice. The beginnings of a transformation-through-the-...

  18. Retinal Remodeling And Metabolic Alterations in Human AMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan William Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a progressive retinal degeneration resulting in central visual field loss, ultimately causing debilitating blindness. AMD affects 18% of Americans from 65 to 74, 30% older than 74 years of age and is the leading cause of severe vision loss and blindness in Western populations. While many genetic and environmental risk factors are known for AMD, we currently know less about the mechanisms mediating disease progression.The pathways and mechanisms through which genetic and non-genetic risk factors modulate development of AMD pathogenesis remain largely unexplored. Moreover, current treatment for AMD is palliative and limited to wet/exudative forms. Retina is a complex, heterocellular tissue and most retinal cell classes are impacted or altered in AMD. Defining disease and stage-specific cytoarchitectural and metabolic responses in AMD is critical for highlighting targets for intervention. The goal of this paper is to illustrate cell types impacted in AMD and demonstrate the implications of those changes, likely beginning in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, for remodeling of the the neural retina.Tracking heterocellular responses in disease progression is best achieved with computational molecular phenotyping (CMP, a tool that enables acquisition of a small molecule fingerprint for every cell in the retina. CMP uncovered critical cellular and molecular pathologies (remodeling and reprogramming in progressive retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP. We now applied these approaches to normal human and AMD tissues mapping progression of cellular and molecular changes in AMD retinas, including late-stage forms of the disease.Major findings: 1 Evidence of metabolic instability in RPE in dry-AMD.2 Photoreceptors show clear indications of stress prior to cell death.3 Cone opsin processing by the RPE in AMD retinas may be differentially compromised vs. rod opsin.4 Müller cells in AMD exhibit

  19. When "altering brain function" becomes "mind control".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. "Under what conditions does 'altering brain function' qualify as 'mind control'?" In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

  20. When Altering Brain Function Becomes Mind Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sanford Koivuniemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. Under what conditions does ‘altering brain function’ qualify as ‘mind control’? In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

  1. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  2. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  3. Where will tropical cyclogenesis occur around a preexisting tropical cyclone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenli; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Ma, Zhanhong

    2017-01-01

    An observational study focusing on the locations of tropical cyclogenesis induced by tropical cyclone energy dispersion (TCED) in the western North Pacific is conducted. Statistical results indicate that the cyclogenesis cases associated with TCED widely occur around preexisting tropical cyclones (TCs). In addition to the typical scenario of cyclogenesis to the southeast of a preexisting TC, new TCs can even form in the east or southwest directions at distances ranging from 1000 km to 3500 km. Further analyses reveal that the locations of cyclogenesis are mainly governed by large-scale environments via regulating the patterns of Rossby wave trains. The observational relationships between wave train regimes and the structures of environmental flows are revealed, which are broadly consistent with previous idealized numerical simulations. The results in this study provide a valuable reference for the prediction of cyclogenesis considering the TCED mechanism.

  4. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.

  5. Forecasting seizures in dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howbert, J Jeffry; Patterson, Edward E; Stead, S Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (12-30 Hz), low-gamma (30-70 Hz), and high-gamma (70-180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring.

  6. Late Acute Rejection Occuring in Liver Allograft Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of immunosuppressive reduction on the incidence and consequence of late acute rejection (LAR in liver allograft recipients, mean daily prednisone dose, mean cyclosporine A (CsA trough and nadir levels were retrospectively reviewed for the nearest 12-week period preceding six episodes of LAR in five liver allograft recipients (group 1. Results were compared with those from a cohort of 12 liver allograft recipients who did not develop LAR (group 2. LAR was defined as acute rejection occurring more than 365 days post-transplantation. Median follow-up for both groups was similar (504 days, range 367 to 1050, versus 511 days, range 365 to 666, not significant. Mean trough CsA levels were lower in patients with LAR compared with those without (224±66 ng/mL versus 233±49 ng/mL but the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, mean daily prednisone dose (2.5±1.6 mg/ day versus 6.5±2.9 mg/day, P=0.007 and CsA nadir values (129±60 ng/mL versus 186±40 ng/mL, P=0.03 were significantly lower in patients who developed LAR compared with those who did not. Five of six episodes (83% of LAR occurred in patients receiving less than 5 mg/day of prednisone, versus a single LAR episode in only one of 12 patients (8% receiving prednisone 5 mg/day or more (P=0.004. In all but one instance, LAR responded to pulse methylprednisolone without discernible affect on long term graft function. The authors conclude that liver allograft recipients remain vulnerable to acute rejection beyond the first post-transplant year; and reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, particularly prednisone, below a critical, albeit low dose, threshold increases the risk of LAR.

  7. Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Oghbaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are important part of dietaries and contribute substantially to nutrient intake of human beings. They are significant source of energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Primary processing of cereals and legumes is an essential component of their preparation before use. For some grains, dehusking is an essential step, whereas for others, it could be milling the grain into flour. Grains are subjected to certain processing treatments to impart special characteristics and improve organoleptic properties such as expanded cereals. All these treatments result in alteration of their nutritional quality which could either be reduction in nutrients, phytochemicals and antinutrients or an improvement in digestibility or availability of nutrients. It is important to understand these changes occurring in grain nutritional quality on account of pre-processing treatments to select appropriate techniques to obtain maximum nutritional and health benefits. This review attempts to throw light on nutritional alterations occurring in grains due to pre-processing treatments.

  8. Questa Baseline and Pre-mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation, 7. A Pictorial Record of Chemical Weathering, Erosional Processes, and Potential Debris-flow Hazards in Scar Areas Developed on Hydrothermally Altered Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ludington, Steve; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Livo, K. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Erosional scar areas developed along the lower Red River basin, New Mexico, reveal a complex natural history of mineralizing processes, rapid chemical weathering, and intense physical erosion during periodic outbursts of destructive, storm-induced runoff events. The scar areas are prominent erosional features with craggy headwalls and steep, denuded slopes. The largest scar areas, including, from east to west, Hottentot Creek, Straight Creek, Hansen Creek, Lower Hansen Creek, Sulfur Gulch, and Goat Hill Gulch, head along high east-west trending ridges that form the northern and southern boundaries of the lower Red River basin. Smaller, topographically lower scar areas are developed on ridge noses in the inner Red River valley. Several of the natural scar areas have been modified substantially as a result of large-scale open-pit and underground mining at the Questa Mine; for example, much of the Sulfur Gulch scar was removed by open pit mining, and several scars are now partially or completely covered by mine waste dumps.

  9. Analysis of global sumoylation changes occurring during keratinocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip R Heaton

    Full Text Available Sumoylation is a highly dynamic process that plays a role in a multitude of processes ranging from cell cycle progression to mRNA processing and cancer. A previous study from our lab demonstrated that SUMO plays an important role in keratinocyte differentiation. Here we present a new method of tracking the sumoylation state of proteins by creating a stably transfected HaCaT keratinocyte cell line expressing an inducible SNAP-SUMO3 protein. The SNAP-tag allows covalent fluorescent labeling that is denaturation resistant. When combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the SNAP-tag technology provides direct visualization of sumoylated targets and can be used to follow temporal changes in the global cohort of sumoylated proteins during dynamic processes such as differentiation. HaCaT keratinocyte cells expressing SNAP-SUMO3 displayed normal morphological and biochemical features that are consistent with typical keratinocyte differentiation. SNAP-SUMO3 also localized normally in these cells with a predominantly nuclear signal and some minor cytoplasmic staining, consistent with previous reports for untagged SUMO2/3. During keratinocyte differentiation the total number of proteins modified by SNAP-SUMO3 was highest in basal cells, decreased abruptly after induction of differentiation, and slowly rebounded beginning between 48 and 72 hours as differentiation progressed. However, within this overall trend the pattern of change for individual sumoylated proteins was highly variable with both increases and decreases in amount over time. From these results we conclude that sumoylation of proteins during keratinocyte differentiation is a complex process which likely reflects and contributes to the biochemical changes that drive differentiation.

  10. Drug-induced hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia associated with alterations of cell membrane lipids and acanthocyte formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, Frederique M; Penraat, Kelley; Collins, Nathaniel; Evans, Ellen; Thackaberry, Evan; Manfra, Denise; Engstrom, Laura; Geissler, Richard; Geraci-Erck, Maria; Frugone, Carlos; Abutarif, Malaz; Fine, Jay S; Peterson, Brianna L; Cummings, Brian S; Johnson, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor, upregulated upon activation of T cells and expressed on nearly 100% of T cells in sites of inflammation. SCH 900875 is a selective CXCR3 receptor antagonist. Thrombocytopenia and severe hemolytic anemia with acanthocytosis occurred in rats at doses of 75, 100, and 150 mg/kg/day. Massively enlarged spleens corresponded histologically to extramedullary hematopoiesis, macrophages, and hemosiderin pigment and sinus congestion. Phagocytosed erythrocytes and platelets were within splenic macrophages. IgG and/or IgM were not detected on erythrocyte and platelet membranes. Ex vivo increased osmotic fragility of RBCs was observed. Lipid analysis of the RBC membrane revealed modifications in phosphatidylcholine, overall cholesterol, and/or sphingomyelin. Platelets exhibited slender filiform processes on their plasma membranes, analogous to those of acanthocytes. The presence of similar morphological abnormalities in acanthocytes and platelets suggests that possibly similar alterations in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane have taken place in both cell types. This phenotype correlated with alterations in plasma lipids (hypercholesterolemia and low triglycerides) that occurred after SCH 900875 administration, although other factors cannot be excluded. The increased cell destruction was considered triggered by alterations in the lipid profile of the plasma membranes of erythrocytes and platelets, as reflected morphologically.

