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Sample records for alter flowering responses

  1. Caterpillars induce jasmonates in flowers and alter plant responses to a second attacker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrétien, Lucille T.S.; David, Anja; Daikou, Eirini; Boland, Wilhelm; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Giron, David; Dicke, Marcel; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani

    2018-01-01

    In nature, herbivorous insects and plant pathogens are generally abundant when plants are flowering. Thus, plants face a diversity of attackers during their reproductive phase. Plant responses to one attacker can interfere with responses to a second attacker, and phytohormones that orchestrate plant

  2. Altered expression of polyamine transporters reveals a role for spermidine in the timing of flowering and other developmental response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sheaza; Ariyaratne, Menaka; Patel, Jigar; Howard, Alexander E; Kalinoski, Andrea; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Morris, Paul F

    2017-05-01

    Changes in the levels of polyamines are correlated with the activation or repression of developmental response pathways, but the role of polyamine transporters in the regulation of polyamine homeostasis and thus indirectly gene expression, has not been previously addressed. Here we show that the A. thaliana and rice transporters AtPUT5 and OsPUT1 were localized to the ER, while the AtPUT2, AtPUT3, and OsPUT3 were localized to the chloroplast by transient expression in N. benthamiana. A. thaliana plants that were transformed with OsPUT1 under the control the PUT5 promoter were delayed in flowering by 16days. In contrast, put5 mutants flowered four days earlier than WT plants. The delay of flowering was associated with significantly higher levels of spermidine and spermidine conjugates in the leaves prior to flowering. A similar delay in flowering was also noted in transgenic lines with constitutive expression of either OsPUT1 or OsPUT3. All three transgenic lines had larger rosette leaves, thicker flowering stems, and produced more siliques than wild type plants. In contrast, put5 plants had smaller leaves, thinner flowering stems, and produced fewer siliques. Constitutive expression of PUTs was also associated with an extreme delay in both plant senescence and maturation rate of siliques. These experiments provide the first genetic evidence of polyamine transport in the timing of flowering, and indicate the importance of polyamine transporters in the regulation of flowering and senescence pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flowering phenology shifts in response to biodiversity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Amelia A.; Zavaleta, Erika S; Selmants, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies and experimental evidence agree that rising global temperatures have altered plant phenology—the timing of life events, such as flowering, germination, and leaf-out. Other large-scale global environmental changes, such as nitrogen deposition and altered precipitation regimes, have also been linked to changes in flowering times. Despite our increased understanding of how abiotic factors influence plant phenology, we know very little about how biotic interactions can affect flowering times, a significant knowledge gap given ongoing human-caused alteration of biodiversity and plant community structure at the global scale. We experimentally manipulated plant diversity in a California serpentine grassland and found that many plant species flowered earlier in response to reductions in diversity, with peak flowering date advancing an average of 0.6 days per species lost. These changes in phenology were mediated by the effects of plant diversity on soil surface temperature, available soil N, and soil moisture. Peak flowering dates were also more dispersed among species in high-diversity plots than expected based on monocultures. Our findings illustrate that shifts in plant species composition and diversity can alter the timing and distribution of flowering events, and that these changes to phenology are similar in magnitude to effects induced by climate change. Declining diversity could thus contribute to or exacerbate phenological changes attributed to rising global temperatures.

  4. Altered expression of CmNRRa changes flowering time of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuman; Lian, Lijuan; Liu, Qing; Xiao, Na; Fang, Rongxiang; Liu, Qinglin; Chen, Xiaoying

    2013-04-01

    Flowering time is an important ornamental trait for chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium, Dendranthema x grandiflorum) floricultural production. In this study, CmNRRa, an orthologous gene of OsNRRa that regulates root growth in response to nutrient stress in rice, was identified from Chrysanthemum and its role in flowering time was studied. The entire CmNRRa cDNA sequence was determined using a combinatorial PCR approach along with 5' and 3' RACE methods. CmNRRa expression levels in various tissues were monitored by real-time RT-PCR. CmNRRa was strongly expressed in flower buds and peduncles, suggesting that CmNRRa plays a regulatory role in floral development. To investigate the biological function of CmNRRa in chrysanthemums, overexpression and knockdown of CmNRRa were carried out using transgenic Chrysanthemum plants generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. CmNRRa expression levels in the transgenic plants were assayed by real-time RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis. The transgenic plants showed altered flowering times compared with nontransgenic plants. CmNRRa-RNAi transgenic plants flowered 40-64 days earlier, while CmNRRa-overexpressing plants exhibited a delayed flowering phenotype. These results revealed a negative effect of CmNRRa on flowering time modulation. Alteration of CmNRRa expression levels might be an effective means of controlling flowering time in Chrysanthemum. These results possess potential application in molecular breeding of chrysanthemums that production year-round, and may improve commercial chrysanthemum production in the flower industry. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  6. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

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    Lehto Kirsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs. These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent. Results Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1 were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S

  7. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Acid rain/deposition (including snow and fog), formed due to reaction of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen with atmospheric ... pollution. Several studies conducted in field and greenhouse have demonstrated that acid rain exposure of plants results in poor growth, premature leaf abscission, delayed flowering, decreased flower.

  8. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distilled water-7.0 (control), 5.7, 4.5 and 3.0] on leaf abscission, flowering and pollen germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cv. 'Morden' as test system under field conditions in sandy loam soil with sufficient organic matter, pale yellow in ...

  9. Ectopic expression of a WRKY homolog from Glycine soja alters flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Mingchao; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time.

  10. Ectopic Expression of a WRKY Homolog from Glycine soja Alters Flowering Time in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Mingchao; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time. PMID:23991184

  11. Silencing Nicotiana attenuata LHY and ZTL alters circadian rhythms in flowers.

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    Yon, Felipe; Joo, Youngsung; Cortés Llorca, Lucas; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-02-01

    The rhythmic opening/closing and volatile emissions of flowers are known to attract pollinators at specific times. That these rhythms are maintained under constant light or dark conditions suggests a circadian clock involvement. Although a forward and reverse genetic approach has led to the identification of core circadian clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana, the involvement of these clock components in floral rhythms has remained untested, probably because of the weak diurnal rhythms in A. thaliana flowers. Here, we addressed the role of these core clock components in the flowers of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, whose flowers open at night, emit benzyl acetone (BA) scents and move vertically through a 140° arc. We first measured N. attenuata floral rhythms under constant light conditions. The results suggest that the circadian clock controls flower opening, BA emission and pedicel movement, but not flower closing. We generated transgenic N. attenuata lines silenced in the homologous genes of Arabidopsis LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL), which are known to be core clock components. Silencing NaLHY and NaZTL strongly altered floral rhythms in different ways, indicating that conserved clock components in N. attenuata coordinate these floral rhythms. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Alterations in flowering strategies and sexual allocation of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic aridity gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Xie; Hongyu Guo; Chengcang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Plant can alter reproductive strategies for adaptation to different environments. However, alterations in flowering strategies and sexual allocation for the same species growing in different environments still remain unclear. We examined the sexual reproduction parameters of Caragana stenophylla across four climatic zones from semi-arid, arid, very arid, to intensively arid zones in the Inner Mongolia Steppe, China. Under the relatively favorable climatic conditions of semi-arid zone, C. sten...

  13. Overexpression of AtLOV1 in Switchgrass Alters Plant Architecture, Lignin Content, and Flowering Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Tang, Yuhong; Udvardi, Michael K.; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Shen, Zhengxing; Balota, Maria; Harich, Kim; Zhang, Percival Y.-H.; Zhao, Bingyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a prime candidate crop for biofuel feedstock production in the United States. As it is a self-incompatible polyploid perennial species, breeding elite and stable switchgrass cultivars with traditional breeding methods is very challenging. Translational genomics may contribute significantly to the genetic improvement of switchgrass, especially for the incorporation of elite traits that are absent in natural switchgrass populations. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we constitutively expressed an Arabidopsis NAC transcriptional factor gene, LONG VEGETATIVE PHASE ONE (AtLOV1), in switchgrass. Overexpression of AtLOV1 in switchgrass caused the plants to have a smaller leaf angle by changing the morphology and organization of epidermal cells in the leaf collar region. Also, overexpression of AtLOV1 altered the lignin content and the monolignol composition of cell walls, and caused delayed flowering time. Global gene-expression analysis of the transgenic plants revealed an array of responding genes with predicted functions in plant development, cell wall biosynthesis, and flowering. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first report of a single ectopically expressed transcription factor altering the leaf angle, cell wall composition, and flowering time of switchgrass, therefore demonstrating the potential advantage of translational genomics for the genetic improvement of this crop. PMID:23300513

  14. Overexpression of AtLOV1 in Switchgrass alters plant architecture, lignin content, and flowering time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a prime candidate crop for biofuel feedstock production in the United States. As it is a self-incompatible polyploid perennial species, breeding elite and stable switchgrass cultivars with traditional breeding methods is very challenging. Translational genomics may contribute significantly to the genetic improvement of switchgrass, especially for the incorporation of elite traits that are absent in natural switchgrass populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we constitutively expressed an Arabidopsis NAC transcriptional factor gene, LONG VEGETATIVE PHASE ONE (AtLOV1, in switchgrass. Overexpression of AtLOV1 in switchgrass caused the plants to have a smaller leaf angle by changing the morphology and organization of epidermal cells in the leaf collar region. Also, overexpression of AtLOV1 altered the lignin content and the monolignol composition of cell walls, and caused delayed flowering time. Global gene-expression analysis of the transgenic plants revealed an array of responding genes with predicted functions in plant development, cell wall biosynthesis, and flowering. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a single ectopically expressed transcription factor altering the leaf angle, cell wall composition, and flowering time of switchgrass, therefore demonstrating the potential advantage of translational genomics for the genetic improvement of this crop.

  15. Vascular development of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence rachis in response to flower number, plant growth regulators and defoliation.

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    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; McCully, Margaret E; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-09-01

    The grapevine inflorescence is a determinate panicle and as buds emerge, shoot, flower and rachis development occur simultaneously. The growth and architecture of the rachis is determined by genetic and environmental factors but here we examined the role of flower and leaf number as well as hormones on its elongation and vascular development. The consequences of rachis morphology and vascular area on berry size and composition were also assessed. One week prior to anthesis, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon field vines were exposed to manual flower removal, exogenous plant growth regulators or pre-bloom leaf removal. Manual removal of half the flowers along the vertical axis of the inflorescence resulted in a shorter rachis in both cultivars. Conversely, inflorescences treated with gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and the synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) resulted in a longer rachis while pre-bloom removal of all leaves on the inflorescence-bearing shoot did not alter rachis length relative to untreated inflorescences. Across the treatments, the cross-sectional areas of the conducting xylem and phloem in the rachis were positively correlated to rachis girth, flower number at anthesis, bunch berry number, bunch berry fresh mass and bunch sugar content at harvest. Conversely, average berry size and sugar content were not linked to rachis vascular area. These data indicate that the morphological and vascular development of the rachis was more responsive to flower number and plant growth regulators than to leaf removal.

  16. PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATORs stabilize CONSTANS protein to promote flowering in response to day length.

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    Hayama, Ryosuke; Sarid-Krebs, Liron; Richter, René; Fernández, Virginia; Jang, Seonghoe; Coupland, George

    2017-04-03

    Seasonal reproduction in many organisms requires detection of day length. This is achieved by integrating information on the light environment with an internal photoperiodic time-keeping mechanism. Arabidopsis thaliana promotes flowering in response to long days (LDs), and CONSTANS (CO) transcription factor represents a photoperiodic timer whose stability is higher when plants are exposed to light under LDs. Here, we show that PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) proteins directly mediate this stabilization. PRRs interact with and stabilize CO at specific times during the day, thereby mediating its accumulation under LDs. PRR-mediated stabilization increases binding of CO to the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS T ( FT ), leading to enhanced FT transcription and early flowering under these conditions. PRRs were previously reported to contribute to timekeeping by regulating CO transcription through their roles in the circadian clock. We propose an additional role for PRRs in which they act upon CO protein to promote flowering, directly coupling information on light exposure to the timekeeper and allowing recognition of LDs. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  17. Has climatic warming altered spring flowering date of Sonoran Desert shrubs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2007-01-01

    With global warming, flowering at many locations has shifted toward earlier dates of bloom. A steady increase in average annual temperature since the late 1890s makes it likely that flowering also has advanced in the northern Sonoran Desert of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. In this study, phenological models were used to predict annual date of spring bloom in the northern Sonoran Desert from 1894 to 2004; then, herbarium specimens were assessed for objective evidence of the predicted shift in flowering time. The phenological models were derived from known flowering requirements (triggers and heat sums) of Sonoran Desert shrubs. According to the models, flowering might have advanced by 20-41 d from 1894 to 2004. Analysis of herbarium specimens collected during the 20th century supported the model predictions. Over time, there was a significant increase in the proportion of shrub specimens collected in flower in March and a significant decrease in the proportion collected in May. Thus, the flowering curve - the proportion of individuals in flower in each spring month - shifted toward the start of the calendar year between 1900 and 1999. This shift could not be explained by collection activity: collectors showed no tendency to be active earlier in the year as time went on, nor did activity toward the end of spring decline in recent decades. Earlier bloom eventually could have substantial impacts on plant and animal communities in the Sonoran Desert, especially on migratory hummingbirds and population dynamics of shrubs.

  18. Genetics of growth habit and photoperiodic response to flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... var and photoperiod sensitive, indeterminate type germplasm accessions, GL 37 and GL 103. The genotypes are being maintained at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS),. UAS, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra (GKVK), Bangalore. Emasculated flowers of variety HA 4 were pollinated by pollen grains ...

  19. To flower or not to flower, a temperature-sensitive decision. Characterization of flowering responses at high ambient temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, N.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize fitness, plants use environmental cues to optimize growth processes. One of the processes under strong environmental regulation is flowering. Multiple environmental factors influence flowering, including temperature. Both a continuously increased ambient temperature as well as temporary

  20. To flower or not to flower, a temperature-sensitive decision : Characterization of flowering responses at high ambient temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    To maximize fitness, plants use environmental cues to optimize growth processes. One of the processes under strong environmental regulation is flowering. Multiple environmental factors influence flowering, including temperature. Both a continuously increased ambient temperature as well as temporary

  1. Nonlinear flowering responses to climate: are species approaching their limits of phenological change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, Amy M.; Høye, Toke T.; Inouye, David W.; Schmidt, Niels M.

    2013-01-01

    Many alpine and subalpine plant species exhibit phenological advancements in association with earlier snowmelt. While the phenology of some plant species does not advance beyond a threshold snowmelt date, the prevalence of such threshold phenological responses within plant communities is largely unknown. We therefore examined the shape of flowering phenology responses (linear versus nonlinear) to climate using two long-term datasets from plant communities in snow-dominated environments: Gothic, CO, USA (1974–2011) and Zackenberg, Greenland (1996–2011). For a total of 64 species, we determined whether a linear or nonlinear regression model best explained interannual variation in flowering phenology in response to increasing temperatures and advancing snowmelt dates. The most common nonlinear trend was for species to flower earlier as snowmelt advanced, with either no change or a slower rate of change when snowmelt was early (average 20% of cases). By contrast, some species advanced their flowering at a faster rate over the warmest temperatures relative to cooler temperatures (average 5% of cases). Thus, some species seem to be approaching their limits of phenological change in response to snowmelt but not temperature. Such phenological thresholds could either be a result of minimum springtime photoperiod cues for flowering or a slower rate of adaptive change in flowering time relative to changing climatic conditions. PMID:23836793

  2. Sexually different morphological, physiological and molecular responses of Fraxinus mandshurica flowers to floral development and chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhu; Qi, Fenghui; Yan, Chaofu; Zhan, Yaguang

    2016-02-01

    Fraxinus mandshurica is considered a dioecious hardwood, and the temporal separation of the maturation of the male and female flowers is one reason that F. mandshurica has become an endangered species in China. Rainfall and low temperature influence pollen formation and dispersal and the blooming of female flowers. Therefore, low fertilization efficiency strongly influences the population of F. mandshurica. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the sex-specific morphological, physiological and molecular differentiation of F. mandshurica during flowering and its responses to low temperature. In this study, we investigated the sexual differences in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of F. mandshurica during flowering and determined the physiological and biochemical parameters and expression levels of related genes in response to low-temperature stress induced by exposure to 4 °C (chilling stress) during pollen dispersal and fertilization. Our study supports the hypothesis that male flowers suffer more severe injuries while female flowers are more adaptable to environmental stress during flower development in F. mandshurica. The results showed higher physiological and biochemical levels of malondialdehyde, proline, and soluble sugar, as well as the expression of genes involved in calcium signaling, cold shock and DNA methylation in male flowers compared with female flowers, which suggested that male flowers suffer from more serious peroxidation than female flowers. In contrast, higher antioxidant capacity and FmaCAT expression were detected in female flowers, providing preliminary evidence that male flowers rapidly fade after pollination and further demonstrating that female flowers need a much stronger antioxidant enzyme system to maintain embryonic growth. Most peaks related to physiological and molecular responses were observed at 2-4 h and 8-10 h of exposure to chilling stress in the female and male flowers, respectively

  3. OsHAL3, a Blue Light-Responsive Protein, Interacts with the Floral Regulator Hd1 to Activate Flowering in Rice.

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    Su, Lei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Gao, Ji-Ping; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-02-01

    In flowering plants, photoperiodic flowering is controlled by a complicated network. Light is one of the most important environmental stimuli that control the timing of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development. Several photoreceptors, including PHYA, PHYB, CRY2, and FKF1 in Arabidopsis and their homologs (OsPHYA, OsPHYB, OsPHYC, and OsCRY2) in rice, have been identified to be related to flowering. Our previous study suggests that OsHAL3, a flavin mononucleotide-binding protein, may function as a blue-light sensor. Here, we report the identification of OsHAL3 as a positive regulator of flowering in rice. OsHAL3 overexpression lines exhibited an early flowering phenotype, whereas downregulation of OsHAL3 expression by RNA interference delayed flowering under an inductive photoperiod (short-day conditions). The change in flowering time was not accompanied by altered Hd1 expression but rather by reduced accumulation of Hd3a and MADS14 transcripts. OsHAL3 and Hd1 colocalized in the nucleus and physically interacted in vivo under the dark, whereas their interaction was inhibited by white or blue light. Moreover, OsHAL3 directly bound to the promoter of Hd3a, especially before dawn. We conclude that OsHAL3, a novel light-responsive protein, plays an essential role in photoperiodic control of flowering time in rice, which is probably mediated by forming a complex with Hd1. Our findings open up new perspectives on the photoperiodic flowering pathway. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Dubouzet, Joseph G; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Yasuda, Kentaro; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2010-07-28

    Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of

  5. Temporal responses of peak citrus flowering to climate change in Iran: 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Jennifer; Grab, Stefan; Thompson, Dave; Roshan, GholamReza

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies investigating floral and faunal phenological responses to climate change have highlighted the extent to which these relationships are species and location specific. This study investigates temporal responses of citrus peak flowering to climate change in the cities of Kerman, Shiraz and Gorgan, Iran. Phenological data comprise peak flowering dates of five citrus types: orange (Citrus x sinensis), tangerine (Citrus x tangerine), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta), sour lemon (Citrus x limon) and sour orange (Citrus x aurantium). These were collected daily from government heritage gardens located within each of the three cities, and archived by a private Iranian company, for the period 1960-2010. For the same period, daily Tmax, Tmin, rainfall and sunshine hour data were acquired from the Iranian Meteorological Organization. Time trend analyses were undertaken for both the phenological and meteorological data, followed by linear regression to determine the nature and extent of any relationships between these variables. We find that the mean peak flowering dates, and their long-term trends over the 51-year period, are very similar amongst the five citrus types within each city, but demonstrate significant differences between cities. Flowering date advances of 0.12-0.17d/yr are recorded for Kerman, and more rapid advances of 0.56-0.65d/yr for Shiraz. Notable progressive delays in flowering dates occur in Gorgan (0.05-0.1d/yr). The peak flowering dates of citrus in the former two cities demonstrate strong relationships with mean annual Tmin, ranging from r = 0.46-0.61 (p = 0002; p international markets.

  6. Microarray analysis reveals altered expression of a large number of nuclear genes in developing cytoplasmic male sterile Brassica napus flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Jenny; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Sundström, Jens; Teixeira, Rita; Wellmer, Frank; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Glimelius, Kristina

    2007-02-01

    To gain new insights into the mechanism underlying cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we compared the nuclear gene expression profiles of flowers of a Brassica napus CMS line with that of the fertile B. napus maintainer line using Arabidopsis thaliana flower-specific cDNA microarrays. The CMS line used has a B. napus nuclear genome, but has a rearranged mitochondrial (mt) genome consisting of both B. napus and A. thaliana DNA. Gene expression profiling revealed that a large number of genes differed in expression between the two lines. For example, nuclear genes coding for proteins that are involved in protein import into organelles, genes expressed in stamens and pollen, as well as genes implicated in either cell-wall remodeling or architecture, were repressed in the CMS line compared with B. napus. These results show that the mt genome of the CMS line strongly influences nuclear gene expression, and thus reveal the importance of retrograde signalling between the mitochondria and the nucleus. Furthermore, flowers of the CMS line are characterized by a replacement of stamens with carpelloid organs, and thus partially resemble the APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) mutants. In accordance with this phenotype, AP3 expression was downregulated in the stamens, shortly before these organs developed carpelloid characteristics, even though it was initiated correctly. Repression of PI succeeded that of AP3 and might be a consequence of a loss of AP3 activity. These results suggest that AP3 expression in stamens depends on proper mt function and a correct nuclear-mt interaction, and that mt alterations cause the male sterility phenotype of the CMS line.

  7. Growth, Flowering and Dry Matter Partitioning Response of Mid-Flowering Snapdragon Cultivar Liberty White Grown Under Different Light Gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhajhoj, M. R.; Munir, M.

    2016-01-01

    The rationale of the present study was to quantify the effects of different shade levels (30 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent and 60 percent) and a control (no shade) on growth, flowering and dry matter partitioning traits of Snapdragon cultivar Liberty Wight. A linear relationship was observed between different shade levels and flowering time, rate of progress to flowering, leaf numbers, leaf area, plant height, plant spread, plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, leaf fresh weight and lead dry weight. These growth and development traits increased linearly from 30 percent to 60 percent shade levels, however, the rate of progress to flowering was inverse to flowering time when plants were kept under shades. A polynomial hyperbolic relationship was observed in specific leaf area, specific leaf weight, leaf weight ratio, leaf area ratio, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. It is concluded that different shade levels significantly (P<=0.05) prolonged various growth and development phases of Snapdragon cultivar Liberty White. These finding can be applied to enhance crop quality and to delay growth and flowering time for steadily supply of plants to the market. (author)

  8. Alteration of flower color in Iris germanica L. 'Fire Bride' through ectopic expression of phytoene synthase gene (crtB) from Pantoea agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeknić, Zoran; Jeknić, Stevan; Jevremović, Slađana; Subotić, Angelina; Chen, Tony H H

    2014-08-01

    Genetic modulation of the carotenogenesis in I. germanica 'Fire Bride' by ectopic expression of a crtB gene causes several flower parts to develop novel orange and pink colors. Flower color in tall bearded irises (Iris germanica L.) is determined by two distinct biochemical pathways; the carotenoid pathway, which imparts yellow, orange and pink hues and the anthocyanin pathway, which produces blue, violet and maroon flowers. Red-flowered I. germanica do not exist in nature and conventional breeding methods have thus far failed to produce them. With a goal of developing iris cultivars with red flowers, we transformed a pink iris I. germanica, 'Fire Bride', with a bacterial phytoene synthase gene (crtB) from Pantoea agglomerans under the control of the promoter region of a gene for capsanthin-capsorubin synthase from Lilium lancifolium (Llccs). This approach aimed to increase the flux of metabolites into the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and lead to elevated levels of lycopene and darker pink or red flowers. Iris callus tissue ectopically expressing the crtB gene exhibited a color change from yellow to pink-orange and red, due to accumulation of lycopene. Transgenic iris plants, regenerated from the crtB-transgenic calli, showed prominent color changes in the ovaries (green to orange), flower stalk (green to orange), and anthers (white to pink), while the standards and falls showed no significant differences in color when compared to control plants. HPLC and UHPLC analysis confirmed that the color changes were primarily due to the accumulation of lycopene. In this study, we showed that ectopic expression of a crtB can be used to successfully alter the color of certain flower parts in I. germanica 'Fire Bride' and produce new flower traits.

  9. Gene Regulatory Variation Mediates Flowering Responses to Vernalization along an Altitudinal Gradient in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Léonie; Rüegg, Marlene; Zemp, Niklaus

    2014-01-01

    Steep environmental gradients provide ideal settings for studies of potentially adaptive phenotypic and genetic variation in plants. The accurate timing of flowering is crucial for reproductive success and is regulated by several pathways, including the vernalization pathway. Among the numerous genes known to enable flowering in response to vernalization, the most prominent is FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FLC and other genes of the vernalization pathway vary extensively among natural populations and are thus candidates for the adaptation of flowering time to environmental gradients such as altitude. We used 15 natural Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genotypes originating from an altitudinal gradient (800–2,700 m above sea level) in the Swiss Alps to test whether flowering time correlated with altitude under different vernalization scenarios. Additionally, we measured the expression of 12 genes of the vernalization pathway and its downstream targets. Flowering time correlated with altitude in a nonlinear manner for vernalized plants. Flowering time could be explained by the expression and regulation of the vernalization pathway, most notably by AGAMOUS LIKE19 (AGL19), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), and FLC. The expression of AGL19, FT, and VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 was associated with altitude, and the regulation of MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING2 (MAF2) and MAF3 differed between low- and high-altitude genotypes. In conclusion, we found clinal variation across an altitudinal gradient both in flowering time and the expression and regulation of genes in the flowering time control network, often independent of FLC, suggesting that the timing of flowering may contribute to altitudinal adaptation. PMID:25339407

  10. Phenological behaviour of early spring flowering trees in Spain in response to recent climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Galvez, M. D.; García-Mozo, H.; Oteros, J.; Mestre, A.; Botey, R.; Galán, C.

    2018-04-01

    This research reports the phenological trends of four early spring and late winter flowering trees in Spain (south Europe) from a recent period (1986-2012). The studied species were deciduous trees growing in different climatic areas: hazel ( Corylus avellana L.), willow ( Salix alba L.), ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and white mulberry ( Morus alba L.). We analysed the response to climate and the trends of the following phenophases observed at the field: budburst, leaf unfolding, flowering, fruit ripening, fruit harvesting, leaf colour change and leaf-fall. The study was carried out in 17 sampling sites in the country with the aim of detecting the recent phenological response to the climate of these species, and the possible effect of climate change. We have observed differences in the phenological response to climate depending on each species. Sixty-one percent of studied sites suffered an advance of early spring phenophases, especially budburst on average by -0.67 days and flowering on average by -0.15 days during the studied period, and also in the subsequent fruit ripening and harvesting phases on average by -1.06 days. By contrast, it has been detected that 63% of sampling sites showed a delay in autumn vegetative phases, especially leaf-fall events on average by +1.15 days. The statistic correlation analysis shows in the 55% of the studied localities that phenological advances are the consequence of the increasing trend detected for temperature—being minimum temperature the most influential factor—and in the 52% of them, phenological advances occurred by rainfall variations. In general, leaf unfolding and flowering from these species showed negative correlations in relation to temperature and rainfall, whereas that leaf colour change and leaf-fall presented positive correlations. The results obtained have a great relevance due to the fact that they can be considered as reliable bio-indicators of the impact of the recent climate changes in southern

  11. Ethic's pedagogy: from responsibility to alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S. Vila Merino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, since the so-called 'linguistic turn' and the rise of the notion of discursive formations, has tended to combine the teleological and the deontological. That means that, if ethics is to be useful in understanding relationships and other social issues, or in building the common good, it ought to take a procedural position. We believe that the teaching of ethics should be based on the notions of responsibility and alterity. These two concepts are helpful in promoting mutual understanding and other-directedness.

  12. Flowers, Beautiful Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the lesson described, the middle school students had been studying the artist Georgia O'Keeffe and the history of her work. Students enhanced their flower portraits by adding a matching border and connecting the lesson to other subject areas. Students dissected a flower and drew a small diagram of the flower and labeled the parts. This is an…

  13. Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Soong, Yean Yean; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-15

    Bread is a staple food that is traditionally made from wheat flour. This study aimed to compare the starch digestibility of western baked bread and oriental steamed bread. Four types of bread were prepared: western baked bread (WBB) and oriental steamed bread (OSB), modified baked bread (MBB) made with the OSB recipe and WBB processing, and modified steamed bread (MSB) made with the WBB recipe and OSB processing. MBB showed the highest starch digestibility in vitro, followed by WBB, OSB and MSB. A similar trend was observed for glycaemic response in vivo. MBB, WBB, OSB and MSB had a glycaemic index of 75±4, 71±5, 68±5 and 65±4, respectively. Processing differences had a more pronounced effect on starch digestibility in bread, and steamed bread was healthier in terms of glycaemic response. The manipulation of processing conditions could be an innovative route to alter the glycaemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Induced and natural variation of promoter length modulates the photoperiodic response of FLOWERING LOCUS T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangyu; Adrian, Jessika; Pankin, Artem; Hu, Jinyong; Dong, Xue; von Korff, Maria; Turck, Franziska

    2014-08-04

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) regulates the floral transition in many plant species by integrating environmental seasonal signals and internal cues. Here we show that two interdependent regulatory regions are necessary and sufficient to convey photoperiod responsiveness to FT. While a minimal distance between the regulatory regions is required to fully suppress FT expression under short days, increased distance reduces promoter response to long days. Natural variation at FT creating promoter length differences is widespread, correlates with longitudinal and latitudinal clines and affects a promoter region physically interacting with both photoperiod control regions. Three major FT promoter variants correlate with differences in FT allele usage in F1 hybrids. We propose that FT variation in cis could be adaptive by conferring differences in FT transcriptional control ultimately translating to increased fitness.

  15. Flowering responses to light-breaks in photomorphogenic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, a long-day plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, N.; Kumagai, T.; Koornneef, M.

    1991-01-01

    Flowering response and plant form of photomorphogenic mutants (hy1, hy2, hy3, hy4 and hy5) of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.), a long-day plant, were examined in long and short days. There were only slight differences among genotypes including Landsberg wild type with respect to the flowering time under long days. The effect of 1 h light-(night)-breaks of far-red, red, blue and white light given in the middle of the dark period of plants grown under short days, was studied. Effects of far-red light applied at the end or the beginning of the main photoperiod on flowering and plant form were also examined. The light-breaks with all the above mentioned light qualities promoted floral initiation of all the genotypes including the wild type in terms of both the flowering time and the number of rosette leaves. In general, far-red light was most effective. It is possible to classify the hy-mutants into 3 groups by their responses to light-breaks under short day conditions: (a) Mutants hy2 and hy3, which have a reduced number of rosette leaves, and flower early. Red light is as effective as far-red light. The wavelength of light-breaks is relatively unimportant for flowering response. (b) Mutants hy4, hy5 and Landsberg wild type, which have a greater number of rosette leaves, and flower relatively late. The effectiveness of light-breaks is in the following order, far-red, blue, and red light, which is in reverse order to the transformation of phytochrome to the P fr form. (c) Mutant hy1, which behaves anomalously with respect to relations between flowering time and number of rosette leaves; late flowering with reduced number of rosette leaves. Red, blue and far-red light are effective, but white light is ineffective for reducing the number of rosette leaves. When far-red light was given in the middle of the night or at the end of the main photoperiod, it markedly reduced the number of rosette leaves compared to those grown under short days for all the genotypes, while when

  16. FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER Negatively Regulates Ethylene Response DNA-Binding Factors by Activating an Ethylene-Responsive Factor to Control Arabidopsis Floral Organ Senescence and Abscission1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Fang; Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    In this study of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we investigated the relationship between FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER (FYF) and Ethylene Response DNA-binding Factors (EDFs) and functionally analyzed a key FYF target, an Ethylene-Responsive Factor (ERF), that controls flower senescence/abscission. Ectopic expression of EDF1/2/3/4 caused promotion of flower senescence/abscission and the activation of the senescence-associated genes. The presence of a repressor domain in EDFs and the enhancement of the promotion of senescence/abscission in EDF1/2/3/4+SRDX (converting EDFs to strong repressors by fusion with the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression motif repression domain SRDX) transgenic plants suggested that EDFs act as repressors. The significant reduction of β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression by 35S:FYF in EDF1/2/3/4:GUS plants indicates that EDF1/2/3/4 functions downstream of FYF in regulating flower senescence/abscission. In this study, we also characterized an ERF gene, FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER UP-REGULATING FACTOR1 (FUF1), which is up-regulated by FYF during flower development. Ectopic expression of FUF1 caused similar delayed flower senescence/abscission as seen in 35S:FYF plants. This phenotype was correlated with deficient abscission zone formation, ethylene insensitivity, and down-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 and abscission-associated genes in 35S:FUF1 flowers. In contrast, significant promotion of flower senescence/abscission and up-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 were observed in 35S:FUF1+SRDX transgenic dominant-negative plants, in which FUF1 is converted to a potent repressor by fusion to an SRDX-suppressing motif. Thus, FUF1 acts as an activator in suppressing EDF1/2/3/4 function and senescence/abscission of the flowers. Our results reveal that FYF regulates flower senescence/abscission by negatively regulating EDF1/2/3/4, which is the downstream gene in the ethylene response, by activating FUF1 in Arabidopsis. PMID:26063506

  17. Upland cotton gene GhFPF1 confers promotion of flowering time and shade-avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    Full Text Available Extensive studies on floral transition in model species have revealed a network of regulatory interactions between proteins that transduce and integrate developmental and environmental signals to promote or inhibit the transition to flowering. Previous studies indicated FLOWERING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 (FPF1 gene was involved in the promotion of flowering, but the molecular mechanism was still unclear. Here, FPF1 homologous sequences were screened from diploid Gossypium raimondii L. (D-genome, n = 13 and Gossypium arboreum L. genome (A-genome, n = 13 databases. Orthologous genes from the two species were compared, suggesting that distinctions at nucleic acid and amino acid levels were not equivalent because of codon degeneracy. Six FPF1 homologous genes were identified from the cultivated allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. (AD-genome, n = 26. Analysis of relative transcripts of the six genes in different tissues revealed that this gene family displayed strong tissue-specific expression. GhFPF1, encoding a 12.0-kDa protein (Accession No: KC832319 exerted more transcripts in floral apices of short-season cotton, hinting that it could be involved in floral regulation. Significantly activated APETALA 1 and suppressed FLOWERING LOCUS C expression were induced by over-expression of GhFPF1 in the Arabidopsis Columbia-0 ecotype. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis displayed a constitutive shade-avoiding phenotype that is characterized by long hypocotyls and petioles, reduced chlorophyll content, and early flowering. We propose that GhFPF1 may be involved in flowering time control and shade-avoidance responses.

  18. Flowering phenology and reproductive fitness along a mountain slope: maladaptive responses to transplantation to a warmer climate in Campanula thyrsoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepens, J F; Stöcklin, J

    2013-03-01

    In many biomes, global warming has resulted in advanced and longer growing seasons, which has often led to earlier flowering in plant taxa. Elevational gradients are ideal to study the effects of global warming as they allow transplantation of plants from their original cooler higher elevations down to elevations with a prospective climate. We transplanted plants from ten populations of the European alpine monocarpic herb species Campanula thyrsoides L. to three sites along a steep mountain slope (600, 1,235 and 1,850 m above sea level) in the Swiss Alps and asked whether reproductive phenology adjusts plastically to elevation and if these responses were adaptive, i.e. increased the fitness of plants. We further assessed current genetic differentiation in phenotypic traits and whether any such origin effects were due to adaptation to climatic conditions of origin. Our results showed that transplantation to lower elevations caused strong shifts in phenology, with plants starting growth and flowering earlier than plants placed at higher elevations. However, compared to flower production at high elevation, number of flowers per plant decreased 21 % at mid- and 61 % at low elevation. The shift in phenology thus came with a high cost in fitness, and we suggest that phenology is maladaptive when C. thyrsoides faces temperature conditions deviating from its natural amplitude. We conclude that the frequently reported phenological shift in plant species as a response to global warming may include heavy fitness costs that may hamper species survival.

  19. Day light quality affects the night-break response in the short-day plant chrysanthemum, suggesting differential phytochrome-mediated regulation of flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yohei; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Oda, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2012-12-15

    Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is a short-day plant, which flowers when the night length is longer than a critical minimum. Flowering is effectively inhibited when the required long-night phase is interrupted by a short period of exposure to red light (night break; NB). The reversal of this inhibition by subsequent exposure to far-red (FR) light indicates the involvement of phytochromes in the flowering response. Here, we elucidated the role of light quality in photoperiodic regulation of chrysanthemum flowering, by applying a range of different conditions. Flowering was consistently observed under short days with white light (W-SD), SD with monochromatic red light (R-SD), or SD with monochromatic blue light (B-SD). For W-SD, NB with monochromatic red light (NB-R) was most effective in inhibiting flowering, while NB with monochromatic blue light (NB-B) and NB with far-red light (NB-FR) caused little inhibition. In contrast, for B-SD, flowering was strongly inhibited by NB-B and NB-FR. However, when B-SD was supplemented with monochromatic red light (B+R-SD), no inhibition by NB-B and NB-FR was observed. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of NB-B following B-SD was partially reversed by subsequent exposure to a FR light pulse. The conditions B-SD/NB-B (no flowering) and B+R-SD/NB-B (flowering) similarly affected the expression of circadian clock-related genes. However, only the former combination suppressed expression of the chrysanthemum orthologue of FLOWERING LOCUS T (CmFTL3). Our results suggest the involvement of at least 2 distinct phytochrome responses in the flowering response of chrysanthemum. Furthermore, it appears that the light quality supplied during the daily photoperiod affects the light quality required for effective NB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  1. Chlorophyll, Soluble Sugar and Flower Dry Weight of German Chamomile in Response to Methyl Jasmonate under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using plant growth regulators at the stresses environment can improve plant growth and crop production. Hence, in this research response of photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll, soluble sugar and flower dry weight of chamomile to methyl jasmonate under different salinity levels was studied. Values of 0 (control, 75, 150, 225 and 300μM methyl jasmonate (MeJA with salinity levels of 2, 6, 10 and 14 dS/m was evaluated as a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The effect of MeJA and salinity was significant for photosynthesis rate, leaf temperature difference (T, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, soluble sugar and flower dry weight. Also, MeJA × salinity interaction affected all traits except T. The highest value of photosynthetic rate (9.99 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 , chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll, in averaging 5.98, 41.18 and 45.10 mg g-1, respectively, and flower dry weight (3.73 g pot-1 were obtained at 75μM MeJA and 6 dS/m salinity. But, there was no significant difference between 75μM MeJA×6 dS/m and 75μM MeJA×2dS/m for RWC and flower dry weight traits. Maximum soluble sugar was achieved at 75μM MeJA×14 dS/m treatment. In general, using of MeJA increased RWC and decreased undesirable effects of salinity. With decreasing RWC photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll and flower dry weight decreased, but T increased.

  2. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Playfair, Susan R.; Polgar, Caroline A.; Primack, Richard B.

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe—a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  3. Expression of B-class MADS-box genes in response to variations in photoperiod is associated with chasmogamous and cleistogamous flower development in Viola philippica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaoxia; Huo, Qingdi; Wang, Juan; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Kun; He, Chaoying

    2016-07-07

    Some plants develop a breeding system that produces both chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we observed that Viola philippica develops CH flowers with short daylight, whereas an extended photoperiod induces the formation of intermediate CL and CL flowers. In response to long daylight, the respective number and size of petals and stamens was lower and smaller than those of normally developed CH flowers, and a minimum of 14-h light induced complete CL flowers that had no petals but developed two stamens of reduced fertility. The floral ABC model indicates that B-class MADS-box genes largely influence the development of the affected two-whorl floral organs; therefore, we focused on characterizing these genes in V. philippica to understand this particular developmental transition. Three such genes were isolated and respectively designated as VpTM6-1, VpTM6-2, and VpPI. These were differentially expressed during floral development (particularly in petals and stamens) and the highest level of expression was observed in CH flowers; significantly low levels were detected in intermediate CL flowers, and the lowest level in CL flowers. The observed variations in the levels of expression after floral induction and organogenesis apparently occurred in response to variations in photoperiod. Therefore, inhibition of the development of petals and stamens might be due to the downregulation of B-class MADS-box gene expression by long daylight, thereby inducing the generation of CL flowers. Our work contributes to the understanding of the adaptive evolutionary formation of dimorphic flowers in plants.

  4. TERMINAL FLOWER1 is a breeding target for a novel everbearing trait and tailored flowering responses in cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Elli Aurora; Sønsteby, Anita; Flachowsky, Henryk; Heide, Ola Mikal; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2016-09-01

    The effects of daylength and temperature on flowering of the cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) have been studied extensively at the physiological level, but information on the molecular pathways controlling flowering in the species is scarce. The flowering pathway has been studied at the molecular level in the diploid short-day woodland strawberry (F. vesca L.), in which the FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FvFT1)-SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (FvSOC1)-TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1) pathway is essential for the correct timing of flowering. In this work, we show by transgenic approach that the silencing of the floral repressor FaTFL1 in the octoploid short-day cultivar 'Elsanta' is sufficient to induce perpetual flowering under long days without direct changes in vegetative reproduction. We also demonstrate that although the genes FaFT1 and FaSOC1 show similar expression patterns in different cultivars, the regulation of FaTFL1 varies widely from cultivar to cultivar and is correlated with floral induction, indicating that the transcription of FaTFL1 occurs at least partially independently of the FaFT1-FaSOC1 module. Our results indicate that changing the expression patterns of FaTFL1 through biotechnological or conventional breeding approaches could result in strawberries with specific flowering and runnering characteristics including new types of everbearing cultivars. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

    2009-01-01

    This publication helps the reader to select wisely among the many species and varieties of flowering trees available. The following are considerations that should be taken into account when choosing flowering trees for the home landscape: selections factors, environmental responses, availability and adaptability, and flowering tree descriptions.

  6. Flowering phenology in a species-rich temperate grassland is sensitive to warming but not elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovenden, Mark J; Wills, Karen E; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Williams, Amity L; Newton, Paul C D

    2008-01-01

    * Flowering is a critical stage in plant life cycles, and changes might alter processes at the species, community and ecosystem levels. Therefore, likely flowering-time responses to global change drivers are needed for predictions of global change impacts on natural and managed ecosystems. * Here, the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) (550 micromol mol(-1)) and warming (+2 masculineC) is reported on flowering times in a native, species-rich, temperate grassland in Tasmania, Australia in both 2004 and 2005. * Elevated [CO2] did not affect average time of first flowering in either year, only affecting three out of 23 species. Warming reduced time to first flowering by an average of 19.1 d in 2004, acting on most species, but did not significantly alter flowering time in 2005, which might be related to the timing of rainfall. Elevated [CO2] and warming treatments did not interact on flowering time. * These results show elevated [CO2] did not alter average flowering time or duration in this grassland; neither did it alter the response to warming. Therefore, flowering phenology appears insensitive to increasing [CO2] in this ecosystem, although the response to warming varies between years but can be strong.

  7. Longleaf pine flowering in response to nitrogen fertilization, branch girdling, growth substances, and cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Hare; E.B. Snyder; R.C. Schmidtling

    1977-01-01

    Biweekly applications of 400 µg GA4/7 plus 25 µg NAA per bud from June 1 to August 10 promoted male and female flowering in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), especially when combined with partial branch girdling and NH4N03 fertilization. Fertilization was the...

  8. Responses of supplemental blue light on flowering and stem extension growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, S.W.; Hogewoning, S.W.; Ieperen, van W.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of blue (B) spectrum supplemental lighting on flower bud formation and stem elongation growth of cut chrysanthemum, plants of ‘Zembla’ cultivar were grown for 42 days under 4 different light treatments. Treatments comprised: RB (11 h of mixed red and blue [RB] light), RB + B

  9. Response of cotton varieties to different environments flowering behavior and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawdat, D.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Al-Safadi, B.

    2015-01-01

    The flowering behavior and fiber quality traits were analyzed of six Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties and one G. barbadense variety that were cultivated in two environmentally different locations. Records of days after planting (DAP) at first floral bud emergence, DAP at first floral opening, plant height at first flower and nodes above white flower (NAWF) were analyzed statistically to study flowering behavior in both locations. Fiber traits were tested and records of micronaire, fiber length, strength, cohesion, elongation, ginning percentage, and weight of seed cotton were statistically analyzed to look for significant differences and correlations. Earliness and a decline in fiber strength, and fiber cohesion were obtained in varieties cultivated in Soujeh accompanied with an increase in ginning percentages. Uniquely, fiber elongation showed no significant differences in varieties between the two environments in both seasons. Our results indicated that stability in some fiber traits such as, micronaire, fiber length, strength and cohesion was a variety specific. Evidently, fiber elongation in our work was not affected by cultivation managements and environmental conditions which suggest the solid genetic bases that control this trait.(author)

  10. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  11. In vitro vegetative growth and flowering of olive tree in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytohormone gibberellin is involved in the regulation of many physiological process including flower induction and shoot growth. In this study, gibberellic acid (GA3) was used in order to induce the reversion of olive tree vegetative buds towards a floral ones in vitro. For this, six varieties (Marsaline, Chemchali, ...

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baccaurea courtallensis Muell.-Arg. of Euphorbiaceae is an evergreen tree that is very attractive when in flower. Leaves are alternate. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. Inflorescences bearing several flowers arise in tufts on tubercles on the stem. Fruits are crimson red in colour. Seeds are covered.

  13. Blob Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  14. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Flower of Jatropha integerrima by Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, An-Na; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-12-24

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed for the efficient extraction of natural antioxidants from the flowers of Jatropha integerrima. Four independent variables, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, ultrasound irradiation time and temperature were studied by single factor experiments. Then, the central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology were employed to investigate the effect of three key parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, and ultrasound irradiation time) on the antioxidant activities of the flower extracts. The optimal extraction conditions were an ethanol concentration of 59.6%, solvent/material ratio of 50:1, ultrasound irradiation time of 7 min, and ultrasound irradiation temperature of 40 °C. Under these conditions, the optimized experimental value was 1103.38 ± 16.11 µmol Trolox/g dry weight (DW), which was in accordance with the predicted value (1105.49 µmol Trolox/g DW). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of flower extracts obtained by UAE were compared with those produced by the traditional maceration and Soxhlet extraction methods, and UAE resulted in higher antioxidant activities after a shorter time at a lower temperature. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Jatropha integerrima, and also indicate that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for the extraction of natural antioxidants from plant materials.

  15. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Flower of Jatropha integerrima by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method was developed for the efficient extraction of natural antioxidants from the flowers of Jatropha integerrima. Four independent variables, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, ultrasound irradiation time and temperature were studied by single factor experiments. Then, the central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology were employed to investigate the effect of three key parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, and ultrasound irradiation time on the antioxidant activities of the flower extracts. The optimal extraction conditions were an ethanol concentration of 59.6%, solvent/material ratio of 50:1, ultrasound irradiation time of 7 min, and ultrasound irradiation temperature of 40 °C. Under these conditions, the optimized experimental value was 1103.38 ± 16.11 µmol Trolox/g dry weight (DW, which was in accordance with the predicted value (1105.49 µmol Trolox/g DW. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of flower extracts obtained by UAE were compared with those produced by the traditional maceration and Soxhlet extraction methods, and UAE resulted in higher antioxidant activities after a shorter time at a lower temperature. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Jatropha integerrima, and also indicate that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for the extraction of natural antioxidants from plant materials.

  16. Flowering induction in the bioenergy grass Miscanthus sacchariflorus is a quantitative short-day response, whilst delayed flowering under long days increases biomass accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnison, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Miscanthus sacchariflorus is a fast-growing C4 perennial grass that can naturally hybridize with M. sinensis to produce interspecific hybrids, such as the sterile triploid M.× giganteus. The creation of such hybrids is essential for the rapid domestication of this novel bioenergy crop. However, progress has been hindered by poor understanding of the environmental cues promoting floral transition in M. sacchariflorus, which flowers less readily than M. sinensis. The purpose of this work was to identify the flowering requirements of M. sacchariflorus genotypes in order to expedite the introduction of new germplasm optimized to different environments. Six M. sacchariflorus accessions collected from a range of latitudes were grown under controlled photoperiod and temperature conditions, and flowering, biomass, and morphological phenotypic data were captured. Results indicated that M. sacchariflorus, irrespective of origin, is a quantitative short-day plant. Flowering under static long days (15.3h daylength), compared with shorter photoperiods, was delayed by an average 61 d, with an average associated increase of 52% of above-ground biomass (DM plant–1). Timing of floral initiation occurred between photoperiods of 14.2h and 12.1h, and accumulated temperatures of 553–1157 °C above a base temperature of 10 °C. Miscanthus sacchariflorus flowering phenology closely resembles that of Sorghum and Saccharum, indicating potentially similar floral pathways and suggesting that determination of the underlying genetic mechanisms will be facilitated by the syntenic relationships existing between these important C4 grasses. PMID:23183254

  17. Acute effect of Clitoria ternatea flower beverage on glycemic response and antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusak, Charoonsri; Thilavech, Thavaree; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2018-01-08

    Clitoria ternatea L., a natural food-colorant containing anthocyanin, demonstrated antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Clitoria ternatea flower extract (CTE) on postprandial plasma glycemia response and antioxidant status in healthy men. In a randomized, crossover study, 15 healthy men (ages 22.53 ± 0.30 years; with body mass index of 21.57 ± 0.54 kg/m 2 ) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 1 g CTE in 400 mL of water; (3) 2 g CTE in 400 mL of water; (4) 50 g sucrose and 1 g CTE in 400 mL of water; and (5) 50 g sucrose and 2 g CTE in 400 mL of water. Incremental postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, uric acid, antioxidant capacities and lipid peroxidation were measured during 3 h of administration. After 30 min ingestion, the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels were suppressed when consuming sucrose plus 1 g and 2 g CTE. In addition, consumption of CTE alone did not alter plasma glucose and insulin concentration in the fasting state. The significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and protein thiol) and the decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level were observed in the subjects who received 1 g and 2 g CTE. Furthermore, consumption of CTE protected sucrose-induced reduction in ORAC and TEAC and increase in plasma MDA. These findings suggest that an acute ingestion of CTE increases plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in the fasting state. It also improves postprandial glucose, insulin and antioxidant status when consumed with sucrose. Thai Clinical Trials Registry: TCTR20170609003 . Registered 09 September 2017. 'retrospectively registered'.

  18. Response surface optimization of ultrasound-assisted flavonoids extraction from the flower of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Cao, Ya-Lan; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Lin, Qing-Sheng; Chen, Jian; Zhu, Liang

    2010-05-01

    Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl is a member of genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and has been used in Chinese medicine with the effectiveness of digestant and expectorant. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction process for maximum flavonoids from the flower of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl was investigated by response surface methodology. Through single factor experiment, ranges of the main variables (including ethanol concentration, solid/liquid ratio, extraction time and temperature) affecting the extraction yield of flavonoids were confirmed. Box-Behnken central composite design consisting of 24 experimental runs and 5 replicates at zero point was then applied and a regress model was obtained to predict the optimal extraction yield. The ANOVA indicated that the regression equation fits very well with the actual situation, reflecting the relationship between the extraction yield of flavonoids and extraction conditions. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 72.11 degrees C, time 51.89 min, ethanol concentration 51.19% and liquid/solid ratio of 40:10. Under the optimal conditions, the maximum response value of yield (1.88%) was consistent with the experimental value (1.87%), indicating the feasibility and validation of response surface methodology in optimizing the extraction of flavonoids from the flower of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl.

  19. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of biosorption of fluoride from groundwater using Shorea robusta flower petal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, G.; Kumari, M.; Adhikari, K.; Dutta, S.

    2017-12-01

    Fluoride pollution in groundwater is a major concern in rural areas. The flower petal of Shorea robusta, commonly known as sal tree, is used in the present study both in its native form and Ca-impregnated activated form to eradicate excess fluoride from simulated wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for experimental designing and analyzing optimum condition for carbonization vis-à-vis calcium impregnation for preparation of adsorbent. During carbonization, temperature, time and weight ratio of calcium chloride to sal flower petal (SFP) have been considered as input factors and percentage removal of fluoride as response. Optimum condition for carbonization has been obtained as temperature, 500 °C; time, 1 h and weight ratio, 2.5 and the sample prepared has been termed as calcium-impregnated carbonized sal flower petal (CCSFP). Optimum condition as analyzed by one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method is initial fluoride concentration, 2.91 mg/L; pH 3 and adsorbent dose, 4 g/L. CCSFP shows maximum removal of 98.5% at this condition. RSM has also been used for finding out optimum condition for defluoridation considering initial concentration, pH and adsorbent dose as input parameters. The optimum condition as analyzed by RSM is: initial concentration, 5 mg/L; pH 3.5 and adsorbent dose, 2 g/L. Kinetic and equilibrium data follow Ho pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, respectively. Adsorption capacity of CCSFP has been found to be 5.465 mg/g. At optimized condition, CCSFP has been found to remove fluoride (80.4%) efficiently from groundwater collected from Bankura district in West Bengal, a fluoride-contaminated province in India.

  20. Impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on flower, pollen, and nectar production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, B.J.; Cane, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Intensified ultraviolet-B radiation or UV-B (wavelengths between 280 and 320 nm) can delay flowering and diminish lifetime flower production in a few plants. Here we studied the effects of enhanced UV-B on floral traits crucial to pollination and pollinator reproduction. We observed simultaneous flowering responses of a new crop plant, Limnanthes alba (Limnathaceae), and a wildflower, Phacelia campanularia (Hydrophyllaceae), to five lifetime UV-B dosages ranging between 2.74 and 15.93 kJ·m -2 ·d -1 . Floral traits known to link plant pollination with bee host preference, host fidelity and larval development were measured. Intensified UV-B had no overall effect on nectar and pollen production of L. alba and P. campanularia flowers. A quadratic relationship between UV-B and nectar sugar production occurred in P. campanularia and showed that even subambient UV-B dosages can be deleterious for a floral trait. Other floral responses to UV-B were more dramatic and idiosyncratic. As UV-B dosage increased, L. alba plants were less likely to flower, but suffered no delays in flowering or reductions to lifetime flower production for those that did flower. Conversely, an equal proportion of P. campanularia plants flowered under all UV-B treatments, but these same plants experienced delayed onset to bloom and produced fewer flowers at greater UV-B intensities. Therefore, intensified UV-B elicits idiosyncratic responses in flowering phenology and flower production from these two annual plants. Diurnal patterns in nectar and pollen production strongly coincided with fluctuating humidity and only weakly with UV-B dosage. Overall, our results indicated that intensified UVB can alter some flowering traits that impinge upon plant competition for pollinator services, as well as plant and pollinator reproductive success. (author)

  1. Long-term herbarium records reveal temperature-dependent changes in flowering phenology in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Isaac W.; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, a growing body of evidence has emerged indicating that the relationship between flowering phenology and climate may differ throughout various portions of the growing season. These differences have resulted in long-term changes in flowering synchrony that may alter the quantity and diversity of pollinator attention to many species, as well as altering food availability to pollenivorous and nectarivorous animal species. However, long-term multi-season records of past flowering timing have primarily focused on temperate environments. In contrast, changes in flowering phenology within humid subtropical environments such as the southeastern USA remain poorly documented. This research uses herbarium-based methods to examine changes in flowering time across 19,328 samples of spring-, summer-, and autumn-flowering plants in the southeastern USA from the years 1951 to 2009. In this study, species that flower near the onset of the growing season were found to advance under increasing mean March temperatures (-3.391 days/°C, p = 0.022). No long-term advances in early spring flowering or spring temperature were detected during this period, corroborating previous phenological assessments for the southeastern USA. However, late spring through mid-summer flowering exhibited delays in response to higher February temperatures (over 0.1.85 days/°C, p ≤ 0.041 in all cases). Thus, it appears that flowering synchrony may undergo significant restructuring in response to warming spring temperatures, even in humid subtropical environments.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a floral homeotic gene in Fraxinus nigra causing earlier flowering and homeotic alterations in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Hyung Lee; Paula M. Pijut

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive sterility, which can be obtained by manipulating floral organ identity genes, is an important tool for gene containment of genetically engineered trees. In Arabidopsis, AGAMOUS (AG) is the only C-class gene responsible for both floral meristem determinacy and floral organ identity, and its mutations produce...

