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Sample records for alter cellular processes

  1. The surfactant protein C mutation A116D alters cellular processing, stress tolerance, surfactant lipid composition, and immune cell activation

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    Zarbock Ralf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein C (SP-C is important for the function of pulmonary surfactant. Heterozygous mutations in SFTPC, the gene encoding SP-C, cause sporadic and familial interstitial lung disease (ILD in children and adults. Mutations mapping to the BRICHOS domain located within the SP-C proprotein result in perinuclear aggregation of the proprotein. In this study, we investigated the effects of the mutation A116D in the BRICHOS domain of SP-C on cellular homeostasis. We also evaluated the ability of drugs currently used in ILD therapy to counteract these effects. Methods SP-CA116D was expressed in MLE-12 alveolar epithelial cells. We assessed in vitro the consequences for cellular homeostasis, immune response and effects of azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Results Stable expression of SP-CA116D in MLE-12 alveolar epithelial cells resulted in increased intracellular accumulation of proSP-C processing intermediates. SP-CA116D expression further led to reduced cell viability and increased levels of the chaperones Hsp90, Hsp70, calreticulin and calnexin. Lipid analysis revealed decreased intracellular levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC and increased lyso-PC levels. Treatment with methylprednisolone or hydroxychloroquine partially restored these lipid alterations. Furthermore, SP-CA116D cells secreted soluble factors into the medium that modulated surface expression of CCR2 or CXCR1 receptors on CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils, suggesting a direct paracrine effect of SP-CA116D on neighboring cells in the alveolar space. Conclusions We show that the A116D mutation leads to impaired processing of proSP-C in alveolar epithelial cells, alters cell viability and lipid composition, and also activates cells of the immune system. In addition, we show that some of the effects of the mutation on cellular homeostasis can be antagonized by application of pharmaceuticals commonly applied in ILD therapy

  2. Cellular hyper-excitability caused by mutations that alter the activation process of voltage-gated sodium channels

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    Mohamed-Yassine eAMAROUCH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav are widely expressed as macro-molecular complexes in both excitable and non-excitable tissues. In excitable tissues, the upstroke of the action potential is the result of the passage of a large and rapid influx of sodium ions through these channels. NaV dysfunction has been associated with an increasingly wide range of neurological, muscular and cardiac disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently identified sodium channel mutations that are linked to hyper-excitability phenotypes and associated with the alteration of the activation process of voltage gated sodium channels. Indeed, several clinical manifestations that demonstrate an alteration of tissue excitability were recently shown to be strongly associated with the presence of mutations that affect the activation process of the voltage-gated sodium channels. These emerging genotype-phenotype correlations have expanded the clinical spectrum of sodium channelopathies to include disorders which feature a hyper-excitability phenotype that may or may not be associated with a cardiomyopathy. The p.I141V mutation in SCN4A and SCN5A, as well as its homologous p.I136V mutation in SCN9A, are interesting examples of mutations that have been linked to inherited hyperexcitability myotonia, exercise-induced polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and erythromelalgia, respectively. Regardless of which sodium channel isoform is investigated, the substitution of the isoleucine to valine in the locus 141 induces similar modifications in the biophysical properties of the voltage-gated sodium channels by shifting the voltage-dependence of steady state activation towards more negative potentials.

  3. The surfactant protein C mutation A116D alters cellular processing, stress tolerance, surfactant lipid composition, and immune cell activation

    OpenAIRE

    Zarbock Ralf; Woischnik Markus; Sparr Christiane; Thurm Tobias; Kern Sunčana; Kaltenborn Eva; Hector Andreas; Hartl Dominik; Liebisch Gerhard; Schmitz Gerd; Griese Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is important for the function of pulmonary surfactant. Heterozygous mutations in SFTPC, the gene encoding SP-C, cause sporadic and familial interstitial lung disease (ILD) in children and adults. Mutations mapping to the BRICHOS domain located within the SP-C proprotein result in perinuclear aggregation of the proprotein. In this study, we investigated the effects of the mutation A116D in the BRICHOS domain of SP-C on cellular homeostasis. We al...

  4. Stochastic Nature in Cellular Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 刘圣君; 王祺; 晏世伟; 耿轶钊; SAKATA Fumihiko; GAO Xing-Fa

    2011-01-01

    The importance of stochasticity in cellular processes is increasingly recognized in both theoretical and experimental studies. General features of stochasticity in gene regulation and expression are briefly reviewed in this article, which include the main experimental phenomena, classification, quantization and regulation of noises. The correlation and transmission of noise in cascade networks are analyzed further and the stochastic simulation methods that can capture effects of intrinsic and extrinsic noise are described.

  5. Altered composition of bone as triggered by irradiation facilitates the rapid erosion of the matrix by both cellular and physicochemical processes.

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    Danielle E Green

    Full Text Available Radiation rapidly undermines trabecular architecture, a destructive process which proceeds despite a devastated cell population. In addition to the 'biologically orchestrated' resorption of the matrix by osteoclasts, physicochemical processes enabled by a damaged matrix may contribute to the rapid erosion of bone quality. 8w male C57BL/6 mice exposed to 5 Gy of Cs(137 γ-irradiation were compared to age-matched control at 2d, 10d, or 8w following exposure. By 10d, irradiation had led to significant loss of trabecular bone volume fraction. Assessed by reflection-based Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI, chemical composition of the irradiated matrix indicated that mineralization had diminished at 2d by -4.3±4.8%, and at 10d by -5.8±3.2%. These data suggest that irradiation facilitates the dissolution of the matrix through a change in the material itself, a conclusion supported by a 13.7±4.5% increase in the elastic modulus as measured by nanoindentation. The decline in viable cells within the marrow of irradiated mice at 2d implies that the immediate collapse of bone quality and inherent increased risk of fracture is not solely a result of an overly-active biologic process, but one fostered by alterations in the material matrix that predisposes the material to erosion.

  6. Efficiency of cellular information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Barato, Andre C; Seifert, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We show that a rate of conditional Shannon entropy reduction, characterizing the learning of an internal process about an external process, is bounded by the thermodynamic entropy production. This approach allows for the definition of an informational efficiency that can be used to study cellular information processing. We analyze three models of increasing complexity inspired by the E. coli sensory network, where the external process is an external ligand concentration jumping between two values. We start with a simple model for which ATP must be consumed so that a protein inside the cell can learn about the external concentration. With a second model for a single receptor we show that the rate at which the receptor learns about the external environment can be nonzero even without any dissipation inside the cell since chemical work done by the external process compensates for this learning rate. The third model is more complete, also containing adaptation. For this model we show inter alia that a bacterium i...

  7. Skeletal muscle plasticity: cellular and molecular responses to altered physical activity paradigms

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    Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Haddad, Fadia

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine our current understanding of the chain of events known to be involved in the adaptive process whereby specific genes and their protein products undergo altered expression; specifically, skeletal muscle adaptation in response to altered loading states will be discussed, with a special focus on the regulation of the contractile protein, myosin heavy chain gene expression. This protein, which is both an important structural and regulatory protein comprising the contractile apparatus, can be expressed as different isoforms, thereby having an impact on the functional diversity of the muscle. Because the regulation of the myosin gene family is under the control of a complex set of processes including, but not limited to, activity, hormonal, and metabolic factors, this protein will serve as a cellular "marker" for studies of muscle plasticity in response to various mechanical perturbations in which the quantity and type of myosin isoform, along with other important cellular proteins, are altered in expression.

  8. Cellular automata in image processing and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...

  9. Using a cDNA microarray to study cellular gene expression altered by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永忠; 谢建平; 李瑶; 乐军; 陈建平; 淳于利娟; 王洪海

    2003-01-01

    Objective To examine the global effects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis) infection on macrophages. Methods The gene expression profiling of macrophage U937, in response to infection with M.tuberculosis H37Ra, was monitored using a high-density cDNA microarray. Results M.tuberculosis infection caused 463 differentially expressed genes, of which 366 genes are known genes registered in the Gene Bank. These genes function in various cellular processes including intracellular signalling, cytoskeletal rearrangement, apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, cell surface receptors, cell-mediated immunity as well as a variety of cellular metabolic pathways, and may play key roles in M.tuberculosis infection and intracellular survival. Conclusions M.tuberculosis infection alters the expression of host-cell genes, and these genes will provide a foundation for understanding the infection process of M.tuberculosis. The cDNA microarray is a powerful tool for studying pathogen-host cell interaction.

  10. Cellular responses to HSV-1 infection are linked to specific types of alterations in the host transcriptome.

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    Hu, Benxia; Li, Xin; Huo, Yongxia; Yu, Yafen; Zhang, Qiuping; Chen, Guijun; Zhang, Yaping; Fraser, Nigel W; Wu, Dongdong; Zhou, Jumin

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen invasion triggers a number of cellular responses and alters the host transcriptome. Here we report that the type of changes to cellular transcriptome is related to the type of cellular functions affected by lytic infection of Herpes Simplex Virus type I in Human primary fibroblasts. Specifically, genes involved in stress responses and nuclear transport exhibited mostly changes in alternative polyadenylation (APA), cell cycle genes showed mostly alternative splicing (AS) changes, while genes in neurogenesis, rarely underwent these changes. Transcriptome wide, the infection resulted in 1,032 cases of AS, 161 incidences of APA, 1,827 events of isoform changes, and up regulation of 596 genes and down regulations of 61 genes compared to uninfected cells. Thus, these findings provided important and specific links between cellular responses to HSV-1 infection and the type of alterations to the host transcriptome, highlighting important roles of RNA processing in virus-host interactions. PMID:27354008

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF CELLULAR INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

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    Tomasz Garbacz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a study of cellular injection, molding process uses polyvinylchloride PVC. Polymers modified with introducing blowing agents into them in the Laboratory of the Department of Technologies and Materiase of Technical University of Kosice. For technological reasons, blowing agents have a form of granules. In the experiment, the content of the blowing agent (0–2,0 % by mass fed into the processed polymer was adopted as a variable factor. In the studies presented in the article, the chemical blowing agents occurring in the granulated form with a diameter of 1.2 to 1.4 mm were used. The view of the technological line for cellular injection molding and injection mold cavity with injection moldings are shown in Figure 1. The results of the determination of selected properties of injection molded parts for various polymeric materials, obtained with different content of blowing agents, are shown in Figures 4-7. Microscopic examination of cross-sectional structure of the moldings were obtained using the author's position image analysis of porous structure. Based on analysis of photographs taken (Figures 7, 8, 9 it was found that the coating containing 1.0% of blowing agents is a clearly visible solid outer layer and uniform distribution of pores and their sizes are similar.

  12. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a tool for evaluation of cellular alteration during Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats

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    Vitor M. Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.

  13. Modeling the topological organization of cellular processes.

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    Giavitto, Jean-Louis; Michel, Olivier

    2003-07-01

    The cell as a dynamical system presents the characteristics of having a dynamical structure. That is, the exact phase space of the system cannot be fixed before the evolution and integrative cell models must state the evolution of the structure jointly with the evolution of the cell state. This kind of dynamical systems is very challenging to model and simulate. New programming concepts must be developed to ease their modeling and simulation. In this context, the goal of the MGS project is to develop an experimental programming language dedicated to the simulation of this kind of systems. MGS proposes a unified view on several computational mechanisms (CHAM, Lindenmayer systems, Paun systems, cellular automata) enabling the specification of spatially localized computations on heterogeneous entities. The evolution of a dynamical structure is handled through the concept of transformation which relies on the topological organization of the system components. An example based on the modeling of spatially distributed biochemical networks is used to illustrate how these notions can be used to model the spatial and temporal organization of intracellular processes. PMID:12915272

  14. Oxidative stress-induced proteome alterations target different cellular pathways in human myoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraibar, Martin A; Hyzewicz, Janek; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina;

    2011-01-01

    Although increased oxidative stress has been associated with the impairment of proliferation and function of adult human muscle stem cells, proteins either involved in the stress response or damaged by oxidation have not been identified. A parallel proteomics approach was performed for analyzing...... are mainly cytosolic and involved in carbohydrate metabolism, cellular assembly, cellular homeostasis, and protein synthesis and degradation. Pathway analysis revealed skeletal and muscular disorders, cell death, and cancer-related as the main molecular networks altered. Interestingly, these pathways...

  15. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

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    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  16. HIV-1 transgenic rats display alterations in immunophenotype and cellular responses associated with aging.

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    Susan J Abbondanzo

    Full Text Available Advances in anti-retroviral therapy over the last two decades have allowed life expectancy in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus to approach that of the general population. The process of aging in mammalian species, including rats, results in immune response changes, alterations in immunological phenotypes, and ultimately increased susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In order to investigate the immunological pathologies associated with chronic HIV-1 disease, particularly in aging individuals, the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg rat model was utilized. HIV-1Tg rats were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS to determine immunological alterations during the aging process. LPS is known to cause an imbalance in cytokine and chemokine release, and provides a method to identify changes in immune responses to bacterial infection in an HIV animal model. An immune profile and accompanying cellular consequences as well as changes in inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release related to age and genotype were assessed in HIV-1Tg rats. The percentage of T cells decreased with age, particularly T cytotoxic cells, whereas T helper cells increased with age. Neutrophils and monocytes increased in HIV-1Tg rats during maturation compared to age-matched F344 control rats. Aging HIV-1Tg rats displayed a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, along with an increase in the chemokine, KC/GRO, in comparison to age-matched controls. Our data indicate that immunophenotype and immune responses can change during aging in HIV-positive individuals. This information could be important in determining the most beneficial age-dependent therapeutic treatment for HIV patients.

  17. Additional force field in cooling process of cellular Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Mingjun(郑明军); HE; Deping(何德坪); DAI; Ge(戴戈)

    2002-01-01

    The foaming process of Al alloy is similar to that of Al, but there is a solid-liquid state zone in the solidification process of cellular Al alloy which does not exist in the case of Al. In the unidirectional solidification of cellular Al alloy, the proportion of the solid phase gradually reduces from the solid front to the liquid front. This will introduce a force and result in a serious quick shrinkage. By the mathematic and physical mode, the solidification of the cellular Al alloy is studied. The data measured by experiment are close to the result calculated by the mode. This kind of shrinkage can be solved by suitable cooling method in appropriate growth stage. The compressive strength of the cellular Al alloy made by this way is 40% higher than that of cellular Al.

  18. Cellular Alterations Induced by Candida albicans RC Nosodes: an in vitro Study

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    Carla Holandino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candidiasis is an opportunist infection, caused by yeast of the genus Candida, which emerges as one of the main causes of systemic infections in hospitalized patients. Candida albicans is the most common causing agent of these infections. According to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia[1], nosodes are medicines compounded from chemically undefined biological products. Living nosodes are prepared using the etiologic agent of an illness in its infective form, were first developed by Brazilian physician Roberto Costa (RC. Roberto Costa’s research indicated that living nosodes present a higher capability to stimulate the host’s immunological system [2]. Aim: This study aims to evaluate cellular alterations induced in C. albicans yeasts and RAW 264-7 macrophages by Candida albicans RC. Methodology: To prepare Candida albicans RC, one part of C. albicans infective yeast suspension (108 cell/ml was diluted in 9 parts of sterile distilled water and submitted to 100 mechanical succussions. This process was successively repeated to the potencies of 12x and 30x1. Water 30x was prepared by the same technique, as control. The cell viability of C. albicans previously treated with nosodes in both potencies and respective controls was evaluated using the samples at the concentration of 10% (V/V, in a volume of 1ml, distributed in 1-3 days. The viability of the yeast cells was analyzed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il-2,5-difeniltetrazolic (5mg/ml assay [3] and by Propidium Iodide (PI incorporation methods. Additionally, using macrophages RAW 264-7 as a cell model, Nitric Oxide (NO production and cell viability were also evaluated. For this, the following protocol of cell treatment was employed: on each experimental day, RAW 264-7 cells were treated 4 times (4 stimuli with RC nosode 30x at the concentration of 10% (V/V. Results: The nosodes (12x and 30x did not present cytotoxic effects on macrophage

  19. Minimal model for complex dynamics in cellular processes.

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    Suguna, C; Chowdhury, K K; Sinha, S

    1999-11-01

    Cellular functions are controlled and coordinated by the complex circuitry of biochemical pathways regulated by genetic and metabolic feedback processes. This paper aims to show, with the help of a minimal model of a regulated biochemical pathway, that the common nonlinearities and control structures present in biomolecular interactions are capable of eliciting a variety of functional dynamics, such as homeostasis, periodic, complex, and chaotic oscillations, including transients, that are observed in various cellular processes.

  20. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. → Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. → Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection induces altered amphiregulin processing and release.

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    Sonja Löfmark

    Full Text Available Adhesion of the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae has established effects on the host cell and evokes a variety of cellular events including growth factor activation. In the present study we report that infection with N. gonorrhoeae causes altered amphiregulin processing and release in human epithelial cells. Amphiregulin is a well-studied growth factor with functions in various cell processes and is upregulated in different forms cancer and proliferative diseases. The protein is prototypically cleaved on the cell surface in response to external stimuli. We demonstrate that upon infection, a massive upregulation of amphiregulin mRNA is seen. The protein changes its subcellular distribution and is also alternatively cleaved at the plasma membrane, which results in augmented release of an infection-specific 36 kDa amphiregulin product from the surface of human cervical epithelial cells. Further, using antibodies directed against different domains of the protein we could determine the impact of infection on pro-peptide processing. In summary, we present data showing that the infection of N. gonorrhoeae causes an alternative amphiregulin processing, subcellular distribution and release in human epithelial cervical cells that likely contribute to the predisposition cellular abnormalities and anti-apoptotic features of N. gonorrhoeae infections.

  2. Temporal Alterations in Cellular Bax:Bcl-2 Ratio following Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Raghupathi, Ramesh; Strauss, Kenneth I.; Zhang, Chen; Krajewski, Stanislaw; Reed, John C.; McIntosh, Tracy K.

    2003-01-01

    Cell death/survival following CNS injury may be a result of alterations in the intracellular ratio of death and survival factors. Using immunohistochemistry, Western analysis and in situ hybridization, the expression of the anti-cell death protein, Bcl-2, and the pro-cell death protein, Bax, was evaluated following lateral fluid-percussion (FP) brain injury of moderate severity (2.3–2.6 atm) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. By 2 h post-injury, a marked reduction of cellular Bcl-2-immunoreac...

  3. Chronic hepcidin induction causes hyposideremia and alters the pattern of cellular iron accumulation in hemochromatotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viatte, Lydie; Nicolas, Gaël; Lou, Dan-Qing; Bennoun, Myriam; Lesbordes-Brion, Jeanne-Claire; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Schönig, Kai; Bujard, Hermann; Kahn, Axel; Andrews, Nancy C; Vaulont, Sophie

    2006-04-01

    We report the generation of a tetracycline-regulated (Tet ON) transgenic mouse model for acute and chronic expression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin in the liver. We demonstrate that short-term and long-term tetracycline-dependent activation of hepcidin in adult mice leads to hypoferremia and iron-limited erythropoiesis, respectively. This clearly establishes the key role of hepcidin in regulating the extracellular iron concentration. We previously demonstrated that, when expressed early in fetal development, constitutive transgenic hepcidin expression prevented iron accumulation in an Hfe-/- mouse model of hemochromatosis. We now explore the effect of chronic hepcidin expression in adult Hfe-/- mice that have already developed liver iron overload. We demonstrate that induction of chronic hepcidin expression in 2-month-old Hfe-/- mice alters their pattern of cellular iron accumulation, leading to increased iron in tissue macrophages and duodenal cells but less iron in hepatocytes. These hepcidin-induced changes in the pattern of cellular iron accumulation are associated with decreased expression of the iron exporter ferroportin in macrophages but no detectable alteration of ferroportin expression in the hepatocytes. We speculate that this change in iron homeostasis could offer a therapeutic advantage by protecting against damage to parenchymal cells. PMID:16339398

  4. Piezo proteins: regulators of mechanosensation and other cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N; Gracheva, Elena O; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2014-11-14

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular development, volume regulation, cellular migration, proliferation, and elongation. Mutations in human Piezo proteins have been associated with a variety of disorders including hereditary xerocytosis and several syndromes with muscular contracture as a prominent feature.

  5. MODERNIZATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL LINE FOR CELLULAR EXTRUSION PROCESS

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    Tomasz Garbacz

    2014-06-01

    As part of the modernization of the cellular extrusion technology the extrusion head was designed and made. During the designing and modeling of the head the Auto CAD programe was used. After the prototyping the extrusion head was tested. In the article specification of cellular extrusion process of thermoplastics was presented. In the research, the endothermal chemical blowing agents in amount 1,0% by mass were used. The quantity of used blowing agent has a direct influence on density and structure of the extruded product of modified polymers. However, these properties have further influence on porosity, impact strength, hardness, tensile strength and another.

  6. Restriction of Receptor Movement Alters Cellular Response: Physical Force Sensing by EphA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaita, Khalid; Nair, Pradeep M; Petit, Rebecca S; Neve, Richard M; Das, Debopriya; Gray, Joe W; Groves, Jay T

    2009-09-09

    Activation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase by ephrin-A1 ligands presented on apposed cell surfaces plays important roles in development and exhibits poorly understood functional alterations in cancer. We reconstituted this intermembrane signaling geometry between live EphA2-expressing human breast cancer cells and supported membranes displaying laterally mobile ephrin-A1. Receptor-ligand binding, clustering, and subsequent lateral transport within this junction were observed. EphA2 transport can be blocked by physical barriers nanofabricated onto the underlying substrate. This physical reorganization of EphA2 alters the cellular response to ephrin-A1, as observed by changes in cytoskeleton morphology and recruitment of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand spatial organization across a library of 26 mammary epithelial cell lines reveals characteristic differences that strongly correlate with invasion potential. These observations reveal a mechanism for spatio-mechanical regulation of EphA2 signaling pathways.

  7. Modelling chronotaxicity of cellular energy metabolism to facilitate the identification of altered metabolic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Gemma; Suprunenko, Yevhen F.; Jenkins, Kirsten; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Altered cellular energy metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, one notable example being cancer. Here, we focus on the identification of the transition from healthy to abnormal metabolic states. To do this, we study the dynamics of energy production in a cell. Due to the thermodynamic openness of a living cell, the inability to instantaneously match fluctuating supply and demand in energy metabolism results in nonautonomous time-varying oscillatory dynamics. However, such oscillatory dynamics is often neglected and treated as stochastic. Based on experimental evidence of metabolic oscillations, we show that changes in metabolic state can be described robustly by alterations in the chronotaxicity of the corresponding metabolic oscillations, i.e. the ability of an oscillator to resist external perturbations. We also present a method for the identification of chronotaxicity, applicable to general oscillatory signals and, importantly, apply this to real experimental data. Evidence of chronotaxicity was found in glycolytic oscillations in real yeast cells, verifying that chronotaxicity could be used to study transitions between metabolic states. PMID:27483987

  8. A celiac cellular phenotype, with altered LPP sub-cellular distribution, is inducible in controls by the toxic gliadin peptide P31-43.

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    Merlin Nanayakkara

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a frequent inflammatory intestinal disease, with a genetic background, caused by gliadin-containing food. Undigested gliadin peptides P31-43 and P57-68 induce innate and adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. Alterations in the cell shape and actin cytoskeleton are present in celiac enterocytes, and gliadin peptides induce actin rearrangements in both the CD mucosa and cell lines. Cell shape is maintained by the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, sites of membrane attachment to the extracellular matrix. The locus of the human Lipoma Preferred Partner (LPP gene was identified as strongly associated with CD using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. The LPP protein plays an important role in focal adhesion architecture and acts as a transcription factor in the nucleus. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that a constitutive alteration of the cell shape and the cytoskeleton, involving LPP, occurs in a cell compartment far from the main inflammation site in CD fibroblasts from skin explants. We analyzed the cell shape, actin organization, focal adhesion number, focal adhesion proteins, LPP sub-cellular distribution and adhesion to fibronectin of fibroblasts obtained from CD patients on a Gluten-Free Diet (GFD and controls, without and with treatment with A-gliadin peptide P31-43. We observed a "CD cellular phenotype" in these fibroblasts, characterized by an altered cell shape and actin organization, increased number of focal adhesions, and altered intracellular LPP protein distribution. The treatment of controls fibroblasts with gliadin peptide P31-43 mimics the CD cellular phenotype regarding the cell shape, adhesion capacity, focal adhesion number and LPP sub-cellular distribution, suggesting a close association between these alterations and CD pathogenesis.

  9. HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Display Alterations in Immunophenotype and Cellular Responses Associated with Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Abbondanzo, Susan J.; Chang, Sulie L.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in anti-retroviral therapy over the last two decades have allowed life expectancy in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus to approach that of the general population. The process of aging in mammalian species, including rats, results in immune response changes, alterations in immunological phenotypes, and ultimately increased susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In order to investigate the immunological pathologies associated with chronic HIV-1 disease, parti...

  10. Cellular Automaton Simulation of Evacuation Process in Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chang-Qun; ZHENG Rong-Sen; GAO Chun-Yuan; QIU Bing; DENG Min-Yi; KONC Ling-Jiang; LIU Mu-Ren

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations on the evacuation process in a story are launched with cellular automaton in this article. The story is composed of five rooms and one corridor. Influence of various parameters on the evacuation process is investigated. It shows that the width of the door of rooms has little influence but the width of the corridor and themaximum velocity of the pedestrian have great influence on the time for evacuation. The relation between evacuation time and the width of corridor is found as tc ∝ W-.0.84. It is also found that appropriate shape of the room is helpful to evacuation.

  11. Wave dynamic processes in cellular detonation reflection from wedges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongmin Hu; Zonglin Jiang

    2007-01-01

    When the cell width of the incident deto-nation wave (IDW) is comparable to or larger than theMach stem height,self-similarity will fail during IDWreflection from a wedge surface.In this paper,the det-onation reflection from wedges is investigated for thewave dynamic processes occurring in the wave front,including transverse shock motion and detonation cellvariations behind the Mach stem.A detailed reactionmodel is implemented to simulate two-dimensional cel-lular detonations in stoichiometric mixtures of H2/O2diluted by Argon.The numerical results show that thetransverse waves,which cross the triple point trajec-tory of Mach reflection,travel along the Mach stem andreflect back from the wedge surface,control the size ofthe cells in the region swept by the Mach stem.It is theenergy carried by these transverse waves that sustainsthe triple-wave-collision with a higher frequency withinthe over-driven Mach stem.In some cases,local wavedynamic processes and wave structures play a dominantrole in determining the pattern of cellular record,lead-ing to the fact that the cellular patterns after the Machstem exhibit some peculiar modes.

  12. Alterations of Cellular Immune Reactions in Crew Members Overwintering in the Antarctic Research Station Concordia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Feuerecker, Matthias; Moreels, Marjan; Crucian, Brian; Kaufmann, Ines; Salam, Alex Paddy; Rybka, Alex; Ulrike, Thieme; Quintens, Roel; Sams, Clarence F.; Schelling, Gustav; Thiel, Manfred; Baatout, Sarah; Chouker, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concordia Station is located inside Antarctica about 1000km from the coast at an altitude of 3200m (Dome C). Hence, individuals living in this harsh environment are exposed to two major conditions: 1.) hypobaric hypoxia and 2.) confinement and extreme isolation. Both hypoxia and confinement can affect human immunity and health, and are likely to be present during exploration class space missions. This study focused on immune alterations measured by a new global immunity test assay, similar to the phased out delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. Methods: After informed written consent 14 healthy male subjects were included to the CHOICE-study (Consequences-of-longterm-Confinement-and-Hypobaric-HypOxia-on-Immunity-in-the Antarctic-Concordia-Environment). Data collection occurred during two winter-over periods lasting each one year. During the first campaign 6 healthy male were enrolled followed by a second campaign with 8 healthy males. Blood was drawn monthly and incubated for 48h with various bacterial, viral and fungal antigens followed by an analysis of plasma cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL2, IFN-gamma, IL10). As a control, blood was incubated without stimulation ("resting condition"). Goals: The scope of this study was to assess the consequences of hypoxia and confinement on cellular immunity as assessed by a new in vitro DTH-like test. Results: Initial results indicate that under resting conditions the in vitro DTH-like test showed low cytokine levels which remained almost unchanged during the entire observation period. However, cytokine responses to viral, bacterial and fungal antigens were remarkably reduced at the first month after arrival at Concordia when compared to levels measured in Europe prior to departure for Antarctica. With incrementing months of confinement this depressed DTH-like response tended to reverse, and in fact to show an "overshooting" immune reaction after stimulation. Conclusion: The reduced in vitro DTH-like test

  13. Parallelizing the Cellular Potts Model on graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, José Juan; D'Souza, Roshan M.

    2011-04-01

    The Cellular Potts Model (CPM) is a lattice based modeling technique used for simulating cellular structures in computational biology. The computational complexity of the model means that current serial implementations restrict the size of simulation to a level well below biological relevance. Parallelization on computing clusters enables scaling the size of the simulation but marginally addresses computational speed due to the limited memory bandwidth between nodes. In this paper we present new data-parallel algorithms and data structures for simulating the Cellular Potts Model on graphics processing units. Our implementations handle most terms in the Hamiltonian, including cell-cell adhesion constraint, cell volume constraint, cell surface area constraint, and cell haptotaxis. We use fine level checkerboards with lock mechanisms using atomic operations to enable consistent updates while maintaining a high level of parallelism. A new data-parallel memory allocation algorithm has been developed to handle cell division. Tests show that our implementation enables simulations of >10 cells with lattice sizes of up to 256 3 on a single graphics card. Benchmarks show that our implementation runs ˜80× faster than serial implementations, and ˜5× faster than previous parallel implementations on computing clusters consisting of 25 nodes. The wide availability and economy of graphics cards mean that our techniques will enable simulation of realistically sized models at a fraction of the time and cost of previous implementations and are expected to greatly broaden the scope of CPM applications.

  14. Cellular Signaling Pathway Alterations and Potential Targeted Therapies for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Giunti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parafollicular C-cell-derived medullary thyroid cancer (MTC comprises 3% to 4% of all thyroid cancers. While cytotoxic treatments have been shown to have limited efficacy, targeted molecular therapies that inhibit rearranged during transfection (RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors that are mainly involved in angiogenesis have shown great promise in the treatment of metastatic or locally advanced MTC. Multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as vandetanib, which is already approved for the treatment of progressive MTC, and cabozantinib have shown distinct advantages with regard to rates of disease response and control. However, these types of tyrosine kinase inhibitor compounds are able to concurrently block several types of targets, which limits the understanding of RET as a specific target. Moreover, important resistances to tyrosine kinase inhibitors can occur, which limit the long-term efficacy of these treatments. Deregulated cellular signaling pathways and genetic alterations in MTC, particularly the activation of the RAS/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR cascades and RET crosstalk signaling, are now emerging as novel and potentially promising therapeutic treatments for aggressive MTC.

  15. Public Evacuation Process Modeling and Simulatiaon Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering attraction of the nearest exit, repulsive force of the fire, barrier and its display style, effect of fire exit location on escape time in fire hazard, a mathematical model of evacuation process model was build based on cellular automatic theory. The program was developed by JavaScript. The influencing factors of evacuation were obtained through the simulation model by inputting crew size, creating initial positions of crew and fire seat stochastically. The experimental results show that the evacuation simulation model with authenticity and validity, which has guiding significance for people evacuation and public escape system design.  

  16. Ocean warming alters cellular metabolism and induces mortality in fish early life stages: A proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, D; Araújo, J E; Vitorino, R; Capelo, J L; Vinagre, C; Diniz, M S

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has pervasive effects on marine ecosystems, altering biodiversity patterns, abundance and distribution of species, biological interactions, phenology, and organisms' physiology, performance and fitness. Fish early life stages have narrow thermal windows and are thus more vulnerable to further changes in water temperature. The aim of this study was to address the sensitivity and underlying molecular changes of larvae of a key fisheries species, the sea bream Sparus aurata, towards ocean warming. Larvae were exposed to three temperatures: 18°C (control), 24°C (warm) and 30°C (heat wave) for seven days. At the end of the assay, i) survival curves were plotted for each temperature treatment and ii) entire larvae were collected for proteomic analysis via 2D gel electrophoresis, image analysis and mass spectrometry. Survival decreased with increasing temperature, with no larvae surviving at 30°C. Therefore, proteomic analysis was only carried out for 18°C and 24°C. Larvae up-regulated protein folding and degradation, cytoskeletal re-organization, transcriptional regulation and the growth hormone while mostly down-regulating cargo transporting and porphyrin metabolism upon exposure to heat stress. No changes were detected in proteins related to energetic metabolism suggesting that larval fish may not have the energetic plasticity needed to sustain cellular protection in the long-term. These results indicate that despite proteome modulation, S. aurata larvae do not seem able to fully acclimate to higher temperatures as shown by the low survival rates. Consequently, elevated temperatures seem to have bottleneck effects during fish early life stages, and future ocean warming can potentially compromise recruitment's success of key fisheries species. PMID:27062348

  17. Comprehensive analysis of temporal alterations in cellular proteome of Bacillus subtilis under curcumin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panga Jaipal Reddy

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a natural dietary compound with antimicrobial activity against various gram positive and negative bacteria. This study aims to investigate the proteome level alterations in Bacillus subtilis due to curcumin treatment and identification of its molecular/cellular targets to understand the mechanism of action. We have performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of B. subtilis AH75 strain at different time intervals of curcumin treatment (20, 60 and 120 min after the drug exposure, three replicates to compare the protein expression profiles using two complementary quantitative proteomic techniques, 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive longitudinal investigation describing the effect of curcumin treatment on B. subtilis proteome. The proteomics analysis revealed several interesting targets such UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase 1, putative septation protein SpoVG and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit. Further, in silico pathway analysis using DAVID and KOBAS has revealed modulation of pathways related to the fatty acid metabolism and cell wall synthesis, which are crucial for cell viability. Our findings revealed that curcumin treatment lead to inhibition of the cell wall and fatty acid synthesis in addition to differential expression of many crucial proteins involved in modulation of bacterial metabolism. Findings obtained from proteomics analysis were further validated using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC assay for respiratory activity, resazurin assay for metabolic activity and membrane integrity assay by potassium and inorganic phosphate leakage measurement. The gene expression analysis of selected cell wall biosynthesis enzymes has strengthened the proteomics findings and indicated the major effect of curcumin on cell division.

  18. Cellular processing and destinies of artificial DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Di Sheng; Qian, Hang; Tay, Chor Yong; Leong, David Tai

    2016-08-01

    Since many bionanotechnologies are targeted at cells, understanding how and where their interactions occur and the subsequent results of these interactions is important. Changing the intrinsic properties of DNA nanostructures and linking them with interactions presents a holistic and powerful strategy for understanding dual nanostructure-biological systems. With the recent advances in DNA nanotechnology, DNA nanostructures present a great opportunity to understand the often convoluted mass of information pertaining to nanoparticle-biological interactions due to the more precise control over their chemistry, sizes, and shapes. Coupling just some of these designs with an understanding of biological processes is both a challenge and a source of opportunities. Despite continuous advances in the field of DNA nanotechnology, the intracellular fate of DNA nanostructures has remained unclear and controversial. Because understanding its cellular processing and destiny is a necessary prelude to any rational design of exciting and innovative bionanotechnology, in this review, we will discuss and provide a comprehensive picture relevant to the intracellular processing and the fate of various DNA nanostructures which have been remained elusive for some time. We will also link the unique capabilities of DNA to some novel ideas for developing next-generation bionanotechnologies. PMID:27119124

  19. Quantitative relationship between hepatocytic neoplasms and islands of cellular alteration during hepatocarcinogenesis in the male F344 rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, W. K.; Mackenzie, S. A.; Kaufman, D G

    1985-01-01

    Hepatocytic neoplasms (nodules and carcinomas) and islands of cellular alteration which display abnormal retention of glycogen on fasting were quantified in F344 male rats at intervals after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis by the combination of a two-thirds partial hepatectomy with a single treatment with methyl(acetoxymethyl)-nitrosamine during the subsequent peak of DNA synthesis in regenerating livers. In initiated rats fed the liver tumor promoter phenobarbital, yields of neoplasms and...

  20. Peripheral blood leukocytes of cows with subclinical endometritis show an altered cellular composition and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvel, Anna; Maaß, Janine; Heppelmann, Maike; Hussen, Jamal; Koy, Mirja; Piechotta, Marion; Sandra, Olivier; Smith, David G E; Sheldon, Iain Martin; Dieuzy-Labaye, Isabelle; Zieger, Peter; Schuberth, Hans Joachim

    2014-04-15

    Subclinical endometritis (SCE) is an important postpartum disease in dairy cows, but conventional cytobrush diagnosis often gives imprecise results. The aim of this study was to analyze disease-associated changes in peripheral blood as potential diagnostic parameters. Cellular subpopulations of blood leukocytes from cows with or without SCE (45-55 days postpartum) were flow-cytometrically quantified. Gene expression of whole blood leukocytes was assessed by PAXgene analysis. Subclinical endometritis cows showed significantly higher number of blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Among mononuclear cells, numbers of B-cells, NK-cells, and CD172a-positive monocytes were significantly elevated. Compared with non-SCE cows, blood leukocytes of SCE cows significantly expressed higher copy numbers of CXCL8, TNF, and IL12. To test whether circulating plasma factors are responsible for these changes, leukocytes, polymorphonuclear cells, and monocyte subpopulations (classical, intermediate, nonclassical) of healthy cows were stimulated with plasma of SCE and non-SCE cows. Although gene expression of whole leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells remained unaltered, plasma from SCE animals significantly elevated expressed messenger RNA copy numbers of CXCL8, CXCL1, and IL1B in intermediate monocytes. In conclusion, elevated number of selected mononuclear subpopulations in peripheral blood and enhanced expression of distinct genes encoding for inflammatory mediators in blood leukocytes reflect the subclinical uterine inflammatory process in cows. Whether the observed changes in the periphery of SCE cows are the consequence of the uterine inflammatory process, or whether they affect the pathogenesis of the disease is currently unknown. PMID:24560452

  1. Electromagnetic Evidence of Altered Visual Processing in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Nicola; Dubischar-Krivec, Anna M.; Poustka, Fritz; Birbaumer, Niels; Bolte, Sven; Braun, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate intact or superior local processing of visual-spatial tasks. We investigated the hypothesis that in a disembedding task, autistic individuals exhibit a more local processing style than controls, which is reflected by altered electromagnetic brain activity in response to embedded stimuli…

  2. In Absence of the Cellular Prion Protein, Alterations in Copper Metabolism and Copper-Dependent Oxidase Activity Affect Iron Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Lisa; Meneghetti, Elisa; Legname, Giuseppe; Benetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements as copper and iron modulate a wide range of physiological functions. Their metabolism is strictly regulated by cellular pathways, since dysregulation of metal homeostasis is responsible for many detrimental effects. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases are characterized by alterations of metal ions. These neurodegenerative maladies involve proteins that bind metals and mediate their metabolism through not well-defined mechanisms. Prion protein, for instance, interacts with divalent cations via multiple metal-binding sites and it modulates several metal-dependent physiological functions, such as S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptors. In this work we focused on the effect of prion protein absence on copper and iron metabolism during development and adulthood. In particular, we investigated copper and iron functional values in serum and several organs such as liver, spleen, total brain and isolated hippocampus. Our results show that iron content is diminished in prion protein-null mouse serum, while it accumulates in liver and spleen. Our data suggest that these alterations can be due to impairments in copper-dependent cerulopalsmin activity which is known to affect iron mobilization. In prion protein-null mouse total brain and hippocampus, metal ion content shows a fluctuating trend, suggesting the presence of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms. However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. Altogether, these results reveal that the absence of the cellular prion protein impairs copper metabolism and copper-dependent oxidase activity, with ensuing alteration of iron mobilization from cellular storage compartments. PMID:27729845

  3. Cellular modelling using P systems and process algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco J.Romero-Campero; Marian Gheorghe; Gabriel Ciobanu; John M. Auld; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez

    2007-01-01

    In this paper various molecular chemical interactions are modelled under different computational paradigms. P systems and π-calculus are used to describe intra-cellular reactions like protein-protein interactions and gene regulation control.

  4. PROGRESSION TO ANDROGEN-INDEPENDENT LNCAP HUMAN PROSTATE TUMORS: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR ALTERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jin-Rong; Yu, Lunyin; Zerbini, Luiz F.; Libermann, Towia A.; Blackburn, George L.

    2004-01-01

    Lethal phenotypes of human prostate cancer are characterized by progression to androgen-independence and metastasis. For want of a clinically relevant animal model, mechanisms behind this progression remain unclear. Our study used an in vivo model of androgen-sensitive LNCaP human prostate cancer cell xenografts in male SCID mice to study the cellular and molecular biology of tumor progression. Primary tumors were established orthotopically, and the mice were then surgically castrated to with...