  11. Bidirectional Synaptic Structural Plasticity after Chronic Cocaine Administration Occurs through Rap1 Small GTPase Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael E; Bagot, Rosemary C; Gancarz, Amy M; Walker, Deena M; Sun, HaoSheng; Wang, Zi-Jun; Heller, Elizabeth A; Feng, Jian; Kennedy, Pamela J; Koo, Ja Wook; Cates, Hannah M; Neve, Rachael L; Shen, Li; Dietz, David M; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-02-03

    Dendritic spines are the sites of most excitatory synapses in the CNS, and opposing alterations in the synaptic structure of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a primary brain reward region, are seen at early versus late time points after cocaine administration. Here we investigate the time-dependent molecular and biochemical processes that regulate this bidirectional synaptic structural plasticity of NAc MSNs and associated changes in cocaine reward in response to chronic cocaine exposure. Our findings reveal key roles for the bidirectional synaptic expression of the Rap1b small GTPase and an associated local synaptic protein translation network in this process. The transcriptional mechanisms and pathway-specific inputs to NAc that regulate Rap1b expression are also characterized. Collectively, these findings provide a precise mechanism by which nuclear to synaptic interactions induce "metaplasticity" in NAc MSNs, and we reveal the specific effects of this plasticity on reward behavior in a brain circuit-specific manner.

  12. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2014-03-14

    Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 μg/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis.

  13. A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-based Exposure Therapy in OEF/OIF Combat Veterans with PTSD: Altered Medial Frontal Cortex and Amygdala Responses in Social-Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony King

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Combat-related PTSD is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused using a novel group therapy (Mindfulness-based Exposure Therapy in Afghanistan (OEF or Iraq (OIF combat veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD (N=23 were treated with MBET (N = 14 or a comparison group therapy (Present-centered group therapy [PCGT], N = 9. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre- and post-therapy with Clinician Administered PTSD scale (CAPS. Functional neuroimaging (3 Tesla fMRI before and after therapy examined responses to emotional faces (angry, fearful, and neutral faces. Patients treated with MBET had reduced PTSD symptoms (effect size d = .92 but effect was not significantly different from PCGT (d = .43. Improvement in PTSD symptoms from Pre- to Post treatment in both treatment groups was correlated with increased activity in rostral ACC, dorsal medial PFC, and left amygdala. The MBET group showed greater increases in amygdala and fusiform gyrus responses to Angry faces, as well as increased response in left medial PFC to Fearful faces. These preliminary findings provide intriguing evidence that MBET group therapy for PTSD may lead to changes in neural processing of social-emotional threat related to symptom reduction.

  14. A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-Based Exposure Therapy in OEF/OIF Combat Veterans with PTSD: Altered Medial Frontal Cortex and Amygdala Responses in Social–Emotional Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony P.; Block, Stefanie R.; Sripada, Rebecca K.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Porter, Katherine E.; Favorite, Todd K.; Giardino, Nicholas; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here, we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused) using a novel group therapy [mindfulness-based exposure therapy (MBET)] in Afghanistan (OEF) or Iraq (OIF) combat veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD (N = 23) were treated with MBET (N = 14) or a comparison group therapy [Present-centered group therapy (PCGT), N = 9]. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre- and post-therapy with Clinician Administered PTSD scale. Functional neuroimaging (3-T fMRI) before and after therapy examined responses to emotional faces (angry, fearful, and neutral faces). Patients treated with MBET had reduced PTSD symptoms (effect size d = 0.92) but effect was not significantly different from PCGT (d = 0.43). Improvement in PTSD symptoms from pre- to post-treatment in both treatment groups was correlated with increased activity in rostral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and left amygdala. The MBET group showed greater increases in amygdala and fusiform gyrus responses to Angry faces, as well as increased response in left mPFC to Fearful faces. These preliminary findings provide intriguing evidence that MBET group therapy for PTSD may lead to changes in neural processing of social–emotional threat related to symptom reduction. PMID:27703434

  15. Art as Alterity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  16. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.

    2007-05-01

    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  17. Intravenous Topiramate: Pharmacokinetics in Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vuu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to developing treatments for human status epilepticus (SE include the inadequacy of experimental animal models. In contrast, naturally-occurring canine epilepsy is similar to the human condition and can serve as a platform to translate research from rodents to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK of an intravenous (IV dose of topiramate (TPM in dogs with epilepsy, and evaluate its effect on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG features. Five dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were used for this study. Three were getting at least one antiseizure drug as maintenance therapy including phenobarbital (PB. Four (ID 1-4 were used for the 10 mg/kg IV TPM + PO TPM study, and three (ID 3-5 were used for the 20 mg/kg IV TPM study. IV TPM was infused over 5 minutes at both doses. The animals were observed for vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, and lethargy. Blood samples were collected at scheduled pre- and post-dose times. Plasma concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC-MS method. Non-compartmental and population compartmental modeling were performed (Phoenix WinNonLin and NLME using plasma concentrations from all dogs in the study. Intracranial EEG (iEEG was acquired in one dog. The difference between averaged iEEG energy levels at 15 minutes pre- and post-dose was assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis test. No adverse events were noted. Topiramate concentration-time profiles were best fit by a two-compartment model. PB co-administration was associated with a 5.6 fold greater clearance and a ~4 fold shorter elimination half-life. iEEG data showed that TPM produced a significant energy increase at frequencies >4 Hz across all 16 electrodes within 15 minutes of dosing. Simulations suggested that dogs on an enzyme inducer would require 25 mg/kg, while dogs on non-inducing drugs would need 20 mg/kg to attain the target concentration (20-30 µg/mL at 30-minutes post-dose.This study shows that IV

  18. Discernible but limited introgression has occurred where Trichinella nativa and the T6 genotype occur in sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunams-Morel, Detiger B; Reichard, Mason V; Torretti, Luigi; Zarlenga, Dante S; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2012-04-01

    The genetic diversity within and among parasite populations provides clues to their evolutionary history. Here, we sought to determine whether mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA variation could be used to evaluate the extent of differentiation, gene flow and historical reproductive isolation among the freeze resistant parasites Trichinella nativa and the Trichinella T6 genotype infecting wolverines (Gulo gulo) in Nunavut, Canada. To this end, we genotyped Trichinella isolates derived from the diaphragms of 39 wolverines from this locale to reference strains of T. nativa and the Trichinella T6 genotype. Results showed that among a subset of 13 isolates examined, individuals resembled T. nativa in their mitochondrial DNA, but resembled the Trichinella T6 genotype when assayed at expansion segment V and the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear rDNA. To adjudicate among these conflicting diagnoses, we further characterized each isolate at several nuclear microsatellite loci and again compared these to data from reference strains. Statistical assignment established that the nuclear genomes of most Nunavut isolates corresponded to those of the Trichinella T6 genotype; however, two isolates corresponded to T. nativa, and one isolate exhibited equal similarity to both reference strains. Taken as a whole, the evidence suggests that these isolates derive from the T. nativa matrilineage, but that their nuclear genomes resemble individuals previously designated as Trichinella T6. Assuming distinct lineages, this argues for cross-hybridization among these genotypes. Although introgression has occurred, recognizable genetic distinctions persist. One possibility is that selection disfavors the survival of hybrid offspring in most instances. Alternatively, the recent disappearance of glacial barriers might have increased contact, and therefore introgression. Broader geographic sampling will be required to determine the extent to which hybridization occurs beyond this

  19. Epigenetic Alterations in Colorectal Cancer: Emerging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Grady, William M; Goel, Ajay

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the fundamental processes driving the initiation and progression of CRC is the accumulation of a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes in colonic epithelial cells. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of cancer epigenetics, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation, microRNA (miRNA) and noncoding RNA deregulation, and alterations in histone modification states. Assessment of the colon cancer "epigenome" has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and altered miRNA expression. The average CRC methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes and dozens of altered miRNAs. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these epigenetic alterations, called driver events, are presumed to have a functional role in CRC. In addition, the advances in our understanding of epigenetic alterations in CRC have led to these alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in this field suggests that these epigenetic alterations will be commonly used in the near future to direct the prevention and treatment of CRC.

  20. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors. PMID:28194037

  1. Mass transfer trends occurring in engineered ex vivo tissue scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marc; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; McFetridge, Peter

    2012-08-01

    In vivo the vasculature provides an effective delivery system for cellular nutrients; however, artificial scaffolds have no such mechanism, and the ensuing limitations in mass transfer result in limited regeneration. In these investigations, the regional mass transfer properties that occur through a model scaffold derived from the human umbilical vein (HUV) were assessed. Our aim was to define the heterogeneous behavior associated with these regional variations, and to establish if different decellularization technologies can modulate transport conditions to improve microenvironmental conditions that enhance cell integration. The effect of three decellularization methods [Triton X-100 (TX100), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and acetone/ethanol (ACE/EtOH)] on mass transfer, cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolic activity were assessed. Results show that regional variation in tissue structure and composition significantly affects both mass transfer and cell function. ACE/EtOH decellularization was shown to increase albumin mass flux through the intima and proximate-medial region (0-250 μm) when compared with sections decellularized with TX100 or SDS; although, mass flux remained constant over all regions of the full tissue thickness when using TX100. Scaffolds decellularized with TX100 were shown to promote cell migration up to 146% further relative to SDS decellularized samples. These results show that depending on scaffold derivation and expectations for cellular integration, specificities of the decellularization chemistry affect the scaffold molecular architecture resulting in variable effects on mass transfer and cellular response.

  2. Bladder uptake of liposomes after intravesical administration occurs by endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Raja Rajaganapathy

    Full Text Available Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery.