  3. Flowering and Growth Responses of Cultivated Lentil and WildLensGermplasm toward the Differences in Red to Far-Red Ratio and Photosynthetically Active Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hai Y; Saha, Shyamali; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E

    2017-01-01

    Understanding environmental responses of pulse crop species and their wild relatives will play an important role in developing genetic strategies for crop improvement in response to changes in climate. This study examined how cultivated lentil and wild Lens germplasm responded to different light environments, specifically differences in red/far-red ratio (R/FR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Three genotypes of each the seven Lens species were grown in environmentally controlled growth chambers equipped to provide light treatments consisting of different R/FR ratios and PAR values. Our results showed that overall, days to flower of Lens genotypes were mainly influenced by the R/FR induced light quality change but not by the PAR related light intensity change. The cultivated lentil ( L. culinaris ) showed consistent, accelerated flowering in response to the low R/FR light environment together with three wild lentil genotypes ( L. orientalis IG 72611, L. tomentosus IG 72830, and L. ervoides IG 72815) while most wild lentil genotypes had reduced responses and flowering time was not significantly affected. The longest shoot length, longest internode length, and largest leaflet area were observed under the low R/FR low PAR environment for both cultivated and wild lentils. The distinctly different responses between flowering time and elongation under low R/FR conditions among wild Lens genotypes suggests discrete pathways controlling flowering and elongation, which are both components of shade avoidance responses. The yield and above-ground biomass of Lens genotypes were the highest under high R/FR high PAR conditions, intermediate under low R/FR low PAR conditions, and lowest under high R/FR low PAR light conditions. Three L. lamottei genotypes (IG 110809, IG 110810, and IG 110813) and one L. ervoides genotype (IG 72646) were less sensitive in their time to flower responses while maintaining similar yield, biomass, and harvest index across all three light

  4. Comparative transcript profiling of a male sterile cybrid pummelo and its fertile type revealed altered gene expression related to flower development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-Bei Zheng

    Full Text Available Male sterile and seedless characters are highly desired for citrus cultivar improvement. In our breeding program, a male sterile cybrid pummelo, which could be considered as a variant of male fertile pummelo, was produced by protoplast fusion. Herein, ecotopic stamen primordia initiation and development were detected in this male sterile cybrid pummelo. Histological studies revealed that the cybrid showed reduced petal development in size and width, and retarded stamen primordia development. Additionally, disorganized cell proliferation was also detected in stamen-like structures (fused to petals and/or carpel. To gain new insight into the underlying mechanism, we compared, by RNA-Seq analysis, the nuclear gene expression profiles of floral buds of the cybrid with that of fertile pummelo. Gene expression profiles which identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the two lines were captured at both petal primordia and stamen primordia distinguishable stages. For example, nuclear genes involved in nucleic acid binding and response to hormone synthesis and metabolism, genes required for floral bud identification and expressed in particular floral whorls. Furthermore, in accordance with flower morphology of the cybrid, expression of PISTILLATA (PI was reduced in stamen-like structures, even though it was restricted to correct floral whorls. Down-regulated expression of APETALA3 (AP3 coincided with that of PI. These finding indicated that, due to their whorl specific effects in flower development, citrus class-B MADS-box genes likely constituted 'perfect targets' for CMS retrograde signaling, and that dysfunctional mitochondria seemed to cause male sterile phenotype in the cybrid pummelo.

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    quick-growing deciduous tree with a small crown. Branches are covered with dark conical prickles, which fall off after some time. The leaves are compound with three leaflets. Bright red or scarlet flowers which appear following leaf fall are in clusters at branch ends. Birds and bees visit flowers for nectar. Fruit is a cylindrical ...

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid, 115cm and is edible when ripe. C. parviflorum is one of the commonest species of the scrub jungle ...

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brachichiton acerifolius F. Muell., commonly called as the Illawara flame tree is a member of Malvaceae family and is native to sub-tropical parts of Australia. Due to its spectacular flowers and tolerance to wide range of climates, it's now cultivated all over the world for its beauty. The tree produces flowers during the.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  11. Hormonal changes during flower development in floral tissues of Lilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrom, L; Munné-Bosch, S

    2012-08-01

    Much effort has been focussed on better understanding the key signals that modulate floral senescence. Although ethylene is one of the most important regulators of floral senescence in several species, Lilium flowers show low sensitivity to ethylene; thus their senescence may be regulated by other hormones. In this study we have examined how (1) endogenous levels of hormones in various floral tissues (outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium) vary throughout flower development, (2) endogenous levels of hormones in such tissues change in cut versus intact flowers at anthesis, and (3) spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin alter flower longevity. Results show that floral tissues behave differently in their hormonal changes during flower development. Cytokinin and auxin levels mostly increased in tepals prior to anthesis and decreased later during senescence. In contrast, levels of abscisic acid increased during senescence, but only in outer tepals and the gynoecium, and during the latest stages. In addition, cut flowers at anthesis differed from intact flowers in the levels of abscisic acid and auxins in outer tepals, salicylic acid in inner tepals, cytokinins, gibberellins and jasmonic acid in the androecium, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid in the gynoecium, thus showing a clear differential response between floral tissues. Furthermore, spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin in combination accelerated the latest stages of tepal senescence, yet only when flower senescence was delayed with Promalin. It is concluded that (1) floral tissues differentially respond in their endogenous variations of hormones during flower development, (2) cut flowers have drastic changes in the hormonal balance not only of outer and inner tepals but also of androecium and gynoecium, and (3) abscisic acid may accelerate the progression of tepal senescence in Lilium.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi altered the hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin content in flowers of Hypericum perforatum grown under contrasting P availability in a highly organic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Silvia; Militello, Marcello; Carrubba, Alessandra; Napoli, Edoardo; Saia, Sergio

    2017-05-01

    St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a perennial herb able to produce water-soluble active ingredients (a.i.), mostly in flowers, with a wide range of medicinal and biotechnological uses. However, information about the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to affect its biomass accumulation, flower production, and concentration of a.i. under contrasting nutrient availability is still scarce. In the present experiment, we evaluated the role of AMF on growth, flower production, and concentration of bioactive secondary metabolites (hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin) of H. perforatum under contrasting P availability. AMF stimulated the production of aboveground biomass under low P conditions and increased the production of root biomass. AMF almost halved the number of flowers per plant by means of a reduction of the number of flower-bearing stems per plant under high P availability and through a lower number of flowers per stem in the low-P treatment. Flower hyperforin concentration was 17.5% lower in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. On the contrary, pseudohypericin and hypericin concentrations increased by 166.8 and 279.2%, respectively, with AMF under low P availability, whereas no effect of AMF was found under high P availability. These results have implications for modulating the secondary metabolite production of H. perforatum. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the competition for photosynthates between AMF and flowers at different nutrient availabilities for both plant and AM fungus.

  13. A possible role for flowering locus T-encoding genes in interpreting environmental and internal cues affecting olive (Olea europaea L.) flower induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Amnon; Bakhshian, Ortal; Cerezo-Medina, Sergio; Paltiel, Judith; Adler, Chen; Ben-Ari, Giora; Mercado, Jose Angel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Lavee, Shimon; Samach, Alon

    2017-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) inflorescences, formed in lateral buds, flower in spring. However, there is some debate regarding time of flower induction and inflorescence initiation. Olive juvenility and seasonality of flowering were altered by overexpressing genes encoding flowering locus T (FT). OeFT1 and OeFT2 caused early flowering under short days when expressed in Arabidopsis. Expression of OeFT1/2 in olive leaves and OeFT2 in buds increased in winter, while initiation of inflorescences occurred i n late winter. Trees exposed to an artificial warm winter expressed low levels of OeFT1/2 in leaves and did not flower. Olive flower induction thus seems to be mediated by an increase in FT levels in response to cold winters. Olive flowering is dependent on additional internal factors. It was severely reduced in trees that carried a heavy fruit load the previous season (harvested in November) and in trees without fruit to which cold temperatures were artificially applied in summer. Expression analysis suggested that these internal factors work either by reducing the increase in OeFT1/2 expression or through putative flowering repressors such as TFL1. With expected warmer winters, future consumption of olive oil, as part of a healthy Mediterranean diet, should benefit from better understanding these factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Key ecological responses to nitrogen are altered by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaver, T.L.; Clark, C.M.; Compton, J.E.; Vallano, D.; Talhelm, A. F.; Weaver, C.P.; Band, L.E.; Baron, Jill S.; Davidson, E.A.; Tague, C.L.; Felker-Quinn, E.; Lynch, J.A.; Herrick, J.D.; Liu, L.; Goodale, C.L.; Novak, K. J.; Haeuber, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition are both important ecological threats. Evaluating their cumulative effects provides a more holistic view of ecosystem vulnerability to human activities, which would better inform policy decisions aimed to protect the sustainability of ecosystems. Our knowledge of the cumulative effects of these stressors is growing, but we lack an integrated understanding. In this Review, we describe how climate change alters key processes in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems related to nitrogen cycling and availability, and the response of ecosystems to nitrogen addition in terms of carbon cycling, acidification and biodiversity.

  15. Innate Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster Are Altered by Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Oana; Lera, Matthew P.; Sanchez, Max E.; Levic, Edina; Higgins, Laura A.; Shmygelska, Alena; Fahlen, Thomas F.; Nichol, Helen; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly) innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km) for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP) pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways. PMID:21264297

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety. Seeds are flattened, smooth and reddish-brown. The unripe fruit is astringent and its extract is used in medicine. It is also used as a tan for fishing-nets. The viscid pulp is used as glue for bookbinding and also as a tar for ...

  17. Characterization of tomato Cycling Dof Factors reveals conserved and new functions in the control of flowering time and abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Alba-Rocío; Nebauer, Sergio G; Carrillo, Laura; Fernández-Nohales, Pedro; Marqués, Jorge; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Granell, Antonio; Pollmann, Stephan; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Molina, Rosa-Victoria; Medina, Joaquín

    2014-03-01

    DNA binding with One Finger (DOF) transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth and development but their precise roles in abiotic stress tolerance are largely unknown. Here we report a group of five tomato DOF genes, homologous to Arabidopsis Cycling DOF Factors (CDFs), that function as transcriptional regulators involved in responses to drought and salt stress and flowering-time control in a gene-specific manner. SlCDF1-5 are nuclear proteins that display specific binding with different affinities to canonical DNA target sequences and present diverse transcriptional activation capacities in vivo. SlCDF1-5 genes exhibited distinct diurnal expression patterns and were differentially induced in response to osmotic, salt, heat, and low-temperature stresses. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing SlCDF1 or SlCDF3 showed increased drought and salt tolerance. In addition, the expression of various stress-responsive genes, such as COR15, RD29A, and RD10, were differentially activated in the overexpressing lines. Interestingly, overexpression in Arabidopsis of SlCDF3 but not SlCDF1 promotes late flowering through modulation of the expression of flowering control genes such as CO and FT. Overall, our data connect SlCDFs to undescribed functions related to abiotic stress tolerance and flowering time through the regulation of specific target genes and an increase in particular metabolites.

  18. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    KAUST Repository

    McKenzie, Hannah W

    2012-01-18

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them.

  19. Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J; Stodola, Diane E; Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Olson, Matthew C; Rogers, Gregory M; Davidson, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals' capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (a) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior and (b) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, increased altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and in DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training and that greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement of neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of other people, executive and emotional control, and reward processing.

  20. Multifaceted role of cycling DOF factor 3 (CDF3) in the regulation of flowering time and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Alba-Rocio; Carrillo, Laura; Lasierra, Pilar; Nebauer, Sergio G; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Pollmann, Stephan; Granell, Antonio; Molina, Rosa-Victoria; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Medina, Joaquín

    2017-05-01

    DNA-binding with one finger (DOF)-type transcription factors are involved in many fundamental processes in higher plants, from responses to light and phytohormones to flowering time and seed maturation, but their relation with abiotic stress tolerance is largely unknown. Here, we identify the roles of CDF3, an Arabidopsis DOF gene in abiotic stress responses and developmental processes like flowering time. CDF3 is highly induced by drought, extreme temperatures and abscisic acid treatment. The CDF3 T-DNA insertion mutant cdf3-1 is much more sensitive to drought and low temperature stress, whereas CDF3 overexpression enhances the tolerance of transgenic plants to drought, cold and osmotic stress and promotes late flowering. Transcriptome analysis revealed that CDF3 regulates a set of genes involved in cellular osmoprotection and oxidative stress, including the stress tolerance transcription factors CBFs, DREB2A and ZAT12, which involve both gigantea-dependent and independent pathways. Consistently, metabolite profiling disclosed that the total amount of some protective metabolites including γ-aminobutyric acid, proline, glutamine and sucrose were higher in CDF3-overexpressing plants. Taken together, these results indicate that CDF3 plays a multifaceted role acting on both flowering time and abiotic stress tolerance, in part by controlling the CBF/DREB2A-CRT/DRE and ZAT10/12 modules. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Flowers and spiders in spatial stimulus-response compatibility: does affective valence influence selection of task-sets or selection of responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Chen, Jing; Mishler, Scott; Proctor, Robert W

    2017-09-26

    The present study examined the effect of stimulus valence on two levels of selection in the cognitive system, selection of a task-set and selection of a response. In the first experiment, participants performed a spatial compatibility task (pressing left and right keys according to the locations of stimuli) in which stimulus-response mappings were determined by stimulus valence. There was a standard spatial stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effect for positive stimuli (flowers) and a reversed SRC effect for negative stimuli (spiders), but the same data could be interpreted as showing faster responses when positive and negative stimuli were assigned to compatible and incompatible mappings, respectively, than when the assignment was opposite. Experiment 2 disentangled these interpretations, showing that valence did not influence a spatial SRC effect (Simon effect) when task-set retrieval was unnecessary. Experiments 3 and 4 replaced keypress responses with joystick deflections that afforded approach/avoidance action coding. Stimulus valence modulated the Simon effect (but did not reverse it) when the valence was task-relevant (Experiment 3) as well as when it was task-irrelevant (Experiment 4). Therefore, stimulus valence influences task-set selection and response selection, but the influence on the latter is limited to conditions where responses afford approach/avoidance action coding.

  2. Neonatal handling alters maternal emotional response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Adolfo R; Jacobs, Silvana; Menegotto, Pâmela R; Silveira, Patrícia P; Lucion, Aldo B

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal handling is an experimental procedure used to analyze the effects of environmental interventions during early postpartum days (PPD). Long-lasting effects of repeated stress exposure in the neonatal period on the maternal side are poorly studied in this model. The aim of this study was to verify if handling the pups induces enduring effects on damśstress responses, increasing their risk for depression. Dams were divided into two groups (NH-Non-handled and H-Handled) based on the handling procedure (pups were handled for 1 min/per day from PPD1-PPD10) and then subdivided into four groups (NH, NH + S, H, and H + S) based on the exposure or not to restraint stress after weaning (1 hr/per day for 7 days, PPD22-PPD28). We analyzed damśbehavior in the forced swimming test (FST PPD29-PPD30), plasma basal corticosterone and BDNF levels, as well as adrenal weight (PPD31). The results show that handling alters the stress response of dams to acute and chronic stress, as evidenced by dams of the H group having increased immobility in the first day of FST (p sensibility of the maternal organism to the chronic stress applied after weaning (p < .05). We show that handling may induce a long-lasting effect on maternal stress response; these changes in the damśemotional reactivity increase their susceptibility for the development of psychiatric disorders such as depression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 614-622, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    branched evergreen shrub or small tree (6–7 m) with soft whitish-yellow wood. Branches are numerous and drooping. The leaves are elliptic-lanceolate and somewhat fleshy. Flowers are in loose axillary and terminal much-branched inflorescence, ...

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose with the seed enclosed in a stone. The jurisdiction for all disputes concerning published material, ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Tender shoots and the under surface of leaves are covered with dense brown velvety hairs. Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    . (6-10m high) evergreen tree with a straight trunk and broad open crown. Leaves are clustered at the end of twigs. They are dark green, broadest near the rounded apex and tapering towards the base with a short stalk. Flowers are greenish or ...

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. (THE AMERICAN SUMACH, DIVI-DIVI) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a small unarmed tree reaching up to 10 m in height with a spreading crown. Leaves are alternate and twice compound. The flowers are small, about 0.6 cm (enlarged 5 times here), greenish-yellow, fragrant and appear in dense ...

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February.

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly lobed, dark green above and pale grey underneath. They are 3-nerved from the base and often crowded at the branch ends. Inflorescence is large, branched with small greenish-yellow flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two ...

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading wings. Seeds bear short stiff hairs that cause skin irritation.

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stems and handsome foliage. Leaves are 8–10 cm long, dull green, the two thin leathery halves of the lamina fusing or the cleft between them extending beyond the middle. Flowers are gorgeous, axillary with dark purple stamens. The pod is more or less flat. B. alba is often named as B. variegate var. alba by botanists.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sterculia foetida L. (INDIAN ALMOND,. JAVA OLIVE) of Sterculiaceae is a tall deciduous tree reaching a height of 20 m with faintly ridged grey bark. The bole reaches up to 2m in girth. Branches are reddish, usually horizontal. Leaves are large, palmately compound (5–7 leaflets) and clustered at the branch ends. Flowers ...

  18. Identification of LATE BLOOMER2 as a CYCLING DOF FACTOR Homolog Reveals Conserved and Divergent Features of the Flowering Response to Photoperiod in Pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Stephen; Sussmilch, Frances C; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Lee, Robyn; Aubert, Gregoire; Burstin, Judith; Macknight, Richard C; Weller, James L

    2016-10-01

    The molecular pathways responsible for the flowering response to photoperiod have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis thaliana and cereals but remain poorly understood in other major plant groups. Here, we describe a dominant mutant at the LATE BLOOMER2 (LATE2) locus in pea (Pisum sativum) that is late-flowering with a reduced response to photoperiod. LATE2 acts downstream of light signaling and the circadian clock to control expression of the main photoperiod-regulated FT gene, FTb2, implying that it plays a primary role in photoperiod measurement. Mapping identified the CYCLING DOF FACTOR gene CDFc1 as a strong candidate for LATE2, and the late2-1D mutant was found to carry a missense mutation in CDFc1 that impairs its capacity to bind to the blue-light photoreceptor FKF1 in yeast two-hybrid assays and delays flowering in Arabidopsis when overexpressed. Arabidopsis CDF genes are important negative regulators of CONSTANS (CO) transcription, but we found no effect of LATE2 on the transcription of pea CO-LIKE genes, nor on genes in any other families previously implicated in the activation of FT in Arabidopsis. Our results reveal an important component of the pea photoperiod response pathway and support the view that regulation of FTb2 expression by photoperiod occurs via a CO-independent mechanism. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortisol stress response and histopathological alteration index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples of C. gariepinus were collected every seven days and evaluated for stress by measuring cortisol concentration. The gills and liver were studied and scored for Gill Alteration Index (GAI) and Hepatic Alteration Index (HAI), respectively. There was an increase in cortisol level up to the 7th and 14th day among ...

  20. Transcriptome profiling of fully open flowers in a frost-tolerant almond genotype in response to freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Batool; Sepahvand, Sadegh; Kamali Aliabad, Kazem; Bakhtiarizadeh, MohammadReza; Imani, Ali; Assareh, Reza; Salami, Seyed Alireza

    2018-02-01

    Spring frost is a major limiting abiotic stress for the cultivation of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.)] in Mediterranean areas or the Middle East. Spring frost, in particular, damages almond fully open flowers, resulting to significant reduction in yield. Little is known about the genetic factors expressed after frost stress in Prunus spp. as well as in almond fully open flowers. Here, we provide the molecular signature of pistils of fully open flowers from a frost-tolerant almond genotype. The level of frost tolerance in this genotype was determined for all three flowering stages and was confirmed by comparing it to two other cultivars using several physiological analyses. Afterwards, comprehensive expression profiling of genes expressed in fully open flowers was performed after being exposed to frost temperatures (during post-thaw period). Clean reads, 27,104,070 and 32,730,772, were obtained for non-frost-treated and frost-treated (FT) libraries, respectively. A total of 62.24 Mb was assembled, generating 50,896 unigenes and 66,906 transcripts. Therefore, 863 upregulated genes and 555 downregulated genes were identified in the FT library. Functional annotation showed that most of the upregulated genes were related to various biological processes involved in responding to abiotic stress. For the first time, a highly expressed cold-shock protein was identified in the reproductive organ of fruit trees. The expression of six genes was validated by RT-PCR. As the first comprehensive analysis of open flowers in a frost-tolerant almond genotype, this study represents a key step toward the molecular breeding of fruit tree species for frost tolerance.

  1. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  2. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.W.; Bagnall, D.J. [CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. As shown for chrysanthemum, with FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. We examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  3. Flowers in Their Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)

  4. Genome-wide identification and characterization of auxin response factor (ARF) family genes related to flower and fruit development in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaidong; Yuan, Changchun; Li, Haili; Lin, Wanhuang; Yang, Yanjun; Shen, Chenjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2015-11-05

    Auxin and auxin signaling are involved in a series of developmental processes in plants. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) is reported to modulate the expression of target genes by binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs) and influence the transcriptional activation of down-stream target genes. However, how ARF genes function in flower development and fruit ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) is largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive characterization and expression profiling analysis of 11 C. papaya ARF (CpARF) genes was performed using the newly updated papaya reference genome data. We analyzed CpARF expression patterns at different developmental stages. CpARF1, CpARF2, CpARF4, CpARF5, and CpARF10 showed the highest expression at the initial stage of flower development, but decreased during the following developmental stages. CpARF6 expression increased during the developmental process and reached its peak level at the final stage of flower development. The expression of CpARF1 increased significantly during the fruit ripening stages. Many AuxREs were included in the promoters of two ethylene signaling genes (CpETR1 and CpETR2) and three ethylene-synthesis-related genes (CpACS1, CpACS2, and CpACO1), suggesting that CpARFs might be involved in fruit ripening via the regulation of ethylene signaling. Our study provided comprehensive information on ARF family in papaya, including gene structures, chromosome locations, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. The involvement of CpARF gene expression changes in flower and fruit development allowed us to understand the role of ARF-mediated auxin signaling in the maturation of reproductive organs in papaya.

  5. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod

    2012-03-21

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered inflammatory responsiveness in serotonin transporter mutant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macchi, F.; Homberg, J.R.; Calabrese, F.; Zecchillo, C.; Racagni, G.; Riva, M.A.; Molteni, R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that alterations of the inflammatory/immune system contribute to the pathogenesis of depression. Indeed, depressed patients exhibit increased levels of inflammatory markers in both the periphery and the brain, and high comorbidity exists between major depression

  7. Orbital flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs-Csillik, Iharka

    2017-11-01

    The regularizing techniques known as Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS) transformation have investigated. It has proved that it is very useful in n-body simulations, where it helps to handle close encounters. This paper shows how the basic transformation is a starting point for a family of polynomial coupled function. This interpretation becomes simply on writing KS transformations in quaternion form, which also helps to derive concise expressions for regularized equations of motion. Even if the KS regularization method is more easy to use, it is interesting to encapsulate the KS transformation in a family of methods, which all conserve the KS transformations' properties. Further, an interesting point of view is considering, the orbital shapes of the restricted three-body problem (also regularized restricted three-body problem) for different initial conditions has compared with flower pattern.

  8. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  9. UV exposure alters respiratory allergic responses in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren, van H.; Boonstra, A.; Dijk, van M.; Fluitman, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Garssen, J.

    2000-01-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that exposure to ultraviolet light would inhibit T helper-1 (Th1) responses and stimulate T helper-2 (Th2) responses, and that thus in a mouse model of allergic (i.e. extrinsic) asthma (using ovalbumin [OVA] as the allergen) increased symptoms would be observed, while

  10. Changing CS Features Alters Evaluative Responses in Evaluative Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian; Stahl, Christoph; Forderer, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to changes in people's evaluative responses toward initially neutral stimuli (CSs) by mere spatial and temporal contiguity with other positive or negative stimuli (USs). We investigate whether changing CS features from conditioning to evaluation also changes people's evaluative response toward these CSs. We used…

  11. Two terpene synthases are responsible for the major sesquiterpenes emitted from the flowers of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Matich, Adam J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Beuning, Lesley L.; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.; Dudareva, Natalia; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2009-01-01

    Kiwifruit vines rely on bees for pollen transfer between spatially separated male and female individuals and require synchronized flowering to ensure pollination. Volatile terpene compounds, which are important cues for insect pollinator attraction, were studied by dynamic headspace sampling in the major green-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cultivar ‘Hayward’ and its male pollinator ‘Chieftain’. Terpene volatile levels showed a profile dominated by the sesquiterpenes α-farnesene and germacrene D. These two compounds were emitted by all floral tissues and could be observed throughout the day, with lower levels at night. The monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene was also detected in flowers but was emitted predominantly during the day and only from petal tissue. Using a functional genomics approach, two terpene synthase (TPS) genes were isolated from a ‘Hayward’ petal EST library. Bacterial expression and transient in planta data combined with analysis by enantioselective gas chromatography revealed that one TPS produced primarily (E,E)-α-farnesene and small amounts of (E)-β-ocimene, whereas the second TPS produced primarily (+)-germacrene D. Subcellular localization using GFP fusions showed that both enzymes were localized in the cytoplasm, the site for sesquiterpene production. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that both TPS genes were expressed in the same tissues and at the same times as the corresponding floral volatiles. The results indicate that two genes can account for the major floral sesquiterpene volatiles observed in both male and female A. deliciosa flowers. PMID:19516075

  12. Iodinated contrast media alter immune responses in pro-inflammatory states.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Hypertonic saline causes a transient elevation of blood osmolality and has been shown to alter cellular inflammatory responses in pro-inflammatory states. Intravascular administration of iodine contrast media also causes a transient elevation of blood osmolarity.

  13. Pentobarbital anesthesia alters neural responses in the precedence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Penglong; Wang, Ningyu; Wang, Hui; Xie, Yan; Jia, Jun; Li, Huijun

    2011-07-01

    The precedence effect (PE) is thought to be beneficial for proper localization and perception of sounds. The majority of recent physiological studies focus on the neural discharges correlated with PE in the inferior colliculus (IC). Pentobarbital anesthesia is widely used in physiological studies. However, little is known of the effect of pentobarbital on the discharge of neurons in PE. Neuronal responses in the IC from 23 male SD rats were recorded by standard extracellular recording techniques following presentation of 4 ms white noise bursts, presented from either or both of two loud speakers, at different interstimulus delays (ISDs). The neural responses were recorded for off-line analysis before or after intraperitoneal administration of pentobarbital at a loading or maintenance dose. Data were assessed by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons. When the ipsilateral stimuli were leading, pentobarbital at a loading dose significantly increased normalized response to lagging stimuli during recovery from anesthesia. However, it was not the case when the contralateral stimuli were leading. At a maintenance dose, the normalized response to lagging stimuli were significantly reduced, independent of whether contralateral or ipsilateral stimuli were leading. These data show that pentobarbital have no effect on the normalized response of leading stimuli but can prolong the recovery time of lagging stimuli to paired sources produced PE illusions, which was gradually attenuated during recovery from anesthesia. Thus, extracellular recording immediately after administration of pentobarbital should be avoided in physiological studies of neural correlates of PE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive Cloning of Prunus mume Dormancy Associated MADS-Box Genes and Their Response in Flower Bud Development and Dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume, PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6. The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns. Furthermore, the PmDAM proteins are found to have special functions by forming corresponding protein complex during the development of flower bud and induction of dormancy. In particular, when PmDAM1 dominating in flower bud in the warm months, the protein complexes are consisted of PmDAM1 itself or with PmDAM2. With the decrease temperatures in the following months, PmDAM6 was found to be highly expressed and gradually changed the complex structure to PmDAM6-protein complex due to strong binding tendencies with PmDAM1 and PmDAM3. Finally, the homodimers of PmDAM6 prevailed to induce the dormancy. The results obtained in the current study highlight the functions of PmDAMs in the tissue development and dormancy, which provide available suggestions for further explorations of protein-complex functions in association with bud growth and dormancy.

  15. USP2a alters chemotherapeutic response by modulating redox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, B; Marani, M; Loda, M; Blandino, G

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by altered ubiquitination of many proteins. The ubiquitin-specific protease 2a (USP2a) is a deubiquitinating enzyme overexpressed in prostate adenocarcinomas, where it exhibits oncogenic behavior in a variety of ways including targeting c-Myc via the miR-34b/c cluster. Here we demonstrate that USP2a induces drug resistance in both immortalized and transformed prostate cells. Specifically, it confers resistance to typically pro-oxidant agents, such as cisplatin (CDDP) and doxorubicin (Doxo), and to taxanes. USP2a overexpression protects from drug-induced oxidative stress by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and stabilizing the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), thus impairing downstream p38 activation and triggering of apoptosis. The molecular mediator of the USP2a protective function is the glutathione (GSH). Through miR-34b/c-driven c-Myc regulation, USP2a increases intracellular GSH content, thus interfering with the oxidative cascade triggered by chemotherapeutic agents. In light of these findings, targeting Myc and/or miR-34b/c might revert chemo-resistance. PMID:24071644

  16. Alterations in the colonic microbiota in response to osmotic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Trajanoski, Slave; Lackner, Stefan; Stocker, Gernot; Hinterleitner, Thomas; Gülly, Christian; Högenauer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract are often accompanied by diarrhea with profound alterations in the GI microbiota termed dysbiosis. Whether dysbiosis is due to the disease itself or to the accompanying diarrhea remains elusive. With this study we characterized the net effects of osmotic diarrhea on the composition of the GI microbiota in the absence of disease. We induced osmotic diarrhea in four healthy adults by oral administration of polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG). Stool as well as mucosa specimens were collected before, during and after diarrhea and 16S rDNA-based microbial community profiling was used to assess the microbial community structure. Stool and mucosal microbiotas were strikingly different, with Firmicutes dominating the mucosa and Bacteroidetes the stools. Osmotic diarrhea decreased phylotype richness and showed a strong tendency to equalize the otherwise individualized microbiotas on the mucosa. Moreover, diarrhea led to significant relative shifts in the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to a relative increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria on the mucosa, a phenomenon also noted in several inflammatory and diarrheal GI diseases. Changes in microbial community structure induced by osmotic diarrhea are profound and show similarities to changes observed in other GI diseases including IBD. These effects so must be considered when specimens from diarrheal diseases (i.e. obtained by stratification of samples according to diarrheal status) or conditions wherein bowel preparations like PEG (i.e. specimens obtained during endoscopy) are used.

  17. Alterations in the colonic microbiota in response to osmotic diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Gorkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diseases of the human gastrointestinal (GI tract are often accompanied by diarrhea with profound alterations in the GI microbiota termed dysbiosis. Whether dysbiosis is due to the disease itself or to the accompanying diarrhea remains elusive. With this study we characterized the net effects of osmotic diarrhea on the composition of the GI microbiota in the absence of disease. METHODS: We induced osmotic diarrhea in four healthy adults by oral administration of polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG. Stool as well as mucosa specimens were collected before, during and after diarrhea and 16S rDNA-based microbial community profiling was used to assess the microbial community structure. RESULTS: Stool and mucosal microbiotas were strikingly different, with Firmicutes dominating the mucosa and Bacteroidetes the stools. Osmotic diarrhea decreased phylotype richness and showed a strong tendency to equalize the otherwise individualized microbiotas on the mucosa. Moreover, diarrhea led to significant relative shifts in the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to a relative increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria on the mucosa, a phenomenon also noted in several inflammatory and diarrheal GI diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in microbial community structure induced by osmotic diarrhea are profound and show similarities to changes observed in other GI diseases including IBD. These effects so must be considered when specimens from diarrheal diseases (i.e. obtained by stratification of samples according to diarrheal status or conditions wherein bowel preparations like PEG (i.e. specimens obtained during endoscopy are used.

  18. Altered brain activation during response inhibition in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Drummond, Sean Pa

    2009-06-01

    This study examined response inhibition during a Go-NoGo task in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Fourteen OSA patients and 14 controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, the OSA group showed more false positives (error of commission) during the NoGo trials with decreased brain activation in the left postcentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus and inferior parietal lobe, as well as right insula and putamen. This is consistent with previous findings of impaired performance and decreased brain activation in OSA patients during a working memory task, suggesting that compromised brain function in response to cognitive challenges may underlie some of the cognitive deficits seen in patients with OSA.

  19. Altered brain activation during response inhibition in obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Ayalon, Liat; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Drummond, Sean PA

    2009-01-01

    This study examined response inhibition during a Go-NoGo task in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Fourteen OSA patients and 14 controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Compared to Controls, the OSA group showed more false positives (error of commission) during the NoGo trials with decreased brain activation in the left postcentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and inferior parietal lobe, as well as right insula and putamen. This is consistent with prev...

  20. Age alters the cardiovascular response to direct passive heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, C. T.; Wladkowski, S. L.; Cardell, A. F.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Kenney, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    During direct passive heating in young men, a dramatic increase in skin blood flow is achieved by a rise in cardiac output (Qc) and redistribution of flow from the splanchnic and renal vascular beds. To examine the effect of age on these responses, seven young (Y; 23 +/- 1 yr) and seven older (O; 70 +/- 3 yr) men were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), Qc (by acetylene rebreathing), central venous pressure (via peripherally inserted central catheter), blood pressures (by brachial auscultation), skin blood flow (from increases in forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography), splanchnic blood flow (by indocyanine green clearance), renal blood flow (by p-aminohippurate clearance), and esophageal and mean skin temperatures. Qc was significantly lower in the older than in the young men (11.1 +/- 0.7 and 7.4 +/- 0.2 l/min in Y and O, respectively, at the limit of thermal tolerance; P response (62 +/- 3 and 75 +/- 4% maximal HR in Y and O, respectively, P responses, the older men had a significantly lower increase in total blood flow directed to the skin.

  1. Peripheral tumors alter neuroinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyter, Leah M; El Mouatassim Bih, Sarah; Sattar, Husain; Prendergast, Brian J

    2014-03-13

    Cancer is associated with an increased prevalence of depression. Peripheral tumors induce inflammatory cytokine production in the brain and depressive-like behaviors. Mounting evidence indicates that cytokines are part of a pathway by which peripheral inflammation causes depression. Neuroinflammatory responses to immune challenges can be exacerbated (primed) by prior immunological activation associated with aging, early-life infection, and drug exposure. This experiment tested the hypothesis that peripheral tumors likewise induce neuroinflammatory sensitization or priming. Female rats with chemically-induced mammary carcinomas were injected with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250μg/kg; i.p.), and expression of mRNAs involved in the pathway linking inflammation and depression (interleukin-1beta [Il-1β], CD11b, IκBα, indolamine 2,3-deoxygenase [Ido]) was quantified by qPCR in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and frontal cortex, 4 or 24h post-treatment. In the absence of LPS, hippocampal Il-1β and CD11b mRNA expression were elevated in tumor-bearing rats, whereas Ido expression was reduced. Moreover, in saline-treated rats basal hypothalamic Il-1β and CD11b expression were positively correlated with tumor weight; heavier tumors, in turn, were characterized by more inflammatory, necrotic, and granulation tissue. Tumors exacerbated CNS proinflammatory gene expression in response to LPS: CD11b was greater in hippocampus and frontal cortex of tumor-bearing relative to tumor-free rats, IκBα was greater in hippocampus, and Ido was greater in hypothalamus. Greater neuroinflammatory responses in tumor-bearing rats were accompanied by attenuated body weight gain post-LPS. The data indicate that neuroinflammatory pathways are potentiated, or primed, in tumor-bearing rats, which may exacerbate future negative behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Age alters the cardiovascular response to direct passive heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, C. T.; Wladkowski, S. L.; Cardell, A. F.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Kenney, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    During direct passive heating in young men, a dramatic increase in skin blood flow is achieved by a rise in cardiac output (Qc) and redistribution of flow from the splanchnic and renal vascular beds. To examine the effect of age on these responses, seven young (Y; 23 +/- 1 yr) and seven older (O; 70 +/- 3 yr) men were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), Qc (by acetylene rebreathing), central venous pressure (via peripherally inserted central catheter), blood pressures (by brachial auscultation), skin blood flow (from increases in forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography), splanchnic blood flow (by indocyanine green clearance), renal blood flow (by p-aminohippurate clearance), and esophageal and mean skin temperatures. Qc was significantly lower in the older than in the young men (11.1 +/- 0.7 and 7.4 +/- 0.2 l/min in Y and O, respectively, at the limit of thermal tolerance; P < 0. 05), despite similar increases in esophageal and mean skin temperatures and time to reach the limit of thermal tolerance. A lower stroke volume (99 +/- 7 and 68 +/- 4 ml/beat in Y and O, respectively, P < 0.05), most likely due to an attenuated increase in inotropic function during heating, was the primary factor for the lower Qc observed in the older men. Increases in HR were similar in the young and older men; however, when expressed as a percentage of maximal HR, the older men relied on a greater proportion of their chronotropic reserve to obtain the same HR response (62 +/- 3 and 75 +/- 4% maximal HR in Y and O, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the older men redistributed less blood flow from the combined splanchnic and renal circulations at the limit of thermal tolerance (960 +/- 80 and 720 +/- 100 ml/min in Y and O, respectively, P < 0. 05). As a result of these combined attenuated responses, the older men had a significantly lower increase in total blood flow directed to

  3. Key ecological responses to nitrogen are altered by climate ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we review the effects of nitrogen and climate (e.g. temperature and precipitation) on four aspects of ecosystem structure and function including hydrologic-coupled nitrogen cycling, carbon cycling, acidification and biodiversity. Ecosystems are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors; two dominant drivers threatening ecosystems are anthropogenic nitrogen loading and climate change. Evaluating the cumulative effects of these stressors provides a holistic view of ecosystem vulnerability, which would better inform policy decisions aimed to protect the sustainability of ecosystems. Our current knowledge of the cumulative effects of these stressors is growing, but limited. The goal of this paper is to synthesize the state of scientific knowledge on how ecosystems are affected by the interactions of meteorlogic/climatic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and nitrogen addition. Understanding the interactions of meteorlogic/climatic factors and nitrogen will help to inform how current and projected variability may affect ecosystem response.

  4. Physiological effects of climate warming on flowering plants and insect pollinators and potential consequences for their interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. SCAVEN, Nicole E. RAFFERTY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing concern about the influence of climate change on flowering plants, pollinators, and the mutualistic interactions between them has led to a recent surge in research. Much of this research has addressed the consequences of warming for phenological and distributional shifts. In contrast, relatively little is known about the physiological responses of plants and insect pollinators to climate warming and, in particular, how these responses might affect plant-pollinator interactions. Here, we summarize the direct physiological effects of temperature on flowering plants and pollinating insects to highlight ways in which plant and pollinator responses could affect floral resources for pollinators, and pollination success for plants, respectively. We also consider the overall effects of these responses on plant-pollinator interaction networks. Plant responses to warming, which include altered flower, nectar, and pollen production, could modify floral resource availability and reproductive output of pollinating insects. Similarly, pollinator responses, such as altered foraging activity, body size, and life span, could affect patterns of pollen flow and pollination success of flowering plants. As a result, network structure could be altered as interactions are gained and lost, weakened and strengthened, even without the gain or loss of species or temporal overlap. Future research that addresses not only how plant and pollinator physiology are affected by warming but also how responses scale up to affect interactions and networks should allow us to better understand and predict the effects of climate change on this important ecosystem service [Current Zoolo­gy 59 (3: 418–426, 2013].

  5. Olive Cultivation in the Southern Hemisphere: Flowering, Water Requirements and Oil Quality Responses to New Crop Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mariela; Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Searles, Peter; Rousseaux, M. Cecilia; García-Inza, Georgina; Miserere, Andrea; Bodoira, Romina; Contreras, Cibeles; Maestri, Damián

    2017-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a crop well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing in the Mediterranean Basin. Nevertheless, the increasing international demand for olive oil and table olives in the last two decades has led to expansion of olive cultivation in some countries of the southern hemisphere, notably in Argentina, Chile, Perú and Australia. While the percentage of world production represented by these countries is still low, many of the new production regions do not have typical Mediterranean climates, and some are located at subtropical latitudes where there is relatively little information about crop function. Thus, the primary objective of this review was to assess recently published scientific literature on olive cultivation in these new crop environments. The review focuses on three main aspects: (a) chilling requirements for flowering, (b) water requirements and irrigation management, and (c) environmental effects on fruit oil concentration and quality. In many arid and semiarid regions of South America, temperatures are high and rainfall is low in the winter and early spring months compared to conditions in much of the Mediterranean Basin. High temperatures have often been found to have detrimental effects on olive flowering in many olive cultivars that have been introduced to South America, and a better understanding of chilling requirements is needed. Lack of rainfall in the winter and spring also has resulted in an urgent need to evaluate water requirements from the flower differentiation period in the winter to early fruit bearing. Additionally, in some olive growing areas of South America and Australia, high early season temperatures affect the timing of phenological events such that the onset of oil synthesis occurs sooner than in the Mediterranean Basin with most oil accumulation taking place in the summer when temperatures are very high. Increasing mean daily temperatures have been demonstrated to decrease fruit oil concentration

  6. Stepwise Thermo-Responsive Amino Acid-Derived Triblock Vinyl Polymers: ATRP Synthesis of Polymers, Aggregation, and Gelation Properties via Flower-Like Micelle Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Higashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel thermo-responsive ABA-type triblock copolymers (poly(NAAMen-b-NAGMe240-b-NAAMen, n = 18–72 composed of naturally occurring amino acid–based vinyl polymer blocks such as poly(N-acryloyl-l-alanine methyl ester (poly(NAAMe as the A segment and poly(N-acryloyl-glycine methylester(poly(NAGMe as the B segment have been synthesized by the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP. Their thermal behaviors were analyzed in dilute aqueous solutions by turbidimetry. The turbidity curves provided two-step LCST transitions, and a flower-like micelle formation was confirmed at the temperature region between the first and second LCST transitions by dynamic light scattering, AFM and TEM. At higher copolymer concentrations, hydrogels were obtained at temperatures above the first LCST due to network formation induced with the flower-like micelles as cross-linker. The hydrogels were found to be switched to a sol state when cooled below the first LCST. These hydrogels also exhibited self-healable and injectable capabilities, which were evaluated by rheological measurements.

  7. Alteration of rat lung vascular response to radiation with drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.L.; Graham, M.M.; Mahler, A.; Rasey, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Vascular permeability to albumin increases in the lung at one day after radiation to the thorax, returns to normal, and increases again at three weeks after exposure. To block different proposed pathways of permeability increase, several drugs were given to irradiated rats. Each drug was selected for its ability to act at a different point in the hypothesized pathway leading to elevated vascular permeability and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis. To obtain maximum effect, each was delivered continuously in drinking water from two days before 18 Gy whole thorax radiation to measurement of response at 1 or 21 days. Dexamethasone (a glucocorticoid) was most effective at 21 days, reducing vascular permeability to below control levels. Epsilonamino caproic acid (a protease inhibitor) and diethylcarbamazine (an anti-leukotriene) were also somewhat effective, reducing permeability by 26% and 37% respectively. Dapsone (a neutrophil migration inhibitor) and indomethacin (an anti-prostaglandin) had no effect. Suppression of vascular permeability with drugs, and observation of the effects of suppression on subsequent development of fibrosis should help clarify the role of vascular permeability in the development of radiation induced fibrosis

  8. IMMUNOLOGIC RESPONSE TO HIV INFECTION: MAIN IMMUNOPATHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Geraldelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The intense degradation of defense cells caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in an organism and the speed at which the viral genome mutates to escape the initial immune response are the prime difficulties in combating opportunistic diseases and in creating an efficient vaccine for this virus. The common opportunistic diseases observed for HIV positive patients include tuberculosis, candidiasis and toxoplasmosis. One of the risk factors is the decrease in CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and the high plasmatic viral load, rendering the organism susceptible to these pathogens. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy, this does not provide total elimination of the virus, only eliminating the virus present in the plasma. On treatment withdrawal, the infected latent CD4+ T-cells can re-establish the infection, conferring a large barrier to definitive HIV cure. Current studies have evaluated the inhibition of class I histone diacetylase (HDAC enzymes as a strategy to induce the viral gene expression and, consequently, the gradual emptying of latent reservoirs of the virus, improving the action of antiretroviral therapy. Thus, the monitoring of immune activation and counting of CD4+ T-lymphocytes are of fundamental importance to the prognosis of HIV patients, along with early diagnoses of opportunistic diseases, in order to avoid complications from these diseases.

  9. Ectopic Expression of the Coleus R2R3 MYB-Type Proanthocyanidin Regulator Gene SsMYB3 Alters the Flower Color in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Zhu

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs play an important role in plant disease defense and have beneficial effects on human health. We isolated and characterized a novel R2R3 MYB-type PA-regulator SsMYB3 from a well-known ornamental plant, coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides, to study the molecular regulation of PAs and to engineer PAs biosynthesis. The expression level of SsMYB3 was correlated with condensed tannins contents in various coleus tissues and was induced by wounding and light. A complementation test in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant showed that SsMYB3 could restore the PA-deficient seed coat phenotype and activated expression of the PA-specific gene ANR and two related genes, DFR and ANS. In yeast two-hybrid assays, SsMYB3 interacted with the Arabidopsis AtTT8 and AtTTG1 to reform the ternary transcriptional complex, and also interacted with two tobacco bHLH proteins (NtAn1a and NtJAF13-1 and a WD40 protein, NtAn11-1. Ectopic overexpression of SsMYB3 in transgenic tobacco led to almost-white flowers by greatly reducing anthocyanin levels and enhancing accumulation of condensed tannins. This overexpression of SsMYB3 upregulated the key PA genes (NtLAR and NtANR and late anthocyanin structural genes (NtDFR and NtANS, but downregulated the expression of the final anthocyanin gene NtUFGT. The formative SsMYB3-complex represses anthocyanin accumulation by directly suppressing the expression of the final anthocyanin structural gene NtUFGT, through competitive inhibition or destabilization of the endogenous NtAn2-complex formation. These results suggested that SsMYB3 may form a transcription activation complex to regulate PA biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant and transgenic tobacco. Our findings suggest that SsMYB3 is involved in the regulation of PA biosynthesis in coleus and has the potential as a molecular tool for manipulating biosynthesis of PAs in fruits and other crops using metabolic engineering.

  10. Does treatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in vivo alter human adenylate cyclase responsiveness in vitro?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Klüppel, M.; Philipp, T.; Brodde, O. E.

    1991-01-01

    1. Treatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in vivo can alter adenylate cyclase responsiveness in the human heart. We have determined the effects of treatment with four different beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in vivo on the responsiveness of lymphocyte and platelet adenylate cyclase in vitro in

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence F.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. It is known that human immune function is altered in- and post-flight, but it is unclear at present if such alterations lead to increased susceptibility to disease. Reactivation of latent viruses has been documented in crewmembers, although this reactivation has not been directly correlated with immune changes or with observed diseases. As described in this report, further research is required to better characterize the relationships between altered immune response and susceptibility to disease during and after spaceflight. This is particularly important for future deep-space exploration missions.

  12. Orchid flower evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    be explained by the ABC model of flower development and the polar coordinate model for zygomorphy which explains the phenotypic expression of flower symmetry in wild type and semipeloric flowers of Antirrhinum by the CYCLOIDEA, CYC gene. Similarly, the presence of such a similar gene in orchids CYCLOIDEA like, ...

  13. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  14. The Arabidopsis E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HOS1 Negatively Regulates CONSTANS Abundance in the Photoperiodic Control of Flowering[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, Ana; Valverde, Federico; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana early in short days6 (esd6) mutant was isolated in a screen for mutations that accelerate flowering time. Among other developmental alterations, esd6 displays early flowering in both long- and short-day conditions. Fine mapping of the mutation showed that the esd6 phenotype is caused by a lesion in the HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 (HOS1) locus, which encodes a RING finger–containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. The esd6/hos1 mutation causes decreased FLOWERING LOCUS C expression and requires CONSTANS (CO) protein for its early flowering phenotype under long days. Moreover, CO and HOS1 physically interact in vitro and in planta, and HOS1 regulates CO abundance, particularly during the daylight period. Accordingly, hos1 causes a shift in the regular long-day pattern of expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript, starting to rise 4 h after dawn in the mutant. In addition, HOS1 interacts synergistically with CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1, another regulator of CO protein stability, in the regulation of flowering time. Taken together, these results indicate that HOS1 is involved in the control of CO abundance, ensuring that CO activation of FT occurs only when the light period reaches a certain length and preventing precocious flowering in Arabidopsis. PMID:22408073

  15. Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Elli A; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J; Battey, Nicholas H; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2012-07-01

    Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering.

  16. An apple rootstock overexpressing a peach CBF gene alters growth and flowering in the scion but does not impact cold hardiness or dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The C-repeat Binding Factor (CBF) transcription factor is involved in responses to low temperature and water deficit in many plant species. Overexpression of CBF genes leads to enhanced freezing tolerance and growth inhibition in many species. The overexpression of a peach CBF (PpCBF1) gene in a t...

  17. Tomato plants overexpressing cryptochrome 2 reveal altered expression of energy and stress-related gene products in response to diurnal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Loredana; Carbone, Fabrizio; Bianco, Linda; Giuliano, Giovanni; Facella, Paolo; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2012-05-01

    In order to sense and respond to the fluctuating light conditions, higher plants possess several families of photoreceptors, such as phytochromes (PHYs), cryptochromes (CRYs) and phototropins. CRYs are responsible for photomorphogenesis and play a role in circadian, developmental and adaptive growth regulation of plants. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), CRY2 controls vegetative development, flowering time, fruit antioxidant content as well as the diurnal transcription of several other photoreceptor genes. We applied large-scale molecular approaches to identify altered transcripts and proteins in tomato wild-type (WT) versus a CRY2 overexpressing transgenic genotype, under a diurnal rhythm. Our results showed that tomato CRY2 profoundly affects both gene and protein expression in response to daily light cycle. Particularly altered molecular pathways are related to biotic/abiotic stress, photosynthesis, including components of the light and dark reactions and of starch and sucrose biosynthesis, as well as to secondary metabolism, such as phenylpropanoid, phenolic and flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways. One of the most interesting results is the coordinated up-regulation, in the transgenic genotype, of a consistent number of transcripts and proteins involved in photorespiration and photosynthesis. It is conceivable that light modulates the energetic metabolism of tomato through a fine CRY2-mediated transcriptional control. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Combined effects of temperature and avermectins on life history and stress response of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Yu-Tao; Sun, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jian-Jun; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Temperature and pesticide are two important factors that affect survival, reproduction and other physiological processes of insects. To determine interactions of elevated temperature and avermectins treatment on the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, newly emerged adults were exposed to combinations of three temperatures (21, 26 and 33 °C) and two avermectins concentrations (0, 45 ppm), and survival rate, reproduction, longevity, antioxidant enzymes activities and heat shock proteins (hsps) induction were analyzed. The results showed that the survival, longevity and reproduction of F. occidentalis decreased with increased temperature and avermectins treatment. While elevated temperature and avermectins treatment significantly decreased activity of SOD, activities of POD and GST significantly increased after exposure to elevated temperature, avermectins or their combination. Elevated temperature had no effect on activity of CAT, but it was obviously improved by the combination of temperature and avermectins treatment. Expression analysis of hsps showed that four heat shock proteins (hsp90, hsc702, hsp60 and hop) were up-regulated by the induction of elevated temperature with small fold changes. After treatment with avermectins, expression levels of hsp90, hsc701, hsc702 and hop were significantly up-regulated with increased temperature and higher than those of their respective control at higher temperature. Surprisingly, expression level of hps60 was down-regulated with increased temperature, but the expression level at 21 or 26 °C remained higher than that of control. Overall, our studies suggest that elevated temperature enhance toxicity of avermectins and their combination induced acute oxidative damage to F. occidentalis. Therefore, consideration of temperature in evaluating avermectins toxicity is necessary to make accurate prediction of its effect on F. occidentalis and other insects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of histone deacetylation alters Arabidopsis root growth in response to auxin via PIN1 degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai Nguyen; Kim, Jun Hyeok; Jeong, Chan Young; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2013-10-01

    Our results showed the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) control root development in Arabidopsis via regulation of PIN1 degradation. Epigenetic regulation plays a crucial role in the expression of many genes in response to exogenous or endogenous signals in plants as well as other organisms. One of epigenetic mechanisms is modifications of histone, such as acetylation and deacetylation, are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC), respectively. The Arabidopsis HDACs, HDA6, and HDA19, were reported to function in physiological processes, including embryo development, abiotic stress response, and flowering. In this study, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) inhibit primary root elongation and lateral root emergence. In response to HDIs treatment, the PIN1 protein was almost abolished in the root tip. However, the PIN1 gene did not show decreased expression in the presence of HDIs, whereas IAA genes exhibited increases in transcript levels. In contrast, we observed a stable level of gene expression of stress markers (KIN1 and COR15A) and a cell division marker (CYCB1). Taken together, these results suggest that epigenetic regulation may control auxin-mediated root development through the 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of PIN1 protein.

  20. An Environmental Approach to Positive Emotion: Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Haviland-Jones

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 5000 years, people have cultivated flowers although there is no known reward for this costly behavior. In three different studies we show that flowers are a powerful positive emotion “inducer”. In Study 1, flowers, upon presentation to women, always elicited the Duchenne or true smile. Women who received flowers reported more positive moods 3 days later. In Study 2, a flower given to men or women in an elevator elicited more positive social behavior than other stimuli. In Study 3, flowers presented to elderly participants (55+ age elicited positive mood reports and improved episodic memory. Flowers have immediate and long-term effects on emotional reactions, mood, social behaviors and even memory for both males and females. There is little existing theory in any discipline that explains these findings. We suggest that cultivated flowers are rewarding because they have evolved to rapidly induce positive emotion in humans, just as other plants have evolved to induce varying behavioral responses in a wide variety of species leading to the dispersal or propagation of the plants.

  1. Soil microbial community responses to altered lignin biosynthesis in Populus tremuloides vary among three distinct soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate L. Bradley; Jessica E. Hancock; Christian P. Giardina; Kurt S. Pregitzer

    2007-01-01

    The development and use of transgenic plants has steadily increased, but there are still little data about the responses of soil microorganisms to these genetic modifications. We utilized a greenhouse trial approach to evaluate the effects of altered stem lignin in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) on soil microbial communities in three soils...