  5. Identification of an mtDNA mutation hot spot in UV-induced mouse skin tumors producing altered cellular biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandova, Jana; Eshaghian, Alex; Shi, Mingjian; Li, Meiling; King, Lloyd E; Janda, Jaroslav; Sligh, James E

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role of mtDNA alterations in the development of cancer, as mtDNA point mutations are found at high frequency in a variety of human tumors. To determine the biological effects of mtDNA mutations in UV-induced skin tumors, hairless mice were irradiated to produce tumors, and the tumor mtDNAs were screened for single-nucleotide changes using temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE), followed by direct sequencing. A mutation hot spot (9821insA) in the mitochondrially encoded tRNA arginine (mt-Tr) locus (tRNA(Arg)) was discovered in approximately one-third of premalignant and malignant skin tumors. To determine the functional relevance of this particular mutation in vitro, cybrid cell lines containing different mt-Tr (tRNA(Arg)) alleles were generated. The resulting cybrid cell lines contained the same nuclear genotype and differed only in their mtDNAs. The biochemical analysis of the cybrids revealed that the mutant haplotype is associated with diminished levels of complex I protein (CI), resulting in lower levels of baseline oxygen consumption and lower cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. We hypothesize that this specific mtDNA mutation alters cellular biochemistry, supporting the development of keratinocyte neoplasia.

  6. Alteration of the Cyclin D1/p16-pRB Pathway, Cellular Proliferation and Apoptosis in Glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGCun-zu; FUZhen; ZHAOZhu.qing

    2004-01-01

    To study the alteration of cyclin D1, p16 and pRB in glioma, analyze proliferation and apoptosis of tmnor cells, and discuss the pathogenesis of glioma, Methods : Thirty-seven glioma specimens were classified as astrocytoma(25 cases, including 7 fibrillary cases; 6 protoplasmic cases; 12 anaplastic cases), and glioblastoma( 12 cases, including 4 GBM cases). Ten normal brain tissues were taken as controls. The expression of cyclin D1, p16 and pRB were detected by imrnunohistochemical method, Cellular proliferation was assessed by Ki-67 label index( Ki-67 LI). Cellular apoptosis was detected by TUNEL and apoptotic indices(AI) was calculated. Resu/ts: The alterations of three proteins were cyclin D1 overexpression( 28/37,75.7% ), p16 and pRB deletion( 20/37.54.1% and 12/37,32.4% ), which were closely related to tumor types, particularly in malignant glioma. Ki-67 LI and AI were higher when pRB pathway was abnormal. Apoptosis was minor in astrocytic tumors( astrocytomas, 0.010±0.002; glioblastomas, 0.057±0.016). Condusion:The abnormalities of cyclin DI/pl6-pRB pathway correlated closely with pathogenesis of glioma.

  7. Quantification of nanoscale density fluctuations by electron microscopy: probing cellular alterations in early carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Damania, Dhwanil; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Subramanian, Hariharan; Roy, Hemant K.; Taflove, Allen; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Backman, Vadim

    2011-04-01

    Most cancers are curable if they are diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Recent studies suggest that nanoarchitectural changes occur within cells during early carcinogenesis and that such changes precede microscopically evident tissue alterations. It follows that the ability to comprehensively interrogate cell nanoarchitecture (e.g., macromolecular complexes, DNA, RNA, proteins and lipid membranes) could be critical to the diagnosis of early carcinogenesis. We present a study of the nanoscale mass-density fluctuations of biological tissues by quantifying their degree of disorder at the nanoscale. Transmission electron microscopy images of human tissues are used to construct corresponding effective disordered optical lattices. The properties of nanoscale disorder are then studied by statistical analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the spatially localized eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscale. Our results show an increase in the disorder of human colonic epithelial cells in subjects harboring early stages of colon neoplasia. Furthermore, our findings strongly suggest that increased nanoscale disorder correlates with the degree of tumorigenicity. Therefore, the IPR technique provides a practicable tool for the detection of nanoarchitectural alterations in the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. Potential applications of the technique for early cancer screening and detection are also discussed. Originally submitted for the special focus issue on physical oncology.

  8. An NCAM mimetic, FGL, alters hippocampal cellular morphometry in young adult (4 month-old) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Bunmi; Gabbott, Paul L; Rezaie, Payam; Corbett, Nicola; Medvedev, Nikolay I; Cowley, Thelma R; Lynch, Marina A; Stewart, Michael G

    2013-06-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is ubiquitously expressed within the CNS and has roles in development, cognition, neural plasticity and regulation of the immune system. NCAM is thus potentially an important pharmacological target for treatment of brain diseases. A cell adhesion mimetic FGL, a 15 amino-acid peptide derived from the second fibronectin type-III module of NCAM, has been shown to act as a neuroprotective agent in experimental disease and ageing models, restoring hippocampal/cognitive function and markedly alleviating deleterious changes in the CNS. However, the effects of FGL on the hippocampus of young healthy rats are unknown. The present study has examined the cellular neurobiological consequences of subcutaneous injections of FGL, on hippocampal cell morphometry in young (4 month-old) rats. We determined the effects of FGL on hippocampal volume, pyramidal neuron number/density (using unbiased quantitative stereology), and examined aspects of neurogenesis (using 2D morphometric analyses). FGL treatment reduced total volume of the dorsal hippocampus (associated with a decrease in total pyramidal neuron numbers in CA1 and CA3), and elevated the number of doublecortin immunolabeled neurons in the dentate gyrus, indicating a likely influence on neurogenesis in young healthy rats. These data indicate that FGL has a specific age dependent effect on the hippocampus, differing according to the development and maturity of the CNS.

  9. Receptor Oligomerization as a Process Modulating Cellular Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Maggio, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The majority of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) self-assemble in the form dimeric/oligomeric complexes along the plasma membrane. Due to the molecular interactions they participate, GPCRs can potentially provide the framework for discriminating a wide variety of intercellular signals, as based...... at which selective categorical sensing may occur. Categorical sensing can be seen as the cellular capacity for identifying and ordering complex patterns of mixed signals out of a contextual matrix, i.e., the recognition of meaningful patterns out of ubiquitous signals. In this context, redundancy...... be another level of quality control that may help maintaining GPCRs rather stable throughout evolution. We propose here receptor oligomerization to be a basic molecular mechanism controlling GPCRs redundancy in many different cell types, and the plasma membrane as the first hierarchical cell structure...

  10. Myocardial perfusion alterations observed months after radiotherapy are related to the cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, I.; Sonmez, B. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sezen, O.; Zengin, A.Y.; Bahat, Z. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Yenilmez, E.; Yulug, E. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Histology and Embryology; Abidin, I. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Biophysics

    2010-07-01

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is one of the widely used tools to follow developing radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD). But the clinical significance of MPS defects has not been fully understood. We have investigated the biodistribution alterations related to perfusion defects following radiotherapy (RT) and showed coexisting morphological changes. Animals, methods: A total of 18 Wistar rats were divided into three groups (1 control and 2 irradiated groups). A single cardiac 20 Gy radiation dose was used to induce long term cardiac defects. Biodistribution studies with technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) sestamibi and histological evaluations were performed 4 and 6 months after irradiation. The percent radioactivity (%ID/g) was calculated for each heart. For determination of the myocardial damage, positive apoptotic cardiomyocytes, myocardial cell degeneration, myocardial fibrosis, vascular damage and ultrastructural structures were evaluated. Results: Six months after treatment, a significant drop of myocardial uptake was observed (p < 0.05). Irradiation-induced apoptosis rose within the first 4 months after radiation treatment and were stayed elevated until the end of the observation period (p < 0.05). Also, the irradiation has induced myocardial degeneration, perivascular and interstitial fibrosis in the heart at the end of six and four months (p < 0.01). The severity and extent of myocardial injury has became more evident at the end of six month (p < 0.05). At ultrastructural level, prominent changes have been observed in the capillary endothelial and myocardial cells. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the reduced rest myocardial perfusion, occuring months after the radiation, indicates a serious myocard tissue damage which is characterized by myocardial degeneration and fibrosis. (orig.)

  11. Mobile Phone Service Process Hiccups at Cellular Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    This teaching case documents an actual case of process execution and failure. The case is useful in MIS introductory courses seeking to demonstrate the interdependencies within a business process, and the concept of cascading failure at the process level. This case demonstrates benefits and potential problems with information technology systems,…

  12. A distinct role for interleukin-6 as a major mediator of cellular adjustment to an altered culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hwa-Kyung; Park, Iha; Kim, Jue Young; Kim, Do Kyeong; Illeperuma, Rasika P; Bae, Jung Yoon; Lee, Doo Young; Oh, Eun-Sang; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R; Kim, Jin

    2015-11-01

    Tissue microenvironment adjusts biological properties of different cells by modulating signaling pathways and cell to cell interactions. This study showed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)/ mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) can be modulated by altering culture conditions. HPV E6/E7-transfected immortalized oral keratinocytes (IHOK) cultured in different media displayed reversible EMT/MET accompanied by changes in cell phenotype, proliferation, gene expression at transcriptional, and translational level, and migratory and invasive activities. Cholera toxin, a major supplement to culture medium, was responsible for inducing the morphological and biological changes of IHOK. Cholera toxin per se induced EMT by triggering the secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) from IHOK. We found IL-6 to be a central molecule that modulates the reversibility of EMT based not only on the mRNA level but also on the level of secretion. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IL-6, a cytokine whose transcription is activated by alterations in culture conditions, is a key molecule for regulating reversible EMT/MET. This study will contribute to understand one way of cellular adjustment for surviving in unfamiliar conditions.

  13. Exome capture sequencing of adenoma reveals genetic alterations in multiple cellular pathways at the early stage of colorectal tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donger Zhou

    Full Text Available Most of colorectal adenocarcinomas are believed to arise from adenomas, which are premalignant lesions. Sequencing the whole exome of the adenoma will help identifying molecular biomarkers that can predict the occurrence of adenocarcinoma more precisely and help understanding the molecular pathways underlying the initial stage of colorectal tumorigenesis. We performed the exome capture sequencing of the normal mucosa, adenoma and adenocarcinoma tissues from the same patient and sequenced the identified mutations in additional 73 adenomas and 288 adenocarcinomas. Somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs were identified in both the adenoma and adenocarcinoma by comparing with the normal control from the same patient. We identified 12 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenoma and 42 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenocarcinoma. Most of these mutations including OR6X1, SLC15A3, KRTHB4, RBFOX1, LAMA3, CDH20, BIRC6, NMBR, GLCCI1, EFR3A, and FTHL17 were newly reported in colorectal adenomas. Functional annotation of these mutated genes showed that multiple cellular pathways including Wnt, cell adhesion and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathways were altered genetically in the adenoma and that the genetic alterations in the same pathways persist in the adenocarcinoma. CDH20 and LAMA3 were mutated in the adenoma while NRXN3 and COL4A6 were mutated in the adenocarcinoma from the same patient, suggesting for the first time that genetic alterations in the cell adhesion pathway occur as early as in the adenoma. Thus, the comparison of genomic mutations between adenoma and adenocarcinoma provides us a new insight into the molecular events governing the early step of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  14. Exome capture sequencing of adenoma reveals genetic alterations in multiple cellular pathways at the early stage of colorectal tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Donger; Yang, Liu; Zheng, Liangtao; Ge, Weiting; Li, Dan; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Xueda; Gao, Zhibo; Xu, Jinghong; Huang, Yanqin; Hu, Hanguang; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Mingming; Yang, Huanming; Zheng, Lei; Zheng, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Most of colorectal adenocarcinomas are believed to arise from adenomas, which are premalignant lesions. Sequencing the whole exome of the adenoma will help identifying molecular biomarkers that can predict the occurrence of adenocarcinoma more precisely and help understanding the molecular pathways underlying the initial stage of colorectal tumorigenesis. We performed the exome capture sequencing of the normal mucosa, adenoma and adenocarcinoma tissues from the same patient and sequenced the identified mutations in additional 73 adenomas and 288 adenocarcinomas. Somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified in both the adenoma and adenocarcinoma by comparing with the normal control from the same patient. We identified 12 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenoma and 42 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenocarcinoma. Most of these mutations including OR6X1, SLC15A3, KRTHB4, RBFOX1, LAMA3, CDH20, BIRC6, NMBR, GLCCI1, EFR3A, and FTHL17 were newly reported in colorectal adenomas. Functional annotation of these mutated genes showed that multiple cellular pathways including Wnt, cell adhesion and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathways were altered genetically in the adenoma and that the genetic alterations in the same pathways persist in the adenocarcinoma. CDH20 and LAMA3 were mutated in the adenoma while NRXN3 and COL4A6 were mutated in the adenocarcinoma from the same patient, suggesting for the first time that genetic alterations in the cell adhesion pathway occur as early as in the adenoma. Thus, the comparison of genomic mutations between adenoma and adenocarcinoma provides us a new insight into the molecular events governing the early step of colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:23301059

  15. Prenatal IV Cocaine: Alterations in Auditory Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Mactutus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One clue regarding the basis of cocaine-induced deficits in attentional processing is provided by the clinical findings of changes in the infants’ startle response; observations buttressed by neurophysiological evidence of alterations in brainstem transmission time. Using the IV route of administration and doses that mimic the peak arterial levels of cocaine use in humans, the present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine on auditory information processing via tests of the acoustic startle response (ASR, habituation, and prepulse inhibition (PPI in the offspring. Nulliparous Long-Evans female rats, implanted with an IV access port prior to breeding, were administered saline, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/injection of cocaine HCL (COC from gestation day (GD8-20 (1x/day-GD8-14, 2x/day-GD15-20. COC had no significant effects on maternal/litter parameters or growth of the offspring. At 18-20 days of age, one male and one female, randomly selected from each litter displayed an increased ASR (>30% for males at 1.0 mg/kg and >30% for females at 3.0 mg/kg. When reassessed in adulthood (D90-100, a linear dose-response increase was noted on response amplitude. At both test ages, within-session habituation was retarded by prenatal cocaine treatment. Testing the females in diestrus vs. estrus did not alter the results. Prenatal cocaine altered the PPI response function across interstimulus interval (ISI and induced significant sex-dependent changes in response latency. Idazoxan, an alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ASR, but less enhancement was noted with increasing doses of prenatal cocaine. Thus, in utero exposure to cocaine, when delivered via a protocol designed to capture prominent features of recreational usage, causes persistent, if not permanent, alterations in auditory information processing, and suggests dysfunction of the central noradrenergic circuitry modulating, if not mediating, these responses.

  16. Altered lateralisation of emotional prosody processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R; Herdener, Marcus; Grandjean, Didier; Sander, David; Seifritz, Erich; Strik, Werner K

    2009-05-01

    Alterations of cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenia have been reported consistently, and a reduced left-lateralisation has been suggested for language functions. Speech contains non-verbal information, e.g. prosody, and on a behavioural level, the extraction of emotional information from prosody is often impaired in schizophrenia. A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study suggests increased left-lateralisation in schizophrenia during prosody processing, but did not disentangle effects of speech processing as such and emotional prosody processing. Here, we used meaningless syllables spoken with neutral, angry or fearful speech melody and measured blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in 15 in-patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants matched for age and gender. Lateralisation indices were calculated for responses to emotional versus neutral prosody, and for all types of prosody versus baseline. Compared to control participants, patients with schizophrenia showed an increased right-lateralisation of emotional and non-emotional prosody processing in the temporal and parietal cortex. This right-lateralisation was increased in patients with reduced right-handedness and decreased in patients with stronger negative symptoms, particularly affective blunting, and with longer hospitalisation. Although patients with schizophrenia performed worse in emotion identification, this deficit was not related to lateralisation indices. Enhanced right-lateralisation to prosody resembles previous findings on laterality changes in speech processing and might suggest a common underlying cause in the organization of language functions.

  17. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casas, Josefina [Department of Biomedicinal Chemistry, IQAC–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Lacorte, Sílvia, E-mail: slbqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Porte, Cinta, E-mail: cinta.porte@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  18. U Mineral Hosts and Enrichment Processes in Altered Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, L. C.; Plank, T.; Kelley, K.; Alt, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    The U-Pb-Th isotopic system is a primary tool for understanding mantle and continental evolution and for quantifying the flow of mass and heat through the Earth's reservoirs. One of the major sites of U-Pb-Th fractionation is the oceanic crust, which is a sink for seawater U. For example, the upper, oxidized oceanic crust (U ~0.4ppm) may be as much as 4x enriched over pristine igneous values (U ~0.09ppm) with a minor net change in Pb and Th. Little, however, is understood about the mechanisms controlling uranium enrichment, its mineral hosts, or the timing of the process. We have used laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron microprobe data to study the distribution of U in the oldest sampled crust in the Pacific, Jurassic mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from ODP Site 801C (1000 km seaward of the Mariana trench), formed at fast spreading rates. Seventeen thin sections, 8 with the highest whole rock U content (HUC) (0.61-1.7ppm) and 9 with low U content (LUC) (U laser beam was rastered across various alteration zones, such as halos, veins, and the surrounding host to provide in-situ multi-element analysis (U, Th, Pb, REE, alkalis, etc). HUC are exclusively associated with low-Mg calcites (enrichment, whereas LUC inherit the LREE depletion of the MORB host. Thus, there appear to be distinct generations of fluids that precipitate carbonate; those with the high Sr and low REE of seawater tend to precipitate U-rich calcites (up to 4.5 ppm U). Four thin sections containing Fe-oxide veins ± celadonite and carbonates were also analyzed. Initial analysis suggests high U ( ~1.8ppm) is associated with Fe-oxides, halos immediately surrounding the mixed Fe-oxide veins, or redox fronts further into the basaltic hosts (up to 0.5mm from the oxide veins). Thus, U in altered MORB is associated with three types of alteration phases: 1) carbonate veins, 2) halos surrounding mixed Fe-oxide veins, and 3) Fe-oxide phases. Of the excess U in the upper

  19. The cellular distribution of extracellular superoxide dismutase in macrophages is altered by cellular activation but unaffected by the natural occurring R213G substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfredsen, Randi Heidemann; Goldstrohm, David; Hartney, John;

    2014-01-01

    and associated with the cell surface via the extracellular matrix (ECM)-binding region. Upon cellular activation induced by lipopolysaccharide, EC-SOD is relocated and detected both in the cell culture medium and in lipid raft structures. Although the secreted material presented a significantly reduced ligand...

  20. Identification of genes that regulate multiple cellular processes/responses in the context of lipotoxicity to hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yedwabnick Matthew

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to devise efficient treatments for complex, multi-factorial diseases, it is important to identify the genes which regulate multiple cellular processes. Exposure to elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α alters multiple cellular processes, causing lipotoxicity. Intracellular lipid accumulation has been shown to reduce the lipotoxicity of saturated FFA. We hypothesized that the genes which simultaneously regulate lipid accumulation as well as cytotoxicity may provide better targets to counter lipotoxicity of saturated FFA. Results As a model system to test this hypothesis, human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2 were exposed to elevated physiological levels of FFAs and TNF-α. Triglyceride (TG accumulation, toxicity and the genomic responses to the treatments were measured. Here, we present a framework to identify such genes in the context of lipotoxicity. The aim of the current study is to identify the genes that could be altered to treat or ameliorate the cellular responses affected by a complex disease rather than to identify the causal genes. Genes that regulate the TG accumulation, cytotoxicity or both were identified by a modified genetic algorithm partial least squares (GA/PLS analysis. The analyses identified NADH dehydrogenase and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs as important regulators of both cytotoxicity and lipid accumulation in response to FFA and TNF-α exposure. In agreement with the predictions, inhibiting NADH dehydrogenase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK reduced cytotoxicity significantly and increased intracellular TG accumulation. Inhibiting another MAPK pathway, the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK, on the other hand, improved the cytotoxicity without changing TG accumulation. Much greater reduction in the toxicity was observed upon inhibiting the NADH dehydrogenase and MAPK (which were identified by the dual-response analysis, than for the

  1. A priming dose of protons alters the early cardiac cellular and molecular response to 56Fe irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Samy S.; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence suggests that the heart may be injured by ionizing radiation at lower doses than was previously thought. This raises concerns about the cardiovascular risks from exposure to radiation during space travel. Since space travel is associated with exposure to both protons from solar particle events and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, we here examined the effects of a "priming" dose of protons on the cardiac cellular and molecular response to a "challenge" dose of 56Fe in a mouse model. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice at 10 weeks of age were exposed to sham-irradiation, 0.1 Gy of protons (150 MeV), 0.5 Gy of 56Fe (600 MeV/n), or 0.1 Gy of protons 24 hours prior to 0.5 Gy of 56Fe. Hearts were obtained at 7 days post-irradiation and western-blots were used to determine protein markers of cardiac remodeling, inflammatory infiltration, and cell death. Results: Exposure to 56Fe caused an increase in expression of α-smooth muscle cell actin, collagen type III, the inflammatory cell markers mast cell tryptase, CD2 and CD68, the endothelial glycoprotein thrombomodulin, and cleaved caspase 3. Of all proteins investigated, protons at a dose of 0.1 Gy induced a small increase only in cleaved caspase 3 levels. On the other hand, exposure to protons 24 hours before 56Fe prevented all of the responses to 56Fe. Conclusions: This study shows that a low dose of protons may prime the heart to respond differently to a subsequent challenge dose of heavy ions. Further investigation is required to identify responses at additional time points, consequences for cardiac function, threshold dose levels, and mechanisms by which a proton priming dose may alter the response to heavy ions.

  2. A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.

  3. Reconciling paradigms of abnormal pulmonary blood flow and quasi-malignant cellular alterations in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, C M; Szulcek, R; Voelkel, N F; Bogaard, H J

    2016-08-01

    In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) structural and functional abnormalities of the small lung vessels interact and lead to a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure. A current pathobiological concept characterizes PAH as a 'quasi-malignant' disease focusing on cancer-like alterations in endothelial cells (EC) and the importance of their acquired apoptosis-resistant, hyper-proliferative phenotype in the process of vascular remodeling. While changes in pulmonary blood flow (PBF) have been long-since recognized and linked to the development of PAH, little is known about a possible relationship between an altered PBF and the quasi-malignant cell phenotype in the pulmonary vascular wall. This review summarizes recognized and hypothetical effects of an abnormal PBF on the pulmonary vascular bed and links these to quasi-malignant changes found in the pulmonary endothelium. Here we describe that abnormal PBF does not only trigger a pulmonary vascular cell growth program, but may also maintain the cancer-like phenotype of the endothelium. Consequently, normalization of PBF and EC response to abnormal PBF may represent a treatment strategy in patients with established PAH. PMID:26804008

  4. Cellular growth defects triggered by an overload of protein localization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintaka, Reiko; Makanae, Koji; Moriya, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    High-level expression of a protein localized to an intracellular compartment is expected to cause cellular defects because it overloads localization processes. However, overloads of localization processes have never been studied systematically. Here, we show that the expression levels of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) with localization signals were limited to the same degree as a toxic misfolded GFP in budding yeast cells, and that their high-level expression caused cellular defects associated with localization processes. We further show that limitation of the exportin Crm1 determined the expression limit of GFP with a nuclear export signal. Although misfolding of GFP with a vesicle-mediated transport signal triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress, it was not the primary determinant of its expression limit. The precursor of GFP with a mitochondrial targeting signal caused a cellular defect. Finally, we estimated the residual capacities of localization processes. High-level expression of a localized protein thus causes cellular defects by overloading the capacities of localization processes. PMID:27538565

  5. Divalent metals stabilize cellular prion proteins and alter the rate of proteinase-K dependent limited proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The key biochemical event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is the conversion of normal cellular prion proteins (PrP**c) to the proteinase K (PK) resistant, abnormal form (PrP**sc); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying the conversion remain enigmatic. Binding of divalent ca...

  6. A simple yeast-based strategy to identify host cellular processes targeted by bacterial effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Bosis

    Full Text Available Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins.

  7. Suitability of the cellular viability technique as a control tool of the chlorine dosage on the activated sludge of a biological process affected by bulking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates the suitability of the cellular viability technique as a control tool of the chlorine dosage on the activated sludge of a biological process affected by the overabundance of the filamentous bacteria (Thiothrix-021N). This technique was used to establish the chlorine dosage according to the observed damages on cellular membranes of both, floc-forming bacteria as well as filamentous bacteria. To identify the filamentous bacteria responsible for the macro-structural alteration of the flocs, several criteria were, met, including morphologic characteristics as well as conventional microbiological stains: Gram, Neisser and polyhydroxy alkanoates. FISH was used to confirm the obtained results, providing a definitive identification of the filamentous bacteria responsible for the alteration. (Author) 11 refs

  8. Cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting: Generating reliable, optimized scanning paths and processing parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    to generate optimized cellular scanning strategies and processing parameters, with an objective of reducing thermal asymmetries and mechanical deformations. The optimized scanning strategies are used for selective laser melting of the standard samples, and experimental and numerical results are compared....... gradients that occur during the process. While process monitoring and control of selective laser melting is an active area of research, establishing the reliability and robustness of the process still remains a challenge.In this paper, a methodology for generating reliable, optimized scanning paths...

  9. A new cellular nonlinear network emulation on FPGA for EEG signal processing in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jens; Müller, Jan; Tetzlaff, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    For processing of EEG signals, we propose a new architecture for the hardware emulation of discrete-time Cellular Nonlinear Networks (DT-CNN). Our results show the importance of a high computational accuracy in EEG signal prediction that cannot be achieved with existing analogue VLSI circuits. The refined architecture of the processing elements and its resource schedule, the cellular network structure with local couplings, the FPGA-based embedded system containing the DT-CNN, and the data flow in the entire system will be discussed in detail. The proposed DT-CNN design has been implemented and tested on an Xilinx FPGA development platform. The embedded co-processor with a multi-threading kernel is utilised for control and pre-processing tasks and data exchange to the host via Ethernet. The performance of the implemented DT-CNN has been determined for a popular example and compared to that of a conventional computer.

  10. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F.; Selevsek, N.; Torres, I. F.; Hernández, T.; García, C.

    2015-10-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures.

  11. The Sarcomeric M-Region: A Molecular Command Center for Diverse Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yen R. Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sarcomeric M-region anchors thick filaments and withstands the mechanical stress of contractions by deformation, thus enabling distribution of physiological forces along the length of thick filaments. While the role of the M-region in supporting myofibrillar structure and contractility is well established, its role in mediating additional cellular processes has only recently started to emerge. As such, M-region is the hub of key protein players contributing to cytoskeletal remodeling, signal transduction, mechanosensing, metabolism, and proteasomal degradation. Mutations in genes encoding M-region related proteins lead to development of severe and lethal cardiac and skeletal myopathies affecting mankind. Herein, we describe the main cellular processes taking place at the M-region, other than thick filament assembly, and discuss human myopathies associated with mutant or truncated M-region proteins.

  12. On alterations in the refractive index and scattering properties of biological tissue caused by histological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Htet; DeAngelo, Bianca; Soldano, John; Kostyk, Piotr; Rodriguez, Braulio; Xu, M.

    2013-02-01

    Clinical tissue processing such as formalin fixing, paraffin-embedding and histological staining alters significantly the optical properties of the tissue. We document the alterations in the optical properties of prostate cancer tissue specimens in the 500nm to 700nm spectral range caused by histological processing with quantitative differential interference contrast (qDIC) microscopy. A simple model to explain these alterations is presented at the end.

  13. Cellular automata simulations on nanocrystallization processes: From instantaneous growth approximation to limited growth

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez, J.S.; Conde, C. F.; Conde, A.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular automata simulations have been performed to simulate the crystallization process under a limited growth approximation. This approximation resembles several characteristics exhibited by nanocrystalline microstructures and nanocrystallization kinetics. Avrami exponent decreases from a value n = 4 indicating interface controlled growth and constant nucleation rate to a value n ~ 1 indicating absence of growth. A continuous change of the growth contribution to the Avrami exponent from ze...

  14. Failure to interact with Brd4 alters the ability of HPV16 E2 to regulate host genome expression and cellular movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauson, Elaine J; Wang, Xu; Dornan, Edward S; Herzyk, Pawel; Bristol, Molly; Morgan, Iain M

    2016-01-01

    The E2 protein of the carcinogen human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) regulates replication and transcription of the viral genome in association with viral and cellular proteins. Our previous work demonstrated that E2 can regulate transcription from the host genome. E2 can activate transcription from adjacent promoters when located upstream using E2 DNA binding sequences and this activation is dependent upon the cellular protein Brd4; this report demonstrates that a Brd4 binding E2 mutant alters host genome expression differently from wild type E2. Of particular note is that highly down regulated genes are mostly not affected by failure to interact with Brd4 suggesting that the E2-Brd4 interaction is more responsible for the transcriptional activation of host genes rather than repression. Therefore failure to interact efficiently with Brd4, or altered levels of Brd4, would alter the ability of E2 to regulate the host genome and could contribute to determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26365679

  15. The anti‑dengue virus properties of statins may be associated with alterations in the cellular antiviral profile expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan-Marrugo, Owen Lloyd; Arellanos-Soto, Daniel; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo; Ramos-Jimenez, Javier; Vidaltamayo, Roman; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) susceptibility to cholesterol depleting treatments has been previously reported. There are numerous questions regarding how DENV seizes cellular machinery and cholesterol to improve viral production and the effect of cholesterol sequestering agents on the cellular antiviral response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the negative regulation of DENV replication induced by agents that diminish intracellular cholesterol levels. Cholesterol synthesis was pharmacologically (fluvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin treatment) and genetically (HMGCR‑RNAi) inhibited, in uninfected and DENV2‑infected hepatoma Huh‑7 cells. The cholesterol levels, DENV titer and cellular antiviral expression profile were evaluated. A reduction in the DENV titer, measured as plaque forming units, was observed in DENV‑infected cells following 48 h treatment with 10 µM fluvastatin, 10 µM atorvastatin, 20 µM lovastatin and 20 µM simvastatin, which achieved 70, 70, 65 and 55% DENV2 inhibition, respectively, compared with the untreated cells. In addition, the cytopathic effect was reduced in the statin‑treated DENV‑infected cells. Statins simultaneously reduced cholesterol levels at 48 h, with the exception of DENV2 infected cells. Genetic inhibition of cholesterol synthesis was performed using RNA interference for 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methylglutaryl‑CoA reductase (HMGCR‑siRNA), which indicated a slight reduction in DENV2 titer at 48 h post‑infection, however, with no significant reduction in cholesterol levels. In addition, DENV2 infection was observed to augment the intracellular cholesterol levels in all experimental conditions. Comparison between the cellular antiviral response triggered by DENV2 infection, statin treatment and HMGCR‑siRNA in infected, uninfected, treated and untreated Huh7 cells, showed different expression profiles for the antiviral genes evaluated. All

  16. Characterization of Deciliation-Regeneration Process of Tetrahymena Pyriformis for Cellular Robot Fabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dal Hyung Kim; Sean E. Brigandi; Paul Kim; Doyoung Byun; Min Jun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Artificial magnetotactic Tetrahymena pyriformis GL (T. pyriformis) cells were created by the internalization of iron oxide nano particles and became controllable with a time-varying external magnetic field. Thus, T. pyriformis can be utilized as a cellular robot to conduct micro-scale tasks such as transportation and manipulation. To complete these tasks, loading inorganic or organic materials onto the cell body is essential, but functionalization of the cell membrane is obstructed by their motile organelles, cilia. Dibucaine HCl, a local anesthetic, removes the cilia from the cell body, and the functional group would be absorbed more efficiently during cilia regeneration. In this paper, we characterize the recovery of artificial magnetotactic T.pyriformis after the deciliation process to optimize a cellular robot fabrication process. After sufficient time to recover, the motility rate and the average velocity of the deciliated cells were six and ten percent lower than that of non-deciliated cells, respectively. We showed that the motile cells after recovery can still be controlled using magnetotaxis, making T. pyriformis a good candidate to be used as a cellular robot.

  17. Fluorescence-based codetection with protein markers reveals distinct cellular compartments for altered MicroRNA expression in solid tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempere, Lorenzo F; Preis, Meir; Yezefski, Todd;

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput profiling experiments have linked altered expression of microRNAs (miRNA) to different types of cancer. Tumor tissues are a heterogeneous mixture of not only cancer cells, but also supportive and reactive tumor microenvironment elements. To clarify the clinical significance of alt...

  18. Lou/C obesity-resistant rat exhibits hyperactivity, hypermetabolism, alterations in white adipose tissue cellularity, and lipid tissue profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulage, Christophe; Zarrouki, Bader; Soares, Anisio Francesco; Lagarde, Michel; Geloen, Alain

    2008-02-01

    Lou/C obesity-resistant rat constitutes an original model to understand the phenomena of overweight and obesity. The aim of the present study was to identify metabolic causes for the outstanding leanness of Lou/C rat. To this end, the metabolic profiles (food intake, energy expenditure, and physical activity) and the cellular characteristics of white adipose tissue (lipogenesis, lipolysis, cellularity, and lipid composition) in 30-wk-old Lou/C rats were compared with age-matched Wistar rats. Lou/C rats exhibited a lower body weight (-45%), reduced adiposity (-80%), increased locomotor activity (+95%), and higher energy expenditure (+11%) than Wistar rats. Epididymal adipose tissue of Lou/C rat was twice lower than that of Wistar rat due to both a reduction in both adipocyte size (-25%) and number (three times). Basal lipolysis and sensitivity to noradrenaline were similar; however, the responsiveness to noradrenaline was lower in adipocytes from Lou/C compared with that from Wistar rats. Lipidomic analysis of plasma, adipose tissue, and liver revealed profound differences in lipid composition between the two strains. Of note, the desaturation indexes (ratio C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0) were lower in Lou/C, indicating a blunted activity of delta-9-desaturase such as stearoyl-coenzyme A-desaturase-1. Increased physical activity, increased energy expenditure, and white adipose tissue cellularity are in good agreement with previous observations suggesting that a higher sympathetic tone in Lou/C could contribute to its lifelong leanness. PMID:18006635

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Alters the mRNA Translation Processing in L-02 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min HONG; Yan-chun CHE; Gui-zhen TANG; Wei CUN; Xue-mei ZHANG; Long-ding LIU; Qi-han LI

    2008-01-01

    HSV-1 infection-mediated regulation of mRNA translation in host cells is a systematic and complicated process. Investigation of the details of this mechanism will facilitate understanding of biological variations in the viral replication process and host cells. In this study, a comparative proteomics technology platform was applied by two-dimension electrophoresis of HSV-1 infected normal human L-02 cell and control cell lysates. The observed protein spots were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by the PDQuest software package. A number of the different observed protein spots closely associated with cellular protein synthesis were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The expression levels of the RPLP1 protein, which is required for mRNA translation, and KHSRP protein, which is involved in rapid decay of mRNA, were up-regulated, whereas the expression level of RNP H2, which is involved in positive regulation on the mRNA splicing process, was down-regulated. All of these results suggest that HSV-1 infection can influence cellular protein synthesis via modulation of cellular regulatory proteins involved in RNA splicing, translation and decay, resulting in optimisation of viral protein synthesis when cellular protein synthesis is shut off. Although there is need for further investigations regarding the detailed mechanisms of cellular protein control, our studies provide new insight into the targeting of varied virus signaling pathways involved in host cellular protein synthesis.

  20. Alterations in cellular energy metabolism associated with the antiproliferative effects of the ATM inhibitor KU-55933 and with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakikhani, Mahvash; Bazile, Miguel; Hashemi, Sina; Javeshghani, Shiva; Avizonis, Daina; St Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    KU-55933 is a specific inhibitor of the kinase activity of the protein encoded by Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an important tumor suppressor gene with key roles in DNA repair. Unexpectedly for an inhibitor of a tumor suppressor gene, KU-55933 reduces proliferation. In view of prior preliminary evidence suggesting defective mitochondrial function in cells of patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT), we examined energy metabolism of cells treated with KU-55933. The compound increased AMPK activation, glucose uptake and lactate production while reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and coupled respiration. The stimulation of glycolysis by KU-55933 did not fully compensate for the reduction in mitochondrial functions, leading to decreased cellular ATP levels and energy stress. These actions are similar to those previously described for the biguanide metformin, a partial inhibitor of respiratory complex I. Both compounds decreased mitochondrial coupled respiration and reduced cellular concentrations of fumarate, malate, citrate, and alpha-ketogluterate. Succinate levels were increased by KU-55933 levels and decreased by metformin, indicating that the effects of ATM inhibition and metformin are not identical. These observations suggest a role for ATM in mitochondrial function and show that both KU-55933 and metformin perturb the TCA cycle as well as oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:23185347

  1. Alterations in cellular energy metabolism associated with the antiproliferative effects of the ATM inhibitor KU-55933 and with metformin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Zakikhani

    Full Text Available KU-55933 is a specific inhibitor of the kinase activity of the protein encoded by Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, an important tumor suppressor gene with key roles in DNA repair. Unexpectedly for an inhibitor of a tumor suppressor gene, KU-55933 reduces proliferation. In view of prior preliminary evidence suggesting defective mitochondrial function in cells of patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT, we examined energy metabolism of cells treated with KU-55933. The compound increased AMPK activation, glucose uptake and lactate production while reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and coupled respiration. The stimulation of glycolysis by KU-55933 did not fully compensate for the reduction in mitochondrial functions, leading to decreased cellular ATP levels and energy stress. These actions are similar to those previously described for the biguanide metformin, a partial inhibitor of respiratory complex I. Both compounds decreased mitochondrial coupled respiration and reduced cellular concentrations of fumarate, malate, citrate, and alpha-ketogluterate. Succinate levels were increased by KU-55933 levels and decreased by metformin, indicating that the effects of ATM inhibition and metformin are not identical. These observations suggest a role for ATM in mitochondrial function and show that both KU-55933 and metformin perturb the TCA cycle as well as oxidative phosphorylation.

  2. Phenylpyrazole insecticides induce cytotoxicity by altering mechanisms involved in cellular energy supply in the human epithelial cell model Caco-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidau, Cyril; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Badiou, Alexandra; Belzunces, Luc P

    2009-06-01

    Phenylpyrazoles are relatively new insecticides designed to manage problematic insect resistance and public health hazards encountered with older pesticide families. In vitro cytotoxicity induced by the phenylpyrazole insecticides, Ethiprol and Fipronil, and Fipronil metabolites, sulfone and sulfide, was studied in Caco-2 cells. This cellular model was chosen because it made possible to mimic the primary site of oral exposure to xenobiotics, the intestinal epithelium. Assessment of the barrier function of Caco-2 epithelium was assessed by TEER measurement and showed a major loss of barrier integrity after exposure to Fipronil and its metabolites, but not to Ethiprol. The disruption of the epithelial barrier was attributed to severe ATP depletion independent of cell viability, as revealed by LDH release. The origin of energetic metabolism failure was investigated and revealed a transient enhancement of tetrazolium salt reduction and an increase in lactate production by Caco-2 cells, suggesting an increase in glucose metabolism by pesticides. Cellular symptoms observed in these experiments lead us to hypothesize that phenylpyrazole insecticides interacted with mitochondria.

  3. Image-processing algorithms realized by discrete-time cellular neural networks and their circuit implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, eight image tasks: connected component detection (CCD) with down, right, +45o and -45o directions, edge detection, shadow projection with left and right directions and point removal are analyzed. These tasks are solved using the binary input and binary output discrete-time cellular neural networks (DTCNNs) associated with suitable templates. Furthermore, the behavior of the DTCNNs can be realized using Boolean functions, and the corresponding equivalent logic circuits are derived. An 8 x 8 DTCNNs-based image-processing chip is implemented by the FPGA technology. A simulation of the chip developed for the CCD task is also presented

  4. Inhomogeneous Poisson point process nucleation: comparison of analytical solution with cellular automata simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rangel Rios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural evolution in three dimensions of nucleation and growth transformations is simulated by means of cellular automata (CA. In the simulation, nuclei are located in space according to a heterogeneous Poisson point processes. The simulation is compared with exact analytical solution recently obtained by Rios and Villa supposing that the intensity is a harmonic function of the spatial coordinate. The simulated data gives very good agreement with the analytical solution provided that the correct shape factor for the growing CA grains is used. This good agreement is auspicious because the analytical expressions were derived and thus are exact only if the shape of the growing regions is spherical.