  3. Naturally-occurring anti-Jka in infant twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, D H; Nance, S J; Rubino, M; Sandler, S G

    1999-01-01

    Anti-Jka was detected by solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) antibody detection and identification tests in the plasma of a 9-month-old female infant during a routine presurgical evaluation. The patient and her nonidentical twin sister, who also had anti-Jka in her plasma, were products of an uncomplicated in vitro fertilization, full-term pregnancy, and vaginal delivery. Neither twin had been transfused, recently infected, or treated with medication. Their mother had no prior pregnancies or transfusions. Red blood cells (RBCs) from the patient and her sister typed as Jk(a-b+) by direct hemagglutination, and this phenotype was confirmed by negative adsorption and elution studies. Both infants' plasma samples were strongly reactive with 20 examples of Jk(a+) RBCs and nonreactive with 20 examples of Jk(a-) RBCs by SPRCA assays. Anti-Jka was not detected in either twins' plasma by indirect antiglobulin tests by tube method in low-ionic- strength saline solution or polyethylene glycol, or with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs. Monocyte monolayer assays using Jk(a+) RBCs sensitized by either twins' serum were nonreactive (0%). RBCs from both parents typed as Jk(a+b+). Both parents' antibody detection test results by SPRCA assay were negative. The absence of a history of exposure to allogeneic RBCs or possible passive transfer of maternal or other alloantibody classifies these antibodies as naturally-occurring anti-Jka.

  4. CooVar: Co-occurring variant analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Ismael A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the impact of genomic variations (GV on protein-coding transcripts is an important step in identifying variants of functional significance. Currently available programs for variant annotation depend on external databases or annotate multiple variants affecting the same transcript independently, which limits program use to organisms available in these databases or results in potentially incorrect or incomplete annotations. Findings We have developed CooVar (Co-occurring Variant Analyzer, a database-independent program for assessing the impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar takes GVs, reference genome sequence, and protein-coding exons as input and provides annotated GVs and transcripts as output. Other than similar programs, CooVar considers the combined impact of all GVs affecting the same transcript, generating biologically more accurate annotations. CooVar is operated from the command-line and supports standard file formats VCF, GFF/GTF, and GVF, which makes it easy to integrate into existing computational pipelines. We have extensively tested CooVar on worm and human data sets and demonstrate that it generates correct annotations in only a short amount of time. Conclusions CooVar is an easy-to-use and lightweight variant annotation tool that considers the combined impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar is freely available at http://genome.sfu.ca/projects/coovar/.

  5. Naturally occurring regulatory T cells: markers, mechanisms, and manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetterer, Klaus G; Neunkirchner, Alina; Pickl, Winfried F

    2012-06-01

    Naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(high) forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)(+) regulatory T cells (nTregs) are key mediators of immunity, which orchestrate and maintain tolerance to self and foreign antigens. In the recent 1.5 decades, a multitude of studies have aimed to define the phenotype and function of nTregs and to assess their therapeutic potential for modulating immune mediated disorders such as autoimmunity, allergy, and episodes of transplant rejection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the biology of nTregs. We address the exact definition of nTregs by specific markers and combinations thereof, which is a prerequisite for the state-of-the-art isolation of defined nTreg populations. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanism by which nTregs mediate immunosuppression and how this knowledge might translate into novel therapeutic modalities. With first clinical studies of nTreg-based therapies being finished, questions concerning the reliable sources of nTregs are becoming more and more eminent. Consequently, approaches allowing conversion of CD4(+) T cells into nTregs by coculture with antigen-presenting cells, cytokines, and/or pharmacological agents are discussed. In addition, genetic engineering approaches for the generation of antigen-specific nTregs are described.

  6. GROWTH OF NATURALLY OCCURING Listeria innocua IN COPPA DI TESTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Merialdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Coppa di testa is a traditional cooked pork salami produced in different Italian regions. The main raw material is deboned meat of pork head with the addition of tongue and rind. After a long (3-5 h high temperature (97°C cooking, additives and flavourings are added and the salami is prepared. After cooling the salami is often portioned and vacuum- packaged. In this study the growth of naturally occurring contamination of Listeria innocua in three batches of vacuum packaged Coppa di testa, stored at 4°C for 80 days, is described. The average max was 0.24 (days-1 and the average doubling time was 2.87 days. The maximum growth level ranged from 4.90 to 8.17 (log10 cfu/g. These results indicate that Coppa di testa definitely supports the growth of Listeria innocua in the considered storage conditions. Taking into account that at 4°C Listeria monocytogenes strains are associated with higher grow rates than L. innocua, these results emphasize the importance of preventing Listeria monocytogenes contamination in the production stages following cooking.

  7. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods.

  8. Treatment of spontaneously occurring veterinary tumors with photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Legendre, Alfred; Sneed, Rick E.; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1992-06-01

    Chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate was administered intravenously (1.0 mg/kg) to client owned cats and a dog with spontaneously occurring squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Light was delivered 48 hours post injection of the photosensitizer. An argon- pumped dye-laser was used to illuminate the lesions with 675 nm light delivered through a microlens fiber and/or a cylindrical diffuser. The light dose was 100 J/cm2 superficially or 300 J/cm interstitially. Eleven photodynamic therapy treatments in seven cats and one dog were performed. Two cats received a second treatment in approximately sixty days after the initial treatment. The superficial dose of light was increased to 200 J/cm2 for the second treatment. While the longest follow-up is twelve months, the responses are encouraging. The dog had a complete response. Among the cats, three showed complete response, three showed partial response and one showed no response. One cat expired two days post treatment. It is early to evaluate the response in two cats that received second treatments. Photodynamic therapy with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate was effective in treating squamous cell carcinoma in pet animals.

  9. Characteristics of Cherenkov radiation in naturally occurring ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, R. E.; Poulsen, T.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Klein, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon, and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope—IceCube. Located in Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occurring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high-precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in apparent neutrino direction. In closing, we also describe a simple experiment to test this formalism and calculate the impact of anisotropy on light yields from lead tungstate crystals as used, for example, in the CMS calorimeter at the CERN LHC.

  10. Characteristics of Cherenkov Radiation in Naturally Occuring Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkelsen, R E; Uggerhøj, U I; Klein, S R

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope - IceCube. Being located at the Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occuring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in ap...

  11. Hypokalaemia: common things occur commonly – a retrospective survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alasdair; Jones, Gareth; Isles, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To define the causes of hypokalaemia in an unselected adult population. Design Retrospective survey of biochemistry database. Setting District general hospital in southwest Scotland. Participants and main outcome measures There were 187,704 measurements of urea and electrolytes in 2010. Sixty-one patients had serum potassium feeding syndrome and inadequate potassium supplementation when patients were nil by mouth (37%). In 25% of patients a transient and profound fall in serum potassium appeared to coincide with their acute illness. Acute alcohol intoxication and/or alcohol withdrawal were prominent features in 11% of patients. More than one cause was commonly present. There were no cases of Bartter's, Gitelman's or Liddle's syndromes or of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis in this study. Conclusions Severe hypokalaemia <2.5 mmol/L occurs at least once a week in a district general hospital with a catchment population of around 150,000, suggesting there may be around 300 cases a week in the UK (population around 50,000,000). Diuretics, vomiting and diarrhoea are commonly implicated as are nutritional causes, acute illness and alcohol. Bartter's, Gitelman's, Liddle's syndrome and hypokalaemic period paralysis are all extremely uncommon. PMID:23323198

  12. Aqueous alteration of the Bali CV3 chondrite: evidence from mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and oxygen isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L P; Thomas, K L; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K; DeHart, J M; McKay, D S

    1994-12-01

    A petrographic, geochemical, and oxygen isotopic study of the Bali CV3 carbonaceous chondrite revealed that the meteorite has undergone extensive deformation and aqueous alteration on its parent body. Deformation textures are common and include flattened chondrules, a well-developed foliation, and the presence of distinctive (100) planar defects in olivine. The occurrence of alteration products associated with the planar defects indicates that the deformation features formed prior to the episode of aqueous alteration. The secondary minerals produced during the alteration event include well-crystallized Mg-rich saponite, framboidal magnetite, and Ca-phosphates. The alteration products are not homogeneously distributed throughout the meteorite, but occur in regions adjacent to relatively unaltered material, such as veins of altered material following the foliation. The alteration assemblage formed under oxidizing conditions at relatively low temperatures (chondrites. The heavy-isotope enrichment of the altered regions in Bali suggest alteration conditions similar to those for the petrographic type-2 carbonaceous chondrites.

  13. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  14. Lipid Raft Alterations in Aged-Associated Neuropathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Raquel; Fabelo, Noemí; Fernández-Echevarría, Cecilia; Canerina-Amaro, Ana; Rodríguez-Barreto, Deiene; Quinto-Alemany, David; Mesa-Herrera, Fátima; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains particularly enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and saturated fatty acids. These microstructures play a key role in a plethora of mechanisms involved in cell signaling, synapsis, cell-cell communication and cell survival. In the last years, increasing evidence indicate that lipid rafts may be altered in age-related neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson disease even at asymptomatic stages. In particular, important changes in raft lipid composition are observed with the progression of these diseases, then inducing alterations in their physicochemical properties. Furthermore, these phenomena contribute to neuropathological events related to amyloidogenesis, aberrant protein aggregation and toxic cell signalling. In this review, we discuss some relevant data on the age-related molecular changes occurring in lipid rafts since the first stages of these neurodegenerative diseases. Further characterization of specific parameters associated with alterations of these microdomains may provide potential tools of diagnosis and prediction of these neuropathologies.