  2. Big River Benthos: Linking Year Round Biological Response to Altered Hydrological Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-02

    ecological response to altered flow regimes and help document benefits of restoring connectivity between secondary channels and the Mississippi River main...term ecological response to this temporary loss of habitat connectivity, or the mitigation thereof, is unknown. 3 Figure 1. Aerial photographs...of (a) Prairie Point Secondary Channel dike field, and (b) Ludlow Secondary Channel dike field; both dikes with environmental notches constructed

  3. Environmental labelling as a marketing concept to create added value for flower chains: How to create a horticultural chain based on responsive consumer information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Lans, van der I.A.; Zimmerman, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the possibility to create markets for environmentally friendly grown flowers and plants by combining a push and a pull strategy. Consumer research revealed that the main pull should come from a target segment (one-fifth of the population) of heavy flower users that are either

  4. Speech training alters consonant and vowel responses in multiple auditory cortex fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Crystal T; Rahebi, Kimiya C; Buell, Elizabeth P; Fink, Melyssa K; Kilgard, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Speech sounds evoke unique neural activity patterns in primary auditory cortex (A1). Extensive speech sound discrimination training alters A1 responses. While the neighboring auditory cortical fields each contain information about speech sound identity, each field processes speech sounds differently. We hypothesized that while all fields would exhibit training-induced plasticity following speech training, there would be unique differences in how each field changes. In this study, rats were trained to discriminate speech sounds by consonant or vowel in quiet and in varying levels of background speech-shaped noise. Local field potential and multiunit responses were recorded from four auditory cortex fields in rats that had received 10 weeks of speech discrimination training. Our results reveal that training alters speech evoked responses in each of the auditory fields tested. The neural response to consonants was significantly stronger in anterior auditory field (AAF) and A1 following speech training. The neural response to vowels following speech training was significantly weaker in ventral auditory field (VAF) and posterior auditory field (PAF). This differential plasticity of consonant and vowel sound responses may result from the greater paired pulse depression, expanded low frequency tuning, reduced frequency selectivity, and lower tone thresholds, which occurred across the four auditory fields. These findings suggest that alterations in the distributed processing of behaviorally relevant sounds may contribute to robust speech discrimination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered insula response to sweet taste processing after recovery from anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Frank, Guido K W; Simmons, Alan N; Wagner, Angela; McCurdy, Danyale; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that altered function of higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa and overeating in bulimia nervosa. This study used sweet tastes to interrogate gustatory neurocircuitry involving the anterior insula and related regions that modulate sensory-interoceptive-reward signals in response to palatable foods. Participants who had recovered from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied to avoid confounding effects of altered nutritional state. Functional MRI measured brain response to repeated tastes of sucrose and sucralose to disentangle neural processing of caloric and noncaloric sweet tastes. Whole-brain functional analysis was constrained to anatomical regions of interest. Relative to matched comparison women (N=14), women recovered from anorexia nervosa (N=14) had significantly diminished and women recovered from bulimia nervosa (N=14) had significantly elevated hemodynamic response to tastes of sucrose in the right anterior insula. Anterior insula response to sucrose compared with sucralose was exaggerated in the recovered group (lower in women recovered from anorexia nervosa and higher in women recovered from bulimia nervosa). The anterior insula integrates sensory reward aspects of taste in the service of nutritional homeostasis. One possibility is that restricted eating and weight loss occur in anorexia nervosa because of a failure to accurately recognize hunger signals, whereas overeating in bulimia nervosa could represent an exaggerated perception of hunger signals. This response may reflect the altered calibration of signals related to sweet taste and the caloric content of food and may offer a pathway to novel and more effective treatments.

  6. Bees, birds and yellow flowers: pollinator-dependent convergent evolution of UV patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiorek, S; Junker, R R; Alves-Dos-Santos, I; Melo, G A R; Amaral-Neto, L P; Sazima, M; Wolowski, M; Freitas, L; Lunau, K

    2016-01-01

    Colour is one of the most obvious advertisements of flowers, and occurs in a huge diversity among the angiosperms. Flower colour is responsible for attraction from a distance, whereas contrasting colour patterns within flowers aid orientation of flower visitors after approaching the flowers. Due to the striking differences in colour vision systems and neural processing across animal taxa, flower colours evoke specific behavioural responses by different flower visitors. We tested whether and how yellow flowers differ in their spectral reflectance depending on the main pollinator. We focused on bees and birds and examined whether the presence or absence of the widespread UV reflectance pattern of yellow flowers predicts the main pollinator. Most bee-pollinated flowers displayed a pattern with UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting peripheries, whereas the majority of bird-pollinated flowers are entirely UV- absorbing. In choice experiments we found that bees did not show consistent preferences for any colour or pattern types. However, all tested bee species made their first antennal contact preferably at the UV-absorbing area of the artificial flower, irrespective of its spatial position within the flower. The appearance of UV patterns within flowers is the main difference in spectral reflectance between yellow bee- and bird-pollinated flowers, and affects the foraging behaviour of flower visitors. The results support the hypothesis that flower colours and the visual capabilities of their efficient pollinators are adapted to each other. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Combining Acceleration and Displacement Dependent Modal Frequency Responses Using an MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Widrick, Timothy W.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.

    1996-01-01

    Solving for dynamic responses of free-free launch vehicle/spacecraft systems acted upon by buffeting winds is commonly performed throughout the aerospace industry. Due to the unpredictable nature of this wind loading event, these problems are typically solved using frequency response random analysis techniques. To generate dynamic responses for spacecraft with statically-indeterminate interfaces, spacecraft contractors prefer to develop models which have response transformation matrices developed for mode acceleration data recovery. This method transforms spacecraft boundary accelerations and displacements into internal responses. Unfortunately, standard MSC/NASTRAN modal frequency response solution sequences cannot be used to combine acceleration- and displacement-dependent responses required for spacecraft mode acceleration data recovery. External user-written computer codes can be used with MSC/NASTRAN output to perform such combinations, but these methods can be labor and computer resource intensive. Taking advantage of the analytical and computer resource efficiencies inherent within MS C/NASTRAN, a DMAP Alter has been developed to combine acceleration- and displacement-dependent modal frequency responses for performing spacecraft mode acceleration data recovery. The Alter has been used successfully to efficiently solve a common aerospace buffeting wind analysis.

  8. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn, Mceachern A.; Thomson, D.M.; Chess, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate

  9. Altered pain responses in abstinent (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Una D; Edwards, Robert R; Smith, Michael T; Kelley, Kristen; Wilson, Michael; Sgambati, Francis; Ricaurte, George

    2011-10-01

    (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a popular recreational drug that has potential to damage brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons in humans. Brain 5-HT neurons play a role in pain modulation, yet little is known about long-term effects of MDMA on pain function. Notably, MDMA users have been shown to have altered sleep, a phenomenon that can lead to altered pain modulation. This study sought to assess pain processing in MDMA users using objective methods, and explore potential relationships between pain processing and sleep indices. Forty-two abstinent MDMA users and 43 age-matched controls participated in a 5-day inpatient study. Outcome measures included standardized measures of pain, sleep polysomnograms, and power spectral measures of the sleep EEG. When differences in psychophysiological measures of pain were found, the relationship between pain and sleep measures was explored. MDMA users demonstrated lower pressure pain thresholds, increased cold pain ratings, increased pain ratings during testing of diffuse noxious inhibitory control, and decreased Stage 2 sleep. Numerous significant relationships between sleep and pain measures were identified, but differences in sleep between the two groups were not found to mediate altered pain perception in MDMA users. Abstinent MDMA users have altered pain perception and sleep architecture. Although pain and sleep outcomes were related, differences in sleep architecture in MDMA users did not mediate altered pain responses. It remains to be determined whether alterations in pain perception in MDMA users are secondary to neurotoxicity of 5-HT-mediated pain pathways or alterations in other brain processes that modulate pain perception.

  10. Obese mice exhibit an altered behavioural and inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B. Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increase in the prevalence and severity of infections. Genetic animal models of obesity (ob/ob and db/db mice display altered centrally-mediated sickness behaviour in response to acute inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS. However, the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO on the anorectic and febrile response to LPS in mice is unknown. This study therefore determined how DIO and ob/ob mice respond to a systemic inflammatory challenge. C57BL/6 DIO and ob/ob mice, and their respective controls, were given an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of LPS. Compared with controls, DIO and ob/ob mice exhibited an altered febrile response to LPS (100 μg/kg over 8 hours. LPS caused a greater and more prolonged anorexic effect in DIO compared with control mice and, in ob/ob mice, LPS induced a reduction in food intake and body weight earlier than it did in controls. These effects of LPS in obese mice were also seen after a fixed dose of LPS (5 μg. LPS (100 μg/kg induced Fos protein expression in several brain nuclei of control mice, with fewer Fos-positive cells observed in the brains of obese mice. An altered inflammatory response to LPS was also observed in obese mice compared with controls: changes in cytokine expression and release were detected in the plasma, spleen, liver and peritoneal macrophages in obese mice. In summary, DIO and ob/ob mice displayed an altered behavioural response and cytokine release to systemic inflammatory challenge. These findings could help explain why obese humans show increased sensitivity to infections.

  11. Nutrient addition shifts plant community composition towards earlier flowering species in some prairie ecoregions in the U.S. Central Plains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Biederman

    Full Text Available The distribution of flowering across the growing season is governed by each species' evolutionary history and climatic variability. However, global change factors, such as eutrophication and invasion, can alter plant community composition and thus change the distribution of flowering across the growing season. We examined three ecoregions (tall-, mixed, and short-grass prairie across the U.S. Central Plains to determine how nutrient (nitrogen (N, phosphorus, and potassium (+micronutrient addition alters the temporal patterns of plant flowering traits. We calculated total community flowering potential (FP by distributing peak-season plant cover values across the growing season, allocating each species' cover to only those months in which it typically flowers. We also generated separate FP profiles for exotic and native species and functional group. We compared the ability of the added nutrients to shift the distribution of these FP profiles (total and sub-groups across the growing season. In all ecoregions, N increased the relative cover of both exotic species and C3 graminoids that flower in May through August. The cover of C4 graminoids decreased with added N, but the response varied by ecoregion and month. However, these functional changes only aggregated to shift the entire community's FP profile in the tall-grass prairie, where the relative cover of plants expected to flower in May and June increased and those that flower in September and October decreased with added N. The relatively low native cover in May and June may leave this ecoregion vulnerable to disturbance-induced invasion by exotic species that occupy this temporal niche. There was no change in the FP profile of the mixed and short-grass prairies with N addition as increased abundance of exotic species and C3 graminoids replaced other species that flower at the same time. In these communities a disturbance other than nutrient addition may be required to disrupt phenological

  12. Influence of gibberellic acid on the growth and flowering initiation of two types of peas (Pisum sativum L. differing in photoperiod response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Łukasik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that GA3 (0.03 mg per one plant caused significant delay of the flowering of two different genotypes of peas under conditions of an increasing natural day length (March - May. It was expressed both in a greater number of vegetative nodes and in a greater number of days to the first flower. Under conditions of a decreasing day length (August - November most of G type plants treated with GA3 reacted with complete inhibition of the flowering. In K type pea, GA3 treatment in the discussed conditions affected only the number of days from the sowing time to the appearence of the first flower. This stage was greater in treated plants in comparison with the control ones.

  13. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task

    OpenAIRE

    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stomby, Andreas; Ryberg, Mats; Lindahl, Bernt; Larsson, Christel; Nyberg, Lars; Olsson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 mon...

  14. Global DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer and may predict response to treatment - A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, J S

    2014-07-28

    In rectal cancer, not all tumours display a response to neoadjuvant treatment. An accurate predictor of response does not exist to guide patient-specific treatment. DNA methylation is a distinctive molecular pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis. Whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant treatment and a potential response predictor is unknown. We aimed to determine whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and to determine its role in predicting response to treatment.

  15. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Gene Family in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.: Genome-Wide Identification and Gene Expression during Flower Induction and Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengwei Jue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s or UBC enzymes play vital roles in plant development and combat various biotic and abiotic stresses. Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. is an important fruit tree in the subtropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia; however the characteristics of the UBC gene family in longan remain unknown. In this study, 40 D. longan UBC genes (DlUBCs, which were classified into 15 groups, were identified in the longan genome. An RNA-seq based analysis showed that DlUBCs showed distinct expression in nine longan tissues. Genome-wide RNA-seq and qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis revealed that 11 DlUBCs were up- or down-regualted in the cultivar “Sijimi” (SJ, suggesting that these genes may be important for flower induction. Finally, qRT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of 13 DlUBCs under SA (salicylic acid treatment, seven under methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, 27 under heat treatment, and 16 under cold treatment were up- or down-regulated, respectively. These results indicated that the DlUBCs may play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive insight into the organization, phylogeny, and expression patterns of the longan UBC genes, and therefore contribute to the greater understanding of their biological roles in longan.

  16. CREB-mediated alterations in the amygdala transcriptome: coordinated regulation of immune response genes following cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Laurel E; Cleck, Jessica N; White, Peter; Schug, Jonathan; Mifflin, Lauren; Blendy, Julie A

    2011-09-01

    The neuronal circuitry underlying stress- and drug-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking has been relatively well characterized; however, less is known regarding the long-term molecular changes following cocaine administration that may promote future reinstatement. The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is necessary for stress- but not cocaine-induced reinstatement of conditioned reward, suggesting that different molecular mechanisms may underlie these two types of reinstatement. To explore the relationship between this transcription factor and reinstatement, we utilized the place-conditioning paradigm to examine alterations in gene expression in the amygdala, a neural substrate critically involved in stress-induced reinstatement, following the development of cocaine reward and subsequent extinction. Our findings demonstrate that the amygdala transcriptome was altered by CREB deficiency more than by previous cocaine experience, with an over-representation of genes involved in the immune response. However, a subset of genes involved in stress and immune response demonstrated a drug×genotype interaction, indicating that cocaine produces different long-term alterations in gene expression depending on the presence or absence of CREB. This profile of gene expression in the context of addiction enhances our understanding of the long-term molecular changes that occur throughout the addiction cycle and identifies novel genes and pathways that might lead to the creation of better therapeutic agents.

  17. (Kaner) Flower Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of. Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  18. Geomorphological Responses to Anthropogenic Alterations within the Nakdong and Yeongsan Estuaries, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua; Dellapenna, Timothy; Lee, guan-hong

    2016-04-01

    On the Korean Peninsula, significant anthropogenic alterations have occurred to drainage basins and estuaries due to river diversion for agricultural practices, coastal construction of estuarine barrages, and extensive seawalls in land reclamation projects. Over the past century these practices have considerably modified the shoreline and altered both net transport of sediment and freshwater from these systems and modulated the timing and intensity of the discharge. As a result, the sediment dynamics and ecosystems within the estuaries have been significantly altered. Considering drainage basins >500 km2, 56% of rivers reaching the coast in South Korea have been occluded by an estuarine dam, restricting delivery of sediments and altering/preventing natural tidal exchange of fresh and saltwater. The Nakdong and Yeongsan Estuaries are prime examples and are respectively representative of micro and macro-tidal estuaries found in the region. The impacts of the modifications include a substantial decrease in the tidal prism, reduction of accommodation space in intertidal zones, and changes in the dispersal mechanisms and accumulation of sediments. In order to assess these alterations, a series of gravity and vibracores were analyzed using 210Pb and 137Cs radioisotope geochronology, laser diffraction particle analyses, and X-radiography. Additionally, side scan sonar and CHIRP seismic data were collected. Our observations have found a shift in depositional environments as a natural response to an extensive array of anthropogenic alterations. The changes in sediment trapping efficiency that have ensued resulting from extensive coastal construction provides the basis for reevaluating traditional facies models for estuaries in the Anthropocene

  19. Analysis on expression of gene for flower shape in Dendrobium sonia mutants using differential display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Ahmad Syazni Kamarudin; Nurul Nadia Aminuddin; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2004-01-01

    In vitro mutagenesis on Dendrobium Sonia in MINT has produced mutants with wide range of flower form and colour variations. Among the mutants are plants with different flower size and shape. These changes could be caused by alterations to the expression level of the genes responsible for the characteristics. In this studies, Differential Display technique was used to identify and analyse altered gene expression at the mRNA level. Total RNA of the control and mutants were reversed transcribed using three anchored oligo-d T primers. Subsequently, these cDNAs were Pcr amplified in combination with 16 arbitrary primers. The amplified products were electrophoresed side by side on agarose gel. Differentially expressed bands are isolated for further analysis. (Author)

  20. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 deficiency alters the gut microbiome response to Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jethro S; Opiyo, Monica N; Thomson, Marian; Gharbi, Karim; Seckl, Jonathan R; Heger, Andreas; Chapman, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) interconverts active glucocorticoids and their intrinsically inert 11-keto forms. The type 1 isozyme, 11β-HSD1, predominantly reactivates glucocorticoids in vivo and can also metabolise bile acids. 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show altered inflammatory responses and are protected against the adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet. However, the impact of 11β-HSD1 on the composition of the gut microbiome has not previously been investigated. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to characterise the gut microbiome of 11β-HSD1-deficient and C57Bl/6 control mice, fed either a standard chow diet or a cholesterol- and fat-enriched 'Western' diet. 11β-HSD1 deficiency significantly altered the composition of the gut microbiome, and did so in a diet-specific manner. On a Western diet, 11β-HSD1 deficiency increased the relative abundance of the family Bacteroidaceae, and on a chow diet, it altered relative abundance of the family Prevotellaceae Our results demonstrate that (i) genetic effects on host-microbiome interactions can depend upon diet and (ii) that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome may contribute to the aspects of the metabolic and/or inflammatory phenotype observed with 11β-HSD1 deficiency. © 2017 The authors.

  1. Short-term precipitation exclusion alters microbial responses to soil moisture in a wet tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Bonnie G; Hawkes, Christine V

    2015-05-01

    Many wet tropical forests, which contain a quarter of global terrestrial biomass carbon stocks, will experience changes in precipitation regime over the next century. Soil microbial responses to altered rainfall are likely to be an important feedback on ecosystem carbon cycling, but the ecological mechanisms underpinning these responses are poorly understood. We examined how reduced rainfall affected soil microbial abundance, activity, and community composition using a 6-month precipitation exclusion experiment at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Thereafter, we addressed the persistent effects of field moisture treatments by exposing soils to a controlled soil moisture gradient in the lab for 4 weeks. In the field, compositional and functional responses to reduced rainfall were dependent on initial conditions, consistent with a large degree of spatial heterogeneity in tropical forests. However, the precipitation manipulation significantly altered microbial functional responses to soil moisture. Communities with prior drought exposure exhibited higher respiration rates per unit microbial biomass under all conditions and respired significantly more CO2 than control soils at low soil moisture. These functional patterns suggest that changes in microbial physiology may drive positive feedbacks to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations if wet tropical forests experience longer or more intense dry seasons in the future.

  2. Experimental Fasciola hepatica Infection Alters Responses to Tests Used for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robin J.; Mannion, Celine; Golden, Olwen; Hacariz, Orcun; Mulcahy, Grace

    2007-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a prevalent helminth parasite of livestock. Infection results in polarization of the host's immune response and generation of type 2 helper (Th2) immune responses, which are known to be inhibitory to Th1 responses. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a bacterial disease of economic and zoonotic importance. Control polices for this disease rely on extensive annual testing and a test-and-slaughter policy. The correct diagnosis of BTB relies on cell-mediated immune responses. We established a model of coinfection of F. hepatica and Mycobacterium bovis BCG to examine the impact of helminth infection on correct diagnosis. We found the predictive capacity of tests to be compromised in coinfected animals and that F. hepatica infection altered macrophage function. Interleukin-4 and gamma interferon expression in whole-blood lymphocytes restimulated in vitro with M. bovis antigen was also altered in coinfected animals. These results raise the question of whether F. hepatica infection can affect the predictive capacity of tests for the diagnosis of BTB and possibly also influence susceptibility to BTB and other bacterial diseases. Further studies on the interplay between helminth infection and BTB are warranted. PMID:17194810

  3. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.

  4. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Martin

    Full Text Available Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess, as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF, affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF or a high fat-high glucose (HFG diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  5. The Vestibular-Evoked Postural Response of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis Is Altered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Pialasse

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a multifactorial disorder including neurological factors. A dysfunction of the sensorimotor networks processing vestibular information could be related to spine deformation. This study investigates whether feed-forward vestibulomotor control or sensory reweighting mechanisms are impaired in adolescent scoliosis patients. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation while participants stood with their eyes closed and head facing forward. Lateral forces under each foot and lateral displacement of the upper body of adolescents with mild (n = 20 or severe (n = 16 spine deformation were compared to those of healthy control adolescents (n = 16. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients demonstrated greater lateral displacement and net lateral forces than controls both during and immediately after vestibular stimulation. Altered sensory reweighting of vestibular and proprioceptive information changed balance control of AIS patients during and after vestibular stimulation. Therefore, scoliosis onset could be related to abnormal sensory reweighting, leading to altered sensorimotor processes.

  6. Connecting differential responses of native and invasive riparian plants to climate change and environmental alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Neal E; Richardson, Curtis J; Ho, Mengchi

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is predicted to impact river systems in the southeastern United States through alterations of temperature, patterns of precipitation and hydrology. Future climate scenarios for the southeastern United States predict (1) surface water temperatures will warm in concert with air temperature, (2) storm flows will increase and base flows will decrease, and (3) the annual pattern of synchronization between hydroperiod and water temperature will be altered. These alterations are expected to disturb floodplain plant communities, making them more vulnerable to establishment of invasive species. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate whether native and invasive riparian plant assemblages respond differently to alterations of climate and land use. To study the response of riparian wetlands to watershed and climate alterations, we utilized an existing natural experiment imbedded in gradients of temperature and hydrology-found among dammed and undammed rivers. We evaluated a suite of environmental variables related to water temperature, hydrology, watershed disturbance, and edaphic conditions to identify the strongest predictors of native and invasive species abundances. We found that native species abundance is strongly influenced by climate-driven variables such as temperature and hydrology, while invasive species abundance is more strongly influenced by site-specific factors such as land use and soil nutrient availability. The patterns of synchronization between plant phenology, annual hydrographs, and annual water temperature cycles may be key factors sustaining the viability of native riparian plant communities. Our results demonstrate the need to understand the interactions between climate, land use, and nutrient management in maintaining the species diversity of riparian plant communities. Future climate change is likely to result in diminished competitiveness of native plant species, while the competitiveness of invasive species will increase

  7. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  8. Alterations in cellular metabolism modulate CD1d-mediated NKT-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Tonya J; Carey, Gregory B; East, James E; Sun, Wenji; Bollino, Dominique R; Kimball, Amy S; Brutkiewicz, Randy R

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play a critical role in the host's innate immune response. CD1d-mediated presentation of glycolipid antigens to NKT cells has been established; however, the mechanisms by which NKT cells recognize infected or cancerous cells remain unclear. 5(')-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of lipogenic pathways. We hypothesized that activation of AMPK during infection and malignancy could alter the repertoire of antigens presented by CD1d and serve as a danger signal to NKT cells. In this study, we examined the effect of alterations in metabolism on CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells and found that an infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus rapidly increased CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) enhance T-cell effector functions during infection, therefore antigen presenting cells pretreated with pharmacological agents that inhibit glycolysis, induce HIF and activate AMPK were assessed for their ability to induce NKT-cell responses. Pretreatment with 2-deoxyglucose, cobalt chloride, AICAR and metformin significantly enhanced CD1d-mediated NKT-cell activation. In addition, NKT cells preferentially respond to malignant B cells and B-cell lymphomas express HIF-1α. These data suggest that targeting cellular metabolism may serve as a novel means of inducing innate immune responses. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Global differential gene expression in response to growth temperature alteration in group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, L M; Smoot, J C; Graham, M R; Somerville, G A; Sturdevant, D E; Migliaccio, C A; Sylva, G L; Musser, J M

    2001-08-28

    Pathogens are exposed to different temperatures during an infection cycle and must regulate gene expression accordingly. However, the extent to which virulent bacteria alter gene expression in response to temperatures encountered in the host is unknown. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen that is responsible for illnesses ranging from superficial skin infections and pharyngitis to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. GAS survives and multiplies at different temperatures during human infection. DNA microarray analysis was used to investigate the influence of temperature on global gene expression in a serotype M1 strain grown to exponential phase at 29 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Approximately 9% of genes were differentially expressed by at least 1.5-fold at 29 degrees C relative to 37 degrees C, including genes encoding transporter proteins, proteins involved in iron homeostasis, transcriptional regulators, phage-associated proteins, and proteins with no known homologue. Relatively few known virulence genes were differentially expressed at this threshold. However, transcription of 28 genes encoding proteins with predicted secretion signal sequences was altered, indicating that growth temperature substantially influences the extracellular proteome. TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays confirmed the microarray data. We also discovered that transcription of genes encoding hemolysins, and proteins with inferred roles in iron regulation, transport, and homeostasis, was influenced by growth at 40 degrees C. Thus, GAS profoundly alters gene expression in response to temperature. The data delineate the spectrum of temperature-regulated gene expression in an important human pathogen and provide many unforeseen lines of pathogenesis investigation.

  10. ACC synthase genes are polymorphic in watermelon (Citrullus spp.) and differentially expressed in flowers and in response to auxin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Levi, Amnon; Wolf, Shmuel; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-05-01

    The flowering pattern of watermelon species (Citrullus spp.) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. Ethylene is known to play a critical role in floral sex determination of cucurbit species. In contrast to its feminizing effect in cucumber and melon, in watermelon ethylene promotes male flower development. In cucumber, the rate-limiting enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS), regulates unisexual flower development. To investigate the role of ethylene in flower development, we isolated four genomic sequences of ACS from watermelon (CitACS1-4). Both CitACS1 and CitACS3 are expressed in floral tissue. CitACS1 is also expressed in vegetative tissue and it may be involved in cell growth processes. Expression of CitACS1 is up-regulated by exogenous treatment with auxin, gibberellin or ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene. No discernible differential floral sex-dependent expression pattern was observed for this gene. The CitACS3 gene is expressed in open flowers and in young staminate floral buds (male or hermaphrodite), but not in female flowers. CitACS3 is also up-regulated by ACC, and is likely to be involved in ethylene-regulated anther development. The expression of CitACS2 was not detected in vegetative or reproductive organs but was up-regulated by auxin. CitACS4 transcript was not detected under our experimental conditions. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence tagged site (STS) marker analyses of the CitACS genes showed polymorphism among and within the different Citrullus groups, including watermelon cultivars, Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, the central subspecies Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, and the desert species Citrullus colocynthis (L).

  11. Altered immune response in mallard ducklings exposed to lead through maternal transfer in the wild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallverdú-Coll, Núria; López-Antia, Ana; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E.; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning has caused significant mortality in waterfowl populations worldwide. In spite of having been banned since 2003, prevalence of Pb shot ingestion in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from the Ebro delta was still 15.5% in 2011–12. We collected mallard eggs from this area to study the effects of maternally transferred Pb on eggshell properties and on immune response and oxidative balance of ducklings. Eggshell Pb levels were positively correlated with Pb levels in the blood of ducklings. Ducklings with blood Pb levels above 180 ng mL −1 showed reduced body mass and died during the first week post hatching. Blood Pb levels positively correlated with humoral immune response, endogenous antioxidants and oxidative stress biomarkers, and negatively correlated with cellular immune response. Pb shot ingestion in birds can result in maternal transfer to the offspring that can affect their developing immune system and reduce their survival in early life stages. - Highlights: • Pb was transferred from mallard hens to eggs and ducklings. • Maternal Pb transfer was enough to inhibit blood ALAD activity in ducklings. • Cellular immune response was negatively affected by blood Pb levels. • Humoral immune response was exacerbated by Pb exposure. • Pb induced oxidative stress and increased levels of antioxidants in blood. - Maternal transfer of Pb alters immune responses and oxidative balance of ducklings and compromises the survival of individuals

  12. Altering the sex determination pathway in Drosophila fat body modifies sex-specific stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    The stress response in Drosophila melanogaster reveals sex differences in behavior, similar to what has been observed in mammals. However, unlike mammals, the sex determination pathway in Drosophila is well established, making this an ideal system to identify factors involved in the modulation of sex-specific responses to stress. In this study, we show that the Drosophila fat body, which has been shown to be important for energy homeostasis and sex determination, is a dynamic tissue that is altered in response to stress in a sex and time-dependent manner. We manipulated the sex determination pathway in the fat body via targeted expression of transformer and transformer-2 and analyzed these animals for changes in their response to stress. In the majority of cases, manipulation of transformer or transformer-2 was able to change the physiological output in response to starvation and oxidative stress to that of the opposite sex. Our data also uncover the possibility of additional downstream targets for transformer and transformer-2 that are separate from the sex determination pathway and can influence behavioral and physiological responses. PMID:24789992

  13. Computational Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Altered Drug Responsiveness in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is one of the most frequent mortality causes in western countries, with rapidly increasing prevalence. Anti-diabetic drugs are the first therapeutic approach, although many patients develop drug resistance. Most drug responsiveness variability can be explained by genetic causes. Inter-individual variability is principally due to single nucleotide polymorphisms, and differential drug responsiveness has been correlated to alteration in genes involved in drug metabolism (CYP2C9 or insulin signaling (IRS1, ABCC8, KCNJ11 and PPARG. However, most genome-wide association studies did not provide clues about the contribution of DNA variations to impaired drug responsiveness. Thus, characterizing T2D drug responsiveness variants is needed to guide clinicians toward tailored therapeutic approaches. Here, we extensively investigated polymorphisms associated with altered drug response in T2D, predicting their effects in silico. Combining different computational approaches, we focused on the expression pattern of genes correlated to drug resistance and inferred evolutionary conservation of polymorphic residues, computationally predicting the biochemical properties of polymorphic proteins. Using RNA-Sequencing followed by targeted validation, we identified and experimentally confirmed that two nucleotide variations in the CAPN10 gene—currently annotated as intronic—fall within two new transcripts in this locus. Additionally, we found that a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP, currently reported as intergenic, maps to the intron of a new transcript, harboring CAPN10 and GPR35 genes, which undergoes non-sense mediated decay. Finally, we analyzed variants that fall into non-coding regulatory regions of yet underestimated functional significance, predicting that some of them can potentially affect gene expression and/or post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs affecting the splicing.

  14. Systemic apomorphine alters HPA axis responses to interleukin-1 beta administration but not sound stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, K M; Crane, J W; Spencer, S J; Day, T A

    2003-08-01

    Apomorphine is a dopamine receptor agonist that was recently licensed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, although sexual activity can be stressful, there has been little investigation into whether treatments for erectile dysfunction affect stress responses. We have examined whether a single dose of apomorphine, sufficient to produce penile erections (50 microg/kg, i.a.), can alter basal or stress-induced plasma ACTH levels, or activity of central pathways thought to control the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats. An immune challenge (interleukin-1 beta, 1 microg/kg, i.a.) was used as a physical stressor while sound stress (100 dB white noise, 30 min) was used as a psychological stressor. Intravascular administration of apomorphine had no effect on basal ACTH levels but did substantially increase the number of Fos-positive amygdala and nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cells. Administration of apomorphine prior to immune challenge augmented the normal ACTH response to this stressor at 90 min and there was a corresponding increase in the number of Fos-positive paraventricular nucleus corticotropin-releasing factor cells, paraventricular nucleus oxytocin cells and nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cells. However, apomorphine treatment did not alter ACTH or Fos responses to sound stress. These data suggest that erection-inducing levels of apomorphine interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis inhibitory feedback mechanisms in response to a physical stressor, but have no effect on the response to a psychological stressor. Consequently, it is likely that apomorphine acts on a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis control pathway that is unique to physical stressors. A candidate for this site of action is the nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cell population and, in particular, A2 noradrenergic neurons.

  15. Alterations in regulatory T cells induced by specific oligosaccharides improve vaccine responsiveness in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel A Schijf

    Full Text Available Prophylactic vaccinations are generally performed to protect naïve individuals with or without suppressed immune responsiveness. In a mouse model for Influenza vaccinations the specific alterations of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs in the immune modulation induced by orally supplied oligosaccharides containing scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS was assessed. This dietary intervention increased vaccine specific DTH responses. In addition, a significant increased percentage of T-bet(+ (Th1 activated CD69(+CD4(+ T cells (p<0.001 and reduced percentage of Gata-3(+ (Th2 activated CD69(+CD4(+T cells (p<0.001 was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN of mice receiving scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS compared to control mice. Although no difference in the number or percentage of Tregs (CD4(+Foxp3(+ could be determined after scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS intervention, the percentage of CXCR3 (+ /T-bet(+ (Th1-Tregs was significantly reduced (p<0.05 in mice receiving scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS as compared to mice receiving placebo diets. Moreover, although no absolute difference in suppressive capacity could be detected, an alteration in cytokine profile suggests a regulatory T cell shift towards a reducing Th1 suppression profile, supporting an improved vaccination response.These data are indicative for improved vaccine responsiveness due to reduced Th1 suppressive capacity in the Treg population of mice fed the oligosaccharide specific diet, showing compartmentalization within the Treg population. The modulation of Tregs to control immune responses provides an additional arm of intervention using alternative strategies possibly leading to the development of improved vaccines.

  16. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  17. Environmental stress influencing plant development and flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aaram A; Mishra, Priyanka; Kumari, Khushbu; Panigrahi, Kishore C S

    2012-06-01

    Plants are sessile organisms and unlike animals, cannot run away from adverse environmental conditions. Therefore, they have evolved sophisticated signaling and protective systems to overcome sub-lethal stress situations. Although, effect of stress on physiology and morphology were studied earlier, the research on molecular mechanisms of stress response is albeit new. Studies at the molecular level on stress physiology reveal that, many stress-induced pathways converge downstream or interact significantly. Abiotic stress factors regulate the extent and pattern of developmental programme. The timing of transition from vegetative to flowering phase, which is vital for survival and reproductive success, is often altered under various stresses. Unraveling the mechanisms by which different environmental stresses induce their effects and how tolerance to stress is achieved is an active area of research. Enhancing stress tolerance, especially in crop plants is an area of prime importance. In this review, we focus on stress responses induced by temperatures, high and low light intensities, UV radiation, drought and salinity stress and summarize the recent advancements by highlighting the underlying molecular pathways and processes.

  18. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R; Eyeghe-Bickong, Hans A; du Plessis, Kari; Alexandersson, Erik; Jacobson, Dan A; Coetzee, Zelmari; Deloire, Alain; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) 'Sauvignon Blanc' berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure1

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Kari; Jacobson, Dan A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. PMID:26628747

  20. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Tropic responses were examined in azalea Rhododendrom pulchrum and lily Lilium cv. 'Casablanca' flowers. Orientation of the flowers in these two species depicts several up/down characteristics, such as angle of the corolla opening, alignment or configuration of a specific petal at the top, plus direction in the curved tip of the pistil and stamen. Gravity was found to be the prime factor, with light as a secondary signal that determines gravitropism in the pistil of the azalea. Within the azalea, sedimented amyloplasts were observed throughout the cells along the inner layers below the epidermis. In lily flowers, no sedimented amyloplasts were found in style cells, and phototropic responses caused upward bending of the pistil. Responses of lily pistils to monochromatic light were consistent with the action spectrum for phototropism in the shoots of monocotyledonous plants. We discuss how these features may increase the fitness for pollination in these two species.

  1. Fruitful factors: what limits seed production of flowering plants in the alpine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Jason R; Starzomski, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    Predicting demographic consequences of climate change for plant communities requires understanding which factors influence seed set, and how climate change may alter those factors. To determine the effects of pollen availability, temperature, and pollinators on seed production in the alpine, we combined pollen-manipulation experiments with measurements of variation in temperature, and abundance and diversity of potential pollinators along a 400-m elevation gradient. We did this for seven dominant species of flowering plants in the Coast Range Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. The number of viable seeds set by plants was influenced by pollen limitation (quantity of pollen received), mate limitation (quality of pollen), temperature, abundance of potential pollinators, seed predation, and combinations of these factors. Early flowering species (n = 3) had higher seed set at high elevation and late-flowering species (n = 4) had higher seed set at low elevation. Degree-days >15 °C were good predictors of seed set, particularly in bee-pollinated species, but had inconsistent effects among species. Seed production in one species, Arnica latifolia, was negatively affected by seed-predators (Tephritidae) at mid elevation, where there were fewer frost-hours during the flowering season. Anemone occidentalis, a fly-pollinated, self-compatible species had high seed set at all elevations, likely due to abundant potential pollinators. Simultaneously measuring multiple factors affecting reproductive success of flowering plants helped identify which factors were most important, providing focus for future studies. Our work suggests that responses of plant communities to climate change may be mediated by flowering time, pollination syndrome, and susceptibility to seed predators.

  2. Brief daily postpartum separations from the litter alter dam response to psychostimulants and to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Silveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling induces several behavioral and neurochemical alterations in pups, including decreased responses to stress and reduced fear in new environments. However, there are few reports in the literature concerning the behavioral effects of this neonatal intervention on the dams during the postpartum period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine if brief postpartum separation from pups has a persistent impact on the dam's stress response and behavior. Litters were divided into two neonatal groups: 1 non-handled and 2 handled [10 min/day, from postnatal day (PND 1 to 10]. Weaning occurred at PND 21 when behavioral tasks started to be applied to the dams, including sweet food ingestion (PND 21, forced swimming test (PND 28, and locomotor response to a psychostimulant (PND 28. On postpartum day 40, plasma was collected at baseline for leptin assays and after 1 h of restraint for corticosterone assay. Regarding sweet food consumption, behavior during the forced swimming test or plasma leptin levels did not differ between dams briefly separated and non-separated from their pups during the postpartum period. On the other hand, both increased locomotion in response to diethylpropion and increased corticosterone secretion in response to acute stress were detected in dams briefly separated from their pups during the first 10 postnatal days. Taken together, these findings suggest that brief, repeated separations from the pups during the neonatal period persistently impact the behavior and induce signs of dopaminergic sensitization in the dam.

  3. Brief daily postpartum separations from the litter alter dam response to psychostimulants and to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Silveira

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling induces several behavioral and neurochemical alterations in pups, including decreased responses to stress and reduced fear in new environments. However, there are few reports in the literature concerning the behavioral effects of this neonatal intervention on the dams during the postpartum period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine if brief postpartum separation from pups has a persistent impact on the dam's stress response and behavior. Litters were divided into two neonatal groups: 1 non-handled and 2 handled [10 min/day, from postnatal day (PND 1 to 10]. Weaning occurred at PND 21 when behavioral tasks started to be applied to the dams, including sweet food ingestion (PND 21, forced swimming test (PND 28, and locomotor response to a psychostimulant (PND 28. On postpartum day 40, plasma was collected at baseline for leptin assays and after 1 h of restraint for corticosterone assay. Regarding sweet food consumption, behavior during the forced swimming test or plasma leptin levels did not differ between dams briefly separated and non-separated from their pups during the postpartum period. On the other hand, both increased locomotion in response to diethylpropion and increased corticosterone secretion in response to acute stress were detected in dams briefly separated from their pups during the first 10 postnatal days. Taken together, these findings suggest that brief, repeated separations from the pups during the neonatal period persistently impact the behavior and induce signs of dopaminergic sensitization in the dam.

  4. Toll mediated infection response is altered by gravity and spaceflight in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Taylor

    Full Text Available Space travel presents unlimited opportunities for exploration and discovery, but requires better understanding of the biological consequences of long-term exposure to spaceflight. Immune function in particular is relevant for space travel. Human immune responses are weakened in space, with increased vulnerability to opportunistic infections and immune-related conditions. In addition, microorganisms can become more virulent in space, causing further challenges to health. To understand these issues better and to contribute to design of effective countermeasures, we used the Drosophila model of innate immunity to study immune responses in both hypergravity and spaceflight. Focusing on infections mediated through the conserved Toll and Imd signaling pathways, we found that hypergravity improves resistance to Toll-mediated fungal infections except in a known gravitaxis mutant of the yuri gagarin gene. These results led to the first spaceflight project on Drosophila immunity, in which flies that developed to adulthood in microgravity were assessed for immune responses by transcription profiling on return to Earth. Spaceflight alone altered transcription, producing activation of the heat shock stress system. Space flies subsequently infected by fungus failed to activate the Toll pathway. In contrast, bacterial infection produced normal activation of the Imd pathway. We speculate on possible linkage between functional Toll signaling and the heat shock chaperone system. Our major findings are that hypergravity and spaceflight have opposing effects, and that spaceflight produces stress-related transcriptional responses and results in a specific inability to mount a Toll-mediated infection response.

  5. Proteomic Characterization of Armillaria mellea Reveals Oxidative Stress Response Mechanisms and Altered Secondary Metabolism Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Collins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, the strategies the organism uses to infect susceptible species, degrade lignocellulose and other plant material and protect itself against plant defences and its own glycodegradative arsenal are largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of gel and MS-based proteomics to profile A. mellea under conditions of oxidative stress and changes in growth matrix. 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were used to investigate the response of A. mellea to H2O2 and menadione/FeCl3 exposure, respectively. Several proteins were detected with altered abundance in response to H2O2, but not menadione/FeCl3 (i.e., valosin-containing protein, indicating distinct responses to these different forms of oxidative stress. One protein, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, demonstrated a common response in both conditions, which may be a marker for a more general stress response mechanism. Further changes to the A. mellea proteome were investigated using MS-based proteomics, which identified changes to putative secondary metabolism (SM enzymes upon growth in agar compared to liquid cultures. Metabolomic analyses revealed distinct profiles, highlighting the effect of growth matrix on SM production. This establishes robust methods by which to utilize comparative proteomics to characterize this important phytopathogen.

  6. Proteomic Characterization of Armillaria mellea Reveals Oxidative Stress Response Mechanisms and Altered Secondary Metabolism Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cassandra; Hurley, Rachel; Almutlaqah, Nada; O'Keeffe, Grainne; Keane, Thomas M; Fitzpatrick, David A; Owens, Rebecca A

    2017-09-17

    Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, the strategies the organism uses to infect susceptible species, degrade lignocellulose and other plant material and protect itself against plant defences and its own glycodegradative arsenal are largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of gel and MS-based proteomics to profile A. mellea under conditions of oxidative stress and changes in growth matrix. 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were used to investigate the response of A. mellea to H₂O₂ and menadione/FeCl₃ exposure, respectively. Several proteins were detected with altered abundance in response to H₂O₂, but not menadione/FeCl₃ (i.e., valosin-containing protein), indicating distinct responses to these different forms of oxidative stress. One protein, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, demonstrated a common response in both conditions, which may be a marker for a more general stress response mechanism. Further changes to the A. mellea proteome were investigated using MS-based proteomics, which identified changes to putative secondary metabolism (SM) enzymes upon growth in agar compared to liquid cultures. Metabolomic analyses revealed distinct profiles, highlighting the effect of growth matrix on SM production. This establishes robust methods by which to utilize comparative proteomics to characterize this important phytopathogen.

  7. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Nichole A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

  8. Altered neural connectivity during response inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Daan; Hartman, Catharina A.; Mennes, Maarten; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Franke, Barbara; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Response inhibition is one of the executive functions impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Increasing evidence indicates that altered functional and structural neural connectivity are part of the neurobiological basis of ADHD. Here, we investigated if

  9. Protein energy malnutrition alters mucosal IgA responses and reduces mucosal vaccine efficacy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Semi; Kim, Heejoo; Shim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Seung Young; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho; Han, Byung Woo; Song, Man Ki; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Jae-Ouk

    2017-10-01

    Oral vaccine responsiveness is often lower in children from less developed countries. Childhood malnutrition may be associated with poor immune response to oral vaccines. The present study was designed to investigate whether protein energy malnutrition (PEM) impairs B cell immunity and ultimately reduces oral vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. Purified isocaloric diets containing low protein (1/10 the protein of the control diet) were used to determine the effect of PEM. PEM increased both nonspecific total IgA and oral antigen-specific IgA in serum without alteration of gut permeability. However, PEM decreased oral antigen-specific IgA in feces, which is consistent with decreased expression of polymeric Immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in the small intestine. Of note, polymeric IgA was predominant in serum under PEM. In addition, PEM altered B cell development status in the bone marrow and increased the frequency of IgA-secreting B cells, as well as IgA secretion by long-lived plasma cells in the small intestinal lamina propria. Moreover, PEM reduced the protective efficacy of the mucosally administered cholera vaccine and recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine in a mouse model. Our results suggest that PEM can impair mucosal immunity where IgA plays an important role in host protection and may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in malnourished subjects. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

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    Huan Cai

    Full Text Available Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT, ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-, and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin(-/- mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/- mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/- mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/- mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  11. Altered Lipid and Salt Taste Responsivity in Ghrelin and GOAT Null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Caitlin M.; Wang, Rui; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Sévigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin−/−), and GOAT knockout (GOAT−/−) mice. Ghrelin−/− mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT−/− mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin−/− and GOAT−/− mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin−/− mice, yet potentiated in GOAT−/− mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT−/− mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin−/− and GOAT−/− mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities. PMID:24124572

  12. The Effect of Age in the Alteration in Fluid Balance of Rats in Response to Centrifugation

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    Fuller, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    With an increase in gravity load induced by centrifugation or upon return to Earth following spaceflight, there is a period of adjustment in fluid balance in rats. With centrifugation there is a reduced fluid intake with maintenance of the rate of urine excretion. Following spaceflight there is an increase in urine output and maintenance of fluid intake. The initial period of acclimation to hypergravity is associated with a net loss of fluids. In the present study in response to centrifugation at 2.0 G this period of acclimation is present in mature rats for a longer period of time, about 24 hours. Following this initial response a period of over compensation has previously been reported. In the present study this was not observed. The net effect of these alterations in water intake and output in response to centrifugation for 14 days was slight increase in the percent total body water, with effective compensation seen in both young and mature rats. Older rats have been shown to have a reduced relative thirst and compensatory renal function in response to hypohydration, hyperosmolality and pharmacological stimuli. Responsiveness to these stimuli are delayed and/or attenuated in older animals. Similar findings were noted in the present study in the initial response to centrifugation. The older animal had a delayed return of fluid intake to control levels. The delay of one day did not appear to effect long-term fluid homeostasis, as there was difference in the response of percent total body water at the end of 14 days of centrifugation with both age groups having a slight but significant increase. This increase has been attributed to the increase in lean body mass induced by centrifugation.

  13. Altered auditory BOLD response to conspecific birdsong in zebra finches with stuttered syllables.

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    Henning U Voss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available How well a songbird learns a song appears to depend on the formation of a robust auditory template of its tutor's song. Using functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging we examine auditory responses in two groups of zebra finches that differ in the type of song they sing after being tutored by birds producing stuttering-like syllable repetitions in their songs. We find that birds that learn to produce the stuttered syntax show attenuated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD responses to tutor's song, and more pronounced responses to conspecific song primarily in the auditory area field L of the avian forebrain, when compared to birds that produce normal song. These findings are consistent with the presence of a sensory song template critical for song learning in auditory areas of the zebra finch forebrain. In addition, they suggest a relationship between an altered response related to familiarity and/or saliency of song stimuli and the production of variant songs with stuttered syllables.

  14. Attention Alters Neural Responses to Evocative Faces in Behaviorally Inhibited Adolescents

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    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Hardin, Michael G.; Poeth, Kaitlin; Guyer, Amanda E.; Nelson, Eric E.; McClure, Erin B.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a risk factor for anxiety disorders. While the two constructs bear behavioral similarities, previous work has not extended these parallels to the neural level. This study examined amygdala reactivity during a task previously used with clinically anxious adolescents. Adolescents were selected for enduring patterns of BI or non-inhibition (BN). We examined amygdala response to evocative emotion faces in BI (N=10, mean 12.8 years) and BN (N=17, mean 12.5 years) adolescents while systematically manipulating attention. Analyses focused on amygdala response during subjective ratings of internal fear (constrained attention) and passive viewing (unconstrained attention) during the presentation of emotion faces (Happy, Angry, Fearful, and Neutral). BI adolescents, relative to BN adolescents, showed exaggerated amygdala response during subjective fear ratings and deactivation during passive viewing, across all emotion faces. In addition, the BI group showed an abnormally high amygdala response to a task condition marked by novelty and uncertainty (i.e., rating fear state to a Happy face). Perturbations in amygdala function are evident in adolescents temperamentally at risk for anxiety. Attention state alters the underlying pattern of neural processing, potentially mediating the observed behavioral patterns across development. BI adolescents also show a heightened sensitivity to novelty and uncertainty, which has been linked to anxiety. These patterns of reactivity may help sustain early temperamental biases over time and contribute to the observed relation between BI and anxiety. PMID:17376704

  15. HIV-1 transgenic rats display alterations in immunophenotype and cellular responses associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanzo, Susan J; Chang, Sulie L

    2014-01-01

    Advances in anti-retroviral therapy over the last two decades have allowed life expectancy in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus to approach that of the general population. The process of aging in mammalian species, including rats, results in immune response changes, alterations in immunological phenotypes, and ultimately increased susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In order to investigate the immunological pathologies associated with chronic HIV-1 disease, particularly in aging individuals, the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat model was utilized. HIV-1Tg rats were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine immunological alterations during the aging process. LPS is known to cause an imbalance in cytokine and chemokine release, and provides a method to identify changes in immune responses to bacterial infection in an HIV animal model. An immune profile and accompanying cellular consequences as well as changes in inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release related to age and genotype were assessed in HIV-1Tg rats. The percentage of T cells decreased with age, particularly T cytotoxic cells, whereas T helper cells increased with age. Neutrophils and monocytes increased in HIV-1Tg rats during maturation compared to age-matched F344 control rats. Aging HIV-1Tg rats displayed a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, along with an increase in the chemokine, KC/GRO, in comparison to age-matched controls. Our data indicate that immunophenotype and immune responses can change during aging in HIV-positive individuals. This information could be important in determining the most beneficial age-dependent therapeutic treatment for HIV patients.

  16. HIV-1 transgenic rats display alterations in immunophenotype and cellular responses associated with aging.

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    Susan J Abbondanzo

    Full Text Available Advances in anti-retroviral therapy over the last two decades have allowed life expectancy in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus to approach that of the general population. The process of aging in mammalian species, including rats, results in immune response changes, alterations in immunological phenotypes, and ultimately increased susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In order to investigate the immunological pathologies associated with chronic HIV-1 disease, particularly in aging individuals, the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg rat model was utilized. HIV-1Tg rats were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS to determine immunological alterations during the aging process. LPS is known to cause an imbalance in cytokine and chemokine release, and provides a method to identify changes in immune responses to bacterial infection in an HIV animal model. An immune profile and accompanying cellular consequences as well as changes in inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release related to age and genotype were assessed in HIV-1Tg rats. The percentage of T cells decreased with age, particularly T cytotoxic cells, whereas T helper cells increased with age. Neutrophils and monocytes increased in HIV-1Tg rats during maturation compared to age-matched F344 control rats. Aging HIV-1Tg rats displayed a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, along with an increase in the chemokine, KC/GRO, in comparison to age-matched controls. Our data indicate that immunophenotype and immune responses can change during aging in HIV-positive individuals. This information could be important in determining the most beneficial age-dependent therapeutic treatment for HIV patients.

  17. Pharmacological blockade of TRPM8 ion channels alters cold and cold pain responses in mice.

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    Wendy M Knowlton

    Full Text Available TRPM8 (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-8 is a cold- and menthol-gated ion channel necessary for the detection of cold temperatures in the mammalian peripheral nervous system. Functioning TRPM8 channels are required for behavioral responses to innocuous cool, noxious cold, injury-evoked cold hypersensitivity, cooling-mediated analgesia, and thermoregulation. Because of these various roles, the ability to pharmacologically manipulate TRPM8 function to alter the excitability of cold-sensing neurons may have broad impact clinically. Here we examined a novel compound, PBMC (1-phenylethyl-4-(benzyloxy-3-methoxybenzyl(2-aminoethylcarbamate which robustly and selectively inhibited TRPM8 channels in vitro with sub-nanomolar affinity, as determined by calcium microfluorimetry and electrophysiology. The actions of PBMC were selective for TRPM8, with no functional effects observed for the sensory ion channels TRPV1 and TRPA1. PBMC altered TRPM8 gating by shifting the voltage-dependence of menthol-evoked currents towards positive membrane potentials. When administered systemically to mice, PBMC treatment produced a dose-dependent hypothermia in wildtype animals while TRPM8-knockout mice remained unaffected. This hypothermic response was reduced at lower doses, whereas responses to evaporative cooling were still significantly attenuated. Lastly, systemic PBMC also diminished cold hypersensitivity in inflammatory and nerve-injury pain models, but was ineffective against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold hypersensitivity, despite our findings that TRPM8 is required for the cold-related symptoms of this pathology. Thus PBMC is an attractive compound that serves as a template for the formulation of highly specific and potent TRPM8 antagonists that will have utility both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Switching on flowers: transient LEAFY induction reveals novel aspects of the regulation of reproductive development in Arabidopsis

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    Doris eWagner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Developmental fate decisions in cell populations fundamentally depend on at least two parameters: a signal that is perceived by the cell and the intrinsic ability of the cell to respond to the signal. The same regulatory logic holds for phase transitions in the lifecycle of an organism, for example the switch to reproductive development in flowering plants. Here we have tested the response of the monocarpic plant species Arabidopsis thaliana to a signal that directs flower formation, the plant specific transcription factor LEAFY (LFY. Using transient steroid-dependent LEAFY (LFY activation in lfy null mutant Arabidopsis plants, we show that the plant’s competence to respond to the LFY signal changes during development. Very early in the life cycle, the plant is not competent to respond to the signal. Subsequently, transient LFY activation can direct primordia at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem to adopt a floral fate. Finally, the plants acquire competence to initiate the flower-patterning program in response to transient LFY activation. Similar to a perennial life strategy, we did not observe reprogramming of all primordia after perception of the transient signal, instead only a small number of meristems responded, followed by reversion to the prior developmental program. The ability to initiate flower formation and to direct flower patterning in response to transient LFY upregulation was dependent on the known direct LFY target APETALA1 (AP1. Prolonged LFY or activation could alter the developmental gradient and bypass the requirement for AP1. Prolonged high AP1 levels, in turn, can also alter the plants’ competence. Our findings shed light on how plants can fine-tune important phase transitions and developmental responses.

  19. Sleep restriction alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress

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    Meerlo, P.; Koehl, M.; van der Borght, K.; Turek, F. W.

    2002-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction is an increasing problem in many countries and may have many, as yet unknown, consequences for health and well being. Studies in both humans and rats suggest that sleep deprivation may activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main neuroendocrine stress systems. However, few attempts have been made to examine how sleep loss affects the HPA axis response to subsequent stressors. Furthermore, most studies applied short-lasting total sleep deprivation and not restriction of sleep over a longer period of time, as often occurs in human society. Using the rat as our model species, we investigated: (i) the HPA axis activity during and after sleep deprivation and (ii) the effect of sleep loss on the subsequent HPA response to a novel stressor. In one experiment, rats were subjected to 48 h of sleep deprivation by placing them in slowly rotating wheels. Control rats were placed in nonrotating wheels. In a second experiment, rats were subjected to an 8-day sleep restriction protocol allowing 4 h of sleep each day. To test the effects of sleep loss on subsequent stress reactivity, rats were subjected to a 30-min restraint stress. Blood samples were taken at several time points and analysed for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. The results show that ACTH and corticosterone concentrations were elevated during sleep deprivation but returned to baseline within 4 h of recovery. After 1 day of sleep restriction, the ACTH and corticosterone response to restraint stress did not differ between control and sleep deprived rats. However, after 48 h of total sleep deprivation and after 8 days of restricted sleep, the ACTH response to restraint was significantly reduced whereas the corticosterone response was unaffected. These results show that sleep loss not only is a mild activator of the HPA axis itself, but also affects the subsequent response to stress. Alterations in HPA axis regulation may gradually appear under

  20. Environmental particulate matter induces murine intestinal inflammatory responses and alters the gut microbiome.

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    Lisa Kish

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM is a key pollutant in ambient air that has been associated with negative health conditions in urban environments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of orally administered PM on the gut microbiome and immune function under normal and inflammatory conditions.Wild-type 129/SvEv mice were gavaged with Ottawa urban PM10 (EHC-93 for 7-14 days and mucosal gene expression analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways software. Intestinal permeability was measured by lactulose/mannitol excretion in urine. At sacrifice, segments of small and large intestine were cultured and cytokine secretion measured. Splenocytes were isolated and incubated with PM10 for measurement of proliferation. Long-term effects of exposure (35 days on intestinal cytokine expression were measured in wild-type and IL-10 deficient (IL-10(-/- mice. Microbial composition of stool samples was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Short chain fatty acids were measured in caecum.Short-term treatment of wild-type mice with PM10 altered immune gene expression, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the small intestine, increased gut permeability, and induced hyporesponsiveness in splenocytes. Long-term treatment of wild-type and IL-10(-/- mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the colon and altered short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbial composition. IL-10(-/- mice had increased disease as evidenced by enhanced histological damage.Ingestion of airborne particulate matter alters the gut microbiome and induces acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the intestine.