  5. Alterations of Cloud Microphysics Due to Cloud Processed CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Tabor, S. S.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution CCN spectra have revealed bimodality (Hudson et al. 2015) similar to aerosol size spectra (e.g., Hoppel et al. 1985). Bimodality is caused by chemical and physical cloud processes that increase mass or hygroscopicity of only CCN that produced activated cloud droplets. Bimodality is categorized by relative CCN concentrations (NCCN) within the two modes, Nu-Np; i.e., NCCN within the higher critical supersaturation, Sc, mode that did not undergo cloud processing minus NCCN within the lower Sc mode that was cloud processed. Lower, especially negative, Nu-Np designates greater processing. The table shows regressions between Nu-Np and characteristics of clouds nearest the CCN measurements. ICE-T MASE parameter R SL R SL Nc 0.17 93.24 -0.26 98.65 MD -0.31 99.69 0.33 99.78 σ -0.27 99.04 0.48 100.00 Ld -0.31 99.61 0.38 99.96 Table. Correlation coefficients, R, and one-tailed significance levels in percent, SL, for Nu-Np with microphysics of the clouds closest to each CCN measurement, 75 ICE-T and 74 MASE cases. Nc is cloud droplet concentration, MD is cloud droplet mean diameter, σ is standard deviation of cloud droplet spectra, Ldis drizzle drop LWC. Two aircraft field campaigns, Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) and Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) show opposite R signs because coalescence dominated cloud processing in low altitude ICE-T cumuli whereas chemical transformations predominated in MASE low altitude polluted stratus. Coalescence reduces Nc and NCCN, which thus increases MD, and σ, which promote Ld. Chemical transformations, e.g., SO2 to SO4, increase CCN hygroscopicity, thus reducing Sc, but not affecting Nc or NCCN. Lower Sc CCN are capable of producing greater Nc in subsequent cloud cycles, which leads to lower MD and σ which reduce Ld (figure). These observations are consistent with cloud droplet growth models for the higher vertical wind (W) of cumuli and lower W of stratus. Coalescence thus reduces the indirect

  6. Digoxin Suppresses HIV-1 Replication by Altering Viral RNA Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Raymond W; Ahalya Balachandran; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Alan Cochrane

    2013-01-01

    Author Summary Antiretroviral therapies (ART) for HIV/AIDS are successful in slowing disease progression by inhibiting viral proteins. However, the ability of HIV to adapt to ARTs has given rise to drug-resistant virus strains that now represent ≥16% of newly infected people. This development calls for the generation of new treatment strategies. Since HIV is dependent upon RNA processing under control of the host, we searched for compounds/drugs that inhibit HIV-1 replication at this step. We...

  7. Numerical study on photoresist etching processes based on a cellular automata model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU ZaiFa; HUANG QingAn; LI WeiHua; LU Wei

    2007-01-01

    For the three-dimensional (3-D) numerical study of photoresist etching processes, the 2-D dynamic cellular automata (CA) model has been successfully extended to a 3-D dynamic CA model. Only the boundary cells will be processed in the 3-D dynamic CA model and the structure of "if-else" description in the simulation program is avoided to speed up the simulation. The 3-D dynamic CA model has found to be stable, fast and accurate for the numerical study of photoresist etching processes. The exposure simulation, post-exposure bake (PEB) simulation and etching simulation are integrated together to further investigate the performances of the CA model. Simulation results have been compared with the available experimental results and the simulations show good agreement with the available experiments.

  8. Numerical study on photoresist etching processes based on a cellular automata model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For the three-dimensional (3-D) numerical study of photoresist etching processes, the 2-D dynamic cellular automata (CA) model has been successfully extended to a 3-D dynamic CA model. Only the boundary cells will be processed in the 3-D dy-namic CA model and the structure of “if-else” description in the simulation pro-gram is avoided to speed up the simulation. The 3-D dynamic CA model has found to be stable, fast and accurate for the numerical study of photoresist etching processes. The exposure simulation, post-exposure bake (PEB) simulation and etching simulation are integrated together to further investigate the performances of the CA model. Simulation results have been compared with the available ex-perimental results and the simulations show good agreement with the available experiments.

  9. Altering adsorbed proteins or cellular gene expression in bone-metastatic cancer cells affects PTHrP and Gli2 without altering cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Page

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The contents of this data in brief are related to the article titled “Matrix Rigidity Regulates the Transition of Tumor Cells to a Bone-Destructive Phenotype through Integrin β3 and TGF-β Receptor Type II”. In this DIB we will present our supplemental data investigating Integrin expression, attachment of cells to various adhesion molecules, and changes in gene expression in multiple cancer cell lines. Since the interactions of Integrins with adsorbed matrix proteins are thought to affect the ability of cancer cells to interact with their underlying substrates, we examined the expression of Integrin β1, β3, and β5 in response to matrix rigidity. We found that only Iβ3 increased with increasing substrate modulus. While it was shown that fibronectin greatly affects the expression of tumor-produced factors associated with bone destruction (parathyroid hormone-related protein, PTHrP, and Gli2, poly-l-lysine, vitronectin and type I collagen were also analyzed as potential matrix proteins. Each of the proteins was independently adsorbed on both rigid and compliant polyurethane films which were subsequently used to culture cancer cells. Poly-l-lysine, vitronectin and type I collagen all had negligible effects on PTHrP or Gli2 expression, but fibronectin was shown to have a dose dependent effect. Finally, altering the expression of Iβ3 demonstrated that it is required for tumor cells to respond to the rigidity of the matrix, but does not affect other cell growth or viability. Together these data support the data presented in our manuscript to show that the rigidity of bone drives Integrinβ3/TGF-β crosstalk, leading to increased expression of Gli2 and PTHrP.

  10. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Spielberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala, but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues—which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences.

  11. Cortisol alters reward processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Valerie L; Wolf, Oliver T; Merz, Christian J

    2016-08-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing is known to play a central role for the development of psychiatric disorders. Glucocorticoids that are secreted in response to stress have been shown to attenuate reward sensitivity and thereby might promote the onset of psychopathology. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating stress hormone effects on reward processing as well as potential sex differences remain elusive. In this neuroimaging study, we administered 30mg cortisol or a placebo to 30 men and 30 women and subsequently tested them in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task. Cortisol attenuated anticipatory neural responses to a verbal and a monetary reward in the left pallidum and the right anterior parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, in men, activation in the amygdala, the precuneus, the anterior cingulate, and in hippocampal regions was reduced under cortisol, whereas in cortisol-treated women a signal increase was observed in these regions. Behavioral performance also indicated that reward learning in men is impaired under high cortisol concentrations, while it is augmented in women. These findings illustrate that the stress hormone cortisol substantially diminishes reward anticipation and provide first evidence that cortisol effects on the neural reward system are sensitive to sex differences, which might translate into different vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders. PMID:27170428

  12. Preparation of cell-sized water-in-oil droplets for in vitro reconstitution of biological processes in cellular compartments

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    This protocol presents a method for encapsulation of purified proteins into cell-sized water-in-oil droplets surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer, which can be broadly applied to studies to reconstitute biological processes in cellular compartments.

  13. Signal processing for molecular and cellular biological physics: an emerging field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Max A.; Jones, Nick S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in our ability to watch the molecular and cellular processes of life in action—such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers and Forster fluorescence resonance energy transfer—raise challenges for digital signal processing (DSP) of the resulting experimental data. This article explores the unique properties of such biophysical time series that set them apart from other signals, such as the prevalence of abrupt jumps and steps, multi-modal distributions and autocorrelated noise. It exposes the problems with classical linear DSP algorithms applied to this kind of data, and describes new nonlinear and non-Gaussian algorithms that are able to extract information that is of direct relevance to biological physicists. It is argued that these new methods applied in this context typify the nascent field of biophysical DSP. Practical experimental examples are supplied. PMID:23277603

  14. Antisense expression of a rice cellular apoptosis susceptibility gene (OsCAS) alters the height of transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chunxiao; HE Chaozu

    2007-01-01

    Cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) gene plays important roles in mitosis, development and export of importin αfrom the nucleus, but its function in plant is unknown. In this study, a rice CAS ortholog (OsCAS), which encodes a predicted protein of 983 amino acids with 62% similarity to human CAS, was identified. DNA gel blot analysis revealed a single copy of OsCAS in the rice genome. A 973 bp fragment at the 3' end of OsCAS cDNA was cloned from rice cDNA library and transferred into rice in the antisense direction under the control of CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, 105 transgenic lines were obtained. Expression of OsCAS was suppressed in the antisense transgenic lines as revealed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The antisense transgenic lines showed dwarf phenotypes. The results indicated that OsCAS was involved in culm development of rice.

  15. Alteration of cellular behavior and response to PI3K pathway inhibition by culture in 3D collagen gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fallica

    Full Text Available Most investigations into cancer cell drug response are performed with cells cultured on flat (2D tissue culture plastic. Emerging research has shown that the presence of a three-dimensional (3D extracellular matrix (ECM is critical for normal cell behavior including migration, adhesion, signaling, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigate differences between cancer cell signaling in 2D culture and a 3D ECM, employing real-time, live cell tracking to directly observe U2OS human osteosarcoma and MCF7 human breast cancer cells embedded in type 1 collagen gels. The activation of the important PI3K signaling pathway under these different growth conditions is studied, and the response to inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR with PI103 investigated. Cells grown in 3D gels show reduced proliferation and migration as well as reduced PI3K pathway activation when compared to cells grown in 2D. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that a collagen ECM can protect U2OS cells from PI103. Overall, our data suggests that 3D gels may provide a better medium for investigation of anti-cancer drugs than 2D monolayers, therefore allowing better understanding of cellular response and behavior in native like environments.

  16. Tribulus terrestris (Linn.) Attenuates Cellular Alterations Induced by Ischemia in H9c2 Cells Via Antioxidant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshma, P L; Lekshmi, V S; Sankar, Vandana; Raghu, K G

    2015-06-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. was evaluated for its cardioprotective property against myocardial ischemia in a cell line model. Initially, methanolic extract was prepared and subjected to sequential extraction with various solvents. The extract with high phenolic content (T. terrestris L. ethyl acetate extract-TTME) was further characterized for its chemical constituents and taken forward for evaluation against cardiac ischemia. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds like caffeic acid (12.41 ± 0.22 mg g(-1)), chlorogenic acid (0.52 ± 0.06 mg g(-1)) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (0.60 ± 0.08 mg g(-1)). H9c2 cells were pretreated with TTME (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) for 24 h before the induction of ischemia. Then ischemia was induced by exposing cells to ischemia buffer, in a hypoxic chamber, maintained at 0.1% O2, 95% N2 and 5% CO2, for 1 h. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species generation (56%), superoxide production (18%), loss of plasma membrane integrity, dissipation of transmembrane potential, permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis had been observed during ischemia. However, pretreatment with TTME was found to significantly (p ≤ 0.05) attenuate the alterations caused by ischemia. The overall results of this study partially reveal the scientific basis of the use of T. terrestris L. in the traditional system of medicine for heart diseases. PMID:25858861

  17. Altered BOLD Response during Inhibitory and Error Processing in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Wierenga; Amanda Bischoff-Grethe; A James Melrose; Emily Grenesko-Stevens; Zoë Irvine; Angela Wagner; Alan Simmons; Scott Matthews; Wai-Ying Wendy Yau; Christine Fennema-Notestine; Kaye, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error proces...

  18. Cellular processing of the amyloidogenic cystatin C variant of hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Icelandic type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Merz, G S; Schwenk, V;

    1999-01-01

    of an amyloidogenic mutation on the intracellular processing of its protein product. The protein, a mutant of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C, is the amyloid precursor protein in Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis--Icelandic type (HCHWA-I). The amyloid fibers are composed of mutant cystatin C...... (L68Q) that lacks the first 10 amino acids. We have previously shown that processing of wild-type cystatin C entails formation of a transient intracellular dimer that dissociates prior to secretion, such that extracellular cystatin C is monomeric. We report here that the cystatin C mutation engenders...... several alterations in its intracellular trafficking. It forms a stable intracellular dimer that is partially retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded. The bulk of mutant cystatin C that is secreted does not dissociate and is secreted as an inactive dimer. Thus, formation of the stable mutant...

  19. Altered Negative Unconscious Processing in Major Depressive Disorder: An Exploratory Neuropsychological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Yang; Jinping Zhao; Yi Jiang; Chunbo Li; Jijun Wang; Xuchu Weng; Georg Northoff

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been characterized by abnormalities in emotional processing. However, what remains unclear is whether MDD also shows deficits in the unconscious processing of either positive or negative emotions. We conducted a psychological study in healthy and MDD subjects to investigate unconscious emotion processing and its valence-specific alterations in MDD patients. METHODS: We combined a well established paradigm for unconscious visual processing, the co...

  20. Multi-scale continuum modeling of biological processes: from molecular electro-diffusion to sub-cellular signaling transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Kekenes-Huskey, P.; Hake, J. E.; Holst, M. J.; McCammon, J. A.; Michailova, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of multi-scale modeling at the molecular to cellular scale, with new results for heart muscle cells. A finite element-based simulation package (SMOL) was used to investigate the signaling transduction at molecular and sub-cellular scales (http://mccammon.ucsd.edu/smol/, http://FETK.org) by numerical solution of the time-dependent Smoluchowski equations and a reaction-diffusion system. At the molecular scale, SMOL has yielded experimentally validated estimates of the diffusion-limited association rates for the binding of acetylcholine to mouse acetylcholinesterase using crystallographic structural data. The predicted rate constants exhibit increasingly delayed steady-state times, with increasing ionic strength, and demonstrate the role of an enzyme's electrostatic potential in influencing ligand binding. At the sub-cellular scale, an extension of SMOL solves a nonlinear, reaction-diffusion system describing Ca2+ ligand buffering and diffusion in experimentally derived rodent ventricular myocyte geometries. Results reveal the important role of mobile and stationary Ca2+ buffers, including Ca2+ indicator dye. We found that alterations in Ca2+-binding and dissociation rates of troponin C (TnC) and total TnC concentration modulate sub-cellular Ca2+ signals. The model predicts that reduced off-rate in the whole troponin complex (TnC, TnI, TnT) versus reconstructed thin filaments (Tn, Tm, actin) alters cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics under control conditions or in disease-linked TnC mutations. The ultimate goal of these studies is to develop scalable methods and theories for the integration of molecular-scale information into simulations of cellular-scale systems.

  1. Effect of natural and synthetic iron corrosion products on silicate glass alteration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillmann, Philippe; Gin, Stéphane; Neff, Delphine; Gentaz, Lucile; Rebiscoul, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Glass long term alteration in the context of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage is influenced by near-field materials and environmental context. As previous studies have shown, the extent of glass alteration is strongly related to the presence of iron in the system, mainly provided by the steel overpack around surrounding the HLW glass package. A key to understanding what will happen to the glass-borne elements in the geological disposal lies in the relationship between the iron-bearing phases and the glass alteration products formed. In this study, we focus on the influence of the formation conditions (synthetized or in-situ) and the age of different iron corrosion products on SON68 glass alteration. Corrosion products obtained from archaeological iron artifacts are considered here to be true analogues of the corrosion products in a waste disposal system due to the similarities in formation conditions and physical properties. These representative corrosion products (RCP) are used in the experiment along with synthetized iron anoxic corrosion products and pristine metallic iron. The model-cracks of SON68 glass were altered in cell reactors, with one of the different iron-sources inserted in the crack each time. The study was successful in reproducing most of the processes observed in the long term archaeological system. Between the different systems, alteration variations were noted both in nature and intensity, confirming the influence of the iron-source on glass alteration. Results seem to point to a lesser effect of long term iron corrosion products (RCP) on the glass alteration than that of the more recent products (SCP), both in terms of general glass alteration and of iron transport.

  2. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part II. Solid route, metals deposition, other processes; Procesos de fabricacion de metales celulares. Parte II: Via solida, deposicion de metales otros procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2009-07-01

    At the first part of this paper review a description about cellular metal processes by liquid route, was made. In this second part, solid processes and metals deposition are described. In similar way, the different kind of processes in each case are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 147 refs.

  3. Focused Metabolite Profiling for Dissecting Cellular and Molecular Processes of Living Organisms in Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory control in biological systems is exerted at all levels within the central dogma of biology. Metabolites are the end products of all cellular regulatory processes and reflect the ultimate outcome of potential changes suggested by genomics and proteomics caused by an environmental stimulus or genetic modification. Following on the heels of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomics has become an inevitable part of complete-system biology because none of the lower "-omics" alone provide direct information about how changes in mRNA or protein are coupled to changes in biological function. The challenges are much greater than those encountered in genomics because of the greater number of metabolites and the greater diversity of their chemical structures and properties. To meet these challenges, much developmental work is needed, including (1) methodologies for unbiased extraction of metabolites and subsequent quantification, (2) algorithms for systematic identification of metabolites, (3) expertise and competency in handling a large amount of information (data set), and (4) integration of metabolomics with other "omics" and data mining (implication of the information). This article reviews the project accomplishments.

  4. Multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor: multiplexed, non-invasive and continuous measurements of cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Volodymyr B; Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J F

    2015-07-01

    The continuous measurement of uptake or release of biomarkers provides invaluable information for understanding and monitoring the metabolism of cells. In this work, a multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor for the multiplexed, non-invasive, and continuous detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lactate and glucose is presented. The sensing scheme is based on optical monitoring of the oxidation state of the metalloprotein cytochrome c (cyt c). The analyte of interest is enzymatically converted into H2O2 leading to an oxidation of the cyt c. Contact microspotting is used to prepare nanoliter-sized sensing spots containing either pure cyt c, a mixture of cyt c with glucose oxidase (GOx) to detect glucose, or a mixture of cyt c with lactate oxidase (LOx) to detect lactate. The sensing spots are embedded in a multiscattering porous medium that enhances the optical signal. We achieve limits of detection down to 240 nM and 110 nM for lactate and glucose, respectively. A microfluidic embodiment enables multiplexed and crosstalk-free experiments on living organisms. As an example, we study the uptake of exogenously supplied glucose by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and simultaneously monitor the stress-related generation of H2O2. This multifunctional detection scheme provides a powerful tool to study biochemical processes at cellular level. PMID:26203366

  5. Learning about Cellular Respiration: An Active Approach Illustrating the Process of Scientific Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Margaret (Peg)

    1998-01-01

    Details the active-learning approach to teaching cellular respiration in an introductory, one-semester course for nonmajors. Focuses on a laboratory exercise designed to answer the question of what happens to food when eaten. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  6. Itataia's phosphorous-uraniferous deposit - Alteration and argilization influence in physical processing of the mineralized lithologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was developed by NUCLEBRAS, firstly defining the quality and quantity of the Itataia ore body untill the 480 m level of the future pit, considering the lithological types, the P2O5 and U3O8 contents and the alteration and argillization of the rocks. The following step was to establish the physicochemical character of the mineralized lithologies according to the phases of alteration/argillization. Finally it was compared the results of these two stages with the results of the pilot treatment, related to the gangue in the phosphoric acid concentrate. The method showed the difficulties in each host rock, differently altered/argillized for future process and allowed to the identification of seven types of material to supply the Itataia pilot plant. (author)

  7. Biochemical aspects of overtraining in endurance sports : the metabolism alteration process syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibois, Cyril; Cazorla, Georges; Poortmans, Jacques-Rémi; Déléris, Gérard

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that endurance overtraining could result from successive and cumulative alterations in metabolism, which become chronic during training. The onset of this process is a biochemical alteration in carbohydrate (saccharide) metabolism. During endurance exercises, the amount of saccharide chains from two blood glycoproteins (alpha(2)-macroglobulin and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein) was found to have decreased, i.e. concentrations of these proteins remained unchanged but their quality changed. These saccharide chains were probably used for burning liver glycogen stores during exercise. This step was followed by alterations in lipid metabolism. The most relevant aspect of this step was that the mean chain length of blood fatty acids decreased, i.e. the same amount of fatty acids were found within the blood, but overtrained individuals presented shorter fatty acids than well-trained individuals. This suggests that alterations appeared in the liver synthesis of long-chain fatty acids or that higher peroxidation of blood lipoparticles occurred. For the final step of this overtraining process, it was found that these dysfunctions in carbohydrate/lipid metabolism led to the higher use of amino acids, which probably resulted from protein catabolism. The evolution of three protein concentrations (alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, alpha(2)-macroglobulin and IgG(3)) correlated with this amino acid concentration increase, suggesting a specific catabolism of these proteins. At this time only, overtraining was clinically diagnosed through conventional symptoms. Therefore, this process described successive alterations in exercise metabolism that shifted from the main energetic stores of exercise (carbohydrates and lipids) towards molecular pools (proteins) normally not substantially used for the energetic supply of skeletal muscles. Now, a general biochemical model of the overtraining process may be proposed which includes most of the previously identified metabolic

  8. Investigating wettability alteration during MEOR process, a micro/macro scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahvash; Mahmoodi, Maziyar; Niazi, Ali; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2012-06-15

    Wettability alteration is considered to be one of the important mechanisms that lead to increased oil recovery during microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. Changes in wettability will greatly influence the petrophysical properties of the reservoir rocks and determine the location, flow and distribution of different fluids inside the porous media. Understanding the active mechanisms of surface wettability changes by the bacteria would help to optimize the condition for more oil recovery. As the mechanisms behind wettability alteration are still poorly understood, the objective of this study is to investigate the wettability alteration at pore scale and find the most effective mechanism of wettability changes in different cases. The experiments were performed on different substrates at fresh condition or aged in crude oil to mimic various wetting conditions. Using an Enterobacter cloacae strain, the influence of bacterial metabolites, bacterial adhesion and bacterial solution with two different carbon sources on wettability were determined for different aging periods. Contact angle measurements were used to quantify the wettability alteration of the solid surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were also utilized to combine the macroscopic measurements of wettability with the microscopic study of the surface changes. It was found that the surface wettability could vary from neutral- or oil-wet to water-wet state. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation seems to be the dominant mechanism of wettability alteration. The aged glass surfaces regained their initial water wetness where the bacteria could remove the polar and asphaltene compounds from them. PMID:22445747

  9. Altered BOLD Response during Inhibitory and Error Processing in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Melrose, A. James; Grenesko-Stevens, Emily; Irvine, Zoë; Wagner, Angela; Simmons, Alan; Matthews, Scott; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Kaye, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error processing is altered in AN individuals is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, ill adolescent AN females (n = 11) and matched healthy comparison adolescents (CA) with no history of an eating disorder (n = 12) performed a validated stop signal task (SST) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore differences in error and inhibitory processing. The groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables or on SST performance. During inhibitory processing, a significant group x difficulty (hard, easy) interaction was detected in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during hard trials. During error processing, a significant group x accuracy (successful inhibit, failed inhibit) interaction in bilateral MFG and right PCC was observed, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during error (i.e., failed inhibit) trials. Conclusion/Significance Consistent with our prior findings in recovered AN, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, showed less inhibition-related activation within the dorsal ACC, MFG and PCC as inhibitory demand increased. In addition, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, also showed reduced activation to errors in the bilateral MFG and left PCC. These findings suggest that altered prefrontal and cingulate activation during

  10. Altered BOLD response during inhibitory and error processing in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wierenga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error processing is altered in AN individuals is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, ill adolescent AN females (n = 11 and matched healthy comparison adolescents (CA with no history of an eating disorder (n = 12 performed a validated stop signal task (SST during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore differences in error and inhibitory processing. The groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables or on SST performance. During inhibitory processing, a significant group x difficulty (hard, easy interaction was detected in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during hard trials. During error processing, a significant group x accuracy (successful inhibit, failed inhibit interaction in bilateral MFG and right PCC was observed, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during error (i.e., failed inhibit trials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Consistent with our prior findings in recovered AN, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, showed less inhibition-related activation within the dorsal ACC, MFG and PCC as inhibitory demand increased. In addition, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, also showed reduced activation to errors in the bilateral MFG and left PCC. These findings suggest that altered prefrontal and cingulate activation during

  11. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility

  12. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  13. Intra- and Extra-Cellular Events Related to Altered Glycosylation of MUC1 Promote Chronic Inflammation, Tumor Progression, Invasion, and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cascio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Altered glycosylation of mucin 1 (MUC1 on tumor cells compared to normal epithelial cells was previously identified as an important antigenic modification recognized by the immune system in the process of tumor immunosurveillance. This tumor form of MUC1 is considered a viable target for cancer immunotherapy. The importance of altered MUC1 glycosylation extends also to its role as a promoter of chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to malignant transformation and cancer progression. We review here what is known about the role of specific cancer-associated glycans on MUC1 in protein-protein interactions and intracellular signaling in cancer cells and in their adhesion to each other and the tumor stroma. The tumor form of MUC1 also creates a different landscape of inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment by controlling the recruitment of inflammatory cells, establishing specific interactions with dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages, and facilitating tumor escape from the immune system. Through multiple types of short glycans simultaneously present in tumors, MUC1 acquires multiple oncogenic properties that control tumor development, progression, and metastasis at different steps of the process of carcinogenesis.

  14. Pump Linewidth Requirements for Processing Dispersion-Altered DQPSK Signals using FWM

    CERN Document Server

    Dúill, Séan Ó; Barry, Liam P

    2015-01-01

    We report on a potentially deleterious issue regarding the four-wave mixing based processing of dispersion-altered signals. We estimate the baudrate-dependent pump linewidth tolerances by calculating the extra optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) penalty with respect to the propagation distance. We find that the issue is not important for 10 Gbaud differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signals, though for 28 Gbaud (and 56 Gbaud) DQPSK signals we find that the pump linewidth requirements to implement FWM based optical signal processing needs to be in the sub-MHz range in order to avoid excessive OSNR penalties for the case of dispersion-altered signals. These results are pertinent for systems employing FWM, which could be all-optical wavelength converters for packet switching or mid-span spectral inversion techniques.

  15. Influence of hydrothermal alteration on phreatic eruption processes in Solfatara (Campi Flegrei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K.; Scheu, B.; Montanaro, C.; Isaia, R.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    The strong hydrothermal activity exhibited at Campi Flegrei by the Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles points to a significant risk for phreatic eruptions in this densely populated area. Phreatic eruptions, triggered by various processes are hardly predictable in occurrence time and size. Despite their hazard potential, these eruptions, as well as the influence of hydrothermal alteration on their likelihood, magnitude and style, have so far been largely overlooked in experimental volcanology. The physical properties and the mechanical behavior of volcanic rocks are highly dependent on their original magmatic microstructure and on any eventual alteration of those microstructures due to hydrothermal reactions. We have therefore investigated the potential effects of hydrothermal alteration on rock microstructure and, as a consequence, on fragmentation dynamics. Rock samples from the vicinity of the Solfatara fumaroles have been characterized 1) geochemically (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction), 2) physically (density, porosity, permeability and elastic wave velocity) and 3) mechanically (uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength). We have investigated the effects of hydrothermal alteration on fragmentation processes using a shock-tube apparatus, operating with Argon gas, water vapor and superheated water at temperatures up to 400°C and maximum pressures of 20 MPa. The three different energy sources within the pores initiating fragmentation, have been investigated: overpressure by 1) Argon gas; or 2) water vapor and due to 3) steam flashing of water. Fragmentation speed, fragmentation efficiency and fragmented particle ejection velocity were measured. Our results indicate, that steam flashing provides the highest energy - resulting in increased particle ejection velocity and higher fragmentation efficiency. Based on our results, we aim to constrain the influence of hydrothermal alteration on the dynamics of phreatic explosions and the effect on the amount of

  16. RESEARCH CONCERNING INSTALATION OF ALTERATIVE PROCESSES IN COW AND BUFFALO BUTTER DURING FREEZING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lup Dragomir; Flavia Pop

    2009-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and freshness indicators of cow and buffalo butter during freezing (-15 ... -18oC) storage were studied. Changes in freshness parameters and alterative processes installation, when butter becomes improperly for consumption were studied, inducing acidity, peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) andthe presence of epyhidrinic aldehyde. There was an increase of titrable acidity during storage, cow butter hydrolysis was installed after 35 days and after 30 days for ...

  17. Predicted climate change alters the indirect effect of predators on an ecosystem process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensing, Janet R; Wise, David H

    2006-10-17

    Changes in rainfall predicted to occur with global climate change will likely alter rates of leaf-litter decomposition through direct effects on primary decomposers. In a field experiment replicated at two sites, we show that altered rainfall may also change how cascading trophic interactions initiated by arthropod predators in the leaf litter indirectly influence litter decomposition. On the drier site there was no interaction between rainfall and the indirect effect of predators on decomposition. In contrast, on the moister site spiders accelerated the disappearance rate of deciduous leaf litter under low rainfall, but had no, or possibly a negative, indirect effect under high rainfall. Thus, changes resulting from the more intense hydrological cycle expected to occur with climate change will likely influence how predators indirectly affect an essential ecosystem process. PMID:17023538

  18. Macro-cellular silica foams: synthesis during the natural creaming process of an oil-in-water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, T; Tiddy, G J T; Casci, J L; Anderson, M W

    2003-09-01

    The room-temperature synthesis of a macro-mesoporous silica material during the natural creaming process of an oil-in-water emulsion is reported. The material has 3-dimensional interconnected macropores with a strut-like structure similar to meso-cellular silica foams with mesoporous walls of worm-hole structure. The material has very high surface area (approximately 800 m2 g(-1)) with narrow mesopore size distribution.

  19. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects. PMID:25799565

  20. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Enzi

    Full Text Available Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15 and in healthy control subjects (n = 15 with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects.

  1. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects.

  2. Short Range-Ordered Minerals: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R. V.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    involved. The style of aqueous alteration (hydrolytic vs. acid sulfate) impacts which phases will form (e.g., oxides, oxysulfates, and oxyhydroxides). Knowledge on the formation processes of SRO phases in basaltic materials on Earth has allowed significant enhancement in our understanding of the aqueous processes at work on Mars. The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will provide an instrument suite that should improve our understanding of the mineralogical and chemical compositions of SRO phases. CheMin is an X-ray diffraction instrument that may provide broad X-ray diffraction peaks for SRO phases; e.g., broad peaks around 0.33 and 0.23 nm for allophane. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) heats samples and detects evolved gases of volatile-bearing phases including SRO phases (i.e., carbonates, sulfates, hydrated minerals). The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and ChemCam element analyzers will provide chemical characterization of samples. The identification of SRO phases in surface materials on MSL will be challenging due to their nanocrystalline properties; their detection and identification will require utilizing the MSL instrument suite in concert. Ultimately, sample return missions will be required to definitively identify and fully characterize SRO minerals with state-of-the-art laboratory instrumentation back on Earth.

  3. Mindfulness meditation associated with alterations in bottom-up processing: psychophysiological evidence for reduced reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Paul A M; Janssen, Barbara H; Giommi, Fabio; Barendregt, Henk P; Gielen, Stan C

    2010-11-01

    Mental training by meditation has been related to changes in high-level cognitive functions that involve top-down processing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the practice of meditation is also related to alterations in low-level, bottom-up processing. Therefore, intersensory facilitation (IF) effects in a group of mindfulness meditators (MM) were compared to IF effects in an age- and gender-matched control group. Smaller and even absent IF effects were found in the MM group, which suggests that changes in bottom-up processing are associated with MM. Furthermore, reduced interference of a visual warning stimulus with the IF effects was found, which suggests an improved allocation of attentional resources in mindfulness meditators, even across modalities.

  4. Cellular compartments cause multistability and allow cells to process more information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Heather A; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    outcomes for cellular-decision making. We combine different mathematical techniques to provide a heuristic procedure to determine if a system has the capacity for multiple steady states, and find conditions that ensure that multiple steady states cannot occur. Notably, we find that introducing species...... is capable of multistationarity (multiple response states), and is thus directly linked to the amount of information that the signaling molecules can represent in the nucleus. Multistationarity provides a mechanism for switching between different response states in cell signaling systems and enables multiple...

  5. Cellular Automata as a learning process in Architecture and Urban design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Foged, Isak Worre

    2014-01-01

    . An architectural methodological response to this situation is presented through the development of a conceptual computational design system that allows these dynamics to unfold and to be observed for architectural design decision taking. Reflecting on the development and implementation of a cellular automata based...... design approach on a master level urban design studio this paper will discuss the strategies for dealing with complexity at an urban scale as well as the pedagogical considerations behind applying computational tools and methods to a urban design education....

  6. Evolution and regulation of cellular periodic processes: a role for paralogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trachana, Kalliopi; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2010-01-01

    paralogues. Thus, diverged temporal expression of paralogues seems to facilitate cellular orchestration under different periodic stimuli. Lineage-specific functional repertoires of periodic-associated paralogues imply that this mode of regulation might have evolved independently in several organisms....... performed the first systematic comparison in three organisms (Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by using public microarray data. We observed that although diurnal-regulated and ultradian-regulated genes are not generally cell-cycle-regulated, they tend to have cell-cycle-regulated...

  7. Altered Co-Translational Processing Plays a Role in Huntington's Pathogenesis—A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissley, Daniel A.; O'Brien, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG codon repeat region in the HTT gene's first exon that results in huntingtin protein aggregation and neuronal cell death. The development of therapeutic treatments for HD is hindered by the fact that while the etiology and symptoms of HD are understood, the molecular processes connecting this genotype to its phenotype remain unclear. Here, we propose the novel hypothesis that the perturbation of a co-translational process affects mutant huntingtin due to altered translation-elongation kinetics. These altered kinetics arise from the shift of a proline-induced translational pause site away from Htt's localization sequence due to the expansion of the CAG-repeat segment between the poly-proline and localization sequences. Motivation for this hypothesis comes from recent experiments in the field of protein biogenesis that illustrate the critical role that temporal coordination of co-translational processes plays in determining the function, localization, and fate of proteins in cells. We show that our hypothesis is consistent with various experimental observations concerning HD pathology, including the dependence of the age of symptom onset on CAG repeat number. Finally, we suggest three experiments to test our hypothesis. PMID:27458341

  8. Long-term alterations in neural and endocrine processes induced by motherhood in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". The reproductive experience of pregnancy, lactation and motherhood can significantly remodel the female's biological state, affecting endocrine, neuroendocrine, neural, and immunological processes. The brain, pituitary gland, liver, thymus, and mammary tissue are among the structures that are modified by reproductive experience. The present review that focuses on rodent research, but also includes pertinent studies in sheep and other species, identifies specific changes in these processes brought about by the biological states of pregnancy, parturition, and lactation and how the components of reproductive experience contribute to the remodeling of the maternal brain and organ systems. Findings indicate that prior parity alters key circulating hormone levels and neural receptor gene expression. Moreover, reproductive experience results in modifications in neural processes and glial support. The possible role of pregnancy-induced neurogenesis is considered in the context of neuroplasticity and behavior, and the effects of reproductive experience on maternal memory, i.e. the retention of maternal behavior, together with anxiety and learning are presented. Together, these sets of findings support the concept that the neural and biological state of the adult female is significantly and dramatically altered on a long-term basis by the experiences of parity and motherhood. Remodeling of the maternal brain and other biological systems is posited to help facilitate adaptations to environmental/ecological challenges as the female raises young and ages. PMID:26388065

  9. Altered Co-Translational Processing Plays a Role in Huntington's Pathogenesis-A Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissley, Daniel A; O'Brien, Edward P

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG codon repeat region in the HTT gene's first exon that results in huntingtin protein aggregation and neuronal cell death. The development of therapeutic treatments for HD is hindered by the fact that while the etiology and symptoms of HD are understood, the molecular processes connecting this genotype to its phenotype remain unclear. Here, we propose the novel hypothesis that the perturbation of a co-translational process affects mutant huntingtin due to altered translation-elongation kinetics. These altered kinetics arise from the shift of a proline-induced translational pause site away from Htt's localization sequence due to the expansion of the CAG-repeat segment between the poly-proline and localization sequences. Motivation for this hypothesis comes from recent experiments in the field of protein biogenesis that illustrate the critical role that temporal coordination of co-translational processes plays in determining the function, localization, and fate of proteins in cells. We show that our hypothesis is consistent with various experimental observations concerning HD pathology, including the dependence of the age of symptom onset on CAG repeat number. Finally, we suggest three experiments to test our hypothesis. PMID:27458341

  10. Composition and microstructure alteration of triticale grain surface after processing by enzymes of cellulase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the pericarp tissue of grain have considerable strength and stiffness, that has an adverse effect on quality of whole-grain bread. Thereby, there exists the need for preliminary chemical and biochemical processing of durable cell walls before industrial use. Increasingly used in the production of bread finds an artificial hybrid of the traditional grain crops of wheat and rye - triticale, grain which has high nutritional value. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of cellulose complex (Penicillium canescens enzymes on composition and microstructure alteration of triticale grain surface, for grain used in baking. Triticale grain was processed by cellulolytic enzyme preparations with different composition (producer is Penicillium canescens. During experiment it is found that triticale grain processing by enzymes of cellulase complex leads to an increase in the content of water-soluble pentosans by 36.3 - 39.2%. The total amount of low molecular sugars increased by 3.8 - 10.5 %. Studies show that under the influence of enzymes the microstructure of the triticale grain surface is changing. Microphotographs characterizing grain surface structure alteration in dynamic (every 2 hours during 10 hours of substrate hydrolysis are shown. It is found that the depth and direction of destruction process for non-starch polysaccharides of grain integument are determined by the composition of the enzyme complex preparation and duration of exposure. It is found, that xylanase involved in the modification of hemicelluloses fiber having both longitudinal and radial orientation. Hydrolysis of non-starch polysaccharides from grain shells led to increase of antioxidant activity. Ferulic acid was identified in alcoholic extract of triticale grain after enzymatic hydrolysis under the influence of complex preparation containing cellulase, xylanase and β-glucanase. Grain processing by independent enzymes containing in complex

  11. TissueMiner: A multiscale analysis toolkit to quantify how cellular processes create tissue dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etournay, Raphaël; Merkel, Matthias; Popović, Marko; Brandl, Holger; Dye, Natalie A; Aigouy, Benoît; Salbreux, Guillaume; Eaton, Suzanne; Jülicher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation and tracking of cells in long-term time-lapse experiments has emerged as a powerful method to understand how tissue shape changes emerge from the complex choreography of constituent cells. However, methods to store and interrogate the large datasets produced by these experiments are not widely available. Furthermore, recently developed methods for relating tissue shape changes to cell dynamics have not yet been widely applied by biologists because of their technical complexity. We therefore developed a database format that stores cellular connectivity and geometry information of deforming epithelial tissues, and computational tools to interrogate it and perform multi-scale analysis of morphogenesis. We provide tutorials for this computational framework, called TissueMiner, and demonstrate its capabilities by comparing cell and tissue dynamics in vein and inter-vein subregions of the Drosophila pupal wing. These analyses reveal an unexpected role for convergent extension in shaping wing veins. PMID:27228153

  12. Coupling of Cellular Processes and Their Coordinated Oscillations under Continuous Light in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Krishnakumar

    Full Text Available Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 (henceforth Cyanothece, temporally separate the oxygen sensitive nitrogen fixation from oxygen evolving photosynthesis not only under diurnal cycles (LD but also in continuous light (LL. However, recent reports demonstrate that the oscillations in LL occur with a shorter cycle time of ~11 h. We find that indeed, majority of the genes oscillate in LL with this cycle time. Genes that are upregulated at a particular time of day under diurnal cycle also get upregulated at an equivalent metabolic phase under LL suggesting tight coupling of various cellular events with each other and with the cell's metabolic status. A number of metabolic processes get upregulated in a coordinated fashion during the respiratory phase under LL including glycogen degradation, glycolysis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These precede nitrogen fixation apparently to ensure sufficient energy and anoxic environment needed for the nitrogenase enzyme. Photosynthetic phase sees upregulation of photosystem II, carbonate transport, carbon concentrating mechanism, RuBisCO, glycogen synthesis and light harvesting antenna pigment biosynthesis. In Synechococcus elongates PCC 7942, a non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, expression of a relatively smaller fraction of genes oscillates under LL condition with the major periodicity being 24 h. In contrast, the entire cellular machinery of Cyanothece orchestrates coordinated oscillation in anticipation of the ensuing metabolic phase in both LD and LL. These results may have important implications in understanding the timing of various cellular events and in engineering cyanobacteria for biofuel production.

  13. Altered negative unconscious processing in major depressive disorder: an exploratory neuropsychological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD has been characterized by abnormalities in emotional processing. However, what remains unclear is whether MDD also shows deficits in the unconscious processing of either positive or negative emotions. We conducted a psychological study in healthy and MDD subjects to investigate unconscious emotion processing and its valence-specific alterations in MDD patients. METHODS: We combined a well established paradigm for unconscious visual processing, the continuous flash suppression, with positive and negative emotional valences to detect the attentional preference evoked by the invisible emotional facial expressions. RESULTS: Healthy subjects showed an attentional bias for negative emotions in the unconscious condition while this valence bias remained absent in MDD patients. In contrast, this attentional bias diminished in the conscious condition for both healthy subjects and MDD. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate for the first time valence-specific deficits specifically in the unconscious processing of emotions in MDD; this may have major implications for subsequent neurobiological investigations as well as for clinical diagnosis and therapy.

  14. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  15. Interaction matters: A perceived social partner alters the neural processing of human speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that social interaction changes how communicative behaviors (e.g., spoken language, gaze) are processed, but the precise neural bases by which social-interactive context may alter communication remain unknown. Various perspectives suggest that live interactions are more rewarding, more attention-grabbing, or require increased mentalizing-thinking about the thoughts of others. Dissociating between these possibilities is difficult because most extant neuroimaging paradigms examining social interaction have not directly compared live paradigms to conventional "offline" (or recorded) paradigms. We developed a novel fMRI paradigm to assess whether and how an interactive context changes the processing of speech matched in content and vocal characteristics. Participants listened to short vignettes--which contained no reference to people or mental states--believing that some vignettes were prerecorded and that others were presented over a real-time audio-feed by a live social partner. In actuality, all speech was prerecorded. Simply believing that speech was live increased activation in each participant's own mentalizing regions, defined using a functional localizer. Contrasting live to recorded speech did not reveal significant differences in attention or reward regions. Further, higher levels of autistic-like traits were associated with altered neural specialization for live interaction. These results suggest that humans engage in ongoing mentalizing about social partners, even when such mentalizing is not explicitly required, illustrating how social context shapes social cognition. Understanding communication in social context has important implications for typical and atypical social processing, especially for disorders like autism where social difficulties are more acute in live interaction. PMID:26608245

  16. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko eMaekawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli.Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant and white circle (target stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard, 10% (deviant, and 10% (target probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus.Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls.Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli.Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD.