  15. Recurrent Jets Occurred Nearby Active Region NOAA 11931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-kun, Hu; Zhi, Xu; Zhi-ke, Xue; Xiao-li, Yan; Yuan-deng, Shen; Ning, Wu; Jun, Lin

    2016-10-01

    According to the 171 Å observation of Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) in 2013 December 25∼26, a series of homologous jets were continuously found in the southwestern area of the active region NOAA 11931, from which 12 typical jets were selected and studied in this paper. The magnetic field structures in most jets had an obviously untwisting motion in the ejection process, though a few of them didn't have. The process of some jets was divided into two phases: the slow ejection without untwisting, and the rapid untwisting ejection. Before some jets started, a bright point grew along the bottom of magnetic arcade, and extended from the end remote from the jet to the end proximate to the jet, and there were two parts of magnetic structures near the bottom of magnetic arcade untwisted simultaneously in the ejection process. During the final one jet, two magnetic arcades appeared successively in the southeastern end of the magnetic structure on the jet bottom, while a small magnetic loop emerged in the northwestern end. Compared with the line-of-sight magnetogram of SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI), in about 4 h before the first jet appeared, a pair of magnetic dipoles emerged from the bottom of magnetic structure, and continuously lifted during the whole jet event. Although overall the bottom magnetic field emerged before and after the 12 jets, but for each individual jet, the variation of the bottom magnetic field was different from one another: in some jets, the magnetic field near the magnetic arcade on the jet bottom exhibited both magnetic emergence and cancellation; but in other jets, the magnetic field near the jet bottom exhibited only an obvious emergence or cancellation.

  16. Bayesian inference for inverse problems occurring in uncertainty analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shuai; Celeux, Gilles; Bousquet, Nicolas; Couplet, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The inverse problem considered here is to estimate the distribution of a non-observed random variable $X$ from some noisy observed data $Y$ linked to $X$ through a time-consuming physical model $H$. Bayesian inference is considered to take into account prior expert knowledge on $X$ in a small sample size setting. A Metropolis-Hastings within Gibbs algorithm is proposed to compute the posterior distribution of the parameters of $X$ through a data augmentation process. Since calls to $H$ are qu...

  17. Death in pediatric Cushing syndrome is uncommon but still occurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkourogianni, Alexandra; Lodish, Maya B.; Zilbermint, Mihail; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is rare. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of CS may be associated with increased morbidity and, unfortunately, mortality. We performed a retrospective review of all patients with CS under the age of 18 referred to the NIH from 1998 to 2013 in order to describe deceased patients among cases of pediatric CS referred to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The deaths of 4 children (3 females and 1 male), aged 7.5–15.5 years (mean age 11.2 years) with length of disease 2–4 years were recorded among 160 (2.5%) children seen at, or referred to the NIH over the last 15 years. All died at different institutions, prior to coming to the NIH (two of them) or after leaving NIH (two of them). Presenting symptoms included increasing weight and decreasing height gain, facial plethora, dorsocervical fat pad (webbed neck), striae, headache, vision disturbances and depression and other mood or behavior changes; there were no differences between how these patients presented and the others in our cohort. The causes of CS in the deceased patients were also not different, in fact, they spanned the entire spectrum of CS: pituitary disease (on of them), ectopic corticotropin production (one of them), and primary adrenal hyperplasia (1). In one patient, the cause of CS could not be verified. Three died of sepsis and one due to residual disease and complications of the primary tumor. Conclusions Despite advances in early diagnosis and treatment of pediatric CS, a 2.5% mortality rate was identified in a large cohort of patients with this condition referred to an experienced, tertiary care referral center (although these deaths occurred elsewhere). Pediatricians need to recognize the possibility of death, primarily due to sepsis, in a patient with pediatric CS and act accordingly. PMID:25241829

  18. Naturally occurring radiation sources: existing or planned exposure situation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann-Jensen, Per [Danish Decommissioning, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-12-01

    After more than fifteen years of application, ICRP Publication 60 has been revised. The revision was based upon the concept of 'controllable dose' as the dose or sum of doses to an individual from a particular source that can reasonably be controlled by whatever means. The new recommendations have been published as ICRP Publication 103. The European Basic Safety Standards as well as the International Basic Safety Standards are currently under revision as a result of the new recommendations from ICRP. According to the ICRP, there have been indications that some changes to the structure and terminology of the system of protection were desirable in order to improve clarity and utility. In particular the distinction between practices and interventions may not have been clearly understood and the ICRP now recognises three types of exposure situations, which replace the previous categorisation into practices and interventions. These exposure situations are intended to cover the entire range of exposure situations: (1) planned exposure, (2) existing exposure and (3) emergency exposure. There are situations of exposure to naturally occurring radiation sources in different occupations, e.g. exposure to radon and radon progeny in workplaces other than where the exposure is required by or is directly related to the work and aircrew exposed to cosmic radiation. In the European (Euratom) and the International Basic Safety Standards, these exposure situations are treated conceptually different-either as a planned exposure situation or as an existing exposure situation. This note reviews the change of exposure situations from Publication 60 to Publication 103 and the implications for the revision of both the International and the European Basic Safety Standards. The paper draws some conclusions on the classification of the exposure situations in the two basic safety standards based on a logical interpretation of the ICRP recommendations. It is recommended that the

  19. Antituberculosis Activity of a Naturally Occurring Flavonoid, Isorhamnetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Jeon, Dasom; Jeong, Min-Cheol; Lee, Eunjung; Jin, Bongwhan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Yoo, Jungheon; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-04-22

    Isorhamnetin (1) is a naturally occurring flavonoid having anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study demonstrated that 1 had antimycobacterial effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 158 and 316 μM, respectively. Mycobacteria mainly affect the lungs, causing an intense local inflammatory response that is critical to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We investigated the effects of 1 on interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Isorhamnetin suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12. A nontoxic dose of 1 reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Isorhamnetin inhibited IFN-γ-mediated stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and showed high-affinity binding to these kinases (binding constants: 4.46 × 10(6) M(-1) and 7.6 × 10(6) M(-1), respectively). The 4'-hydroxy group and the 3'-methoxy group of the B-ring and the 5-hydroxy group of the A-ring of 1 play key roles in these binding interactions. A mouse in vivo study of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation revealed that a nontoxic dose of 1 reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-γ in lung tissue. These data provide the first evidence that 1 could be developed as a potent antituberculosis drug.

  20. Iron deficiency occurs frequently in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijterschout, Lieke; Nuijsink, Marianne; Hendriks, Daniëlle; Vos, Rimke; Brus, Frank

    2014-05-01

    In adult CF patients iron deficiency (ID) is common and primarily functional due to chronic inflammation. No recent data are available on the cause of ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children with CF. Over the last decades onset of inflammation and pulmonary disease in children with CF is delayed by improved nutritional status. We questioned whether ID occurs in the same extent among children with CF as in adult CF patients. We therefore conducted a study to investigate the iron status of children with CF and to determine whether ID and IDA are associated with dietary iron intake, lung disease severity and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection. Clinical charts of 53 children with CF aged 0-16 were reviewed. Follow-up varied from 1 to 14 years with 343 annual observations in total. Thirty-two children (60.4%) were iron deficient in at least 1 year and ID was present in 84 of 343 observations (24.5%). In 2011 ID was present in 9 children (17.0%). Ten children (18.9%) were anemic in at least 1 year and anemia was present in 13 of 328 observations (4.0%). IDA was present in at least 1 year in 6 children (11.3%). Ferritin (Fer) was positively associated with age. Higher Fer values found in older children represent an increased state of inflammation, rather than an improved iron status, and might increase the relative contribution of functional ID. This study shows that ID is common in relatively healthy, well-nourished children with CF. The mechanism of ID in children with CF is currently unknown. A prospective study using both soluble transferrin receptor and Fer as indicators for ID will provide more insight in the incidence and causes of ID in children with CF.

  1. Co-occurring disorders: policy and practice in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Thomas; Mann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) with other mental disorders-what is often referred to as co-occurring disorders (COD)-is a common phenomenon, but for a long time, little attention has been paid to this problem in Germany. During the last 25 years, however, COD awareness has increased due to a shift toward community-based services. Scientific research has also demonstrated the significance and clinical relevance of COD. High prevalence rates and evidence of poor clinical outcomes were found in German studies. Many practitioners as well as policymakers acknowledge that changes in systems of care are necessary to meet the requirements of COD patients. The traditional German system is currently divided into addiction services and mental health services (predominantly in inpatient settings), often resulting in ineffective sequential treatment for COD patients. Research demonstrates that integrative treatment models are more appropriate, and the division of services should be reorganized to help COD patients appropriately. Efforts have already been made to restructure healthcare systems toward a more flexible approach with improved networking between in- and outpatient services. A further issue is the general attitude toward SUD patients. Many practitioners continue to hold negative opinions (eg, "SUD patients are only weak-minded") or feel insecure when confronted with SUD. This results in SUD problems being frequently ignored or depreciated. Educational programs have been intensive over recent years to address this problem (eg, Fachkunde Sucht, an advanced training program on SUD). In general, treatment conditions for COD patients are improving, but further efforts are necessary. Guidelines and treatment strategies for COD patients have been recently published in Germany.

  2. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1 when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV, a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, 2 conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, 3 the last awakening during a night’s sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, 4 both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system 5 N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and 6 corticofugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  3. Preparation of metagenomic libraries from naturally occurring marine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, Sergei A; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are now well recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical cycling that fuels the Earth, and their viruses (phages) are known to be abundant and important in microbial mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and modulating microbial metabolic output. Investigation of environmental phages has been frustrated by an inability to culture the vast majority of naturally occurring diversity coupled with the lack of robust, quantitative, culture-independent methods for studying this uncultured majority. However, for double-stranded DNA phages, a quantitative viral metagenomic sample-to-sequence workflow now exists. Here, we review these advances with special emphasis on the technical details of preparing DNA sequencing libraries for metagenomic sequencing from environmentally relevant low-input DNA samples. Library preparation steps broadly involve manipulating the sample DNA by fragmentation, end repair and adaptor ligation, size fractionation, and amplification. One critical area of future research and development is parallel advances for alternate nucleic acid types such as single-stranded DNA and RNA viruses that are also abundant in nature. Combinations of recent advances in fragmentation (e.g., acoustic shearing and tagmentation), ligation reactions (adaptor-to-template ratio reference table availability), size fractionation (non-gel-sizing), and amplification (linear amplification for deep sequencing and linker amplification protocols) enhance our ability to generate quantitatively representative metagenomic datasets from low-input DNA samples. Such datasets are already providing new insights into the role of viruses in marine systems and will continue to do so as new environments are explored and synergies and paradigms emerge from large-scale comparative analyses.