  1. Short-term effects of burn season on flowering phenology of savanna plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Grundel, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of season of burn on flowering phenology of groundlayer species, in the year following burns, in a mesic-sand Midwestern oak savanna. Burn treatments were fall, early-season, growing-season, late-season, and 1 or 5 years after a prior early-season wildfire. For these treatments, we compared the number of flowering stems and of flowers for species overall, for the 20 most prolifically flowering species, as well as for species grouped by flowering phenoperiods, and by growth form. Growing-season burn had a significant negative effect on number of flowering stems and total number of flowers. This effect occurred when either the burn occurred during the flowering season or during the season prior to the flowering phenoperiod. Tradescantia ohiensis showed expedited flowering and Phlox pilosa showed delayed flowering in response to early-season burning. Flowering of early shrubs was reduced by the previous fall and early-spring fires, while flowering of mid-season blooming shrubs was reduced by the early- and growing-season burns. Vaccinium and Gaylussacia, early-flowering shrubs, produced fewer flowers 1 year after than 5 years after an early-season burn. Arabis lyrata showed reduced flowering from the early-season burn. We also found four instances where the early-spring burn effect on flowering was more severe than the fall burn effect, suggesting that many frequent early-season burns may be deleterious to flowering and reproduction of some species. Burns occurring too frequently in the same season could negatively affect future flowering and reproduction of these plant species.

  2. Restriction of Receptor Movement Alters Cellular Response: Physical Force Sensing by EphA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaita, Khalid; Nair, Pradeep M; Petit, Rebecca S; Neve, Richard M; Das, Debopriya; Gray, Joe W; Groves, Jay T

    2009-09-09

    Activation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase by ephrin-A1 ligands presented on apposed cell surfaces plays important roles in development and exhibits poorly understood functional alterations in cancer. We reconstituted this intermembrane signaling geometry between live EphA2-expressing human breast cancer cells and supported membranes displaying laterally mobile ephrin-A1. Receptor-ligand binding, clustering, and subsequent lateral transport within this junction were observed. EphA2 transport can be blocked by physical barriers nanofabricated onto the underlying substrate. This physical reorganization of EphA2 alters the cellular response to ephrin-A1, as observed by changes in cytoskeleton morphology and recruitment of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand spatial organization across a library of 26 mammary epithelial cell lines reveals characteristic differences that strongly correlate with invasion potential. These observations reveal a mechanism for spatio-mechanical regulation of EphA2 signaling pathways.

  3. Alteration in the response properties of primary somatosensory cortex related to differential aversive Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesch, Eugen; Flor, Herta

    2007-09-01

    The effects of differential aversive Pavlovian conditioning on the functional organization of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) were examined in 17 healthy participants. Neuroelectric source imaging from 60 electrodes was employed while nine subjects received an innocuous electric stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) to one finger (left or right) that was followed by painful electric shock to the lower back (unconditioned stimulus, US) and an innocuous stimulus to the other finger that was never followed by pain. Eight subjects received a presentation of the innocuous and painful stimuli with equal probability to both fingers (control group). The data included the electromyogram (EMG) from the left m. corrugator, and judgments of intensity, aversiveness, and CS-US contingency. Only the experimental group displayed EMG conditioning, differential contingency judgments, as well as a change of dipole orientation for the CS and an enhanced dipole moment for the US in the electroencephalogram. Intensity and unpleasantness ratings were altered in a more unspecific manner and did not differ between groups and stimulus conditions. The data suggest that SI contributes to memory processes in associative learning. Pavlovian conditioning of tactile responses might be important in the altered processing of painful stimuli in chronic pain patients where enhanced conditioning has been demonstrated.

  4. Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein alters conformation in response to Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakato, Miho; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; King, Stephen M

    2007-09-01

    We have previously shown that Ca(2+) directly activates ATP-sensitive microtubule binding by a Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein subparticle containing the beta and gamma heavy chains (HCs). The gamma HC-associated LC4 light chain is a member of the calmodulin family and binds 1-2 Ca(2+) with K(Ca) = 3 x 10(-5) M in vitro, suggesting it may act as a Ca(2+) sensor for outer arm dynein. Here we investigate interactions between the LC4 light chain and gamma HC. Two IQ consensus motifs for binding calmodulin-like proteins are located within the stem domain of the gamma heavy chain. In vitro experiments indicate that LC4 undergoes a Ca(2+)-dependent interaction with the IQ motif domain while remaining tethered to the HC. LC4 also moves into close proximity of the intermediate chain IC1 in the presence of Ca(2+). The sedimentation profile of the gamma HC subunit changed subtly upon Ca(2+) addition, suggesting that the entire complex had become more compact, and electron microscopy of the isolated gamma subunit revealed a distinct alteration in conformation of the N-terminal stem in response to Ca(2+) addition. We propose that Ca(2+)-dependent conformational change of LC4 has a direct effect on the stem domain of the gamma HC, which eventually leads to alterations in mechanochemical interactions between microtubules and the motor domain(s) of the outer dynein arm.

  5. Protein-energy malnutrition alters thermoregulatory homeostasis and the response to brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shari E; Prosser-Loose, Erin J; Colbourne, Frederick; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2011-02-01

    Co-existing protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), characterized by deficits in both protein and energy status, impairs functional outcome following global ischemia and has been associated with increased reactive gliosis. Since temperature is a key determinant of brain damage following an ischemic insult, the objective was to investigate whether alterations in post-ischemic temperature regulation contribute to PEM-induced reactive gliosis following ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (190-280 g) were assigned to either control diet (18% protein) or PEM induced by feeding a low protein diet (2% protein) for 7 days prior to either global ischemia or sham surgery. There was a rapid disruption in thermoregulatory function in rats fed the low protein diet as assessed by continuous recording of core temperature with bio-electrical sensor transmitters. Both daily temperature fluctuation and mean temperature increased within the first 24 hours, and these remained significantly elevated throughout the 7 day pre-ischemic period (p protein diet rapidly impairs the ability to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis, and the resultant PEM also diminishes the ability to thermoregulate in response to a challenge. Since temperature regulation is a key determinant of brain injury following ischemia, these findings suggest that the pathophysiology of brain injury could be altered in stroke victims with coexisting PEM.

  6. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

    2014-04-01

    Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology.

  7. Current progress in orchid flowering/flower development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Mei; Tong, Chii-Gong; Jang, Seonghoe

    2017-05-04

    Genetic pathways relevant to flowering of Arabidopsis are under the control of environmental cues such as day length and temperatures, and endogenous signals including phytohormones and developmental aging. However, genes and even regulatory pathways for flowering identified in crops show divergence from those of Arabidopsis and often do not have functional equivalents to Arabidopsis and/or existing species- or genus-specific regulators and show modified or novel pathways. Orchids are the largest, most highly evolved flowering plants, and form an extremely peculiar group of plants. Here, we briefly summarize the flowering pathways of Arabidopsis, rice and wheat and present them alongside recent discoveries/progress in orchid flowering and flower developmental processes including our transgenic Phalaenopsis orchids for LEAFY overexpression. Potential biotechnological applications in flowering/flower development of orchids with potential target genes are also discussed from an interactional and/or comparative viewpoint.

  8. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

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    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  9. Arsenic moiety in gallium arsenide is responsible for neuronal apoptosis and behavioral alterations in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, Swaran J.S.; Bhatt, Kapil; Mehta, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), an intermetallic semiconductor finds widespread applications in high frequency microwave and millimeter wave, and ultra fast supercomputers. Extensive use of GaAs has led to increased exposure to humans working in semiconductor industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties at physiological pH and might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, the principle moiety (Ga or As) in GaAs to cause neurological dysfunction based on its ability to cause apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro and if this neuronal dysfunction translated to neurobehavioral changes in chronically exposed rats. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, both in vitro and in vivo. Increased ROS further caused apoptosis via mitochondrial driven pathway. Effects of oxidative stress were also confirmed based on alterations in antioxidant enzymes, GPx, GST and SOD in rat brain. We noted that ROS induced oxidative stress caused changes in the brain neurotransmitter levels, Acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase, leading to loss of memory and learning in rats. The study demonstrates for the first time that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress induced apoptosis in neuronal cells causing behavioral changes.

  10. White-throated sparrows alter songs differentially in response to chorusing anurans and other background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenske, Ariel K; La, Van T

    2014-06-01

    Animals can use acoustic signals to attract mates and defend territories. As a consequence, background noise that interferes with signal transmission has the potential to reduce fitness, especially in birds that rely on song. While much research on bird song has investigated vocal flexibility in response to urban noise, weather and other birds, the possibility of inter-class acoustic competition from anurans has not been previously studied. Using sound recordings from central Ontario wetlands, we tested if white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicolis) make short-term changes to their singing behaviour in response to chorusing spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), as well as to car noise, wind and other bird vocalizations. White-throated sparrow songs that were sung during the spring peeper chorus were shorter with higher minimum frequencies and narrower bandwidths resulting in reduced frequency overlap. Additionally, sparrows were less likely to sing when car noise and the vocalizations of other birds were present. These patterns suggest that birds use multiple adjustment strategies. This is the first report to demonstrate that birds may alter their songs differentially in response to different sources of noise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenic moiety in gallium arsenide is responsible for neuronal apoptosis and behavioral alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Swaran J S; Bhatt, Kapil; Mehta, Ashish

    2009-10-15

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), an intermetallic semiconductor finds widespread applications in high frequency microwave and millimeter wave, and ultra fast supercomputers. Extensive use of GaAs has led to increased exposure to humans working in semiconductor industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties at physiological pH and might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, the principle moiety (Ga or As) in GaAs to cause neurological dysfunction based on its ability to cause apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro and if this neuronal dysfunction translated to neurobehavioral changes in chronically exposed rats. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, both in vitro and in vivo. Increased ROS further caused apoptosis via mitochondrial driven pathway. Effects of oxidative stress were also confirmed based on alterations in antioxidant enzymes, GPx, GST and SOD in rat brain. We noted that ROS induced oxidative stress caused changes in the brain neurotransmitter levels, Acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase, leading to loss of memory and learning in rats. The study demonstrates for the first time that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress induced apoptosis in neuronal cells causing behavioral changes.

  12. Arsenic Alters ATP-Dependent Ca2+ Signaling in Human Airway Epithelial Cell Wound Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Cara L.; Lantz, R. Clark; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Boitano, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a natural metalloid toxicant that is associated with occupational inhalation injury and contaminates drinking water worldwide. Both inhalation of arsenic and consumption of arsenic-tainted water are correlated with malignant and nonmalignant lung diseases. Despite strong links between arsenic and respiratory illness, underlying cell responses to arsenic remain unclear. We hypothesized that arsenic may elicit some of its detrimental effects on the airway through limitation of innate immune function and, specifically, through alteration of paracrine ATP (purinergic) Ca2+ signaling in the airway epithelium. We examined the effects of acute (24 h) exposure with environmentally relevant levels of arsenic (i.e., arsenic reduces purinergic Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner and results in a reshaping of the Ca2+ signaling response to localized wounds. We next examined arsenic effects on two purinergic receptor types: the metabotropic P2Y and ionotropic P2X receptors. Arsenic inhibited both P2Y- and P2X-mediated Ca2+ signaling responses to ATP. Both inhaled and ingested arsenic can rapidly reach the airway epithelium where purinergic signaling is essential in innate immune functions (e.g., ciliary beat, salt and water transport, bactericide production, and wound repair). Arsenic-induced compromise of such airway defense mechanisms may be an underlying contributor to chronic lung disease. PMID:21357385

  13. Alterations of zinc homeostasis in response to Cryptococcus neoformans in a murine macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Francine Melise; Piffer, Alícia Corbellini; Schneider, Rafael de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Nicole Sartori; Garcia, Ane Wichine Acosta; Schrank, Augusto; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Staats, Charley Christian

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate alterations of zinc homeostasis in macrophages exposed to Cryptococcus neoformans. Materials & methods: Using a fluorescent zinc probe-based flow cytometry and atomic absorption spectrometry, zinc levels were evaluated in J774.A1 cell lines exposed to C. neoformans H99 cells. The transcription profile of macrophage zinc related homeostasis genes - metallothioneins and zinc transporters (ZnTs) of the SLC30 and SLC39 (Zrt-Irt-protein) families - was analyzed by quantitative PCR. Macrophage intracellular labile zinc levels decreased following exposure to C. neoformans. A significant decrease in transcription levels was detected in specific ZnTs from both the Zrt-Irt-protein and ZnT families, especially 24 h after infection. These findings suggest that macrophages may exhibit zinc depletion in response to C. neoformans infection.

  14. Epigenetically Heritable Alteration of Fly Development in Response to Toxic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shay Stern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing organisms have evolved a wide range of mechanisms for coping with recurrent environmental challenges. How they cope with rare or unforeseen challenges is, however, unclear as are the implications to their unchallenged offspring. Here, we investigate these questions by confronting the development of the fly, D. melanogaster, with artificial tissue distributions of toxic stress that are not expected to occur during fly development. We show that under a wide range of toxic scenarios, this challenge can lead to modified development that may coincide with increased tolerance to an otherwise lethal condition. Part of this response was mediated by suppression of Polycomb group genes, which in turn leads to derepression of developmental regulators and their expression in new domains. Importantly, some of the developmental alterations were epigenetically inherited by subsequent generations of unchallenged offspring. These results show that the environment can induce alternative patterns of development that are stable across multiple generations.

  15. Social evaluative threat with verbal performance feedback alters neuroendocrine response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jenny M; Schneider, Ekaterina; Peres, Jeremy; Miocevic, Olga; Meyer, Vanessa; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    Laboratory stress tasks such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have provided a key piece to the puzzle for how psychosocial stress impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other stress-responsive biomarkers, and ultimately wellbeing. These tasks are thought to work through biopsychosocial processes, specifically social evaluative threat and the uncontrollability heighten situational demands. The present study integrated an experimental modification to the design of the TSST to probe whether additional social evaluative threat, via negative verbal feedback about speech performance, can further alter stress reactivity in 63 men and women. This TSST study confirmed previous findings related to stress reactivity and stress recovery but extended this literature in several ways. First, we showed that additional social evaluative threat components, mid-task following the speech portion of the TSST, were still capable of enhancing the psychosocial stressor. Second, we considered stress-reactive hormones beyond cortisol to include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone, and found these hormones were also stress-responsive, and their release was coupled with one another. Third, we explored whether gain- and loss-framing incentive instructions, meant to influence performance motivation by enhancing the personal relevance of task performance, impacted hormonal reactivity. Results showed that each hormone was stress reactive and further had different responses to the modified TSST compared to the original TSST. Beyond the utility of showing how the TSST can be modified with heightened social evaluative threat and incentive-framing instructions, this study informs about how these three stress-responsive hormones have differential responses to the demands of a challenge and a stressor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic intermittent hyperoxia alters the development of the hypoxic ventilatory response in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Tobin, Kristina E; Fallon, Sarah C; Deng, Kevin S; McDonough, Amy B; Bavis, Ryan W

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to sustained hyperoxia alters the development of the respiratory control system, but the respiratory effects of chronic intermittent hyperoxia have rarely been investigated. We exposed newborn rats to short, repeated bouts of 30% O2 or 60% O2 (5 bouts h(-1)) for 4-15 days and then assessed their hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR; 10 min at 12% O2) by plethysmography. The HVR tended to be enhanced by intermittent hyperoxia at P4 (early phase of the HVR), but it was significantly reduced at P14-15 (primarily late phase of the HVR) compared to age-matched controls; the HVR recovered when individuals were returned to room air and re-studied as adults. To investigate the role of carotid body function in this plasticity, single-unit carotid chemoafferent activity was recorded in vitro. Intermittent hyperoxia tended to decrease spontaneous action potential frequency under normoxic conditions but, contrary to expectations, hypoxic responses were only reduced at P4 (not at P14) and only in rats exposed to higher O2 levels (i.e., intermittent 60% O2). Rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia had smaller carotid bodies, and this morphological change may contribute to the blunted HVR. In contrast to rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia beginning at birth, two weeks of intermittent 60% O2 had no effect on the HVR or carotid body size of rats exposed beginning at P28; therefore, intermittent hyperoxia-induced respiratory plasticity appears to be unique to development. Although both intermittent and sustained hyperoxia alter carotid body development and the HVR of rats, the specific effects and time course of this plasticity differs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Leukemia-associated activating mutation of Flt3 expands dendritic cells and alters T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen M; Nish, Simone A; Yogev, Nir; Waisman, Ari; Reiner, Steven L; Reizis, Boris

    2016-03-07

    A common genetic alteration in acute myeloid leukemia is the internal tandem duplication (ITD) in FLT3, the receptor for cytokine FLT3 ligand (FLT3L). Constitutively active FLT3-ITD promotes the expansion of transformed progenitors, but also has pleiotropic effects on hematopoiesis. We analyzed the effect of FLT3-ITD on dendritic cells (DCs), which express FLT3 and can be expanded by FLT3L administration. Pre-leukemic mice with the Flt3(ITD) knock-in allele manifested an expansion of classical DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs. The expansion originated in DC progenitors, was cell intrinsic, and was further enhanced in Flt3(ITD/ITD) mice. The mutation caused the down-regulation of Flt3 on the surface of DCs and reduced their responsiveness to Flt3L. Both canonical Batf3-dependent CD8(+) cDCs and noncanonical CD8(+) cDCs were expanded and showed specific alterations in their expression profiles. Flt3(ITD) mice showed enhanced capacity to support T cell proliferation, including a cell-extrinsic expansion of regulatory T (T reg) cells. Accordingly, these mice restricted alloreactive T cell responses during graft-versus-host reaction, but failed to control autoimmunity without T reg cells. Thus, the FLT3-ITD mutation directly affects DC development, indirectly modulating T cell homeostasis and supporting T reg cell expansion. We hypothesize that this effect of FLT3-ITD might subvert immunosurveillance and promote leukemogenesis in a cell-extrinsic manner. © 2016 Lau et al.

  18. Bisphenol A alters the cardiovascular response to hypoxia in Danio rerio embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Alysha D; Ickes, Jessica R; Bagatto, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the cardiovascular response to hypoxia was altered by the presence of bisphenol A (BPA) in Danio rerio embryos. It was expected that BPA exposure would affect cardiovascular parameters during hypoxia more than normoxia due to an interaction between BPA and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) pathway. We demonstrate that BPA exposure has a minimal effect during normoxia but can severely affect the cardiovascular system during a hypoxic event. Cardiovascular response was measured in vivo using video microscopy and digital motion analysis. RBC density increased 35% in hypoxia alone but decreased 48% with addition of 0.25mg/L BPA. Tissue vascularization (% coverage) was unaffected by hypoxia alone but decreased 37% with addition of 0.25mg/L BPA. The diameter and RBC velocity of arteries were more sensitive than veins to BPA exposure during both normoxia and hypoxia. Arterial RBC velocity decreased 42% during normoxia and 52% during hypoxia with 1mg/L BPA. This decrease in velocity may in part be due to the 86% decrease in heart rate (ƒH) observed during co-exposure to hypoxia and 5mg/L BPA. While stroke volume (SV) was unaffected by treatment, cardiac output (Q) decreased by 69% with co-exposure. ƒH and Q were not affected by BPA exposure during normoxia. Development ultimately slowed by 146% and mortality rates were 95% during hypoxia when exposed to 5mg/L BPA. Our results show for the first time that BPA exposure alters the cardiovascular system during hypoxia more so than normoxia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The response to climate factors for the different specificity in M2 physiology of 60Co γ-ray irradiated flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jiye; Chen Zongyu; Guo Shichang

    2004-01-01

    Physiology and climate factor of different M 2 flower (Begonia tuberhybrida Voss and Dahlia pinnata Cav root) after 60 Co γ-ray irradiated were determined. The result showed that transpiration rate, stoma conductance, intercellular CO 2 concentration of M 2 of Dahlia pinnata Cav are affected obviously with climate factors, however, effect on the photosynthetic speed was not found, and M 2 of Begonia tuberhybrida Voss was not significant for physiology to climate

  20. Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Kunz, Hawley; Sams, Clarence F.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the effect of space travel on the human immune system has proven to be extremely challenging. Limited opportunities for in-flight studies, varying mission durations, technical and logistical obstacles, small subject numbers, and a broad range of potential assays have contributed to this problem. Additionally, the inherent complexity of the immune system, with its vast array of cell populations, sub-populations, diverse regulatory molecules, and broad interactions with other physiological systems, makes determining precise variables to measure very difficult. There is also the challenge of determining the clinical significance of any observed immune alterations. Will such a change lead to disease, or is it a transient subclinical observation related to short-term stress? The effect of this problem may be observed by scanning publications associated with immunity and spaceflight, which began to appear during the 1970s. Although individually they are each valid studies, the comprehensive literature to date suffers from widely varying sampling methods and assay techniques, low subject counts, and sometimes a disparate focus on narrow aspects of immunity. The most clinically relevant data are derived from in-flight human studies, which have demonstrated altered cell-mediated immunity and reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Much more data are available from post-flight testing of humans, with clear evidence of altered cytokine production patterns, altered leukocyte distribution, continued latent viral reactivation, and evidence of dramatically altered virus-specific immunity. It is unknown if post-flight assessments relate to the in-flight condition or are a response to landing stress and readaptation. In-flight culture of cells has clearly demonstrated that immune cells are gravity-sensitive and display altered functional characteristics. It is unknown if these data are related to in vivo immune cell function or are an artifact of microgravity culture

  1. Aquatic metabolism response to the hydrologic alteration in the Yellow River estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaomei; Sun, Tao; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Jing; Pang, Aiping

    2015-06-01

    Successful artificial hydrologic regulation and environmental flow assessments for the ecosystem protection require an accurate understanding of the linkages between flow events and biotic responses. To explore an ecosystem's functional responses to hydrologic alterations, we analysed spatial and temporal variations in aquatic metabolism and the main factors influenced by artificial hydrologic alterations based on the data collected from 2009 to 2012 in the Yellow River estuary, China. Gross primary production (GPP) ranged from 0.002 to 8.488 mg O2 L-1 d-1. Ecosystem respiration (ER) ranged from 0.382 to 8.968 mg O2 L-1 d-1. Net ecosystem production (NEP) ranged from -5.792 to 7.293 mg O2 L-1 d-1 and the mean of NEP was -0.506 mg O2 L-1 d-1, which means that the trophic status of entire estuary was near to balance. The results showed that seasonal variations in the aquatic metabolism are influenced by the hydrologic alteration in the estuary. High water temperature and solar radiation in summer are associated with low turbidity and consequently high rates of GPP and ER, making the estuary net autotrophic in summer, and that also occurred after water-sediment regulation in August. Turbidity and water temperature were identified as two particularly important factors that influenced the variation in the metabolic balance. As a result, metabolism rate did not decrease but increased after the regulation. ER increased significantly in summer and autumn and reached a maximum after the water-sediment regulation in September. GPP and NEP reached a maximum value after the water-sediment regulation in August, and then decreased in autumn. Estuarine ecosystem shifted from net heterotrophy in spring to net autotrophy in summer, and then to net heterotrophy in autumn. Our study indicated that estuarine metabolism may recover to a high level faster in summer than that in other seasons after the short-term water-sediment regulation due to higher water temperature and nutrients.

  2. Daffodil flower delay senescence in cut Iris flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Sinz, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Visible symptoms of tepal senescence in cut Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) flowers were delayed by placing one cut daffodil flower (Narcissus pseudonarcissus, cv. Carlton) in the same vase. Addition of mucilage, exuded by daffodil stems, to the vase water had the same effect as the flowering

  3. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. The function of OsbHLH068 is partially redundant with its homolog, AtbHLH112, in the regulation of the salt stress response but has opposite functions to control flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Hsieh-Feng, Vicki; Liao, Pei-Chun; Cheng, Wan-Hsing; Liu, Li-Yu; Yang, Yun-Wei; Lai, Ming-Hsin; Chang, Men-Chi

    2017-07-01

    The homologous genes OsbHLH068 and AtbHLH112 have partially redundant functions in the regulation of the salt stress response but opposite functions to control flowering in Arabidopsis. The transcription factor (TF) basic/Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) is important for plant growth, development, and stress responses. OsbHLH068, which is a homologous gene of AtbHLH112 that is up-regulated under drought and salt stresses, as indicated by previous microarray data analysis. However, the intrinsic function of OsbHLH068 remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized the function and compared the role of OsbHLH068 with that of its homolog, AtbHLH112. Histochemical GUS staining indicated that OsbHLH068 and AtbHLH112 share a similar expression pattern in transgenic Arabidopsis during the juvenile-to-adult phase transition. Heterologous overexpression of OsbHLH068 in Arabidopsis delays seed germination, decreases salt-induced H 2 O 2 accumulation, and promotes root elongation, whereas AtbHLH112 knock-out mutant displays an opposite phenotype. Both OsbHLH068-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and the Atbhlh112 mutant display a late-flowering phenotype. Moreover, the expression of OsbHLH068-GFP driven by an AtbHLH112 promoter can compensate for the germination deficiency in the Atbhlh112 mutant, but the delayed-flowering phenotype tends to be more severe. Further analysis by microarray and qPCR indicated that the expression of FT is down-regulated in both OsbHLH068-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants and Atbhlh112 mutant plants, whereas SOC1 but not FT is highly expressed in AtbHLH112-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. A comparative transcriptomic analysis also showed that several stress-responsive genes, such as AtERF15 and AtPUB23, were affected in both OsbHLH068- and AtbHLH112-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Thus, we propose that OsbHLH068 and AtbHLH112 share partially redundant functions in the regulation of abiotic stress responses but have

  5. Orchid flowers: evolution and molecular development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Frederiksen, Signe Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    MADS-box genes, ABS model, Orchid flower evolution, Gene expression in orchid flowers, in situ PCR......MADS-box genes, ABS model, Orchid flower evolution, Gene expression in orchid flowers, in situ PCR...

  6. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Renáta; Alonso, Maria F; Bain, Judith M; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Erwig, Lars-Peter; Gácser, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure, and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as Candida parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response toward this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi's virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses. In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host-pathogen interactions.

  7. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  8. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in...

  9. In vitro flowering of orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Kerbauy, Gilberto B; Zeng, Songjun; Chen, Zhilin; Duan, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Flowering is the most elusive and fascinating of all plant developmental processes. The ability to induce flowering in vitro in orchids would reduce the relatively long juvenile phase and provide deeper insight into the physiological, genetic and molecular aspects of flowering. This review synthesizes all available studies that have been conducted on in vitro flowering of orchids with the objective of providing valuable clues as to the mechanism(s) that is possibly taking place.

  10. T.he Mystery Behind Flowering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL. I ARTICLE tion of florigen (flowering hormone) in the leaves, and the florigen is thus translocated to the apical meristem and helps in its conversion into a floral ... 3) Mammalian serum response factor is found to induce the transcription of proto-oncogenes. .... also through his scholarly personality he was a.

  11. Vase Life of Alstereomeria Cut Flowers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Postharvest Quality and. Vase Life of Alstereomeria Cut Flowers. Emongor*, V.E., T.M. Mutui and M.l .. Hutchinson. Department of Crop Science. University of Nairobi, P.O.BOX 29053, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstract. The objective of the experiment was to investigate the response of ...

  12. Histone H3 lysine 36 methylation affects temperature-induced alternative splicing and flowering in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajoro, A; Severing, E; Angenent, G C; Immink, R G H

    2017-06-01

    Global warming severely affects flowering time and reproductive success of plants. Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is an important mechanism underlying ambient temperature-controlled responses in plants, yet its regulation is poorly understood. An increase in temperature promotes changes in plant morphology as well as the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in Arabidopsis thaliana via changes in splicing of key regulatory genes. Here we investigate whether a particular histone modification affects ambient temperature-induced alternative splicing and flowering time. We use a genome-wide approach and perform RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses and histone H3 lysine 36 tri-methylation (H3K36me3) chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) in plants exposed to different ambient temperatures. Analysis and comparison of these datasets reveal that temperature-induced differentially spliced genes are enriched in H3K36me3. Moreover, we find that reduction of H3K36me3 deposition causes alteration in temperature-induced alternative splicing. We also show that plants with mutations in H3K36me3 writers, eraser, or readers have altered high ambient temperature-induced flowering. Our results show a key role for the histone mark H3K36me3 in splicing regulation and plant plasticity to fluctuating ambient temperature. Our findings open new perspectives for the breeding of crops that can better cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

  13. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C; Hong, Kwangik A; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  14. Soil types will alter the response of arable agroecosystems to future rainfall patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, J. G.; Schwarz, T.; Hall, R.; Ziss, E.; von Hohberg und Buchwald, C.; Hösch, J.; Baumgarten, A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional climate change scenarios for eastern Austria (pannonian region) predict fewer but heavier rains during the vegetation period without substantial changes in the total annual amount of rainfall. While many studies investigated the effects of rainfall patterns on ecosystem properties, very little is known on how different soil types might alter ecosystem responses. In order to test this, we conducted an experiment at the AGES lysimeter station using 18 3 m2 lysimeters where we simultaneously manipulated rainfall patterns according to regional climate scenarios (current vs. prognosticated rain) on the three main soil types of the region (sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem and calcic chernozem). Lysimeters were cultivated according to good farming practice using crop varieties and crop rotations typically for the region. Here, we present results of the response of field peas (Pisum sativum) on important agricultural parameters. Lysimeters under progn. rain showed lower crop cover than under curr. rain while soil types had no effect. Total aboveground biomass production (comprising crops plus weeds) was significantly lower under progn. rain; sandy calcaric phaeozem showed the lowest plant biomass. Pea yields under progn. rain were substantially lower than under curr. rain; again, yields under sandy soils were lower than under the other two soil types. Root growth was significantly higher in progn. rain than in curr. rain; there was a trend towards less root growth in the gleyic soils. Mycorrhization of roots was not influenced by soil types, however under progn. rain colonization rates were lower than under curr. rain. Weed establishment and growth was increased under progn. rain in gleyic soils but decreased in the other soil types. Weed biomass was not affected by rainfall, however sandy soils had less weed biomass than the other soil types. Abundance of the insect pest pea moth (Cydia nigricana) was almost twice as high under progn. rain than under curr

  15. Changes in Soil Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in Response to Altered Above- and Belowground Vegetation Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Schuetze, C.; Cuntz, M.; García-Quirós, I.; Dienstbach, L.; Schrumpf, M.; Rebmann, C.

    2016-12-01

    The stimulation of vegetation productivity in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations can potentially compensate climate change feedbacks. However, this will depend on the allocation of C resources of vegetation into biomass production versus root exudates and on the feedbacks with soil microorganisms. These dynamic adjustments of vegetation will result on changes in above- and belowground productivity and on the amount of C exported to root exudates. Consequent alteration of litter and rhizosphere detritus inputs to the soil and their interaction on controlling soil C sequestration capacity has been, however, rarely assessed. We hypothesize that above- and belowground vegetation exert a synergistic control of soil CO2 emissions, and that the activation of soil organic matter mineralization by the addition of labile organic substrates (i.e.: the priming effect) is altered by changes in the amount and in the quality of the carbon inputs. In order to elucidate these questions, different levels of litter addition were implemented on trenched (root exclusion) and non-trenched plots (with roots) in a temperate deciduous forest. Changes in the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture were detected by measuring CO2 fluxes continuously at high temporal resolution with automatic chambers, whereas the spatial and seasonal variability was determined using portable chambers. Annual changes in soil carbon and nitrogen stocks provide additional information on the soil carbon sequestration in response to above- and belowground inputs. Both roots and litter inputs significantly enhanced soil CO2 effluxes soon after the implementation of the experiment. We detected synergistic effects between roots and litter inputs on soil CO2 emissions: When roots were present, carbon mineralized in response to litter addition was much higher than the total amount of carbon added in litter (ca. 170 g C m-2 y-1). Preliminary results of this study suggest that labile

  16. Central administration of ghrelin alters emotional responses in rats: behavioural, electrophysiological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, C; Haage, D; Taube, M; Egecioglu, E; Salomé, N; Dickson, S L

    2011-04-28

    The orexigenic and pro-obesity hormone ghrelin targets key hypothalamic and mesolimbic circuits involved in energy balance, appetite and reward. Given that such circuits are closely integrated with those regulating mood and cognition, we sought to determine whether chronic (>2 weeks) CNS exposure to ghrelin alters anxiety- and depression-like behaviour in rats as well as some physiological correlates. Rats bearing chronically implanted i.c.v. catheters were treated with ghrelin (10 μg/d) or vehicle for 4 weeks. Tests used to assess anxiety- and depression-like behaviour were undertaken during weeks 3-4 of the infusion. These revealed an increase in anxiety- and depression-like behaviour in the ghrelin-treated rats relative to controls. At the end of the 4-week infusion, brains were removed and the amygdala dissected for subsequent qPCR analysis that revealed changes in expression of a number of genes representing key systems implicated in these behavioural changes. Finally, given the key role of the dorsal raphe serotonin system in emotional reactivity, we examined the electrophysiological response of dorsal raphe neurons after a ghrelin challenge, and found mainly inhibitory responses in this region. We demonstrate that the central ghrelin signalling system is involved in emotional reactivity in rats, eliciting pro-anxiety and pro-depression effects and have begun to explore novel target systems for ghrelin that may be of importance for these effects. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ocean acidification alters the response of intertidal snails to a key sea star predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellison, Brittany M; Ninokawa, Aaron T; Hill, Tessa M; Sanford, Eric; Gaylord, Brian

    2016-06-29

    Organism-level effects of ocean acidification (OA) are well recognized. Less understood are OA's consequences for ecological species interactions. Here, we examine a behaviourally mediated predator-prey interaction within the rocky intertidal zone of the temperate eastern Pacific Ocean, using it as a model system to explore OA's capacity to impair invertebrate anti-predator behaviours more broadly. Our system involves the iconic sea star predator, Pisaster ochraceus, that elicits flee responses in numerous gastropod prey. We examine, in particular, the capacity for OA-associated reductions in pH to alter flight behaviours of the black turban snail, Tegula funebralis, an often-abundant and well-studied grazer in the system. We assess interactions between these species at 16 discrete levels of pH, quantifying the full functional response of Tegula under present and near-future OA conditions. Results demonstrate the disruption of snail anti-predator behaviours at low pH, with decreases in the time individuals spend in refuge locations. We also show that fluctuations in pH, including those typical of rock pools inhabited by snails, do not materially change outcomes, implying little capacity for episodically benign pH conditions to aid behavioural recovery. Together, these findings suggest a strong potential for OA to induce cascading community-level shifts within this long-studied ecosystem. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Acrylamide alters neurotransmitter induced calcium responses in murine ESC-derived and primary neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisnaiske, Julia; Hausherr, Vanessa; Krug, Anne K; Zimmer, Bastian; Hengstler, Jan G; Leist, Marcel; van Thriel, Christoph

    2014-07-01

    Stem cell-derived specialized cell types are of interest as an alternative cell system to identify and research neurotoxic effects and modes of action. Developmental toxicity may be studied during differentiation, while organ-specific toxicity may be assessed in fully functional cells, such as neurons. In this study we tested if fully differentiated neurons derived from murine embryonic stem cells (ESCN) could be used to investigate the effects of the well characterized neurotoxic model compound acrylamide (ACR) and if ESCN behave similar to murine primary cortical neurons (pCN) from 16 days old embryos. We characterized the differentiation process of cryopreserved ESC-derived neural precursor cells (NPC) differentiating to ESCN. During the differentiation process (days 11-20) a strong increase in calcium responses to glutamate, acetylcholine and GABA were observed. Moreover, neuron specific marker proteins, β-III-tubulin, MAP2, Tau, Rbfox3 and synaptophysin showed similar patterns to pCN. In ESCN and pCN the neuronal structure, e.g. neurites, was not affected by low concentrations of ACR [0.5-1.6mM]. However, 24h incubation periods with 0.5-1.6mM ACR led to a reduction of acetylcholine and glutamate induced calcium responses. In conclusion, we show that non-cytotoxic concentrations of ACR alter neurotransmission in ESCN as well as pCN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mice lacking integrin β3 expression exhibit altered response to chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Varney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate multiple roles for integrin αvβ3 in adult neurons, including response to pharmacological agents such as cocaine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In this study, we examined the role of the integrin β3 gene (Itgb3 in the response to environmental stimuli by subjecting Itgb3+/+ and Itgb3−/− mice to unpredictable chronic mild stressors. We found that genetic abrogation of integrin β3 expression elicits an exaggerated vulnerability to chronic unpredictable stress in the open field test. In this test, chronic stress elicited significant decreases in stereotypic behavior and horizontal locomotor activity, including increases in anxiety behaviors. Mild chronic stress led to reductions in dopamine turnover in midbrains of Itgb3+/+, but not Itgb3−/− mice, suggesting a disruption of stress-dependent regulation of DA homeostasis. Chronic stress elicited altered synaptic expression of syntaxin and synaptophysin in midbrains of Itgb3−/− mice, when compared to Itgb3+/+. Semi-quantitative Western blot studies revealed that the synaptic expression, but not total tissue expression, of multiple signaling proteins is correlated with integrin αv levels in the midbrain. Moreover, loss of integrin β3 expression modifies this correlation network. Together, these findings demonstrate that Itgb3−/− mice display a pattern of changes indicating disrupted regulation of midbrain synaptic systems involved in conferring resilience to mild stressors.

  20. Altered thermoregulatory responses after 15 days of head-down tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Craig G.; Johnson, John M.; Convertino, Victor A.; Raven, Peter B.; Engelke, Keith A.

    1994-01-01

    To determine whether extended exposure to a simulation of microgravity alters thermoregulatory reflex control of skin blood flow, six adult males were exposed to 15 days of 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT). On an ambulatory control day before HDT exposure and on HDT day 15 the core temperature of each subject was increased by 0.5 - 1.0 C by whole body heating with a water-perfused suit. Mean skin temperature, oral temperature (T (sub or)), mean arterial pressure, and forearm blood flow were measured throughout the protocol. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated from the ratio of forearm blood flow to mean arterial pressure. After HDT exposure, the T(sub or) threshold at which reflex thermally induced increases in FVC began was elevated, whereas the slope of the T(sub or)-FVC relationship after this threshold was reduced. Moreover, normothermic FVC and FVC at the highest common T(sub or) between pre- and post-HDT trials were reduced after HDT. These data suggest that HDT exposure reduces thermoregulatory responses to heat stress. The mechanisms resulting in such an impaired thermoregulatory response are unknown but are likely related to the relative dehydration that accompanies this exposure.

  1. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourcedagents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to selectthe right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in humanbeings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screeningprocess to select the right pollen grains and to reject thewrong ones. Even after ...

  2. A Feast of Flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 11. A Feast of Flowers. Dipanjan Ghosh. General Article Volume 18 Issue 11 November 2013 pp 1004-1014. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/11/1004-1014. Keywords.

  3. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    prerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) and the girl (ovule) has no say ... other flowers of a different plant but of the same species (cross- pollen). ... and style. (b). Trans- verse section of solid style to show cells of a part of the transmitting tissue (yel- low) with large intercellu- lar spaces filled with ex- tracellular ...

  4. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Even after initial screening for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the ...

  5. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourced agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- lect the right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in human beings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screen- ing process to select the right pollen grains and to reject the wrong ones.

  6. Perpetual flowering in strawberry species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have revealed genetic control of flowering patterns for seasonal flowering (SF) and perpetual flowering (PF) genotypes in the common garden strawberry, with associated links to gene homeologs in diploid alpine strawberry, F. vesca L. Within the genus Fragaria, 22 species and multiple subspec...

  7. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  8. Stressor-induced proteome alterations in zebrafish: A meta-analysis of response patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, Ksenia J., E-mail: ksenia.groh@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Suter, Marc J.-F. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Systems Science, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We compared reported proteome changes induced by various stressors in zebrafish. • Several proteins groups frequently responding to diverse stressors were identified. • These included energy metabolism enzymes, heat shock and cytoskeletal proteins. • Insufficient proteome coverage impedes identification of more specific responses. • Further research needs for proteomics in ecotoxicology are discussed. - Abstract: Proteomics approaches are being increasingly applied in ecotoxicology on the premise that the identification of specific protein expression changes in response to a particular chemical would allow elucidation of the underlying molecular pathways leading to an adverse effect. This in turn is expected to promote the development of focused testing strategies for specific groups of toxicants. Although both gel-based and gel-free global characterization techniques provide limited proteome coverage, the conclusions regarding the cellular processes affected are still being drawn based on the few changes detected. To investigate how specific the detected responses are, we analyzed a set of studies that characterized proteome alterations induced by various physiological, chemical and biological stressors in zebrafish, a popular model organism. Our analysis highlights several proteins and protein groups, including heat shock and oxidative stress defense proteins, energy metabolism enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins, to be most frequently identified as responding to diverse stressors. In contrast, other potentially more specifically responding protein groups are detected much less frequently. Thus, zebrafish proteome responses to stress reported by different studies appear to depend mostly on the level of stress rather than on the specific stressor itself. This suggests that the most broadly used current proteomics technologies do not provide sufficient proteome coverage to allow in-depth investigation of specific mechanisms of toxicant action

  9. Stressor-induced proteome alterations in zebrafish: A meta-analysis of response patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, Ksenia J.; Suter, Marc J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compared reported proteome changes induced by various stressors in zebrafish. • Several proteins groups frequently responding to diverse stressors were identified. • These included energy metabolism enzymes, heat shock and cytoskeletal proteins. • Insufficient proteome coverage impedes identification of more specific responses. • Further research needs for proteomics in ecotoxicology are discussed. - Abstract: Proteomics approaches are being increasingly applied in ecotoxicology on the premise that the identification of specific protein expression changes in response to a particular chemical would allow elucidation of the underlying molecular pathways leading to an adverse effect. This in turn is expected to promote the development of focused testing strategies for specific groups of toxicants. Although both gel-based and gel-free global characterization techniques provide limited proteome coverage, the conclusions regarding the cellular processes affected are still being drawn based on the few changes detected. To investigate how specific the detected responses are, we analyzed a set of studies that characterized proteome alterations induced by various physiological, chemical and biological stressors in zebrafish, a popular model organism. Our analysis highlights several proteins and protein groups, including heat shock and oxidative stress defense proteins, energy metabolism enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins, to be most frequently identified as responding to diverse stressors. In contrast, other potentially more specifically responding protein groups are detected much less frequently. Thus, zebrafish proteome responses to stress reported by different studies appear to depend mostly on the level of stress rather than on the specific stressor itself. This suggests that the most broadly used current proteomics technologies do not provide sufficient proteome coverage to allow in-depth investigation of specific mechanisms of toxicant action

  10. Some aspects of mineral nutrition and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnawy, El E.I.

    1956-01-01

    In mustard N deficiency accelerated flower initiation and particularly flower bud development. Excess N delayed flowering but increased number of flowers. Of other elements Ca influenced flowering most.

    Dill developed its flowers most rapidly with normal or high rates of N. N deficiency retarded

  11. Volatile compounds emitted by diverse phytopathogenic microorganisms promote plant growth and flowering through cytokinin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Ángela María; Baslam, Marouane; De Diego, Nuria; Muñoz, Francisco José; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Almagro, Goizeder; Ricarte-Bermejo, Adriana; García-Gómez, Pablo; Li, Jun; Humplík, Jan F; Novák, Ondřej; Spíchal, Lukáš; Doležal, Karel; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2016-12-01

    It is known that volatile emissions from some beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms promote plant growth. Here we show that volatile compounds (VCs) emitted by phylogenetically diverse rhizosphere and non-rhizhosphere bacteria and fungi (including plant pathogens and microbes that do not normally interact mutualistically with plants) promote growth and flowering of various plant species, including crops. In Arabidopsis plants exposed to VCs emitted by the phytopathogen Alternaria alternata, changes included enhancement of photosynthesis and accumulation of high levels of cytokinins (CKs) and sugars. Evidence obtained using transgenic Arabidopsis plants with altered CK status show that CKs play essential roles in this phenomenon, because growth and flowering responses to the VCs were reduced in mutants with CK-deficiency (35S:AtCKX1) or low receptor sensitivity (ahk2/3). Further, we demonstrate that the plant responses to fungal VCs are light-dependent. Transcriptomic analyses of Arabidopsis leaves exposed to A. alternata VCs revealed changes in the expression of light- and CK-responsive genes involved in photosynthesis, growth and flowering. Notably, many genes differentially expressed in plants treated with fungal VCs were also differentially expressed in plants exposed to VCs emitted by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis GB03, suggesting that plants react to microbial VCs through highly conserved regulatory mechanisms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Altered White Matter and Sensory Response to Bodily Sensation in Female-to-Male Transgender Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Laura K; Brang, David; Landazuri, Rosalynn; Viswanathan, Pavitra; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2017-07-01

    While most people take identification with their body for granted, conditions such as phantom limb pain, alien hand syndrome, and xenomelia suggest that the feeling of bodily congruence is constructed and susceptible to alteration. Individuals with xenomelia typically experience one of their limbs as over-present and aversive, leading to a desire to amputate the limb. Similarly, many transgender individuals describe their untreated sexed body parts as incongruent and aversive, and many experience phantom body parts of the sex they identify with (Ramachandran, 2008). This experience may relate to differences in brain representation of the sexed body part, as suggested in xenomelia (McGeoch et al., 2011). We utilized magnetoencephalography imaging to record brain activity during somatosensory stimulation of the breast-a body part that feels incongruent to most presurgical female-to-male (FtM)-identified transgender individuals-and the hand, a body part that feels congruent. We measured the sensory evoked response in right hemisphere somatosensory and body-related brain areas and found significantly reduced activation in the supramarginal gyrus and secondary somatosensory cortex, but increased activation at the temporal pole for chest sensation in the FtM group (N = 8) relative to non-transgender females (N = 8). In addition, we found increased white matter coherence in the supramarginal gyrus and temporal pole and decreased white matter diffusivity in the anterior insula and temporal pole in the FtM group. These findings suggest that dysphoria related to gender-incongruent body parts in FtM individuals may be tied to differences in neural representation of the body and altered white matter connectivity.

  13. Aluminum stress inhibits root growth and alters physiological and metabolic responses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Shuvasish; Sharma, Parul

    2014-12-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) roots were treated with aluminum (Al3+) in calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution (pH 4.7) and growth responses along with physiological and metabolic changes were investigated. Al3+ treatment for 7d resulted in a dose dependent decline of seed germination and inhibition of root growth. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) decline in fresh and dry biomass were observed after 7d of Al3+ stress.The root growth (length) was inhibited after 24 and 48 h of stress imposition. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with respect to control in Al3+ treated roots. The hematoxylin and Evans blue assay indicated significant (p ≤ 0.05) accumulation of Al3+ in the roots and loss of plasma membrane integrity respectively. The time-course evaluation of lipid peroxidation showed increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) after 12, 24 and 48 h of stress imposition. Al3+ treatment did not alter the MDA levels after 2 or 4 h of stress, however, a minor increase was observed after 6 and 10 h of treatment. The proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the perchloric acid extracts showed variation in the abundance of metabolites and suggested a major metabolic shift in chickpea root during Al3+ stress. The key differences that were observed include changes in energy metabolites. Accumulation of phenolic compounds suggested its possible role in Al3+ exclusion in roots during stress. The results suggested that Al3+ alters growth pattern in chickpea and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that causes physiological and metabolic changes.

  14. Dynamic Modulation of Myelination in Response to Visual Stimuli Alters Optic Nerve Conduction Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Ainhoa; Hokanson, Kenton C; Dao, Dang Q; Mayoral, Sonia R; Mei, Feng; Redmond, Stephanie A; Ullian, Erik M; Chan, Jonah R

    2016-06-29

    Myelin controls the time required for an action potential to travel from the neuronal soma to the axon terminal, defining the temporal manner in which information is processed within the CNS. The presence of myelin, the internodal length, and the thickness of the myelin sheath are powerful structural factors that control the velocity and fidelity of action potential transmission. Emerging evidence indicates that myelination is sensitive to environmental experience and neuronal activity. Activity-dependent modulation of myelination can dynamically alter action potential conduction properties but direct functional in vivo evidence and characterization of the underlying myelin changes is lacking. We demonstrate that in mice long-term monocular deprivation increases oligodendrogenesis in the retinogeniculate pathway but shortens myelin internode lengths without affecting other structural properties of myelinated fibers. We also demonstrate that genetically attenuating synaptic glutamate neurotransmission from retinal ganglion cells phenocopies the changes observed after monocular deprivation, suggesting that glutamate may constitute a signal for myelin length regulation. Importantly, we demonstrate that visual deprivation and shortened internodes are associated with a significant reduction in nerve conduction velocity in the optic nerve. Our results reveal the importance of sensory input in the building of myelinated fibers and suggest that this activity-dependent alteration of myelination is important for modifying the conductive properties of brain circuits in response to environmental experience. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes and are capable of ensheathing axons with myelin without molecular cues from neurons. However, this default myelination process can be modulated by changes in neuronal activity. Here, we show, for the first time, that experience-dependent activity modifies the length of myelin internodes along axons

  15. Blackcurrant Alters Physiological Responses and Femoral Artery Diameter during Sustained Isometric Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Cook

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blackcurrant is rich in anthocyanins that may affect exercise-induced physiological responses. We examined tissue oxygen saturation, muscle activity, cardiovascular responses and femoral artery diameter during a submaximal sustained isometric contraction. In a randomised, double-blind, crossover design, healthy men (n = 13, age: 25 ± 4 years, BMI: 25 ± 3 kg·m−2, mean ± SD ingested New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC extract (600 mg∙day−1 CurraNZ™ or placebo (PL for 7-days separated by 14-days washout. Participants produced isometric maximal voluntary contractions (iMVC and a 120-s 30%iMVC of the quadriceps with electromyography (EMG, near-infrared spectroscopy, hemodynamic and ultrasound recordings. There was no effect of NZBC extract on iMVC (NZBC: 654 ± 73, PL: 650 ± 78 N. During the 30%iMVC with NZBC extract, total peripheral resistance, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were lower with increased cardiac output and stroke volume. With NZBC extract, EMG root mean square of the vastus medialis and muscle oxygen saturation were lower with higher total haemoglobin. During the 30%iMVC, femoral artery diameter was increased with NZBC extract at 30 (6.9%, 60 (8.2%, 90 (7.7% and 120 s (6.0%. Intake of NZBC extract for 7-days altered cardiovascular responses, muscle oxygen saturation, muscle activity and femoral artery diameter during a 120-s 30%iMVC of the quadriceps. The present study provides insight into the potential mechanisms for enhanced exercise performance with intake of blackcurrant.

  16. Altered retinal flicker response indicates microvascular dysfunction in women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückmann, Andreas; Seeliger, Christin; Lehmann, Thomas; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schlembach, Dietmar

    2015-10-01

    Flicker-induced dilatation is reduced in patients with cardiovascular risk, and the following arteriolar constriction is reduced with aging, leading to a reduced arteriolar amplitude and, thereby, indicating microvascular endothelial dysfunction. As endothelial dysfunction is associated with preeclampsia, we assessed retinal flicker response during pregnancy and postpartum. Between 2006 and 2013, women were recruited from University Hospital Jena and Prenatal Diagnostic Center Erfurt, Germany, of which 34 women with preeclampsia, 45 women with normal pregnancy, and 22 nonpregnant controls were included in the study. Women with normal pregnancy were matched for age, nulliparity, smoking, previous gestational hypertensive disorders, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Nonpregnant women were age-matched, nulliparous, nonsmoking, without family history of cardiovascular disease. Retinal vessel measurement using Dynamic Vessel Analyzer consisted of 50-seconds baseline acquisition, followed by three 20-second flicker and 80-second relaxation periods. Arteriolar constriction and arteriolar amplitude were reduced during pregnancy (P=0.001 and P=0.008) and postpartum (P=0.018 and P=0.034) in women with preeclampsia, adjusted for age, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, baseline diameter, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Flicker-induced dilatation was unchanged within the groups and throughout the study period. The unchanged flicker-induced dilatation may support a preserved autoregulatory competence of the microvasculature, and the diminished arteriolar amplitude, mainly because of the absence of the arteriolar constriction, indicates a commenced retinal microvascular dysfunction in women with preeclampsia during pregnancy and postpartum. Mechanisms responsible for altered retinal flicker response in preeclampsia need to be clarified in further studies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Environmental disruption of the circadian clock leads to altered sleep and immune responses in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Derrick J; Savenkova, Marina I; Karatsoreos, Ilia N

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, one of the most salient outputs of the circadian (daily) clock is the timing of the sleep-wake cycle. Modern industrialized society has led to a fundamental breakdown in the relationship between our endogenous timekeeping systems and the solar day, disrupting normal circadian rhythms. We have argued that disrupted circadian rhythms could lead to changes in allostatic load, and the capacity of organisms to respond to other environmental challenges. In this set of studies, we apply a model of circadian disruption characterized in our lab in which mice are housed in a 20h long day, with 10h of light and 10h of darkness. We explored the effects of this environmental disruption on sleep patterns, to establish if this model results in marked sleep deprivation. Given the interaction between circadian, sleep, and immune systems, we further probed if our model of circadian disruption also alters the innate immune response to peripheral bacterial endotoxin challenge. Our results demonstrate that this model of circadian disruption does not lead to marked sleep deprivation, but instead affects the timing and quality of sleep. We also show that while circadian disruption does not lead to basal changes in the immune markers we explored, the immune response is affected, both in the brain and the periphery. Together, our findings further strengthen the important role of the circadian timing system in sleep regulation and immune responses, and provide evidence that disrupting the circadian clock increases vulnerability to further environmental stressors, including immunological challenges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered G{sub 1} checkpoint control determines adaptive survival responses to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boothman, David A.; Meyers, Mark; Odegaard, Eric; Wang, Meizhi [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-11-04

    Adaptive survival responses (ASRs) are observed when cells become more resistant to a high dose of a cytotoxic agent after repeated low dose exposures to that agent or another genotoxic agent. Confluent (G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}) human normal (GM2936B, GM2937A, AG2603, IMR-90), cancer-prone (XPV2359), and neoplastic (U1-Mel, HEp-2, HTB-152) cells were primed with repeated low doses of X-rays (ranging from 0.05-10 cGy/day for 4 days), then challenged with a high dose (290-450 cGy) on day 5. U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells showed greater than 2-fold transient survival enhancement when primed with 1-10 cGy. ASRs in U1-Mel or HEp-2 cells were blocked by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Increases in cyclins A and D1 mRNAs were noted in primed compared to unirradiated U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells; however, only cyclin A protein levels increased. Cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels were constitutively elevated in HEp-2 and U1-Mel cells, compared to the other human normal and neoplastic cells examined, and were not altered by low or high doses of radiation. Low dose primed U1-Mel cells entered S-phase 4-6 h faster than unprimed U1-Mel cells upon low-density replating. Similar responses in terms of survival recovery, transcript and protein induction, and altered cell cycle regulation were not observed in the other human normal, cancer-prone or neoplastic cells examined. We hypothesize that only certain human cells can adapt to ionizing radiation by progressing to a point later in G{sub 1} (the A point) where DNA repair processes and radioresistance can be induced. ASRs in human cells correlated well with constitutively elevated levels of PCNA and cyclin D1, as well as inducibility of cyclin A. We propose that a protein complex composed of cyclin D1, PCNA, and possibly cyclin A may play a role in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, which determine ASRs in human cells.