  17. Cellular receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. Carboxyl-terminal processing and membrane anchoring by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Rønne, E; Behrendt, N;

    1991-01-01

    The cellular receptor for human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PAR) is shown by several independent criteria to be a true member of a family of integral membrane proteins, anchored to the plasma membrane exclusively by a COOH-terminal glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol moiety. 1) Amino acid...... acid compositions derived from cDNA sequence and amino acid analysis shows that a polypeptide of medium hydrophobicity is excised from the COOH terminus of the nascent u-PAR. A similar proteolytic processing has been reported for other proteins that are linked to the plasma membrane by a glycosyl...

  18. Expression of the human apoE2 isoform in adipocytes: altered cellular processing and impaired adipocyte lipogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhi H.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Mazzone, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    Expression of apoE in adipocytes has been shown to have an important role in modulating adipocyte triglyceride (TG) metabolism and gene expression that is independent of circulating and extracellular apoE. The impact of adipocyte expression of common human apoE isoforms was evaluated using adipocytes harvested from human apoE2, -3, and -4 knock-in mice. Expression of the apoE2 isoform was associated with an increase in adipocyte apoE gene expression and apoE synthesis. Newly synthesized apoE2...

  19. Environmental lighting alters the infection process in an animal model of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachron, D L; Tumas, K M; Blank, K J; Prystowsky, M B

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of altered environmental lighting on the infection process of a murine leukemia virus, E-55(+), which induces a thymic lymphoma/leukemia in 100% of BALB.K mice inoculated as adults. One to two weeks after inoculation, high levels of proviral DNA are usually found. This is followed by an asymptomatic period of many weeks during which proviral DNA becomes essentially undetectable. Leukemia develops approximately 28 weeks postinoculation. In this experiment, one group of mice was exposed a consistent 10L: 14D cycle while a second was maintained in constant light (LL). A third group was exposed to a rotating cycle characterized by phase shifting a 10L: 14D cycle every three 24-h days (rLD). All cycles began 2 weeks prior to inoculation and were maintained thereafter. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks, and hematopoietic tissue was examined for proviral DNA content. At 1 week, LL- and rLD-exposed animals showed considerably less proviral DNA in bone marrow and spleen compared with controls. At 15 weeks, thymuses from controls were showing signs of infection whereas tissue from LL and rLD mice remained at background levels. We conclude that environmental lighting does alter the infective pattern displayed by this retrovirus, although whether this effect is mediated by changes in the target stem cells or through immunoenhancement has not yet been determined. PMID:7675882

  20. Long-Term Calorie Restriction Enhances Cellular Quality-Control Processes in Human Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR retards aging, acts as a hormetic intervention, and increases serum corticosterone and HSP70 expression in rodents. However, less is known regarding the effects of CR on these factors in humans. Serum cortisol and molecular chaperones and autophagic proteins were measured in the skeletal muscle of subjects on CR diets for 3–15 years and in control volunteers. Serum cortisol was higher in the CR group than in age-matched sedentary and endurance athlete groups (15.6 ± 4.6 ng/dl versus 12.3 ± 3.9 ng/dl and 11.2 ± 2.7 ng/dl, respectively; p ≤ 0.001. HSP70, Grp78, beclin-1, and LC3 mRNA and/or protein levels were higher in the skeletal muscle of the CR group compared to controls. Our data indicate that CR in humans is associated with sustained rises in serum cortisol, reduced inflammation, and increases in key molecular chaperones and autophagic mediators involved in cellular protein quality control and removal of dysfunctional proteins and organelles.

  1. Processing and properties of multiscale cellular thermoplastic fiber reinforced composite (CellFRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, L.; Cafiero, L.; D'Auria, M.; Iannace, S.

    2015-12-01

    High performance fiber reinforced polymer composites are made by embedding high strength/modulus fibers in a polymeric matrix. They are a class of materials that owe its success to the impressive specific mechanical properties with respect to metals. In many weight-sensitive applications, where high mechanical properties and low mass are required, properties per unit of mass are more important than absolute properties and further weight reduction is desirable. A route to reach this goal could be the controlled induction of porosity into the polymeric matrix, while still ensuring load transfer to the reinforcing fibers and fiber protection from the environment. Cellular lightweight fiber reinforced composites (CellFRC) were prepared embedding gas bubbles of controlled size within a high performance thermoplastic matrix reinforced with continuous fibers. Pores were induced after the composite was first saturated with CO2 and then foamed by using an in situ foaming/shaping technology based on compression moulding with adjustable mould cavities. The presence of micro- or submicro-sized cells in the new CellFRC reduced the apparent density of the structure and led to significant improvements of its impact properties. Both structural and functional performances were further improved through the use of a platelet-like nanofiller (Expanded Graphite) dispersed into the matrix.

  2. Altered neural reward and loss processing and prediction error signalling in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Bettina; Kuehner, Christine; Kirsch, Peter; Ruttorf, Michaela; Diener, Carsten; Flor, Herta

    2015-08-01

    Dysfunctional processing of reward and punishment may play an important role in depression. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown heterogeneous results for reward processing in fronto-striatal regions. We examined neural responsivity associated with the processing of reward and loss during anticipation and receipt of incentives and related prediction error (PE) signalling in depressed individuals. Thirty medication-free depressed persons and 28 healthy controls performed an fMRI reward paradigm. Regions of interest analyses focused on neural responses during anticipation and receipt of gains and losses and related PE-signals. Additionally, we assessed the relationship between neural responsivity during gain/loss processing and hedonic capacity. When compared with healthy controls, depressed individuals showed reduced fronto-striatal activity during anticipation of gains and losses. The groups did not significantly differ in response to reward and loss outcomes. In depressed individuals, activity increases in the orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens during reward anticipation were associated with hedonic capacity. Depressed individuals showed an absence of reward-related PEs but encoded loss-related PEs in the ventral striatum. Depression seems to be linked to blunted responsivity in fronto-striatal regions associated with limited motivational responses for rewards and losses. Alterations in PE encoding might mirror blunted reward- and enhanced loss-related associative learning in depression. PMID:25567763

  3. Rapid and selective alterations in the expression of cellular genes accompany conditional transcription of Ha-v-ras in NIH 3T3 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, R D; Ostrowski, M C

    1987-01-01

    Hormone treatment of NIH 3T3 cells that contain recombinant fusions between the mouse mammary virus long terminal repeat and the v-ras gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus results in conditional expression of the ras p21 gene product. Levels of ras mRNA and p21 are maximal after 2 to 4 h of hormone treatment. Analysis of cellular RNA by Northern blotting and nuclease S1 protection assays indicates that the expression of two cellular RNA species increases with kinetics similar to v-ras: v-sis-r...

  4. Altered processing of contextual information during fear extinction in PTSD: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Linnman, Clas; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Zeidan, Mohamed A; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Rodriguez-Romaguera, Jose; Rauch, Scott L; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2011-08-01

    Medial prefrontal cortical areas have been hypothesized to underlie altered contextual processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated brain signaling of contextual information in this disorder. Eighteen PTSD subjects and 16 healthy trauma-exposed subjects underwent a two-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. On day 1, within visual context A, a conditioned stimulus (CS) was followed 60% of the time by an electric shock (conditioning). The conditioned response was then extinguished (extinction learning) in context B. On day 2, recall of the extinction memory was tested in context B. Skin conductance response (SCR) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected during context presentations. There were no SCR group differences in any context presentation. Concerning fMRI data, during late conditioning, when context A signaled danger, PTSD subjects showed dorsal anterior cingulate cortical (dACC) hyperactivation. During early extinction, when context B had not yet fully acquired signal value for safety, PTSD subjects still showed dACC hyperactivation. During late extinction, when context B had come to signal safety, they showed ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) hypoactivation. During early extinction recall, when context B signaled safety, they showed both vmPFC hypoactivation and dACC hyperactivation. These findings suggest that PTSD subjects show alterations in the processing of contextual information related to danger and safety. This impairment is manifest even prior to a physiologically-measured, cue-elicited fear response, and characterized by hypoactivation in vmPFC and hyperactivation in dACC. PMID:20406268

  5. From Hills to Holes: How Climate Change and Mining are Altering Runoff Processes in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Canadian environments are under considerable pressure from both climate and land-use change. While warming temperatures are widespread and amplified in the north, surface mining has resulted in large-scale landscape disturbance. How these changes affect catchment response is profound, fundamentally altering the cycling and delivery of water and geochemicals to the drainage network. In permafrost-underlain environments, coupled mass and energy processes control runoff response, and as ground thaw increases, new subsurface pathways become accessible while changing overall catchment storage. With surface mining, watersheds are altered such that they bare little resemblance to what existed prior to mining. In this presentation, data will be presented from long-term experiments exploring the impact of climate and mining on runoff processes in cold catchments using stable isotopes of water and associated hydrometric measurements. In southern Yukon, results from the Wolf Creek Research Basin highlights the influence of surface energy balances on controlling the timing and magnitude of flow response, with inter-annual variability largely driven by how atmospheric forcing interacts with permafrost-underlain areas of the catchment. In mountainous areas of southern British Columbia, surface mining reconfigures landscapes as valleys are filled with waste-rock. Mine-influenced catchments exhibit attenuated flows with delays in spring freshet and a more muted to precipitation. Stable isotopes in stream water suggests that both waste-rock and reference catchments are well mixed, however reference catchments are more responsive to enrichment and depletion events and that mine-influenced catchments had a heavier isotope signature than reference watersheds, suggesting enhanced influence of rainfall on recharge. In both cases, snow storage and release exerts considerable control on streamflow responses, and future changes in streamflow regimes will reflect both a changes in the snow

  6. Dynamic Processes of Altered Layer Formation in Cu-Pt Alloys Under Ion Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfei; Asahata, Tatsuya; Shimizu, Ryuichi

    Three different experimental approaches have been developed to study the dynamic process of subsurface altered layer formation in a Cu-Pt alloy under Ar+ ion bombardment: (1) sputter neutral mass spectrometry by multiphoton ionization (MPI-SNMS) for the study of preferential sputtering caused by the collision cascade process in the very initial stage of sputtering; (2) ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS)-Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) sequential measurements for investigating radiation-enhanced Gibbsian segregation in the transient stage of sputtering; (3) an approach based on ISS monitoring by prompt switching of the ion bombardment with (He++Ar+) ions to that with He+ ions, for revealing the cooling effect in radiation-enhanced diffusion in the final steady state of sputtering. For this we have developed a specific coevaporating device for depositing Cu and Pt simultaneously on a substrate at constant deposition rate. The coevaporating device was attached to both of the specimen chambers of the Auger microprobe, JAMP-3, and of the MPI-SNMS apparatus. The results have clearly revealed: (i) ion bombardment causes a preferential sputtering of Cu atoms in the very initial stage of sputtering, (ii) followed by gradual formation of an altered layer as ion sputtering proceeds in the transient stage, and (iii) finally the alloy system approaches a steady state where the composition profile is controlled by cascade mixing, radiation-enhanced Gibbsian segregation and radiation-enhanced diffusion to satisfy the mass balance law. In the steady state the approach (3) has, first, revealed that the cooling effect does exist in radiation-enhanced diffusion.

  7. High-porosity permeable cellular metals and alloys in catalytic processes of gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antsiferov, V.N.; Makarov, A.M.; Khramtsov, V.D. [Research Center of Powder Material Engineering, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2005-01-01

    During the rotational moulding of plastics there are a number of key temperatures that influence to a large extent the production of good quality parts. Using well established relationships between the structure and processibility of plastics, this paper explains why polyethylene is much easier to process by rotational moulding than other polymers such as polyamides, poly(ethylene terephtalate), poly(vinylchloride) or polypropylene. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Serotonergic modulation and its influence on signal processing at cellular level in deep cerebellar nuclei neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meng-Larn

    2007-01-01

    Deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons generate the final output of cerebellum and receive abundant modulatory serotonergic inputs from brainstem neurons. The aim of this present study was to elucidate the influence of serotonin on signal processing performed by DCN neurons. Since signal processing is determined by the interplay between intrinsic and synaptic properties, the impact of serotonin on intrinsic as well as synaptic properties was investigated. To this end whole-cell patch clamp reco...

  9. Anatomical alterations of the visual motion processing network in migraine with and without aura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Granziera

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from migraine with aura (MWA and migraine without aura (MWoA show abnormalities in visual motion perception during and between attacks. Whether this represents the consequences of structural changes in motion-processing networks in migraineurs is unknown. Moreover, the diagnosis of migraine relies on patient's history, and finding differences in the brain of migraineurs might help to contribute to basic research aimed at better understanding the pathophysiology of migraine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To investigate a common potential anatomical basis for these disturbances, we used high-resolution cortical thickness measurement and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the motion-processing network in 24 migraine patients (12 with MWA and 12 MWoA and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. We found increased cortical thickness of motion-processing visual areas MT+ and V3A in migraineurs compared to HCs. Cortical thickness increases were accompanied by abnormalities of the subjacent white matter. In addition, DTI revealed that migraineurs have alterations in superior colliculus and the lateral geniculate nucleus, which are also involved in visual processing. CONCLUSIONS: A structural abnormality in the network of motion-processing areas could account for, or be the result of, the cortical hyperexcitability observed in migraineurs. The finding in patients with both MWA and MWoA of thickness abnormalities in area V3A, previously described as a source in spreading changes involved in visual aura, raises the question as to whether a "silent" cortical spreading depression develops as well in MWoA. In addition, these experimental data may provide clinicians and researchers with a noninvasively acquirable migraine biomarker.

  10. A model for Intelligent Random Access Memory architecture (IRAM) cellular automata algorithms on the Associative String Processing machine (ASTRA)

    CERN Document Server

    Rohrbach, F; Vesztergombi, G

    1997-01-01

    In the near future, the computer performance will be completely determined by how long it takes to access memory. There are bottle-necks in memory latency and memory-to processor interface bandwidth. The IRAM initiative could be the answer by putting Processor-In-Memory (PIM). Starting from the massively parallel processing concept, one reached a similar conclusion. The MPPC (Massively Parallel Processing Collaboration) project and the 8K processor ASTRA machine (Associative String Test bench for Research \\& Applications) developed at CERN \\cite{kuala} can be regarded as a forerunner of the IRAM concept. The computing power of the ASTRA machine, regarded as an IRAM with 64 one-bit processors on a 64$\\times$64 bit-matrix memory chip machine, has been demonstrated by running statistical physics algorithms: one-dimensional stochastic cellular automata, as a simple model for dynamical phase transitions. As a relevant result for physics, the damage spreading of this model has been investigated.

  11. Investigation of mechanical properties for open cellular structure CoCrMo alloy fabricated by selective laser melting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azidin, A.; Taib, Z. A. M.; Harun, W. S. W.; Che Ghani, S. A.; Faisae, M. F.; Omar, M. A.; Ramli, H.

    2015-12-01

    Orthodontic implants have been a major focus through mechanical and biological performance in advance to fabricate shape of complex anatomical. Designing the part with a complex mechanism is one of the challenging process and addition to achieve the balance and desired mechanical performance brought to the right manufacture technique to fabricate. Metal additive manufacturing (MAM) is brought forward to the newest fabrication technology in this field. In this study, selective laser melting (SLM) process was utilized on a medical grade cobalt-chrome molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy. The work has focused on mechanical properties of the CoCrMo open cellular structures samples with 60%, 70%, and 80% designed volume porosity that could potentially emulate the properties of human bone. It was observed that hardness values decreased as the soaking time increases except for bottom face. For compression test, 60% designed volume porosity demonstrated highest ultimate compressive strength compared to 70% and 80%.

  12. A differential genome-wide transcriptome analysis: impact of cellular copper on complex biological processes like aging and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Servos

    Full Text Available The regulation of cellular copper homeostasis is crucial in biology. Impairments lead to severe dysfunctions and are known to affect aging and development. Previously, a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the copper-sensing and copper-regulated transcription factor GRISEA of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina was reported to lead to cellular copper depletion and a pleiotropic phenotype with hypopigmentation of the mycelium and the ascospores, affected fertility and increased lifespan by approximately 60% when compared to the wild type. This phenotype is linked to a switch from a copper-dependent standard to an alternative respiration leading to both a reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. We performed a genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis of a wild-type strain and the copper-depleted grisea mutant. We unambiguously assigned 9,700 sequences of the transcriptome in both strains to the more than 10,600 predicted and annotated open reading frames of the P. anserina genome indicating 90% coverage of the transcriptome. 4,752 of the transcripts differed significantly in abundance with 1,156 transcripts differing at least 3-fold. Selected genes were investigated by qRT-PCR analyses. Apart from this general characterization we analyzed the data with special emphasis on molecular pathways related to the grisea mutation taking advantage of the available complete genomic sequence of P. anserina. This analysis verified but also corrected conclusions from earlier data obtained by single gene analysis, identified new candidates of factors as part of the cellular copper homeostasis system including target genes of transcription factor GRISEA, and provides a rich reference source of quantitative data for further in detail investigations. Overall, the present study demonstrates the importance of systems biology approaches also in cases were mutations in single genes are analyzed to

  13. In vitro cellular responses to silicon carbide particles manufactured through the Acheson process: impact of physico-chemical features on pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boumahdi, Najih; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Guilhot, Bernard; Cottier, Michèle; Grosseau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) an industrial-scale product manufactured through the Acheson process, is largely employed in various applications. Its toxicity has been poorly investigated. Our study aims at characterizing the physico-chemical features and the in vitro impact on biological activity of five manufactured SiC powders: two coarse powders (SiC C1/C2), two fine powders (SiC F1/F2) and a powder rich in iron impurities (SiC I). RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the different SiC particles and the cellular responses were evaluated. Contrary to what happens with silica, no SiC cytotoxicity was observed but pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses of variable intensity were evidenced. Oxidative stress (H₂O₂ production) appeared related to SiC particle size, while iron level regulated pro-inflammatory response (TNFα production). To investigate the impact of surface reactivity on the biological responses, coarse SiC C1 and fine SiC F1 powders were submitted to different thermal treatments (650-1400 °C) in order to alter the oxidation state of the particle surface. At 1400 °C a decrease in TNFα production and an increase in HO·, COO(·-) radicals production were observed in correlation with the formation of a surface layer of crystalline silica. Finally, a strong correlation was observed between surface oxidation state and in vitro toxicity. PMID:24603312

  14. Cellular automata and urban development simulation : a transition rules creation process based on statistical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Valentine; Antoni, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    National audience Nowadays land use evolution study has become a major stake in urban planning. The main focus is to understand the way in which land use evolves across time and to understand processes that take place. This understanding would allow to plan urban developments based on a knowledge as complete as possible covering as many fields as possible (i.e. urban planning, politics, sociology, etc.). Simulation tools can be used to merge and display different points of view and stakes ...

  15. Indicators of inflammation and cellular damage in chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics: correlation with alteration of bilirubin and hepatic and pancreatic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borini Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and hematimetric indicators of inflammation and cell damage were correlated with bilirubin and hepatic and pancreatic enzymes in 30 chronic male alcoholics admitted into psychiatric hospital for detoxification and treatment of alcoholism. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin were altered, respectively, in 90%, 63%, 87%, 23% and 23% of the cases. None of the indicators of inflammation (lactic dehydrogenase, altered in 16% of the cases; alpha-1 globulin, 24%; alpha-2 globulin, 88%; leucocyte counts, 28% was correlated with alterations of bilirubin or liver enzymes. Lactic dehydrogenase was poorly sensitive for detection of hepatocytic or muscular damage. Alterations of alpha-globulins seemed to have been due more to alcohol metabolism-induced increase of lipoproteins than to inflammation. Among indicators of cell damage, serum iron, increased in 40% of the cases, seemed to be related to liver damage while creatine phosphokinase, increased in 84% of the cases, related to muscle damage. Hyperamylasemia was found in 20% of the cases and significantly correlated with levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. It was indicated that injuries of liver, pancreas, salivary glands, and muscle occurred in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic chronic alcoholics.

  16. Cellular and molecular mechanisms activating the cell death processes by chalcones: Critical structural effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champelovier, Pierre; Chauchet, Xavier; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Vergnaud, Sabrina; Garrel, Catherine; Laporte, François; Boutonnat, Jean; Boumendjel, Ahcène

    2013-12-01

    Chalcones are naturally occurring compounds with diverse pharmacological activities. Chalcones derive from the common structure: 1,3-diphenylpropenone. The present study aims to better understand the mechanistic pathways triggering chalcones anticancer effects and providing evidences that minor structural difference could lead to important difference in mechanistic effect. We selected two recently investigated chalcones (A and B) and investigated them on glioblastoma cell lines. It was found that chalcone A induced an apoptotic process (type I PCD), via the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. Chalcone A also increased CDK1/cyclin B ratios and decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). Chalcone B induced an autophagic cell death process (type II PCD), ROS-related but independent of both caspases and protein synthesis. Both chalcones increased Bax/Bcl2 ratios and decreased Ki67 and CD71 antigen expressions. The present investigation reveals that despite the close structure of chalcones A and B, significant differences in mechanism of effect were found.

  17. Quantification of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from fossil carbonate shells and laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesshaber, Erika; Casella, Laura; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at reconstructions of past climate dynamics and environmental change. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and create local chemical environments where physiologic processes such as biomineralization takes place. After the death of the organism the former physiologic disequilibrium conditions are not sustained any more and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration according to the surrounding environment: diagenesis. With increasing diagenetic alteration, the biogenic structure and fingerprint fades away and is replaced by inorganic features. Thus, recrystallization of organism-specific microstructure is a clear indicator for diagenetic overprint. Microstructural data, which mirror recrystallization, are of great value for interpreting geochemical proxies for paleo-environment reconstruction. Despite more than a century of research dealing with carbonate diagenesis, many of the controlling processes and factors are only understood in a qualitative manner. One of the main issues is that diagenetically altered carbonates are usually present as the product of a complex preceding diagenetic pathway with an unknown number of intermediate steps. In this contribution we present and discuss laboratory based alteration experiments with the aim to investigate time-series data sets in a controlled manner. We conducted hydrothermal alteration experiments with modern Arctica islandica (bivalvia) and Notosaria nigricans (brachiopoda) in order to mimic diagenetic overprint. We explore first the potential of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements together with statistical data evaluation as a tool to quantify diagenetic alteration of carbonate skeletons. Subsequently, we compare microstructural patterns obtained from experimentally altered shell material with those of fossil specimens that have undergone variable degrees of

  18. Role 14-3-3 Protein in Regulation Some Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagam Khudhair

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to review an overview of the current information on the structure of proteins 14-3-3 and their complexes, in addition to that it provides insights into the mechanisms of their functions. The 14-3-3 proteins are from families maintain regulatory molecules expressed in all eukaryotic cells. It was discovered before thirty years, it is attributes of 14-3-3 proteins are able to connect a large number of signalling proteins are functionally diverse, including kinases, phosphatases and transmembrane receptors. 14-3-3 proteins play an important role in a variety of vital regulatory processes, such as protein regulation, apoptotic cell death and cell cycle control. In this review, we discussed the structural basis of 14-3-3 proteins, common structural features of their complexes, Phosphorylation, Cell cycle and Apoptosis.

  19. Radioiodinated antibody targeting of the HER-2/neu oncoprotein: effects of labeling method on cellular processing and tissue distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalutsky, M.R. E-mail: zalut001@mc.duke.edu; Xu, F.J.; Yu, Y.; Foulon, C.F.; Zhao, X.-G.; Slade, S.K.; Affleck, D.J.; Bast, R.C

    1999-10-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) internalization can have a major effect on tumor retention of radiolabel. Two anti-HER-2/neu MAbs (TA1 and 520C9) were radioiodinated using the iodogen, N-succinimidyl 5-iodo-3-pyridinecarboxylate (SIPC), and tyramine-cellobiose (TCB) methods. Paired-label studies compared internalization and cellular processing of the labeled MAbs by SKOv3 9002-18 ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Intracellular radioiodine activity for 520C9 was up to 2.6 and 3.0 times higher for SIPC and TCB labeling, respectively, compared with iodogen. Likewise, intracellular activity for TA1 was up to 2.3 and 2.9 times higher with the SIPC and TCB methods compared with iodogen labeling. Unfortunately, similar advantages in tumor accumulation were not achieved in athymic mice bearing SKOv3 9008-18 ovarian cancer xenografts.

  20. Radioiodinated antibody targeting of the HER-2/neu oncoprotein: effects of labeling method on cellular processing and tissue distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) internalization can have a major effect on tumor retention of radiolabel. Two anti-HER-2/neu MAbs (TA1 and 520C9) were radioiodinated using the iodogen, N-succinimidyl 5-iodo-3-pyridinecarboxylate (SIPC), and tyramine-cellobiose (TCB) methods. Paired-label studies compared internalization and cellular processing of the labeled MAbs by SKOv3 9002-18 ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Intracellular radioiodine activity for 520C9 was up to 2.6 and 3.0 times higher for SIPC and TCB labeling, respectively, compared with iodogen. Likewise, intracellular activity for TA1 was up to 2.3 and 2.9 times higher with the SIPC and TCB methods compared with iodogen labeling. Unfortunately, similar advantages in tumor accumulation were not achieved in athymic mice bearing SKOv3 9008-18 ovarian cancer xenografts

  1. Altered food cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eSanders

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia Nervosa (AN is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss.This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012, that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD when compared to long term recovered AN (REC and healthy controls (HC. Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 y, 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 yr and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, after fasting overnight. Functional ROIs (fROIs were defined in BU (e.g. striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus and cerebellum, TD (e.g. medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, the insula and visual processing areas (VPA. Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs.We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.’s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC fROIs across BU, TD and VPA areas clustered, in AN one cluster span across BU, TD and insula, one across BU, TD and VPA areas and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC BU, TD and VPA or VPA and insula clustered.In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food cues is also altered in recovered AN patient

  2. Altered food-cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Danner, Unna N; van Meer, Floor; Hoek, Hans W; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.'s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food

  3. Altered food-cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Danner, Unna N; van Meer, Floor; Hoek, Hans W; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.'s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food

  4. Processing and characterization of multi-cellular monolithic bioceramics for bone regenerative scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari-Wahjoedi, Bambang; Ginta, Turnad Lenggo; Parman, Setyamartana; Abustaman, Mohd Zikri Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    Multicellular monolithic ceramic body is a ceramic material which has many gas or liquid passages partitioned by thin walls throughout the bulk material. There are many currently known advanced industrial applications of multicellular ceramics structures i.e. as supports for various catalysts, electrode support structure for solid oxide fuel cells, refractories, electric/electronic materials, aerospace vehicle re-entry heat shields and biomaterials for dental as well as orthopaedic implants by naming only a few. Multicellular ceramic bodies are usually made of ceramic phases such as mullite, cordierite, aluminum titanate or pure oxides such as silica, zirconia and alumina. What make alumina ceramics is excellent for the above functions are the intrinsic properties of alumina which are hard, wear resistant, excellent dielectric properties, resists strong acid and alkali attacks at elevated temperatures, good thermal conductivities, high strength and stiffness as well as biocompatible. In this work the processing technology leading to truly multicellular monolithic alumina ceramic bodies and their characterization are reported. Ceramic slip with 66 wt.% solid loading was found to be optimum as impregnant to the polyurethane foam template. Mullitic ceramic composite of alumina-sodium alumino disilicate-Leucite-like phases with bulk and true densities of 0.852 and 1.241 g cm-3 respectively, pore linear density of ±35 cm-1, linear and bulk volume shrinkages of 7-16% and 32 vol.% were obtained. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of the bioceramics are ≈0.5-1.0 and ≈20 MPa respectively.

  5. Cellular lipid production of a heterotrophic bacterium isolated from poultry processing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattiya Ongmali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell growth and lipid production of a heterotrophic bacterium, R4.4 which accumulated the highest lipid content among 12 bacterial colonies being isolated from wastewater of a poultry processing plant in Thailand, were evaluated in this study. The culture was identified as Aeromonas sp. by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis.The highest lipid content was obtained when the cells were in the early stationary growth phase compared to the cells in the exponential and the late stationary phase. Over 50% of the fatty acid production by Aeromonas sp. KMITL-R4.4 were unsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid (C18:2, 43.2%, oleic acid (C18:1, 19.0%, and palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 8.2%. The culture had a preference for glucose and fructose as seen from the maximum biomass and lipid contents that were obtained. Among volatile fatty acid (VFA species tested, acetic acid was the preferred substrate for lipid production but not favorable for cell growth. In addition, ammonium sulfate was found to be the best among nitrogen sources tested. The C/N ratio exerts significant impact on lipid production as seen from an increase of the lipid content from 10.8% to 18.2% by exposing the bacterial cells to a medium with lower nitrogen concentration (0.1g/l and higher level of glucose (28 g/l.

  6. MicroRNA Expression Is Altered in an Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma Model and Targeting miR-155 with Antagomirs Reveals Cellular Specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian W Plank

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are differentially regulated during development and in inflammatory diseases. A role for miRNAs in allergic asthma is emerging and further investigation is required to determine whether they may serve as potential therapeutic targets. We profiled miRNA expression in murine lungs from an ovalbumin-induced allergic airways disease model, and compared expression to animals receiving dexamethasone treatment and non-allergic controls. Our analysis identified 29 miRNAs that were significantly altered during allergic inflammation. Target prediction analysis revealed novel genes with altered expression in allergic airways disease and suggests synergistic miRNA regulation of target mRNAs. To assess the impacts of one induced miRNA on pathology, we targeted miR-155-5p using a specific antagomir. Antagomir administration successfully reduced miR-155-5p expression with high specificity, but failed to alter the disease phenotype. Interestingly, further investigation revealed that antagomir delivery has variable efficacy across different immune cell types, effectively targeting myeloid cell populations, but exhibiting poor uptake in lymphocytes. Our findings demonstrate that antagomir-based targeting of miRNA function in the lung is highly specific, but highlights cell-specificity as a key limitation to be considered for antagomir-based strategies as therapeutics.

  7. Processing and characterization of multi-cellular monolithic bioceramics for bone regenerative scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari-Wahjoedi, Bambang, E-mail: bambang-ariwahjoedi@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Centre for Intelligent Signal and Imaging Research, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar (Malaysia); Ginta, Turnad Lenggo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Centre for Intelligent Signal and Imaging Research, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tro (Malaysia); Parman, Setyamartana [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Abustaman, Mohd Zikri Ahmad [Kebabangan Petroleum Operating Company Sdn Bhd, Lvl. 52, Tower 2, PETRONAS Twin Towers, KLCC, 50088 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Multicellular monolithic ceramic body is a ceramic material which has many gas or liquid passages partitioned by thin walls throughout the bulk material. There are many currently known advanced industrial applications of multicellular ceramics structures i.e. as supports for various catalysts, electrode support structure for solid oxide fuel cells, refractories, electric/electronic materials, aerospace vehicle re-entry heat shields and biomaterials for dental as well as orthopaedic implants by naming only a few. Multicellular ceramic bodies are usually made of ceramic phases such as mullite, cordierite, aluminum titanate or pure oxides such as silica, zirconia and alumina. What make alumina ceramics is excellent for the above functions are the intrinsic properties of alumina which are hard, wear resistant, excellent dielectric properties, resists strong acid and alkali attacks at elevated temperatures, good thermal conductivities, high strength and stiffness as well as biocompatible. In this work the processing technology leading to truly multicellular monolithic alumina ceramic bodies and their characterization are reported. Ceramic slip with 66 wt.% solid loading was found to be optimum as impregnant to the polyurethane foam template. Mullitic ceramic composite of alumina-sodium alumino disilicate-Leucite-like phases with bulk and true densities of 0.852 and 1.241 g cm{sup −3} respectively, pore linear density of ±35 cm{sup −1}, linear and bulk volume shrinkages of 7-16% and 32 vol.% were obtained. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of the bioceramics are ≈0.5-1.0 and ≈20 MPa respectively.

  8. Alteration, adsorption and nucleation processes on clay-water interfaces: Mechanisms for the retention of uranium by altered clay surfaces on the nanometer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Michael; Legrand, Christine A.; Hochella, Michael F.

    2015-03-01

    Nano-scale processes on the solid-water interface of clay minerals control the mobility of metals in the environment. These processes can occur in confined pore spaces of clay buffers and barriers as well as in contaminated sediments and involve a combination of alteration, adsorption and nucleation processes of multiple species and phases. This study characterizes nano-scale processes on the interface between clay minerals and uranyl-bearing solution near neutral pH. Samples of clay minerals with a contact pH of ∼6.7 are collected from a U mill and mine tailings at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. The tailings material contains Cu-, As-, Co-, Mo-, Ni-, Se-bearing polymetallic phases and has been deposited with a surplus of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3 slaked lime. Small volumes of mill-process solutions containing sulfuric acid and U are occasionally discharged onto the surface of the tailings and are neutralized after discharge by reactions with the slaked lime. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with the focused ion beam (FIB) technique and other analytical methods (SEM, XRD, XRF and ICP-OES) are used to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of phases within confined pore spaces of the clay minerals montmorillonite and kaolinite and in the surrounding tailings material. Alteration zones around the clay minerals are characterized by different generations of secondary silicates containing variable proportions of adsorbed uranyl- and arsenate-species and by the intergrowth of the silicates with the uranyl-minerals cuprosklodowskite, Cu[(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2](H2O)6 and metazeunerite, Cu[(UO2)(AsO4)2](H2O)8. The majority of alteration phases such as illite, illite-smectite, kaolinite and vermiculite have been most likely formed in the sedimentary basin of the U-ore deposit and contain low amounts of Fe (10 at.%) formed most likely in the limed tailings at high contact pH (∼10.5) and their structure is characterized by a low degree of long

  9. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) alters histiotrophic nutrition pathways and epigenetic processes in the developing conceptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Karilyn E; Dolinoy, Dana C; Jilek, Joseph L; Shay, Brian J; Harris, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Histiotrophic nutrition pathways (HNPs) are processes by which the organogenesis-stage conceptus obtains nutrients, amino acids, vitamins and cofactors required for protein biosynthesis and metabolic activities. Nutrients are captured from the maternal milieu as whole proteins and cargoes via receptor-mediated endocytosis in the visceral yolk sac (VYS), degraded by lysosomal proteolysis and delivered to the developing embryo (EMB). Several nutrients obtained by HNPs are required substrates for one-carbon (C1) metabolism and supply methyl groups required for epigenetic processes, including DNA and histone methylation. Increased availability of methyl donors has been associated with reduced risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). Here, we show that mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) treatment (100 or 250μM) alters HNPs, C1 metabolism and epigenetic programming in the organogenesis-stage conceptus. Specifically, 3-h MEHP treatment of mouse EMBs in whole culture resulted in dose-dependent reduction of HNP activity in the conceptus. To observe nutrient consequences of decreased HNP function, C1 components and substrates and epigenetic outcomes were quantified at 24h. Treatment with 100-μM MEHP resulted in decreased dietary methyl donor concentrations, while treatment with 100- or 250-μM MEHP resulted in dose-dependent elevated C1 products and substrates. In MEHP-treated EMBs with NTDs, H3K4 methylation was significantly increased, while no effects were seen in treated VYS. DNA methylation was reduced in MEHP-treated EMB with and without NTDs. This research suggests that environmental toxicants such as MEHP decrease embryonic nutrition in a time-dependent manner and that epigenetic consequences of HNP disruption may be exacerbated in EMB with NTDs. PMID:26507544

  10. Altered frontocingulate activation during aversive interoceptive processing in young adults transitioning to problem stimulant use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lorraine Stewart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with stimulant use have been linked to frontocingulate, insular, and thalamic dysfunction during decision-making and alterations in interoceptive processing. However, little is known about how interoception and decision-making interact and contribute to dysfunctions that promote the transition from recreational drug use to abuse or dependence. Here, we investigate brain activation in response to reward, punishment, and uncertainty during an aversive interoceptive challenge in current and former stimulant (cocaine and amphetamine users using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young adults previously identified as recreational users (n=184 were followed up three years later. Of these, 18 individuals progressed to problem stimulant use (PSU, whereas 15 desisted stimulant use (DSU. PSU, DSU, and 14 healthy comparison subjects (CTL performed a two-choice prediction task at three fixed error rates (20%=reward, 50%=uncertainty, 80%=punishment during which they anticipated and experienced episodes of inspiratory breathing load. Although groups did not differ in insula activation or subjective breathing load ratings, PSU exhibited lower right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and bilateral anterior cingulate (ACC activation than DSU and CTL during aversive interoceptive processing as well as lower right IFG in response to decision making involving uncertainty. However, PSU exhibited greater bilateral IFG activation than DSU and CTL while making choices within the context of punishing feedback, and both PSU and DSU showed lower thalamic activation during breathing load than CTL. Findings suggest that frontocingulate attenuation, reflecting reduced resources devoted to goal maintenance and action selection in the presence of uncertainty and interoceptive perturbations, may be a biomarker for susceptibility to problem stimulant use.

  11. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation.

  12. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  13. Cell surface glycan alterations in epithelial mesenchymal transition process of Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Due to recurrence and metastasis, the mortality of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is high. It is well known that the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT and glycan of cell surface glycoproteins play pivotal roles in tumor metastasis. The goal of this study was to identify HCC metastasis related differential glycan pattern and their enzymatic basis using a HGF induced EMT model. METHODOLOGY: HGF was used to induce HCC EMT model. Lectin microarray was used to detect the expression of cell surface glycan and the difference was validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. The mRNA expression levels of glycotransferases were determined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: After HGF treatment, the Huh7 cell lost epithelial characteristics and obtained mesenchymal markers. These changes demonstrated that HGF could induce a typical cell model of EMT. Lectin microarray analysis identified a decreased affinity in seven lectins ACL, BPL, JAC, MPL, PHA-E, SNA, and SBA to the glycan of cell surface glycoproteins. This implied that glycan containing T/Tn-antigen, NA2 and bisecting GlcNAc, Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc, terminal α or βGalNAc structures were reduced. The binding ability of thirteen lectins, AAL, LCA, LTL, ConA, NML, NPL, DBA, HAL, PTL II, WFL, ECL, GSL II and PHA-L to glycan were elevated, and a definite indication that glycan containing terminal αFuc and ± Sia-Le, core fucose, α-man, gal-β(α GalNAc, β1,6 GlcNAc branching and tetraantennary complex oligosaccharides structures were increased. These results were further validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of Mgat3 decreased while that of Mgat5, FucT8 and β3GalT5 increased. Therefore, cell surface glycan alterations in the EMT process may coincide with the expression of glycosyltransferase. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study systematically clarify the alterations of cell surface

  14. Influence of processing conditions on strut structure and compressive properties of cellular lattice structures fabricated by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Chunlei, E-mail: c.qiu@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yue, Sheng [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Adkins, Nicholas J.E.; Ward, Mark; Hassanin, Hany [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lee, Peter D., E-mail: peter.lee@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Withers, Philip J., E-mail: p.j.withers@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Attallah, Moataz M., E-mail: m.m.attallah@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-25

    AlSi10Mg cellular lattice structures have been fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) using a range of laser scanning speeds and powers. The as-fabricated strut size, morphology and internal porosity were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) and correlated to the compressive properties of the structure. Strut diameter was found to increase monotonically with laser power while the porosity was largest at intermediate powers. Laser scanning speed was found to thicken the struts only at slow rates while the porosity was largest at intermediate speeds. High speed imaging showed the melt pool to be larger at high laser powers. Further the melt pool shape was found to vary cyclically over time, steadily growing before becoming increasingly instable and irregularly shaped before abruptly falling in size due to splashing of molten materials and the process repeating. Upon compressive loading, lattice deformation was homogeneous prior to the peak stress before falling sharply due to the creation of a (one strut wide) shear band at around 45° to the compression axis. The specific yield strength expressed as the yield stress/(yield stress of the aluminium × relative density) is not independent of processing conditions, suggesting that further improvements in properties can be achieved by process optimisation. Lattice struts failed near nodes by a mixture of ductile and brittle fracture.

  15. Synaptic plasticity, neural circuits and the emerging role of altered short-term information processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg W. Crabtree

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity alters the strength of information flow between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons and thus modifies the likelihood that action potentials in a presynaptic neuron will lead to an action potential in a postsynaptic neuron. As such, synaptic plasticity and pathological changes in synaptic plasticity impact the synaptic computation which controls the information flow through the neural microcircuits responsible for the complex information processing necessary to drive adaptive behaviors. As current theories of neuropsychiatric disease suggest that distinct dysfunctions in neural circuit performance may critically underlie the unique symptoms of these diseases, pathological alterations in synaptic plasticity mechanisms may be fundamental to the disease process. Here we consider mechanisms of both short-term and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission and their possible roles in information processing by neural microcircuits in both health and disease. As paradigms of neuropsychiatric diseases with strongly implicated risk genes, we discuss the findings in schizophrenia and autism and consider the alterations in synaptic plasticity and network function observed in both human studies and genetic mouse models of these diseases. Together these studies have begun to point towards a likely dominant role of short-term synaptic plasticity alterations in schizophrenia while dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders may be due to a combination of both short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity alterations.