  4. Effect of Hydrologic Alteration on the Community Succession of Macrophytes at Xiangyang Site, Hanjiang River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai

    2017-01-01

    With the intensification of human activities over the past three decades in China, adverse effects on river ecosystem become more serious especially in the Hanjiang River. Xiangyang site is an important spawn ground for four domestic fishes in the downstream region of Hanjiang River. Based on the field survey results of macrophytes during 1997–2000 and 2013-2014, community succession of aquatic macrophytes at Xiangyang site was evaluated and discussed. Two-key ecologic-related hydrologic characteristics, flow regime and water level, were identified as the main influence factors. The EFC (environmental flow components) parameters were adopted to evaluate the alteration of flow regimes at Xiangyang site during 1941–2013. Evaluation results demonstrate a highly altered flow process after being regulated by reservoir. The flow patterns tend to be an attenuation process with no large floods occurring but a higher monthly low flow. Furthermore, the water level decreased and fluctuation reduced after the dam was built, which caused the decrease of biomass but favored the submerged macrophytes during 1995–2009. However, with the water level increasing after 2010 and gently fluctuating, due to uplift by the hydraulic projects downstream as well as the flow attenuation, the dominant position of submerged macrophytes will be weakened. PMID:28127493

  5. Effect of Hydrologic Alteration on the Community Succession of Macrophytes at Xiangyang Site, Hanjiang River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of human activities over the past three decades in China, adverse effects on river ecosystem become more serious especially in the Hanjiang River. Xiangyang site is an important spawn ground for four domestic fishes in the downstream region of Hanjiang River. Based on the field survey results of macrophytes during 1997–2000 and 2013-2014, community succession of aquatic macrophytes at Xiangyang site was evaluated and discussed. Two-key ecologic-related hydrologic characteristics, flow regime and water level, were identified as the main influence factors. The EFC (environmental flow components parameters were adopted to evaluate the alteration of flow regimes at Xiangyang site during 1941–2013. Evaluation results demonstrate a highly altered flow process after being regulated by reservoir. The flow patterns tend to be an attenuation process with no large floods occurring but a higher monthly low flow. Furthermore, the water level decreased and fluctuation reduced after the dam was built, which caused the decrease of biomass but favored the submerged macrophytes during 1995–2009. However, with the water level increasing after 2010 and gently fluctuating, due to uplift by the hydraulic projects downstream as well as the flow attenuation, the dominant position of submerged macrophytes will be weakened.

  6. Inherited and environmental influences on a childhood co-occurring symptom phenotype: Evidence from an adoption study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Fisher, Philip A; Shaw, Daniel S; Kim, Hyoun K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Natsuaki, Misake N; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-02-01

    Risk factors for the childhood development of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing symptoms are not well understood, despite a high prevalence and poor clinical outcomes associated with this co-occurring phenotype. We examined inherited and environmental risk factors for co-occurring symptoms in a sample of children adopted at birth and their birth mothers and adoptive mothers (N = 293). Inherited risk factors (i.e., birth mothers' processing speed and internalizing symptoms) and environmental risk factors (i.e., adoptive mothers' processing speed, internalizing symptoms, and uninvolved parenting) were examined as predictors for the development of internalizing-only, externalizing-only, or co-occurring symptoms using structural equation modeling. Results suggested a unique pattern of predictive factors for the co-occurring phenotype, with risk conferred by adoptive mothers' uninvolved parenting, birth mothers' slower processing speed, and the birth mothers' slower processing speed in tandem with adoptive mothers' higher internalizing symptoms. Additional analyses indicated that when co-occurring-symptom children were incorporated into internalizing and externalizing symptom groups, differential risk factors for externalizing and internalizing symptoms emerged. The findings suggest that spurious results may be found when children with co-occurring symptoms are not examined as a unique phenotypic group.

  7. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  8. Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Vanessa

    2009-09-01

    that many recombinants are non-viable after intraclonal mating. Conclusion We have demonstrated intraclonal mating during fly transmission of T. b. brucei, contrary to previous findings that recombination occurs only when another strain is present. It is thus no longer possible to assume that T. b. brucei remains genetically unaltered after fly transmission.

  9. Chemoselective synthesis and analysis of naturally occurring phosphorylated cysteine peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran-Vicente, Jordi; Penkert, Martin; Nieto-Garcia, Olaia; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Schmieder, Peter; Krause, Eberhard; Hackenberger, Christian P. R.

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to protein O-phosphorylation, studying the function of the less frequent N- and S-phosphorylation events have lagged behind because they have chemical features that prevent their manipulation through standard synthetic and analytical methods. Here we report on the development of a chemoselective synthetic method to phosphorylate Cys side-chains in unprotected peptides. This approach makes use of a reaction between nucleophilic phosphites and electrophilic disulfides accessible by standard methods. We achieve the stereochemically defined phosphorylation of a Cys residue and verify the modification using electron-transfer higher-energy dissociation (EThcD) mass spectrometry. To demonstrate the use of the approach in resolving biological questions, we identify an endogenous Cys phosphorylation site in IICBGlc, which is known to be involved in the carbohydrate uptake from the bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS). This new chemical and analytical approach finally allows further investigating the functions and significance of Cys phosphorylation in a wide range of crucial cellular processes.

  10. Does crater 'saturation equilibrium' occur in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1984-01-01

    The similarity in crater densities on the most heavily cratered surfaces throughout the solar system is statistically examined and discussed in terms of a 'saturation equilibrium' being achieved by cratering processes. This hypothesis accounts for (1) the similarity in maximum relative crater density, below certain theoretically predicted values, on all heavily cratered surfaces; (2) a levelling off at this same relative density among 100-m scale craters in populations on lunar maria and other sparsely cratered lunar surfaces; and (3) the approximate uniformity of maximum relative densities on Saturn satellites. The lunar frontside upland crater population, sometimes described as a well-preserved production function useful for interpreting other planetary surfaces, is found not to be a production function. It was modified by intercrater plains at least partly formed by early upland basaltic lava flooding.

  11. ION EXCHANGE MECHANISM OF Cr+3 ON NATURALLY OCCURRING CLINOPTILOLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S.D. de Barros

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion exchange isotherms are very important tools to achieve a better comprehension of cation removal by means of zeolite treatment. In this work, three isotherms were obtained (at 298K, at 313K and at 333K from natural pretreated Na+ clinoptilolite. The ion exchange was carried out with Cr+3 ions. The isotherms’ shape is similar to the classical type "b" isotherm, according to the arrangement proposed by Breck (1984. Mathematical fitting was applied to the experimental points (Table Curve software to obtain a representative curve thereof. From such fittings, points were simulated and then used to construct the Kielland plots, whose shape was associated with an ion exchange mechanism. Straight lines were obtained as an indication that, although the zeolite used is of natural occurrence and presents impurities such as mordenite and clays, only one site is involved in the ion exchange process

  12. Altered Inquiry: Discovering Arts-Based Research through an Altered Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioia Chilton MA, ATR-BC

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available I present altered book making and poetry as a process of imaginative inquiry into arts-based research. Through a personal narrative and a consideration of the literature on arts-based research, I reconstruct the artistic inquiry that traces my learning journey. Current issues in arts-based research are sketched through words and mixed media artwork, including issues of terminology, philosophy, ethics, and purpose in arts-based research practice. The beginnings of a transformation-through-the-arts paradigm, powered by an aesthetic epistemology, are referenced as part of a multimedia learning journey. As a strategy for pedagogical inquiry, the altered book construction and narrative writing served to express some of the transformative learning, beauty, energy, and complexities related to this topic.

  13. Spectral analysis of naturally occurring methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine binding with DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irudayam Maria Johnson

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids exist in a dynamic equilibrium with a number of molecules that constantly interact with them and regulate the cellular activities. The inherent nature of the structure and conformational integrity of these macromolecules can lead to altered biological activity through proper targeting of nucleic acids binding ligands or drug molecules. We studied the interaction of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with DNA, using UV absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods, and especially monitored their binding affinity in the presence of Mg(2+ and during helix-coil transitions of DNA by temperature (T(m or pH melting profiles. The study indicates that all these molecules effectively bind to DNA in a dose dependent manner. The overall binding constants of DNA-theophylline = 3.5×10(3 M(-1, DNA-theobromine = 1.1×10(3 M(-1, and DNA-Caffeine = 3.8×10(3 M(-1. On the other hand T(m/pH melting profiles showed 24-35% of enhanced binding activity of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA rather than to its native double helical structure. The FTIR analysis divulged that theophylline, theobromine and caffeine interact with all the base pairs of DNA (A-T; G-C and phosphate group through hydrogen bond (H-bond interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+, methylxanthines altered the structure of DNA from B to A-family. However, the B-family structure of DNA remained unaltered in DNA-methylxanthines complexes or in the absence of Mg(2+. The spectral analyses indicated the order of binding affinity as "caffeine≥theophylline>theobromine" to the native double helical DNA, and "theophylline≥theobromine>caffeine to the denatured form of DNA and in the presence of divalent metal ions.