  19. Response to Dengue virus infections altered by cytokine-like substances from mosquito cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laosutthipong Chaowanee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With both shrimp and commercial insects such as honey bees, it is known that stable, persistent viral infections characterized by absence of disease can sometimes shift to overt disease states as a result of various stress triggers and that this can result in serious economic losses. The main research interest of our group is to understand the dynamics of stable viral infections in shrimp and how they can be destabilized by stress. Since there are no continuous cell lines for crustaceans, we have used a C6/36 mosquito cell line infected with Dengue virus to test hypotheses regarding these interactions. As a result, we accidentally discovered two new cytokine-like substances in 5 kDa extracts from supernatant solutions of acutely and persistently infected mosquito cells. Results Naïve C6/36 cells were exposed for 48 h to 5 kDa membrane filtrates prepared from the supernatant medium of stable C6/36 mosquito cell cultures persistently-infected with Dengue virus. Subsequent challenge of naïve cells with a virulent stock of Dengue virus 2 (DEN-2 and analysis by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-DEN-2 antibody revealed a dramatic reduction in the percentage of DEN-2 infected cells when compared to control cells. Similar filtrates prepared from C6/36 cells with acute DEN-2 infections were used to treat stable C6/36 mosquito cell cultures persistently-infected with Dengue virus. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed destabilization in the form of an apoptosis-like response. Proteinase K treatment removed the cell-altering activities indicating that they were caused by small polypeptides similar to those previously reported from insects. Conclusions This is the first report of cytokine-like substances that can alter the responses of mosquito cells to Dengue virus. This simple model system allows detailed molecular studies on insect cytokine production and on cytokine activity in a standard insect cell line.

  20. Altered G1 checkpoint control determines adaptive survival responses to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothman, David A.; Meyers, Mark; Odegaard, Eric; Wang, Meizhi

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive survival responses (ASRs) are observed when cells become more resistant to a high dose of a cytotoxic agent after repeated low dose exposures to that agent or another genotoxic agent. Confluent (G 0 /G 1 ) human normal (GM2936B, GM2937A, AG2603, IMR-90), cancer-prone (XPV2359), and neoplastic (U1-Mel, HEp-2, HTB-152) cells were primed with repeated low doses of X-rays (ranging from 0.05-10 cGy/day for 4 days), then challenged with a high dose (290-450 cGy) on day 5. U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells showed greater than 2-fold transient survival enhancement when primed with 1-10 cGy. ASRs in U1-Mel or HEp-2 cells were blocked by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Increases in cyclins A and D1 mRNAs were noted in primed compared to unirradiated U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells; however, only cyclin A protein levels increased. Cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels were constitutively elevated in HEp-2 and U1-Mel cells, compared to the other human normal and neoplastic cells examined, and were not altered by low or high doses of radiation. Low dose primed U1-Mel cells entered S-phase 4-6 h faster than unprimed U1-Mel cells upon low-density replating. Similar responses in terms of survival recovery, transcript and protein induction, and altered cell cycle regulation were not observed in the other human normal, cancer-prone or neoplastic cells examined. We hypothesize that only certain human cells can adapt to ionizing radiation by progressing to a point later in G 1 (the A point) where DNA repair processes and radioresistance can be induced. ASRs in human cells correlated well with constitutively elevated levels of PCNA and cyclin D1, as well as inducibility of cyclin A. We propose that a protein complex composed of cyclin D1, PCNA, and possibly cyclin A may play a role in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, which determine ASRs in human cells

  1. Chemical control of flowering time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Sánchez Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Flowering at the right time is of great importance; it secures seed production and therefore species survival and crop yield. In addition to the genetic network controlling flowering time, there are a number of much less studied metabolites and exogenously applied chemicals that may influence...... on the genetic aspects of flowering time regulation in annuals, but less so in perennials. An alternative to plant breeding approaches is to engineer flowering time chemically via the external application of flower-inducing compounds. This review discusses a variety of exogenously applied compounds used in fruit...

  2. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  3. Altered S-nitrosylation of p53 is responsible for impaired antioxidant response in skeletal muscle during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldelli, Sara; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2016-12-20

    p53 transcriptional activity has been proposed to regulate both homeostasis and sarcopenia of skeletal muscle during aging. However, the exact molecular function of p53 remains to be clearly defined. We demonstrated a requirement of nuclear p53 S-nitrosylation in inducing a nitric oxide/PGC-1α-mediated antioxidant pathway in skeletal muscle. Importantly, mutant form of p53-DNA binding domain (C124S) did not undergo nuclear S-nitrosylation and failed in inducing the expression of antioxidant genes (i.e. SOD2 and GCLC). Moreover, we found that during aging the nuclear S-nitrosylation of p53 significantly declines in gastrocnemius/soleus leading to an impairment of redox homeostasis of skeletal muscle. We suggested that decreased level of nuclear neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)/Syntrophin complex, which we observed during aging, could be responsible for impaired nuclear S-nitrosylation. Taken together, our data indicate that altered S-nitrosylation of p53 during aging could be a contributing factor of sarcopenia condition and of other skeletal muscle pathologies associated with oxidative/nitrosative stress.

  4. Comprehensive Cloning ofPrunus mumeDormancy Associated MADS-Box Genes and Their Response in Flower Bud Development and Dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Zhou, Yuzhen; Ahmad, Sagheer; Xu, Zongda; Li, Yushu; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2018-01-01

    Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume , PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6 . The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns. Furthermore, the PmDAM proteins are found to have special functions by forming corresponding protein complex during the development of flower bud and induction of dormancy. In particular, when PmDAM1 dominating in flower bud in the warm months, the protein complexes are consisted of PmDAM1 itself or with PmDAM2. With the decrease temperatures in the following months, PmDAM6 was found to be highly expressed and gradually changed the complex structure to PmDAM6-protein complex due to strong binding tendencies with PmDAM1 and PmDAM3. Finally, the homodimers of PmDAM6 prevailed to induce the dormancy. The results obtained in the current study highlight the functions of PmDAMs in the tissue development and dormancy, which provide available suggestions for further explorations of protein-complex functions in association with bud growth and dormancy.

  5. How Do Trees Know When to Flower? Predicting Reproductive Phenology of Douglas-fir with Changing Winter and Spring Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevey, J.; St Clair, B.; Harrington, C.

    2016-12-01

    Flowering at the right time is one of the primary ways that plants are adapted to their environment. Trees that flower too early risk cold damage to vulnerable new tissues and those that flower too late miss peak resources or may mistime flowering to coincide with other trees, altering outcrossing rates and gene flow. Past observations indicate that temperature cues over winter and spring influence the timing of flowering in many tree species. Understanding these cues is important for predicting how flowering phenology of trees will change with a changing climate.We developed predictive models of flowering for Douglas-fir, an abundant and commercially important tree in the Pacific Northwest. We assembled over 10,000 flowering observations of trees from 11 sites across western Oregon and Washington. We modeled the dates of flowering using hourly temperature data; our models of flowering were adapted from previous models of vegetative budburst and height growth initiation developed for Douglas-fir. Preliminary results show that both chilling (cold) and forcing (warm) temperatures over winter and spring are important determinants of flowering time for Douglas-fir. This suggests that as spring temperatures warm in the future, Douglas-fir across the Pacific Northwest will flower earlier, unless plants experience insufficient chilling over winter, in which case it is possible that Douglas-fir may flower later than in the past, or not flower at all. At one site, Douglas-fir genotypes from different geographic regions flowered in the same order from year to year, indicating that both temperature and heredity influence flowering. Knowledge of the environmental and genetic cues that drive the timing of flowering can help predict how changes in temperature under various climate models could change flowering time across sites. These models may also indicate the geographic areas where future climate could enhance or reduce flowering of Douglas-fir in the future.

  6. Magnetic field is the dominant factor to induce the response of Streptomyces avermitilis in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Gao, Hong; Shang, Peng; Zhou, Xianlong; Ashforth, Elizabeth; Zhuo, Ying; Chen, Difei; Ren, Biao; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to simulate an altered gravity environment, as in space. In this study, using Streptomyces avermitilis as the test organism, we investigate whether changes in magnetic field and altered gravity induce changes in morphology and secondary metabolism. We find that a strong magnetic field (12T) inhibit the morphological development of S. avermitilis in solid culture, and increase the production of secondary metabolites. S. avermitilis on solid medium was levitated at 0 g*, 1 g* and 2 g* in an altered gravity environment simulated by diamagnetic levitation and under a strong magnetic field, denoted by the asterix. The morphology was obtained by electromicroscopy. The production of the secondary metabolite, avermectin, was determined by OD(245 nm). The results showed that diamagnetic levitation could induce a physiological response in S. avermitilis. The difference between 1 g* and the control group grown without the strong magnetic field (1 g), showed that the magnetic field was a more dominant factor influencing changes in morphology and secondary metabolite production, than altered gravity. We have discovered that magnetic field, rather than altered gravity, is the dominant factor in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation, therefore care should to be taken in the interpretation of results when using diamagnetic levitation as a technique to simulate altered gravity. Hence, these results are significant, and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena.

  7. Transcription factors and stress response gene alterations in human keratinocytes following Solar Simulated Ultra Violet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Thomas L Des; Kluz, Thomas; Xu, Dazhong; Zhang, Xiaoru; Gesumaria, Lisa; Matsui, Mary S; Costa, Max; Sun, Hong

    2017-10-19

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight is the major effector for skin aging and carcinogenesis. However, genes and pathways altered by solar-simulated UVR (ssUVR), a mixture of UVA and UVB, are not well characterized. Here we report global changes in gene expression as well as associated pathways and upstream transcription factors in human keratinocytes exposed to ssUVR. Human HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to either a single dose or 5 repetitive doses of ssUVR. Comprehensive analyses of gene expression profiles as well as functional annotation were performed at 24 hours post irradiation. Our results revealed that ssUVR modulated genes with diverse cellular functions changed in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression in cells exposed to a single dose of ssUVR differed significantly from those that underwent repetitive exposures. While single ssUVR caused a significant inhibition in genes involved in cell cycle progression, especially G2/M checkpoint and mitotic regulation, repetitive ssUVR led to extensive changes in genes related to cell signaling and metabolism. We have also identified a panel of ssUVR target genes that exhibited persistent changes in gene expression even at 1 week after irradiation. These results revealed a complex network of transcriptional regulators and pathways that orchestrate the cellular response to ssUVR.

  8. Response of soil biota to vineyard interrow soil cultivation can be altered by the surrounding landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann; Buchholz, Jacob; Querner, Pascal; Paredes, Daniel; Kratschmer, Sophie; Schwantzer, Martina; Winter, Silvia; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Burel, Françoise; Guernion, Muriel; Scimia, Jennifer; Nicolai, Annegret; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from interactions between management intensity, soil properties, organisms inhabiting these landscapes, and the diversity and structure of the surrounding landscape. However, there is actually very little known to what extent these different factors influence the abundance and diversity of various soil biota. In this study we examined (i) to what extent different soil management intensities of interrows affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (earthworms, Collembola, litter decomposition), (ii) the role of soil properties in influencing these effects and (iii) whether the surrounding landscape structure is altering these interactions. We collected data in 16 vineyards in Austria embedded in landscapes with varying structure (i.e. from structurally simple to complex) and assessed earthworms (hand sorting), Collembola (pitfall trapping and soil coring), litter decomposition (tea bag method). Additionally, soil physical (water infiltration, aggregate stability, porosity, bulk density, soil texture) and chemical (pH, soil carbon content, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorus) parameters were assessed. The landscape surrounding our vineyards within a radius of 750 m was assessed by field mapping using a geographical information system. Results showed that different soil biota/processes are differently affected by soil cultivation intensity and soil properties. Parameters describing the surrounding landscape interacted more with the responses of Collembola to soil cultivation than with earthworms or litter decomposition. These investigations are part of the transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project VineDivers (www.vinedivers.eu) and will ultimately lead into management recommendations for various stakeholders.

  9. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stomby, Andreas; Ryberg, Mats; Lindahl, Bernt; Larsson, Christel; Nyberg, Lars; Olsson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010) after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010 after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA. Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity.

  11. Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Pasterski, Vickie; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Patalay, Praveetha; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L

    2016-02-19

    Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as self-socialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Repeated dexamphetamine treatment alters the dopaminergic system and increases the phMRI response to methylphenidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Schrantee

    Full Text Available Dexamphetamine (AMPH is a psychostimulant drug that is used both recreationally and as medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated exposure to AMPH can induce damage to nerve terminals of dopamine (DA neurons. We here assessed the underlying neurobiological changes in the DA system following repeated AMPH exposure and pre-treated rats with AMPH or saline (4 times 5 mg/kg s.c., 2 hours apart, followed by a 1-week washout period. We then used pharmacological MRI (phMRI with a methylphenidate (MPH challenge, as a sensitive and non-invasive in-vivo measure of DAergic function. We subsequently validated the DA-ergic changes post-mortem, using a.o. high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and autoradiography. In the AMPH pre-treated group, we observed a significantly larger BOLD response to the MPH challenge, particularly in DA-ergic brain areas and their downstream projections. Subsequent autoradiography studies showed that AMPH pre-treatment significantly reduced DA transporter (DAT density in the caudate-putamen (CPu and nucleus accumbens, whereas HPLC analysis revealed increases in the DA metabolite homovanillic acid in the CPu. Our results suggest that AMPH pre-treatment alters DAergic responsivity, a change that can be detected with phMRI in rats. These phMRI changes likely reflect increased DA release together with reduced DAT binding. The ability to assess subtle synaptic changes using phMRI is promising for both preclinical studies of drug discovery, and for clinical studies where phMRI can be a useful tool to non-invasively investigate DA abnormalities, e.g. in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Physiological and morphological responses of Tamarix ramosissima and Populus euphratica to altered groundwater availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Yu, B; Zhao, C; Nowak, Robert S; Zhao, Z; Sheng, Y; Li, J

    2013-01-01

    Riparian plants in arid areas are subject to frequent hydrological fluctuations induced through natural flow variation and water use by humans. Although many studies have focused on the success of Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. in its invaded ranges, its major competitor in its home range, Populus euphratica Oliv., historically has dominated riparian forests where both species occur naturally. Thus, identifying ecophysiological differences between T. ramosissima and its co-evolved competitor under varying hydrological conditions may help us understand how flow regimes affect dominance in its home range and promote invasion in new ranges. We examined ecophysiological responses of T. ramosissima and P. euphratica, which are both native to the Tarim River Basin, northwest China, to experimental alterations in groundwater. Seedlings of both species were grown in lysimeters, first under well-watered conditions and then exposed to different groundwater treatments: inundation, drought, and relatively shallow, moderate and deep groundwater. Under inundation, T. ramosissima showed little growth whereas P. euphratica died after ~45 days. Droughted seedlings of both species suffered from considerable water stress evidenced by slow growth, decreased total leaf area and specific leaf area, and decreased xylem water potential (ψ), maximum photosynthetic rate and carboxylation efficiency. Both species had better ecophysiological performances under shallow and moderate groundwater conditions. When groundwater declined below rooting depth, seedlings of both species initially experienced decreased ψ, but ψ of T. ramosissima recovered late in the experiment whereas P. euphratica maintained decreased ψ. This ability of T. ramosissima to recover from water deficit might result from its rapid root elongation and subsequent ability to acquire groundwater, which in turn likely provides ecophysiological advantages over P. euphratica. Our results suggest that recent groundwater declines

  14. Prenatal tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters cognitive function and amphetamine response from weaning to adulthood in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lindsay; Zhao, Ning; Popp, Susanna; Dow-Edwards, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that not only is marijuana use prevalent among women of reproductive age, but a significant number of women continue to use marijuana and its derivatives throughout pregnancy. Many studies have shown, in both humans and animals, that marijuana exposure during adolescence and adulthood is detrimental to normal cognition and memory. In this study, we examined the effects of daily intravenous injections of 0.15 mg/kg Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), given to pregnant dams throughout gestation, on cognitive function in the offspring. Offspring were exposed to three tests: a passive avoidance test at postnatal day (PND) 22, an active place avoidance test at PND 45, and an attention task at PND 60, which assessed learning and long-term memory, spatial working memory and prediction, and attention, respectively. Other offspring were also given a 1mg/kg amphetamine challenge at PND 60. Passive avoidance testing showed that prenatal THC had no effect on acquisition but interfered with consolidation during retention testing. The active place avoidance task showed no treatment-related effects on acquisition but a significant treatment effect was observed in reversal performance in males. The attention task showed that a smaller percentage of THC-exposed rats completed the test, although the failure rate of both groups was quite high. Finally, THC exposed animals, both male and female, showed a dampened locomotor response to amphetamine, but females were more active than males overall. These results suggest that prenatal THC exposure has effects on certain aspects of cognitive function in rats from weaning to adulthood. These effects suggest that prenatal marijuana exposure could also alter cognitive function in humans and therefore have an impact on school performance and dampen responses to psychostimulants as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intravenous lipid emulsion alters the hemodynamic response to epinephrine in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Stephanie; Blum, Jared; Jay, Gregory; Hack, Jason B

    2013-09-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is an adjunctive antidote used in selected critically ill poisoned patients. These patients may also require administration of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) drugs. Limited data is available to describe interactions of ILE with standard ACLS drugs, specifically epinephrine. Twenty rats with intra-arterial and intravenous access were sedated with isoflurane and split into ILE or normal saline (NS) pretreatment groups. All received epinephrine 15 μm/kg intravenously (IV). Continuous mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored until both indices returned to baseline. Standardized t tests were used to compare peak MAP, time to peak MAP, maximum change in HR, time to maximum change in HR, and time to return to baseline MAP/HR. There was a significant difference (p = 0.023) in time to peak MAP in the ILE group (54 s, 95 % CI 44-64) versus the NS group (40 s, 95 % CI 32-48) and a significant difference (p = 0.004) in time to return to baseline MAP in ILE group (171 s, 95 % CI 148-194) versus NS group (130 s, 95 % CI 113-147). There were no significant differences in the peak change in MAP, peak change in HR, time to minimum HR, or time to return to baseline HR between groups. ILE-pretreated rats had a significant difference in MAP response to epinephrine; ILE delayed the peak effect and prolonged the duration of effect of epinephrine on MAP, but did not alter the peak increase in MAP or the HR response.

  16. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-02-01

    The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three studies on N. europaea were compared to achieve a

  17. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened.

  18. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  19. Aging alters muscle reflex control of autonomic cardiovascular responses to rhythmic contractions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Simranjit K; Weavil, Joshua C; Venturelli, Massimo; Rossman, Matthew J; Gmelch, Benjamin S; Bledsoe, Amber D; Richardson, Russell S; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the influence of aging on the group III/IV muscle afferents in the exercise pressor reflex-mediated cardiovascular response to rhythmic exercise. Nine old (OLD; 68 ± 2 yr) and nine young (YNG; 24 ± 2 yr) males performed single-leg knee extensor exercise (15 W, 30 W, 80% max) under control conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing feedback from group III/IV leg muscle afferents. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output, leg blood flow (QL), systemic (SVC) and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were continuously determined. With no hemodynamic effect at rest, fentanyl blockade during exercise attenuated both cardiac output and QL ∼17% in YNG, while the decrease in cardiac output in OLD (∼5%) was significantly smaller with no impact on QL (P = 0.8). Therefore, in the face of similar significant ∼7% reduction in MAP during exercise with fentanyl blockade in both groups, LVC significantly increased ∼11% in OLD, but decreased ∼8% in YNG. The opposing direction of change was reflected in SVC with a significant ∼5% increase in OLD and a ∼12% decrease in YNG. Thus while cardiac output seems to account for the majority of group III/IV-mediated MAP responses in YNG, the impact of neural feedback on the heart may decrease with age and alterations in SVC become more prominent in mediating the similar exercise pressor reflex in OLD. Interestingly, in terms of peripheral hemodynamics, while group III/IV-mediated feedback plays a clear role in increasing LVC during exercise in the YNG, these afferents seem to actually reduce LVC in OLD. These peripheral findings may help explain the limited exercise-induced peripheral vasodilation often associated with aging. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    The theory of life-history evolution commonly assumes a trade-off between sexual and vegetative reproduction. Hence, production of flowers and fruits should have measurable costs in terms of reduced vegetative growth. This trade-off may be meaningful for breeding of forage and turf grasses...... as reduced flowering could free resources and increase productivity. But if so, less-flowering cultivars might be more competitive and invade natural swards. We tested for costs of sexual reproduction on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of the perennial grass Lolium perenne, one of the most...... provenances the response of clone diameter to flowering was positive or neutral. We conclude that investment of resources into flowering has no measurable costs on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of L. perenne. The apparent lack of costs of sexual reproduction could be explained by bet...

  1. Analytical psychology and Daoist inner alchemy: a response to C.G. Jung's 'Commentary on The Secret of the Golden Flower'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caifang Jeremy

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides a historical, religious-philosophical context for the study of the Daoist text known as The Secret of the Golden Flower. An updated study is conducted into the controversy over the source of the text including the editions translated by Richard Wilhelm and Thomas Cleary. The main teachings of the text and the basics of two major denominations of Daoism are introduced to ground later critiques of Jung's commentary. The psychodynamics of analytical psychology, especially those concerned with integration of unconscious contents and the realization of the self (individuation) are compared with the psycho-spiritual dynamics of integration in Eastern spirituality based on the Golden Flower text. The paper concludes that it was amiss for Jung to have equated the Western 'unconscious' with states of higher consciousness in Eastern meditation practices, although his claim that Eastern higher consciousness is characterized by a nebulous state of non-intentionality does raise questions about the appropriateness of calling Eastern meditative states 'consciousness'. A new concept is required to characterize the special qualities of this psychic state shared generally by Eastern spiritual traditions and a more meaningful comparison may be found in Jung's concept of the self.

  2. Let the flowers grow…

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental part of CERN Safety policy is represented by a flower whose petals are the various domains of its application. The Environment Services section within the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit is in charge of monitoring the impact of the Laboratory on the environment. You are called on to make every effort to reduce this impact as much as reasonably achievable. Read why and how…   A physics Laboratory occupying a territory of the size of a small village, with sites scattered across an even larger area, has a considerable potential impact on the environment. Energy and water consumption, waste management... these are all aspects of the same problem or, in the representation, petals of the same flower. Each one should be carefully studied and dealt with. The nine members of the Environment Services section deal with matters that concern these and other aspects of the CERN's policy for the protection of the environment. “...

  3. Simulated auditory nerve axon demyelination alters sensitivity and response timing to extracellular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Jesse M; O'Brien, Gabrielle E; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2018-04-01

    Since cochlear implant function involves direct depolarization of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) by applied current, SGN physiological health must be an important factor in cochlear implant (CI) outcomes. This expected relationship has, however, been difficult to confirm in implant recipients. Suggestively, animal studies have demonstrated both acute and progressive SGN ultrastructural changes (notably axon demyelination), even in the absence of soma death, and corresponding altered physiology following sensorineural deafening. Whether such demyelination occurs in humans and how such changes might impact CI function remains unknown. To approach this problem, we incorporated SGN demyelination into a biophysical model of extracellular stimulation of SGN fibers. Our approach enabled exploration of the entire parameter space corresponding to simulated myelin diameter and extent of fiber affected. All simulated fibers were stimulated distally with anodic monophasic, cathodic monophasic, anode-phase-first (AF) biphasic, and cathode-phase-first (CF) biphasic pulses from an extracellular disc electrode and monitored for spikes centrally. Not surprisingly, axon sensitivity generally decreased with demyelination, resulting in elevated thresholds, however, this effect was strongly non-uniform. Fibers with severe demyelination affecting only the most peripheral nodes responded nearly identically to normally myelinated fibers. Additionally, partial demyelination (<50%) yielded only minimal increases in threshold even when the entire fiber was impacted. The temporal effects of demyelination were more unexpected. Both latency and jitter of responses demonstrated resilience to modest changes but exhibited strongly non-monotonic and stimulus-dependent relationships to more profound demyelination. Normal, and modestly demyelinated fibers, were more sensitive to cathodic than anodic monophasic pulses and to CF than AF biphasic pulses, however, when demyelination was more severe these

  4. Transcriptomic changes reveal gene networks responding to the overexpression of a blueberry DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 gene in transgenic blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing; Gao, Xuan

    2017-06-19

    Constitutive expression of the CBF/DREB1 for increasing freezing tolerance in woody plants is often associated with other phenotypic changes including dwarf plant and delayed flowering. These phenotypic changes have been observed when Arabidopsis DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) was overexpressed in A. thaliana plants. To date, the DDF1 orthologues have not been studied in woody plants. The aim of this study is to investigate transcriptomic responses to the overexpression of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) DDF1 (herein, VcDDF1-OX). The VcDDF1-OX resulted in enhanced freezing tolerance in tetraploid blueberry plants and did not result in significant changes in plant size, chilling requirement, and flowering time. Comparative transcriptome analysis of transgenic 'Legacy-VcDDF1-OX' plants containing an overexpressed VcDDF1 with non-transgenic highbush blueberry 'Legacy' plants revealed the VcDDF1-OX derived differentially expressed (DE) genes and transcripts in the pathways of cold-response, plant flowering, DELLA proteins, and plant phytohormones. The increase in freezing tolerance was associated to the expression of cold-regulated genes (CORs) and the ethylene pathway genes. The unchanged plant size, dormancy and flowering were due to the minimal effect of the VcDDF1-OX on the expression of DELLA proteins, flowering pathway genes, and the other phytohormone genes related to plant growth and development. The DE genes in auxin and cytokinin pathways suggest that the VcDDF1-OX has also altered plant tolerance to drought and high salinity. A DDF1 orthologue in blueberry functioned differently from the DDF1 reported in Arabidopsis. The overexpression of VcDDF1 or its orthologues is a new approach to increase freezing tolerance of deciduous woody plant species with no obvious effect on plant size and plant flowering time.

  5. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  6. Cloning and characterisation of two CTR1-like genes in Cucurbita pepo: regulation of their expression during male and female flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; Gómez, Pedro; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Ethylene is an essential regulator of flower development in Cucurbita pepo, controlling the sexual expression, and the differentiation and maturation of floral organs. To study the action mechanism of ethylene during the male and female flower development, we have identified two CTR1 homologues from C. pepo, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2, and analysed their expressions during female and male flower development and in response to external treatments with ethylene. CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 share a high homology with plant CTR1-like kinases, but differ from other related kinases such as the Arabidopsis EDR1 and the tomato LeCTR2. The C-terminal ends of both CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 have all the conserved motifs of Ser/Thr kinase domains, including the ATP-binding signature and the protein kinase active site consensus sequence, which suggests that CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 could have the same function as CTR1 in ethylene signalling. The transcripts of both genes were detected in different organs of the plant, including roots, leaves and shoots, but were mostly accumulated in mature flowers. During the development of male and female flowers, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 expressions were concomitant with ethylene production, which indicates that both genes could be upregulated by ethylene, at least in flowers. Moreover, external treatments with ethylene, although did not alter the expression of these two genes in seedlings and leaves, were able to upregulate their expression in flowers. In the earlier stages of flower development, when ethylene production is very low, the expression of CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 is higher in male floral organs, which agrees with the role of these genes as negative regulators of ethylene signalling, and explain the lower ethylene sensitivity of male flowers in comparison with female flowers. The function of the upregulation of these two genes in later stages of female flower development, when the production of ethylene is also increased, is discussed.

  7. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  8. Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicca, S.; Bahn, M.; Estiarte, M.

    2014-01-01

    dependencies of SCE. Hence, the most justified answer to the question of whether current moisture responses of SCE can be extrapolated to predict SCE under altered precipitation regimes is 'no' - as based on the most reliable data sets available. We strongly recommend that future experiments focus more...

  9. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morita, V.S.; Almeida, V.R.; Matos Junior, J.B.; Vicentini, T.I.; Brand, van den H.; Boleli, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a

  10. Hemodynamic Response Alterations in Sensorimotor Areas as a Function of Barbell Load Levels during Squatting: An fNIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenville, Rouven; Maudrich, Tom; Carius, Daniel; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) serves as a promising tool to examine hemodynamic response alterations in a sports-scientific context. The present study aimed to investigate how brain activity within the human motor system changes its processing in dependency of different barbell load conditions while executing a barbell squat (BS). Additionally, we used different fNIRS probe configurations to identify and subsequently eliminate potential exercise induced systemic confounders such as increases in extracerebral blood flow. Ten healthy, male participants were enrolled in a crossover design. Participants performed a BS task with random barbell load levels (0% 1RM (1 repetition maximum), 20% 1RM and 40% 1RM for a BS) during fNIRS recordings. Initially, we observed global hemodynamic response alterations within and outside the human motor system. However, short distance channel regression of fNIRS data revealed a focalized hemodynamic response alteration within bilateral superior parietal lobe (SPL) for oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and not for deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb) when comparing different load levels. These findings indicate that the previously observed load/force-brain relationship for simple and isolated movements is also present in complex multi-joint movements such as the BS. Altogether, our results show the feasibility of fNIRS to investigate brain processing in a sports-related context. We suggest for future studies to incorporate short distance channel regression of fNIRS data to reduce the likelihood of false-positive hemodynamic response alterations during complex whole movements.

  11. Supplementation with a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product alters the metabolic response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in weaned pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would alter the metabolic response following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4+/-0.1 kg BW) were housed individually with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were...

  12. Wfs1-deficient mice display altered function of serotonergic system and increased behavioural response to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel eVisnapuu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene make humans more susceptible to mood disorders. Besides that, mood disorders are associated with alterations in the activity of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Therefore, in this study, the effects of imipramine, an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA reuptake, and paroxetine, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, were studied in tests of behavioural despair. The tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were performed in Wfs1-deficient mice. Simultaneously, gene expression and monoamine metabolism studies were conducted to evaluate changes in 5-HT- and NA-ergic systems of Wfs1-deficient mice. The basal immobility time of Wfs1-deficient mice in TST and FST did not differ from that of their wild-type littermates. However, a significant reduction of immobility time in response to lower doses of imipramine and paroxetine was observed in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice, but not in their wild-type littermates. In gene expression studies, the levels of 5-HT transporter (SERT were significantly reduced in the pons of homozygous animals. Monoamine metabolism was assayed separately in the dorsal and ventral striatum of naive mice and mice exposed for 30 minutes tobrightly lit motility boxes. We found that this aversive challenge caused a significant increase in the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT, in the ventral and dorsal striatum of wild-type mice, but not in their homozygous littermates. Taken together, the blunted 5-HT metabolism and reduced levels of SERT are a likely reason for the elevated sensitivity of these mice to the action of imipramine and paroxetine. These changes in the pharmacological and neurochemical phenotype of Wfs1-deficient mice may help to explain the increased susceptibility of Wolfram syndrome patients to depressive states.

  13. Chronic stress-induced alterations in mouse colonic 5-HT and defecation responses are strain dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio-Pieper, Marcela; O'Mahony, Cliona M; Clarke, Gerard; Bravo, Javier A; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2012-03-01

    Mood disorders and chronic stress are frequently associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including diarrhoea or constipation. Locally produced serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] regulates GI motility and is a key factor in the pathophysiology of stress-associated GI disorders. We aimed to establish whether chronic stress can differentially affect faecal output and colon 5-HT concentration in two inbred mouse strains: BALB/c and C57BL/6 which differ in their ability to cope with stress. Adult male BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were restrained for 2 h daily for 10 days. Defecation was monitored during each stress session. Twenty-four hours after the last session of stress, plasma corticosterone concentration was higher than control in both strains, indicative of a physiological effect of chronic stress; however, stress-induced diarrhoea was more persistent in C57BL/6 mice. Basal concentration of colon 5-HT was higher in C57BL/6 mice, and stress elicited an increase in colon 5-HT only in this strain. Finally, naïve BALB/c mice had a higher sensitivity (incidence of diarrhoea) to 5-HT (0.33 mg/kg, i.p.) than C57BL/6 mice. Our results suggest that differential defecation responses to stress may be associated with colon 5-HT concentration, which may in turn reflect the individual sensitivity to 5-HT. In addition, C57BL/6 mice emerge as a relevant model for studying GI alterations induced by chronic stress.

  14. Bacillus subtilis alters the proportion of major membrane phospholipids in response to surfactin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttlová, Petra; Pinkas, Dominik; Bechyňková, Olga; Fišer, Radovan; Svobodová, Jaroslava; Seydlová, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Surfactin, an anionic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, is an antimicrobial that targets the cytoplasmic membrane. Nowadays it appears increasingly apparent that the mechanism of resistance against these types of antibiotics consists of target site modification. This prompted us to investigate whether the surfactin non-producing strain B. subtilis 168 changes its membrane composition in response to a sublethal surfactin concentration. Here we show that the exposure of B. subtilis to surfactin at concentrations of 350 and 650 μg/ml (designated as SF350 and SF650, respectively) leads to a concentration-dependent growth arrest followed by regrowth with an altered growth rate. Analysis of the membrane lipid composition revealed modifications both in the polar head group and the fatty acid region. The presence of either surfactin concentration resulted in a reduction in the content of the major membrane phospholipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and increase in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which was accompanied by elevated levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) in SF350 cultures. The fatty acid analysis of SF350 cells showed a marked increase in non-branched high-melting fatty acids, which lowered the fluidity of the membrane interior measured as the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of DPH. The liposome leakage of carboxyfluorescein-loaded vesicles resembling the phospholipid composition of surfactin-adapted cells showed that the susceptibility to surfactin-induced leakage is strongly reduced when the PG/PE ratio decreases and/or PA is included in the target bilayer. We concluded that the modifications of the phospholipid content of B. subtilis cells might provide a self-tolerance of the membrane active surfactin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The upright posture improves plantar stepping and alters responses to serotonergic drugs in spinal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławińska, Urszula; Majczyński, Henryk; Dai, Yue; Jordan, Larry M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury have employed robotic means of positioning rats above a treadmill such that the animals are held in an upright posture and engage in bipedal locomotor activity. However, the impact of the upright posture alone, which alters hindlimb loading, an important variable in locomotor control, has not been examined. Here we compared the locomotor capabilities of chronic spinal rats when placed in the horizontal and upright postures. Hindlimb locomotor movements induced by exteroceptive stimulation (tail pinching) were monitored with video and EMG recordings. We found that the upright posture alone significantly improved plantar stepping. Locomotor trials using anaesthesia of the paws and air stepping demonstrated that the cutaneous receptors of the paws are responsible for the improved plantar stepping observed when the animals are placed in the upright posture. We also tested the effectiveness of serotonergic drugs that facilitate locomotor activity in spinal rats in both the horizontal and upright postures. Quipazine and (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) improved locomotion in the horizontal posture but in the upright posture either interfered with or had no effect on plantar walking. Combined treatment with quipazine and 8-OH-DPAT at lower doses dramatically improved locomotor activity in both postures and mitigated the need to activate the locomotor CPG with exteroceptive stimulation. Our results suggest that afferent input from the paw facilitates the spinal CPG for locomotion. These potent effects of afferent input from the paw should be taken into account when interpreting the results obtained with rats in an upright posture and when designing interventions for restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury. PMID:22351637

  16. Altered flexion-relaxation responses exist during asymmetric trunk flexion movements among persons with unilateral lower-limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Brad D; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2014-02-01

    Repetitive exposures to altered gait and movement following lower-limb amputation (LLA) have been suggested to contribute to observed alterations in passive tissue properties and neuromuscular control in/surrounding the lumbar spine. These alterations, in turn, may affect the synergy between passive and active tissues during trunk movements. Eight males with unilateral LLA and eight non-amputation controls completed quasi-static trunk flexion-extension movements in seven distinct conditions of rotation in the transverse plane: 0° (sagittally-symmetric), ±15°, ±30°, and ±45° (sagittally-asymmetric). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the bilateral lumbar erector spinae and lumbar kinematics were simultaneously recorded. Peak lumbar flexion and EMG-off angles were determined, along with the difference ("DIFF") between these two angles and the magnitude of peak normalized EMG activities. Persons with unilateral LLA exhibited altered and asymmetric synergies between active and passive trunk tissues during both sagittally-symmetric and -asymmetric trunk flexion movements. Specifically, decreased and asymmetric passive contributions to trunk movements were compensated with increases in the magnitude and duration of active trunk muscle responses. Such alterations in trunk passive and active neuromuscular responses may result from repetitive exposures to abnormal gait and movement subsequent to LLA, and may increase the risk for LBP in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Key Aging-Associated Alterations in Primary Microglia Response to Beta-Amyloid Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Caldeira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and believed to be driven by the self-aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ peptide into oligomers and fibrils that accumulate as senile plaques. It is widely accepted that microglia-mediated inflammation is a significant contributor to disease pathogenesis; however, different microglia phenotypes were identified along AD progression and excessive Aβ production was shown to dysregulate cell function. As so, the contribution of microglia to AD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we wondered if isolated microglia cultured for 16 days in vitro (DIV would react differentially from the 2 DIV cells upon treatment with 1000 nM Aβ1–42 for 24 h. No changes in cell viability were observed and morphometric alterations associated to microglia activation, such as volume increase and process shortening, were obvious in 2 DIV microglia, but less evident in 16 DIV cells. These cells showed lower phagocytic, migration and autophagic properties after Aβ treatment than the 2 DIV cultured microglia. Reduced phagocytosis may derive from increased CD33 expression, reduced triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2 and milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFG-E8 levels, which were mainly observed in 16 DIV cells. Activation of inflammatory mediators, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as increased expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4 and fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1 cell surface receptors were prominent in 2 DIV microglia, while elevation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 was marked in 16 DIV cells. Increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal and upregulated miR-146a expression that were observed in 16 DIV cells showed to increase by Aβ in 2 DIV microglia. Additionally, Aβ downregulated miR-155 and miR-124, and reduced the CD11b+ subpopulation in 2 DIV microglia, while

  18. Somatic copy number alterations predict response to platinum therapy in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despierre, Evelyn; Moisse, Matthieu; Yesilyurt, Betül; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Ioana; Mahner, Sven; Castillo-Tong, Dan Cacsire; Zeillinger, Robert; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Leunen, Karin; Amant, Frédéric; Moerman, Philippe; Lambrechts, Diether; Vergote, Ignace

    2014-12-01

    Platinum resistance remains an obstacle in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The goal of this study was to profile EOCs for somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) as predictive markers of platinum response. SCNAs were assessed in a discovery (n=86) and validation cohort (n=115) of high risk stage I or stage II-IV EOCs using high-resolution SNP arrays. ASCAT and GISTIC identified all significantly overrepresented amplified or deleted chromosomal regions. Cox regression and univariate analysis assessed which SCNAs correlated with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), platinum-free interval (PFI) and platinum response. Relevant SCNAs were also assessed in a pooled analysis involving both cohorts and published SCNA data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n=227). We identified 53 regions to be significantly overrepresented in EOC. Of these, 6 were associated with OS, PFS or PFI in the discovery cohort at P<0.05. In the validation cohort, amplifications of chromosomal region 14q32.33, which contains AKT1 as a potential driver gene, also correlated with OS (OR=1.670; P=0.018). In a pooled analysis of 428 tumors, involving the discovery, validation and TCGA cohorts, 14q32.33 amplifications significantly reduced OS, PFS and PFI (HR=2.69, P=1.7×10(-4); HR=1.82, P=1.9×10(-2) and HR=1.80, P=2.2×10(-2) respectively). Moreover, AKT1 mRNA expression correlated with the number of chromosomal copies of the 14q32.33 region (P=2.8×10(-11);R(2)=0.26). We established that amplifications in 14q32.33 were associated with reduced OS, PFS, PFI and platinum resistance in three independent cohorts, suggesting that AKT1 amplifications act as a potentially predictive marker for EOC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic alterations in quadruple malignancies of a patient with multiple sclerosis: their role in malignancy development and response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Zorica; Tanic, Nikola; Bankovic, Jasna; Stankovic, Tijana; Buta, Marko; Lavrnic, Dragana; Milovanovic, Zorka; Pupic, Gordana; Stojkovic, Sonja; Milinkovic, Vedrana; Ito, Yasuhiro; Dzodic, Radan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple cancers represent 2.42% of all human cancers and are mainly double or triple cancers. Many possible causes of multiple malignancies have been reported such as genetic alterations, exposure to anti-cancer chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy and reduced immunologic response. We report a female patient with multiple sclerosis and quadruple cancers of different embryological origin. Patient was diagnosed with stage III (T3, N1a, MO) medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), multicentric micropapillary thyroid carcinoma, scapular and lumbar melanomas (Clark II, Breslow II), and lobular invasive breast carcinoma (T1a, NO, MO). All tumors present in our patient except micropapillary thyroid carcinomas were investigated for gene alterations known to have a key role in cancer promotion and progression. Tumor samples were screened for the p16 alterations (loss of heterozygosity and homozygous deletions), loss of heterozygosity of PTEN, p53 alterations (mutational status and loss of heterozygosity) and mutational status of RET, HRAS and KRAS. Each type of tumor investigated had specific pattern of analyzed genetic alterations. The most prominent genetic changes were mutual alterations in PTEN and p53 tumor suppressors present in breast cancer and two melanomas. These co-alterations could be crucial for promoting development of multiple malignancies. Moreover the insertion in 4(th) codon of HRAS gene was common for all tumor types investigated. It represents frameshift mutation introducing stop codon at position 5 which prevents synthesis of a full-length protein. Since the inactivated RAS enhances sensitivity to tamoxifen and radiotherapy this genetic alteration could be considered as a good prognostic factor for this patient.

  20. Acrolein inhalation alters myocardial synchrony and performance at and below exposure concentrations that cause ventilatory responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrolein is an irritating aldehyde generated during combustion of organic compounds. Altered autonomic activity has been documented following acrolein inhalation, possibly impacting myocardial synchrony and function. Given the ubiquitous nature of acrolein in the environment, we ...

  1. Flowers that threaten Funza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, S

    1993-01-01

    Water shortages have resulted from agricultural development in a rural area outside Bogota, Colombia. These shortages have increased women's work load and caused problems in managing households because the water must be boiled before ingestion. In the community of Funza, women must obtain clean water in buckets at night from the main valve, which has insufficient water pressure and a slow stream. Some barrios collect water on a weekly basis. The local restaurant in town obtains water once a week from a tanker; the town is lucky to receive water three times a week. Men assume that women will take care of the problem. The mayor says that the piped water from Bogota will soon be connected and that each barrio will have its own valve. Women are concerned that the supply, even with new valves, will be limited and mixed with dirty lagoon water. Experts are saying that the water shortage and quality problems that began seven years ago will lead to rationing within three to six years. The flower companies, that came to the area 22 years age, are blamed for the water problems. People say that the flower companies have piped clean water from the area's supply in the San Patricia and that underground sources of water have been used up as well. The industry provides jobs and income, which have improved the standard of living, but there is little consideration given to the water supply. The community shifted water sources to the lagoon at a time when the water was being contaminated by sewage and pesticides and chemicals from the flower companies.

  2. Alterations in DNA Damage Response and Repair Genes as Potential Marker of Clinical Benefit From PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade in Advanced Urothelial Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Min Yuen; Seier, Kenneth; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Regazzi, Ashley M; Kania, Brooke E; Moran, Meredith M; Cipolla, Catharine K; Bluth, Mark J; Chaim, Joshua; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Snyder, Alexandra; Carlo, Maria I; Solit, David B; Berger, Michael F; Funt, Samuel; Wolchok, Jedd D; Iyer, Gopa; Bajorin, Dean F; Callahan, Margaret K; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2018-02-28

    Purpose Alterations in DNA damage response and repair (DDR) genes are associated with increased mutation load and improved clinical outcomes in platinum-treated metastatic urothelial carcinoma. We examined the relationship between DDR alterations and response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. Methods Detailed demographic, treatment response, and long-term outcome data were collected on patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma treated with atezolizumab or nivolumab who had targeted exon sequencing performed on pre-immunotherapy tumor specimens. Presence of DDR alterations was correlated with best objective response per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and progression-free and overall survival. Results Sixty patients with urothelial cancer enrolled in prospective trials of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies met inclusion criteria. Any DDR and known or likely deleterious DDR mutations were identified in 28 (47%) and 15 (25%) patients, respectively. The presence of any DDR alteration was associated with a higher response rate (67.9% v 18.8%; P DDR alterations (80%) compared with DDR alterations of unknown significance (54%) and in those whose tumors were wild-type for DDR genes (19%; P DDR alterations also were associated with longer progression-free and overall survival. Conclusion DDR alterations are independently associated with response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. These observations warrant additional study, including prospective validation and exploration of the interaction between tumor DDR alteration and other tumor/host biomarkers of immunotherapy response.

  3. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  4. Viral miRNAs Alter Host Cell miRNA Profiles and Modulate Innate Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsar R. Naqvi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of the members of herpesvirus family in oral inflammatory diseases is increasingly acknowledged suggesting their likely role as an etiological factor. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In our recent miRNA profiling of healthy and diseased human tooth pulps, elevated expression of human herpesvirus encoded viral microRNAs (v-miRs were identified. Based on the fold induction and significance values, we selected three v-miRs namely miR-K12-3-3p [Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus (KSHV], miR-H1 [herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1], and miR-UL-70-3p [human cytomegalovirus (HCMV] to further examine their impact on host cellular functions. We examined their impact on cellular miRNA profiles of primary human oral keratinocytes (HOK. Our results show differential expression of several host miRNAs in v-miR-transfected HOK. High levels of v-miRs were detected in exosomes derived from v-miR transfected HOK as well as the KSHV-infected cell lines. We show that HOK-derived exosomes release their contents into macrophages (Mφ and alter expression of endogenous miRNAs. Concurrent expression analysis of precursor (pre-miRNA and mature miRNA suggest transcriptional or posttranscriptional impact of v-miRs on the cellular miRNAs. Employing bioinformatics, we predicted several pathways targeted by deregulated cellular miRNAs that include cytoskeletal organization, endocytosis, and cellular signaling. We validated three novel targets of miR-K12-3-3p and miR-H1 that are involved in endocytic and intracellular trafficking pathways. To evaluate the functional consequence of this regulation, we performed phagocytic uptake of labeled bacteria and noticed significant attenuation in miR-H1 and miR-K12-3-3p but not miR-UL70-3p transfected primary human Mφ. Multiple cytokine analysis of E. coli challenged Mφ revealed marked reduction of secreted cytokine levels with important roles in innate and adaptive immune responses suggesting a role of v-miRs in

  5. Re-examine tumor-induced alterations in hemodynamic responses of BOLD fMRI. Implications in presurgical brain mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liya; Ali, Shazia; Fa, Tianning; Mao, Hui; Dandan, Chen; Olson, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI is used for presurgical functional mapping of brain tumor patients. Abnormal tumor blood supply may affect hemodynamic responses and BOLD fMRI signals. Purpose: To perform a multivariate and quantitative investigation of the effect of brain tumors on the hemodynamic responses and its impact on BOLD MRI signal time course, data analysis in order to better understand tumor-induced alterations in hemodynamic responses, and accurately mapping cortical regions in brain tumor patients. Material and Methods: BOLD fMRI data from 42 glioma patients who underwent presurgical mapping of the primary motor cortex (PMC) with a block designed finger tapping paradigm were analyzed, retrospectively. Cases were divided into high grade (n = 24) and low grade (n = 18) groups based on pathology. The tumor volume and distance to the activated PMCs were measured. BOLD signal time courses from selected regions of interest (ROIs) in the PMCs of tumor affected and contralateral unaffected hemispheres were obtained from each patient. Tumor-induced changes of BOLD signal intensity and time to peak (TTP) of BOLD signal time courses were analyzed statistically. Results: The BOLD signal intensity and TTP in the tumor-affected PMCs are altered when compared to that of the unaffected hemisphere. The average BOLD signal level is statistically significant lower in the affected PMCs. The average TTP in the affected PMCs is shorter in the high grade group, but longer in the low grade tumor group compared to the contralateral unaffected hemisphere. Degrees of alterations in BOLD signal time courses are related to both the distance to activated foci and tumor volume with the stronger effect in tumor distance to activated PMC. Conclusion: Alterations in BOLD signal time courses are strongly related to the tumor grade, the tumor volume, and the distance to the activated foci. Such alterations may impair accurate mapping of tumor-affected functional

  6. Low-intensity focused ultrasound alters the latency and spatial patterns of sensory-evoked cortical responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jonathan A N; Gumenchuk, Iryna

    2018-02-13

    The use of transcranial, low intensity focused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging neuromodulation technology that shows promise for both therapeutic and research applications. Among many, one of the most exciting applications is the use of FUS to rehabilitate or augment human sensory capabilities. While there is compelling empirical evidence demonstrating this capability, basic questions regarding the spatiotemporal extent of the modulatory effects remain. Our objective was to assess the basic, yet often overlooked hypothesis that FUS in fact alters sensory-evoked neural activity within the region of the cerebral cortex at the beam's focus. To address this knowledge gap, we developed an approach to optically interrogate patterns of neural activity in the cortex directly at the acoustic focus, in vivo. Implementing simultaneous wide-field optical imaging and FUS stimulation in mice, our experiments probed somatosensory-evoked electrical activity through the use of voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs) and, in transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6f, monitored associated Ca 2+ responses. Our results demonstrate that low-intensity FUS alters both the kinetics and spatial patterns of neural activity in primary somatosensory cortex at the acoustic focus. When preceded by 1 s of pulsed ultrasound at intensities below 1 W cm -2 (I sppa ), the onset of sensory-evoked cortical responses occurred 3.0  ±  0.7 ms earlier and altered the surface spatial morphology of Ca 2+ responses. These findings support the heretofore unconfirmed assumption that FUS-induced sensory modulation reflects, at least in part, altered reactivity in primary sensory cortex at the site of sonication. The findings are significant given the interest in using FUS to target and alter spatial aspects of sensory receptive fields on the cerebral cortex.

  7. EMF1, a novel protein involved in the control of shoot architecture and flowering in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, D.; Chen, L.; Moon, Y.-H.

    2001-01-01

    shares common motifs that include nuclear localization signals, P-loop, and LXXLL elements. Alteration of EMF1 expression in transgenic plants caused progressive changes in flowering time, shoot determinacy, and inflorescence architecture. EMF1 and its related sequence may belong to a new class......Shoot architecture and flowering time in angiosperms depend on the balanced expression of a large number of flowering time and flower meristem identity genes. Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis EMBRYONIC FLOWER (EMF) genes cause Arabidopsis to eliminate rosette shoot growth and transform...... the apical meristem from indeterminate to determinate growth by producing a single terminal flower on all nodes. We have identified the EMF1 gene by positional cloning. The deduced polypeptide has no homology with any protein of known function except a putative protein in the rice genome with which EMF1...

  8. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community

    OpenAIRE

    CaraDonna, Paul J.; Iler, Amy M.; Inouye, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal timing of biological events, phenology, is one of the strongest bioindicators of climate change. Our general understanding of phenological responses to climate change is based almost solely on the first day on which an event is observed, limiting our understanding of how ecological communities may be responding as a whole. Using a unique long-term record of flowering phenology from Colorado, we find that the number of species changing their flowering times likely has been underestima...

  9. Evidence for an evolutionarily conserved interaction between cell wall biosynthesis and flowering in maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Karen J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors that affect flowering vary among different plant species, and in the grasses in particular the exact mechanism behind this transition is not fully understood. The brown midrib (bm mutants of maize (Zea mays L., which have altered cell wall composition, have different flowering dynamics compared to their wild-type counterparts. This is indicative of a link between cell wall biogenesis and flowering. In order to test whether this relationship also exists in other grasses, the flowering dynamics in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench were investigated. Sorghum is evolutionarily closely related to maize, and a set of brown midrib (bmr mutants similar to the maize bm mutants is available, making sorghum a suitable choice for study in this context. Results We compared the flowering time (time to half-bloom of several different bmr sorghum lines and their wild-type counterparts. This revealed that the relationship between cell wall composition and flowering was conserved in sorghum. Specifically, the mutant bmr7 flowered significantly earlier than the corresponding wild-type control, whereas the mutants bmr2, bmr4, bmr6, bmr12, and bmr19 flowered later than their wild-type controls. Conclusion The change in flowering dynamics in several of the brown midrib sorghum lines provides evidence for an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that links cell wall biosynthesis to flowering dynamics. The availability of the sorghum bmr mutants expands the germplasm available to investigate this relationship in further detail.

  10. Testing the influence of gravity on flower symmetry in five Saxifraga species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, Sebastian; Bloemer, Judith; Lunau, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Flower symmetry is considered a species-specific trait and is categorized in asymmetry, actinomorphic symmetry, bisymmetry and zygomorphic symmetry. Here we report on the intra-individual variation of flower symmetry in the genus Saxifraga and the influence of light, gravity and intrinsic factors on the development of flower symmetry. We tested five species-Saxifraga cuneifolia, Saxifraga imparilis, Saxifraga rotundifolia, Saxifraga stolonifera and Saxifraga umbrosa-concerning six flower parameters-angles between petals, petal length, petal pigmentation, angular position of carpels, movement of stamens and (only for S. imparilis and S. stolonifera) the length of the two lower elongated petals in regard to their position towards the stem. Specimens of all species were tested on a vertical clinostat as a gravity compensator, on a horizontal clinostat as a light incidence compensator and on a stationary control. The results show that the angle of incident light has no apparent impact on flower symmetry, whereas gravity affects the angular position of petals in S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa and the petal colouration in S. rotundifolia. In S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa, the absence of directional gravity resulted in the development of actinomorphic flowers, whereas the corresponding control flowers were zygomorphic. The development of flowers in S. rotundifolia was not altered by this treatment. The length of the two elongated petals in S. stolonifera and S. imparilis was not affected by gravity, but rather was determined by position of the flower within the inflorescence and resulted in asymmetrical flowers.

  11. Alteration in adenylate cyclase response to aminergic stimulation following neonatal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronister, R.B.; Palmer, G.C.; Gerbrandt, L.

    1980-01-01

    X-irradiation of the rat neonatal hippocampus produces severe alterations in the architectonic features of the mature hippocampus. The most prominent alteration is a marked depletion of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, with a subsequent realignment of CA 4 cells. The present data also show that norepinephrine (NE), dopamine and histamine stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity is severely attenuated in the hippocampi of irradiated animals. This failure suggests that the NE fibers of irradiated subjects, although normal in content of NE, are not functional in some of their NE-effector actions

  12. Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Homeostasis Is Responsible for the Alleviation of Senescence of Postharvest Daylily Flower via Increasing Antioxidant Capacity and Maintained Energy Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Xu, Sheng; Hu, Huali; Pan, Jincheng; Li, Pengxia; Shen, Wenbiao

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data concerning the role of endogenous H 2 S in prolonging the postharvest of vegetables and fruits. Using a fluorescence microscope with a specific probe, we discovered that, during the senescence of postharvest daylily flower, endogenous H 2 S homeostasis was impaired. The activities of two important synthetic enzymes of H 2 S, l- and d-cysteine desulfhydrase, exhibited decreasing tendencies. However, NaHS (a H 2 S donor) not only blocked the decreased H 2 S production but also extended the postharvest life of daylilies. These beneficial roles were verified by the alleviation of lipid peroxidation and the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes. Meanwhile, the energy status was sustained, and the respiration rate was decreased. In contrast to NaHS, the addition of an inhibitor of H 2 S synthesis alone aggravated lipid peroxidation and lowered energy charge. Together, the present study implies that endogenous H 2 S alleviates senescence of postharvest daylilies via increasing antioxidant capacity and maintained energy status.

  13. 3-Dimensional Necklace Flower Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnas, David; Casanova, Daniel; Tresaco, Eva; Mortari, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    A new approach in satellite constellation design is presented in this paper, taking as a base the 3D Lattice Flower Constellation Theory and introducing the necklace problem in its formulation. This creates a further generalization of the Flower Constellation Theory, increasing the possibilities of constellation distribution while maintaining the characteristic symmetries of the original theory in the design.

  14. Teaching Flowers: A Photo Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Federico

    2017-01-01

    "Teaching Flowers" reflects on humanity's deep connections to horticulture by gathering varied thoughts from seminal writers in the field. In addition, this visual article draws attention to labor issues within the U.S. floral industry by documenting the author's exploration of flowers as social sculpture in New York City.