  16. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars. Recording Aqueous and Surface-atmosphere Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Kenneth M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Mustard, John F. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Salvatore, Mark R. [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-03-05

    The rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. Moreover, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water–rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water–rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. These results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  17. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars: Recording aqueous and surface-atmosphere processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kevin M.; Mustard, John F.; Salvatore, Mark R.

    2015-05-01

    Rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. However, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water-rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water-rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. Our results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  18. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  19. Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., m...

  20. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe; Matthew eSacchet; Elizabeth eHastings; Harold eRoth; Willoughby eBritton

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. ...

  1. Caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK enhances the yield of in vitro produced buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pre-implantation embryos and alters cellular stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullani, N; Singh, M K; Sharma, A; Rameshbabu, K; Manik, R S; Palta, P; Singla, S K; Chauhan, M S

    2016-02-01

    The present investigation was done to study the effect of caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, on in vitro produced buffalo embryos. Z-LEHD-FMK is a cell-permeable, competitive and irreversible inhibitor of enzyme caspase-9, which helps in cell survival. Buffalo ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse and the oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC). The culture medium was supplemented with Z-LEHD-FMK at different concentrations i.e. 0 μM (control), 10 μM, 20 μM, 30 μM and 50 μM during IVM and IVC respectively. After day-2 post-insemination, the cleavage rate was significantly higher (74.20 ± 5.87% at Pafore mentioned results we conclude that, Z-LEHD-FMK at 20 μM increased the cleavage and blastocyst rate of buffalo pre-implantation embryos also affecting the rate of apoptosis and cellular stress at various concentrations.

  2. Alteration of Mevalonate Pathway in Proliferated Vascular Smooth Muscle from Diabetic Mice: Possible Role in High-Glucose-Induced Atherogenic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ping Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs is one of the main features of atherosclerosis induced by high glucose. Mevalonate pathway is an important metabolic pathway that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes. The aim of this study was to define whether the enzyme expression in mevalonate pathway is changed in proliferated VSMCs during atherogenic process in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced in BALB/c mice with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days. Induction of diabetes with STZ was associated with an increase of lesion area and media thickness after 8 and 16 weeks of diabetes. In aorta, there were overexpressions of some enzymes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS, farnesyltransferase (FNT, and geranylgeranyltransferase-1 (GGT-1, and unchanged expression of squalene synthase (SQS and phosphor-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (P-HMGR in 8 and 16 weeks of diabetes. In vitro, VSMCs were cultured and treated with different glucose concentrations for 48 h. High glucose (22.2 mM induced VSMC proliferation and upregulation of HMGR, FPPS, GGPPS, FNT, and GGT-1 but did not change the expressions of SQS and P-HMGR. In conclusion, altered expression of several key enzymes in the mevalonate pathway may play a potential pathophysiological role in atherogenic process of diabetes macrovascular complication.

  3. Cellular alterations in Mytilus galloprovincialis (LMK) and Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve, 1850) as biomarkers of environmental stress: field studies in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ros, L; Nesto, N

    2005-09-01

    A long-term biomonitoring study was carried out in the Lagoon of Venice (North-East Italy) with the aim of evaluating variations in biological responses to environmental stress in estuarine bivalves. Two different species, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the clam Tapes philippinarum, both widespread in the Lagoon, were studied in several sites. Two cellular biomarkers: lysosomal membrane stability in digestive cells and thickness of digestive epithelia, were evaluated in native organisms (on a seasonal basis), and in organisms which have been transferred from a reference site to several differently influenced ones. Results indicate that, to some extent, both test and organisms were able to highlight site-specific differences, but the effects of pollution were generally more easily detected by reduction in lysosomal stability than by reduction in digestive tubule epithelium. Further findings show that the inherent variability of a number of natural parameters, particularly in the reference sites, produced less effective results when biological responses in the reference organisms were compared with the polluted ones. The assessment of the two conditions was most valuable when they referred to the 25-75% range of values comprised within the seasonal medians, recorded respectively in control and polluted sites. Impaired from steady states were most effectively distinguished when the control values were medians from two reference locations. Lately, the overall results indicate that both biomarkers are more suitably deployed through the translocation approach, revealing it to be more sensitive than traditional biomonitoring, at least in the sense that it may overcome problems related to the adaptation of native organisms to sub lethal chronic pollution levels. PMID:16083961

  4. Altered poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism impairs cellular responses to genotoxic stress in a hypomorphic mutant of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genotoxic stress activates nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism leading to PAR synthesis catalyzed by DNA damage activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and rapid PAR turnover by action of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). The involvement of PARP-1 and PARP-2 in responses to DNA damage has been well studied but the involvement of nuclear PARG is less well understood. To gain insights into the function of nuclear PARG in DNA damage responses, we have quantitatively studied PAR metabolism in cells derived from a hypomorphic mutant mouse model in which exons 2 and 3 of the PARG gene have been deleted (PARG-Δ2,3 cells), resulting in a nuclear PARG containing a catalytic domain but lacking the N-terminal region (A domain) of the protein. Following DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), we found that the activity of both PARG and PARPs in intact cells is increased in PARG-Δ2,3 cells. The increased PARG activity leads to decreased PARP-1 automodification with resulting increased PARP activity. The degree of PARG activation is greater than PARP, resulting in decreased PAR accumulation. Following MNNG treatment, PARG-Δ2,3 cells show reduced formation of XRCC1 foci, delayed H2AX phosphorylation, decreased DNA break intermediates during repair, and increased cell death. Our results show that a precise coordination of PARPs and PARG activities is important for normal cellular responses to DNA damage and that this coordination is defective in the absence of the PARG A domain

  5. Depletion of cellular iron by curcumin leads to alteration in histone acetylation and degradation of Sml1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Kumar Azad

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, is known to possess diverse pharmacological properties. There is a scarcity of literature documenting the exact mechanism by which curcumin modulates its biological effects. In the present study, we have used yeast as a model organism to dissect the mechanism underlying the action of curcumin. We found that the yeast mutants of histone proteins and chromatin modifying enzymes were sensitive to curcumin and further supplementation of iron resulted in reversal of the changes induced by curcumin. Additionally, treatment of curcumin caused the iron starvation induced expression of FET3, FRE1 genes. We also demonstrated that curcumin induces degradation of Sml1p, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor involved in regulating dNTPs production. The degradation of Sml1p was mediated through proteasome and vacuole dependent protein degradation pathways. Furthermore, curcumin exerts biological effect by altering global proteome profile without affecting chromatin architecture. These findings suggest that the medicinal properties of curcumin are largely contributed by its cumulative effect of iron starvation and epigenetic modifications.

  6. Integrated cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason C.

    The generation of new three-dimensional (3D) matrices that enable integration of biomolecular components and whole cells into device architectures, without adversely altering their morphology or activity, continues to be an expanding and challenging field of research. This research is driven by the promise that encapsulated biomolecules and cells can significantly impact areas as diverse as biocatalysis, controlled delivery of therapeutics, environmental and industrial process monitoring, early warning of warfare agents, bioelectronics, photonics, smart prosthetics, advanced physiological sensors, portable medical diagnostic devices, and tissue/organ replacement. This work focuses on the development of a fundamental understanding of the biochemical and nanomaterial mechanisms that govern the cell directed assembly and integration process. It was shown that this integration process relies on the ability of cells to actively develop a pH gradient in response to evaporation induced osmotic stress, which catalyzes silica condensation within a thin 3D volume surrounding the cells, creating a functional bio/nano interface. The mechanism responsible for introducing functional foreign membrane-bound proteins via proteoliposome addition to the silica-lipid-cell matrix was also determined. Utilizing this new understanding, 3D cellular immobilization capabilities were extended using sol-gel matrices endowed with glycerol, trehalose, and media components. The effects of these additives, and the metabolic phase of encapsulated S. cerivisiase cells, on long-term viability and the rate of inducible gene expression was studied. This enabled the entrapment of cells within a novel microfluidic platform capable of simultaneous colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical detection of a single analyte, significantly improving confidence in the biosensor output. As a complementary approach, multiphoton protein lithography was utilized to engineer 3D protein matrices in which to

  7. Permission of alteration of business to process nuclear fuel substances in Tokai Works, Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Commission presented the report to the Prime Minister after the prudent investigation and deliberation about this alteration, on which the inquiry was made on October 20, 1987. As the result of examination, it was recognized that the technical capability of the applicant is adequate. As the result of examination, it was jedged that the safety after this alteration of business can be ensured. The outline of the alteration is the partial change of the processing facilities and processing method to carry out the processing of the blanket fuel for FBRs, and the partial change of the processing facilities to improve the work processes. The main matters examined were the aseismatic capability, the prevention of fires and explosions, criticality control, the evaluation of the exposure dose of general public at normal time, and the evaluation of accidents. It was confirmed that the accidents that cause excessive radiation exposure to general public never occur, and there is not change in the evaluation of a largest hypothetical accident. (Kako, I.)

  8. Permission of alteration of business to process nuclear fuel substances in Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Commission presented the report to the Prime Minister after the prudent investigation and deliberation about this alteration, on which the inquiry was made on September 30, 1987. As the result of examination, it was recognized that the technical capability of the applicant is appropriate. As the result of examination, it was judged that the safety after this alteration of business can be ensured. The outline of the alteration is the partial change of facilities in No.1 and No.2 processing buildings to make No.2 processing building into the major facility, the change of the maximum preserving capacity of radioactive solid wastes and the maximum storing capacity of nuclear fuel substances in the storage building to stop the preservation of solid wastes in No.1 store, and the partial change of the method of processing to process the blanket fuel pellets for FBRs. The main matters examined were the aseismatic capability, the prevention of fires and explosions, criticality control, the treatment of radioactive wastes, the evaluation of the exposure dose of public at normal time and the evaluation of accidents. (Kako, I.)

  9. Immunoendocrine alterations following Marine Corps Martial Arts training are associated with changes in moral cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Clopton, Aaron W; Gigliotti, Nicole; Chan, Marcia A; Benedict, Stephen H; Herda, Trent J; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P

    2016-02-01

    Combined physical and psychological stress events have been associated with exacerbated endocrine responses and increased alterations in immune cell trafficking when compared to exercise stress alone. Military training programs are rigorous in nature and often purposefully delivered in environments combining high levels of both physical and mental stress. The objective of this study was to assess physiological and cognitive changes following U.S. Marine Corps Martial Arts training. Seven active-duty, male Marines were observed during a typical Marine Corps Martial Arts training session. Immune parameters, including immunomodulatory cytokines, and hormone concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained at baseline, immediately post training (IP) and at 15min intervals post-training to 1h (R15, R30, R45, R60). Assessments of cognitive moral functioning (moral judgment and intent) were recorded at intervals during recovery. There were significant fluctuations in immunoendocrine parameters. Peak endocrine measures were observed within the IP-R15 time interval. Distributions of circulating immune cells were significantly altered with neutrophils and all lymphocyte subsets elevated at IP. IFN-γ and IL-17a exhibited small, non-significant, parallel increases over the recovery period. Moral functioning was informed by different social identities during the recovery resulting in changes in moral decision-making. These data demonstrate that the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program induces significant alterations in lymphocyte and leukocyte distributions, but does not shift the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines or induce a systemic inflammatory response. The program does, however, induce alterations in moral decision-making ability associated with the observed endocrine responses, even suggesting a potential interaction between one's social identities and endocrine responses upon moral decision-making.

  10. Immunoendocrine alterations following Marine Corps Martial Arts training are associated with changes in moral cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Clopton, Aaron W; Gigliotti, Nicole; Chan, Marcia A; Benedict, Stephen H; Herda, Trent J; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P

    2016-02-01

    Combined physical and psychological stress events have been associated with exacerbated endocrine responses and increased alterations in immune cell trafficking when compared to exercise stress alone. Military training programs are rigorous in nature and often purposefully delivered in environments combining high levels of both physical and mental stress. The objective of this study was to assess physiological and cognitive changes following U.S. Marine Corps Martial Arts training. Seven active-duty, male Marines were observed during a typical Marine Corps Martial Arts training session. Immune parameters, including immunomodulatory cytokines, and hormone concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained at baseline, immediately post training (IP) and at 15min intervals post-training to 1h (R15, R30, R45, R60). Assessments of cognitive moral functioning (moral judgment and intent) were recorded at intervals during recovery. There were significant fluctuations in immunoendocrine parameters. Peak endocrine measures were observed within the IP-R15 time interval. Distributions of circulating immune cells were significantly altered with neutrophils and all lymphocyte subsets elevated at IP. IFN-γ and IL-17a exhibited small, non-significant, parallel increases over the recovery period. Moral functioning was informed by different social identities during the recovery resulting in changes in moral decision-making. These data demonstrate that the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program induces significant alterations in lymphocyte and leukocyte distributions, but does not shift the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines or induce a systemic inflammatory response. The program does, however, induce alterations in moral decision-making ability associated with the observed endocrine responses, even suggesting a potential interaction between one's social identities and endocrine responses upon moral decision-making. PMID:26577267

  11. Afforestation alters the composition of functional genes in soil and biogeochemical processes in South American grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthrong, Sean T [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Pineiro, Gervasio [Duke University; Jackson, Robert B [Duke University

    2009-01-01

    Soil microbes are highly diverse and control most soil biogeochemical reactions. We examined how microbial functional genes and biogeochemical pools responded to the altered chemical inputs accompanying land use change. We examined paired native grasslands and adjacent Eucalyptus plantations (previously grassland) in Uruguay, a region that lacked forests before European settlement. Along with measurements of soil carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial diversity, we analyzed functional genes using the GeoChip 2.0 microarray, which simultaneously quantified several thousand genes involved in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. Plantations and grassland differed significantly in functional gene profiles, bacterial diversity, and biogeochemical pool sizes. Most grassland profiles were similar, but plantation profiles generally differed from those of grasslands due to differences in functional gene abundance across diverse taxa. Eucalypts decreased ammonification and N fixation functional genes by 11% and 7.9% (P < 0.01), which correlated with decreased microbial biomass N and more NH{sub 4}{sup +} in plantation soils. Chitinase abundance decreased 7.8% in plantations compared to levels in grassland (P = 0.017), and C polymer-degrading genes decreased by 1.5% overall (P < 0.05), which likely contributed to 54% (P < 0.05) more C in undecomposed extractable soil pools and 27% less microbial C (P < 0.01) in plantation soils. In general, afforestation altered the abundance of many microbial functional genes, corresponding with changes in soil biogeochemistry, in part through altered abundance of overall functional gene types rather than simply through changes in specific taxa. Such changes in microbial functional genes correspond with altered C and N storage and have implications for long-term productivity in these soils.

  12. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  13. Synaptic plasticity, neural circuits, and the emerging role of altered short-term information processing in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, Gregg W.; Gogos, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity alters the strength of information flow between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons and thus modifies the likelihood that action potentials in a presynaptic neuron will lead to an action potential in a postsynaptic neuron. As such, synaptic plasticity and pathological changes in synaptic plasticity impact the synaptic computation which controls the information flow through the neural microcircuits responsible for the complex information processing necessary to drive adapt...

  14. A common SNP in ER aminopeptidase 2 induces a specificity switch that leads to altered antigen processing

    OpenAIRE

    Evnouchidou, Irini; Birtley, James; Seregin, Sergey; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Giastas, Petros; Petrakis, Olivia; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Amalfitano, Andrea; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Mavridis, Irene M.; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    ER aminopeptidases 1 and 2 (ERAP1 and ERAP2) cooperate to trim antigenic peptide precursors for loading onto MHC class I molecules and help regulate the adaptive immune response. Common coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERAP1 and ERAP2 have been linked with predisposition to human diseases ranging from viral and bacterial infections to autoimmunity and cancer. It has been hypothesized that altered antigen processing by these enzymes is a causal link to disease etiology but the ...

  15. Retinal aging in the diurnal Chilean rodent (Octodon degus): histological, ultrastructural and neurochemical alterations of the vertical information processing pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina eSzabadfi; Cristina eEstrada; Emiliano eFernandez-Villalba; Ernesto eTarragon; Gyorgy eSetalo; Virginia eIzura; Dora eReglodi; Andrea eTamas; Robert eGabriel; Maria Trinidad eHerrero

    2015-01-01

    The retina is sensitive to age-dependent degeneration. To find suitable animal models to understand and map this process has particular importance. The degu (Octodon degus) is a diurnal rodent with dichromatic color vision. Its retinal structure is similar to that in humans in many respects, therefore, it is well suited to study retinal aging. Histological, cell type-specific and ultrastructural alterations were examined in 6-, 12- and 36-months old degus. The characteristic layers of the ret...

  16. PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing Selected papers from the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemenman, Ilya; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.; Jiang, Yi; Wall, Michael E.; Zilman, Anton

    2011-10-01

    Summary This special issue consists of 11 original papers that elaborate on work presented at the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing, which was held on the campus of St John's College in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, 11-14 August 2010. Now in its fourth year, the q-bio conference has changed considerably over time. It is now well established and a major event in systems biology. The 2010 conference saw attendees from all continents (except Antarctica!) sharing novel results and participating in lively discussions at both the oral and poster sessions. The conference was oversubscribed and grew to 27 contributed talks, 16 poster spotlights and 137 contributed posters. We deliberately decreased the number of invited speakers to 21 to leave more space for contributed presentations, and the attendee feedback confirmed that the choice was a success. Although the q-bio conference has grown and matured, it has remained true to the original goal of being an intimate and dynamic event that brings together modeling, theory and quantitative experimentation for the study of cell regulation and information processing. Funded in part by a grant from NIGMS and by DOE funds through the Los Alamos National Laboratory Directed Research and Development program, the conference has continued to exhibit youth and vigor by attracting (and partially supporting) over 100 undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral researchers. The associated q-bio summer school, which precedes the conference each year, further emphasizes the development of junior scientists and makes q-bio a singular event in its impact on the future of quantitative biology. In addition to an increased international presence, the conference has notably diversified its demographic representation within the USA, including increased participation from the southeastern corner of the country. One big change in the conference this year is our new publication partner, Physical Biology. Although we are very

  17. Bentonite alteration due to thermal-hydro-chemical processes during the early thermal period in a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    After closure of an underground nuclear waste repository, the decay of radionuclides will raise temperature in the repository, and the bentonite buffer will resaturate by water inflow from the surrounding host rock. The perturbations from these thermal and hydrological processes are expected to dissipate within hundreds to a few thousand years. Here, we investigate coupled thermal-hydro-chemical processes and their effects on the short-term performance of a potential nuclear waste repository located in a clay formation. Using a simplified geometric configuration and abstracted hydraulic parameters of the clayey formation, we examine geochemical processes, coupled with thermo-hydrologic phenomena, and potential changes in porosity near the waste container during the early thermal period. The developed models were used for evaluating the mineral alterations and potential changes in porosity of the buffer, which can affect the repository performance. The results indicate that mineral alteration and associated changes in porosity induced by early thermal and hydrological processes are relatively small and are expected to not significantly affect flow and transport properties. Chlorite precipitation was obtained in all simulation cases. A maximum of one percent volume fraction of chlorite could be formed, whose process may reduce swelling and sorption capacity of bentonite clay, affecting the performance of the repository. llitisation process was not obtained from the present simulations.

  18. Carbon nanotubes affect the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to denitrification in marine sediments by altering cellular internalization of nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Huang, Haining; Li, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Denitrification is an important pathway for nitrate transformation in marine sediments, and this process has been observed to be negatively affected by engineered nanomaterials. However, previous studies only focused on the potential effect of a certain type of nanomaterial on microbial denitrification. Here we show that the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) to denitrification in marine sediments is highly affected by the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It was found that the removal efficiency of total NOX--N (NO3--N and NO2--N) in the presence of CuO NPs was only 62.3%, but it increased to 81.1% when CNTs appeared in this circumstance. Our data revealed that CuO NPs were more easily attached to CNTs rather than cell surface because of the lower energy barrier (3.5 versus 36.2 kT). Further studies confirmed that the presence of CNTs caused the formation of large, incompact, non-uniform dispersed, and more negatively charged CuO-CNTs heteroaggregates, and thus reduced the nanoparticle internalization by cells, leading to less toxicity to metabolism of carbon source, generation of reduction equivalent, and activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results indicate that assessing nanomaterial-induced risks in real circumstances needs to consider the “mixed” effects of nanomaterials.

  19. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jong-Hee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap, effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase, synapse remodeling (Complement 1q, and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of

  20. Early stages of sensory processing but not semantic integration is altered in dyslexic adults

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Botelho Da Silva; Karen eUeki; Darlene Godoy Oliveira; Paulo Sérgio Boggio; Elizeu Coutinho de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairm...

  1. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Patrícia B.; Ueki, Karen; de Oliveira, Darlene G.; Boggio, Paulo S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairm...

  2. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  3. Disruption of Broca's Area Alters Higher-order Chunking Processing during Perceptual Sequence Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamia, Andrea; Solopchuk, Oleg; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Van Bever, Violette; Fadiga, Luciano; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Because Broca's area is known to be involved in many cognitive functions, including language, music, and action processing, several attempts have been made to propose a unifying theory of its role that emphasizes a possible contribution to syntactic processing. Recently, we have postulated that Broca's area might be involved in higher-order chunk processing during implicit learning of a motor sequence. Chunking is an information-processing mechanism that consists of grouping consecutive items in a sequence and is likely to be involved in all of the aforementioned cognitive processes. Demonstrating a contribution of Broca's area to chunking during the learning of a nonmotor sequence that does not involve language could shed new light on its function. To address this issue, we used offline MRI-guided TMS in healthy volunteers to disrupt the activity of either the posterior part of Broca's area (left Brodmann's area [BA] 44) or a control site just before participants learned a perceptual sequence structured in distinct hierarchical levels. We found that disruption of the left BA 44 increased the processing time of stimuli representing the boundaries of higher-order chunks and modified the chunking strategy. The current results highlight the possible role of the left BA 44 in building up effector-independent representations of higher-order events in structured sequences. This might clarify the contribution of Broca's area in processing hierarchical structures, a key mechanism in many cognitive functions, such as language and composite actions. PMID:26765778

  4. Intracellular insulin processing is altered in monocytes from patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trischitta, V.; Benzi, L.; Brunetti, A.; Cecchetti, P.; Marchetti, P.; Vigneri, R.; Navalesi, R.

    1987-05-01

    We studied total cell-associated A14-(/sup 125/I)insulin radioactivity (including surface-bound and internalized radioactivity), insulin internalization, and its intracellular degradation at 37 C in monocytes from nonobese type II untreated diabetic patients (n = 9) and normal subjects (n = 7). Total cell-associated radioactivity was decreased in diabetic patients (2.65 +/- 1.21% (+/- SD) vs. 4.47 +/- 1.04% of total radioactivity. Insulin internalization was also reduced in diabetic patients (34.0 +/- 6.8% vs. 59.0 +/- 11.3% of cell-associated radioactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography six intracellular forms of radioactivity derived from A14-(/sup 125/I) insulin were identified; 10-20% of intracellular radioactivity had approximately 300,000 mol wt and was identified as radioactivity bound to the insulin receptor, and the remaining intracellular radioactivity included intact A14-(/sup 125/I)insulin, (/sup 125/I)iodide, or (/sup 125/I)tyrosine, and three intermediate compounds. A progressive reduction of intact insulin and a corresponding increase in iodine were found when the incubation time was prolonged. Intracellular insulin degradation was reduced in monocytes from diabetic patients; intracellular intact insulin was 65.6 +/- 18.1% vs. 37.4 +/- 18.0% of intracellular radioactivity after 2 min and 23.6 +/- 22.3% vs. 3.9 +/- 2.3% after 60 min in diabetic patients vs. normal subjects, respectively. In conclusion, 1) human monocytes internalize and degrade insulin in the intracellular compartment in a stepwise time-dependent manner; and 2) in monocytes from type II diabetic patients total cell-associated radioactivity, insulin internalization, and insulin degradation are significantly reduced. These defects may be related to the cellular insulin resistance present in these patients.

  5. Inhibition of the fracture healing process in smokers: deregulation of cellular and molecular milieu in tibial fracture micro-environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco smoking has been shown to have a detrimental impact on fracture healing and is often implicated in the non- and delayed-union of bone. Whilst numerous studies have concentrated on the demographic and clinical manifestations of fracture healing and smoking, very little analyses have been undertaken at the biochemical level. Aims: This research project will assess the impact of smoking on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone healing by analysing human tibial fract...

  6. Alteration of the interconversion of pyruvate and malate in the plastid or cytosol of ripening tomato fruit invokes diverse consequences on sugar but similar effects on cellular organic acid, metabolism, and transitory starch accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Sonia; Vallarino, José G; Szecowka, Marek; Ufaz, Shai; Tzin, Vered; Angelovici, Ruthie; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of decreased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and plastidic NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening. Transgenic tomato plants with strongly reduced levels of PEPCK and plastidic NADP-ME were generated by RNA interference gene silencing under the control of a ripening-specific E8 promoter. While these genetic modifications had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield and size, they had strong effects on fruit metabolism. Both transformants were characterized by lower levels of starch at breaker stage. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase correlated with the decrease of starch in both transformants, which suggests that it is due to an altered cellular redox status. Moreover, metabolic profiling and feeding experiments involving positionally labeled glucoses of fruits lacking in plastidic NADP-ME and cytosolic PEPCK activities revealed differential changes in overall respiration rates and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. Inactivation of cytosolic PEPCK affected the respiration rate, which suggests that an excess of oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate and reintroduced in the TCA cycle via 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate. On the other hand, the plastidic NADP-ME antisense lines were characterized by no changes in respiration rates and TCA cycle flux, which together with increases of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities indicate that pyruvate is supplied through these enzymes to the TCA cycle. These results are discussed in the context of current models of the importance of malate during tomato fruit ripening.

  7. Cellular and molecular alterations in 5-HTT knockout mice%5-羟色胺转运体敲除小鼠的分子和细胞改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雪

    2011-01-01

    5-羟色胺转运体(5-HTT)在神经精神心理正常功能的维持及疾病的发生和发展中起重要作用.5-HTT的表达能力减低或消失的小鼠(称为:5-HTT敲除小鼠)表现出许多行为的改变,例如:焦虑类似行为增多、对应激更加敏感和攻击性行为减少.这些行为的改变有的与携带5-HTTLPR短等位基因的人很相似.因此5-HTT敲除小鼠被作为研究5-HTTLPR多态性导致情感性精神障碍发病机制的动物模型.本文主要就5-HTT敲除小鼠的5-HT浓度和代谢、下丘脑-垂体-肾卜腺皮质轴以及对其他神经递质转运体影响的分子和细胞改变进行综述.%The function of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) is related to the mood regulation.Mice with deficit or reduced 5-HTT function (5-HTT knockout mice) showed several behavioral changes, including increased anxiety-like behavior, more sensitive to stress and reduced aggressive behavior.Some of these behavioral alterations are similar to phenotypes found in human who have short alleles of polymorphism in 5-HT transporter linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR).Therefore, 5-HTT knockout mice can be used as a tool to study 5-HTTLPR-related variations in personality and may be the etiology of affective disorders.The present review focuses on the cellular and molecular alterations in 5-HTT knockout mice, including changes in 5-HT concentrations and its metabolism, impaired HPA axis, developmental changes in the neurons and brain and the influence on other neurotransmitter transporters.The possible relationships between these alterations and the behavioral changes in these mice are also discussed.

  8. Changes of anabolic processes at the cellular and molecular level in chronic wounds under topical negative pressure can be revealed by transcriptome analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leffler, Mareike; Derrick, Kathleen L.; McNulty, Amy; Malsiner, Caye; Dragu, Adrian; Horch, Raymund E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Chronic wounds – as defined by the World Union of Wound Healing Societies (WUWHS) – are a considerable worldwide health care expense and impair quality of life. In order for chronic wounds to heal, these wounds must be transformed to a more acute state to begin the healing process. Topical negative pressure (TNP) with reticulated open cell foam (ROCF) is known to promote healing in certain types of chronic wounds. However, little is known about changes at the cellular or molecular le...

  9. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia B.; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G.; Boggio, Paulo S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  10. Early stages of sensory processing but not semantic integration is altered in dyslexic adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Botelho Da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia, in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures. From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean

  11. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia B; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G; Boggio, Paulo S; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  12. Adolescent social rejection alters pain processing in a CB1 receptor dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peggy; Pätz, Monique; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2016-07-01

    Experiences of social rejection represent a major source of distress and in particular peer rejection during adolescence has been implicated in various psychiatric disorders. Moreover, experimentally induced acute social rejection alters pain perception in humans, implicating overlapping neurocircuits for social and physical pains. We recently demonstrated that rearing of adolescent Wistar rats with inadequate, less playful play partners (Fischer 344) persistently decreases pain sensitivity, although the detailed mechanisms mediating the aversiveness during the social encounter remained unsettled. With the present study we examined the behavioral performance during acute interaction of female adolescent Wistar rats with either age-matched same-strain partners or rats from the Fischer 344 strain. We here identify the low responsiveness upon playful attacks, which appears to be characteristic for social play in the Fischer 344 strain, as one of the main aversive components for adolescent Wistar animals during cross-strain encounters, which subsequently diminishes thermal pain reactivity. A detailed behavioral analysis further revealed increased ultrasonic vocalization at 50kHz and an increased frequency of playful attacks for adolescent Wistar animals paired with a Fischer 344 rat compared to same-strain control pairs. Finally, an acute injection of a subthreshold dose of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist SR141716 before the social encounter abolished enhanced play-soliciting behavior in Wistar/Fischer 344 pairs as well as the behavioral consequences of the rejection experience in adolescent Wistar rats, further emphasizing an important modulatory role of the endocannabinoid system in mediating the effects of social behavior and social pain. PMID:27157075

  13. Hydrothermal Alteration Zoning and Kinetic Process of Mineral-Water Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣华; 胡书敏; 苏艳丰

    2002-01-01

    This study reports the kinetic experimental results of albite in water and in KCl solution at 22 MPa in the temperature range of 25 to 400(C. Kinetic experiments have been carried out in an open flow-through reaction system (packed bed reactor). Albite dissolution is always incongruent in water at most temperatures, but becomes congruent at 300(C (close to the critical point 374(C). At temperatures from 25 to 300(C, the incongruent dissolution of albite is reflected by the fact that sodium and aluminum are easily dissolved into water; from 300 to 400(C it is reflected by silicon being more easily dissolved in water than Al and Na. Maximum albite dissolution rates in the flow hydrothermal systems have been repeatedly observed at 300(C, independent of flow rates.The kinetic experiments of albite dissolution in a KCl aqueous solution (0.1 mol KCl) indicate that the dissolution rate of albite increases with increasing temperature. Maximum silicon release rates of albite have been observed at 400(C, while maximum aluminum release rates of albite at 374(C. The reaction rates of albite also depend on the potassium concentration in the aqueous solution.These results can be used to interpret the mechanism for forming hydrothermal alteration. The kinetic experiments of mineral-aqueous solutions interactions in the hydrothermal system from 25 to 400(C and at 22 MPa indicate that the formation of the feldspar-mica-kaolinite zoning occurring in some ore deposits may depend not only on the mineral stability but also on the kinetics of feldspar hydration, which is affected by the water property variation when crossing the critical point.

  14. Altered Topology in Information Processing of a Narrated Story in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Oren, Noga; Ash, Elissa L; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Lerner, Yulia

    2016-05-01

    The ability to store, integrate, and manipulate information declines with aging. These changes occur earlier, faster, and to a greater degree as a result of neurodegeneration. One of the most common and early characteristics of cognitive decline is difficulty with comprehension of information. The neural mechanisms underlying this breakdown of information processing are poorly understood. Using functional MRI and natural stimuli (e.g., stories), we mapped the neural mechanisms by which the human brain accumulates and processes information with increasing duration and complexity in participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy older adults. To explore the mechanisms of information processing, we measured the reliability of brain responses elicited by listening to different versions of a narrated story created by segmenting the story into words, sentences, and paragraphs and then scrambling the segments. Comparing healthy older adults and participants with aMCI revealed that in both groups, all types of stimuli similarly recruited primary auditory areas. However, prominent differences between groups were found at the level of processing long and complex stimuli. In healthy older adults, parietal and frontal regions demonstrated highly synchronized responses in both the paragraph and full story conditions, as has been previously reported in young adults. Participants with aMCI, however, exhibited a robust functional shift of long time scale processing to the pre- and post-central sulci. Our results suggest that participants with aMCI experienced a functional shift of higher order auditory information processing, possibly reflecting a functional response to concurrent or impending neuronal or synaptic loss. This observation might assist in understanding mechanisms of cognitive decline in aMCI.

  15. Processing and storage of Indian cereal and cereal products alters its resistant starch content

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ruchi H.; Sheth, Mini K.

    2010-01-01

    Resistant Starch (RS) is prebiotic in nature and is defined as the sum of starch and products of starch degradation not absorbed in small intestine of healthy individuals but later are fermented by natural microflora of the colon to produce short chain fatty acids. RS acts as a nutraceutical and its consumption leads to many health benefits. The aim of the study is to analyze the RS content in raw and processed cereals and cereal products and determine various processing and storage effects o...

  16. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). C...

  17. Altered miRNA processing disrupts brown/white adipocyte determination and associates with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Marcelo A; Thomou, Thomas; Boucher, Jeremie; Lee, Kevin Y; Lallukka, Susanna; Kim, Jason K; Torriani, Martin; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Grinspoon, Steven K; Cypess, Aaron M; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-08-01

    miRNAs are important regulators of biological processes in many tissues, including the differentiation and function of brown and white adipocytes. The endoribonuclease dicer is a major component of the miRNA-processing pathway, and in adipose tissue, levels of dicer have been shown to decrease with age, increase with caloric restriction, and influence stress resistance. Here, we demonstrated that mice with a fat-specific KO of dicer develop a form of lipodystrophy that is characterized by loss of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous white fat, severe insulin resistance, and enlargement and "whitening" of interscapular brown fat. Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte-like phenotype and reduced expression of several miRNAs. Brown preadipocyte whitening was partially reversed by expression of miR-365, a miRNA known to promote brown fat differentiation; however, introduction of other miRNAs, including miR-346 and miR-362, also contributed to reversal of the loss of the dicer phenotype. Interestingly, fat samples from patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy exhibited a substantial downregulation of dicer mRNA expression. Together, these findings indicate the importance of miRNA processing in white and brown adipose tissue determination and provide a potential link between this process and HIV-related lipodystrophy.

  18. Diets of differentially processed wheat alter ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S Z; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, C Y; Liu, X M; Wan, F C

    2015-11-01

    The influences of differently processed wheat products on rumen fermentation, microbial populations, and serum biochemistry profiles in beef cattle were studied. Four ruminally cannulated Limousin × Luxi beef cattle (400 ± 10 kg) were used in the experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental diets contained (on a DM basis) 60% corn silage as a forage source and 40% concentrate with 4 differently processed wheat products (extruded, pulverized, crushed, and rolled wheat). Concentrations of ruminal NH-N and microbial protein (MCP) in cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat were greater ( cattle fed pulverized and extruded wheat. Ruminal concentrations of total VFA and acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased ( cattle fed extruded wheat had the lowest concentrations of total VFA and acetate among all treatments. The relative abundance of , , ciliated protozoa, and was lower in cattle fed the pulverized wheat diet than in the other 3 diets ( cattle fed extruded wheat compared with cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat ( 0.05). Our findings suggest that the method of wheat processing could have a significant effect on ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle and that crushed and rolled processing is better in terms of ruminal NH-N and MCP content, acetate-to-propionate ratio, and relative abundance of rumen microorganisms.

  19. Impact of pnpR, a LysR-type regulator-encoding gene, on the cellular processes of Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Huang, Fei; Wang, Yicheng; Dong, Weiliang; Wang, Wenhui; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Fei; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-06-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) regulate various cellular processes in bacteria. pnpR is an LTTR-encoding gene involved in the regulation of hydroquinone (HQ) degradation, and its effects on the cellular processes of Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 were investigated at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that pnpR positively regulated its own expression and that of the pnpC1C2DECX1X2 operon; additionally, pnpR partially regulated the expression of pnpA when P. putida was grown on para-nitrophenol (PNP) or HQ. Strains DLL-E4 and DLL-ΔpnpR exhibited similar cellular morphologies and growth rates. Transcriptome analysis revealed that pnpR regulated the expression of genes in addition to those involved in PNP degradation. A total of 20 genes were upregulated and 19 genes were downregulated by at least 2-fold in strain DLL-ΔpnpR relative to strain DLL-E4. Bioinformatic analysis revealed putative PnpR-binding sites located in the upstream regions of genes involved in PNP degradation, carbon catabolite repression and other cellular processes. The utilization of L-aspartic acid, L-histidine, L-pyroglutamic acid, L-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid, D,L-lactic acid, D-saccharic acid, succinic acid and L-alaninamide was increased at least 1.3-fold in strain DLL-ΔpnpR as shown by BIOLOG assays, indicating that pnpR plays a potential negative regulation role in the utilization of carbon sources. PMID:27190157

  20. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  1. Inhibitors of glycoprotein processing alter T-cell proliferative responses to antigen and to interleukin 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, K A; Pierce, J D; Elbein, A D

    1988-01-01

    Most of the cell-surface molecules involved in T-cell immune responses are N-linked glycoproteins. We have investigated the effects of inhibitors of glycoprotein processing on specific T-cell functions, with the dual aims of examining the functional role of carbohydrate and of testing the usefulness of such compounds as immunomodulators. Treatment of a cloned murine helper T-cell line with these inhibitors differentially affects the proliferative response of the cell, depending upon the natur...

  2. Thermal Nociceptive Threshold Testing Detects Altered Sensory Processing in Broiler Chickens with Spontaneous Lameness

    OpenAIRE

    Becky Hothersall; Gina Caplen; Parker, Richard M. A.; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Claire A Weeks; Joanna C Murrell

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT...

  3. Amphetamine sensitization alters reward processing in the human striatum and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen G O'Daly

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission is implicated in a number of psychiatric illnesses characterised by disruption of reward processing and goal-directed behaviour, including schizophrenia, drug addiction and impulse control disorders associated with chronic use of dopamine agonists. Amphetamine sensitization (AS has been proposed to model the development of this aberrant dopamine signalling and the subsequent dysregulation of incentive motivational processes. However, in humans the effects of AS on the dopamine-sensitive neural circuitry associated with reward processing remains unclear. Here we describe the effects of acute amphetamine administration, following a sensitising dosage regime, on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in dopaminoceptive brain regions during a rewarded gambling task performed by healthy volunteers. Using a randomised, double-blind, parallel-groups design, we found clear evidence for sensitization to the subjective effects of the drug, while rewarded reaction times were unchanged. Repeated amphetamine exposure was associated with reduced dorsal striatal BOLD signal during decision making, but enhanced ventromedial caudate activity during reward anticipation. The amygdala BOLD response to reward outcomes was blunted following repeated amphetamine exposure. Positive correlations between subjective sensitization and changes in anticipation- and outcome-related BOLD signal were seen for the caudate nucleus and amygdala, respectively. These data show for the first time in humans that AS changes the functional impact of acute stimulant exposure on the processing of reward-related information within dopaminoceptive regions. Our findings accord with pathophysiological models which implicate aberrant dopaminergic modulation of striatal and amygdala activity in psychosis and drug-related compulsive disorders.

  4. Altered joint tribology in osteoarthritis: Reduced lubricin synthesis due to the inflammatory process. New horizons for therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychlinska, M A; Leonardi, R; Al-Qahtani, M; Mobasheri, A; Musumeci, G

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. This review aimed to consolidate the current evidence that implicates the inflammatory process in the attenuation of synovial lubrication and joint tissue homeostasis in OA. Moreover, with these findings, we propose some evidence for novel therapeutic strategies for preventing and/or treating this complex disorder. The studies reviewed support that inflammatory mediators participate in the onset and progression of OA after joint injury. The flow of pro-inflammatory cytokines following an acute injury seems to be directly associated with altered lubricating ability in the joint tissue. The latter is associated with reduced level of lubricin, one of the major joint lubricants. Future research should focus on the development of new therapies that attenuate the inflammatory process and restore lubricin synthesis and function. This approach could support joint tribology and synovial lubrication leading to improved joint function and pain relief.