  14. Spectral analysis of naturally occurring methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine) binding with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Irudayam Maria; Prakash, Halan; Prathiba, Jeyaguru; Raghunathan, Raghavachary; Malathi, Raghunathan

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids exist in a dynamic equilibrium with a number of molecules that constantly interact with them and regulate the cellular activities. The inherent nature of the structure and conformational integrity of these macromolecules can lead to altered biological activity through proper targeting of nucleic acids binding ligands or drug molecules. We studied the interaction of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with DNA, using UV absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods, and especially monitored their binding affinity in the presence of Mg(2+) and during helix-coil transitions of DNA by temperature (T(m)) or pH melting profiles. The study indicates that all these molecules effectively bind to DNA in a dose dependent manner. The overall binding constants of DNA-theophylline = 3.5×10(3) M(-1), DNA-theobromine = 1.1×10(3) M(-1), and DNA-Caffeine = 3.8×10(3) M(-1). On the other hand T(m)/pH melting profiles showed 24-35% of enhanced binding activity of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA rather than to its native double helical structure. The FTIR analysis divulged that theophylline, theobromine and caffeine interact with all the base pairs of DNA (A-T; G-C) and phosphate group through hydrogen bond (H-bond) interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+), methylxanthines altered the structure of DNA from B to A-family. However, the B-family structure of DNA remained unaltered in DNA-methylxanthines complexes or in the absence of Mg(2+). The spectral analyses indicated the order of binding affinity as "caffeine≥theophylline>theobromine" to the native double helical DNA, and "theophylline≥theobromine>caffeine to the denatured form of DNA and in the presence of divalent metal ions.

  15. Fantastic alterities and The Sandman

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which the comics medium enhances our understanding of literary models of the Fantastic. It examines the presence and depiction of multiple worlds in Neil Gaiman’s The Sandman, with specific reference to the role of the comics medium and its denial of mimesis when creating such alterities. \\ud \\ud It initially uses literature review to establish a contemporary working model of the Fantastic, taking as its basis the framework devised by Tzvetan Todorov, and inc...

  16. The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): A new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, N.L.; Richter, B.D.; Arthington, A.H.; Bunn, S.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Kendy, E.; Acreman, M.; Apse, C.; Bledsoe, B.P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Henriksen, J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Kennen, J.G.; Merritt, D.M.; O'Keeffe, J. H.; Olden, J.D.; Rogers, K.; Tharme, R.E.; Warner, A.

    2010-01-01

    region are classified into a few distinctive flow regime types that are expected to have different ecological characteristics. These river types can be further subclassified according to important geomorphic features that define hydraulic habitat features. Third, the deviation of current-condition flows from baseline-condition flow is determined. Fourth, flow alteration-ecological response relationships are developed for each river type, based on a combination of existing hydroecological literature, expert knowledge and field studies across gradients of hydrologic alteration. 4. Scientific uncertainty will exist in the flow alteration-ecological response relationships, in part because of the confounding of hydrologic alteration with other important environmental determinants of river ecosystem condition (e.g. temperature). Application of the ELOHA framework should therefore occur in a consensus context where stakeholders and decision-makers explicitly evaluate acceptable risk as a balance between the perceived value of the ecological goals, the economic costs involved and the scientific uncertainties in functional relationships between ecological responses and flow alteration. 5. The ELOHA framework also should proceed in an adaptive management context, where collection of monitoring data or targeted field sampling data allows for testing of the proposed flow alteration-ecological response relationships. This empirical validation process allows for a fine-tuning of environmental flow management targets. The ELOHA framework can be used both to guide basic research in hydroecology and to further implementation of more comprehensive environmental flow management of freshwater sustainability on a global scale. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We developed a computational method (ABSOLUTE) that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. ABSOLUTE can detect subclonal heterogeneity, somatic homozygosity, and calculate statistical sensitivity to detect specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze ovarian cancer data and identified pervasive subclonal somatic point mutations. In contrast, mutations occurring in key tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and NF1 were predominantly clonal ...

  18. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We developed a computational method (ABSOLUTE) that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. ABSOLUTE can detect subclonal heterogeneity, somatic homozygosity, and calculate statistical sensitivity to detect specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze ovarian cancer data and identified pervasive subclonal somatic point mutations. In contrast, mutations occurring in key tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and NF1 were predominantly clonal ...

  19. A relaxed mutant with an altered ribosomal protein L11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J; Watson, R J; Friesen, J D

    1976-02-27

    Relaxed mutants of Escherichia coli have been isolated which have an altered electrophoretic mobility of ribosomal protein L11. It can be shown that reversion to stringency in one of these mutants occurs simultaneously with a reversion of L11 protein to tis normal mobility. The L11 structural gene, rplK, maping near rif, is carried by the bacteriophage lambdacI857S7drifd18, and is most likely identical with relC.

  20. Oral alterations among chemical dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vanessa COLODEL

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been daily observed a significant increase ofchemical dependent individuals, as well as the lack of depth on thisissue in the dentistry area. Nevertheless many times the dentalclinicians are the first professionals to diagnose possible alterations,which appear due to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs. Objectives: To make a literature review of oral alterations and to identify them on a specific group of persons, which are addicted to different types of drugs. Material and methods: The clinical history of the selected individuals was added to the answers of a questionnaire,comprising the data of the present research. Results: Besides other minor soft tissue alterations, a high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases were found in the studied population. Conclusion: It was concluded that the role of the dental clinician is very important to the health rehabilitation of drug addicts, individuals with physical and mental disorders that need specific oral care, which sometimes is neglected.

  1. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role.

  2. Cardiac electrical defects in progeroid mice and Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome patients with nuclear lamina alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Torres, José; Calvo, Conrado J.; Llach, Anna; Guzmán-Martínez, Gabriela; Caballero, Ricardo; González-Gómez, Cristina; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J.; Guadix, Juan A.; Osorio, Fernando G.; López-Otín, Carlos; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benítez, Raul; Gordon, Leslie B.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Tamargo, Juan; Delpón, Eva; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Andrés, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disease caused by defective prelamin A processing, leading to nuclear lamina alterations, severe cardiovascular pathology, and premature death. Prelamin A alterations also occur in physiological aging. It remains unknown how defective prelamin A processing affects the cardiac rhythm. We show age-dependent cardiac repolarization abnormalities in HGPS patients that are also present in the Zmpste24−/− mouse model of HGPS. Challenge of Zmpste24−/− mice with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol did not trigger ventricular arrhythmia but caused bradycardia-related premature ventricular complexes and slow-rate polymorphic ventricular rhythms during recovery. Patch-clamping in Zmpste24−/− cardiomyocytes revealed prolonged calcium-transient duration and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium loading and release, consistent with the absence of isoproterenol-induced ventricular arrhythmia. Zmpste24−/− progeroid mice also developed severe fibrosis-unrelated bradycardia and PQ interval and QRS complex prolongation. These conduction defects were accompanied by overt mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43). Remarkably, Cx43 mislocalization was also evident in autopsied left ventricle tissue from HGPS patients, suggesting intercellular connectivity alterations at late stages of the disease. The similarities between HGPS patients and progeroid mice reported here strongly suggest that defective cardiac repolarization and cardiomyocyte connectivity are important abnormalities in the HGPS pathogenesis that increase the risk of arrhythmia and premature death. PMID:27799555

  3. The genetic alteration of retinoblastoma gene in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Il; Shim, Yung Mok; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Retinoblastoma(RB) gene is the prototype of tumor suppressor gene and it`s alteration have been frequently observed in a large number of human tumors. To investigate the role of RB in esophageal cancer, we studied 36 esophageal cancer tissues with Southern blot analysis to detect gross LOH and PCR-SSCP method to find minute LOH and mutation, if any. In the cases with abnormalities, the nucleotide sequence analysis was performed. Allelic loss of chromosome 13q14 occurred in 20 out of 32 informative cases (62.5%) by Southern analysis. Furthermore, PCR-LOH added three positive cases. Mobility shift by PCR-SSCP was observed in one case at exon 22, which showed 1 bp deletion in codon 771 of RB gene resulting in frame shift mutation. Besides, nine PCR-band alteration in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue were observed in exon 14 and 22, but mutation was not found on sequencing analysis suggesting the epigenetic alteration in tumor tissue. Analysis of the clinical data did not show any difference depending upon RB alteration. However, the total incidence of RB gene may play an important role in the development of esophageal cancer. The main genetic alteration of RB gene was deletion detected by Southern blot and one bp deletion leading to frame shift was also observed. 8 figs, 5 tabs. (Author).

  4. Assessing Geologic Image Interpretation Errors Occurring in Extraterrestrial Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J.; Anderson, R. C.; Thomas, G.; Cabrol, N.; Grin, E.; Glasgow, J.

    2003-12-01

    Robotic exploration of the Martian surface requires numerous interpretations of imaged data, where incorrect results can have drastic consequences. The imaging process transforms and reduces the amount of information available. Three experiments measured the differences in interpretation between imaged sediments and physical sediments. Three characteristics were analyzed: grain length, grain shape, and grain distribution. The results found the difference between the grain length measured on an image and the true length to +/- 2.333 pixels (p <0.0001); the difference is similar to the amount of blurring introduced by the camera. Both grain roundness and grain sphericity were classified on a scale from 1 to 6 in the shape experiment. The roundness classification differed by 0.114 categories (p = 0.0082) with the imaged grains being rounder. The sphericity classification differed by 0.151 categories (p = 0.0010) with the imaged grains being less spherical. In the distribution experiment, the subjects determined the percentage of the total image area covered by grains in six specified size ranges. The average error for each size range was 11.112 % of the total area (p < 0.0001). In all three experiments, the measurements taken using the imaged specimens significantly differed from the measurements taken using the physical specimens. The magnitudes of the differences were small and may not be scientifically significant.

  5. Altered states of consciousness: processed EEG in mental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Andreas; Tonner, Peter H; Renna, Maurizio

    2006-03-01

    Due to increasing life expectancy and a rising elderly population in Europe, the incidence of mild cognitive impairment which may predict diseases like Alzheimer's Disease or Vascular Dementia, is rising. Neurophysiological techniques are simple and inexpensive tools for early diagnosis and provide useful and objective correlates of cognitive activity both in normal subjects and patients suffering from the above conditions. Cognitive impairment due to different mental disease is characterized by decreased power and coherence in the alpha/beta band, which suggests functional disconnection among cortical areas, whereas both power and coherence in the delta and theta bands increase as a sign of cortical deafferentation from subcortical structures. Quantification of power and phase relationship by bispectral analysis suggests the Bispectral Index could be a useful but simple tool for early diagnosis of mental disease.