  15. Flowers free from the environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, van der L.

    1958-01-01

    At the jubilee of Professor Lam it seems suitable to contribute a paper on the flower as a functional unit, though it is in the form of a kind of book-review. Lam himself wrote on the more fundamental connections between flowering and lower plants and on the basal morphological elements of the

  16. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  17. Phenological mismatch with abiotic conditions implications for flowering in Arctic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Helen C; Høye, Toke T; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Forchhammer, Mads C

    2015-03-01

    indicate that shifting the timing of flowering affects the temperature experienced during flower development and flowering beyond that imposed by interannual variations in climate. We also found that phenological timing may affect flower abundance, and hence, fitness. These findings suggest that plant population responses to future climate change will be shaped not only by extrinsic climate forcing, but also by species' phenological responses.

  18. Hemodynamic Response Alterations in Sensorimotor Areas as a Function of Barbell Load Levels during Squatting: An fNIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouven Kenville

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS serves as a promising tool to examine hemodynamic response alterations in a sports-scientific context. The present study aimed to investigate how brain activity within the human motor system changes its processing in dependency of different barbell load conditions while executing a barbell squat (BS. Additionally, we used different fNIRS probe configurations to identify and subsequently eliminate potential exercise induced systemic confounders such as increases in extracerebral blood flow. Ten healthy, male participants were enrolled in a crossover design. Participants performed a BS task with random barbell load levels (0% 1RM (1 repetition maximum, 20% 1RM and 40% 1RM for a BS during fNIRS recordings. Initially, we observed global hemodynamic response alterations within and outside the human motor system. However, short distance channel regression of fNIRS data revealed a focalized hemodynamic response alteration within bilateral superior parietal lobe (SPL for oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2 and not for deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb when comparing different load levels. These findings indicate that the previously observed load/force-brain relationship for simple and isolated movements is also present in complex multi-joint movements such as the BS. Altogether, our results show the feasibility of fNIRS to investigate brain processing in a sports-related context. We suggest for future studies to incorporate short distance channel regression of fNIRS data to reduce the likelihood of false-positive hemodynamic response alterations during complex whole movements.

  19. Response of the photosynthetic system to altered protein composition and changes in environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, T.

    2014-01-01

    The photosynthetic thylakoid membrane has a hierarchically ordered structure containing pigment-protein complexes that capture solar radiation and convert it into chemical energy. Its highly dynamic structure is capable to continuously respond to the altered environmental conditions, e.g., light

  20. Prenatal exposure to urban air nanoparticles in mice causes altered neuronal differentiation and depression-like responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Davis

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that excessive exposure to traffic-derived air pollution during pregnancy may increase the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental alterations that underlie a broad array of neuropsychiatric disorders. We present a mouse model for prenatal exposure to urban freeway nanoparticulate matter (nPM. In prior studies, we developed a model for adult rodent exposure to re-aerosolized urban nPM which caused inflammatory brain responses with altered neuronal glutamatergic functions. nPMs are collected continuously for one month from a local freeway and stored as an aqueous suspension, prior to re-aerosolization for exposure of mice under controlled dose and duration. This paradigm was used for a pilot study of prenatal nPM impact on neonatal neurons and adult behaviors. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to re-aerosolized nPM (350 µg/m(3 or control filtered ambient air for 10 weeks (3×5 hour exposures per week, encompassing gestation and oocyte maturation prior to mating. Prenatal nPM did not alter litter size, pup weight, or postnatal growth. Neonatal cerebral cortex neurons at 24 hours in vitro showed impaired differentiation, with 50% reduction of stage 3 neurons with long neurites and correspondingly more undifferentiated neurons at Stages 0 and 1. Neuron number after 24 hours of culture was not altered by prenatal nPM exposure. Addition of exogenous nPM (2 µg/ml to the cultures impaired pyramidal neuron Stage 3 differentiation by 60%. Adult males showed increased depression-like responses in the tail-suspension test, but not anxiety-related behaviors. These pilot data suggest that prenatal exposure to nPM can alter neuronal differentiation with gender-specific behavioral sequelae that may be relevant to human prenatal exposure to urban vehicular aerosols.

  1. Folivory versus florivory—adaptiveness of flower feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeili, Babak; Müller, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of resources and defence is heterogeneous within plants. Specialist insects may prefer tissue with high concentrations of the plant’s characteristic defence compounds. Most herbivorous butterfly or sawfly larvae are considered to be folivores, so also the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a specialist herbivore on Brassicaceae. We investigated which tissue larvae choose to feed upon and how they perform on flowers, young or old leaves of Sinapis alba. Furthermore, constitutive and inducible levels of glucosinolates and myrosinases were investigated and nutrients analysed. Larvae moved from leaves to flowers for feeding from the third larval instar on. Flowers were not actively chosen, but larvae moved upwards on the plant, regardless of how plants were orientated (upright or inverted). Flower-feeding larvae were heavier and developed faster than larvae feeding on young leaves, and adults laid more eggs. Old leaves as food source resulted in the lowest growth rates. Flowers contained three and ten times higher myrosinase activities than young and old leaves, respectively, whereas glucosinolate concentrations and nitrogen levels of flowers and young leaves were comparable. Glucosinolate concentrations of old leaves were very low. Changes in tissue chemistry caused by larval feeding were tissue specific. Defence levels did not change in flowers and old leaves after A. rosae feeding in contrast to young leaves. The high insect performance on flowers cannot be explained by differences in chemical defence. Instead, the lack of mechanical defence (trichomes) is probably responsible. Movement to the flowers and folivory is overall highly adaptive for this sawfly species.

  2. Knocking down expression of the auxin-amidohydrolase IAR3 alters defense responses in Solanaceae family plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippolito, Sebastian; Vankova, Radomira; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Casalongué, Claudia A; Fiol, Diego F

    2016-12-01

    In plants, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amido hydrolases (AHs) participate in auxin homeostasis by releasing free IAA from IAA-amino acid conjugates. We investigated the role of IAR3, a member of the IAA amido hydrolase family, in the response of Solanaceous plants challenged by biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens. By means of genome inspection and phylogenic analysis we firstly identified IAA-AH sequences and putative IAR3 orthologs in Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato and potato. We evaluated the involvement of IAR3 genes in defense responses by using virus-induced gene silencing. We observed that N. benthamiana and tomato plants with knocked-down expression of IAR3 genes contained lower levels of free IAA and presented altered responses to pathogen attack, including enhanced basal defenses and higher tolerance to infection in susceptible plants. We showed that IAR3 genes are consistently up-regulated in N. benthamiana and tomato upon inoculation with Phytophthora infestans and Cladosporium fulvum respectively. However, IAR3 expression decreased significantly when hypersensitive response was triggered in transgenic tomato plants coexpressing the Cf-4 resistance gene and the avirulence factor Avr4. Altogether, our results indicate that changes in IAR3 expression lead to alteration in auxin homeostasis that ultimately affects plant defense responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alteration of cellular immune responses in the seastar Asterias rubens following dietary exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coteur, G.; Gillan, D.; Pernet, Ph.; Dubois, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Several parameters of cellular immunity in seastars fed Cd-contaminated mussels were analyzed. The accumulation of cadmium in the seastars did not alter the concentration of amoebocytes in the coelomic fluid. On the contrary, the immune cells showed a reduced phagocytic activity and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. These effects may lead to an inability of the seastars to cope with bacterial infections and to oxidative damages to self tissue that could threaten the survival of the animals

  4. Altered BOLD response during inhibitory and error processing in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wierenga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error processing is altered in AN individuals is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, ill adolescent AN females (n = 11 and matched healthy comparison adolescents (CA with no history of an eating disorder (n = 12 performed a validated stop signal task (SST during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore differences in error and inhibitory processing. The groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables or on SST performance. During inhibitory processing, a significant group x difficulty (hard, easy interaction was detected in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during hard trials. During error processing, a significant group x accuracy (successful inhibit, failed inhibit interaction in bilateral MFG and right PCC was observed, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during error (i.e., failed inhibit trials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Consistent with our prior findings in recovered AN, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, showed less inhibition-related activation within the dorsal ACC, MFG and PCC as inhibitory demand increased. In addition, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, also showed reduced activation to errors in the bilateral MFG and left PCC. These findings suggest that altered prefrontal and cingulate activation during

  5. Evaluation of gidB alterations responsible for streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitender S; Gupta, Yash; Nair, Deepthi; Manzoor, Nikhat; Rautela, Rajinder S; Rai, Arvind; Katoch, Vishwa M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate gidB alterations for possible impact on the cumulative mechanism underlying the acquisition of high-level streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Fifty-two isolates with high streptomycin resistance and 23 isolates with low streptomycin resistance were sequenced for mutational analysis in the rpsL, rrs and gidB region. As the gidB protein has a complex substrate and no activity assay has yet been formulated, mutants of interest were subjected to in silico modelling and were structurally mapped together with active-site amino acid residues for assessment of the relevance to activity of the mutations found. Eight novel sense mutations and four novel mis-sense mutations in gidB were identified. Findings showed that active-site morphology is not only greatly affected by mutants lying in close proximity to the active-site pocket, but also by other mutations altering secondary-structure motifs and having an overall effect on protein structure. We conclude that gidB mutations address many unanswered questions and explain the whole story behind phenotypic streptomycin-resistant strains exhibiting no mutation in rpsL or rrs. They also validate the hypothesis of sequential progression of resistance from low to high due to the existence of gidB alterations in the genetic background. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The structure of flower visitation webs : how morphology and abundance affect interaction patterns between flowers and flower visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stang, Martina

    2007-01-01

    Interaction patterns between plants and flower visitors in a Mediterranean flower visitation web can be explained surprisingly well by the combination of two simple mechanisms. Firstly, the size threshold that the nectar tube depth of flowers puts on the tongue length of potential flower visitors;

  7. Convergent phylogenetic and functional responses to altered fire regimes in mesic savanna grasslands of North America and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrestel, Elisabeth J; Donoghue, Michael J; Smith, Melinda D

    2014-08-01

    The importance of fire in the creation and maintenance of mesic grassland communities is well recognized. Improved understanding of how grasses--the dominant clade in these important ecosystems--will respond to alterations in fire regimes is needed in the face of anthropogenically driven climate and land-use change. Here, we examined how grass communities shift in response to experimentally manipulated fire regimes at multiple levels of community diversity--taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional--in C4-dominanted mesic savanna grassland sites with similar structure and physiognomy, yet disparate biogeographic histories. We found that the grass communities were similar in their phylogenetic response and aspects of their functional response to high fire frequency. Both sites exhibited phylogenetic clustering of highly abundant species in annually burned plots, driven by species of the Andropogoneae, and a narrow range of functional strategies associated with rapid post-fire regeneration in a high-light, nitrogen-limited environment. By examining multiple facets of diversity in a comparative context, we identified convergent phylogenetic and functional responses to altered fire regimes in two mesic savanna grasslands. Our results highlight the importance of a common filtering process associated with fire that is consistent across grasslands of disparate biogeographic histories and taxonomic representation. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. The quest for molecular regulation underlying unisexual flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo eSobral

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the making of a unisexual flower has been a long-standing quest in plant biology. Plants with male and female flowers can be divided mainly into two categories: dioecious and monoecious, and both sexual systems co-exist in nature in ca of 10% of the angiosperms. The establishment of male and female traits has been extensively described in a hermaphroditic flower and requires the interplay of networks, directly and indirectly related to the floral organ identity genes including hormonal regulators, transcription factors, microRNAs, and chromatin-modifying proteins. Recent transcriptomic studies have been uncovering the molecular processes underlying the establishment of unisexual flowers and there are many parallelisms between monoecious, dioecious and hermaphroditic individuals. Here, we review the paper entitled Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber published in 2014 in the Frontiers of Plant Science (volume 5 | Article 599 and discussed it in the context of recent studies with other dioecious and monoecious plants that utilized high-throughput platforms to obtain transcriptomic profiles of male and female unisexual flowers. In some unisexual flowers, the developmental programs that control organ initiation fail and male or female organs do not form, whereas in other species, organ initiation and development occur but they abort or arrest during different species-specific stages of differentiation. Therefore, a direct comparison of the pathways responsible for the establishment of unisexual flowers in different species are likely to reveal conserved modules of gene regulatory hubs involved in stamen or carpel development, as well as differences that reflect the different stages of development in which male and/or female organ arrest or loss-of-function occurs.

  9. Exposure to Silver Nanospheres Leads to Altered Respiratory Mechanics and Delayed Immune Response in an in Vivo Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Botelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we examine the organ level toxicology of both carbon black (CB and silver nanoparticles (AgNP. We aim to determine metal-specific effects to respiratory function, inflammation and potential interactions with lung lining fluid (LLF. C57Bl6/J male mice were intratracheally instilled with saline (control, low (0.05 μg/g or high (0.5 μg/g doses of either AgNP or CB 15 nm nanospheres. Lung histology, cytology, surfactant composition and function, inflammatory gene expression, and pulmonary function were measured at 1, 3, and 7 days post-exposure. Acutely, high dose CB resulted in an inflammatory response, increased neutrophilia and cytokine production, without alteration in surfactant composition or respiratory mechanics. Low dose CB had no effect. Neither low nor high dose AgNPs resulted in an acute inflammatory response, but there was an increase in work of breathing. Three days post-exposure with CB, a persistent neutrophilia was noted. High dose AgNP resulted in an elevated number of macrophages and invasion of lymphocytes. Additionally, AgNP treated mice displayed increased expression of IL1B, IL6, CCL2, and IL10. However, there were no significant changes in respiratory mechanics. At day 7, inflammation had resolved in AgNP-treated mice, but tissue stiffness and resistance were significantly decreased, which was accompanied by an increase in surfactant protein D (SP-D content. These data demonstrate that the presence of metal alters the response of the lung to nanoparticle exposure. AgNP-surfactant interactions may alter respiratory function and result in a delayed immune response, potentially due to modified airway epithelial cell function.

  10. Altered Immune Activation and IL-23 Signaling in Response to Candida albicans in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Bruserud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAutoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1 is a rare, childhood onset disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC is one of the three major disease components and is, to date, mainly explained by the presence of neutralizing auto-antibodies against cytokines [interleukin (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22] from T helper 17 cells, which are critical for the protection against fungal infections. However, patients without current auto-antibodies also present CMC and we, therefore, hypothesized that other immune mechanisms contribute to CMC in APS-1.MethodsWhole blood was stimulated with Candida albicans (C. albicans in a standardized assay, and immune activation was investigated by analyzing 46 secreted immune mediators. Then, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with curdlan, a Dectin-1 agonist and IL-23 inducer, and the IL-23p19 response in monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry.ResultsWe found an altered immune response in APS-1 patients compared with healthy controls. Patients fail to increase the essential ILs, such as IL-2, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23, when stimulating whole blood with C. albicans. A significantly altered IL-23p19 response was detected in patients’ monocytes upon stimulation with curdlan.ConclusionAPS-1 patients have an altered immune response to C. albicans including a dysregulation of IL-23p19 production in monocytes. This probably contributes to the selective susceptibility to CMC found in the majority of patients.

  11. A recurrent regulatory change underlying altered expression and Wnt response of the stickleback armor plates gene EDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brown, Natasha M; Summers, Brian R; Jones, Felicity C; Brady, Shannon D; Kingsley, David M

    2015-01-28

    Armor plate changes in sticklebacks are a classic example of repeated adaptive evolution. Previous studies identified ectodysplasin (EDA) gene as the major locus controlling recurrent plate loss in freshwater fish, though the causative DNA alterations were not known. Here we show that freshwater EDA alleles have cis-acting regulatory changes that reduce expression in developing plates and spines. An identical T → G base pair change is found in EDA enhancers of divergent low-plated fish. Recreation of the T → G change in a marine enhancer strongly reduces expression in posterior armor plates. Bead implantation and cell culture experiments show that Wnt signaling strongly activates the marine EDA enhancer, and the freshwater T → G change reduces Wnt responsiveness. Thus parallel evolution of low-plated sticklebacks has occurred through a shared DNA regulatory change, which reduces the sensitivity of an EDA enhancer to Wnt signaling, and alters expression in developing armor plates while preserving expression in other tissues.

  12. Kiwifruit Flower Odor Perception and Recognition by Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twidle, Andrew M; Mas, Flore; Harper, Aimee R; Horner, Rachael M; Welsh, Taylor J; Suckling, David M

    2015-06-17

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from male and female kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward') flowers were collected by dynamic headspace sampling. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) perception of the flower VOCs was tested using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennogram detection. Honey bees consistently responded to six compounds present in the headspace of female kiwifruit flowers and five compounds in the headspace of male flowers. Analysis of the floral volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and microscale chemical derivatization showed the compounds to be nonanal, 2-phenylethanol, 4-oxoisophorone, (3E,6E)-α-farnesene, (6Z,9Z)-heptadecadiene, and (8Z)-heptadecene. Bees were then trained via olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) to synthetic mixtures of these compounds using the ratios present in each flower type. Honey bees trained to the synthetic mixtures showed a high response to the natural floral extracts, indicating that these may be the key compounds for honey bee perception of kiwifruit flower odor.

  13. Elevated levels of MYB30 in the phloem accelerate flowering in Arabidopsis through the regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyu Liu

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R2R3 MYB-like transcription factor MYB30 is a positive regulator of the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response and of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid signaling. Here, we show that MYB30 expressed under the control of the strong phloem-specific SUC2 promoter accelerates flowering both in long and short days. Early flowering is mediated by elevated expression of flowering locus T (FT, which can be observed in the absence and presence of CONSTANS (CO, the main activator of FT. CO-independent activation by high MYB30 expression results in FT levels that remain below those observed in the wild-type plants, which show an additive CO-dependent activation. In contrast, twin sister of FT (TSF is repressed in plants expressing high levels of MYB30 in the phloem. In transient assays, MYB30 and CO additively increase the activity of a reporter construct driven by a 1 kb FT promoter. Acceleration of flowering by MYB30 does not require the presence of salicylic acid and is independent of FLC. Taken together, increased levels of MYB30, which was reported to be induced in response to the perception of pathogens, can accelerate flowering and MYB30 may thus be a candidate to mediate cross-talk between gene networks involved in biotic stress perception and flowering time.

  14. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica 'Nuccio's Pearl'. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6-8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6-8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality.

  15. Lack of host gut microbiota alters immune responses and intestinal granuloma formation during schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzscheiter, M; Layland, L E; Loffredo-Verde, E; Mair, K; Vogelmann, R; Langer, R; Wagner, H; Prazeres da Costa, C

    2014-02-01

    Fatalities from schistosome infections arise due to granulomatous, immune-mediated responses to eggs that become trapped in host tissues. Schistosome-specific immune responses are characterized by initial T helper type 1 (Th1) responses and our previous studies demonstrated that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88)-deficient mice failed to initiate such responses in vivo. Paradoxically, schistosomal antigens fail to stimulate innate cells to release proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Since Schistosoma mansoni infection is an intestinal disease, we hypothesized that commensal bacteria could act as bystander activators of the intestinal innate immune system to instigate Th1 responses. Using a broad spectrum of orally administered antibiotics and anti-mycotics we analysed schistosome-infected mice that were simultaneously depleted of gut bacteria. After depletion there was significantly less inflammation in the intestine, which was accompanied by decreased intestinal granuloma development. In contrast, liver pathology remained unaltered. In addition, schistosome-specific immune responses were skewed and faecal egg excretion was diminished. This study demonstrates that host microbiota can act as a third partner in instigating helminth-specific immune responses. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  17. Parasitic infection alters the physiological response of a marine gastropod to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, C D; Poulin, R

    2016-09-01

    Increased hydrogen ion concentration and decreased carbonate ion concentration in seawater are the most physiologically relevant consequences of ocean acidification (OA). Changes to either chemical species may increase the metabolic cost of physiological processes in marine organisms, and reduce the energy available for growth, reproduction and survival. Parasitic infection also increases the energetic demands experienced by marine organisms, and may reduce host tolerance to stressors associated with OA. This study assessed the combined metabolic effects of parasitic infection and OA on an intertidal gastropod, Zeacumantus subcarinatus. Oxygen consumption rates and tissue glucose content were recorded in snails infected with one of three trematode parasites, and an uninfected control group, maintained in acidified (7·6 and 7·4 pH) or unmodified (8·1 pH) seawater. Exposure to acidified seawater significantly altered the oxygen consumption rates and tissue glucose content of infected and uninfected snails, and there were clear differences in the magnitude of these changes between snails infected with different species of trematode. These results indicate that the combined effects of OA and parasitic infection significantly alter the energy requirements of Z. subcarinatus, and that the species of the infecting parasite may play an important role in determining the tolerance of marine gastropods to OA.

  18. Cryotherapy Reduces Inflammatory Response Without Altering Muscle Regeneration Process and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling of Rat Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ramos, Gracielle; Pinheiro, Clara Maria; Messa, Sabrina Peviani; Delfino, Gabriel Borges; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Salvini, Tania de Fátima; Durigan, Joao Luiz Quagliotti

    2016-01-04

    The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury. It was observed that the intermittent application of cryotherapy (three 30-minute sessions, every 2 h) in the first 48 h post-injury decreased inflammatory processes (mRNA levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β and MMP-9 and macrophage percentage). Cryotherapy did not alter regeneration markers such as injury area, desmin and Myod expression. Despite regulating Collagen I and III and their growth factors, cryotherapy did not alter collagen deposition. In summary, clinical-like cryotherapy reduces the inflammatory process through the decrease of macrophage infiltration and the accumulation of the inflammatory key markers without influencing muscle injury area and ECM remodeling.

  19. Proteomic Alterations in Response to Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2α in Normoxic Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Flora; Pezone, Lucia; Avitabile, Marianna; Persano, Luca; Vitale, Monica; Sassi, Mauro; Bresolin, Silvia; Serafin, Valentina; Zambrano, Nicola; Scaloni, Andrea; Basso, Giuseppe; Iolascon, Achille; Capasso, Mario

    2016-10-07

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α protein expression in solid tumors promotes stem-like phenotype in cancer stem cells and increases tumorigenic potential in nonstem cancer cells. Recently, we have shown that HIF-1/2α gene expression is correlated to neuroblastoma (NB) poor survival and to undifferentiated tumor state; HIF-2α protein was demonstrated to enhance aggressive features of the disease. In this study, we used proteomic experiments on NB cells to investigate HIF-2α downstream-regulated proteins or pathways with the aim of providing novel therapeutic targets or bad prognosis markers. We verified that pathways mostly altered by HIF-2α perturbation are involved in tumor progression. In particular, HIF-2α induces alteration of central metabolism and splicing control pathways. Simultaneously, WNT, RAS/MAPK, and PI3K/AKT activity or expression are affected and may impact the sensitivity and the intensity of HIF-2α-regulated pathways. Furthermore, genes coding the identified HIF-2α-related markers built a signature able to stratify NB patients with unfavorable outcome. Taken together, our findings underline the relevance of dissecting the downstream effects of a poor survival marker in developing targeted therapy and improving patient stratification. Future prospective studies are needed to translate the use of these data into the clinical practice.

  20. microRNAs in circulation are altered in response to influenza A virus infection in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Tambyah

    Full Text Available Changes in microRNA expression have been detected in vitro in influenza infected cells, yet little is known about them in patients. microRNA profiling was performed on whole blood of H1N1 patients to identify signature microRNAs to better understand the gene regulation involved and possibly improve diagnosis. Total RNA extracted from blood samples of influenza infected patients and healthy controls were subjected to microRNA microarray. Expression profiles of circulating microRNAs were altered and distinctly different in influenza patients. Expression of highly dysregulated microRNAs were validated using quantitative PCR. Fourteen highly dysregulated miRNAs, identified from the blood of influenza infected patients, provided a clear distinction between infected and healthy individuals. Of these, expression of miR-1260, -26a, -335*, -576-3p, -628-3p and -664 were consistently dysregulated in both whole blood and H1N1 infected cells. Potential host and viral gene targets were identified and the impact of microRNA dysregulation on the host proteome was studied. Consequences of their altered expression were extrapolated to changes in the host proteome expression. These highly dysregulated microRNAs may have crucial roles in influenza pathogenesis and are potential biomarkers of influenza.

  1. Altered functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to nonpainful sensory stimulation in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Solà, Marina; Pujol, Jesus; Wager, Tor D; Garcia-Fontanals, Alba; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Garcia-Blanco, Susana; Poca-Dias, Violant; Harrison, Ben J; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Monfort, Jordi; Garcia-Fructuoso, Ferran; Deus, Joan

    2014-11-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by chronic pain and enhanced responses to acute noxious events. However, the sensory systems affected in FM may extend beyond pain itself, as FM patients show reduced tolerance to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation. Characterizing the neural substrates of multisensory hypersensitivity in FM may thus provide important clues about the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. The aim of this study was to characterize brain responses to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation in FM patients and their relationship to subjective sensory sensitivity and clinical pain severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess brain response to auditory, visual, and tactile motor stimulation in 35 women with FM and 25 matched controls. Correlation and mediation analyses were performed to establish the relationship between brain responses and 3 types of outcomes: subjective hypersensitivity to daily sensory stimulation, spontaneous pain, and functional disability. Patients reported increased subjective sensitivity (increased unpleasantness) in response to multisensory stimulation in daily life. Functional MRI revealed that patients showed reduced task-evoked activation in primary/secondary visual and auditory areas and augmented responses in the insula and anterior lingual gyrus. Reduced responses in visual and auditory areas were correlated with subjective sensory hypersensitivity and clinical severity measures. FM patients showed strong attenuation of brain responses to nonpainful events in early sensory cortices, accompanied by an amplified response at later stages of sensory integration in the insula. These abnormalities are associated with core FM symptoms, suggesting that they may be part of the pathophysiology of the disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Brain reward system's alterations in response to food and monetary stimuli in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Vilar-López, Raquel; Navas, Juan F; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    The brain's reward system is crucial to understand obesity in modern society, as increased neural responsivity to reward can fuel the unhealthy food choices that are driving the growing obesity epidemic. Brain's reward system responsivity to food and monetary rewards in individuals with excessive weight (overweight and obese) versus normal weight controls, along with the relationship between this responsivity and body mass index (BMI) were tested. The sample comprised 21 adults with obesity (BMI > 30), 21 with overweight (BMI between 25 and 30), and 39 with normal weight (BMI food (Willing to Pay) and monetary rewards (Monetary Incentive Delay). Neural activations within the brain reward system were compared across the three groups. Curve fit analyses were conducted to establish the association between BMI and brain reward system's response. Individuals with obesity had greater food-evoked responsivity in the dorsal and ventral striatum compared with overweight and normal weight groups. There was an inverted U-shape association between BMI and monetary-evoked responsivity in the ventral striatum, medial frontal cortex, and amygdala; that is, individuals with BMIs between 27 and 32 had greater responsivity to monetary stimuli. Obesity is associated with greater food-evoked responsivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum, and overweight is associated with greater monetary-evoked responsivity in the ventral striatum, the amygdala, and the medial frontal cortex. Findings suggest differential reactivity of the brain's reward system to food versus monetary rewards in obesity and overweight. Hum Brain Mapp 38:666-677, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Electrophysiological response during auditory gap detection: Biomarker for sensory and communication alterations in autism spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Stavropoulos, Katherine K M; McPartland, James C; Wallace, Mark T; Stone, Wendy L; Key, Alexandra P

    2018-01-01

    Sensory symptoms, including auditory processing deficits, are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Processing of temporal aspects of auditory input is understudied; yet, deficits in this domain could contribute to language-related impairments. In children with ASD and well-matched controls, this study examined electrophysiological response to silent gaps in auditory stimuli. Results revealed attenuated amplitude of the P2 event-related potential (ERP) component in ASD. The P2 amplitude reduction was also associated with sensory, language, and diagnostic features. These results suggest that neural response during auditory gap detection is a promising ASD biomarker that could be useful for stratifying subgroups and evaluating treatment response.

  4. Serotonin 2A Receptor Signaling Underlies LSD-induced Alteration of the Neural Response to Dynamic Changes in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Frederick S; Preller, Katrin H; Herdener, Marcus; Janata, Petr; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2017-09-28

    Classic psychedelic drugs (serotonin 2A, or 5HT2A, receptor agonists) have notable effects on music listening. In the current report, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was collected during music listening in 25 healthy adults after administration of placebo, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and LSD pretreated with the 5HT2A antagonist ketanserin, to investigate the role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in the neural response to the time-varying tonal structure of music. Tonality-tracking analysis of BOLD data revealed that 5HT2A receptor signaling alters the neural response to music in brain regions supporting basic and higher-level musical and auditory processing, and areas involved in memory, emotion, and self-referential processing. This suggests a critical role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in supporting the neural tracking of dynamic tonal structure in music, as well as in supporting the associated increases in emotionality, connectedness, and meaningfulness in response to music that are commonly observed after the administration of LSD and other psychedelics. Together, these findings inform the neuropsychopharmacology of music perception and cognition, meaningful music listening experiences, and altered perception of music during psychedelic experiences. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Altered effective brain connectivity at early response of antipsychotics in first-episode schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Leilei; Liu, Weibo; He, Wei; Yu, Shaohua; Zhong, Guodong

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the alterations of cortical connectivity in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) with auditory hallucinations at early response of antipsychotics. This was a nonexperimental control of medication study. We measured the cortical activity of 20 medicated patients with FES (medicated group), 19 nonmedicated patients with FES (nonmedicated group), and 22 healthy controls using electroencephalogram during eye-open resting state. Source reconstruction analysis was performed to determine the brain regions that showed significant group difference. A dynamic causal modelling (DCM) analysis was used to estimate the effective connectivity between sources. Both FES groups expressed increased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus (RMFG) and left/right superior temporal gyrus (L/RSTG) relative to that in the controls (phallucination diminished at early response of routine medication. This study provided the first evidence of early drug response-related alterations in effective brain connectivity. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Flowering schedule in a perennial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrlén, Johan; Raabova, Jana; Dahlgren, Johan

    2015-01-01

    influences selection on flowering schedule in an herb with a bimodal flowering pattern, Actaea spicata. Within individuals, seeds from flowers on early terminal inflorescences had a higher germination rate and produced larger seedlings than seeds from flowers on late basal inflorescences. Reproductive value......, estimated using demographic integral projection models and accounting for size-dependent differences in future performance, was two times higher for intact seeds from early flowers than for seeds from late flowers. Fruits from late flowers were, however, much more likely to escape seed predation than fruits...... from early flowers. Reproductive values of early and late flowers balanced at a predation intensity of 63%. Across 15 natural populations, the strength of selection for allocation to late flowers was positively correlated with mean seed predation intensity. Our results suggest that the optimal shape...

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-operonic PE32/PPE65 proteins alter host immune responses by hampering Th1 response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd eKhubaib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PE/PPE genes, present in cluster with ESAT-6 like genes, are suspected to have a role in antigenic variation and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Their roles in immune evasion and immune modulation of host are also well documented. We present evidence that PE32/PPE65 present within the RD8 region are co-operonic, co-transcribed and co-translated, and play role in modulating host immune responses. Experiments with macrophage cell lines revealed that this protein complex suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 whereas also inducing high expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Immunization of mice with these recombinant proteins dampens an effective Th1 response as evident from reduced frequency of IFN-g and IL-2 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. IgG sub-typing from serum of immunized mice revealed high levels of IgG1 when compared with IgG2a and IgG2b. Further IgG1/IgG2a ratio clearly demonstrated that the protein complex manipulates the host immune response favourable to the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the co-transcribed and co-translated PE32 and PPE65 antigens are involved specifically in modulating anti-mycobacterial host immune response by hampering Th1 response.

  8. Denys-Drash syndrome associated WT1 glutamine 369 mutants have altered sequence-preferences and altered responses to epigenetic modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yu; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-09-04

    Mutations in human zinc-finger transcription factor WT1 result in abnormal development of the kidneys and genitalia and an array of pediatric problems including nephropathy, blastoma, gonadal dysgenesis and genital discordance. Several overlapping phenotypes are associated with WT1 mutations, including Wilms tumors, Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), Frasier syndrome (FS) and WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformations, and mental retardation). These conditions vary in severity from individual to individual; they can be fatal in early childhood, or relatively benign into adulthood. DDS mutations cluster predominantly in zinc fingers (ZF) 2 and 3 at the C-terminus of WT1, which together with ZF4 determine the sequence-specificity of DNA binding. We examined three DDS associated mutations in ZF2 of human WT1 where the normal glutamine at position 369 is replaced by arginine (Q369R), lysine (Q369K) or histidine (Q369H). These mutations alter the sequence-specificity of ZF2, we find, changing its affinity for certain bases and certain epigenetic forms of cytosine. X-ray crystallography of the DNA binding domains of normal WT1, Q369R and Q369H in complex with preferred sequences revealed the molecular interactions responsible for these affinity changes. DDS is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, implying a gain of function by mutant WT1 proteins. This gain, we speculate, might derive from the ability of the mutant proteins to sequester WT1 into unproductive oligomers, or to erroneously bind to variant target sequences.

  9. Altered growth response to exogenous auxin and gibberellic acid by gravistimulation in pulvini of Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    Pulvini of excised segments from oats (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) were treated unilaterally with indoleacetic acid (IAA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) with or without gravistimulation to assess the effect of gravistimulation on hormone action. Optimum pulvinus elongation growth (millimeters) and segment curvature (degrees) over 24 hours were produced by 100 micromolar IAA in vertical segments. The curvature response to IAA at levels greater than 100 micromolar, applied to the lower sides of gravistimulated (90 degrees) pulvini, was significantly less than the response to identical levels in vertical segments. Furthermore, the bending response of pulvini to 100 micromolar IAA did not vary significantly over a range of presentation angles between 0 and 90 degrees. In contrast, the response to IAA at levels less than 10 micromolar, with gravistimulation, was approximately the sum of the responses to gravistimulation alone and to IAA without gravistimulation. This was observed over a range of presentation angles. Also, GA3 (0.3-30 micromolar) applied to the lower sides of horizontal segments significantly enhanced pulvinus growth and segment curvature, although exogenous GA3 over a range of concentrations had no effect on pulvinus elongation growth or segment curvature in vertical segments. The response to GA3 (10 micromolar) plus IAA (1.0 or 100 micromolar) was additive for either vertical or horizontal segments. These results indicate that gravistimulation produces changes in pulvinus responsiveness to both IAA and GA3 and that the changes are unique for each growth regulator. It is suggested that the changes in responsiveness may result from processes at the cellular level other than changes in hormonal sensitivity.

  10. MDMA does not alter responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Miller, Melissa A; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-07-01

    ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task. We hypothesized that the drug would reduce responses to the stressful task. Volunteers (N = 39) were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 13), 0.5 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13), or 1.0 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13) during a stress and a no-stress session. Dependent measures included subjective reports of drug effects and emotional responses to the task, as well as salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure. The stress task produced its expected increase in physiological responses (cortisol, heart rate) and subjective ratings of stress in all three groups, and MDMA produced its expected subjective and physiological effects. MDMA alone increased ratings of subjective stress, heart rate, and saliva cortisol concentrations, but contrary to our hypothesis, it did not moderate responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Despite its efficacy in PTSD and anxiety, MDMA did not reduce either the subjective or objective responses to stress in this controlled study. The conditions under which MDMA relieves responses to negative events or memories remain to be determined.

  11. Island tameness: an altered cardiovascular stress response in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael; Tarlow, Elisa; Cyr, Nicole E; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-03-30

    Island tameness is a widely documented phenomenon in which island species, particularly those that have evolved with no or few natural predators, show a greatly reduced behavioral response when faced with unfamiliar predators. This insufficient anti-predator response has led to widespread population declines among many island species exposed to novel predators, and has become a serious conservation problem. Despite its prevalence, the underlying physiology of island tameness is not known. Here we report that although Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) initiated flight from an evolutionarily recent and unfamiliar potential predator (humans), they failed to show the cardiovascular stress response that facilitates successful escape, even after a prior capture experience. In contrast, when approached by a native predator (the Galápagos hawk; Buteo galapagoensis), marine iguanas show markedly increased heart rate independent of initiating escape movement. The secretion of catecholamines appears to be central to the initiation of escape behavior: naïve animals remotely injected with epinephrine immediately increased flight initiation distance, whereas those injected with corticosterone did not. Our results provide the first evidence that muted escape behavior in predator-naïve species is indicative of both a cognitive deficit in recognizing potential predators and a catecholamine deficit in response. Understanding how the response to predators differs in predator-naïve species could enable the design of maximally effective techniques for inducing an anti-predator response in these vulnerable species. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A mixed diet supplemented with l-arabinose does not alter glycaemic or insulinaemic responses in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halschou-Jensen, Kia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach; Nielsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    effects on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses in humans. However, the effects of adding l-arabinose to mixed meals on the indices of glucose control are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the positive effects of l-arabinose added to a sugar drink...... of the present study showed that the peak plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration or AUC values of glucose, insulin and C-peptide were not altered after consumption of the test meals. Overall, it was not possible to reproduce the beneficial effects of l-arabinose added to sucrose drinks...

  13. Active behavioral coping alters the behavioral but not the endocrine response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Dana L.; Tylee, Daniel; Christianson, John P.; Kubala, Kenneth H.; Govindarajan, Sindhuja T.; O’Neill, William E.; Becoats, Kyeesha; Watkins, Linda; Maier, Steve F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Exposure to traumatic stressors typically causes lasting changes in emotionality and behavior. However, coping strategies have been shown to prevent and alleviate many stress consequences and the biological mechanisms that underlie coping are of great interest. Whereas the laboratory stressor inescapable tail-shock induces anxiety-like behaviors, here we demonstrate that permitting a rat to chew on a wooden dowel during administration of tail-shock prevented the development of anxiety like behaviors in the open field and juvenile social exploration tests. Uncontrollable stressors increase corticosterone and decrease thyroid hormone, and we hypothesized that coping would blunt these changes. While tail-shock did produce these effects, active coping did not alter hormone levels. The dissociation between behavioral resilience and circulating hormones is discussed with regard to the utility of these molecules as biomarkers for psychiatric disease. PMID:22578266

  14. Alteration of radiation response by two tyrosine kinase inhibitors: STI571 (Glivec) and BIBW 2992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent chemo-radiation is one of the main weapon in the treatment of cancer. The targeted therapies may act on the mechanisms of tumor resistance to radiation and are therefore very promising in combination with radiotherapy. The STI571 (imatinib or Gleevec) inhibits specifically the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. It leads to radiosensitization in K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cell line by alterations of the cell cycle. The BIBW2992 is a selective inhibitor of EGFR and HER2. The BIBW 2992 shows cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effects on pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells BxPC3 and Capan-2, regardless of KRAS status. The mechanism underlying this radiosensitization is not unequivocal, involving both changes in the cell cycle and induction of mitotic death. Our results show that the combination of an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase with ionizing radiation may lead to a radiosensitization in vitro with mechanisms depending on the type of cell line. (author)

  15. Hummingbirds at artificial flowers made to resemble ornithophiles versus melittophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyndee A. Guzman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain floral characteristics are associated with specific pollinators. Hummingbird-pollinated flowers are usually red, lack a landing platform, lack nectar guides, and contain a high amount of dilute sucrose-rich nectar. Here we test hypotheses concerning the reasons for these characters to the extent that they involve hummingbird responses. An array was set up of 16 artificial plants, each with five artificial flowers. (1 Flowers made to differ only in colour elicited a slight preference for red. (2 When colour was associated with nectar offerings, and birds generally learned to visit flowers that provided much more nectar but did not associatively learn differences as little as 2 µL. (3 Birds were offered 8 µL of 12% sucrose versus 2 µL of 48% hexose, and they did not prefer the dilute nectar; they showed no evidence of discerning sucrose from hexose; however, they preferred 48% over 12% sucrose when both were offered in the same quantity. (4 Birds preferred flowers that lacked landing platforms over those with landing platforms. (5 Birds were offered flowers with nectar guides, associated with differing nectar volumes, and they did not associate the higher nectar reward with either flower type. In summary, the feedback from hummingbirds reflects some of the differences between bird- and bee-adapted flowers, but nectar seemed less predictive than expected. Factors other than the behavioural proclivities of hummingbirds, such as adaptation to discourage bees, are discussed as additional causes for the differences between the syndromes. We also discuss significance testing for field experiments involving one unreplicated array.

  16. Human alterations, dynamic equilibrium, and riparian ecosystem responses along selected rivers in Tuscany, Italy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, C. R.; Rinaldi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Many, if not most, streams have been mildly to severely affected by human disturbance, which complicates efforts to understand riparian ecosystems. Mediterranean regions have a long history of human influences including: dams, stream channelization, mining of sediment, and levee /canal construction. Typically these alterations reduce the ecosystem services that functioning floodplains provide and may negatively impact the natural ecology of floodplains through reductions in suitable habitats, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. Additionally, human alterations typically shift affected streams away from a state of natural dynamic equilibrium, where net sediment deposition is approximately in balance with net erosion. Lack of equilibrium typically affects the degree to which floodplain ecosystems are connected to streamflow regime. Low connectivity, usually from human- or climate-induced incision, may result in reduced flow on floodplains and lowered water tables. High connectivity may result in severe sediment deposition. Connectivity has a direct impact on vegetation communities. Riparian vegetation distribution patterns and diversity relative to various fluvial geomorphic channel patterns, landforms, and processes are described and interpreted for selected rivers of Tuscany, Central Italy; with emphasis on channel evolution following human impacts. Multivariate analysis reveals distinct quantitative vegetation patterns related to six fluvial geomorphic surfaces. Analysis of vegetation data also shows distinct associations of plants with adjustment processes related to the stage of channel evolution. Plant distribution patterns coincide with disturbance/landform/soil moisture gradients. Species richness increases from channel bed to terrace and on heterogeneous riparian areas, while species richness decreases from moderate to intense incision and from low to intense narrowing. As a feedback mechanism, woody vegetation in particular may facilitate geomorphic recovery

  17. Immune activation alters cellular and humoral responses to yellow fever 17D vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyanja, Enoch; Ssemaganda, Aloysius; Ngauv, Pearline; Cubas, Rafael; Perrin, Helene; Srinivasan, Divya; Canderan, Glenda; Lawson, Benton; Kopycinski, Jakub; Graham, Amanda S; Rowe, Dawne K; Smith, Michaela J; Isern, Sharon; Michael, Scott; Silvestri, Guido; Vanderford, Thomas H; Castro, Erika; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Singer, Joel; Gillmour, Jill; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nanvubya, Annet; Schmidt, Claudia; Birungi, Josephine; Cox, Josephine; Haddad, Elias K; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Fast, Patricia; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Trautmann, Lydie; Gaucher, Denis

    2014-07-01

    Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironment to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort. We compared responses to YF-17D in 50 volunteers in Entebbe, Uganda, and 50 volunteers in Lausanne, Switzerland. We measured the CD8+ T cell and B cell responses induced by YF-17D and correlated them with immune parameters analyzed by flow cytometry prior to vaccination. We showed that YF-17D-induced CD8+ T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8+ T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D-neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination. Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity. Registration is not required for observational studies. This study was funded by Canada's Global Health Research Initiative, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  18. Is 'peak N' key to understanding the timing of flowering in annual plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, Camille S E; Dalchau, Neil; Purves, Drew W; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time in annual plants has large fitness consequences and has been the focus of theoretical and empirical study. Previous theory has concluded that flowering time has evolved over evolutionary time to maximize fitness over a particular season length. We introduce a new model where flowering is cued by a growth-rate rule (peak nitrogen (N)). Flowering is therefore sensitive to physiological parameters and to current environmental conditions, including N availability and the presence of competitors. The model predicts that, when overall conditions are suitable for flowering, plants should never flower after 'peak N', the point during development when the whole-plant N uptake rate reaches its maximum. Our model further predicts correlations between flowering time and vegetative growth rates, and that the response to increased N depends heavily on how this extra N is made available. We compare our predictions to observations in the literature. We suggest that annual plants may have evolved to use growth-rate rules as part of the cue for flowering, allowing them to smoothly and optimally adjust their flowering time to a wide range of local conditions. If so, there are widespread implications for the study of the molecular biology behind flowering pathways. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Phytohormone and assimilate profiles in emasculated flowers of the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Yuan, Cunquan; Dai, Li; Xi, Yang; Li, Yunfei; Hu, Ruiyang; Sun, Yuhan; Xu, Zhaohe; Li, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones.

  20. Multisensory stimuli elicit altered oscillatory brain responses at gamma frequencies in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Stone

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in auditory and visual unisensory responses are well documented in patients with schizophrenia; however, potential abnormalities elicited from multisensory audio-visual stimuli are less understood. Further, schizophrenia patients have shown abnormal patterns in task-related and task-independent oscillatory brain activity, particularly in the gamma frequency band. We examined oscillatory responses to basic unisensory and multisensory stimuli in schizophrenia patients (N = 46 and healthy controls (N = 57 using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Time-frequency decomposition was performed to determine regions of significant changes in gamma band power by group in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli relative to baseline levels. Results showed significant behavioral differences between groups in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. In addition, time-frequency analysis revealed significant decreases and increases in gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls, which emerged both early and late over both sensory and frontal regions in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. Unisensory gamma-band power predicted multisensory gamma-band power differently by group. Furthermore, gamma-band power in these regions predicted performance in select measures of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS test battery differently by group. These results reveal a unique pattern of task-related gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to controls that may indicate reduced inhibition in combination with impaired oscillatory mechanisms in patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Human disturbance alters endocrine and immune responses in the Galapagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; DeNardo, Dale F.; Greives, Timothy J.; Strand, Christine R.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a relevant and widespread facilitator of environmental change and there is clear evidence that it impacts natural populations. While population-level responses to major anthropogenic changes have been well studied, individual physiological responses to mild disturbance can be equally critical to the long-term survival of a species, yet they remain largely unexamined. The current study investigated the impact of seemingly low-level anthropogenic disturbance (ecotourism) on stress responsiveness and specific fitness-related immune measures in different breeding stages of the marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Specifically, we found stress-induced elevations in plasma corticosterone among tourist-exposed populations relative to undisturbed populations. We also found changes in multiple immunological responses associated with stress-related effects of human disturbance, including bacterial killing ability, cutaneous wound healing, and hemolytic complement activity, and the responses varied according to reproductive state. By identifying health-related consequences of human disturbance, this study provides critical insight into the conservation of a well-known species that has a very distinct ecology. The study also broadens the foundation of knowledge needed to understand the global significance of various levels of human disturbance. PMID:20708010

  2. Human disturbance alters endocrine and immune responses in the Galapagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; DeNardo, Dale F; Greives, Timothy J; Strand, Christine R; Demas, Gregory E

    2010-11-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a relevant and widespread facilitator of environmental change and there is clear evidence that it impacts natural populations. While population-level responses to major anthropogenic changes have been well studied, individual physiological responses to mild disturbance can be equally critical to the long-term survival of a species, yet they remain largely unexamined. The current study investigated the impact of seemingly low-level anthropogenic disturbance (ecotourism) on stress responsiveness and specific fitness-related immune measures in different breeding stages of the marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Specifically, we found stress-induced elevations in plasma corticosterone among tourist-exposed populations relative to undisturbed populations. We also found changes in multiple immunological responses associated with stress-related effects of human disturbance, including bacterial killing ability, cutaneous wound healing, and hemolytic complement activity, and the responses varied according to reproductive state. By identifying health-related consequences of human disturbance, this study provides critical insight into the conservation of a well-known species that has a very distinct ecology. The study also broadens the foundation of knowledge needed to understand the global significance of various levels of human disturbance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of tempol on altered metabolism and renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Mohammed H; Sattar, Munavvar A; Johns, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic) on renal vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (a model of metabolic syndrome). Rats were fed 20% fructose in drinking water (F) for 8 weeks. One fructose-fed group received tempol (FT) at 1 mmol·L(-1) in drinking water for 8 weeks or as an infusion (1.5 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) intrarenally. At the end of the treatment regimen, the renal responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, methoxamine, and Ang II were determined. F rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Tempol reduced blood glucose and insulin levels (all p tempol infusion blunted responses to noradrenaline, methoxamine, and Ang II in control rats by 32%, 33%, and 62%, while it blunted responses to noradrenaline and Ang II in F rats by 26% and 32%, respectively (all p tempol treatment enhances renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats.

  4. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Altered Innate and Lymphocytic Immune Responses in Mouse Splenocytes Post-Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, ShenAn; Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.; Actor, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to affect immune responses of astronauts and animals, decreasing lymphocytic responses to mitogenic stimuli, delayed typed hypersensitivity reactions, and T-cell activation. Despite changes in immune suppression, there are no reports of consistent adverse clinical events post flight. To further investigate the spectrum of affected immune responses, murine splenocytes were stimulated immediately post-shuttle flight (14 days on STS-135) with T-cell stimulators or toll-like receptor agonists. Comparisons were made to ground control splenocytes from age-matched mice. Cell phenotypes were assessed, as well as activation markers and associated cytokine production. The CD4+ population decreased with no concurrent decrease in CD8+ cells from shuttle mice post flight compared to ground controls. Regarding antigen presenting cell populations, the number of CD11c+ cells were slightly elevated post flight, compared to ground controls, with increased MHC Class I expression (I-A(sup b)) and no change in Class II expression (H-2K(sup b)). CD86+ populations were also significantly diminished. However, the decreased markers did not correlate with activity. Stimulation of splenocytes post flight showed significant increase in bead uptake, increased Class I expression, increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in response to TLR-2 (zymosan) and TLR-4 (LPS) agonists. While most activated (ConA or anti-CD3/anti-CD28) CD4+ cells showed markedly diminished responses (reduced IL-2 production), non-specific T cell responses to superantigen (SEA/SEB) increased post flight as determined by expression of early activation markers. Production of additional cytokines was also dysregulated postflight. Overall, persistent immune changes during space flight could represent unique clinical risks for exploration class missions. The consequences of pathogenic encounter remain an important concern that should be addressed.

  6. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The opiate sufentanil alters the inflammatory, endocrine, and metabolic responses to endotoxin in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeniralam, H. S.; Endert, E.; Ackermans, M. T.; van Lanschot, J. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Sufentanil is a synthetic mu-opioid receptor agonist frequently used in anesthesia and critically ill patients. To evaluate the effects of sufentanil on the inflammatory, neuroendocrine, and metabolic responses to endotoxin, we studied six dogs during saline infusion (control), during sufentanil

  8. Endogenous GLP1 and GLP1 analogue alter CNS responses to palatable food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kulve, Jennifer S.; Veltman, Dick J.; van Bloemendaal, Liselotte; Groot, Paul F. C.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Diamant, Michaela; Ijzerman, Richard G.

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) affects appetite, supposedly mediated via the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we investigate whether modulation of CNS responses to palatable food consumption may be a mechanism by which GLP1 contributes to the central regulation of feeding. Using

  9. Haemodynamic responses to salbutamol and isometric exercise are altered in young adults with mild asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, W Stephen; Leigh, Rachel B

    2005-03-01

    Tolerance to the haemodynamic effects of regularly inhaled beta(2) agonists has been reported in a research setting. It is unclear whether cardiovascular responses in adults with asthma are influenced by their use in routine clinical practice. This study aimed to characterise the effects of acute salbutamol administration on systemic haemodynamics in adults with mild asthma who were receiving intermittent beta(2) agonist treatment. Ten patients with mild asthma and ten healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited to a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind two-way crossover study. Each received salbutamol 200 mug or placebo, then performed sustained isometric handgrip exercise as an adrenergic cardiovascular stimulus. Heart rate and blood pressure responses were observed during rest and exercise, and cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance index were measured using non-invasive impedance cardiography. Isometric exercise caused a greater increase in heart rate (12+/-3 vs. 8+/-3 bpm, Phealthy controls. Salbutamol administration significantly increased heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac index in healthy controls, but these responses were attenuated in patients with asthma. These findings indicate that adults with asthma, who are receiving intermittent beta(2) agonist treatment, have a greater cardiovascular responses to sympathetic stimulation, and haemodynamic tolerance to acute salbutamol administration.

  10. Overexpression of GbERF confers alteration of ethylene-responsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    induced by salicylic acid (Qin et al 2004; Zuo et al 2005). The current result of expression profile analysis suggests that GbERF may play an important role in plant's defense response by regulating the expression of various PR genes. 3.4 Expression profile of some ethylene-inducible genes. Ethylene treatment can induce ...

  11. POTENTIAL MECHANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHLOROTRIAZINE-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CATECHOLAMINES IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTPotential Mechanisms Responsible for Chlorotriazine-induced Changes in Catecholamine Metabolism in Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells*PARIKSHIT C. DAS1, WILLIAM K. McELROY2 , AND RALPH L. COOPER2+ 1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chape...

  12. Consecutive bouts of diverse contractile activity alter acute responses in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coffey, Vernon G; Pilegaard, Henriette; Garnham, Andrew P

    2009-01-01

    -mTOR-S6 kinase phosphorylation 15 min after each bout of exercise was similar regardless of the exercise mode. The cumulative effect of combined exercise resulted in disparate mRNA responses. IGF-I mRNA content was reduced when cycling preceded resistance exercise (-42%), whereas muscle ring finger...

  13. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

  14. Overexpression of GbERF confers alteration of ethylene-responsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    did not change transgenic plant's phenotype and endogenous ethylene level. However, the ... In summary, defined members of the ERF family seem to play specific roles in pathogen defense and plant response to environmental stress. The GbERF was cloned from Gossypium barbadense through SSH approach in our ...

  15. Triclosan Alters Anti-microbial and Inflammatory Responses of Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallet, Mark A.; Calderon, Nadia L.; Alonso, Tess R.; Choe, Christina S.; Catalfamo, Dana L.; Lalane, Charles J.; Neiva, Kathleen G.; Panagakos, Foti; Wallet, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are a class of pathologies wherein oral microbes induce harmful immune responses in a susceptible host. Therefore, an agent which can both reduce microbial burden and lessen pathogenesis of localized inflammation would have beneficial effects in periodontal disease. 2,4,4-trichloro-2-hydroxydiphenyl-ether [triclosan] is currently used in oral care products due to broad spectrum anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective To determine effects of triclosan on the response of oral epithelial cells to stimulation with the inflammatory microbial product lipopolysaccharide [LPS], a ligand for toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4]. Materials/Methods Primary human oral epithelial cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and/or absence of triclosan after which expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, β-defensins, micro-RNAs [miRNAs] or TLR signaling pathway proteins were evaluated. Results Here we demonstrate that triclosan is a potent inhibitor of oral epithelial cell LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by inducing miRNA regulation of the TLR-signaling pathway. Triclosan was not a pan-suppresser of oral epithelial cell responses as β-defensin 2 [βD2] and βD3 were upregulated by triclosan following LPS-stimulation. Conclusions These data demonstrate both a novel anti-microbial mechanism by which triclosan improves plaque control and an additional anti-inflammatory property which could have beneficial effects in periodontal disease resolution. PMID:24079913

  16. Risso's dolphins alter daily resting pattern in response to whale watching at the Azores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Fleur; Hartman, Karin L.; Rood, Ente J. J.; Hendriks, Arthur J. E.; Zult, Daan B.; Wolff, Wim J.; Huisman, Jef; Pierce, Graham J.