  5. Altered processing of self-related emotional stimuli in mindfulness meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J; Brühl, A B; Doerig, N; Scheerer, H; Achermann, R; Weibel, A; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U

    2016-01-01

    Mental health benefits of mindfulness techniques are thought to involve changes in self-processing, such as decreased attachment to the self, higher self-compassion and lower emotional reactivity to inner experience. However, self-related emotion processing in regular mindfulness practitioners is not extensively studied. In the current work we investigate differential neural and behavioral correlates of self-criticism and self-praise in 22 mid-to-long-term mindfulness meditators (LTM) compared to 22 matched meditation-naïve participants (MNP). In an fMRI experiment, participants were presented with blocks of individually selected positive (self-praise, SP), negative (self-critical, SC), negative but not-self-critical (NNSC), and general, neutral (NT) adjectives, and reported their affective state after the blocks. On the neural level, both SP and SC yielded more activation in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in LTM compared to MNP. Activation in this region correlated positively with non-react scores of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and showed decreased functional connectivity to posterior midline and parietal regions in LTM compared to MNP during both self-related appraisals. Further, we found evidence for emotional reactivity in LTM on the neural level, particularly during SP. On the behavioral level, a mixed effects analysis revealed significantly higher differences in affective ratings after blocks of SC compared to SP in MNP compared to LTM. Differences in DMPFC activation and affective ratings point towards increased awareness, potentially mindful regulation of SC and SP in LTM, while decreased connectivity to other regions of the default mode network could reflect a decreased self-focus in this group. As such, our results illustrate differences in self-related emotional processes in meditators and offer clinically relevant insights into mechanisms of mindful emotion regulation when facing self-criticism and self-praise. PMID

  6. Altered Food-Cue Processing in Chronically Ill and Recovered Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole eSanders; Smeets, Paul A. M.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Danner, Unna N; Floor evan Meer; Hoek, Hans W.; Roger A Adan

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Thr...

  7. Cellular photobiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Quatresooz, Pascale; Pierard, Claudine; Pierard, Gérald

    2005-01-01

    The various cell lines of the epidermis and dermis can be activated or conversely altered by actinic irradiations. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and connective tissue cells are the main targets. Peer reviewed

  8. Regulation of autophagy in oxygen-dependent cellular stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by supraphysiological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), can cause cellular injury associated with protein and lipid oxidation, DNA damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The cellular responses triggered by oxidative stress include the altered regulation of signaling pathways that culminate in the regulation of cell survival or cell death pathways. Recent studies suggest that autophagy, a cellular homeostatic process that governs the turnover of damaged organelles and proteins, may represent a general cellular and tissue response to oxidative stress. The autophagic pathway involves the encapsulation of substrates in double-membraned vesicles, which are subsequently delivered to the lysosome for enzymatic degradation and recycling of metabolic precursors. Autophagy may play multifunctional roles in cellular adaptation to stress, by maintaining mitochondrial integrity, and removing damaged proteins. Additionally, autophagy may play important roles in the regulation of inflammation and immune function. Modulation of the autophagic pathway has been reported in cell culture models of oxidative stress, including altered states of oxygen tension (i.e., hypoxia, hyperoxia), and exposure to oxidants. Furthermore, proteins that regulate autophagy may be subject to redox regulation. The heme oxygenase- 1 (HO)-1 enzyme system may have a role in the regulation of autophagy. Recent studies suggest that carbon monoxide (CO), a reaction product of HO activity which can alter mitochondrial function, may induce autophagy in cultured epithelial cells. In conclusion, current research suggests a central role for autophagy as a mammalian oxidative stress response and its interrelationship to other stress defense systems. PMID:23092322

  9. Cesium Toxicity Alters MicroRNA Processing and AGO1 Expressions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Lae Jung

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short RNA fragments that play important roles in controlled gene silencing, thus regulating many biological processes in plants. Recent studies have indicated that plants modulate miRNAs to sustain their survival in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, such as biotic stresses, cold, drought, nutritional starvation, and toxic heavy metals. Cesium and radio-cesium contaminations have arisen as serious problems that both impede plant growth and enter the food chain through contaminated plants. Many studies have been performed to define plant responses against cesium intoxication. However, the complete profile of miRNAs in plants during cesium intoxication has not been established. Here we show the differential expression of the miRNAs that are mostly down-regulated during cesium intoxication. Furthermore, we found that cesium toxicity disrupts both the processing of pri-miRNAs and AGONOUTE 1 (AGO1-mediated gene silencing. AGO 1 seems to be especially destabilized by cesium toxicity, possibly through a proteolytic regulatory pathway. Our study presents a comprehensive profile of cesium-responsive miRNAs, which is distinct from that of potassium, and suggests two possible mechanisms underlying the cesium toxicity on miRNA metabolism.

  10. Reduced risk avoidance and altered neural correlates of feedback processing in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Tanja; Schuermann, Beate; Roepke, Stefan; Kessler-Scheil, Sonia; Kathmann, Norbert

    2016-09-30

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show deficits in reward-guided decision making and learning. The present study examined risk-taking behavior in combination with feedback processing. Eighteen BPD patients and 18 healthy controls performed a probabilistic two-choice gambling task, while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Options differed in risk, but were identical in expected value and outcome probability. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the feedback-related P300 were analyzed. Healthy controls preferred low-risk over high-risk options, whereas BPD patients chose both option with equal probability. FRN amplitudes were reduced in BPD, but effects of feedback valence and risk did not differ between groups. This suggests attenuated outcome processing in the anterior cingulate cortex, but intact reward prediction error signaling. Furthermore, the modulation of the feedback-related P300 with feedback valence and risk was smaller in BPD patients, and decreased P300 amplitudes were associated with increased behavioral risk-taking behavior. These findings could relate to the reduced ability of BPD patients to learn and adequately adjust their behavior based on feedback information, possibly due to reduced significance of negative feedback. PMID:27344588

  11. Comparative characterization of the deamidation of carboxylic acid deamidated wheat gluten by altering the processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lan; Han, Xueyue; Chen, Lin-Ping; Ni, Li; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Qing

    2016-11-01

    The physicochemical, structural and functional properties of citric-acid-deamidated wheat gluten at controlled degrees of deamidation (25%, 40% and 55%), which were obtained by using different acid concentrations (3.93×10(-5), 3.14×10(-3) and 2.36×10(-2)mol/L) and temperatures (70°C 2h, 90°C 1h and 110°C 40min), were compared. Various deamidation processing conditions leading to the same degree of deamidation resulted in proteins with different physicochemical and structural characteristics, as indicted by the degree of hydrolysis, Z-potential, surface hydrophobicity, particle size, SDS-PAGE results, SEC-HPLC results, intrinsic fluorescence and FTIR spectra. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis qualitatively indicated a significant effect of pH on protein deamidation. Three samples at 40% deamidation, which were produced by a moderate acid concentration, showed the best emulsifying and foaming properties. Processes conducted at greater than 90°C causing protein aggregation and at a high acid concentration rupturing peptide bonds, impaired protein quality. These findings demonstrated that a limited amount of H(+) could function well in the catalysis of the deamidation of amide groups without an excess of H(+), which hydrolyses peptide bonds in a stronger hydrothermal treatment. PMID:27211678

  12. Altered emotional information processing in borderline personality disorder: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Meuleman, Linda; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2010-03-30

    Emotional dysregulation is one of the key symptoms of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study it is hypothesized that borderline patients display a cortical hyper-responsivity to emotional stimuli compared with a healthy control group. Further, we aimed to examine whether BPD patients were able to suppress stimuli with negative emotional valence as well as healthy control participants could. This is the first study addressing the electrophysiological processing of emotional stimuli in BPD. The electrophysiological response to emotional information was studied among 30 BPD patients and compared with the response in 30 normal controls using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were shown pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System with neutral, positive, and negative valence. After performing an attentional task, the participants were asked to perform a reappraisal task. The assignment was to consciously suppress emotions that might occur after viewing pictures with an unpleasant content. Borderline patients displayed larger late positive potentials (LPP) to pictures with an unpleasant valence as compared with the control group, indicating an enhanced elaborative processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, they did not differ on the reappraisal task. Borderline patients show an enhanced emotional cortical reactivity to unpleasant stimuli as compared with a control group. This suggests an emotional dysfunctioning in BPD patients. This feature might be an important focus in the treatment of BPD. PMID:20153144

  13. Point process time-frequency analysis of respiratory sinus arrhythmia under altered respiration dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodituwakku, Sandun; Lazar, Sara W; Indic, Premananda; Brown, Emery N; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is largely mediated by the autonomic nervous system through its modulating influence on the heartbeat. We propose an algorithm for quantifying instantaneous RSA as applied to heart beat interval and respiratory recordings under dynamic respiration conditions. The blood volume pressure derived heart beat series (pulse intervals, PI) are modeled as an inverse gaussian point process, with the instantaneous mean PI modeled as a bivariate regression incorporating both past PI and respiration values observed at the beats. A point process maximum likelihood algorithm is used to estimate the model parameters, and instantaneous RSA is estimated by a frequency domain transfer function approach. The model is statistically validated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) goodness-of-fit analysis, as well as independence tests. The algorithm is applied to subjects engaged in meditative practice, with distinctive dynamics in the respiration patterns elicited as a result. Experimental results confirm the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory interactions elicited during meditation, otherwise not evidenced in control resting states.

  14. EXTERIOR PRESSURE OF THE GASEOUS MEDIUM AS AN ADDITIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR FOR OPTIMIZING THE VAPORIZATION PROCESS IN THE PRODUCTION OF CELLULAR SILICATE CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rezanov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The quality of silicate porous concrete is largely determined by vapor-ization processes at the stage of the formation of the macrostructure of the obtained material. In the production of cellular concrete with the use of injection molding, the existing manufacturing technologies do not enable the expeditious handling of the vaporization process. This is why there is a growing need to develop additional efficient methods of handling the vaporization process thus improving cellular silicate concrete.Results. Based on modelling and detailed examination of the balance of pressure affecting devel-oping gas pores, mechanisms and factors governing a defect-free structure are found. An additional governing factor, which is a pressure of the external gaseous medium, was discovered. The approaches to handling the vaporization process have been developed and a plant fitted with a system of automatic control of vaporization process by conscious operative pressuring effect from the external gaseous phase on a poring mixture has been designed.Conclusions. Theoretical validation along with the results of the experimental study help to arrive at the conclusion about the efficiency of the suggested system in controlling vaporization that could provide a good addition to the traditional injection molding and make it more susceptible against varying characteristics of raw materials.

  15. Postnatal manganese exposure alters dopamine transporter function in adult rats: Potential impact on nonassociative and associative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S A; Reichel, C M; Farley, C M; Flesher, M M; Der-Ghazarian, T; Cortez, A M; Wacan, J J; Martinez, C E; Varela, F A; Butt, A E; Crawford, C A

    2008-06-23

    In the present study, we examined whether exposing rats to a high-dose regimen of manganese chloride (Mn) during the postnatal period would depress presynaptic dopamine functioning and alter nonassociative and associative behaviors. To this end, rats were given oral supplements of Mn (750 microg/day) on postnatal days (PD) 1-21. On PD 90, dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity and [3H]dopamine uptake were assayed in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, while in vivo microdialysis was used to measure dopamine efflux in the same brain regions. The effects of postnatal Mn exposure on nigrostriatal functioning were evaluated by assessing rotorod performance and amphetamine-induced stereotypy in adulthood. In terms of associative processes, both cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and sucrose-reinforced operant responding were examined. Results showed that postnatal Mn exposure caused persistent declines in DAT protein expression and [3H]dopamine uptake in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, as well as long-term reductions in striatal dopamine efflux. Rotorod performance did not differ according to exposure condition, however Mn-exposed rats did exhibit substantially more amphetamine-induced stereotypy than vehicle controls. Mn exposure did not alter performance on any aspect of the CPP task (preference, extinction, or reinstatement testing), nor did Mn affect progressive ratio responding (a measure of motivation). Interestingly, acquisition of a fixed ratio task was impaired in Mn-exposed rats, suggesting a deficit in procedural learning. In sum, these results indicate that postnatal Mn exposure causes persistent declines in various indices of presynaptic dopaminergic functioning. Mn-induced alterations in striatal functioning may have long-term impact on associative and nonassociative behavior. PMID:18485605

  16. Sex Hormones Affect Aging Process by Influencing Lipid Profiles,Cellular Immunological Function and Lipid Peroxides and Oxidation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴赛珠; 谭家余; 周忠江; 周可祥; 容志毅

    2003-01-01

    .136、0.532、0.379、0.394、0.234 (P<0.001); HDL - C、HDL - C/TC、HDL - C/LDL - C、CD3 + 、CD4 +/CD8 + 、SOD showed a negatively correlation with E2/T respectively, γequaled - 0.563、 - 0.332、 - 0.654、 -0.1530、-0.4140、-0.236(P<0.001). In women,the serum concentrations of FSH、 LH increased significantly after menopause; PRL increased little with aging; compared with young group, E2 and P in postmenopausal groups reduced obviously, E2/P revealed significant reduce with aging. T enhanced significantly after menopause, but nor did FT. E2, P and the ratio of E2/P were negatively correlated with age respectively by bivariate correlation analysis, and a positive relation between T and age. After 70 years old, the level of TC increased obviously, and so did that of TG after menopause; HDL decreased with aging, but LDL increased after 70, with the result that the ratios of HDL - C/TC and HDL- C/LDL- C all reduced with aging; apoA1 decreased gently after 70, but apoB increased significantly after menopause; correspondingly, the ratio of apoA1/apoB declined obviously. The concentration of GLU increased with aging. CD3 + and CD4 + didn't change until 60, but reduced after 60. Compared with the young groups, CD8 + remained unchanged, CD4 +/CD8 + reduced greatly with aging, CD4 + and CD8 + presented a negatively correlation with age respectively. The value of MDA in serum of women increased notably after 70 years old, but SOD activity already decreased significantly from 60. By partial correlation analysis (controlling BMI, FSH, LH and PRL),HDL- C、 CD4 +、 CD4 +/CD8 + showed a certain correlation with E2/P respectively; γ were 0.245、 0.157、0.154 (P<O.05); TG、 LDL、 apoB、 apoA1/ apoB、SOD presented a negatively correlation with E2/P respectively, γ were 0.452、 0.236、 0.321、 0.135、0.156、0.154、 0.426 (P<0.05). Conclusions The Disequilibrium of SH had correlations with lipid profile, cellular immunological function and lipid

  17. Cellular Telephone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨周

    1996-01-01

    Cellular phones, used in automobiles, airliners, and passenger trains, are basically low-power radiotelephones. Calls go through radio transmitters that are located within small geographical units called cells. Because each cell’s signals are too weak to interfere with those of other cells operating on the same fre-

  18. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Youn Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh pressure (UHP treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS. Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples.

  19. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee Youn; Singh, Digar; Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB) using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples. PMID:27338333

  20. Altered Onset Response Dynamics in Somatosensory Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sheraz; Hashmi, Javeria A; Mamashli, Fahimeh; Bharadwaj, Hari M; Ganesan, Santosh; Michmizos, Konstantinos P; Kitzbichler, Manfred G; Zetino, Manuel; Garel, Keri-Lee A; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kenet, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical connectivity and evoked responses have been extensively documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, specific signatures of these cortical abnormalities remain elusive, with data pointing toward abnormal patterns of both increased and reduced response amplitudes and functional connectivity. We have previously proposed, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, that apparent inconsistencies in prior studies could be reconciled if functional connectivity in ASD was reduced in the feedback (top-down) direction, but increased in the feedforward (bottom-up) direction. Here, we continue this line of investigation by assessing abnormalities restricted to the onset, feedforward inputs driven, component of the response to vibrotactile stimuli in somatosensory cortex in ASD. Using a novel method that measures the spatio-temporal divergence of cortical activation, we found that relative to typically developing participants, the ASD group was characterized by an increase in the initial onset component of the cortical response, and a faster spread of local activity. Given the early time window, the results could be interpreted as increased thalamocortical feedforward connectivity in ASD, and offer a plausible mechanism for the previously observed increased response variability in ASD, as well as for the commonly observed behaviorally measured tactile processing abnormalities associated with the disorder.

  1. Suppression of savanna ants alters invertebrate composition and influences key ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, C L; Eggleton, P; Davies, A B; Evans, T A; Holdsworth, S

    2016-06-01

    In almost every ecosystem, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are the dominant terrestrial invertebrate group. Their functional value was highlighted by Wilson (1987) who famously declared that invertebrates are the "little things that run the world." However, while it is generally accepted that ants fulfil important functions, few studies have tested these assumptions and demonstrated what happens in their absence. We report on a novel large-scale field experiment in undisturbed savanna habitat where we examined how ants influence the abundance of other invertebrate taxa in the system, and affect the key processes of decomposition and herbivory. Our experiment demonstrated that ants suppressed the abundance and activity of beetles, millipedes, and termites, and also influenced decomposition rates and levels of herbivory. Our study is the first to show that top-down control of termites by ants can have important ecosystem consequences. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects ant communities have on other aspects of the ecosystem (e.g., soils, nutrient cycling, the microbial community) and how their relative importance for ecosystem function varies among ecosystem types (e.g., savanna vs. forest). PMID:27459790

  2. Towards the kinetics of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration of modern Arctica islandica shell material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Laura A.; Griesshaber, Erika; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang W.

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at paleo-environment reconstructions. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium as they form local chemical environments for physiologic processes such as biological mineralization of their hard tissues. This disequilibrium is not sustained after death and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration with the surrounding environment: diagenesis. To understand transformation during diagenesis we performed laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments on Arctica islandica shells at four different temperatures between 100 °C and 175 °C treated in simulated meteoric and burial waters, respectively. We investigated, relative to unaltered shells, the kinetics of Arctica islandica bioaragonite to calcite transition as well as microstructural- and nanostructural characteristics of the altered shells with X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, high-resolution SEM and EBSD. At hydrothermal treatment at 100 °C bioaragonite - although metastable at 1 bar - does not transform to calcite, even in meteoric fluids and over a time period of 28 days. We noted a drastic recrystallization from the initial fine-grained fractal microstructure and pronounced axial texture to a new and still fine-grained microstructure with an almost randomized orientation distribution. At 175 °C the transformation to coarse-grained calcite is complete after 8 days. Calcite formation starts after a passive incubation period of 4 days; after 6 days the aragonite is almost completely transformed. In solutions simulating meteoric water the grain size of the newly formed calcite reaches 100-150 μm, while in burial fluids the calcite reaches sizes in the 1mm range during 28 days of alteration. Phase transformation proceeds where the hydrothermal fluid is in contact with the aragonite: at shell surfaces, around pores and in growth lines. Our observations lead us to the

  3. Alteration processes of medieval stained glass windows. Study and protection treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Navarro, J. María

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The anxiety caused by the fast growing decay of historical stained glass windows as a consequence of increasing environmental pollution, encouraged institutions of several countries to sponsor a series of scientific works aimed both to slow down this fast forwarding deterioration and to develop repair and preservation methods. After an initial review of the chemical composition of the stained glass windows and of the differences depending on historical epochs and origins, a discussion about chemical attack mechanisms, degradation processes and formation of superficial crusts opens up. Finally, the methodology used in their cleaning and restoration is briefly exposed and some criteria on the still polemic quest.

    La inquietud creada por la creciente alteración que, como consecuencia del aumento de la contaminación atmosférica, están sufriendo las vidrieras históricas, ha movido a las instituciones de varios países a patrocinar la realización de una serie de trabajos científicos dirigidos, por una parte, a detener el avance de este deterioro y, por otra, a desarrollar métodos para su restauración y conservación. Tras una revisión inicial sobre la composición química de las vidrieras y sus diferencias según las distintas épocas y lugares de procedencia, se discuten los mecanismos de ataque químico, los procesos de degradación y la formación de costras superficiales. Finalmente se expone brevemente la metodología seguida para su limpieza y restauración y se comentan algunos de los criterios sobre la todavía polémica cuestión de los tratamientos de protección.

  4. Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Neubauer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced roughly 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent

  5. Sleep, Plasticity and the Pathophysiology of Neurodevelopmental Disorders: The Potential Roles of Protein Synthesis and Other Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Picchioni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is important for neural plasticity, and plasticity underlies sleep-dependent memory consolidation. It is widely appreciated that protein synthesis plays an essential role in neural plasticity. Studies of sleep-dependent memory and sleep-dependent plasticity have begun to examine alterations in these functions in populations with neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such an approach acknowledges that disordered sleep may have functional consequences during wakefulness. Although neurodevelopmental disorders are not considered to be sleep disorders per se, recent data has revealed that sleep abnormalities are among the most prevalent and common symptoms and may contribute to the progression of these disorders. The main goal of this review is to highlight the role of disordered sleep in the pathology of neurodevelopmental disorders and to examine some potential mechanisms by which sleep-dependent plasticity may be altered. We will also briefly attempt to extend the same logic to the other end of the developmental spectrum and describe a potential role of disordered sleep in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. We conclude by discussing ongoing studies that might provide a more integrative approach to the study of sleep, plasticity, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  6. Effect of alteration processes on the distribution of radionuclides in uraniferous sedimentary rocks and their environmental impact, southwestern Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of natural radionuclides in various types of sedimentary rocks in Um Bogma Formation and base of El Hashash Formation were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Three types of lower Carboniferous sedimentary rocks were investigated; sandstone (El Hashash Formation), dolostone and argillaceous sediments (Um Bogma Formation). The alteration processes are dolomitization, dedolomitization, karstification and lateritization. The specific radioactivity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K determined in different samples, indicate that 238U and its decay products contribute primarily to the high natural radioactivity of rocks. The maximum concentration of 238U reached up to 2129.36 ppm in argillaceous sediments. The average concentrations of determined radionuclides (238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K) are 8.34 ppm, 7.88 ppm, 4.68 ppm and 0.3%, respectively in sandstone. In dolostones the average concentrations are 418.69 ppm, 808.75 ppm, 3.14 ppm and 0.29%, respectively. For argillaceous sediments are 276.88 ppm, 419.49 ppm, 11.47 ppm and 0.93%, respectively. The 238U/226Ra ratio in sandstone ranges between 0.89 and 1.25, while in dolostones and argillaceous sediments are 0.27-2.63 and 0.27-1.83, respectively. These variations in the concentrations of radioelements and their ratios are due to the action of the alteration processes affected these different sedimentary rocks in different times. Environmentally, the Raeq in dolostones and argillaceous sediments exceeds the permitted limits, while in the sandstone samples; it is within the permissible levels. (author)

  7. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René J. Hernández-Bautista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old, the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline.

  8. Retinal aging in the diurnal Chilean rodent (Octodon degus: histological, ultrastructural and neurochemical alterations of the vertical information processing pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina eSzabadfi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The retina is sensitive to age-dependent degeneration. To find suitable animal models to understand and map this process has particular importance. The degu (Octodon degus is a diurnal rodent with dichromatic color vision. Its retinal structure is similar to that in humans in many respects, therefore, it is well suited to study retinal aging. Histological, cell type-specific and ultrastructural alterations were examined in 6, 12 and 36 months old degus. The characteristic layers of the retina were present at all ages, but slightly loosened tissue structure could be observed in 36-month-old animals both at light and electron microscopic levels. Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein expression was observed in Müller glial cells in aging retinas. The number of rod bipolar cells and the ganglion cells was reduced in the aging specimens, while that of cone bipolar cells remained unchanged. Other age-related differences were detected at ultrastructural level: alteration of the retinal pigment epithelium and degenerated photoreceptor cells were evident. Ribbon synapses were sparse and often differed in morphology from those in the young animals. These results support our hypothesis that (i the rod pathway seems to be more sensitive than the cone pathway to age-related cell loss; (ii structural changes in the basement membrane of pigment epithelial cells can be one of the early signs of degenerative processes; (iii the loss of synaptic proteins especially from those of the ribbon synapses are characteristic and (iv the degu retina may be a suitable model for studying retinal aging.

  9. An Eye in the Palm of Your Hand: Alterations in Visual Processing Near the Hand, a Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Carolyn J.; Amarasooriya, Prakash; Fallah, Mazyar

    2016-01-01

    Feedback within the oculomotor system improves visual processing at eye movement end points, also termed a visual grasp. We do not just view the world around us however, we also reach out and grab things with our hands. A growing body of literature suggests that visual processing in near-hand space is altered. The control systems for moving either the eyes or the hands rely on parallel networks of fronto-parietal regions, which have feedback connections to visual areas. Since the oculomotor system effects on visual processing occur through feedback, both through the motor plan and the motor efference copy, a parallel system where reaching and/or grasping motor-related activity also affects visual processing is likely. Areas in the posterior parietal cortex, for example, receive proprioceptive and visual information used to guide actions, as well as motor efference signals. This trio of information channels is all that would be necessary to produce spatial allocation of reach-related visual attention. We review evidence from behavioral and neurophysiological studies that support the hypothesis that feedback from the reaching and/or grasping motor control networks affects visual processing while noting ways in which it differs from that seen within the oculomotor system. We also suggest that object affordances may represent the neural mechanism through which certain object features are selected for preferential processing when stimuli are near the hand. Finally, we summarize the two effector-based feedback systems and discuss how having separate but parallel effector systems allows for efficient decoupling of eye and hand movements. PMID:27148034

  10. Novel TiC/Ti Open Cellular Foams Prepared by a Modified Sponge-coating Method Using High Frequency Induction Heating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Gao; Xingxiang Xu; Zhenming Yang; Junqi Zhang; Chunhai Jiang; Jinsong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A new kind of open cellular foam material with three dimensionally interconnected TiC/Ti struts was prepared by a two-step sponge-coating and high frequency induction heating process.The microstructure,composition and compression strength of the prepared TiC/Ti foam materials were characterized.It was confirmed that the incorporation of Ti into TiC resulted in an inter-bonded Ti-TiC-Ti layered structure in the struts,which enhanced the plasticity of the composite foam materials.

  11. Proteasome-Mediated Processing of Def1, a Critical Step in the Cellular Response to Transcription Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Marcus D.; Harreman, Michelle; Taschner, Michael; Reid, James; Walker, Jane; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Svejstrup, Jesper Q.

    2013-01-01

    Summary DNA damage triggers polyubiquitylation and degradation of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), a “mechanism of last resort” employed during transcription stress. In yeast, this process is dependent on Def1 through a previously unresolved mechanism. Here, we report that Def1 becomes activated through ubiquitylation- and proteasome-dependent processing. Def1 processing results in the removal of a domain promoting cytoplasmic localization, resulting in nuclear accumulation ...

  12. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. memory biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions.Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years participated in either a 12-week course containing a "meditation laboratory" or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music. Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course.Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .02. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [(F(1, 56 = 3.0, p = .09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being [r = 0.31, p = .02] and decreased clinical symptoms [r = -0.29, p = .03].Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing.

  13. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p method and flow cytometry, despite there being differences in the absolute number of cells detected. The combined approach of flow cytometric CRP measurement and cell sorting allowed an in situ analysis of microbial cell vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells.

  14. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p < 0.05) between the bacterial cell count estimated by the pour plate method and flow cytometry, despite there being differences in the absolute number of cells detected. The combined approach of flow cytometric CRP measurement and cell sorting allowed an in situ analysis of microbial cell vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells. PMID:27406324

  15. Modeling Hydraulic Failure Process Using Elasto-Plastic Cellular Automaton%水压致裂过程的弹塑性细胞自动机模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘鹏志; 冯夏庭; 吴红晓; 孙峰; 周辉

    2011-01-01

    A self-developed numerical tool, i.e.an elasto-plastic cellular automaton (EPCA) was used to simulate the hydraulic fracturing process of rocks.The modeling method of hydraulic fracturing process of heterogeneous rocks with cellular automaton was developed.With the increase of fluid load, fluid will go into the new cracks.The new fluid seepage boundaries will be formed and the tensile stress induced by fluid will be applied on the crack boundaries.In this process, the mechanical properties and boundary conditions will be updated dynamically.The cellular automaton, which is based on the localization theory,makes this operation more conveniently.With this method, the failure process of wellbore rock specimen under hydraulic pressure was simulated, by considering different heterogeneity and different inner radius of the wellbore.It is concluded that, in hydraulic fracturing process, the critical fluid pressure, crack propagation and final failure patterns etc.are greatly influenced by the heterogeneity of the rock, the boundary geometry etc.%利用自行研发的弹塑性细胞自动机模型和模拟系统,建立了非均质岩石水压致裂过程的细胞自动机模拟方法.该方法能够反映流体在水力梯度作用下进入新生微裂隙、形成新的流体渗流边界而对该边界产生张拉效应,并引起微裂隙的进一步扩展、贯通,最终形成宏观裂纹的过程,可以方便地进行水压致裂过程中边界条件和水力参数的动态更新.同时,研究了不同均质度和井筒内径对水压致裂行为的影响.结果表明,随着井筒内径增加,极限水压力降低,而破裂模式基本相似,模拟结果与典型实验现象吻合较好.

  16. Stochastic asymptotical synchronization of chaotic Markovian jumping fuzzy cellular neural networks with mixed delays and the Wiener process based on sampled-data control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Kalpana; P.Balasubramaniam

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the stochastic asymptotical synchronization of chaotic Markovian jumping fuzzy cellular neural networks (MJFCNNs) with discrete,unbounded distributed delays,and the Wiener process based on sampled-data control using the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach.The Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with the input delay approach as well as the free-weighting matrix approach is employed to derive several sufficient criteria in terms of LMIs to ensure that the delayed MJFCNNs with the Wiener process is stochastic asymptotical synchronous.Restrictions (e.g.,time derivative is smaller than one) are removed to obtain a proposed sampled-data controller.Finally,a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the reliability of the derived results.

  17. Damage to cellular DNA from particulate radiations, the efficacy of its processing and the radiosensitivity of mammalian cells. Emphasis on DNA double strand breaks and chromatin breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    For several years, it has been evident that cellular radiation biology is in a necessary period of consolidation and transition (Lett 1987, 1990; Lett et al. 1986, 1987). Both changes are moving apace, and have been stimulated by studies with heavy charged particles. From the standpoint of radiation chemistry, there is now a consensus of opinion that the DNA hydration shell must be distinguished from bulk water in the cell nucleus and treated as an integral part of DNA (chromatin) (Lett 1987). Concomitantly, sentiment is strengthening for the abandonment of the classical notions of "direct" and "indirect" action (Fielden and O'Neill 1991; O'Neill 1991; O'Neill et al. 1991; Schulte-Frohlinde and Bothe 1991 and references therein). A layer of water molecules outside, or in the outer edge of, the DNA (chromatin) hydration shell influences cellular radiosensitivity in ways not fully understood. Charge and energy transfer processes facilitated by, or involving, DNA hydration must be considered in rigorous theories of radiation action on cells. The induction and processing of double stand breaks (DSBs) in DNA (chromatin) seem to be the predominant determinants of the radiotoxicity of normally radioresistant mammalian cells, the survival curves of which reflect the patterns of damage induced and the damage present after processing ceases, and can be modelled in formal terms by the use of reaction (enzyme) kinetics. Incongruities such as sublethal damage are neither scientifically sound nor relevant to cellular radiation biology (Calkins 1991; Lett 1990; Lett et al. 1987a). Increases in linear energy transfer (LET infinity) up to 100-200 keV micron-1 cause increases in the extents of neighboring chemical and physical damage in DNA denoted by the general term DSB. Those changes are accompanied by decreasing abilities of cells normally radioresistant to sparsely ionizing radiations to process DSBs in DNA and chromatin and to recover from radiation exposure, so they make

  18. E-cadherin acts as a regulator of transcripts associated with a wide range of cellular processes in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Soncin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is required for LIF-dependent pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we have assessed global transcript expression in E-cadherin null (Ecad-/- ES cells cultured in either the presence or absence of LIF and compared these to the parental cell line wtD3. RESULTS: We show that LIF has little effect on the transcript profile of Ecad-/- ES cells, with statistically significant transcript alterations observed only for Sp8 and Stat3. Comparison of Ecad-/- and wtD3 ES cells cultured in LIF demonstrated significant alterations in the transcript profile, with effects not only confined to cell adhesion and motility but also affecting, for example, primary metabolic processes, catabolism and genes associated with apoptosis. Ecad-/- ES cells share similar, although not identical, gene expression profiles to epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that E-cadherin expression may inhibit inner cell mass to epiblast transition. We further show that Ecad-/- ES cells maintain a functional β-catenin pool that is able to induce β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation but, contrary to previous findings, do not display endogenous β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation. We conclude that loss of E-cadherin in mouse ES cells leads to significant transcript alterations independently of β-catenin/TCF transactivation.

  19. Genomic alterations in pancreatic cancer and their relevance to therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erina; Takai; Shinichi; Yachida

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal cancer type, for which there are few viable therapeutic options. But, with the advance of sequencing technologies for global genomic analysis, the landscape of genomic alterations in pancreatic cancer is becoming increasingly well understood. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of genomic alterations in 12 core signaling pathways or cellular processes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which is the most common type of malignancy in the pancreas, including four commonly mutated genes and many other genes that are mutated at low frequencies. We also describe the potential implications of these genomic alterations for development of novel therapeutic approaches in the context of personalized medicine.

  20. Photoinhibition induced alterations in energy transfer process in phycobilisomes of PS II in the cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Duvvuri Prasanna; Murthy, Sistla D S

    2007-09-30

    Exposure of algae or plants to irradiance from above the light saturation point of photosynthesis is known as high light stress. This high light stress induces various responses including photoinhibition of the photosynthetic apparatus. The degree of photoinhibition could be clearly determined by measuring the parameters such as absorption and fluorescence of chromoproteins. In cyanobacteria and red algae, most of the photosystem (PS) II associated light harvesting is performed by a membrane attached complex called the phycobilisome (PBS). The effects of high intensity light (1000-4000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on excitation energy transfer from PBSs to PS II in a cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were studied by measuring room temperature PC fluorescence emission spectra. High light (3000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) stress had a significant effect on PC fluorescence emission spectra. On the other hand, light stress induced an increase in the ratio of PC fluorescence intensity of PBS indicating that light stress inhibits excitation energy transfer from PBS to PS II. The high light treatment to 3000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) caused disappearance of 31.5 kDa linker polypeptide which is known to link PC discs together. In addition we observed the similar decrease in the other polypeptide contents. Our data concludes that the Spirulina cells upon light treatment causes alterations in the phycobiliproteins (PBPs) and affects the energy transfer process within the PBSs.

  1. Alteration causes and processes in the stone material from the pavement in Baelo Claudia archeological site, Cadiz/Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyos, M.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the alteration causes in the stone material used in buildings and pavements from the ancient roman town of Baelo Claudia (Cádiz, South Spain was carried out to establish their degree of conservation. Slabs from the pavement of the Forum showed in general a high and irreversible degree of degradation. In order to palliate the action of processes of degradation in subaerial conditions, in this work some measures are proposed to try to preserve the slabs in better conditions.

    En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de un estudio detallado sobre el estado de conservación de los materiales pétreos usados en construcciones y pavimentos de la antigua ciudad romana de Baelo Claudia (Cádiz, Sur de España. En especial, las losas del pavimento del Foro romano mostraron, en general, un alto e irreversible grado de alteración. En este estudio, se proponen medidas correctoras para una mejor preservación de las losas, amortiguando la acción de los procesos de degradación propios de condiciones subaéreas.

  2. Dissolution studies of natural analogues spent fuel and U(VI)-Silicon phases of and oxidative alteration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the long-term behavior of the nuclear spent fuel in geological repository conditions, we have performed dissolution studies with natural analogues to UO2 as well as with solid phases representatives of the oxidative alteration pathway of uranium dioxide, as observed in both natural environment and laboratory studies. In all cases, we have studied the influence of the bicarbonate concentration in the dissolution process, as a first approximation to the groundwater composition of a granitic environment, where carbonate is one of the most important complexing agents. As a natural analogue to the nuclear spent fuel some uraninite samples from the Oklo are deposit in Gabon, where chain fission reactions took place 2000 millions years ago, as well as a pitchblende sample from the mine Fe ore deposit, in Salamanca (spain) have been studied. The studies have been performed at 25 and 60 deg C and 60 deg C, and they have focussed on the determination of both the thermodynamic and the kinetic properties of the different samples studied, using batch and continuous experimental methodologies, respectively. (Author)

  3. CI chondrite-like clasts in the Nilpena polymict ureilite - Implications for aqueous alteration processes in CI chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Prinz, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Petrographic studies of Nilpena polymict ureilite have revealed the presence of small quantities of carbonaceous chondrite matrix clasts. Detailed electron microprobe and TEM studies show that the chemistry and fine-scale mineralogy of one of these clasts is consistent with CI carbonaceous chondrite matrix. Compared to Orgeuil, the phyllosilicate, sulfide, and oxide mineralogy suggests that the Nilpena clasts may represent a less altered type of CI matrix. It is suggested that increased oxidation and aqueous alteration of Nilpena-type materials could result in the formation of the type of mineral assemblage observed in Orgueil. Increased alteration produces progressive more Mg-rich phyllosilicates and more Fe(3+)-rich iron oxides, such as ferrihydrite. As a function of increased alteration, Ca is also progressively leached from the matrix material to form carbonate veins. The depletion of Ca in CI chondrite matrices suggests the Ivuna and Alais may be intermediate in their degree of alteration to Nilpena and Orgueil.

  4. Guinea-pig interpubic joint (symphysis pubica relaxation at parturition: Underlying cellular processes that resemble an inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-de-Toro Mónica

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At term, cervical ripening in coordination with uterine contractions becomes a prerequisite for a normal vaginal delivery. Currently, cervical ripening is considered to occur independently from uterine contractions. Many evidences suggest that cervical ripening resembles an inflammatory process. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the increased flexibility of the pelvic symphysis that occurs in many species to enable safe delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the guinea-pig interpubic joint relaxation process observed during late pregnancy and parturition resembles an inflammatory process. Methods Samples of pubic symphysis were taken from pregnant guinea-pigs sacrificed along gestation, parturition and postpartum. Serial sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to measure the interpubic distance on digitalized images, stained with Giemsa to quantify leukocyte infiltration and to describe the vascular area changes, or studied by the picrosirius-polarization method to evaluate collagen remodeling. P4 and E2 serum levels were measured by a sequential immunometric assay. Results Data showed that the pubic relaxation is associated with an increase in collagen remodeling. In addition, a positive correlation between E2 serum levels and the increase in the interpubic distance was found. On the other hand, a leukocyte infiltration in the interpubic tissue around parturition was described, with the presence of almost all inflammatory cells types. At the same time, histological images show an increase in vascular area (angiogenesis. Eosinophils reached their highest level immediately before parturition; whereas for the neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration higher values were recorded one day after parturition. Correlation analysis showed that eosinophils and mononuclear cells were positively correlated with E2 levels, but only eosinophilic infiltration was associated with collagen remodeling

  5. Evidence for mechanical and chemical alteration of iron-nickel meteorites on Mars: Process insights for Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, James W.; Golombek, M.P.; Christensen, P.R.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.J.; Schroder, C.; Fleischer, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Parker, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    The weathering of meteorites found on Mars involves chemical and physical processes that can provide clues to climate conditions at the location of their discovery. Beginning on sol 1961, the Opportunity rover encountered three large iron meteorites within a few hundred meters of each other. In order of discovery, these rocks have been assigned the unofficial names Block Island, Shelter Island, and Mackinac Island. Each rock presents a unique but complimentary set of features that increase our understanding of weathering processes at Meridiani Planum. Significant morphologic characteristics interpretable as weathering features include (1) a large pit in Block Island, lined with delicate iron protrusions suggestive of inclusion removal by corrosive interaction; (2) differentially eroded kamacite and taenite lamellae in Block Island and Shelter Island, providing relative timing through crosscutting relationships with deposition of (3) an iron oxide-rich dark coating; (4) regmaglypted surfaces testifying to regions of minimal surface modification, with other regions in the same meteorites exhibiting (5) large-scale, cavernous weathering (in Shelter Island and Mackinac Island). We conclude that the current size of the rocks is approximate to their original postfall contours. Their morphology thus likely results from a combination of atmospheric interaction and postfall weathering effects. Among our specific findings is evidence supporting (1) at least one possible episode of aqueous acidic exposure for Block Island; (2) ripple migration over portions of the meteorites; (3) a minimum of two separate episodes of wind abrasion; alternating with (4) at least one episode of coating-forming chemical alteration, most likely at subzero temperatures. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria-Beatrice Wintermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Panic Disorder (PD direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD. METHODS: A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat as non-fearful non-body odors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear

  7. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  8. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  9. X-ray Amorphous Phases in Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Quinn, J. E.; Graff, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument onboard the Mars Curiosity rover has detected abundant amounts (approx. 25-30 wt. %) of X-ray amorphous materials in a windblown deposit (Rocknest) and in a sedimentary mudstone (Cumberland and John Klein) in Gale crater. On Earth, X-ray amorphous components are common in soils and sediments, but usually not as abundant as detected in Gale crater. One hypothesis for the abundant X-ray amorphous materials on Mars is limited interaction of liquid water with surface materials, kinetically inhibiting maturation to more crystalline phases. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy of soils formed in the Antarctica Dry Valleys, one of the driest locations on Earth. Two soils were characterized from different elevations, including a low elevation, coastal, subxerous soil in Taylor Valley and a high elevation, ultraxerous soil in University Valley. A variety of techniques were used to characterize materials from each soil horizon, including Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data. For Taylor Valley soil, the X-ray amorphous component ranged from about 4 wt. % in the upper horizon to as high as 15 wt. % in the lowest horizon just above the permafrost layer. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the presence of short-range ordered (SRO) smectite was the most likely candidate for the X-ray amorphous materials in the Taylor Valley soils. The SRO smectite is likely an aqueous alteration product of mica inherited from granitic materials during glaciation of Taylor Valley. The drier University Valley soil had lower X-ray amorphous contents of about 5 wt. % througout the profile. The X-ray amorphous materials in University Valley are attributed to nanoparticles of TiO2 and possibly amorphous SiO2. The high abundance of X-ray amorphous materials in Taylor Valley is surprising for one of the driest places on Earth. These materials may have been physically and chemical altered during

  10. Vesicular Trafficking Defects, Developmental Abnormalities, and Alterations in the Cellular Death Process Occur in Cell Lines that Over-Express Dictyostelium GTPase, Rab2, and Rab2 Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Maringer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small molecular weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, however, the function of Rab2 in Dictyostelium has yet to be fully characterized. Using cell lines that over-express DdRab2, as well as cell lines over-expressing constitutively active (CA, and dominant negative (DN forms of the GTPase, we report a functional role in vesicular transport specifically phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab2 like other GTPases cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. We found that this GTP/GDP cycle for DdRab2 is crucial for normal Dictyostelium development and cell–cell adhesion. Similar to Rab5 and Rab7 in C. elegans, we found that DdRab2 plays a role in programmed cell death, possibly in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic corpses.