  6. [Neurobiology of learning--the basis of an alteration process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, Dieter F

    2004-11-01

    In contrast to the opinion that prevailed in the 1980es, there is now increasing evidence that the plasticity of the human brain, i. e. its remarkable ability to adapt to and change with experience, is, under normal conditions, a lifelong phenomenon. Representations of the environment are associated with activations and biochemical modifications in neuronal networks, which will be stabilized, modified or will wither in the course of cumulated experience. The capability to modify the biochemistry of synapses as well as the growth and change in terms of rewiring of synapses, dendritic branching and glial cell proliferation via the dialogue of synapses and genes, results in specific changes in neuronal connectivity and function. On the neurotransmitter level, glutamate and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) as well as dopamine and serotonin, but also endorphin and encephalin, have a key position in this context. These neurotransmitter systems modulate neuronal plasticity on the neuronal level; on the behavioural level they influence affect, emotion, positive motivation and the correct evaluation of environmental stimuli. Experience, action as well as learning and memory are influenced by these systems. A basic thesis of this paper is that these mechanisms are involved in neuronal plasticity and that learning and memory are thus not only used and reused in structuring the CNS during the initial establishment of connections in the immature brain, in lifelong memory consolidation or the rewiring after brain damage, but can also be used to mould experience, learning und behaviour during psychotherapy and rehabilitation in adults.

  7. Nuclear fusion occurs during mating in Candida albicans and is dependent on the KAR3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard J; Miller, Mathew G; Chua, Penelope R; Maxon, Mary E; Johnson, Alexander D

    2005-02-01

    It is now well established that mating can occur between diploid a and alpha cells of Candida albicans. There is, however, controversy over when, and with what efficiency, nuclear fusion follows cell fusion to create stable tetraploid a/alpha cells. In this study, we have analysed the mating process between C. albicans strains using both cytological and genetic approaches. Using strains derived from SC5314, we used a number of techniques, including time-lapse microscopy, to demonstrate that efficient nuclear fusion occurs in the zygote before formation of the first daughter cell. Consistent with these observations, zygotes micromanipulated from mating mixes gave rise to mononuclear tetraploid cells, even when no selection for successful mating was applied to them. Mating between different clinical isolates of C. albicans revealed that while all isolates could undergo nuclear fusion, the efficiency of nuclear fusion varied in different crosses. We also show that nuclear fusion in C. albicans requires the Kar3 microtubule motor protein. Deletion of the CaKAR3 gene from both mating partners had little or no effect on zygote formation but reduced the formation of stable tetraploids more than 600-fold, as determined by quantitative mating assays. These findings demonstrate that nuclear fusion is an active process that can occur in C. albicans at high frequency to produce stable, mononucleate mating products.

  8. Field guide to hydrothermal alteration in the White River altered area and in the Osceola Mudflow, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Rytuba, James J.; Ashley, Roger P.; Blakely, Richard J.; Vallance, James W.; Newport, Grant R.; Heinemeyer, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    The Cenozoic Cascades arcs of southwestern Washington are the product of long-lived, but discontinuous, magmatism beginning in the Eocene and continuing to the present (for example, Christiansen and Yeats, 1992). This magmatism is the result of subduction of oceanic crust beneath the North American continent. The magmatic rocks are divided into two subparallel, north-trending continental-margin arcs, the Eocene to Pliocene Western Cascades, and the Quaternary High Cascades, which overlies, and is east of, the Western Cascades. Both arcs are calc-alkaline and are characterized by voluminous mafic lava flows (mostly basalt to basaltic andesite compositions) and scattered large stratovolcanoes of mafic andesite to dacite compositions. Silicic volcanism is relatively uncommon. Quartz diorite to granite plutons are exposed in more deeply eroded parts of the Western Cascades Arc (for example, Mount Rainier area and just north of Mt. St. Helens). Hydrothermal alteration is widespread in both Tertiary and Quaternary igneous rocks of the Cascades arcs. Most alteration in the Tertiary Western Cascades Arc resulted from hydrothermal systems associated with small plutons, some of which formed porphyry copper and related deposits, including copper-rich breccia pipes, polymetallic veins, and epithermal gold-silver deposits. Hydrothermal alteration also is present on many Quaternary stratovolcanoes of the High Cascades Arc. On some High Cascades volcanoes, this alteration resulted in severely weakened volcanic edifices that were susceptible to failure and catastrophic landslides. Most notable is the sector collapse of the northeast side of Mount Rainier that occurred about 5,600 yr. B.P. This collapse resulted in formation of the clay-rich Osceola Mudflow that traveled 120 km down valley from Mount Rainier to Puget Sound covering more than 200 km2. This field trip examines several styles and features of hydrothermal alteration related to Cenozoic magmatism in the Cascades arcs

  9. Plant cells in vitro under altered gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D O

    1998-07-01

    Establishing the role of gravity in plant requires information about how gravity regulates the metabolism of individual cells. Plant cells and tissues in vitro are valuable models for such purpose. Disrupted intercellular relations in such models have allowed to elucidate both the gravity role in non-specialised to gravity plant cells and the correlative relation role of an intact plant organism. The data obtained from non-numerous space and clinostat experiments with plant cells in vitro have demonstrated that their metabolism is sensitive to g-environment. The most experiments have shown a decrease in the biomass production and cell proliferation of spaceflight samples compared with ground controls, although there is study reporting of increased biomass production in an anise suspension culture and D. carota crown gall tissue culture. At the same time, results of experiments with single carrot cells and tomato callus culture demonstrated similarities in differentiation process in microgravity and in ground controls. Noted ultrastructural arrangement in cells, especially mitochondria and plastids, have been related to altered energy load and functions of organelles in microgravity, as well as changes in the lipid peroxidation and the content of malonic dyaldehyde in a haplopappus tissue culture under altered gravity supposed with modification of membrane structural-functional state. This article focuses on growth aspects of the cultured cells in microgravity and under clinostat conditions and considers those aspects that require further analysis.

  10. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  11. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  12. Recovery curves of the lightning discharges occurring in the dissipation stage of thunderstorms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Pawar; A K Kamra

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of atmospheric electric field made below two thunderstorms show that all lightning discharges occurring in the dissipating stage of a thunderstorm occur at almost the same value of the predischarge electric field at the ground surface. The observation is explained on the basis of the shielding of the electric fields generated by the positive charge in the downdrafts by the negative charge in the screening layers formed around them in the subcloud layer. Our observations suggest that in the dissipating stage of the thunderstorm, the charge generating mechanisms in cloud have ceased to operate and the charge being transported from the upper to lower regions of cloud by downdrafts is the only in-cloud process affecting the surface electric field and/or enhancing the electric field stress in and below the cloud base to cause yet another lightning discharge.

  13. Fiber hypertrophy and increased oxidative capacity can occur simultaneously in pig glycolytic skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, T L; Scheffler, J M; Park, S; Kasten, S C; Wu, Y; McMillan, R P; Hulver, M W; Frisard, M I; Gerrard, D E

    2014-02-15

    An inverse relationship between skeletal muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and oxidative capacity suggests that muscle fibers hypertrophy at the expense of oxidative capacity. Therefore, our objective was to utilize pigs possessing mutations associated with increased oxidative capacity [AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKγ3(R200Q))] or fiber hypertrophy [ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1(R615C))] to determine if these events occur in parallel. Longissimus muscle was collected from wild-type (control), AMPKγ3(R200Q), RyR1(R615C), and AMPKγ3(R200Q)-RyR1(R615C) pigs. Regardless of AMPK genotype, RyR(R615C) increased fiber CSA by 35%. In contrast, AMPKγ3(R200Q) pig muscle exhibited greater citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity. Isolated mitochondria from AMPKγ3(R200Q) muscle had greater maximal, ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption rate. Additionally, AMPKγ3(R200Q) muscle contained more (∼50%) of the mitochondrial proteins succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase and more mitochondrial DNA. Surprisingly, RyR1(R615C) increased mitochondrial proteins and DNA, but this was not associated with improved oxidative capacity, suggesting that altered energy metabolism in RyR1(R615C) muscle influences mitochondrial proliferation and protein turnover. Thus pigs that possess both AMPKγ3(R200Q) and RyR(R615C) exhibit increased muscle fiber CSA as well as greater oxidative capacity. Together, our findings support the notion that hypertrophy and enhanced oxidative capacity can occur simultaneously in skeletal muscle and suggest that the signaling mechanisms controlling these events are independently regulated.

  14. Global change alters the stability of food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerson, M.; Bezemer, T.M.; Hunter, M.D.; Jones, T.H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has generally shown that a small change in the number of species in a food web can have consequences both for community structure and ecosystem processes. However `change¿ is not limited to just the number of species in a community, but might include an alteration to such properties

  15. Global change alters the stability of food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerson, M.; Bezemer, T.M.; Hunter, M.D.; Jones, T.H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has generally shown that a small change in the number of species in a food web can have consequences both for community structure and ecosystem processes. However 'change' is not limited to just the number of species in a community, but might include an alteration to such properties

  16. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Don

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4 that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development.

  17. Widespread hypomethylation occurs early and synergizes with gene amplification during esophageal carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Alvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although a combination of genomic and epigenetic alterations are implicated in the multistep transformation of normal squamous esophageal epithelium to Barrett esophagus, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma, the combinatorial effect of these changes is unknown. By integrating genome-wide DNA methylation, copy number, and transcriptomic datasets obtained from endoscopic biopsies of neoplastic progression within the same individual, we are uniquely able to define the molecular events associated progression of Barrett esophagus. We find that the previously reported global hypomethylation phenomenon in cancer has its origins at the earliest stages of epithelial carcinogenesis. Promoter hypomethylation synergizes with gene amplification and leads to significant upregulation of a chr4q21 chemokine cluster and other transcripts during Barrett neoplasia. In contrast, gene-specific hypermethylation is observed at a restricted number of loci and, in combination with hemi-allelic deletions, leads to downregulatation of selected transcripts during multistep progression. We also observe that epigenetic regulation during epithelial carcinogenesis is not restricted to traditionally defined "CpG islands," but may also occur through a mechanism of differential methylation outside of these regions. Finally, validation of novel upregulated targets (CXCL1 and 3, GATA6, and DMBT1 in a larger independent panel of samples confirms the utility of integrative analysis in cancer biomarker discovery.