    P>Behavioral responses of Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) to whale watching vessels were studied off Pico Island, Azores. Dolphin behavior was studied from a land-based lookout, enabling observations of groups in the absence and presence of vessels. The number of whale watching vessels showed a

  17. Risso’s dolphins alter daily resting pattern in response to whale watching at the Azores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, F.; Hartman, K.L.; Rood, E.J.J.; Hendriks, A.J.E.; Zult, D.B.; Wolff, W.J.; Huisman, J.; Pierce, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses of Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) to whale watching vessels were studied off Pico Island, Azores. Dolphin behavior was studied from a land-based lookout, enabling observations of groups in the absence and presence of vessels. The number of whale watching vessels showed a

  18. Neonatal bladder inflammation induces long-term visceral pain and altered responses of spinal neurons in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Babygirija, Reji; Zhang, Jiang; Poe, Michael M; Li, Guanguan; Cook, James M; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N

    2017-03-27

    Painful events early in life have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. However, the intrinsic mechanism is not well studied. We previously reported that neonatal bladder inflammation causes chronic visceral hypersensitivity along with molecular disruption of spinal GABAergic system in rats. The present study investigates whether these molecular changes affect the integrative function and responses of bladder-sensitive primary afferent and spinal neurons. Neonatal bladder inflammation was induced by intravesicular injection of zymosan during postnatal (P) days 14-16. In adulthood (P60), the viscero-motor response (VMR) to visceral stimuli was significantly inhibited by intrathecal (i.t) HZ166 (GABA Aα-2 agonist) only in neonatally saline-treated, but not in neonatally zymosan-treated rats. HZ166 significantly inhibited the responses of bladder-responsive lumbosacral (LS) spinal neurons to urinary bladder distension (UBD) and slow infusion (SI) in neonatally saline-treated rats. Similar results were also observed in naïve adult rats where HZ166 produced significant inhibition of bladder-responsive spinal neurons. However, HZ166 did not inhibit responses of UBD-responsive spinal neurons from neonatally zymosan-treated rats. The drug did not attenuate the responses of UBD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferent (PNA) fibers to UBD and SI in either group of rats tested. Immunohistochemical studies showed a significantly lower level of GABA Aα-2 receptor expression in the LS spinal cord of neonatally zymosan-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats. These findings indicate that neonatal bladder inflammation leads to functional and molecular alteration of spinal GABA Aα-2 receptor subtypes, which may result in chronic visceral hyperalgesia in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Octreotide in Intestinal Lymphangiectasia: Lack of a Clinical Response and Failure to Alter Lymphatic Function in a Guinea Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Makhija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal lymphangiectasia, which can be classified as primary or secondary, is an unusual cause of protein-losing enteropathy. The main clinical features include edema, fat malabsorption, lymphopenia and hypoalbuminemia. Clinical management generally includes a low-fat diet and supplementation with medium chain triglycerides. A small number of recent reports advocate the use of octreotide in intestinal lymphangiectasia. It is unclear why octreotide was used in these studies; although octreotide can alter splanchnic blood flow and intestinal motility, its actions on lymphatic function has never been investigated. A case of a patient with intestinal lymphangiectasia who required a shunt procedure after failing medium chain triglycerides and octreotide therapy is presented. During the management of this case, all existing literature on intestinal lymphangiectasia and all the known actions of octreotide were reviewed. Because some of the case reports suggested that octreotide may improve the clinical course of intestinal lymphangiectasia by altering lymphatic function, a series of experiments were undertaken to assess this. In an established guinea pig model, the role of octreotide in lymphatic function was examined. In this model system, the mesenteric lymphatic vessels responded to 5-hydroxytryptamine with a decrease in constriction frequency, while histamine administration markedly increased lymphatic constriction frequency. Octreotide failed to produce any change in lymphatic function when a wide range of concentrations were applied to the mesenteric lymphatic vessel preparation. In conclusion, in this case, octreotide failed to induce a clinical response and laboratory studies showed that octreotide did not alter lymphatic function. Thus, the mechanisms by which octreotide induced clinical responses in the cases reported elsewhere in the literature remain unclear, but the present study suggests that it does not appear to act via increasing

  20. Endotoxemia is associated with altered innate and adaptive immune responses in untreated HIV-1 infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Roslev Bukh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation may contribute to the immunopathogenesis in HIV infection. We investigated if microbial translocation and inflammation were associated with innate and adaptive immune responses in adults with HIV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was an observational cohort study. Sera from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals were analyzed for microbial translocation (soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharides [LPS], endotoxin core antibody, and anti-α-galactosyl antibodies and inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II, and IL-10 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from HIV-infected persons and healthy controls (primed with single-stranded HIV-1-derived RNA were stimulated with LPS, and cytokine production was measured. Finally, HIV-infected patients were immunized with Prevnar 7vPnC±CpG 7909 followed by Pneumo Novum PPV-23. Effects of microbial translocation and inflammation on immunization were analyzed in a predictive regression model. We included 96 HIV-infected individuals, 76 on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, 20 HAART-naive, and 50 healthy controls. Microbial translocation and inflammatory markers were higher among HIV-infected persons than controls. Cytokine levels following LPS stimulation were increased in PBMCs from HAART-naive compared to HAART-treated HIV-infected persons. Further, RNA-priming of PBMCs from controls acted synergistically with LPS to augment cytokine responses. Finally, high serum LPS levels predicted poor vaccine responses among HAART-naive, but not among HAART-treated HIV-infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LPS acts synergistically with HIV RNA to stimulate innate immune responses in vitro and increasing serum LPS levels seem to predict poor antibody responses after vaccination among HAART-naive HIV-infected persons. Thus, our

  1. Prenatal testosterone treatment alters LH and testosterone responsiveness to GnRH agonist in male sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO E RECABARREN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is accumulating that prenatal testosterone (T compromises reproductive function in the female, the effects of excess T in utero on the postnatal development of male reproductive function has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of prenatal T excess on age-related changes in pituitary and gonadal responsiveness to GnRH in the male sheep. We used the GnRH agonist, leuprolide (10 µg/kg, as a pharmacologic challenge at 5, 10, 20 and 30 weeks of age. These time points correspond to early and late juvenile periods and the prepubertal and postpubertal periods of sexual development, respectively. LH and T were measured in blood samples collected before and after GnRH agonist administration. The area under the response curve (AUC of LH increased progressively in both controls and prenatal T-treated males from 5 to 20 weeks of age (P<0.01. The LH responses in prenatal T-treated males were lower at 20 and 30 weeks of age compared to controls (P<0.05. AUC-T increased progressively in control males from 5 through 30 weeks of age and prenatal T-treated males from 5 to 20 weeks of age. The T response in prenatal T-treated males was higher at 20 weeks compared to controls of same age but similar to controls and prenatal T-treated males at 30 weeks of age (P <0.05. Our findings suggest that prenatal T treatment advances the developmental trajectory of gonadal responsiveness to GnRH in male offspring

  2. Downstream targets of altered sphingolipid metabolism in response to inhibition of ENOX2 by phenoxodiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Thomas; Bosneaga, Elena; Morré, Dorothy M; Morré, D James

    2008-01-01

    Phenoxodiol, an ENOX2 inhibitor, alters cytosolic NADH levels to initiate a regulatory cascade linking sphingolipid metabolism and the PI3K/Akt pathway to programmed cell death. Specifically, the pyridine nucleotide products of plasma membrane redox, NAD+ and NADH, directly modulate in a recriprocal manner two key plasma membrane enzymes. NADH stimulation of sphingomyelinase and NADH inhibition of sphingosine kinase potentially lead to G1 arrest (increase in ceramide) and apoptosis (loss of sphingosine-1-phosphate). The findings link plasma membrane electron transport and the anticancer action of several clinically-relevant anticancer agents targeted to ENOX2 such as phenoxodiol. Growth inhibition by phenoxodiol is unaffected by inhibitors of protein or mRNA synthesis. Findings with okadiaic acid, an inhibitor of serine/threonine phosphatases, suggest that hyperphosphorylation of intracellular substrates does not affect the action of phenoxodiol on ENOX2. Our findings and those of others are consistent with operation of the FAS signaling pathway of apoptosis and its suppression by sphingosine-1-phosphate. The prevailing hypothesis is that products of Akt activation, c-FLIP and XIAP, which exhibit anticaspase activities to block FAS signaling when sphingosine-1-phospate is elevated, are down regulated to permit apoptosis when sphingosine-1-phosphate is decreased by inhibition of sphingosine kinase under conditions of elevated cytosolic NADH associated with anticancer drug inhibition of ENOX2.

  3. Ocean acidification alters the photosynthetic responses of a coccolithophorid to fluctuating ultraviolet and visible radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Gao, Kunshan; Villafañe, Virginia E; Campbell, Douglas A; Helbling, E Walter

    2013-08-01

    Mixing of seawater subjects phytoplankton to fluctuations in photosynthetically active radiation (400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm). These irradiance fluctuations are now superimposed upon ocean acidification and thinning of the upper mixing layer through stratification, which alters mixing regimes. Therefore, we examined the photosynthetic carbon fixation and photochemical performance of a coccolithophore, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, grown under high, future (1,000 μatm) and low, current (390 μatm) CO₂ levels, under regimes of fluctuating irradiances with or without UVR. Under both CO₂ levels, fluctuating irradiances, as compared with constant irradiance, led to lower nonphotochemical quenching and less UVR-induced inhibition of carbon fixation and photosystem II electron transport. The cells grown under high CO₂ showed a lower photosynthetic carbon fixation rate but lower nonphotochemical quenching and less ultraviolet B (280-315 nm)-induced inhibition. Ultraviolet A (315-400 nm) led to less enhancement of the photosynthetic carbon fixation in the high-CO₂-grown cells under fluctuating irradiance. Our data suggest that ocean acidification and fast mixing or fluctuation of solar radiation will act synergistically to lower carbon fixation by G. oceanica, although ocean acidification may decrease ultraviolet B-related photochemical inhibition.

  4. Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune Response in Experimental Steatohepatitis Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Mitsuaki; Miura, Kouichi; Minami, Shinichiro; Shimura, Yoichiro; Ohnishi, Hirohide

    2017-02-01

    Although several types of diet have been used in experimental steatohepatitis models, comparison of gut microbiota and immunological alterations in the gut among diets has not yet been performed. We attempted to clarify the difference in the gut environment between mice administrated several experimental diets. Male wild-type mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet, a choline-deficient amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet, and a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks. We compared the severity of steatohepatitis, the composition of gut microbiota, and the intestinal expression of interleukin (IL)-17, an immune modulator. Steatohepatitis was most severe in the mice fed the CDAA diet, followed by the MCD diet, and the HF diet. Analysis of gut microbiota showed that the composition of the Firmicutes phylum differed markedly at order level between the mice fed the CDAA and HF diet. The CDAA diet increased the abundance of Clostridiales, while the HF diet increased that of lactate-producing bacteria. In addition, the CDAA diet decreased the abundance of lactate-producing bacteria and antiinflammatory bacterium Parabacteroides goldsteinii in the phylum Bacteroidetes. In CDAA-fed mice, IL-17 levels were increased in ileum as well as portal vein. In addition, the CDAA diet also elevated hepatic expression of chemokines, downstream targets of IL-17. The composition of gut microbiota and IL-17 expression varied considerably between mice administrated different experimental diets to induce steatohepatitis.

  5. Diatom responses to sewage inputs and hydrological alteration in Mediterranean streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornés, Elisabet; Mor, Jordi-René; Mandaric, Ladislav; Sabater, Sergi

    2018-03-22

    We analyzed the conjoint effects of sewage inputs and hydrological alteration on the occurrence of teratological forms and on the assemblage composition of stream benthic diatoms. The study was performed in 11 Mediterranean streams which received treated or untreated urban sewage (Impact sites, I), whose composition and morphological anomalies were compared to upstream unaffected (Control, C) sites. The impact sites had high concentrations of ammonium, phosphorus, and pharmaceutical compounds (antibiotics, analgesics, and anti-inflammatories), particularly in those receiving untreated sewage. Impact sites had a higher proportion of teratological forms as well as a prevalence of diatom taxa tolerant to pollution. The differences in the diatom assemblage composition between the paired C and I sites were the largest in the impacted sites that received untreated sewage inputs as well as in the systems with lower dilution capacity. In these sites, the diatom assemblage was composed by a few pollution-tolerant species. Mediterranean river systems facing hydrological stress are highly sensitive to chemical contamination, leading to the homogenization of their diatom assemblages. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Alterations of the intracellular peptidome in response to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib.

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    Julia S Gelman

    Full Text Available Bortezomib is an antitumor drug that competitively inhibits proteasome beta-1 and beta-5 subunits. While the impact of bortezomib on protein stability is known, the effect of this drug on intracellular peptides has not been previously explored. A quantitative peptidomics technique was used to examine the effect of treating human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T cells with 5-500 nM bortezomib for various lengths of time (30 minutes to 16 hours, and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with 500 nM bortezomib for 1 hour. Although bortezomib treatment decreased the levels of some intracellular peptides, the majority of peptides were increased by 50-500 nM bortezomib. Peptides requiring cleavage at acidic and hydrophobic sites, which involve beta-1 and -5 proteasome subunits, were among those elevated by bortezomib. In contrast, the proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin caused a decrease in the levels of many of these peptides. Although bortezomib can induce autophagy under certain conditions, the rapid bortezomib-mediated increase in peptide levels did not correlate with the induction of autophagy. Taken together, the present data indicate that bortezomib alters the balance of intracellular peptides, which may contribute to the biological effects of this drug.

  7. Compression garments do not alter cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic stress after mild passive heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S A; Ainslie, P N; Lucas, R A I; Cheung, S S; Cotter, J D

    2014-04-01

    Whole-body heating increases the likelihood of syncope, whereas utilizing lower-body compression garments may reduce syncope risk. We hypothesized that graded compression garments would reduce the typically observed large postural reductions in arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery velocity, in normothermia and especially once passively heat stressed. Fifteen men (age: 27 ± 4 years, aerobic fitness range: 30-75 mL/kg(/) min) completed a supine-to-stand orthostatic challenge for 3 min at normothermia and after passive heating (esophageal temperature, +0.5 °C from baseline) on two occasions (> 7 days): once wearing commercially available compression trousers and once wearing low-compression placebo trousers (randomized order). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), mean arterial blood pressure (mean BP: Finometer) and end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure were measured continuously. During normothermia, compression, garments did not alter the magnitude of the postural changes in mean BP or middle cerebral artery velocity. After passive heating, although the magnitudes of these changes were exaggerated, they were not significantly affected by compression garments. Compression garments did not attenuate the initial or sustained orthostatic hypotension associated with posture change, either during normothermia or following passive heat stress. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Production of hydrogen peroxide and expression of ROS generating genes in peach flower petals in response to host and non-host pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play dual roles in plant-microbe interactions in that they can either stimulate host resistance or benefit pathogen virulence. Accumulation of ROS was determined in peach petals in response to Monilinia fructicola (a compatible pathogen) and Penicillium digitatum (an i...

  9. Interleukin 37 expression in mice alters sleep responses to inflammatory agents and influenza virus infection

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    Christopher J. Davis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple interactions between the immune system and sleep are known, including the effects of microbial challenge on sleep or the effects of sleep loss on facets of the immune response. Cytokines regulate, in part, sleep and immune responses. Here we examine the role of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-37 (IL-37 on sleep in a mouse strain that expresses human IL-37b (IL37tg mice. Constitutive expression of the IL-37 gene in the brains of these mice under resting conditions is low; however, upon an inflammatory stimulus, expression increases dramatically. We measured sleep in three conditions; (a under baseline conditions and after 6 h of sleep loss, (b after bolus intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or IL-1β and (c after intranasal influenza virus challenge. Under baseline conditions, the IL37tg mice had 7% more spontaneous non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS during the light period than wild-type (WT mice. After sleep deprivation both WT mice and IL37tg mice slept an extra 21% and 12%, respectively, during the first 6 h of recovery. NREMS responses after sleep deprivation did not significantly differ between WT mice and IL37tg mice. However, in response to either IL-1β or LPS, the increases in time spent in NREMS were about four-fold greater in the WT mice than in the IL37tg mice. In contrast, in response to a low dose of mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza virus, sleep responses developed slowly over the 6 day recording period. By day 6, NREMS increased by 10% and REMS increased by 18% in the IL37tg mice compared to the WT mice. Further, by day 4 IL37tg mice lost less weight, remained more active, and retained their body temperatures closer to baseline values than WT mice. We conclude that conditions that promote IL-37 expression attenuate morbidity to severe inflammatory challenge.

  10. Quality of sound in large rooms: Alteration of room impulse responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linusson, Per

    1993-02-01

    Psychoacoustic testing of Room Impulse Responses (RIR), using editing techniques and listening tests with help of auralization is considered. Using these techniques the question of when the reverberation tail is subjectively diffuse was studied. This question is of great interest, for example for auralization techniques. Binaural Room Impulse Responses (BRIR's) were measured in two positions in a concert hall. Their respective reverberation tails were substituted by editing. Listening tests indicated that even with a connection time of 400 ms, some test persons could consistently detect differences with speech as source signal. With music (piano) as source signal the 'limit' of the diffuse part was somewhere between 200 to 400 ms. In the second listening test an individual reflection was substituted with a diffuse one by editing. Three types of diffuse reflections were used. The results indicated that it is possible to improve the subjective quality with a diffuse reflection. Furthermore the character of the diffuse reflection is significant.

  11. Altered airway responsiveness in adult sheep born prematurely: effects of allergen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snibson, Kenneth J; Bischof, Robert J; Koumoundouros, Emmanuel; McMurtrie, Lachlan S; Cock, Megan; Harding, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of preterm birth per se on airway function in adult sheep. Preterm birth was induced at approximately 0.89 of term. At approximately 1 year of age the authors measured pulmonary resistance (RL) and airway responsiveness before and after house dust mite (HDM) challenge. Mature preterm sheep tended to have greater baseline RL than controls (P = .12): the smaller preterm sheep showed significantly greater RL than controls following bronchoconstrictor challenge. Preterm animals tended to have greater baseline total blood leukocyte count (P = .06). It was concluded that preterm sheep, especially with low postnatal growth, have greater airway responsiveness to bronchoconstrictor and higher baseline RL.

  12. Mechanism of altered B-cell response induced by changes in dietary protein type in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.; Shenouda, N.; Kongshavn, P.A.; Osmond, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 20 g/100 g dietary lactalbumin (L) or casein (C) diets or a nonpurified (NP) diet on the immune responsiveness of C57Bl/6J, C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice has been investigated by measuring the response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll. To investigate the possible influence of dietary protein type on the supply of B lymphocytes, bone marrow lymphocyte production has been examined by a radioautographic assay of small lymphocyte renewal and an immunofluorescent stathmokinetic assay of pre-B cells and their proliferation. The humoral response of all mice fed the L diet was found to be higher than that of mice fed the C diet or nonpurified diet. A similar pattern of dietary protein effect in (CBA/N X DBA/2J) F1 mice carrying the xid defect was observed following challenge with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). An even greater enhancing effect of dietary L was noted in normal (DBA/2J X CBA/N) F1 mice after immunization with SRBC, but in contrast, the normal large-scale production of B lymphocytes in mouse bone marrow was independent of the type of dietary protein. Dietary protein type did not affect blood level of minerals and trace metals. The free plasma amino acid profile essentially conformed to the amino acid composition of the ingested protein, suggesting that the changes in plasma amino acid profile might be a crucial factor in diet-dependent enhancement or depression of the B-cell response

  13. Association between risky behaviors in adolescents and altered psychophysiological emotional responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Manuel Galindo-Aldana

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The control group presented more expressive initial bradycardia in comparison to the RB group. Both groups showed more pronounced cardiac deceleration when experiencing unpleasant stimuli, higher levels in EMG to pleasant stimuli in the RB group, and higher CP indicators for the three types of stimulus. A cohort study is required in order to compare current findings in RB versus physiological emotional response among adolescent groups.

  14. Heterogeneous responses to ozone and nitrogen alter the species composition of Mediterranean annual pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete-Sogo, H; González-Fernández, I; Sanz, J; Elvira, S; Alonso, R; García-Gómez, H; Ibáñez-Ruiz, M A; Bermejo-Bermejo, V

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution represents a threat to biodiversity throughout the world and particularly in the Mediterranean area, where high tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are frequently recorded. Mediterranean annual pastures are among the most important ecosystems in southern Europe due to their high biodiversity and extension. Aiming to study the responses of these communities to the main atmospheric pollutants in the Mediterranean region, an experimental study was performed in an open-top chamber (OTC) facility. A mixture of six species representative of annual pastures was grown under field conditions inside the OTC. Plants were exposed for 39 days to four O3 treatments and three doses of N. The species responded heterogeneously to both factors. Legumes did not react to N but were very sensitive to O3: Trifolium species responded negatively, while Ornithopus responded positively, taking advantage of the greater sensitivity of clovers to O3. The grasses and the herb were more tolerant of O3 and grasses were the most responsive to N. Significant interactions between factors indicated a loss of effectiveness of N in O3-polluted atmospheres and an ability of O3 to counterbalance the damage induced by N input, but both effects were dependent on O3 and N levels. The inclusion of plant competition in the experimental design was necessary to reveal results that would otherwise be missed, such as the positive growth responses under elevated O3 levels. Surprisingly, competition within the legume family played the most important role in the overall response of the annual community to O3. Both tropospheric O3 and N deposition should be considered important drivers of the structure and biodiversity of Mediterranean annual pastures.

  15. Electrophysiological response during auditory gap detection: Biomarker for sensory and communication alterations in autism spectrum disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Foss-Feig, JH; Stavropoulos, KKM; McPartland, JC; Wallace, MT; Stone, WL; Key, AP

    2018-01-01

    Sensory symptoms, including auditory processing deficits, are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Processing of temporal aspects of auditory input is understudied; yet, deficits in this domain could contribute to language-related impairments. In children with ASD and well-matched controls, this study examined electrophysiological response to silent gaps in auditory stimuli. Results revealed attenuated amplitude of the P2 event-related potential (ERP) component in ASD. The P2 amplitude r...

  16. Time-dependent leaf proteome alterations of Brachypodium distachyon in response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatli, Ozge; Sogutmaz Ozdemir, Bahar; Dinler Doganay, Gizem

    2017-08-01

    For the first time, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under drought stress. Gradual changes in response to drought stress were monitored. Drought is one of the major stress factors that dramatically affect the agricultural productivity worldwide. Improving the yield under drought is an urgent challenge in agriculture. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for monocot plants such as wheat, barley and several potential biofuel grasses. In the current study, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under different levels of drought application. To screen gradual changes upon drought, Brachypodium leaves subjected to drought for 4, 8 and 12 days were collected for each treatment day and relative water content of the leaves was measured for each time point. Cellular responses of Brachypodium were investigated through a proteomic approach involving two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Among 497 distinct spots in Brachypodium protein repertoire, a total of 13 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified as responsive to drought by mass spectrometry and classified according to their functions using bioinformatics tools. The biological functions of DEPs included roles in photosynthesis, protein folding, antioxidant mechanism and metabolic processes, which responded differentially at each time point of drought treatment. To examine further transcriptional expression of the genes that code identified protein, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed. Identified proteins will contribute to the studies involving development of drought-resistant crop species and lead to the delineation of molecular mechanisms in drought response.

  17. Burn-induced alterations in toll-like receptor-mediated responses by bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppeltz, Richard F; Rani, Meenakshi; Zhang, Qiong; Schwacha, Martin G

    2011-09-01

    Burn is associated with profound inflammation and activation of the innate immune system in multiple organ beds, including the lung. Similarly, toll-like receptors (TLR) are associated with innate immune activation. Nonetheless, it is unclear what impact burn has on TLR-induced inflammatory responses in the lung. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to burn (3rd degree, 25% TBSA) or sham procedure and 1, 3 or 7 days thereafter, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected and cells were isolated and cultured in vitro with specific TLR agonists as follows: Zymosan (TLR-2), LPS (TLR-4) and CpG-ODN (TLR-9). Supernatants were collected 48 h later and assayed for inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α, KC, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β and RANTES) by Bioplex. BAL fluid from sham and burn mice did not contain detectable cytokine levels. BAL cells, irrespective of injury, were responsive to TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation. Seven days after burn, TLR-2 and TLR-4 mediated responses by BAL cells were enhanced as evidenced by increased production of IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-1β and RANTES. Burn-induced changes in TLR-2 and TLR-4 reactivity may contribute to the development of post-burn complications, such as acute lung injury (ALI) and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gestational Valproate Alters BOLD Activation in Response to Complex Social and Primary Sensory Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix-Ortiz, Ada C.; Febo, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) has been used clinically as an anticonvulsant medication during pregnancy; however, it poses a neurodevelopmental risk due to its high teratogenicity. We hypothesized that midgestational (GD) exposure to VPA will lead to lasting deficits in social behavior and the processing of social stimuli. To test this, animals were given a single IP injection of 600 mg/kg of VPA on GD 12.5. Starting on postnatal day 2 (PND2), animals were examined for physical and behavior abnormalities. Functional MRI studies were carried out after PND60. VPA and control animals were given vehicle or a central infusion of a V1a antagonist 90 minutes before imaging. During imaging sessions, rats were presented with a juvenile test male followed by a primary visual stimulus (2 Hz pulsed light) to examine the effects of prenatal VPA on neural processing. VPA rats showed greater increases in BOLD signal response to the social stimulus compared to controls in the temporal cortex, thalamus, midbrain and the hypothalamus. Blocking the V1a receptor reduced the BOLD response in VPA animals only. Neural responses to the visual stimulus, however, were lower in VPA animals. Blockade with the V1a antagonist did not revert this latter effect. Our data suggest that prenatal VPA affects the processing of social stimuli and perhaps social memory, partly through a mechanism that may involve vasopressin V1a neurotransmission. PMID:22615973

  19. Gestational valproate alters BOLD activation in response to complex social and primary sensory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada C Felix-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA has been used clinically as an anticonvulsant medication during pregnancy; however, it poses a neurodevelopmental risk due to its high teratogenicity. We hypothesized that midgestational (GD exposure to VPA will lead to lasting deficits in social behavior and the processing of social stimuli. To test this, animals were given a single IP injection of 600 mg/kg of VPA on GD 12.5. Starting on postnatal day 2 (PND2, animals were examined for physical and behavior abnormalities. Functional MRI studies were carried out after PND60. VPA and control animals were given vehicle or a central infusion of a V(1a antagonist 90 minutes before imaging. During imaging sessions, rats were presented with a juvenile test male followed by a primary visual stimulus (2 Hz pulsed light to examine the effects of prenatal VPA on neural processing. VPA rats showed greater increases in BOLD signal response to the social stimulus compared to controls in the temporal cortex, thalamus, midbrain and the hypothalamus. Blocking the V(1a receptor reduced the BOLD response in VPA animals only. Neural responses to the visual stimulus, however, were lower in VPA animals. Blockade with the V(1a antagonist did not revert this latter effect. Our data suggest that prenatal VPA affects the processing of social stimuli and perhaps social memory, partly through a mechanism that may involve vasopressin V(1a neurotransmission.

  20. Necrosis-Driven Systemic Immune Response Alters SAM Metabolism through the FOXO-GNMT Axis

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    Fumiaki Obata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sterile inflammation triggered by endogenous factors is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrate that apoptosis-deficient mutants spontaneously develop a necrosis-driven systemic immune response in Drosophila and provide an in vivo model for studying the organismal response to sterile inflammation. Metabolomic analysis of hemolymph from apoptosis-deficient mutants revealed increased sarcosine and reduced S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM levels due to glycine N-methyltransferase (Gnmt upregulation. We showed that Gnmt was elevated in response to Toll activation induced by the local necrosis of wing epidermal cells. Necrosis-driven inflammatory conditions induced dFoxO hyperactivation, leading to an energy-wasting phenotype. Gnmt was cell-autonomously upregulated by dFoxO in the fat body as a possible rheostat for controlling energy loss, which functioned during fasting as well as inflammatory conditions. We propose that the dFoxO-Gnmt axis is essential for the maintenance of organismal SAM metabolism and energy homeostasis.

  1. Influence of anthropogenic alterations on geomorphic response to climate variations and change in San Francisco Bay-Delta and watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Global warming and attendant sea-level rise may soon impact geomorphic processes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River and San Francisco Bay Delta systems. During the past two centuries, dramatic anthropogenic changes in sediment supply and pervasive structural controls on rivers and floodplains have altered geomorphic responses to floods throughout a zone that extends upstream from tidally influenced areas to dams that regulate flow. Current geomorphic responses to floods differ from natural responses due to historical actions that concentrated the pre-disturbance multiple-channel and flood-basin system into single channels isolated by levees from increasingly developed floodplains and flood bypass channels, altered flow and sediment regimes, and caused subsidence of leveed Delta Islands. A review of historic and current geomorphic responses to floods illustrates the dominance of structural controls on geomorphic changes in the lowland part of the Sacramento-San Joaquin system. Current climate-change projections for CA suggest that the total volume of snowmelt runoff that may be shifted from spring and added to winter flows is roughly 5 maf/yr, similar to the volume currently available for flood storage in Sierra Nevadan reservoirs. Changes in timing of reservoir releases to accommodate these changes could add to either the magnitude or duration of winter flood peaks, each causing different geomorphic responses. Increased wintertime flows that accompany already large floods could increase overbank flood extent, erosion, and sedimentation, or alternatively increase the depth and strength of confined flows and increase the risk of levee failures. Runoff released from reservoirs as a relatively constant addition to winter baseflow would increase the duration of bankfull or possibly "levee-full" flows. This scenario could lead to bank and levee failure through increased saturation and seepage erosion. Projected sea level rise of 1-2 m would compound vulnerability of

  2. Prenatal exposure to modafinil alters behavioural response to methamphetamine in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Pistovcakova, Jana; Amchova, Petra; Sulcova, Alexandra; Machalova, Alena

    2018-03-20

    Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug prescribed for treatment of narcolepsy. However, it is used as a "smart drug" especially by young adults to increase wakefulness, concentration and mental performance. Therefore, it can also be used by women with childbearing potential and its developmental effects can become a concern. The aim of this study was to assess behavioural and immune effects of prenatal modafinil exposure in mice and to evaluate the reaction to methamphetamine exposure on these animals in adult age. Pregnant female mice were given either saline or modafinil (50 mg/kg orally) from gestation day (GD) 3 to GD 10 and then a challenge dose on GD 17. The male offspring were treated analogously at the age of 10 weeks with methamphetamine (2.5 mg/kg orally). Changes in the spontaneous locomotor/exploratory behaviour and anxiogenic profile in the open field test were assessed in naïve animals, after an acute and 8th modafinil dose and the challenge dose following a 7-day wash-out period. One month after completion of the behavioural study, the leukocyte phagocytosis was examined by zymosan induced and luminol-aided chemiluminiscence assay in vitro. The modafinil prenatally exposed mice showed basal hypolocomotion, increased anxiety, lower locomotor effect of acute methamphetamine and increased vulnerability to behavioural sensitization. The leukocyte activity did not show significant differences. Prenatal modafinil exposure alters basal behavioural profile, decreases acute effect of methamphetamine and enhances vulnerability to development of behavioural sensitization at adulthood. This may lead to higher vulnerability to development of addiction. Copyright © 2018 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diz-Chaves Yolanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10, and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1β mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with

  4. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins during alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1, pollination (S2, and the post-pollination senescence period (S3. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD. Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs, carbonic anhydrase (CA, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein (NQOLs. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower

  5. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  6. Physiological relaxation induced by horticultural activity: transplanting work using flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-sun; Park, Bum-jin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Kun-tae; Ku, Ja-hyeong; Lee, Jun-woo; Oh, Kyung-ok; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2013-10-10

    Despite increasing attention and a growing volume of research data, little physiological evidence is available on the benefits of horticultural activity and the different effects on individuals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological effects of horticultural activity and to examine how differences in personality alter these effects. The effects of transplanting real flowers (horticultural activity) and handling artificial flowers (control activity) on human physiological activity were compared. On the first day, eight participants engaged in horticultural activity and another eight in the control activity. On the second day, participants switched roles. Participants' physiological conditions during each activity were assessed by measuring the heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV). Psychological responses, which were measured using a semantic differential rating scale, showed that the horticultural activity promoted comfortable, soothed, and natural feelings, compared to the control activity. Analysis of physiological responses using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that sympathetic nervous activity significantly decreased in the late time period (11 to 15 minutes) of horticultural activity only in the type A group. This study supports the fact that the horticultural activity can enhance psychological and physiological relaxation effects, although these physiological effects can differ among individuals with different personalities.

  7. Early-Life Persistent Vitamin D Deficiency Alters Cardiopulmonary Responses to Particulate Matter-Enhanced Atmospheric Smog in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Kimberly; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Thompson, Leslie; Krantz, Q Todd; King, Charly; Krug, Jonathan; Gilmour, M Ian; Farraj, Aimen; Hazari, Mehdi

    2018-03-06

    Early life nutritional deficiencies can lead to increased cardiovascular susceptibility to environmental exposures. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of early life persistent vitamin D deficiency (VDD) on the cardiopulmonary response to a particulate matter-enhanced photochemical smog. Mice were fed a VDD or normal diet (ND) after weaning. At 17 weeks of age, mice were implanted with radiotelemeters to monitor electrocardiogram, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Ventilatory function was measured throughout the diet before and after smog exposure using whole-body plethysmography. VDD mice had lower HR, increased HRV, and decreased tidal volume compared with ND. Regardless of diet, HR decreased during air exposure; this response was blunted by smog in ND mice and to a lesser degree in VDD. When compared with ND, VDD increased HRV during air exposure and more so with smog. However, smog only increased cardiac arrhythmias in ND mice. This study demonstrates that VDD alters the cardiopulmonary response to smog, highlighting the possible influence of nutritional factors in determining responses to air pollution. The mechanism of how VDD induces these effects is currently unknown, but modifiable factors should be considered when performing risk assessment of complex air pollution atmospheres.

  8. Historical precipitation predictably alters the shape and magnitude of microbial functional response to soil moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Waring, Bonnie G; Hawkes, Christine V

    2016-05-01

    Soil moisture constrains the activity of decomposer soil microorganisms, and in turn the rate at which soil carbon returns to the atmosphere. While increases in soil moisture are generally associated with increased microbial activity, historical climate may constrain current microbial responses to moisture. However, it is not known if variation in the shape and magnitude of microbial functional responses to soil moisture can be predicted from historical climate at regional scales. To address this problem, we measured soil enzyme activity at 12 sites across a broad climate gradient spanning 442-887 mm mean annual precipitation. Measurements were made eight times over 21 months to maximize sampling during different moisture conditions. We then fit saturating functions of enzyme activity to soil moisture and extracted half saturation and maximum activity parameter values from model fits. We found that 50% of the variation in maximum activity parameters across sites could be predicted by 30-year mean annual precipitation, an indicator of historical climate, and that the effect is independent of variation in temperature, soil texture, or soil carbon concentration. Based on this finding, we suggest that variation in the shape and magnitude of soil microbial response to soil moisture due to historical climate may be remarkably predictable at regional scales, and this approach may extend to other systems. If historical contingencies on microbial activities prove to be persistent in the face of environmental change, this approach also provides a framework for incorporating historical climate effects into biogeochemical models simulating future global change scenarios. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Altered Satellite Cell Responsiveness and Denervation Implicated in Progression of Rotator-Cuff Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Gigliotti

    Full Text Available Rotator-cuff injury (RCI is common and painful; even after surgery, joint stability and function may not recover. Relative contributions to atrophy from disuse, fibrosis, denervation, and satellite-cell responsiveness to activating stimuli are not known.Potential contributions of denervation and disrupted satellite cell responses to growth signals were examined in supraspinatus (SS and control (ipsilateral deltoid muscles biopsied from participants with RCI (N = 27. Biopsies were prepared for explant culture (to study satellite cell activity, immunostained to localize Pax7, BrdU, and Semaphorin 3A in satellite cells, sectioning to study blood vessel density, and western blotting to measure the fetal (γ subunit of acetylcholine receptor (γ-AchR. Principal component analysis (PCA for 35 parameters extracted components identified variables that contributed most to variability in the dataset. γ-AchR was higher in SS than control, indicating denervation. Satellite cells in SS had a low baseline level of activity (Pax7+ cells labelled in S-phase versus control; only satellite cells in SS showed increased proliferative activity after nitric oxide-donor treatment. Interestingly, satellite cell localization of Semaphorin 3A, a neuro-chemorepellent, was greater in SS (consistent with fiber denervation than control muscle at baseline. PCAs extracted components including fiber atrophy, satellite cell activity, fibrosis, atrogin-1, smoking status, vascular density, γAchR, and the time between symptoms and surgery. Use of deltoid as a control for SS was supported by PCA findings since "muscle" was not extracted as a variable in the first two principal components. SS muscle in RCI is therefore atrophic, denervated, and fibrotic, and has satellite cells that respond to activating stimuli.Since SS satellite cells can be activated in culture, a NO-donor drug combined with stretching could promote muscle growth and improve functional outcome after RCI. PCAs

  10. Altered Satellite Cell Responsiveness and Denervation Implicated in Progression of Rotator-Cuff Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Deanna; Leiter, Jeff R S; MacDonald, Peter B; Peeler, Jason; Anderson, Judy E

    Rotator-cuff injury (RCI) is common and painful; even after surgery, joint stability and function may not recover. Relative contributions to atrophy from disuse, fibrosis, denervation, and satellite-cell responsiveness to activating stimuli are not known. Potential contributions of denervation and disrupted satellite cell responses to growth signals were examined in supraspinatus (SS) and control (ipsilateral deltoid) muscles biopsied from participants with RCI (N = 27). Biopsies were prepared for explant culture (to study satellite cell activity), immunostained to localize Pax7, BrdU, and Semaphorin 3A in satellite cells, sectioning to study blood vessel density, and western blotting to measure the fetal (γ) subunit of acetylcholine receptor (γ-AchR). Principal component analysis (PCA) for 35 parameters extracted components identified variables that contributed most to variability in the dataset. γ-AchR was higher in SS than control, indicating denervation. Satellite cells in SS had a low baseline level of activity (Pax7+ cells labelled in S-phase) versus control; only satellite cells in SS showed increased proliferative activity after nitric oxide-donor treatment. Interestingly, satellite cell localization of Semaphorin 3A, a neuro-chemorepellent, was greater in SS (consistent with fiber denervation) than control muscle at baseline. PCAs extracted components including fiber atrophy, satellite cell activity, fibrosis, atrogin-1, smoking status, vascular density, γAchR, and the time between symptoms and surgery. Use of deltoid as a control for SS was supported by PCA findings since "muscle" was not extracted as a variable in the first two principal components. SS muscle in RCI is therefore atrophic, denervated, and fibrotic, and has satellite cells that respond to activating stimuli. Since SS satellite cells can be activated in culture, a NO-donor drug combined with stretching could promote muscle growth and improve functional outcome after RCI. PCAs suggest

  11. Genome-wide transcriptional response of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with an altered redox metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Christoffer; Regenberg, Birgitte; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The genome-wide transcriptional response of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deleted in GDH1 that encodes a NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was compared to a wild-type strain under anaerobic steady-state conditions. The GDH1-deleted strain has a significantly reduced NADPH requirement...... the only one with a direct link to redox metabolism was GND1, encoding phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. To extract additional information we analyzed the transcription data for a gene subset consisting of all known genes encoding metabolic enzymes that use NAD(+) or NADP(+). The subset was analyzed...

  12. ALTERATIONS TO PLBS AND PLANTLETS OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE IN RESPONSE TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous study examined, in detail, the morphological response of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs to 26 plant growth regulators (PGRs. In this study, flow cytometric analyses of the PLBs derived from several of these PGR treatments revealed changes in the ploidy of PLBs while the ploidy of plant leaves remained constant. The SPAD value of leaves of plants derived from PGR treatments changed significantly. The choice of PGR must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of the possible resulting changes to morphology and physiological parameters.

  13. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each d...

  14. Manipulating the Placebo Response in Experimental Pain by Altering Doctor’s Performance Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Efrat; Biegon, Anat; Ziv, Amitai; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Weiser, Mark; Alon, Uri; Citron, Atay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Performance is paramount in traditional healing rituals. From a Western perspective, such performative behavior can be understood principally as inducing patients’ faith in the performer’s supernatural healing powers and effecting positive changes through the same mechanisms attributed to the placebo response, which is defined as improvement of clinical outcome in individuals receiving inactive treatment. Here we examined the possibility of using theatrical performance tools, including stage directions and scripting, to reproducibly manipulate the style and content of a simulated doctor–patient encounter and influence the placebo response in experimental pain. Methods: A total of 122 healthy volunteers (18–45 years, 76 men) exposed to experimental pain (the cold pressor test) were assessed for pain threshold and tolerance before and after receiving a placebo cream from a “doctor” impersonated by a trained actor. The actor alternated between two distinct scripts and stage directions, i.e., performance styles created by a theater director/playwright, one emulating a standard doctor–patient encounter (scenario A) and the other emphasizing attentiveness and strong suggestion, elements also present in ritual healing (scenario B). The placebo response size was calculated as the %difference in pain threshold and tolerance after exposure relative to baseline. In addition, subjects demonstrating a ≥30% increase in pain threshold or tolerance relative to baseline were defined as responders. Each encounter was videotaped in its entirety. Results: Inspection of the videotapes confirmed the reproducibility and consistency of the distinct scenarios enacted by the “doctor”-performer. Furthermore, scenario B resulted in a significant increase in pain threshold relative to scenario A. Interestingly, this increase derived from the placebo responder subgroup; as shown by two-way analysis of variance (performance style, F = 4.30; p = 0.040; η2 = 0

  15. Manipulating the Placebo Response in Experimental Pain by Altering Doctor's Performance Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Efrat; Biegon, Anat; Ziv, Amitai; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Weiser, Mark; Alon, Uri; Citron, Atay

    2016-01-01

    Performance is paramount in traditional healing rituals. From a Western perspective, such performative behavior can be understood principally as inducing patients' faith in the performer's supernatural healing powers and effecting positive changes through the same mechanisms attributed to the placebo response, which is defined as improvement of clinical outcome in individuals receiving inactive treatment. Here we examined the possibility of using theatrical performance tools, including stage directions and scripting, to reproducibly manipulate the style and content of a simulated doctor-patient encounter and influence the placebo response in experimental pain. A total of 122 healthy volunteers (18-45 years, 76 men) exposed to experimental pain (the cold pressor test) were assessed for pain threshold and tolerance before and after receiving a placebo cream from a "doctor" impersonated by a trained actor. The actor alternated between two distinct scripts and stage directions, i.e., performance styles created by a theater director/playwright, one emulating a standard doctor-patient encounter (scenario A) and the other emphasizing attentiveness and strong suggestion, elements also present in ritual healing (scenario B). The placebo response size was calculated as the %difference in pain threshold and tolerance after exposure relative to baseline. In addition, subjects demonstrating a ≥30% increase in pain threshold or tolerance relative to baseline were defined as responders. Each encounter was videotaped in its entirety. Inspection of the videotapes confirmed the reproducibility and consistency of the distinct scenarios enacted by the "doctor"-performer. Furthermore, scenario B resulted in a significant increase in pain threshold relative to scenario A. Interestingly, this increase derived from the placebo responder subgroup; as shown by two-way analysis of variance (performance style, F = 4.30; p = 0.040; η(2) = 0.035; style × responder status interaction term, F

  16. Effect of floral bud reduction on flower longevity in Asiatic hybrids lilies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-Muisers, van der J.J.M.; Oeveren, van J.C.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Floral bud abortion was found to be an undesirable source of non-genetic variation in breeding trials directed on the improvement of individual flower longevity in Asiatic hybrid lilies. It increased the longevity of the remaining flowers of the inflorescence. A similar response was found after

  17. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, V S; Almeida, V R; Matos Junior, J B; Vicentini, T I; van den Brand, H; Boleli, I C

    2016-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a constant incubation temperature [machine temperatures: 36°C (Low), 37.5°C (Control), and 39°C (High); eggshell temperature of 37.4 ± 0.08°C, 37.8 ± 0.15°C, and 38.8 ± 0.33°C, respectively] from d 13 till hatching. Low treatment chickens showed lower plasma T3 and GH levels at d 1 of age and lower T3 level at d 42 of age compared to the Control treatment. Preferred ambient, rectal temperature, T4 level, growth rate, food intake rate, and response to thermal challenge were not altered in these chickens. On the other hand, High-treatment chickens exhibited high preferred ambient temperature and rectal temperature during the first 2 wk post-hatch, lower plasma T3 level at d 21 and 42 and a delayed increase in respiratory movement in response to thermal challenge compared to the Control treatment. However, chickens subjected to the Control and High treatments did not differ in T4 and GH level and performance. We conclude that exposure to high temperature during late embryonic development has long-lasting effects on the thermoregulatory system of broiler chickens by affecting the heat tolerance of these chickens. Moreover, the preferred ambient temperature of the chickens from heat-treated eggs correspond to those recommended for the strain under study, whereas for the cold-treated and control-chickens it was 1°C below, indicating that incubation temperature might have consequences on the ambient temperature chickens require during the rearing phase. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Vaccination targeting human HER3 alters the phenotype of infiltrating T cells and responses to immune checkpoint inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Morse, Michael A; Hobeika, Amy; Diniz, Marcio A; Gwin, William R; Hartman, Zachary; Wei, Junping; Guo, Hongtao; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Kaneko, Kensuke; Broadwater, Gloria; Lyerly, H Kim

    2017-01-01

    Expression of human epidermal growth factor family member 3 (HER3), a critical heterodimerization partner with EGFR and HER2, promotes more aggressive biology in breast and other epithelial malignancies. As such, inhibiting HER3 could have broad applicability to the treatment of EGFR- and HER2-driven tumors. Although lack of a functional kinase domain limits the use of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, HER3 contains antigenic targets for T cells and antibodies. Using novel human HER3 transgenic mouse models of breast cancer, we demonstrate that immunization with recombinant adenoviral vectors encoding full length human HER3 (Ad-HER3-FL) induces HER3-specific T cells and antibodies, alters the T cell infiltrate in tumors, and influences responses to immune checkpoint inhibitions. Both preventative and therapeutic Ad-HER3-FL immunization delayed tumor growth but were associated with both intratumoral PD-1 expressing CD8 + T cells and regulatory CD4 + T cell infiltrates. Immune checkpoint inhibition with either anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies increased intratumoral CD8 + T cell infiltration and eliminated tumor following preventive vaccination with Ad-HER3-FL vaccine. The combination of dual PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA4 blockade slowed the growth of tumor in response to Ad-HER3-FL in the therapeutic model. We conclude that HER3-targeting vaccines activate HER3-specific T cells and induce anti-HER3 specific antibodies, which alters the intratumoral T cell infiltrate and responses to immune checkpoint inhibition.

  19. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Responses to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Fordahl, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    , the dopamine transporter (DAT). Preclinical literature has shown that reduced cocaine potency at the DAT increases cocaine taking, highlighting the key role of tolerance in addiction. Addiction is characterized by cycles of abstinence, often for many months, followed by relapse, making it important to determine possible interactions between abstinence and subsequent drug re-exposure. Using a rodent model of cocaine abuse, we found long-lasting, possibly permanent, cocaine-induced alterations to the DAT, whereby cocaine tolerance is reinstated by minimal drug exposure, even after recovery of DAT function over prolonged abstinence periods. PMID:27466327

  20. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Mark David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Franson, J Christian [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; Mostl, Erich [UNIV OF VIENNA; Porter, Warren P [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Hofmeister, Erik K [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    2009-01-01

    independently and interactively altered immunity to WNv in chickens. Further characterization of how variations in SR-exposure to and CORT levels in chickens and wild birds relate to laboratory WNv-infection trials is warranted in order to place these findings into an epidemiological context.

  1. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  2. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  3. Altered T-cell responses by the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Khalaf

    Full Text Available Several studies support an association between the chronic inflammatory diseases periodontitis and atherosclerosis with a crucial role for the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. However, the interplay between this pathogen and the adaptive immune system, including T-cells, is sparsely investigated. Here we used Jurkat T-cells to determine the effects of P. gingivalis on T-cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. We show that viable P. gingivalis targets IL-2 expression at the protein level. Initial cellular events, including ROS production and [Ca(2+](i, were elevated in response to P. gingivalis, but AP-1 and NF-κB activity dropped below basal levels and T-cells were unable to sustain stable IL-2 accumulation. IL-2 was partially restored by Leupeptin, but not by Cathepsin B Inhibitor, indicating an involvement of Rgp proteinases in the suppression of IL-2 accumulation. This was further confirmed by purified Rgp that caused a dose-dependent decrease in IL-2 levels. These results provide new insights of how this periodontal pathogen evades the host adaptive immune system by inhibiting IL-2 accumulation and thus attenuating T-cell proliferation and cellular communication.

  4. Adaptive endoplasmic reticulum stress alters cellular responses to the extracellular milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiting; Neely, Elizabeth; Simmons, Zachary; Connor, James R

    2015-05-01

    The ability to respond to perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function is a critical property for all cells. In the presence of chronic ER stress, the cell must adapt so that cell survival is favored or the stress may promote apoptosis. In some pathological processes, such as neurodengeneration, persistent ER stress can be tolerated for an extended period, but eventually cell death occurs. It is not known how an adaptive response converts from survival into apoptosis. To gain a better understanding of the role of adaptive ER stress in neurodegeneration, in this study, with a neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y and primary motor neuron-glia cell mixed cultures, we induced adaptive ER stress and modified the extracellular environment with physiologically relevant changes that alone did not activate ER stress. Our data demonstrate that an adaptive ER stress favored neuronal cell survival, but when cells were exposed to additional physiological insults the level of ER stress was increased, followed by activation of the caspase pathway. Our results indicate that an adaptive ER stress response could be converted to apoptosis when the external cellular milieu changed, suggesting that the conversion from prosurvival to proapoptotic pathways can be driven by the external milieu. This conversion was due at least partially to an increased level of ER stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Glucosamine but not ibuprofen alters cartilage turnover in osteoarthritis patients in response to physical training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S G; Saxne, T; Heinegard, D

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in levels of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and urine c-telopeptide of type-2 collagen (CTX-II) as markers for cartilage turnover in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, in response to muscle strength training in combination with treat......OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in levels of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and urine c-telopeptide of type-2 collagen (CTX-II) as markers for cartilage turnover in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, in response to muscle strength training in combination...... (n=12) during 12 weeks of strength training of both legs with focus on the quadriceps muscle. Strength tests (5 repetition maximum), blood and urine sampling were performed before and after the training period. Serum COMP and urinary CTX-II were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA......). RESULTS: All three groups increased their muscle strength following 12 weeks of strength training (Ptraining period (P=0.012), whereas they did not change in the two other groups. Glucosamine reduced COMP statistically...

  6. Sleep fragmentation alters brain energy metabolism without modifying hippocampal electrophysiological response to novelty exposure

    KAUST Repository

    Baud, Maxime O.

    2016-05-03

    © 2016 European Sleep Research Society. Sleep is viewed as a fundamental restorative function of the brain, but its specific role in neural energy budget remains poorly understood. Sleep deprivation dampens brain energy metabolism and impairs cognitive functions. Intriguingly, sleep fragmentation, despite normal total sleep duration, has a similar cognitive impact, and in this paper we ask the question of whether it may also impair brain energy metabolism. To this end, we used a recently developed mouse model of 2 weeks of sleep fragmentation and measured 2-deoxy-glucose uptake and glycogen, glucose and lactate concentration in different brain regions. In order to homogenize mice behaviour during metabolic measurements, we exposed them to a novel environment for 1 h. Using an intra-hippocampal electrode, we first showed that hippocampal electroencephalograph (EEG) response to exploration was unaltered by 1 or 14 days of sleep fragmentation. However, after 14 days, sleep fragmented mice exhibited a lower uptake of 2-deoxy-glucose in cortex and hippocampus and lower cortical lactate levels than control mice. Our results suggest that long-term sleep fragmentation impaired brain metabolism to a similar extent as total sleep deprivation without affecting the neuronal responsiveness of hippocampus to a novel environment.

  7. Depression and treatment response: dynamic interplay of signaling pathways and altered neural processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960s, when the first tricyclic and monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressant drugs were introduced, most of the ensuing agents were designed to target similar brain pathways that elevate serotonin and/or norepinephrine signaling. Fifty years later, the main goal of the current depression research is to develop faster-acting, more effective therapeutic agents with fewer side effects, as currently available antidepressants are plagued by delayed therapeutic onset and low response rates. Clinical and basic science research studies have made significant progress towards deciphering the pathophysiological events within the brain involved in development, maintenance, and treatment of major depressive disorder. Imaging and postmortem brain studies in depressed human subjects, in combination with animal behavioral models of depression, have identified a number of different cellular events, intracellular signaling pathways, proteins, and target genes that are modulated by stress and are potentially vital mediators of antidepressant action. In this review, we focus on several neural mechanisms, primarily within the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, which have recently been implicated in depression and treatment response. PMID:22585060

  8. Sleep fragmentation alters brain energy metabolism without modifying hippocampal electrophysiological response to novelty exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Maxime O; Parafita, Julia; Nguyen, Audrey; Magistretti, Pierre J; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2016-10-01

    Sleep is viewed as a fundamental restorative function of the brain, but its specific role in neural energy budget remains poorly understood. Sleep deprivation dampens brain energy metabolism and impairs cognitive functions. Intriguingly, sleep fragmentation, despite normal total sleep duration, has a similar cognitive impact, and in this paper we ask the question of whether it may also impair brain energy metabolism. To this end, we used a recently developed mouse model of 2 weeks of sleep fragmentation and measured 2-deoxy-glucose uptake and glycogen, glucose and lactate concentration in different brain regions. In order to homogenize mice behaviour during metabolic measurements, we exposed them to a novel environment for 1 h. Using an intra-hippocampal electrode, we first showed that hippocampal electroencephalograph (EEG) response to exploration was unaltered by 1 or 14 days of sleep fragmentation. However, after 14 days, sleep fragmented mice exhibited a lower uptake of 2-deoxy-glucose in cortex and hippocampus and lower cortical lactate levels than control mice. Our results suggest that long-term sleep fragmentation impaired brain metabolism to a similar extent as total sleep deprivation without affecting the neuronal responsiveness of hippocampus to a novel environment. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Chronic binge alcohol consumption during pregnancy alters rat maternal uterine artery pressure response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vishal D; Lunde-Young, Emilie R; Davis-Anderson, Katie L; Orzabal, Marcus; Ivanov, Ivan; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to investigate pressure-dependent maternal uterine artery responses and vessel remodeling following gestational binge alcohol exposure. Two groups of pregnant rats were used: the alcohol group (28.5% wt/v, 6.0 g/kg, once-daily orogastric gavage in a binge paradigm between gestational day (GD) 5-19) and pair-fed controls (isocalorically matched). On GD20, excised, pressurized primary uterine arteries were studied following equilibration (60 mm Hg) using dual chamber arteriograph. The uterine artery diameter stabilized at 20 mm Hg, showed passive distension at 40 mm Hg, and redeveloped tone at 60 mm Hg. An alcohol effect (P = 0.0025) was observed on the percent constriction of vessel diameter with greater pressure-dependent myogenic constriction. Similar alcohol effect was noted with lumen diameter response (P = 0.0020). The percent change in media:lumen ratio was higher in the alcohol group (P alcohol affects pressure-induced uterine artery reactivity, inward-hypotrophic remodeling, and adaptations critical for nutrient delivery to the fetus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered response to A(H1N1)pnd09 vaccination in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Carson, Charlotte Giwercman

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were suspected to be at particular risk when H1N1pnd09 influenza became pandemic in 2009. Our primary objective was to compare the immune responses conferred by MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine (Focetria®) in H1N1pnd09-naïve pregnant and non-pregnant women. The secondary aims...... were to compare influences of dose and adjuvant on the immune response. METHODS: The study was nested in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010) pregnancy cohort in 2009-2010 and conducted as a single-blinded block-randomised [1∶1∶1] controlled clinical trial in pregnant...... at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 and 10 months after vaccination, adverse events were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: 58 pregnant women were allocated to Pa7.5 µg and 149 non-pregnant women were recruited to NPa7.5 µg. The sero-conversion rate was significantly increased in non-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) compared...

  11. Proteomic alterations of Brassica napus root in response to boron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Wang, Zhenhua; Shi, Lei; Wang, Lijun; Xu, Fangsen

    2010-10-01

    Boron (B) deficiency is a worldwide problem, and Brassica napus is one of the most sensitive crops to B deficiency. To better understand the B starvation response of Brassica napus, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling stage Brassica napus root between B-sufficient and B-limited conditions: 45 differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by 2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and LTQ-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Among these proteins, 10 were down-regulated and 35 were up-regulated under B-limited condition. Combining GO and KEGG analyses with data from previous reports, proteins were categorized into several functional groups, including antioxidant and detoxification, defense-related proteins, signaling and regulation, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, protein translation and degradation, cell wall structure, and transporter. The genes of selected proteins were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Our results provide novel information for better understanding the physiological and biochemical responses to B deficiency in plants.