  11. HDACi: cellular effects, opportunities for restorative dentistry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H F

    2011-12-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins alters gene expression and induces a host of cellular effects. The acetylation process is homeostatically balanced by two groups of cellular enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HAT activity relaxes the structure of the human chromatin, rendering it transcriptionally active, thereby increasing gene expression. In contrast, HDAC activity leads to gene silencing. The enzymatic balance can be \\'tipped\\' by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), leading to an accumulation of acetylated proteins, which subsequently modify cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, cell cycle, apoptosis, gene expression, and angiogenesis. There is a variety of natural and synthetic HDACi available, and their pleiotropic effects have contributed to diverse clinical applications, not only in cancer but also in non-cancer areas, such as chronic inflammatory disease, bone engineering, and neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, it appears that HDACi-modulated effects may differ between \\'normal\\' and transformed cells, particularly with regard to reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cell cycle arrest. The potential beneficial effects of HDACi for health, resulting from their ability to regulate global gene expression by epigenetic modification of DNA-associated proteins, also offer potential for application within restorative dentistry, where they may promote dental tissue regeneration following pulpal damage.

  12. 1,4-Naphthoquinones: From Oxidative Damage to Cellular and Inter-Cellular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars-Oliver Klotz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones may cause oxidative stress in exposed cells and, therefore, affect redox signaling. Here, contributions of redox cycling and alkylating properties of quinones (both natural and synthetic, such as plumbagin, juglone, lawsone, menadione, methoxy-naphthoquinones, and others to cellular and inter-cellular signaling processes are discussed: (i naphthoquinone-induced Nrf2-dependent modulation of gene expression and its potentially beneficial outcome; (ii the modulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor by naphthoquinones, resulting in altered gap junctional intercellular communication. Generation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of redox signaling are properties of naphthoquinones that render them interesting leads for the development of novel compounds of potential use in various therapeutic settings.

  13. Biological soil crust as a bio-mediator alters hydrological processes in stabilized dune system of the Tengger Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinrong

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crust (BSC) is a vital component in the stabilized sand dunes with a living cover up to more than 70% of the total, which has been considered as a bio-mediator that directly influences and regulates the sand dune ecosystem processes. However, its influences on soil hydrological processes have been long neglected in Chinese deserts. In this study, BSCs of different successional stages were chose to test their influence on the hydrological processes of stabilized dune, where the groundwater deep exceeds 30m, further to explore why occur the sand-binding vegetation replacement between shrubs and herbs. Our long-term observation (60 years) shows that cyanobacteria crust has been colonized and developed after 3 years since the sand-binding vegetation has been established and dune fixation using planted xerophytic shrubs and made sand barrier (straw-checkerboard) on shifting dune surface, lichen and moss crust occurred after 20 years, and the cover of moss dominated crust could reach 70 % after 50 years. The colonization and development of BSC altered the initial soil water balance of revegetated areas by influencing rainfall infiltration, soil evaporation and dew water entrapment. The results show that BSC obviously reduced the infiltration that occurred during most rainfall events (80%), when rainfall was greater than 5 mm or less than 20 mm. The presence of BSC reduced evaporation of topsoil after small rainfall (facilitated topsoil evaporation when rainfall reached 10 mm. The amount of dew entrapment increases with the succession of BSC. Moreover, the effect of the later successional BSC to dew entrapment, rainfall infiltration and evaporation was more obvious than the early successional BSC on stabilized dunes. In general, BSC reduced the amount of rainfall water that reached deeper soil (0.4-3m), which is where the roots of shrubs are primarily distributed. These changes in the soil moisture pattern induced shifting of sand-binding vegetation from

  14. Biological soil crust as a bio-mediator alters hydrological processes in stabilized dune system of the Tengger Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinrong

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crust (BSC) is a vital component in the stabilized sand dunes with a living cover up to more than 70% of the total, which has been considered as a bio-mediator that directly influences and regulates the sand dune ecosystem processes. However, its influences on soil hydrological processes have been long neglected in Chinese deserts. In this study, BSCs of different successional stages were chose to test their influence on the hydrological processes of stabilized dune, where the groundwater deep exceeds 30m, further to explore why occur the sand-binding vegetation replacement between shrubs and herbs. Our long-term observation (60 years) shows that cyanobacteria crust has been colonized and developed after 3 years since the sand-binding vegetation has been established and dune fixation using planted xerophytic shrubs and made sand barrier (straw-checkerboard) on shifting dune surface, lichen and moss crust occurred after 20 years, and the cover of moss dominated crust could reach 70 % after 50 years. The colonization and development of BSC altered the initial soil water balance of revegetated areas by influencing rainfall infiltration, soil evaporation and dew water entrapment. The results show that BSC obviously reduced the infiltration that occurred during most rainfall events (80%), when rainfall was greater than 5 mm or less than 20 mm. The presence of BSC reduced evaporation of topsoil after small rainfall (BSC. Moreover, the effect of the later successional BSC to dew entrapment, rainfall infiltration and evaporation was more obvious than the early successional BSC on stabilized dunes. In general, BSC reduced the amount of rainfall water that reached deeper soil (0.4-3m), which is where the roots of shrubs are primarily distributed. These changes in the soil moisture pattern induced shifting of sand-binding vegetation from initial planted xerophytic shrub communities with higher coverage (35%) to complex communities dominated by shallow

  15. Sulfur and carbon geochemistry of the Santa Elena peridotites: Comparing oceanic and continental processes during peridotite alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Gazel, Esteban; Madrigal, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Ultramafic rocks exposed on the continent serve as a window into oceanic and continental processes of water-peridotite interaction, so called serpentinization. In both environments there are active carbon and sulfur cycles that contain abiogenic and biogenic processes, which are eventually imprinted in the geochemical signatures of the basement rocks and the calcite and magnesite deposits associated with fluids that issue from these systems. Here, we present the carbon and sulfur geochemistry of ultramafic rocks and carbonate deposits from the Santa Elena ophiolite in Costa Rica. The aim of this study is to leverage the geochemistry of the ultramafic sequence and associated deposits to distinguish between processes that were dominant during ocean floor alteration and those dominant during low-temperature, continental water-peridotite interaction. The peridotites are variably serpentinized with total sulfur concentrations up to 877 ppm that is typically dominated by sulfide over sulfate. With the exception of one sample the ultramafic rocks are characterized by positive δ34Ssulfide (up to + 23.1‰) and δ34Ssulfate values (up to + 35.0‰). Carbon contents in the peridotites are low and are isotopically distinct from typical oceanic serpentinites. In particular, δ13C of the inorganic carbon suggests that the carbon is not derived from seawater, but rather the product of the interaction of meteoric water with the ultramafic rocks. In contrast, the sulfur isotope data from sulfide minerals in the peridotites preserve evidence for interaction with a hydrothermal fluid. Specifically, they indicate closed system abiogenic sulfate reduction suggesting that oceanic serpentinization occurred with limited input of seawater. Overall, the geochemical signatures preserve evidence for both oceanic and continental water-rock interaction with the majority of carbon (and possibly sulfate) being incorporated during continental water-rock interaction. Furthermore, there is

  16. Root gravitropism: an experimental tool to investigate basic cellular and molecular processes underlying mechanosensing and signal transmission in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Guan, C.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of plant organs to use gravity as a guide for growth, named gravitropism, has been recognized for over two centuries. This growth response to the environment contributes significantly to the upward growth of shoots and the downward growth of roots commonly observed throughout the plant kingdom. Root gravitropism has received a great deal of attention because there is a physical separation between the primary site for gravity sensing, located in the root cap, and the site of differential growth response, located in the elongation zones (EZs). Hence, this system allows identification and characterization of different phases of gravitropism, including gravity perception, signal transduction, signal transmission, and curvature response. Recent studies support some aspects of an old model for gravity sensing, which postulates that root-cap columellar amyloplasts constitute the susceptors for gravity perception. Such studies have also allowed the identification of several molecules that appear to function as second messengers in gravity signal transduction and of potential signal transducers. Auxin has been implicated as a probable component of the signal that carries the gravitropic information between the gravity-sensing cap and the gravity-responding EZs. This has allowed the identification and characterization of important molecular processes underlying auxin transport and response in plants. New molecular models can be elaborated to explain how the gravity signal transduction pathway might regulate the polarity of auxin transport in roots. Further studies are required to test these models, as well as to study the molecular mechanisms underlying a poorly characterized phase of gravitropism that is independent of an auxin gradient.

  17. Hydrothermal alteration of surficial rocks at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei): Petrophysical properties and implications for phreatic eruption processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Isaia, Roberto; Aßbichler, Donjá; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-06-01

    Solfatara crater is located within the Campi Flegrei caldera to the west of Naples (Italy). It is one of the largest fumarolic manifestations known, and the rocks hosting the hydrothermal system are affected by intense hydrothermal alteration. Alteration can result in changes of degassing behavior, and in the formation of a cap rock thereby increasing the probability of phreatic eruptions. Here, we investigate the effects of alunitic (solfataric) alteration on the mineralogy, the physical properties (porosity, density, permeability) and the mechanical properties (strength) of the rocks involved, as well as its influence on fragmentation and ejection behavior. Our results show that the pristine mineralogy of deposits from the vicinity of the Solfatara cryptodome and from Pisciarelli is almost completely replaced by amorphous silica and alunite. The differences in the degree of alteration among the samples series are reflected in the investigated properties and behavior as well as in the analysis of the experimentally generated particles. Alunitic alteration increases porosity and permeability, whereas it reduces density, elastic wave velocity and strength leading to higher fragmentation and ejection speeds for the sample series examined in this study. Our results also show that alteration results in the generation of a high fraction of fines (particle sizes < 10 μm) during fragmentation, mainly composed of alunite crystals. Due to their potential for inducing chronic disease, dispersion of such material should represent a serious health hazard on a local scale and the evaluation of precautions should be considered.

  18. Understanding the processes involved in weathering and experimental alteration of glassy materials. The case of some volcanic glasses from eastern Sicily (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this thesis is to study the effects of weathering and experimental alteration in order to understand the geochemical processes involved and the variation of mineral phases in altered natural glasses. For the first time, five samples of natural volcanic glasses having different composition were collected in eastern Sicily (Italy) in order to be artificially altered and analyzed. The study of naturally altered samples has allowed to observe the effects of weathering after a period of time corresponding to the age of the sample. Moreover, the use of samples of natural glass of volcanic origin has allowed to obtain some powder or thin plates of fresh silicate glass that have been subjected to artificial alteration in the laboratory, in order to model the geochemical processes that have occurred. Alteration experiments were conducted in pure water at 90 C; samples have been altered from 1 to 1000 days of experiment. The characterization of the samples was obtained by Raman spectroscopy, which showed the effects of the devitrification and the presence of some secondary minerals such as carbonates and anatase on the obsidian thin plates, but also phillipsite and chabazite, two varieties of zeolite usually found in the cavities of oldest basalts. Solid modifications were observed by SEM. The analysis showed the formation of several secondary minerals having a composition compatible with smectites, determined by EDS spectroscopy. All these results allow to test the geochemical modeling in the long term. Further analysis will be needed to reach a full understanding of the weathering of glassy materials. (author)

  19. Alteration Information Extraction by Applying Synthesis Processing Techniques to Landsat ETM+Data: Case Study of Zhaoyuan Gold Mines,Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fujiang; Wu Xincai; Sun Huashan; Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data are usually used to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of geological structures and generally serve as a significant means for the identification of alteration zones. Based on the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data, which have better spectral resolution (8 bands) and spatial resolution (15 m in PAN band), the synthesis processing techniques were presented to fulfill alteration information extraction: data preparation, vegetation indices and band ratios, and expert classifier-based classification. These techniques have been implemented in the MapGIS-RSP software (version 1.0), developed by the Wuhan Zondy Cyber Technology Co., Ltd,China. In the study area application of extracting alteration information in the Zhaoyuan (招远) gold mines, Shandong (山东) Province, China, several hydorthermally altered zones (included two new sites) were found after satellite imagery interpretation coupled with field surveys. It is concluded that these synthesis processing techniques are useful approaches and are applicable to a wide range of gold-mineralized alteration information extraction.

  20. Opportunities for Process-Based Management of Rivers Below Water Diversions: Exploring and Exploiting Coupled Alteration of Flow and Sediment Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, K. M.; Alipour, M.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous, rural catchments throughout the world, small to medium-sized rivers are being developed for diversion hydropower. Previous study indicates that in the absence of careful management, consequences to rivers downstream of diversion hydropower dams can be severe. However, patterns of hydrologic alteration below diversion hydropower dams have not been well described. In addition, diversion hydropower projects typically require some form of sediment management to maintain relatively small impoundments at diversion sites. Investigation of principal coupled processes, notably flow and sediment dynamics, in the context of alteration by diversion schemes may elucidate potential for working with natural processes to mitigate consequences to rivers. This analysis characterizes hydrologic alteration by diversion hydropower dams, investigating flows below 31 diversion dams. Diversion for hydropower production generated distinctive signatures of hydrologic alteration in sample rivers. For instance, flow signals were characterized by reduced low to moderate flows and steep transitions between low and high stages. In a number of rivers, small floods were reduced in number and size. However, effect to magnitude and timing of large floods was minimal across all rivers investigated. Sediments were stored in impoundments and released in pulses annually through lower sediment gates. The hydrologic signatures observed were strongly linked to diversion designs and may be transferable to other rivers developed with similar infrastructure. Understanding characteristic flow alterations due to diversion hydropower, in combination with cycles of sediment storage and release, may inform management practices for simultaneously maintaining reservoirs and downstream channels. In particular, investigating altered flood magnitudes and frequencies in the context of geomorphic work may indicate potential for maintaining natural hydrogeomorphic processes. Detailed study of sediment

  1. Enterobacter cloacae as biosurfactant producing bacterium: differentiating its effects on interfacial tension and wettability alteration Mechanisms for oil recovery during MEOR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafzadeh, Pegah; Hezave, Ali Zeinolabedini; Ravanbakhsh, Moosa; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process utilizes microorganisms or their metabolites to mobilize the trapped oil in the oil formation after primary and secondary oil recovery stages. MEOR technique is considered as more environmentally friendly and low cost process. There are several identified mechanisms for more oil recovery using MEOR processes however; wettability alteration and interfacial tension (IFT) reduction are the important ones. Enterobacter Cloacae, a facultative bio-surfactant producer bacterium, was selected as a bacterial formulation due to its known performance on IFT reduction and wettability alteration. To quantify the effects of these two mechanisms, different tests including oil spreading, in situ and ex situ core flooding, wettability measurement (Amott), IFT, viscosity and pH measurements were performed. The obtained results revealed that the experimental procedure used in this study was able to quantitatively identify the individual effects of both mechanisms on the ultimate microbial oil recovery. The results demonstrated considerable effects of both mechanisms on the tertiary oil recovery; however after a proper shut in time period, more tertiary oil was recovered because of wettability alteration mechanism. Finally, SEM images taken from the treated cores showed biofilm formation on the rock pore surfaces, which is responsible for rock surface wettability alteration. PMID:23376749

  2. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496x560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN - unlike software CNN implementations.

  3. Cellular and subcellular alterations in immune cells induced by chronic, intermittent exposure in vivo to very low doses of ionizing radiation (LDR), and its ameliorating effects on progression of autoimmune disease and mammary tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that low doses of ionizing radiation can enhance immune response and down-regulate tumor incidence. This suggested that low dose ionizing radiation can act as a hormetic agent by modulating antigen-stimulated clonal growth and/or differentiation of immune cells. A mouse model was therefore developed to investigate the enhancing effect of LDR at the cellular and organismic levels. At he cellular level, the author investigated the up-regulating effect of LDR on the proliferative growth of mitogen-stimulated splenocytes and on the modulating influence of LDR on thymocytes undergoing differentiation. At the organismic level, the up-regulating effects of LDR on the resistance to spontaneously occurring mammary tumor and lupus-type autoimmune disease were investigated. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Core flooding tests to investigate the effects of IFT reduction and wettability alteration on oil recovery during MEOR process in an Iranian oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Arash; Sharifinik, Milad; Niazi, Ali; Hashemi, Abdolnabi; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-07-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) refers to the process of using bacterial activities for more oil recovery from oil reservoirs mainly by interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration mechanisms. Investigating the impact of these two mechanisms on enhanced oil recovery during MEOR process is the main objective of this work. Different analytical methods such as oil spreading and surface activity measurements were utilized to screen the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from the brine of a specific oil reservoir located in the southwest of Iran. The isolates identified by 16S rDNA and biochemical analysis as Enterobacter cloacae (Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) 1798) and Enterobacter hormaechei (PTCC 1799) produce 1.53 g/l of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant caused substantial surface tension reduction of the growth medium and interfacial tension reduction between oil and brine to 31 and 3.2 mN/m from the original value of 72 and 29 mN/m, respectively. A novel set of core flooding tests, including in situ and ex situ scenarios, was designed to explore the potential of the isolated consortium as an agent for MEOR process. Besides, the individual effects of wettability alteration and IFT reduction on oil recovery efficiency by this process were investigated. The results show that the wettability alteration of the reservoir rock toward neutrally wet condition in the course of the adsorption of bacteria cells and biofilm formation are the dominant mechanisms on the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. PMID:23553033

  5. Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation

  6. The pig as a model for excisional skin wound healing: characterization of the molecular and cellular biology, and bacteriology of the healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J F; Olson, M E; Reno, C R; Wright, J B; Hart, D A

    2001-08-01

    A pig model of wound healing was developed by excision of 2-cm-diameter full thickness skin in young Yorkshire pigs. The results indicated that wound re-epithelialization in this animal model took an average of 20 days. Analysis of cellular change was assessed by use of DNA quantification and determination of apoptotic cells in tissue sections. The results indicate that RNA and DNA contents paralleled each other throughout the healing process, and observed changes in the pattern of RNA and DNA content of the scar tissues were consistent with cell loss due to apoptosis in this model. Expression of mRNA for relevant genes was assessed by use of semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, using porcine specific primer sets and RNA isolated from normal skin and specimens obtained at various times after wounding. The mRNA values for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), and decorin were significantly high at specific times after wounding, but mRNA values for the transcription factors (c-fos and c-jun) were significantly decreased. Quantitative bacteriologic results indicated that the total bacterial count in this animal model reached 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)/g, with the highest value at post-wounding day 7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylocococci aureus were the most common bacteria detected in this model. Further definition of this model should identify unique points in the healing process, and such information could lead to development of therapeutic interventions to improve skin wound healing.

  7. Cellular systems biology profiling applied to cellular models of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Kenneth A; Premkumar, Daniel R; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Patricia; Taylor, Lansing

    2009-11-01

    Building cellular models of disease based on the approach of Cellular Systems Biology (CSB) has the potential to improve the process of creating drugs as part of the continuum from early drug discovery through drug development and clinical trials and diagnostics. This paper focuses on the application of CSB to early drug discovery. We discuss the integration of protein-protein interaction biosensors with other multiplexed, functional biomarkers as an example in using CSB to optimize the identification of quality lead series compounds.

  8. Total Cellular RNA Modulates Protein Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Subhabrata; DeMott, Christopher M; Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    RNA constitutes up to 20% of a cell's dry weight, corresponding to ∼20 mg/mL. This high concentration of RNA facilitates low-affinity protein-RNA quinary interactions, which may play an important role in facilitating and regulating biological processes. In the yeast Pichia pastoris, the level of ubiquitin-RNA colocalization increases when cells are grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol instead of methanol as the sole carbon source. Total RNA isolated from cells grown in methanol increases β-galactosidase activity relative to that seen with RNA isolated from cells grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol. Because the total cellular RNA content changes with growth medium, protein-RNA quinary interactions can alter in-cell protein biochemistry and may play an important role in cell adaptation, critical to many physiological and pathological states. PMID:27456029

  9. Postnatal Manganese Exposure Alters Dopamine Transporter Function in Adult Rats: Potential Impact on Nonassociative and Associative Processes

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, S. A.; Reichel, C. M.; Farley, C M; Flesher, M. M.; Der-Ghazarian, T.; Cortez, A. M.; Wacan, J. J.; Martinez, C. E.; VARELA, F. A.; Butt, A E; Crawford, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether exposing rats to a high-dose regimen of manganese chloride (Mn) during the postnatal period would depress presynaptic dopamine functioning and alter nonassociative and associative behaviors. To this end, rats were given oral supplements of Mn (750 μg/day) on postnatal days (PD) 1–21. On PD 90, dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity and [3H]dopamine uptake were assayed in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, while in vivo microdialysis was used to ...

  10. Disturbed Neuronal ER-Golgi Sorting of Unassembled Glycine Receptors Suggests Altered Subcellular Processing Is a Cause of Human Hyperekplexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Natascha; Kluck, Christoph J.; Price, Kerry L.; Meiselbach, Heike; Vornberger, Nadine; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Hartmann, Stephanie; Langlhofer, Georg; Schulz, Solveig; Schlegel, Nadja; Brockmann, Knut; Lynch, Bryan; Becker, Cord-Michael; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the pathogenic mechanisms of recessive hyperekplexia indicate disturbances in glycine receptor (GlyR) α1 biogenesis. Here, we examine the properties of a range of novel glycine receptor mutants identified in human hyperekplexia patients using expression in transfected cell lines and primary neurons. All of the novel mutants localized in the large extracellular domain of the GlyR α1 have reduced cell surface expression with a high proportion of receptors being retained in the ER, although there is forward trafficking of glycosylated subpopulations into the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi compartment. CD spectroscopy revealed that the mutant receptors have proportions of secondary structural elements similar to wild-type receptors. Two mutants in loop B (G160R, T162M) were functional, but none of those in loop D/β2–3 were. One nonfunctional truncated mutant (R316X) could be rescued by coexpression with the lacking C-terminal domain. We conclude that a proportion of GlyR α1 mutants can be transported to the plasma membrane but do not necessarily form functional ion channels. We suggest that loop D/β2–3 is an important determinant for GlyR trafficking and functionality, whereas alterations to loop B alter agonist potencies, indicating that residues here are critical elements in ligand binding. PMID:25568133

  11. Cellular: Toward personal communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Stuart

    1991-09-01

    The cellular industry is one of the fastest growing segment of the telecommunications industry. With an estimated penetration rate of 20 percent in the near future, cellular is becoming an ubiquitous telecommunications service in the U.S. In this paper we will examine the major advancements in the cellular industry: customer equipment, cellular networks, engineering tools, customer support, and nationwide seamless service.

  12. Developmental changes in reading do not alter the development of visual processing skills: an application of explanatory item response models in grades K-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Kristi L; Kulesz, Paulina A; Khalaf, Shiva; Francis, David J

    2015-01-01

    Visual processing has been widely studied in regard to its impact on a students' ability to read. A less researched area is the role of reading in the development of visual processing skills. A cohort-sequential, accelerated-longitudinal design was utilized with 932 kindergarten, first, and second grade students to examine the impact of reading acquisition on the processing of various types of visual discrimination and visual motor test items. Students were assessed four times per year on a variety of reading measures and reading precursors and two popular measures of visual processing over a 3-year period. Explanatory item response models were used to examine the roles of person and item characteristics on changes in visual processing abilities and changes in item difficulties over time. Results showed different developmental patterns for five types of visual processing test items, but most importantly failed to show consistent effects of learning to read on changes in item difficulty. Thus, the present study failed to find support for the hypothesis that learning to read alters performance on measures of visual processing. Rather, visual processing and reading ability improved together over time with no evidence to suggest cross-domain influences from reading to visual processing. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories of visual processing and brain-based research on the role of visual skills in learning to read. PMID:25717311

  13. Developmental changes in reading do not alter the development of visual processing skills: An application of explanatory item response models in grades K-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Santi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual processing has been widely studied in regard to its impact on a students’ ability to read. A less researched area is the role of reading in the development of visual processing skills. A cohort-sequential, accelerated-longitudinal design was utilized with 932 kindergarten, first, and second grade students to examine the impact of reading acquisition on the processing of various types of visual discrimination and visual motor test items. Students were assessed four times per year on a variety of reading measures and reading precursors and two popular measures of visual processing over a three-year period. Explanatory item response models were used to examine the roles of person and item characteristics on changes in visual processing abilities and changes in item difficulties over time. Results showed different developmental patterns for five types of visual processing test items, but most importantly failed to show consistent effects of learning to read on changes in item difficulty. Thus, the present study failed to find support for the hypothesis that learning to read alters performance on measures of visual processing. Rather, visual processing and reading ability improved together over time with no evidence to suggest cross-domain influences from reading to visual processing. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories of visual processing and brain-based research on the role of visual skills in learning to read.

  14. Movies of cellular and sub-cellular motion by digital holographic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lingfeng

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological specimens, such as living cells and their intracellular components, often exhibit very little amplitude contrast, making it difficult for conventional bright field microscopes to distinguish them from their surroundings. To overcome this problem phase contrast techniques such as Zernike, Normarsky and dark-field microscopies have been developed to improve specimen visibility without chemically or physically altering them by the process of staining. These techniques have proven to be invaluable tools for studying living cells and furthering scientific understanding of fundamental cellular processes such as mitosis. However a drawback of these techniques is that direct quantitative phase imaging is not possible. Quantitative phase imaging is important because it enables determination of either the refractive index or optical thickness variations from the measured optical path length with sub-wavelength accuracy. Digital holography is an emergent phase contrast technique that offers an excellent approach in obtaining both qualitative and quantitative phase information from the hologram. A CCD camera is used to record a hologram onto a computer and numerical methods are subsequently applied to reconstruct the hologram to enable direct access to both phase and amplitude information. Another attractive feature of digital holography is the ability to focus on multiple focal planes from a single hologram, emulating the focusing control of a conventional microscope. Methods A modified Mach-Zender off-axis setup in transmission is used to record and reconstruct a number of holographic amplitude and phase images of cellular and sub-cellular features. Results Both cellular and sub-cellular features are imaged with sub-micron, diffraction-limited resolution. Movies of holographic amplitude and phase images of living microbes and cells are created from a series of holograms and reconstructed with numerically adjustable

  15. Raman-Mössbauer-XRD studies of selected samples from "Los Azulejos" outcrop: A possible analogue for assessing the alteration processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, E. A.; Sanz-Arranz, A.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Sansano, A.; Medina, J.; Schmanke, D.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Rull, F.

    2016-06-01

    The outcrop of "Los Azulejos" is visible at the interior of the Cañadas Caldera in Tenerife Island (Spain). It exhibits a great variety of alteration processes that could be considered as terrestrial analogue for several geological processes on Mars. This outcrop is particularly interesting due to the content of clays, zeolite, iron oxides, and sulfates corresponding to a hydrothermal alteration catalogued as "Azulejos" type alteration. A detailed analysis by portable and laboratory Raman systems as well as other different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy has been carried out (using twin-instruments from Martian lander missions: Mössbauer spectrometer MIMOS-II from the NASA-MER mission of 2001 and the XRD diffractometer from the NASA-MSL Curiosity mission of 2012). The mineral identification presents the following mineral species: magnetite, goethite, hematite, anatase, rutile, quartz, gregoryite, sulfate (thenardite and hexahydrite), diopside, feldspar, analcime, kaolinite and muscovite. Moreover, the in-situ Raman and Micro-Raman measurements have been performed in order to compare the capabilities of the portable system specially focused for the next ESA Exo-Mars mission. The mineral detection confirms the sub-aerial alteration on the surface and the hydrothermal processes by the volcanic fluid circulations in the fresh part. Therefore, the secondary more abundant mineralization acts as the color agent of the rocks. Thus, the zeolite-illite group is the responsible for the bluish coloration, as well as the feldspars and carbonates for the whitish and the iron oxide for the redish parts. The XRD system was capable to detect a minor proportion of pyroxene, which is not visible by Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy due to the "Azulejos" alteration of the parent material on the outcrop. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy was capable of detecting different types of iron-oxides (Fe3+/2+-oxide phases). These analyses

  16. Conversion of a CHO cell culture process from perfusion to fed-batch technology without altering product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwly, F; Weber, U; Ziegler, T; Gervais, A; Mastrangeli, R; Crisci, C; Rossi, M; Bernard, A; von Stockar, U; Kadouri, A

    2006-05-01

    During the development of a new drug product, it is a common strategy to develop a first-generation process with the aim to rapidly produce material for pre-clinical and early stage clinical trials. At a later stage of the development, a second-generation process is then introduced with the aim to supply late-stage clinical trials as well as market needs. This work was aimed at comparing the performance of two different CHO cell culture processes (perfusion and fed-batch) used for the production of a therapeutically active recombinant glycoprotein at industrial pilot-scale. The first-generation process was based on the Fibra-Cel packed-bed perfusion technology. It appeared during the development of the candidate drug that high therapeutic doses were required (>100mg per dose), and that future market demand would exceed 100 kg per year. This exceeded by far the production capacity of the first-generation process, and triggered a change of technology from a packed-bed perfusion process with limited scale-up capabilities to a fed-batch process with scale-up potential to typical bioreactor sizes of 15m(3) or more. The productivity per bioreactor unit volume (in product m(-3)year(-1)) of the fed-batch process was about 70% of the level reached with the first-generation perfusion process. However, since the packed-bed perfusion system was limited in scale (0.6m(3) maximum) compared to the volumes reached in suspension cultures (15m(3)), the fed-batch was selected as second-generation process. In fact, the overall process performance (in product year(-1)) was about 18-fold higher for the fed-batch compared to the perfusion mode. Data from perfusion and fed-batch harvests samples indicated that comparable product quality (relative abundance of monomers dimers and aggregates; N-glycan sialylation level; isoforms distribution) was obtained in both processes. To further confirm this observation, purification to homogeneity of the harvest material from both processes, followed

  17. Altered Cell Mechanics from the Inside: Dispersed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Integrate with and Restructure Actin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad F. Islam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With a range of desirable mechanical and optical properties, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs are a promising material for nanobiotechnologies. SWCNTs also have potential as biomaterials for modulation of cellular structures. Previously, we showed that highly purified, dispersed SWCNTs grossly alter F-actin inside cells. F-actin plays critical roles in the maintenance of cell structure, force transduction, transport and cytokinesis. Thus, quantification of SWCNT-actin interactions ranging from molecular, sub-cellular and cellular levels with both structure and function is critical for developing SWCNT-based biotechnologies. Further, this interaction can be exploited, using SWCNTs as a unique actin-altering material. Here, we utilized molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interactions of SWCNTs with actin filaments. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy confirmed that SWCNTs were located within ~5 nm of F-actin in cells but did not interact with G-actin. SWCNTs did not alter myosin II sub-cellular localization, and SWCNT treatment in cells led to significantly shorter actin filaments. Functionally, cells with internalized SWCNTs had greatly reduced cell traction force. Combined, these results demonstrate direct, specific SWCNT alteration of F-actin structures which can be exploited for SWCNT-based biotechnologies and utilized as a new method to probe fundamental actin-related cellular processes and biophysics.

  18. Elephant Moraine 96029, a very mildly aqueously altered and heated CM carbonaceous chondrite: Implications for the drivers of parent body processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martin R.; Lindgren, Paula; King, Ashley J.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Sparkes, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Elephant Moraine (EET) 96029 is a CM carbonaceous chondrite regolith breccia with evidence for unusually mild aqueous alteration, a later phase of heating and terrestrial weathering. The presence of phyllosilicates and carbonates within chondrules and the fine-grained matrix indicates that this meteorite was aqueously altered in its parent body. Features showing that water-mediated processing was arrested at a very early stage include a matrix with a low magnesium/iron ratio, chondrules whose mesostasis contains glass and/or quench crystallites, and a gehlenite-bearing calcium- and aluminium-rich inclusion. EET 96029 is also rich in Fe,Ni metal relative to other CM chondrites, and more was present prior to its partial replacement by goethite during Antarctic weathering. In combination, these properties indicate that EET 96029 is one of the least aqueously altered CMs yet described (CM2.7) and so provides new insights into the original composition of its parent body. Following aqueous alteration, and whilst still in the parent body regolith, the meteorite was heated to ∼400-600 °C by impacts or solar radiation. Heating led to the amorphisation and dehydroxylation of serpentine, replacement of tochilinite by magnetite, loss of sulphur from the matrix, and modification to the structure of organic matter that includes organic nanoglobules. Significant differences between samples in oxygen isotope compositions, and water/hydroxyl contents, suggests that the meteorite contains lithologies that have undergone different intensities of heating. EET 96029 may be more representative of the true nature of parent body regoliths than many other CM meteorites, and as such can help interpret results from the forthcoming missions to study and return samples from C-complex asteroids.

  19. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization. PMID:15998127

  20. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization.

  1. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls. PMID:27345597

  2. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls.

  3. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects

  4. Reactive biomolecular divergence in genetically altered yeast cells and isolated mitochondria as measured by biocavity laser spectroscopy : a rapid diagnostic method for studying cellular responses to stress and disease.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, Michael P. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Gourley, Paul Lee; Copeland, Robert Guild; McDonald, Anthony Eugene; Hendricks, Judy K.; Naviaux, Robert K. (Univesity of California, San Diego, CA)

    2006-12-01

    We report an analysis of four strains of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The four strains are grouped in two pairs (wild type and altered), in which one strain differs genetically at a single locus, affecting mitochondrial function. In one pair, the wild-type rho+ and a rho0 strain differ by complete removal of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In the second pair, the wild-type rho+ and a rho- strain differ by knock-out of the nuclear gene encoding Cox4, an essential subunit of cytochrome c oxidase. The biocavity laser is used to measure the biophysical optic parameter Deltalambda, a laser wavelength shift relating to the optical density of cell or mitochondria that uniquely reflects its size and biomolecular composition. As such, Deltalambda is a powerful parameter that rapidly interrogates the biomolecular state of single cells and mitochondria. Wild-type cells and mitochondria produce Gaussian-like distributions with a single peak. In contrast, mutant cells and mitochondria produce leptokurtotic distributions that are asymmetric and highly skewed to the right. These distribution changes could be self-consistently modeled with a single, log-normal distribution undergoing a thousand-fold increase in variance of biomolecular composition. These features reflect a new state of stressed or diseased cells that we call a reactive biomolecular divergence (RBD) that reflects the vital interdependence of mitochondria and the nucleus.

  5. A computational account of altered error processing in older age: Dopamine and the error-related negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Talsma, Durk; Coles, Michael G.H.; Holroyd, Clay B.; Kok, Albert; Molen, van der Maurits W.

    2002-01-01

    When participants commit errors or receive feedback signaling that they have made an error, a negative brain potential is elicited. According to Holroyd and Coles’s (in press) neurocomputational model of error processing, this error-related negativity (ERN) is elicited when the brain first detects t

  6. A computational account of altered error processing in older age: Dopamine and the error-related negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Nieuwenhuis; K.R. Ridderinkhof; D. Talsma; M.G. Coles; C.B. Holroyd; A. Kok

    2002-01-01

    When participants commit errors or receive feedback signaling that they have made an error, a negative brain potential is elicited. According to Holroyd and Coles's (in press) neurocomputational model of error processing, this error-related negativity (ERN) is elicited when the brain first detects t

  7. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J.; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1–R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12–R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (Clinical

  8. DIFFERENTIAL KINETICS IN ALTERATION AND RECOVERY OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES FROM A CHRONIC SLEEP RESTRICTION IN YOUNG HEALTHY MEN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Alexandre Rabat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep restriction (CSR induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e. attention, executive under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8h TIB followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4h TIB, 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8h TIB and 2 more ones 8 days later (R12-R13. Subjective sleepiness (KSS, maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT were evaluated 4 times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m. and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m. and evening (6:30 p.m. sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13 and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12 samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1, tardily (after R2 and no recovered (R13. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741.

  9. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject's capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12-R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject's age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject's performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject's capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741

  10. Altered reward processing in the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, J; Knorr, U; Skimminge, A;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (rMD+) show brain structure and functional response anomalies and have elevated risk for developing depression, a disorder linked to abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission and reward processing. METHOD: In a two......-step functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation, we first evaluated whether positive and negative monetary outcomes were differentially processed by rMD+ individuals compared to healthy first-degree relatives of control probands (rMD-). Second, in a double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized...... trial we investigated whether a 4-week intervention with the selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram had a normalizing effect on behavior and brain responses of the rMD+ individuals. RESULTS: Negative outcomes increased the probability of risk-averse choices in the subsequent trial...

  11. 改变再生方式提高催化裂化装置处理量%ALTERING OPERATING MODE TO ENHANCE PROCESSING CAPACITY OF FCCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建平; 侯玉宝

    2001-01-01

    中国石化股份公司洛阳分公司的同轴式重油催化裂化装置因设备利旧而达不到1.40 Mt/a的设计处理量。把再生方式由完全再生改为常规再生后,装置处理能力由1.38 Mt/a提高到1.49 Mt/a。%The co-axial RFCCU can't reach the design processing capacity of 1400000 t/yr. Altering the mode of complete catalyst regeneration to conventional catalyst regeneration's, the processing capacity of the unit enhanced from 1380000 t/yr to 1490000 t/yr.

  12. Balancing bilateral sensory activity: callosal processing modulates sensory transmission through the contralateral thalamus by altering the response threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Ebner, Ford F

    2006-07-01

    Rats tactually explore a nearly spherical space field around their heads with their whiskers. The information sampled by the two sets of whiskers is integrated bilaterally at the cortical level in an activity dependent manner via the corpus callosum. We have recently shown that sensory activity in one barrel field cortex (BFC) modulates the processing of incoming sensory information to the other BFC. Whether interhemispheric integration is dynamically linked with corticothalamic modulation of incoming sensory activity is an important hypothesis to test, since subcortical relay neurons are directly modulated by cortical neurons through top-down processes. In the present study, we compared the direct sensory responses of single thalamic relay neurons under urethane anesthesia before and after inactivating the BFC contralateral to a thalamic neuron. The data show that silencing one BFC reduces response magnitude in contralateral thalamic relay neurons, significantly and reversibly, in response to test stimuli applied to the principal whisker at two times response threshold (2T) intensity for each unit. Neurons in the ventral posterior medial (VPM) nucleus and the medial division of the posterior nucleus (POm) react in a similar manner, although POm neurons are more profoundly depressed by inactivation of the contralateral BFC than VPM neurons. The results support the novel idea that the subcortical relay of sensory information to one hemisphere is strongly modulated by activity levels in the contralateral as well as in the ipsilateral SI cortex. The mechanism of the modulation appears to be based on shifting the stimulus-response curves of thalamic neurons, thereby rendering them more or less sensitive to sensory stimuli. We conclude that global sensory processing is created by combining activity in each cerebral hemisphere and continually balancing the flow of information to cortex by adjusting the responsiveness of ascending sensory pathways.

  13. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  14. Adults with high social anhedonia have altered neural connectivity with ventral lateral prefrontal cortex when processing positive social signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong eYin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social anhedonia (SA is a debilitating characteristic of schizophrenia and a vulnerability for developing schizophrenia among people at risk. Prior work (Hooker et al, 2014 has revealed neural deficits in ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC during processing of positive emotion in a community sample of people with high social anhedonia. Deficits in VLPFC neural activity are related to worse self-reported schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms and worse mood and behavior after social stress. In the current study, psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis was applied to investigate the neural mechanisms mediated by VLPFC during emotion processing. PPI analysis revealed that, compared to low SA controls, participants with high SA displayed reduced VLPFC integration, specifically reduced connectivity between VLPFC and premotor cortex, inferior parietal and posterior temporal regions when viewing positive relative to neutral emotion. Across all participants, connectivity between VLPFC and inferior parietal region when viewing positive (versus neutral emotion was significantly correlated with measures of emotion management and attentional control. Additionally connectivity between VLPFC and superior temporal sulcus was related to reward and pleasure anticipation, and connectivity between VLPFC and inferior temporal sulcus correlated with attentional control measure. Our results suggest that impairments to VLPFC mediated neural circuitry underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits.