  18. Neurobiological perspective of spasticity as occurs after a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2012-05-01

    In this review we use the term spasticity to mean the generation of abnormal patterns of forces that are generated involuntarily. It is clear that spasticity can have both detrimental and beneficial effects on the neuromuscular system of the affected individuals. Muscle spasticity routinely occurs after a spinal cord injury and other neurological disorders. Although often studied as if there was a single mechanism associated with this phenomenon, it is clear that there are multiple mechanisms having both neural and muscular components, particularly when such terms also are applied to other neuromotor disorders. The aims of this review are to describe the neural and muscular adaptations that are associated with spasticity, highlight the major possible mechanisms producing spasticity, and discuss the role of selected pharmacological interventions in controlling spasticity. Spasticity appears to be related to altered membrane channel and receptor properties that are primarily associated with an increase in the excitability of spinal neurons, resulting in abnormal (in the intensity and combination of muscles activated) contractions that are generated involuntarily. While most of the efforts to understand the etiology of spasticity have focused on motoneurons, it is likely that spinal interneurons play a central role as well as the mechanical properties of muscle fibers and associated connective tissues. A number of pharmacological interventions have been used in attempts to suppress spasticity with varying results, but concomitant with suppressed muscle activation, there can be significant side effects including a reduction in the control of movement.

  19. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs in colon neoplasms arising in the azoxymethane colon cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinstein, Scott C; Conerly, Melissa; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Biswas, Swati; Washington, M Kay; Trobridge, Patty; Henikoff, Steve; Grady, William M

    2010-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal tumors have advanced our understanding of the role of gene mutations in colorectal malignancy. However, the utility of these systems for studying the role of epigenetic alterations in intestinal neoplasms remains to be defined. Consequently, we assessed the role of aberrant DNA methylation in the azoxymethane (AOM) rodent model of colon cancer. AOM induced tumors display global DNA hypomethylation, which is similar to human colorectal cancer. We next assessed the methylation status of a panel of candidate genes previously shown to be aberrantly methylated in human cancer or in mouse models of malignant neoplasms. This analysis revealed different patterns of DNA methylation that were gene specific. Zik1 and Gja9 demonstrated cancer-specific aberrant DNA methylation, whereas, Cdkn2a/p16, Igfbp3, Mgmt, Id4, and Cxcr4 were methylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. No aberrant methylation of Dapk1 or Mlt1 was detected in the neoplasms, but normal colon mucosa samples displayed methylation of these genes. Finally, p19(Arf), Tslc1, Hltf, and Mlh1 were unmethylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. Thus, aberrant DNA methylation does occur in AOM tumors, although the frequency of aberrantly methylated genes appears to be less common than in human colorectal cancer. Additional studies are necessary to further characterize the patterns of aberrantly methylated genes in AOM tumors.

  20. Lysine Succinylation Is a Frequently Occurring Modification in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes and Extensively Overlaps with Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Weinert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that lysines can be posttranslationally modified by various types of acylations. However, except for acetylation, very little is known about their scope and cellular distribution. We mapped thousands of succinylation sites in bacteria (E. coli, yeast (S. cerevisiae, human (HeLa cells, and mouse liver tissue, demonstrating widespread succinylation in diverse organisms. A majority of succinylation sites in bacteria, yeast, and mouse liver were acetylated at the same position. Quantitative analysis of succinylation in yeast showed that succinylation was globally altered by growth conditions and mutations that affected succinyl-coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA metabolism in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, indicating that succinylation levels are globally affected by succinyl-CoA concentration. We preferentially detected succinylation on abundant proteins, suggesting that succinylation occurs at a low level and that many succinylation sites remain unidentified. These data provide a systems-wide view of succinylation and its dynamic regulation and show its extensive overlap with acetylation.

  1. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model.

  2. Biochemistry changes that occur after death: potential markers for determining post-mortem interval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Donaldson

    Full Text Available Death is likely to result in very extensive biochemical changes in all body tissues due to lack of circulating oxygen, altered enzymatic reactions, cellular degradation, and cessation of anabolic production of metabolites. These biochemical changes may provide chemical markers for helping to more accurately determine the time since death (post-mortem interval, which is challenging to establish with current observation-based methodologies. In this study blood pH and changes in concentration of six metabolites (lactic acid, hypoxanthine, uric acid, ammonia, NADH and formic acid were examined post-mortem over a 96 hour period in blood taken from animal corpses (rat and pig and blood from rats and humans stored in vitro. The pH and the concentration of all six metabolites changed post-mortem but the extent and rate of change varied. Blood pH in corpses fell from 7.4 to 5.1. Concentrations of hypoxanthine, ammonia, NADH and formic acid all increased with time and these metabolites may be potential markers for post-mortem interval. The concentration of lactate increased and then remained at an elevated level and changes in the concentration were different in the rat compared to the human and pig. This is the first systematic study of multiple metabolic changes post-mortem and demonstrates the nature and extent of the changes that occur, in addition to identifying potential markers for estimating post-mortem interval.

  3. Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162249.html Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria Study of Washington farm workers finds alterations persist ... News) -- Pesticide exposure may change the makeup of bacteria in the mouths of farm workers, a new ...

  4. Genetic alteration in notch pathway is associated with better prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenchen; Xiong, Zuquan; Jiang, Haowen; Ding, Qiang; Fang, Zujun; Hui, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling was associated with a variety of cancers but was not comprehensively studied in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We have in this study studied the genetic alteration (mutation and copy number variance) of Notch gene set in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) database. We found that Notch pathway was frequently altered in ccRCC. The Notch gene set was genetically altered in 182 (44%) of the 415 ccRCC patients. CNV was the predominant type of alteration in most genes. Alterations in KAT2B and MAML1 occurred in 13% and 19% of patients, respectively, both of which were functionally active in ccRCC. Deletion of VHL was exclusively found in cases with Notch alteration. Overall survival was longer in ccRCC patients with altered-Notch pathway. The median survival was 90.41 months in Notch-altered cases and 69.15 in Notch-unaltered cases (P = 0.0404). The median disease free time was 89.82 months in Notch-altered cases and 77.27 months in in Notch-unaltered cases (P = 0.935). Conclusively, Notch signaling was altered in almost half of the ccRCC patients and copy number variances in MAML1 and KAT2B were predominant changes. These findings broadened our understanding of the role of Notch in ccRCC.

  5. Immunological alterations in hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, Vincenza; Craxì, Antonio

    2013-12-21

    A higher prevalence of immunological processes has recently been reported in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, focusing the attention of physicians and researchers on the close association between HCV and immune disorders. HCV lymphotropism represents the most important step in the pathogenesis of virus-related immunological diseases and experimental, virologic, and clinical evidence has demonstrated a trigger role for HCV both in systemic autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, hemolytic anemia and severe thrombocytopenia, and in organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune hepatitis, thyroid disorders and diabetes. This review will outline the principal aspects of such HCV-induced immunological alterations, focusing on the prevalence of these less characterized HCV extrahepatic manifestations.

  6. Saccadic Alterations in Severe Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pensiero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not sure if persons with dyslexia have ocular motor deficits in addition to their deficits in rapid visual information processing. A 15-year-old boy afflicted by severe dyslexia was submitted to saccadic eye movement recording. Neurological and ophthalmic examinations were normal apart from the presence of an esophoria for near and slightly longer latencies of pattern visual evoked potentials. Subclinical saccadic alterations were present, which could be at the basis of the reading pathology: (1 low velocities (and larger durations of the adducting saccades of the left eye with undershooting and long-lasting postsaccadic onward drift, typical of the internuclear ophthalmoplegia; (2 saccades interrupted in mid-flight and fixation instability, which are present in cases of brainstem premotor disturbances.

  7. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  8. Geochemical characterization of tubular alteration features in subseafloor basalt glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Emily; Staudigel, Hubert; Templeton, Alexis

    2013-07-01

    There are numerous indications that subseafloor basalts may currently host a huge quantity of active microbial cells and contain biosignatures of ancient life in the form of physical and chemical basalt glass alteration. Unfortunately, technological challenges prevent us from observing the formation and mineralization of these alteration features in situ, or reproducing tubular basalt alteration processes in the laboratory. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical traces retained in mineralized tubules is currently the best approach for deciphering a record of glass alteration. We have used a number of high-resolution spectroscopic and microscopic methods to probe the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tubular alteration features in basalt glasses obtained from a suite of subseafloor drill cores that covers a range of different collection locations and ages. By combining three different synchrotron-based X-ray measurements - X-ray fluorescence microprobe mapping, XANES spectroscopy, and μ-XRD - with focused ion beam milling and transmission electron microscopy, we have spatially resolved the major and trace element distributions, as well as the oxidation state of Fe, determined the coordination chemistry of Fe, Mn and Ti at the micron-scale, and constrained the secondary minerals within these features. The tubular alteration features are characterized by strong losses of Fe2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ compared to fresh glass, oxidation of the residual Fe, and the accumulation of Ti and Cu. The predominant phases infilling the alteration regions are Fe3+-bearing silicates dominated by 2:1 clays, with secondary Fe- and Ti-oxides, and a partially oxidized Mn-silicate phase. These geochemical patterns observed within the tubular alteration features are comparable across a diverse suite of samples formed over the past 5-100 Ma, which shows that the microscale mineralization processes are common and consistent throughout the ocean basins and

  9. A kerne