  12. Factor XI Deficiency Alters the Cytokine Response and Activation of Contact Proteases during Polymicrobial Sepsis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E Bane

    Full Text Available Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is often accompanied by abnormalities of blood coagulation. Prior work with a mouse model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP suggested that the protease factor XIa contributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC and to the cytokine response during sepsis. We investigated the importance of factor XI to cytokine and coagulation responses during the first 24 hours after CLP. Compared to wild type littermates, factor XI-deficient (FXI-/- mice had a survival advantage after CLP, with smaller increases in plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-10 and delayed IL-1β and IL-6 responses. Plasma levels of serum amyloid P, an acute phase protein, were increased in wild type mice 24 hours post-CLP, but not in FXI-/- mice, supporting the impression of a reduced inflammatory response in the absence of factor XI. Surprisingly, there was little evidence of DIC in mice of either genotype. Plasma levels of the contact factors factor XII and prekallikrein were reduced in WT mice after CLP, consistent with induction of contact activation. However, factor XII and PK levels were not reduced in FXI-/- animals, indicating factor XI deficiency blunted contact activation. Intravenous infusion of polyphosphate into WT mice also induced changes in factor XII, but had much less effect in FXI deficient mice. In vitro analysis revealed that factor XIa activates factor XII, and that this reaction is enhanced by polyanions such polyphosphate and nucleic acids. These data suggest that factor XI deficiency confers a survival advantage in the CLP sepsis model by altering the cytokine response to infection and blunting activation of the contact (kallikrein-kinin system. The findings support the hypothesis that factor XI functions as a bidirectional interface between contact activation and thrombin generation, allowing the two processes to influence each other.

  13. Microglial depletion alters the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, T Jordan; Crews, Fulton T

    2017-04-20

    Recent studies have implicated microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Indeed, post-mortem alcoholic brains show increased microglial markers and increased immune gene expression; however, the effects of ethanol on microglial functioning and how this impacts the brain remain unclear. In this present study, we investigate the effects of acute binge ethanol on microglia and how microglial depletion changes the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal. C57BL/6J mice were treated intragastrically with acute binge ethanol for time course and dose-response studies. Cultured mouse BV2 microglia-like cells were treated with ethanol in vitro for time course studies. Mice were also administered the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibitor PLX5622 to deplete microglia from the brain. These mice were subsequently treated with acute binge ethanol and sacrificed during withdrawal. Brain and BV2 mRNA were isolated and assessed using RT-PCR to examine expression of microglial and neuroimmune genes. Acute binge ethanol biphasically changed microglial (e.g., Iba1, CD68) gene expression, with initial decreases during intoxication and subsequent increases during withdrawal. Acute ethanol withdrawal dose dependently increased neuroimmune gene (e.g., TNFα, Ccl2, IL-1ra, IL-4) expression beginning at high doses. BV2 cells showed biphasic changes in pro-inflammatory (e.g., TNFα, Ccl2) gene expression following ethanol treatment in vitro. Administration of PLX5622 depleted microglia from the brains of mice. Although some neuroimmune genes were reduced by microglial depletion, many others were unchanged. Microglial depletion blunted pro-inflammatory (e.g., TNFα, Ccl2) gene expression and enhanced anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-1ra, IL-4) gene expression during acute binge ethanol withdrawal. These studies find acute binge ethanol withdrawal increases microglial and neuroimmune gene expression. Ethanol exposure

  14. Dose-responsiveness and persistence of microRNA expression alterations induced by cigarette smoke in mouse lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzotti, Alberto; Larghero, Patrizia; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Cartiglia, Cristina; Camoirano, Anna [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Steele, Vernon E. [National Cancer Institute (NCI), Rockville, MD (United States); De Flora, Silvio, E-mail: sdf@unige.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), either mainstream or environmental, results in a remarkable downregulation of microRNA expression in the lung of both mice and rats. The goals of the present study were to evaluate the dose responsiveness to CS and the persistence of microRNA alterations after smoking cessation. ICR (CD-1) neonatal mice were exposed whole-body to mainstream CS, at the doses of 119, 292, 438, and 631 mg/m{sup 3} of total particulate matter. Exposure started within 12 h after birth and continued daily for 4 weeks. The levels of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were measured by {sup 32}P postlabeling procedures, and the expression of 697 mouse microRNAs was analyzed by microarray. The highest CS dose was lethal. Exposure to CS caused a dose-dependent increase of DNA alterations. DNA adducts and, even more sharply, 8-oxodGuo were reverted 1 and 4 weeks after smoking cessation. Exposure to CS resulted in an evident dysregulation of microRNA expression profiles, mainly in the sense of downregulation. The two lowest doses were not particularly effective, while the highest nonlethal dose produced extensive microRNA alterations. The expression of most downregulated microRNAs, including among others 7 members of the let-7 family, was restored one week after smoking cessation. However, the recovery was incomplete for a limited array of microRNAs, including mir-34b, mir-345, mir-421, mir-450b, mir-466, and mir-469. Thus, it appears that microRNAs mainly behave as biomarkers of effect and that exposure to high-dose, lasting for an adequate period of time, is needed to trigger the CS-related carcinogenesis process in the experimental animal model used.

  15. TUSC3 Loss Alters the ER Stress Response and Accelerates Prostate Cancer Growth in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Peter; Tomasich, Erwin; Vaňhara, Petr; Kratochvílová, Kateřina; Anees, Mariam; Marhold, Maximilian; Lemberger, Christof E.; Gerschpacher, Marion; Horvat, Reinhard; Sibilia, Maria; Pils, Dietmar; Krainer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in developed countries. Tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3) has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer, though its function has not been characterized. TUSC3 shares homologies with the yeast oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex subunit Ost3p, suggesting a role in protein glycosylation. We provide evidence that TUSC3 is part of the OST complex and affects N-linked glycosylation in mammalian cells. Loss of TUSC3 expression in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines leads to increased proliferation, migration and invasion as well as accelerated xenograft growth in a PTEN negative background. TUSC3 downregulation also affects endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure and stress response, which results in increased Akt signaling. Together, our findings provide first mechanistic insight in TUSC3 function in prostate carcinogenesis in general and N-glycosylation in particular.

  16. Microsporidiosis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) alters blood-feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Donald R; Xue, Rui-De; Rotstein, Margaret A; Becnel, James J

    2007-11-01

    Infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) reduced mean human host attraction and landing/probing rates in female mosquitoes by 53 and 62%, respectively, compared with rates in microsporidia-free females. Infection with E. aedis reduced the average weight of unfed female mosquitoes by 4%, caused them to imbibe 23% less blood, and to lay 30% fewer eggs than healthy females. In contrast, E. aedis-infected mosquitoes required 20% more time (>1 h) than healthy females to bite skin treated with 15% DEET. Statistically significant morbidity in E. aedis-infected females was indicated by reductions in host attraction and landing/probing responses, the mass of unfed and blood-engorged females, and fecundity, and by increased DEET repellency.

  17. Ficolins do not alter host immune responses to lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, Ninette; Østrup, Olga; Schjalm, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Ficolins are a family of pattern recognition molecules that are capable of activating the lectin pathway of complement. A limited number of reports have demonstrated a protective role of ficolins in animal models of infection. In addition, an immune modulatory role of ficolins has been suggested....... Yet, the contribution of ficolins to inflammatory disease processes remains elusive. To address this, we investigated ficolin deficient mice during a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of systemic inflammation. Although murine serum ficolin was shown to bind LPS in vitro, there was no difference...... an unaltered spleen transcriptome profile in ficolin deficient mice compared to wildtype mice. Collectively, results from this study demonstrate that ficolins are not involved in host response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation....

  18. Combined facial heating and inhalation of hot air do not alter thermoeffector responses in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Kimura, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    The influence of thermoreceptors in human facial skin on thermoeffector responses is equivocal; furthermore, the presence of thermoreceptors in the respiratory tract and their involvement in thermal homeostasis has not been elucidated. This study tested the hypothesis that hot air directed on the face and inhaled during whole body passive heat stress elicits an earlier onset and greater sensitivity of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating than that directed on an equal skin surface area away from the face. Six men and two women completed two trials separated by ∼1 wk. Participants were passively heated (water-perfused suit; core temperature increase ∼0.9°C) while hot air was directed on either the face or on the lower leg (counterbalanced). Skin blood flux (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and local sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured at the chest and one forearm. During hot-air heating, local temperatures of the cheek and leg were 38.4 ± 0.8°C and 38.8 ± 0.6°C, respectively (P = 0.18). Breathing hot air combined with facial heating did not affect mean body temperature onsets (P = 0.97 and 0.27 for arm and chest sites, respectively) or slopes of cutaneous vasodilation (P = 0.49 and 0.43 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or the onsets (P = 0.89 and 0.94 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or slopes of sweating (P = 0.48 and 0.65 for arm and chest sites, respectively). Based on these findings, respiratory tract thermoreceptors, if present in humans, and selective facial skin heating do not modulate thermoeffector responses during passive heat stress. PMID:26157054

  19. Alterations in pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in response to parenteral and enteral alimentation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodell, R G; Spector, M H; Brooks, D A; Keller, F X; Kyner, W T

    1980-12-01

    Recent in vitro observations suggest that the intestine, in addition to the liver, may be an important organ of first-pass drug metabolism. While a variety of changes in intestinal morphology and function in response to continuous parenteral and enteral nutrition have been documented, the effect of different routes of alimentation on intestinal drug metabolism has not been previously investigated. Objectives of this study were to assess the contribution of intestinal pentobarbital metabolism to overall in vivo pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in the rat and to determine if differences in pentobarbital pharmacokinetics were seen between parenterally and enterally nourished animals. After 7 days of continuous infusion of amino acid-glucose mixture via a gastric or jugular vein catheter, pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after 40 mg/kg of pentobarbital was given orally or into the portal or femoral vein. Reduced systemic availability of pentobarbital after oral administration as compared to portal vein injection was seen in both alimentation groups indicating that significant intestinal metabolism of pentobarbital occurred in vivo. Total area under the pentobarbital plasma concentration-time curve was significantly greater in parenterally nourished animals as compared with enterally alimented animals after oral, portal vein and systemic vein drug administration. Differences in pentobarbital, pharmacokinetics between the two alimentation groups appeared to be primarly due to effects on hepatic pentobarbital metabolism. While the mechanism producing these changes has not been defined, differences in gut hormones release and/or pancreatic secretion in response to the two routes of alimentation may be contributory. The widespread use of enteral and parenteral alimentation in clinical medicine suggests that studies to determine if nutrition route of administration similarly influences drug metabolism in humans may be indicated.

  20. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition alters growth responses of European beech (Fagus sylvativa L.) to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Carsten; Niemeyer, Thomas; Fichtner, Andreas; Jansen, Kirstin; Kunz, Matthias; Maneke, Moritz; von Wehrden, Henrik; Quante, Markus; Walmsley, David; von Oheimb, Goddert; Härdtle, Werner

    2018-02-01

    Global change affects the functioning of forest ecosystems and the services they provide, but little is known about the interactive effects of co-occurring global change drivers on important functions such as tree growth and vitality. In the present study we quantified the interactive (i.e. synergistic or antagonistic) effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) on tree growth (in terms of tree-ring width, TRW), taking forest ecosystems with European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as an example. We hypothesised that (i) N deposition and climatic variables can evoke non-additive responses of the radial increment of beech trees, and (ii) N loads have the potential to strengthen the trees' sensitivity to climate change. In young stands, we found a synergistic positive effect of N deposition and annual mean temperature on TRW, possibly linked to the alleviation of an N shortage in young stands. In mature stands, however, high N deposition significantly increased the trees' sensitivity to increasing annual mean temperatures (antagonistic effect on TRW), possibly due to increased fine root dieback, decreasing mycorrhizal colonization or shifts in biomass allocation patterns (aboveground vs. belowground). Accordingly, N deposition and climatic variables caused both synergistic and antagonistic effects on the radial increment of beech trees, depending on tree age and stand characteristics. Hence, the nature of interactions could mediate the long-term effects of global change drivers (including N deposition) on forest carbon sequestration. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that interaction processes between climatic variables and N deposition are complex and have the potential to impair growth and performance of European beech. This in turn emphasises the importance of multiple-factor studies to foster an integrated understanding and models aiming at improved projections of tree growth responses to co-occurring drivers

  1. Comprehensive Analysis of miRNome Alterations in Response to Sorafenib Treatment in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Pehserl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are master regulators of drug resistance and have been previously proposed as potential biomarkers for the prediction of therapeutic response in colorectal cancer (CRC. Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor which has been approved for the treatment of liver, renal and thyroid cancer, is currently being studied as a monotherapy in selected molecular subtypes or in combination with other drugs in metastatic CRC. In this study, we explored sorafenib-induced cellular effects in Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog olog (KRAS wild-type and KRAS-mutated CRC cell lines (Caco-2 and HRT-18, and finally profiled expression changes of specific miRNAs within the miRNome (>1000 human miRNAs after exposure to sorafenib. Overall, sorafenib induced a time- and dose-dependent growth-inhibitory effect through S-phase cell cycle arrest in KRAS wild-type and KRAS-mutated CRC cells. In HRT-18 cells, two human miRNAs (hsa-miR-597 and hsa-miR-720 and two small RNAs (SNORD 13 and hsa-miR-3182 were identified as specifically sorafenib-induced. In Caco-2 cells, nine human miRNAs (hsa-miR-3142, hsa-miR-20a, hsa-miR-4301, hsa-miR-1290, hsa-miR-4286, hsa-miR-3182, hsa-miR-3142, hsa-miR-1246 and hsa-miR-720 were identified to be differentially regulated post sorafenib treatment. In conclusion, we confirmed sorafenib as a potential anti-neoplastic treatment strategy for CRC cells by demonstrating a growth-inhibitory and cell cycle–arresting effect of this drug. Changes in the miRNome indicate that some specific miRNAs might be relevant as indicators for sorafenib response, drug resistance and potential targets for combinatorial miRNA-based drug strategies.

  2. A single night light exposure acutely alters hormonal and metabolic responses in healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S Albreiki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many animal studies have reported an association between melatonin suppression and the disturbance of metabolic responses; yet, few human studies have investigated bright light effects on metabolic and hormonal responses at night. This study investigated the impact of light on plasma hormones and metabolites prior to, and after, an evening meal in healthy participants. Seventeen healthy participants, 8 females (22.2 ± 2.59 years, mean ± s.d. and 9 males (22.8 ± 3.5 years were randomised to a two-way cross-over design protocol; dim light (DL (500 lux sessions, separated by at least seven days. Saliva and plasma samples were collected prior to and after a standard evening meal at specific intervals. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels were significantly higher pre-meal in DL compared to BL (P < 0.01. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were significantly greater post-meal in the BL compared to DL session (P = 0.02, P = 0.001, respectively. Salivary melatonin levels were significantly higher in the DL compared to those in BL session (P = 0.005. BL at night was associated with significant increases in plasma glucose and insulin suggestive of glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. Raised pre-prandial NEFA levels may be due to changes in insulin sensitivity or the presence of melatonin and/or light at night. Plasma triglyceride (TAG levels were the same in both sessions. These results may explain some of the health issues reported in shift workers; however, further studies are needed to elucidate the cause of these metabolic changes.

  3. Light colour and intensity alters reproductive/seasonal responses in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suneeta; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2015-08-01

    An extensive literature is available on the photoperiodic responses of avian species but studies on light colour and wavelength from light emitting diode (LED) sources on reproduction are limited. Hence, an experiment was designed to study the effect of different colours and intensities of light on the reproductive responses of Japanese quail. Three-week old quail were exposed to five different light conditions with a long photoperiod (LD 16:8): WT (white fluorescent light 100 lux as control), W LED (white light emitting diode, 30 lux), B LED (blue LED, 30 lux), G LED (green LED, 30 lux) and R-LED (red LED, 30 lux). The cloacal gland size, an indicator of androgenic activity, was monitored weekly. The results indicated an early initiation of gonadal growth in WT quail which continued and maintained a plateau throughout the period of study. On the other hand, in general low intensity light, there was a decreased amplitude of the reproductive cycle and the quail exposed to different colour lights (green, red and blue lights) used different incubation times to initiate their gonadal growth and exhibited a gonadal cycle of a different duration up to 15.5 weeks. Thereafter, the gonad of quail of all the LED groups started developing again (including the blue LED exposed quail which remained undeveloped until this age) and attained the increased degree of growth until 26.5 weeks of age. During the second cycle, gonads of green and red light exposed quail continued to increase and maintained a plateau of development similar to WT exposed control while white and blue LED exposed quail exhibited spontaneous regression and attained complete sexual quiescence. Based on our study, it is suggested that long term exposure to blue LED light of low intensity may induce gonadal regression even under long-day conditions (LD 16:8), while exposure to green and red lights appears to maintain a constant photosensitivity after one complete gonadal cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  4. Alteration of hemorrhagic aldosterone response during sodium restriction, potassium supplement and diuresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H.K.; Ryu, Y.W.; Joo, B.S.; Koh, J.W.; Park, K.W.; Lee, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    Effect of sodium restriction with or without potassium supplement and furosemide diuresis on plasma aldosterone response to mild hemorrhage were studied in normotensive young volunteers. After an overnight fast, blood were drawn just before and 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 120 minutes after the 3 H-aldosterone injection. The sum of blood delivered reached over 100ml (during two hours). Plasma aldosterone and renin were measured by means of radiommunoassay. The results were as followed: 1. Hemorrhage resulted in a moderate increase in plasma aldosterone level of volunteers with normal diet. 2. The mean figures of plasma aldosterone in subjects with sodium restriction and diuresis were likewise significantly increased by hemorrhage, however, the figure of the subjects with potassium supplement who already shown higher plasma level was without effect on hemorrhage. 3. Hemorrhage produced slight decrease in serum sodium concentration in every experimental conditions, although the changes were not significant. 4. Plasma renin activities after the hemorrhage followed a similar pattern with that of aldosterone, increased during sodium restriction or diuresis and unaffected during potassium supplement. (author)

  5. Obesity/Type II diabetes alters macrophage polarization resulting in a fibrotic tendon healing response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Ackerman

    Full Text Available Type II Diabetes (T2DM dramatically impairs the tendon healing response, resulting in decreased collagen organization and mechanics relative to non-diabetic tendons. Despite this burden, there remains a paucity of information regarding the mechanisms that govern impaired healing of diabetic tendons. Mice were placed on either a high fat diet (T2DM or low fat diet (lean and underwent flexor tendon transection and repair surgery. Healing was assessed via mechanical testing, histology and changes in gene expression associated with collagen synthesis, matrix remodeling, and macrophage polarization. Obese/diabetic tendons healed with increased scar formation and impaired mechanical properties. Consistent with this, prolonged and excess expression of extracellular matrix (ECM components were observed in obese/T2DM tendons. Macrophages are involved in both inflammatory and matrix deposition processes during healing. Obese/T2DM tendons healed with increased expression of markers of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, and elevated and prolonged expression of M2 macrophages markers that are involved in ECM deposition. Here we demonstrate that tendons from obese/diabetic mice heal with increased scar formation and increased M2 polarization, identifying excess M2 macrophage activity and matrix synthesis as a potential mechanism of the fibrotic healing phenotype observed in T2DM tendons, and as such a potential target to improve tendon healing in T2DM.

  6. Fatp1 deficiency affects retinal light response and dark adaptation, and induces age-related alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Chekroud

    Full Text Available FATP1 is involved in lipid transport into cells and in intracellular lipid metabolism. We showed previously that this protein interacts with and inhibits the limiting-step isomerase of the visual cycle RPE65. Here, we aimed to analyze the effect of Fatp1-deficiency in vivo on the visual cycle, structure and function, and on retinal aging. Among the Fatp family members, we observed that only Fatp1 and 4 are expressed in the control retina, in both the neuroretina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In the neuroretina, Fatp1 is mostly expressed in photoreceptors. In young adult Fatp1(-/- mice, Fatp4 expression was unchanged in retinal pigment epithelium and reduced two-fold in the neuroretina as compared to Fatp1(+/+ mice. The Fatp1(-/- mice had a preserved retinal structure but a decreased electroretinogram response to light. These mice also displayed a delayed recovery of the b-wave amplitude after bleaching, however, visual cycle speed was unchanged, and both retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors presented the same fatty acid pattern compared to controls. In 2 year-old Fatp1(-/- mice, transmission electron microscopy studies showed specific abnormalities in the retinas comprising choroid vascularization anomalies and thickening of the Bruch membrane with material deposits, and sometimes local disorganization of the photoreceptor outer segments. These anomalies lead us to speculate that the absence of FATP1 accelerates the aging process.

  7. Alteration of Hemorrhagic Aldosterone Response During Sodium Restriction, Potassium Supplement and Diuresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ho Kyung; Ryu, Yong Wun; Koh, Joo Whan; Park, Kee Won; Lee, Jang Kyu

    1977-01-01

    Effect of sodium restriction with or without potassium supplement and furosemide diuresis on plasma aldosterone response to mild hemorrhage were studied in normotensive young volunteers. After an overnight fast, blood were drawn just before and 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 120 minutes after the 3H-aldosterone injection. The sum of blood delivered reached over 100 ml (during two hours). Plasma aldosterone and renin were measured by means of radioimmunoassay. The results were as followed; 1) Hemorrhage resulted in a moderate increase in plasma aldosterone level of volunteers with normal diet. 2) The mean figures of plasma aldosterone in subjects with sodium restriction and diuresis were likewise significantly increased by hemorrhage, however, the figure of the subjects with potassium supplement who already shown higher plasma level was without effect on hemorrhage. 3) Hemorrhage produced slight decrease in serum sodium concentration in every experimental conditions, although the changes were not significant. 4) Plasma renin activities after the hemorrhage followed a similar pattern with that of aldosterone, increased during sodium restriction or diuresis and unaffected during potassium supplement.

  8. Adrenergic mechanism responsible for pathological alteration in gastric mucosal blood flow in rats with ulcer bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I. A.; Gekalyuk, A. S.; Ulanova, M. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    The adrenergic system plays an important role in regulation of central and peripheral circulation in normal state and during hemorrhage. Because the impaired gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) is the major cause of gastroduodenal lesions, including ulcer bleeding (UB), we studied the adrenergic mechanism responsible for regulation of GMBF in rats with a model of stress-induced UB (SUB) using the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). First, we examined the effect of adrenaline on GMBF in rats under normal state and during UB. In all healthy animals the submucosal adrenaline injection caused a decrease in local GMBF. During UB the submucosal injection of adrenaline was accompanied by less pronounced GMBF suppression in 30,3% rats with SUB vs. healthy ones. In 69,7% rats with SUB we observed the increase in local GMBF after submucosal injection of adrenaline. Second, we studied the sensitivity of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors and the activity of two factors which are involved in β2-adrenomediated vasorelaxation-KATP -channels and NO. The effects of submucosal injection of isoproterenol, ICI118551 and glybenclamide on GMBF as well as NO levels in gastric tissue were significantly elevated in rats with SUB vs. healthy rats. Thus, our results indicate that high activation of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors associated with the increased vascular KATP -channels activity and elevated NO production is the important adrenergic mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of UB.

  9. Biomimeticity in tissue engineering scaffolds through synthetic peptide modifications-altering chemistry for enhanced biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejalekshmi, Kumaran G; Nair, Prabha D

    2011-02-01

    Biomimetic and bioactive biomaterials are desirable as tissue engineering scaffolds by virtue of their capability to mimic natural environments of the extracellular matrix. Biomimeticity has been achieved by the incorporation of synthetic short peptide sequences into suitable materials either by surface modification or by bulk incorporation. Research in this area has identified several novel synthetic peptide segments, some of them with cell-specific interactions, which may serve as potential candidates for use in explicit tissue applications. This review focuses on the developments and prospective directions of incorporating short synthetic peptide sequences onto scaffolds for tissue engineering, with emphasis on the chemistry of peptide immobilization and subsequent cell responses toward modified scaffolds. The article provides a decision-tree-type flow chart indicating the most probable cellular events on a given peptide-modified scaffold along with the consolidated list of synthetic peptide sequences, supports as well as cell types used in various tissue engineering studies, and aims to serve as a quick reference guide to peptide chemists and material scientists interested in the field. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  11. Alteration of Lymphocyte Phenotype and Function in Sickle Cell Anemia: Implications for Vaccine Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandya, Emmanuel; Reynolds, Teri; Obaro, Stephen; Makani, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have increased susceptibility to infections, secondary to impairment of immune function. Besides the described dysfunction in innate immunity, including impaired opsonization and phagocytosis of bacteria, evidence of dysfunction of T and B lymphocytes in SCA has also been reported. This includes reduction in the proportion of circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, reduction of CD4+ helper : CD8+ suppressor T cell ratio, aberrant activation and dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg), skewing of CD4+ T cells towards Th2 response and loss of IgM-secreting CD27+IgMhighIgDlow memory B cells. These changes occur on the background of immune activation characterized by predominance of memory CD4+ T cell phenotypes, increased Th17 signaling and elevated levels of C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, which may affect the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines available to prevent infections in SCA. Thus, in order to optimize the use of vaccines in SCA, a thorough understanding of T and B lymphocyte functions and vaccine reactivity among individuals with SCA is needed. Studies should be encouraged of different SCA populations, including sub-Saharan Africa where the burden of SCA is highest. This article summarizes our current understanding of lymphocyte biology in SCA, and highlights areas that warrant future research. PMID:27237467

  12. Vagal nerve stimulation triggers widespread responses and alters large-scale functional connectivity in the rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayue Cao

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is a therapy for epilepsy and depression. However, its efficacy varies and its mechanism remains unclear. Prior studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to map brain activations with VNS in human brains, but have reported inconsistent findings. The source of inconsistency is likely attributable to the complex temporal characteristics of VNS-evoked fMRI responses that cannot be fully explained by simplified response models in the conventional model-based analysis for activation mapping. To address this issue, we acquired 7-Tesla blood oxygenation level dependent fMRI data from anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats receiving electrical stimulation at the left cervical vagus nerve. Using spatially independent component analysis, we identified 20 functional brain networks and detected the network-wise activations with VNS in a data-driven manner. Our results showed that VNS activated 15 out of 20 brain networks, and the activated regions covered >76% of the brain volume. The time course of the evoked response was complex and distinct across regions and networks. In addition, VNS altered the strengths and patterns of correlations among brain networks relative to those in the resting state. The most notable changes in network-network interactions were related to the limbic system. Together, such profound and widespread effects of VNS may underlie its unique potential for a wide range of therapeutics to relieve central or peripheral conditions.

  13. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... “Judith”) plant grown in a plastic greenhouse and irrigated by a drip irrigation system under Mediterranean ... shorter internodes sections and reductions in flower number, size and quality (Cameron et al., 1999; .... Water use of carnation under plastic greenhouse conditions is computed using water balance ...

  14. Altered Insular and Occipital Responses to Simulated Vertical Self-Motion in Patients with Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Riccelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPersistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD is a common functional vestibular disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of non-vertiginous dizziness and unsteadiness that are exacerbated by upright posture, self-motion, and exposure to complex or moving visual stimuli. Recent physiologic and neuroimaging data suggest that greater reliance on visual cues for postural control (as opposed to vestibular cues—a phenomenon termed visual dependence and dysfunction in central visuo-vestibular networks may be important pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying PPPD. Dysfunctions are thought to involve insular regions that encode recognition of the visual effects of motion in the gravitational field.MethodsWe tested for altered activity in vestibular and visual cortices during self-motion simulation obtained via a visual virtual-reality rollercoaster stimulation using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 patients with PPPD and 15 healthy controls (HCs. We compared between groups differences in brain responses to simulated displacements in vertical vs horizontal directions and correlated the difference in directional responses with dizziness handicap in patients with PPPD.ResultsHCs showed increased activity in the anterior bank of the central insular sulcus during vertical relative to horizontal motion, which was not seen in patients with PPPD. However, for the same comparison, dizziness handicap correlated positively with activity in the visual cortex (V1, V2, and V3 in patients with PPPD.ConclusionWe provide novel insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying PPPD, including functional alterations in brain processes that affect balance control and reweighting of space-motion inputs to favor visual cues. For patients with PPPD, difficulties using visual data to discern the effects of gravity on self-motion may adversely affect balance control, particularly for individuals who simultaneously rely too heavily on visual

  15. Arsenic alters transcriptional responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and decreases antimicrobial defense of human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Britton C; Rayack, Erica J; Stanton, Bruce A

    2017-09-15

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water and food threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide by increasing the risk of numerous diseases. Arsenic exposure has been associated with infectious lung disease in epidemiological studies, but it is not yet understood how ingestion of low levels of arsenic increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of arsenic on gene expression in primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and to determine if arsenic altered epithelial cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen. Bronchial epithelial cells line the airway surface, providing a physical barrier and serving critical roles in antimicrobial defense and signaling to professional immune cells. We used RNA-seq to define the transcriptional response of HBE cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and investigated how arsenic affected HBE gene networks in the presence and absence of the bacterial challenge. Environmentally relevant levels of arsenic significantly changed the expression of genes involved in cellular redox homeostasis and host defense to bacterial infection, and decreased genes that code for secreted antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Using pathway analysis, we identified Sox4 and Nrf2-regulated gene networks that are predicted to mediate the arsenic-induced decrease in lysozyme secretion. In addition, we demonstrated that arsenic decreased lysozyme in the airway surface liquid, resulting in reduced lysis of Microccocus luteus. Thus, arsenic alters the expression of genes and proteins in innate host defense pathways, thereby decreasing the ability of the lung epithelium to fight bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fusobacterium nucleatum Alters Atherosclerosis Risk Factors and Enhances Inflammatory Markers with an Atheroprotective Immune Response in ApoEnull Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes. F.; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Donghang; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Gangula, Pandu R.; Lucas, Alexandra R.; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association supports an association between periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) but does not as of yet support a causal relationship. Recently, we have shown that major periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are causally associated with acceleration of aortic atherosclerosis in ApoEnull hyperlipidemic mice. The aim of this study was to determine if oral infection with another significant periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum can accelerate aortic inflammation and atherosclerosis in the aortic artery of ApoEnull mice. ApoEnull mice (n = 23) were orally infected with F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 and euthanized at 12 and 24 weeks. Periodontal disease assessments including F. nucleatum oral colonization, gingival inflammation, immune response, intrabony defects, and alveolar bone resorption were evaluated. Systemic organs were evaluated for infection, aortic sections were examined for atherosclerosis, and inflammatory markers were measured. Chronic oral infection established F. nucleatum colonization in the oral cavity, induced significant humoral IgG (P=0.0001) and IgM (P=0.001) antibody response (12 and 24 weeks), and resulted in significant (P=0.0001) alveolar bone resorption and intrabony defects. F. nucleatum genomic DNA was detected in systemic organs (heart, aorta, liver, kidney, lung) indicating bacteremia. Aortic atherosclerotic plaque area was measured and showed a local inflammatory infiltrate revealed the presence of F4/80+ macrophages and CD3+ T cells. Vascular inflammation was detected by enhanced systemic cytokines (CD30L, IL-4, IL-12), oxidized LDL and serum amyloid A, as well as altered serum lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL), in infected mice and altered aortic gene expression in infected mice. Despite evidence for systemic infection in several organs and modulation of known atherosclerosis risk factors, aortic atherosclerotic

  17. The influence of pigmentation patterning on bumblebee foraging from flowers of Antirrhinum majus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Heather M; Milne, Georgina; Rands, Sean A; Vignolini, Silvia; Martin, Cathie; Glover, Beverley J

    2013-03-01

    Patterns of pigmentation overlying the petal vasculature are common in flowering plants and have been postulated to play a role in pollinator attraction. Previous studies report that such venation patterning is significantly more attractive to bee foragers in the field than ivory or white flowers without veins. To dissect the ways in which venation patterning of pigment can influence bumblebee behaviour, we investigated the response of flower-naïve individuals of Bombus terrestris to veined, ivory and red near-isogenic lines of Antirrhinum majus. We find that red venation shifts flower colour slightly, although the ivory background is the dominant colour. Bees were readily able to discriminate between ivory and veined flowers under differential conditioning but showed no innate preference when presented with a free choice of rewarding ivory and veined flowers. In contrast, both ivory and veined flowers were selected significantly more often than were red flowers. We conclude that advantages conferred by venation patterning might stem from bees learning of their use as nectar guides, rather than from any innate preference for striped flowers.

  18. Changes of foraging patch selection and utilization by a giant panda after bamboo flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guochun; Song, Huadong; Altigani, Latifa A A; Zheng, Xueli; Bu, Shuhai

    2017-07-01

    The bamboo flowering leads to the habitat fragmentation and food quality decline of a giant panda. Few empirical research has been conducted about the giant panda's response to the bamboo flowering. Here, we investigated the characteristics of bamboo stands, giant panda's activity, and selection and utilization of bamboo stands by giant panda in Taibaishan National Nature Reserve, China, over a 3-year period (September 2013-May 2016) during the Fargesia qinlingensis flowering period. Our results indicated that the proportion of whole bamboo stands flowering has gradually expanded from 26.7% in 2013 and 33.9% in 2014 to 52.3% in 2015. Although the flowering bamboo has lower crude protein and higher crude fiber than a non-flowering bamboo, the giant panda still fed on flowering bamboo from the evidence of droppings. The giant panda left its feeding sites and moved to the high elevation along river when the proportion of flowering reached 69.2% at elevation of 2350-2450 m in the third year. With the decline of the quality of bamboo stand of Fargesia qinlingensis, the giant panda abandoned its feeding sites when the threshold value of bamboo flowering reached 56.9-69.2%. Flexibility in foraging strategy and spatial behavior can help the giant panda to better adapt to the environment.

  19. When top predators become prey: Black bears alter movement behaviour in response to hunting pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillfried, Milena; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The trade-off between predator avoidance and foraging is a key decision making factor that shapes an organism's adaptive behaviour and movement patterns. Human hunters act as top predators to influence the behaviour of free-ranging mammals, including large carnivorous species such as black bears (Ursus americanus). Analysing the effects of hunting on animal behavioural patterns is essential for understanding the extent to which animals detect and respond to human-induced disturbances. To this end, we assessed whether black bear movement behaviour changed with varying risk from spatially and temporally heterogeneous human predation. Levels of risk were categorized as either low (disturbance from dog training; n=19 bears) or high (disturbance from hunting activities; n=11 bears). Road types were either paved (risk due to vehicles) or non-paved (risk due to hunters) and were used as proxies for hunting effort and amount of disturbance. We began by testing the null hypothesis that bears' distribution before the onset of human disturbance is spatially random. Next, to test temporal movement adjustment between the low and high risk levels, we measured the distance to the nearest road and the road crossing frequency using mixed effects models with risk level, time of day and sex as predictor variables. As disturbance near non-paved roads increased due to the start of the hunting activity, the mean distances of bears to non-paved roads increased while the mean distances of bears to paved roads decreased, despite the continual risk of vehicle collision. These behavioural responses were observed during day and night, with the frequency of crossing paved roads at night five times greater than in daytime during the hunting season. Our findings demonstrate that black bears are able to detect risky places and adjust their spatial movements accordingly. More specifically, bears can perceive changes in the level of risk from human hunting activities on a fine temporal scale

  20. A Mutation in the Dmp1 Gene Alters Phosphate Responsiveness in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita L; Acton, Dena; McQueen, Amie K; Strobel, Isabel E; Witcher, Phillip C; Feng, Jian Q; Econs, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in the dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) gene cause autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR). Hypophosphatemia in ARHR results from increased circulating levels of the phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Similarly, elevated FGF23, caused by mutations in the PHEX gene, is responsible for the hypophosphatemia in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH). Previously, we demonstrated that a Phex mutation in mice creates a lower set point for extracellular phosphate, where an increment in phosphorus further stimulates Fgf23 production to maintain low serum phosphorus levels. To test the presence of the similar set point defect in ARHR, we generated 4- and 12-week-old Dmp1/Galnt3 double knockout mice and controls, including Dmp1 knockout mice (a murine model of ARHR), Galnt3 knockout mice (a murine model of familial tumoral calcinosis), and phenotypically normal double heterozygous mice. Galnt3 knockout mice had increased proteolytic cleavage of Fgf23, leading to low circulating intact Fgf23 levels with consequent hyperphosphatemia. In contrast, Dmp1 knockout mice had little Fgf23 cleavage and increased femoral Fgf23 expression, resulting in hypophosphatemia and low femoral bone mineral density (BMD). However, introduction of the Galnt3 null allele to Dmp1 knockout mice resulted in a significant increase in serum phosphorus and normalization of BMD. This increased serum phosphorus was accompanied by markedly elevated Fgf23 expression and circulating Fgf23 levels, an attempt to reduce serum phosphorus in the face of improving phosphorus levels. These data indicate that a Dmp1 mutation creates a lower set point for extracellular phosphate and maintains it through the regulation of Fgf23 cleavage and expression. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  1. Loss of VHL in RCC reduces repair and alters cellular response to benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten eSchults

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor gene occur in the majority of sporadic renal-cell carcinomas (RCC. Loss of VHL function is associated with stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα. We and others demonstrated that there is a two-way interaction between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which is an important mediator in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, and the HIF1-pathway leading to an increased genetic instability when both pathways are simultaneously activated. The aim of this study was to investigate how environmental carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which can be metabolically activated to BaP-7,8-diOH-9,10-epoxide (BPDE play a role in the etiology of renal-cell carcinomas (RCC. We exposed VHL deficient RCC4 cells, in which HIFα is stabilized regardless of oxygen tension, to 0.1µM BaP for 18 hours. The mutagenic BPDE-DNA adduct levels were increased in HIFα stabilized cells. Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that absence of VHL significantly induced the mRNA levels of AhR downstream target CYP1A1. Furthermore, HPLC analysis indicated that loss of VHL increased the concentration of BaP-7,8-dihydroxydiol, the pre-cursor metabolite of BPDE. Interestingly, the capacity to repair BPDE-DNA adducts in the HIFα stabilized RCC4 cells, was markedly reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that loss of VHL affects BaP-mediated genotoxic responses in renal-cell carcinoma and decreases repair capacity.

  2. Different Narrow-Band Light Ranges Alter Plant Secondary Metabolism and Plant Defense Response to Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechner, Ole; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Light of different wavelengths affects various physiological processes in plants. Short-wavelength radiation (like UV) can activate defense pathways in plants and enhance the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (such as flavonoids and glucosinolates) responsible for resistance against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown for 4 weeks in a climate chamber under conventional fluorescent tubes and were additionally treated with UV-B (310 nm), UV-A (365 or 385 nm), or violet (420 nm) light generated with UV-B tubes or light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The objective was to determine the influence of narrow bandwidths of light (from UV-B to violet) on plant secondary metabolism and on the performance of the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (a specialist) and the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (a generalist). Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides increased markedly under UV-B, while among glucosinolates only 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl showed a 2-fold increase in plants exposed to UV-B and UV-A. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in broccoli plants increased with UV-B treatment. Brevicoryne brassicae adult weights and fecundity were lower on UV-B treated plants compared to UV-A or violet light-treated plants. Adult weights and fecundity of M. persicae were increased under UV-B and UV-A treatments. When specific light wavelengths are used to induce metabolic changes in plants, the specificity of the induced effects on herbivores should be considered.

  3. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conservation and diversity in flower land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrario, S.I.T.; Immink, R.G.H.; Angenent, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade, enormous progress has been made in understanding the molecular regulation of flower development. In particular, homeotic genes that determine the identity of the floral organs have been characterised from different flowering plants, revealing considerable conservation among

  5. Root Responses to Altered Ecosystem N/P Stoichiometry in a Mediterranean Tree-Grass Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Richard; Moreno, Gerado; Morris, Kendalynn; Schrumpf, Marion; Migliavacca, Mirco

    2017-04-01

    Biological components of the soil system (plant roots, fungi, microbes) may respond to biogeochemical drivers (e.g. nutrient status, water availability, C availability) in dissimilar ways due to differing scales, activities and access to resources. Understanding individual components and their phenology in the soil system is therefore critical to interpret overall fluxes. In seasonally dry systems, plants balance belowground investment with other growth and maintenance in life strategies where water limitations (in dry periods), nutrient limitations (in wet periods) and temperature/light limitations (in winter) interact, varying the need to invest in gaining these three resources throughout the year. Additionally, root growth may also be desynchronized with overall nutrient demand due to the ability to take up nutrients outside of seasonal periods of demand for storage and subsequent reallocation. We examined root responses to an ecosystem level stoichiometry (+N / +N+P) manipulation experiment at a highly instrumented site in a strongly seasonal semi-arid tree-grass ('dehesa') system (Majadas del Tietar, Spain). We are interested in whether root growth and phenology is affected by differing demand for nutrients/water both between sites and at tree and grass-dominated subsites. Many non-invasive, ecosystem-scale methods to measure changes in biogeochemical cycling focus only on integrated whole-system fluxes or above-ground change and it is difficult to extract a root signal. However, local soil respiration fluxes and root growth introduces a variety of method-dependent artefacts and drawbacks necessitating multiple approaches and careful interpretation. Therefore, in coordination with indirect measurements (subcanopy fluxes via eddy covariance, soil respiration chambers) we are using direct soil coring, ingrowth cores and repeatable measurements from custom-built minirhizotron systems to attempt to assess site-level variation in root biomass and phenology. In this

  6. Candidate Gene Identification of Flowering Time Genes in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrinne E. Grover

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time control is critically important to all sexually reproducing angiosperms in both natural ecological and agronomic settings. Accordingly, there is much interest in defining the genes involved in the complex flowering-time network and how these respond to natural and artificial selection, the latter often entailing transitions in day-length responses. Here we describe a candidate gene analysis in the cotton genus , which uses homologs from the well-described flowering network to bioinformatically and phylogenetically identify orthologs in the published genome sequence from Ulbr., one of the two model diploid progenitors of the commercially important allopolyploid cottons, L. and L. Presence and patterns of expression were evaluated from 13 aboveground tissues related to flowering for each of the candidate genes using allopolyploid as a model. Furthermore, we use a comparative context to determine copy number variability of each key gene family across 10 published angiosperm genomes. Data suggest a pattern of repeated loss of duplicates following ancient whole-genome doubling events in diverse lineages. The data presented here provide a foundation for understanding both the parallel evolution of day-length neutrality in domesticated cottons and the flowering-time network, in general, in this important crop plant.

  7. The Response of Suspended Sediment, Turbidity, and Velocity to Historical Alterations of the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dale W.

    2006-01-01

    The heavy sediment load and large amounts of floating debris generated by the constantly caving banks of the Missouri River was documented in the first written description of the river by Father Jacques Marquette in 1673 as he approached the mouth of the Missouri River from the upper Mississippi River: '[We]' heard the noise of a rapid, into which we were about to run. I have seen nothing more dreadful. An accumulation of large and entire trees, branches, and floating islands, was issuing from the mouth of the river Pekitanoui (Missouri River), with such impetuosity that we could not without great danger risk passing through it. So great was its agitation that the water was so very muddy, and could not become clear.' However, large changes in suspended sediment and turbidity in the lower Missouri River below Gavins Point Dam have occurred in response to extensive structural changes that have been imposed on the Missouri River and its watershed during the last two centuries. Efforts to shape the channel, remove snags and sawyers, dredge shallows, and stabilize banks for navigation began as early as 1838 ( http://www.lewis-clark.org/ri_mo-snagboats.htm , Chittenden, 1903). However, bank stabilization efforts were sporadic and scattered in comparison to large scale changes that occurred after 1929. In the early 1930s the numerous small channels were combined into a single-fixed channel with 4,745 stone and wood-pile dikes, 3,371 dike extensions, streambank protection works on concave banks, man-made cutoffs, the closing of chutes with dikes, the removal of snags, and dredging (Keown and others, 1981). The resulting navigation channel was 6-ft (feet) deep by 200-ft wide and was expanded to 9 by 300 ft in the 1950s and early 1960s. Construction of six dams was started in 1933 and their reservoirs were filled by 1967. Three of these reservoirs are among the five largest in the United States. Nearly one-third of the Missouri River is now submerged below these massive

  8. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins.

  9. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  10. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  11. Chronic fatigue syndrome: assessment of increased oxidative stress and altered muscle excitability in response to incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Y; Steinberg, J G; Mambrini, O; Brégeon, F; Delliaux, S

    2005-03-01

    Because the muscle response to incremental exercise is not well documented in patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), we combined electrophysiological (compound-evoked muscle action potential, M wave), and biochemical (lactic acid production, oxidative stress) measurements to assess any muscle dysfunction in response to a routine cycling exercise. This case-control study compared 15 CFS patients to a gender-, age- and weight-matched control group (n=11) of healthy subjects. All subjects performed an incremental cycling exercise continued until exhaustion. We measured the oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), systemic blood pressure, percutaneous O2 saturation (SpO2), M-wave recording from vastus lateralis, and venous blood sampling allowing measurements of pH (pHv), PO2 (PvO2), lactic acid (LA), and three markers of the oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS, reduced glutathione, GSH, and ascorbic acid, RAA). Compared with control, in CFS patients (i) the slope of VO2 versus work load relationship did not differ from control subjects and there was a tendency for an accentuated PvO2 fall at the same exercise intensity, indicating an increased oxygen uptake by the exercising muscles; (ii) the HR and blood pressure responses to exercise did not vary; (iii) the anaerobic pathways were not accentuated; (iv) the exercise-induced oxidative stress was enhanced with early changes in TBARS and RAA and enhanced maximal RAA consumption; and (v) the M-wave duration markedly increased during the recovery period. The response of CFS patients to incremental exercise associates a lengthened and accentuated oxidative stress together with marked alterations of the muscle membrane excitability. These two objective signs of muscle dysfunction are sufficient to explain muscle pain and postexertional malaise reported by our patients.

  12. Characterizing the drivers of seedling leaf gas exchange responses to warming and altered precipitation: indirect and direct effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Pold, Grace; Goranson, Carol; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic forces are projected to lead to warmer temperatures and altered precipitation patterns globally. The impact of these climatic changes on the uptake of carbon by the land surface will, in part, determine the rate and magnitude of these changes. However, there is a great deal of uncertainty in how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to climate in the future. Here, we used a fully factorial warming (four levels) by precipitation (three levels) manipulation experiment in an old-field ecosystem in the northeastern USA to examine the impact of climatic changes on leaf carbon exchange in five species of deciduous tree seedlings. We found that photosynthesis generally increased in response to increasing precipitation and decreased in response to warming. Respiration was less sensitive to the treatments. The net result was greater leaf carbon uptake in wetter and cooler conditions across all species. Structural equation modelling revealed the primary pathway through which climate impacted leaf carbon exchange. Net photosynthesis increased with increasing stomatal conductance and photosynthetic enzyme capacity (V cmax ), and decreased with increasing respiration of leaves. Soil moisture and leaf temperature at the time of measurement most heavily influenced these primary drivers of net photosynthesis. Leaf respiration increased with increasing soil moisture, leaf temperature, and photosynthetic supply of substrates. Counter to the soil moisture response, respiration decreased with increasing precipitation amount, indicating that the response to short- (i.e. soil moisture) versus long-term (i.e. precipitation amount) water stress differed, possibly as a result of changes in the relative amounts of growth and maintenance demand for respiration over time. These data (>500 paired measurements of light and dark leaf gas exchange), now publicly available, detail the pathways by which climate can impact leaf gas exchange and could be useful for testing assumptions in

  13. Postharvest physiology of Curcuma alismatifolia flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunya-atichart, K.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Flowering stems of Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae) cv. Chiang Mai Pink contain small flower buds and open flowers, surrounded by large pink bracts. Vase life is limited by browning at the bract tips. This browning may relate to ethylene production as it was hastened by treatment with exogenous

  14. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it

  15. Flowering biology, nectar production and insect visits in Cucurbita pepo L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998-2000 studies on length and abundance of flowering and on nectar productivity of zucchini and marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. were carried out in Lublin area. Flowers visitors were also monitored. Flowering of plants lasted from the end of June till the end of September. The mean number of flowers per plant of zucchini reached: 31 (male flowers and 26 (female flowers, and for marrow 226 and 22, respectively. Flowers lived, on average, for 5 hours. Female flowers of marrow secreted the highest amount of nectar - 1.354 g per 10 flowers, on average. Sugar content in nectar was 21.84%-27.31%. The mean total amount of sugars secreted by 10 flowers of Cucurbita pepo L. was 21.5-304.3 mg. Pollinators were mainly bumblebees and honey bees.

  16. The EAR motif controls the early flowering and senescence phenotype mediated by over-expression of SlERF36 and is partly responsible for changes in stomatal density and photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Upadhyay

    Full Text Available The EAR motif is a small seven amino acid motif associated with active repression of several target genes. We had previously identified SlERF36 as an EAR motif containing gene from tomato and shown that its over-expression results in early flowering and senescence and a 25-35% reduction of stomatal density, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in transgenic tobacco. In order to understand the role of the EAR motif in governing the phenotypes, we have expressed the full-length SlERF36 and a truncated form, lacking the EAR motif under the CaMV35S promoter, in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plants over-expressing the full-length SlERF36 show prominent early flowering under long day as well as short day conditions. The early flowering leads to an earlier onset of senescence in these transgenic plants which in turn reduces vegetative growth, affecting rosette, flower and silique sizes. Stomatal number is reduced by 38-39% while photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decrease by about 30-40%. Transgenic plants over-expressing the truncated version of SlERF36 (lacking the C-terminal EAR motif, show phenotypes largely matching the control with normal flowering and senescence indicating that the early flowering and senescence is governed by the EAR motif. On the other hand, photosynthetic rates and stomatal number were also reduced in plants expressing SlERF36ΔEAR although to a lesser degree compared to the full- length version indicating that these are partly controlled by the EAR motif. These studies show that the major phenotypic changes in plant growth caused by over-expression of SlERF36 are actually mediated by the EAR motif.

  17. Sleep influences the immune response and the rejection process alters sleep pattern: Evidence from a skin allograft model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Francieli Silva; Andersen, Monica Levy; Guindalini, Camila; Araujo, Leandro Pires; Lopes, José Daniel; Tufik, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Sleep generally regulates immune functions in a supportive manner and can affect parameters that are directly involved in the rejection process. The first objective was to assess whether sleep deprivation (SD) or sleep restriction (SR) affects the allograft rejection process in mice. The second objective was to investigate whether the rejection process itself modulates the sleep pattern of allografted mice. Adult BALB/c and C57BL/6J male mice were used as the donors and recipients, respectively, except for the syngeneic group (ISOTX), which received skin from mice of the same strain (C57BL/6J). The recipients were randomly assigned to either one of two control groups - TX (allogenic) or ISOTX (syngeneic) - which underwent stereotaxic surgery to enable sleep recording prior to the allograft but were not sleep deprived; one of two paradoxical sleep deprived groups - SDTX and TXSD - which underwent 72h of continuous SD either before or after the allograft respectively, and one of two sleep restricted groups - SRTX and TXSR - which underwent 21h of SD and 3h of sleep for 15days either before or after the allograft respectively. The skin allograft was inspected daily to determine the survival time, expected as 8.0±0.4days in this transplant model under no treatment. The sleep pattern was controlled throughout the rejection process in the SD and SR groups. Draining lymph nodes, spleen, blood and skin grafts were harvested on the 5th day after transplantation for evaluation of the immune parameters related to allograft rejection. In the control groups, we observed a reduction in paradoxical sleep throughout the entire allograft rejection process. Acute and chronic experimental sleep loss in the SD and SR groups produced marked alterations in the immune response. Both SD and SR prolonged allograft survival compared to the non-sleep-deprived group. There were reductions in the following parameters involved in the allograft rejection under sleep loss: CD4 + and CD8 + T cell

  18. Iron oxide nanoparticles induced alterations in haematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of an Indian major carp Labeo rohita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, M.; Suganya, R.; Ramesh, M., E-mail: mathanramesh@yahoo.com; Poopal, R. K. [Bharathiar University, Unit of Toxicology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences (India); Gopalan, N. [Bharathiar University, DRDO-BU (India); Ponpandian, N. [Bharathiar University, Department of Nanoscience and Technology (India)

    2015-06-15

    The wide use of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs) in various applications has raised great concerns worldwide. In this work, we measured the potential harmful effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NP (<50 nm) at concentrations of 1 and 25 mg/L on haematological, biochemical, and ionoregulatory responses in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for a short-term period of 96 h. The results revealed significant (P < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, protein, sodium (Na{sup +}), potassium (K{sup +}), chloride (Cl{sup −}) and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase levels in both the concentrations. White blood cell, mean cellular haemoglobin concentration and glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in response to both concentrations during the study period. However, no significant changes in red blood cell count and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (25 mg/L) activity were noticed compared to those of the respective control groups. Based on this study, it was found that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs do have prominent effects on freshwater fish L. rohita. Our data suggest that the alterations of these parameters can be used as nonspecific biomarkers to monitor the environmental risks arising from nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystem and also regulate the use, production and release of nanoparticles.

  19. Cerebral blood flow response to hypoglycemia is altered in patients with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegers, Evita C; Becker, Kirsten M; Rooijackers, Hanne M; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Tack, Cees J; Heerschap, Arend; de Galan, Bastiaan E; van der Graaf, Marinette

    2017-06-01

    It is unclear whether cerebral blood flow responses to hypoglycemia are altered in people with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypoglycemia on both global and regional cerebral blood flow in type 1 diabetes patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, type 1 diabetes patients with normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls ( n = 7 per group). The subjects underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic-hypoglycemic glucose clamp in a 3 T MR system. Global and regional changes in cerebral blood flow were determined by arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, at the end of both glycemic phases. Hypoglycemia generated typical symptoms in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls, but not in patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. Conversely, hypoglycemia increased global cerebral blood flow in patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, which was not observed in the other two groups. Regionally, hypoglycemia caused a redistribution of cerebral blood flow towards the thalamus of both patients with normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls, consistent with activation of brain regions associated with the autonomic response to hypoglycemia. No such redistribution was found in the patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. An increase in global cerebral blood flow may enhance nutrient supply to the brain, hence suppressing symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia. Altogether these results suggest that changes in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia contribute to impaired awareness of hypoglycemia.

  20. The Bacterial Second Messenger Cyclic di-GMP Regulates Brucella Pathogenesis and Leads to Altered Host Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mike; Harms, Jerome S; Marim, Fernanda M; Armon, Leah; Hall, Cherisse L; Liu, Yi-Ping; Banai, Menachem; Oliveira, Sergio C; Splitter, Gary A; Smith, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Brucella species are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic debilitating disease significantly impacting global health and prosperity. Much remains to be learned about how Brucella spp. succeed in sabotaging immune host cells and how Brucella spp. respond to environmental challenges. Multiple types of bacteria employ the prokaryotic second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) to coordinate responses to shifting environments. To determine the role of c-di-GMP in Brucella physiology and in shaping host-Brucella interactions, we utilized c-di-GMP regulatory enzyme deletion mutants. Our results show that a ΔbpdA phosphodiesterase mutant producing excess c-di-GMP displays marked attenuation in vitro and in vivo during later infections. Although c-di-GMP is known to stimulate the innate sensor STING, surprisingly, the ΔbpdA mutant induced a weaker host immune response than did wild-type Brucella or the low-c-di-GMP guanylate cyclase ΔcgsB mutant. Proteomics analysis revealed that c-di-GMP regulates several processes critical for virulence, including cell wall and biofilm formation, nutrient acquisition, and the type IV secretion system. Finally, ΔbpdA mutants exhibited altered morphology and were hypersensitive to nutrient-limiting conditions. In summary, our results indicate a vital role for c-di-GMP in allowing Brucella to successfully navigate stressful and shifting environments to establish intracellular infection. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.