  15. The beta-receptor blocker metoprolol alters detoxification processes in the non-target organism Dreissena polymorpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska, E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: pflugmacher@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Nuetzmann, Gunnar, E-mail: nuetzmann@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecohydrology, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Kloas, Werner, E-mail: werner.kloas@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Wiegand, Claudia, E-mail: wiegand@biology.sdu.d [University of Southern Denmark Institute of Biology, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-06-15

    Due to increasing amounts of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment, their largely unknown effects to non-target organisms need to be assessed. This study examined physiological changes in the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha exposed to increasing concentrations (0.534, 5.34, 53.4 and 534 mug L{sup -1}) of the beta-blocker metoprolol in a flow-through system for seven days. The two lower concentrations represent the environmentally relevant range. Surprisingly, metallothionein mRNA was immediately up-regulated in all treatments. For the two higher concentrations mRNA up-regulation in gills was found for P-glycoprotein after one day, and after four days for pi class glutathione S-transferase, demonstrating elimination and biotransformation processes, respectively. Additionally, catalase and superoxide dismutase were up-regulated in the digestive gland indicating oxidative stress. In all treated mussels a significant up-regulation of heat shock protein mRNA was observed in gills after four days, which suggests protein damage and the requirement for repair processes. Metoprolol was 20-fold bioaccumulated for environmentally relevant concentrations. - Evidence for significant physiological changes in an aquatic mollusc due to exposure to a pharmaceutically active compound detected by real-time PCR.

  16. Analysis of cellular manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Meng, Gang; Zijm, Henk; Ommeren, van Jan-Kees

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an open queuing network modeling approach to estimate performance measures of a cellular manufacturing layout. It is assumed a layout and production data for a planning period of specified length are available. The production data takes into account, processing and handli

  17. Autophagy and mitophagy in cellular damage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy and mitophagy are important cellular processes that are responsible for breaking down cellular contents, preserving energy and safeguarding against accumulation of damaged and aggregated biomolecules. This graphic review gives a broad summary of autophagy and discusses examples where autophagy is important in controlling protein degradation. In addition we highlight how autophagy and mitophagy are involved in the cellular responses to reactive species and mitochondrial dysfunction. The key signaling pathways for mitophagy are described in the context of bioenergetic dysfunction.

  18. Modulating the RNA processing and decay by the exosome: altering Rrp44/Dis3 activity and end-product.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa P Reis

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the exosome plays a central role in RNA maturation, turnover, and quality control. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the core exosome is composed of nine catalytically inactive subunits constituting a ring structure and the active nuclease Rrp44, also known as Dis3. Rrp44 is a member of the ribonuclease II superfamily of exoribonucleases which include RNase R, Dis3L1 and Dis3L2. In this work we have functionally characterized three residues located in the highly conserved RNB catalytic domain of Rrp44: Y595, Q892 and G895. To address their precise role in Rrp44 activity, we have constructed Rrp44 mutants and compared their activity to the wild-type Rrp44. When we mutated residue Q892 and tested its activity in vitro, the enzyme became slightly more active. We also showed that when we mutated Y595, the final degradation product of Rrp44 changed from 4 to 5 nucleotides. This result confirms that this residue is responsible for the stacking of the RNA substrate in the catalytic cavity, as was predicted from the structure of Rrp44. Furthermore, we also show that a strain with a mutation in this residue has a growth defect and affects RNA processing and degradation. These results lead us to hypothesize that this residue has an important biological role. Molecular dynamics modeling of these Rrp44 mutants and the wild-type enzyme showed changes that extended beyond the mutated residues and helped to explain these results.

  19. Analysis of cellular manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Meng, Gang; Zijm, Henk; Ommeren, van, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an open queuing network modeling approach to estimate performance measures of a cellular manufacturing layout. It is assumed a layout and production data for a planning period of specified length are available. The production data takes into account, processing and handling set-up times as well as transfer and process batch size information of multiple products that flow through the system. It is assumed that two sets of discrete material handling devices are used fo...

  20. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody: technetium-99m labeling and the validation process of a scintigraphic animal model with a non-cellular antigenic implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Marques, Fabio Luiz Navarro; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Hironaka, Fausto Haruki; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2002-07-01

    Animal models are currently used to verify the biodistribution of different radiopharmaceuticals before its clinical application in Nuclear Medicine; however, there may be some limitations. The utilization of labelled anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) in experimental models often requires implant of human antigens (usually a cellular implant), which cannot be achieved in immunocompetent animals. Our purpose was to label an anti-CEA MoAb with technetium-99m (99Tc) and to validate a simplified animal model using a noncellular antigenic implant. MoAb was directly labelled with 99mTc, after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. Labeling efficiency was checked by ascending chromatography and immunoreactive fraction was measured in plastic wells sensitized with the antigen. Radiopharmaceutical biodistribution was evaluated by dissection and scintigraphy in 5 mice groups; following the subcutaneous administration of Al(OH)3, CEA adsorbed Al(OH)2 and a control group evaluation. Labeling efficiency was 94+/-3%, which showed to be stable for 24 hr, with immunoreactive fraction above 50%. Invasive biodistribution evaluation showed prolonged blood retention, hepatic and renal uptake. A significant increase in uptake was observed in scintigraphic studies of animals with CEA-adsorbed Al(OH)3 implants compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The non-cellular antigenic implant model simplifies the pre-clinical evaluation of labelled MoAb. PMID:12146705

  1. Age-related alterations of relaxation processes and non-Markov effects in stochastic dynamics of R-R intervals variability from human ECGs

    CERN Document Server

    Yulmetyev, R M; Panischev, O Y; Hänggi, P; Yulmetyev, Renat M.; Demin, Sergey A.; Panischev, Oleg Yu.; H\\"anggi, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the age-related alterations of heart rate variability on the basis of the study of non-Markovian effects. The age dynamics of relaxation processes is quantitatively described by means of local relaxation parameters, calculated by the specific localization procedure. We offer a quantitative informational measure of non-Markovity to evaluate the change of statistical effects of memory. Local relaxation parameters for young and elderly people differ by 3.3 times, and quantitative measures of non-Markovity differ by 4.2 times. The comparison of quantitative parameters allows to draw conclusions about the reduction of relaxation rate with ageing and the higher degree of the Markovity of heart rate variability of elderly people.

  2. Experimental study of gold activation-transportation in the process of potash metasomatism-alteration ——North China platform gold deposit taken as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yurong; HU; Shouxi

    2001-01-01

    Chemical reactions of plagioclase, biotite and their single minerals, as well as a mineral mixture of (plagioclase +biotite+quartz), with KCl and (KCl+KHCO3) solutions were carried out at 150400℃ and 5080 MPa. Experiments show that alkaline fluid promotes plagioclase’s changing into potash feldspar, while acid fluid helps plagioclase, potash feldspar and biotite alteration form chlorite and sericite. After chemical reaction the acidity-alkalinity of solutions often changes reversely. It was observed that gold dissolved from the tube wall and recrystallized on the surfaces of biotite and pyrite. Therefore the transportation and enrichment of gold are related to the elementary effect of the fluid-mineral interfaces. Fe3+-Fe2+, as an oxidition-reduction agent, and volatile components Cl? and CO2 play important roles in the reaction process.

  3. From Cnn Dynamics to Cellular Wave Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roska, Tamas

    2013-01-01

    Embedded in a historical overview, the development of the Cellular Wave Computing paradigm is presented, starting from the standard CNN dynamics. The theoretical aspects, the physical implementation, the innovation process, as well as the biological relevance are discussed in details. Finally, the latest developments, the physical versus virtual cellular machines, as well as some open questions are presented.

  4. Cellular encoding for interactive evolutionary robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruau, F.C.; Quatramaran, K.

    1996-01-01

    This work reports experiments in interactive evolutionary robotics. The goal is to evolve an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to control the locomotion of an 8-legged robot. The ANNs are encoded using a cellular developmental process called cellular encoding. In a previous work similar experiments ha

  5. The CK1 family: contribution to cellular stress response and its role in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe eKnippschild

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed pleiotropic CK1 family play major regulatory roles in many cellular processes including DNA-processing and repair, proliferation, cytoskeleton dynamics, vesicular trafficking, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. As a consequence of cellular stress conditions, interaction of CK1 with the mitotic spindle is manifold increased pointing to regulatory functions at the mitotic checkpoint. Furthermore, CK1 is able to alter the activity of key regulatory proteins and signal integration molecules and is tightly connected to the regulation of β-catenin, p53- and MDM2-specific functions and degradation. Considering the importance of CK1 for accurate cell division and regulation of tumor suppressor functions it is not surprising that mutations and alterations in the expression and/or activity of CK1 isoforms are often detected in various tumor entities including cancer of the kidney, choriocarcinomas, breast carcinomas, oral cancer, adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, and ovarian cancer. Therefore, effort has enormously increased (i to understand the regulation of CK1 and its involvement in tumorigenesis- and tumor progression-related signal transduction pathways and (ii to develop CK1-specific inhibitors for the use in personalized therapy concepts. In this review we summarize the current knowledge regarding the regulation, functions, and interactions of CK1 family members with cellular proteins playing central roles in cellular stress-responses and carcinogenesis.

  6. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Takahashi, Yutaka, E-mail: takahash@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  7. Cellular and molecular aspects of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm G Smith; Georgina L Hold; Eiichi Tahara; Emad M El-Omar

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a global killer with a shifting burden from the developed to the developing world.The cancer develops along a multistage process that is defined by distinct histological and pathophysiological phases. Several genetic and epigenetic alterations mediate the transition from one stage to another and these include mutations in oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and cell cycle and mismatch repair genes. The most significant advance in the fight against gastric caner came with the recognition of the role of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) as the most important acquired aetiological agent for this cancer. Recent work has focussed on elucidating the complex host/microbial interactions that underlie the neoplastic process. There is now considerable insight into the pathogenesis of this cancer and the prospect of preventing and eradicating the disease has become a reality. Perhaps more importantly, the study of H pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis offers a paradigm for understanding more complex human cancers. In this review, we examine the molecular and cellular events that underlie H pyloriinduced gastric cancer.

  8. Heavy metals and epigenetic alterations in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffo, Maria; Caruso, Gerardo; Fata, Giuseppe La; Barresi, Valeria; Visalli, Maria; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals and their derivatives can cause various diseases. Numerous studies have evaluated the possible link between exposure to heavy metals and various cancers. Recent data show a correlation between heavy metals and aberration of genetic and epigenetic patterns. From a literature search we noticed few experimental and epidemiological studies that evaluate a possible correlation between heavy metals and brain tumors. Gliomas arise due to genetic and epigenetic alterations of glial cells. Changes in gene expression result in the alteration of the cellular division process. Epigenetic alterations in brain tumors include the hypermethylation of CpG group, hypomethylation of specific genes, aberrant activation of genes, and changes in the position of various histones. Heavy metals are capable of generating reactive oxygen assumes that key functions in various pathological mechanisms. Alteration of homeostasis of metals could cause the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and induce DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and alteration of proteins. In this study we summarize the possible correlation between heavy metals, epigenetic alterations and brain tumors. We report, moreover, the review of relevant literature. PMID:25646073

  9. Sequestration of DROSHA and DGCR8 by Expanded CGG RNA Repeats Alters MicroRNA Processing in Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Sellier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of 55–200 CGG repeats in the 5′ UTR of FMR1. These expanded CGG repeats are transcribed and accumulate in nuclear RNA aggregates that sequester one or more RNA-binding proteins, thus impairing their functions. Here, we have identified that the double-stranded RNA-binding protein DGCR8 binds to expanded CGG repeats, resulting in the partial sequestration of DGCR8 and its partner, DROSHA, within CGG RNA aggregates. Consequently, the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs is reduced, resulting in decreased levels of mature miRNAs in neuronal cells expressing expanded CGG repeats and in brain tissue from patients with FXTAS. Finally, overexpression of DGCR8 rescues the neuronal cell death induced by expression of expanded CGG repeats. These results support a model in which a human neurodegenerative disease originates from the alteration, in trans, of the miRNA-processing machinery.

  10. Order of amino acids in C-terminal cysteine-containing peptide-based chelators influences cellular processing and biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled recombinant Affibody molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altai, Mohamed; Wållberg, Helena; Orlova, Anna; Rosestedt, Maria; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Ståhl, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    Affibody molecules constitute a novel class of molecular display selected affinity proteins based on non-immunoglobulin scaffold. Preclinical investigations and pilot clinical data have demonstrated that Affibody molecules provide high contrast imaging of tumor-associated molecular targets shortly after injection. The use of cysteine-containing peptide-based chelators at the C-terminus of recombinant Affibody molecules enabled site-specific labeling with the radionuclide 99mTc. Earlier studies have demonstrated that position, composition and the order of amino acids in peptide-based chelators influence labeling stability, cellular processing and biodistribution of Affibody molecules. To investigate the influence of the amino acid order, a series of anti-HER2 Affibody molecules, containing GSGC, GEGC and GKGC chelators have been prepared and characterized. The affinity to HER2, cellular processing of 99mTc-labeled Affibody molecules and their biodistribution were investigated. These properties were compared with that of the previously studied 99mTc-labeled Affibody molecules containing GGSC, GGEC and GGKC chelators. All variants displayed picomolar affinities to HER2. The substitution of a single amino acid in the chelator had an appreciable influence on the cellular processing of 99mTc. The biodistribution of all 99mTc-labeled Affibody molecules was in general comparable, with the main difference in uptake and retention of radioactivity in excretory organs. The hepatic accumulation of radioactivity was higher for the lysine-containing chelators and the renal retention of 99mTc was significantly affected by the amino acid composition of chelators. The order of amino acids influenced renal uptake of some conjugates at 1 h after injection, but the difference decreased at later time points. Such information can be helpful for the development of other scaffold protein-based imaging and therapeutic radiolabeled conjugates.

  11. What the Erythrocytic Nuclear Alteration Frequencies Could Tell Us about Genotoxicity and Macrophage Iron Storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Juliana M. M.; Ribeiro, Heder J.; Procópio, Marcela S.; Alvarenga, Betânia M.; Castro, Antônio C. S.; Dutra, Walderez O.; da Silva, José B. B.; Corrêa Junior, José D.

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytic nuclear alterations have been considered as an indicative of organism’s exposure to genotoxic agents. Due to their close relationship among their frequencies and DNA damages, they are considered excellent markers of exposure in eukaryotes. However, poor data has been found in literature concerning their genesis, differential occurrence and their life span. In this study, we use markers of cell viability; genotoxicity and cellular turn over in order to shed light to these events. Tilapia and their blood were exposed to cadmium in acute exposure and in vitro assays. They were analyzed using flow cytometry for oxidative stress and membrane disruption, optical microscopy for erythrocytic nuclear alteration, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for cadmium content in aquaria water, blood and cytochemical and analytical electron microscopy techniques for the hemocateretic aspects. The results showed a close relationship among the total nuclear alterations and cadmium content in the total blood and melanomacrophage centres area, mismatching reactive oxygen species and membrane damages. Moreover, nuclear alterations frequencies (vacuolated, condensed and blebbed) showed to be associated to cadmium exposure whereas others (lobed and bud) were associated to depuration period. Decrease on nuclear alterations frequencies was also associated with hemosiderin increase inside spleen and head kidney macrophages mainly during depurative processes. These data disclosure in temporal fashion the main processes that drive the nuclear alterations frequencies and their relationship with some cellular and systemic biomarkers. PMID:26619141

  12. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, B

    2004-01-01

    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  13. [Cellular adaptation and cancerogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, F; Silpigni, A; Tomasello, R; Picone, G S; La Torre, I; Aragona, M

    1998-06-01

    The paper describes the main adaptive mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic process. As a result of the action of carcinogenic agents (physical, chemical, biological), and in relation to the functional status of the affected cells, a number of systems are triggered off: detoxification and conjugation systems, the metabolisation of the said agents, DNA repairing enzymes, increased shock proteins (HSP), the induction of clonal proliferation. All these systems are valuable to the survival of the body and the species and culminate in the apoptosis of damaged cells as the last attempt at adaptation of a social kind for the good of the body. When these compensation mechanisms prove ineffective, imprecise or are exceeded by cell adaptive capacity, the resulting structural and functional alterations trigger off (induction) a very long process which often lasts between one and two thirds of the body's life, in various stages, multistep and multifactorial: this neoplastic transformation leads to a purposeless, egoistic, anarchic proliferation of cells which wish to survive at all costs, even to the detriment of the body of which they form part. Following the exhaustion of cell adaptive defences, there is an accumulation of additional genetic alterations (promotion and progression), the cells become manifestly neoplastic and continue their egoistic adaptation, according to the laws of natural selection: the cells which survive are those which adapt best to the hostile environment of the host's body, which are unaffected by proliferation control mechanisms (contact inhibition, differentiation factors, apoptosis, etc.), which make the best of the growth factors present in their microenvironment, which accomplish the so-called decathlon of the metastatization process, namely acquiring new capacities which can overcome the basal membrane, invade tissues to which they are attracted and continue to proliferate. Manifestly neoplastic cells become not self at a later stage

  14. Nucleolar proteins change in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Gonzalez-Camacho, F.; Medina, F. J.

    Discovery of gravisensitivity of cells no specified to gravity perception focused continuous attention on an elucidation of mechanisms involved in altered gravity effects at the different levels of cellular organization A nucleolus is the nuclear domain in which the major portion of ribosome biogenesis takes place This is a basic process for cell vitality beginning with the transcription of rDNA followed by processing newly synthesized pre-rRNA molecules A wide range of nucleolar proteins plays a highly significant role in all stages of biosynthesis of ribosomes Different steps of ribosome biogenesis should respond to various external factors affecting generally the cell metabolism Nevertheless a nucleolus remains not enough studied under the influence of altered environmental conditions For this reason we studied root apices from 2-day old Lepidium sativum seedlings germinated and grown under slow horizontal clinorotation and stationary conditions in darkness The extraction of cell nuclei followed by sequential fractionation of nuclear proteins according to their solubility in buffers of increasing ionic strength was carried out This procedure gave rise to 5 distinct fractions We analyzed nuclear subproteomes of the most soluble fraction called S2 It is actually a functionally significant fraction consisting of ribonucleoproteins actively engaged in pre-rRNA synthesis and processing 2D-electrophoresis of S2 fraction proteins was carried out The gels were silver stained and stained gels were scanned and analyzed

  15. Metformin directly acts on mitochondria to alter cellular bioenergetics

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewski, Sylvia; Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Pollak, Michael; St-Pierre, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Background Metformin is widely used in the treatment of diabetes, and there is interest in ‘repurposing’ the drug for cancer prevention or treatment. However, the mechanism underlying the metabolic effects of metformin remains poorly understood. Methods We performed respirometry and stable isotope tracer analyses on cells and isolated mitochondria to investigate the impact of metformin on mitochondrial functions. Results We show that metformin decreases mitochondrial respiration, causing an i...

  16. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  17. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  18. Behavior of substances labeled with 3H-proline and 3H-fucose in the cellular processes of odontoblasts and ameloblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odontoblasts are cells with single cytoplasmic processes that grow longer as more dentin is elaborated. Ameloblasts also have single processes and it has been postulated that they too grow longer as more enamel is made. Support for this hypothesis was obtained using rat incisors to investigate the behavior of substances labeled with 3H-proline and 3H-fucose. A comparison was made between odontoblasts, which have processes known to grow and remain within the dentin, and the ameloblasts whose Tomes' processes are hypothesized to grow and leave remnants in the completed enamel. With 3H-proline, the odontoblast bodies are labeled at the early time intervals. With 3H-fucose, the cell bodies are labeled at the early intervals and the newly formed glycoproteins are deposited into the predentin. Almost immediately, these are progressively added to the dentin at the calcification front. With time a gradient of labeling extends from the unlabeled dentin toward the odontoblast bodies. Unlike the behavior of labeled proteins, by 1 and 2 days labeled glycoproteins appear along the entire length of the odontoblast processes. In the enamel, no Tomes' processes are present during maturation. With 3H-proline, reactions are adjacent to the cells and diffuse toward, but do not reach the dentino-enamel junction by 1 and 2 days. With 3H-fucose, reactions appear over the enamel near the cells. By 1 and 2 days no diffusive pattern is seen, but grains are concentrated near the dentino-enamel junction, in a region containing holes known to be the beginning of Tomes' processes. Since odontoblast glycoproteins migrate along odontoblast processes, it was postulated that cytoplasmic remnants were present in enamel along which ameloblast glycoproteins could also migrate to reach the holes at the dentino-enamel junction

  19. Can color changes alter the neural correlates of recognition memory? Manipulation of processing affects an electrophysiological indicator of conceptual implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Gao, Chuanji; Zhou, Jianshe; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-09-28

    It has been widely shown that recognition memory includes two distinct retrieval processes: familiarity and recollection. Many studies have shown that recognition memory can be facilitated when there is a perceptual match between the studied and the tested items. Most event-related potential studies have explored the perceptual match effect on familiarity on the basis of the hypothesis that the specific event-related potential component associated with familiarity is the FN400 (300-500 ms mid-frontal effect). However, it is currently unclear whether the FN400 indexes familiarity or conceptual implicit memory. In addition, on the basis of the findings of a previous study, the so-called perceptual manipulations in previous studies may also involve some conceptual alterations. Therefore, we sought to determine the influence of perceptual manipulation by color changes on recognition memory when the perceptual or the conceptual processes were emphasized. Specifically, different instructions (perceptually or conceptually oriented) were provided to the participants. The results showed that color changes may significantly affect overall recognition memory behaviorally and that congruent items were recognized with a higher accuracy rate than incongruent items in both tasks, but no corresponding neural changes were found. Despite the evident familiarity shown in the two tasks (the behavioral performance of recognition memory was much higher than at the chance level), the FN400 effect was found in conceptually oriented tasks, but not perceptually oriented tasks. It is thus highly interesting that the FN400 effect was not induced, although color manipulation of recognition memory was behaviorally shown, as seen in previous studies. Our findings of the FN400 effect for the conceptual but not perceptual condition support the explanation that the FN400 effect indexes conceptual implicit memory. PMID:27489100

  20. Nanostructured cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, P; Taylor, M D R; Brust, M

    2002-12-01

    Au nanocrystals spin-coated onto silicon from toluene form cellular networks. A quantitative statistical crystallography analysis shows that intercellular correlations drive the networks far from statistical equilibrium. Spin-coating from hexane does not produce cellular structure, yet a strong correlation is retained in the positions of nanocrystal aggregates. Mechanisms based on Marangoni convection alone cannot account for the variety of patterns observed, and we argue that spinodal decomposition plays an important role in foam formation.

  1. Cellular Cardiomyoplasty: Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Chachques, J. (J.); Acar, C; J. Herreros; Trainini, J. (Jorge); Prosper, F.; D’Attellis, N. (N.); Fabiani, J. N.; Carpentier, A

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial regeneration can be induced with the implantation of a variety of myogenic and angiogenic cell types. More than 150 patients have been treated with cellular cardiomyoplasty worldwide, 18 patients have been treated by our group. Cellular cardiomyoplasty seems to reduce the size and fibrosis of infarct scars, limit postischemic remodelling, and restore regional myocardial contractility. Techniques for skeletal myoblasts culture and ex vivo expansion using auto...

  2. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  3. Progress of cellular dedifferentiation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hu-xian; HU Da-hai; JIA Chi-yu; FU Xiao-bing

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation, the stepwise specialization of cells, and transdifferentiation, the apparent switching of one cell type into another, capture much of the stem cell spotlight. But dedifferentiation, the developmental reversal of a cell before it reinvents itself, is an important process too. In multicellular organisms, cellular dedifferentiation is the major process underlying totipotency, regeneration and formation of new stem cell lineages. In humans,dedifferentiation is often associated with carcinogenesis.The study of cellular dedifferentiation in animals,particularly early events related to cell fate-switch and determination, is limited by the lack of a suitable,convenient experimental system. The classic example of dedifferentiation is limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians, such as salamanders. Recently, several investigators have shown that certain mammalian cell types can be induced to dedifferentiate to progenitor cells when stimulated with the appropriate signals or materials. These discoveries open the possibility that researchers might enhance the endogenous regenerative capacity of mammals by inducing cellular dedifferentiation in vivo.

  4. HPV16 E2 could act as down-regulator in cellular genes implicated in apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia-Hernández Armando

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV E2 plays several important roles in the viral cycle, including the transcriptional regulation of the oncogenes E6 and E7, the regulation of the viral genome replication by its association with E1 helicase and participates in the viral genome segregation during mitosis by its association with the cellular protein Brd4. It has been shown that E2 protein can regulate negative or positively the activity of several cellular promoters, although the precise mechanism of this regulation is uncertain. In this work we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector to overexpress HPV16 E2 and evaluated the global pattern of biological processes regulated by E2 using microarrays expression analysis. Results The gene expression profile was strongly modified in cells expressing HPV16 E2, finding 1048 down-regulated genes, and 581 up-regulated. The main cellular pathway modified was WNT since we found 28 genes down-regulated and 15 up-regulated. Interestingly, this pathway is a convergence point for regulating the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation; MYCN, JAG1 and MAPK13 genes were selected to validate by RT-qPCR the microarray data as these genes in an altered level of expression, modify very important cellular processes. Additionally, we found that a large number of genes from pathways such as PDGF, angiogenesis and cytokines and chemokines mediated inflammation, were also modified in their expression. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that HPV16 E2 has regulatory effects on cellular gene expression in HPV negative cells, independent of the other HPV proteins, and the gene profile observed indicates that these effects could be mediated by interactions with cellular proteins. The cellular processes affected suggest that E2 expression leads to the cells in to a convenient environment for a replicative cycle of the virus.

  5. Cellular solidification of transparent monotectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulker, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding how liquid phase particles are engulfed or pushed during freezing of a monotectic is addressed. The additional complication is that the solid-liquid interface is nonplanar due to constitutional undercooling. Some evidence of particle pushing where the particles are the liquid phase of the montectic was already observed. Cellular freezing of the succinonitrile-glycerol system also occurred. Only a few compositions were tested at that time. The starting materials were not especially pure so that cellular interface observed was likely due to the presence of unkown impurities, the major portion of which was water. Topics addressed include: the effort of modeling the particle pushing process using the computer, establishing an apparatus for the determination of phase diagrams, and the measurement of the temperature gradients with a specimen which will solidify on the temperature gradient microscope stage.

  6. Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Gershenfeld, Neil

    2013-09-13

    We introduce composite materials made by reversibly assembling a three-dimensional lattice of mass-produced carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite parts with integrated mechanical interlocking connections. The resulting cellular composite materials can respond as an elastic solid with an extremely large measured modulus for an ultralight material (12.3 megapascals at a density of 7.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter). These materials offer a hierarchical decomposition in modeling, with bulk properties that can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes that can be determined by the placement of part types. Because site locations are locally constrained, structures can be produced in a relative assembly process that merges desirable features of fiber composites, cellular materials, and additive manufacturing.

  7. Effects of Silica Aerogel Content on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Poly(methyl methacry-late)/Silica Aerogel Dual-scale Cellular Foams Processed in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaoli; LUO Guoqiang; ZHANG Ruizhi; ZHANG Jian; LI Meijuan; SHEN Qiang; WANG Jin; ZHANG Lianmeng

    2016-01-01

    A novel poly(methyl-methacrylate)/silica aerogel (PMMA/SA) dual-scale cellular foam was synthesized with internal mixing followed by the supercritical carbon dioxide foaming process. The effects of silica aerogel content on the microstructural and mechanical performance of the foams were investigated by SEM, TEM analysis, and mechanical tests. The experimental results suggest that the employment of silica aerogel granule as addictive can distinctly improve the morphological feature as well as the mechanical performance in comparison to neat PMMA foam by uniformizing cell size distribution, decreasing cell size and increasing cell density. And dual-scale cells including micrometric cells of 3-10 μm and nanometric cells of about 50nm existed in the structure of foams resulting from the retained original framework structure of silica aerogel, which has not been described in other studies with the addition of various fillers. Furthermore, the mechanical strength was signiifcantly elevated even with a small amount of silica aerogel resulting from the unique microstructure, decreased cell size and enhanced cell walls. The compressive strength was 18.12 MPa and the lfexural strength was 18.90 MPa by adding 5wt% and 2wt% silica aerogel, respectively. These results demonstrate the potential to synthesize PMMA/SA dual-scale cellular foams to be used as structural materials with the advantages of low density and high strength.

  8. Research of the Production Process of a Company Based on Cellular Automata%基于元胞自动机的企业生产过程的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丽珍; 吴瑞明

    2012-01-01

    To reduce and prevent the accidents in the production process of a company, the theory of cellular automata is applied to the research of this, a cellular automata model for the executing system of the workers in the processing plant is formulated. Through the simulation in different states of personal factors and environmental factors , the analysis shows that the extend that the works comply with the regulations is one of the key factors that affect the degree of safety in the production process. The advices are helpful that the company must pay more attention to how the regulations can be executed carefully to reduce the gaps between actual behaviors and standard behaviors according to the regulations. This is meaningful for the research of safe production of a company.%为减少和预防企业生产中意外事故的发生,将元胞自动机理论应用于企业生产过程的研究,建立了某企业生产中基层-员工执行系统的元胞自动机模型.通过对安全生产的个人因素和环境因素在不同状态下的模拟和分析,认为员工遵守规章规程的程度是影响企业安全生产的关键因素之一;并在此基础上,建议企业多关注于如何保证政策法规被规范执行,以缩小实际操作与规则规程之间的差距.这为企业安全生产的研究提供了一种新的思路.

  9. Alteration of the Cyclin D1/p16-pRB Pathway,Cellular Proliferation and Apoptosis in Glioma%人脑胶质瘤中cyclin D1/p16-pRB路径异常以及细胞增殖和凋亡的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存祖; 傅震; 赵竹

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the alteration of cyclin D1, p16 and pRB in glioma, analyze proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells, and discuss the pathogenesis of glioma. Methods:Thirty-seven glioma specimens were classified as astrocytoma(25 cases, including 7 fibrillary cases; 6 protoplasmic cases; 12 anaplasfic cases), and glioblastoma( 12 cases,including 4 GBM cases). Ten normal brain tissues were taken as controls. The expression of cyclin D1, p16 and pRB were detected by immunohistochemical method. Cellular proliferation was assessed by Ki-67 label index(Ki-67 LI). Cellular apoptosis was detected by TUNEL and apoptotic indices(Al) was calculated. Results: The alterations of three proteins were cyclin D1 overexpression( 28/37,75.7% ), p16 and pRB deletion(20/37,54.1% and 12/37,32.4% ), which were closely related to tumor types, particularly in malignant glioma. Ki-67 LI and AI were higher when pRB pathway was abnormal. Apoptosis was minor in astrocytic tumors(astrocytomas,0.010 ± 0.002;glioblastomas,0.057 + 0.016). Conclusion: The abnormalities of cyclin D1/p16-pRB pathway correlated closely with pathogenesis of glioma.%目的:研究Gl→S调控点中cyclin Dl、p16及pRB基因在胶质瘤中表达情况,分析与细胞增殖和凋亡的关系,探讨肿瘤发生的原因.方法:37例人脑胶质瘤标本按WHO分类标准(1990)分为:星形细胞瘤(25例,纤维型7例,原浆型6例,间变型12例),胶质母细胞瘤(12例,包括GBM4例).正常对照脑组织10例.cyclin Dl、p16和Ki-67的表达用免疫组化的方法,凋亡细胞通过TUNEL进行检测,细胞增殖和凋亡的评估分别用Ki-67LI和凋亡指数(AI).结果:3种因子在胶质瘤中都存在着异常,其中cyclin Dl表现为过度表达(28/37,75.7%),p16、pRB表现为缺失(20/37,56.8%和12/37,32.4%),且都与肿瘤分型有关,在恶性肿瘤中更加明显;pRB路径的异常在胶质瘤中更是频发事件,与肿瘤恶化有关;pRB路径异常时,Ki-67LI和AI均明显增高;凋讯发

  10. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangil; Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Sik Yang, Sang; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  11. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang, E-mail: jsjlee@ajou.ac.kr, E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo, E-mail: jsjlee@ajou.ac.kr, E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-06

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  12. Effects of extra-cellular polymeric substances on organic pollutants biodegradation kinetics for A-step of adsorption-biodegradation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The features of organic pollutants degradation mainly characterized by bio-flocculation for step-A of adsorption-biodegredation(AB) process were studied. By investigating the relationship of extracellular polymeric substances(EPS) with bioflocculation and introducing kinetic model of organic pollutant degradation into EPS, the kinetic model of organic pollutant degradation for step-A bioflocculation was deducted. And through the experiments,the kinetic constants were calculated as follows: k1 =0. 005 3; kc1 =1710.7 and vmax1=10 min-1.

  13. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic feature of all forms of chronic kidney disease. Deposition of pathological matrix in the interstitial space and within the walls of glomerular capillaries as well as the cellular processes resulting in this deposition are increasingly recognized as important factors amplifying kidney injury and accelerating nephron demise. Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis herald the promise of new therapies to slow kidney disease progression. This review focuses on new findings that enhance understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, the characteristics of myofibroblasts, their progenitors, and molecular pathways regulating both fibrogenesis and its resolution. PMID:24892703

  14. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  15. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic feature of all forms of chronic kidney disease. Deposition of pathological matrix in the interstitial space and within the walls of glomerular capillaries as well as the cellular processes resulting in this deposition are increasingly recognized as important factors amplifying kidney injury and accelerating nephron demise. Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis herald the promise of new therapies to slow kidney disease progressi...

  16. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  17. In-Situ pH Measurements in Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Fluids: Constraints on Subseafloor Alteration Processes at Crustal Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaen, A. T.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    constraints imposed by the full range of chemical components in the vent fluids sampled and analyzed in association with pH (in-situ) measurements. Since pH is a master variable in all geochemical systems, the novel approach proposed here may provide new insight on hydrothermal alteration processes at conditions difficult or impossible to assess by more traditional means, ultimately influencing hydrothermal fluid fluxes.

  18. MicroRNA Profiling of the Effect of the Heptapeptide Angiotensin-(1-7) in A549 Lung Tumor Cells Reveals a Role for miRNA149-3p in Cellular Migration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Brenda de Oliveira; Lima, Kelvin Furtado; Gonçalves, Letícia Rocha; da Silveira, Marina Bonfogo; Moraes, Karen C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent types of cancer in humans and a leading cause of death worldwide. The high mortality rates are correlated with late diagnosis, which leads to high rates of metastasis found in patients. Thus, despite all the improvement in therapeutic approaches, the development of new drugs that control cancer cell migration and metastasis are required. The heptapeptide angiotensin-(1–7) [ang-(1–7)] has demonstrated the ability to control the growth rates of human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and the elucidation of central elements that control the fine-tuning of cancer cells migration in the presence of the ang-(1–7), will support the development of new therapeutic approaches. Ang-(1–7) is a peptide hormone of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and this study investigates the modulatory effect of the heptapeptide on the expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs) in lung tumor cells, to elucidate mechanistic concerns about the effect of the peptide in the control of tumor migratory processes. Our primary aim was to compare the miRNA profiling between treated and untreated-heptapeptide cells to characterize the relevant molecule that modulates cellular migration rates. The analyses selected twenty one miRNAs, which are differentially expressed between the groups; however, statistical analyses indicated miRNA-149-3p as a relevant molecule. Once functional analyses were performed, we demonstrated that miRNA-149-3p plays a role in the cellular migration processes. This information could be useful for future investigations on drug development. PMID:27598578

  19. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jennifer S.; Swanson, Basil I.; Grace, Karen M.; Grace, Wynne K.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  20. Cellular automata a parallel model

    CERN Document Server

    Mazoyer, J

    1999-01-01

    Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.

  1. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  2. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  3. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  4. Monocyte Activation in Immunopathology: Cellular Test for Development of Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several highly prevalent human diseases are associated with immunopathology. Alterations in the immune system are found in such life-threatening disorders as cancer and atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation followed by macrophage polarization is an important step in normal immune response to pathogens and other relevant stimuli. Depending on the nature of the activation signal, macrophages can acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes that are characterized by the expression of distinct patterns of secreted cytokines and surface antigens. This process is disturbed in immunopathologies resulting in abnormal monocyte activation and/or bias of macrophage polarization towards one or the other phenotype. Such alterations could be used as important diagnostic markers and also as possible targets for the development of immunomodulating therapy. Recently developed cellular tests are designed to analyze the phenotype and activity of living cells circulating in patient’s bloodstream. Monocyte/macrophage activation test is a successful example of cellular test relevant for atherosclerosis and oncopathology. This test demonstrated changes in macrophage activation in subclinical atherosclerosis and breast cancer and could also be used for screening a panel of natural agents with immunomodulatory activity. Further development of cellular tests will allow broadening the scope of their clinical implication. Such tests may become useful tools for drug research and therapy optimization.

  5. Magnetic Cellular Switches

    OpenAIRE

    Overby, Darryl R.; Alenghat, Francis J.; Montoya-Zavala, Martín; Bei, HuCheng; Oh, Philmo; Karavitis, John; Ingber, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of magnetic cellular switches to enable magnetic control of intracellular functions in living mammalian cells, including receptor signal transduction and gene transcription. Our approach takes advantage of the mechanosensitivity of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) induction and downstream transcription controlled by the cAMP regulatory element (CRE) to engineer gene constructs that optically report gene expression in living cells. We activate transcri...

  6. Cellular therapy in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreemanta K. Parida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB. We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs, as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy.

  7. Cellular response within the periodontal ligament on application of orthodontic forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeer Ahmed Meeran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During application of controlled orthodontic force on teeth, remodeling of the periodontal ligament (PDL and the alveolar bone takes place. Orthodontic forces induce a multifaceted bone remodeling response. Osteoclasts responsible for bone resorption are mainly derived from the macrophages and osteoblasts are produced by proliferations of the cells of the periodontal ligament. Orthodontic force produces local alterations in vascularity, as well as cellular and extracellular matrix reorganization, leading to the synthesis and release of various neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, colony-stimulating factors, and metabolites of arachidonic acid. Although many studies have been reported in the orthodontic and related scientific literature, research is constantly being done in this field resulting in numerous current updates in the biology of tooth movement, in response to orthodontic force. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the mechanical and biological processes taking place at the cellular level during orthodontic tooth movement.

  8. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  9. The cellular decision between apoptosis and autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Jun Fan; Wei-Xing Zong

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis and autophagy are important molecular processes that maintain organismal and cellular homeostasis,respectively.While apoptosis fulfills its role through dismantling damaged or unwanted cells,autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis through recycling selective intracellular organelles and molecules.Yet in some conditions,autophagy can lead to cell death.Apoptosis and autophagy can be stimulated by the same stresses.Emerging evidence indicates an interplay between the core proteins in both pathways,which underlies the molecular mechanism of the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy.This review summarizes recent literature on molecules that regulate both the apoptotic and autophagic processes.

  10. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anupam; Dong, Zheng; Harris, Raymond; Murray, Patrick; Parikh, Samir M; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we review the current evidence for the cellular and molecular mechanisms of AKI, focusing on epithelial cell pathobiology and related cell-cell interactions, using ischemic AKI as a model. Highlighted are the clinical relevance of cellular and molecular targets that have been investigated in experimental models of ischemic AKI and how such models might be improved to optimize translation into successful clinical trials. In particular, development of more context-specific animal models with greater relevance to human AKI is urgently needed. Comorbidities that could alter patient susceptibility to AKI, such as underlying diabetes, aging, obesity, cancer, and CKD, should also be considered in developing these models. Finally, harmonization between academia and industry for more clinically relevant preclinical testing of potential therapeutic targets and better translational clinical trial design is also needed to achieve the goal of developing effective interventions for AKI. PMID:26860342

  11. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  12. Myocardial Remodeling: Cellular and Extracellular Events and Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jennifer A.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this review is on translational studies utilizing large-animal models and clinical studies that provide fundamental insight into cellular and extracellular pathways contributing to post–myocardial infarction (MI) left ventricle (LV) remodeling. Specifically, both large-animal and clinical studies have examined the potential role of endogenous and exogenous stem cells to alter the course of LV remodeling. Interestingly, there have been alterations in LV remodeling with stem cell treatment despite a lack of long-term cell engraftment. The translation of the full potential of stem cell treatments to clinical studies has yet to be realized. The modulation of proteolytic pathways that contribute to the post-MI remodeling process has also been examined. On the basis of recent large-animal studies, there appears to be a relationship between stem cell treatment post-MI and the modification of proteolytic pathways, generating the hypothesis that stem cells leave an echo effect that moderates LV remodeling. PMID:21314431

  13. Analysis of genes differentially expressed during initial cellular dedifferentiation in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU HuaGuo; TU LiLi; JIN ShuangXia; XU Li; TAN JiaFu; DENG FengLin; ZHANG XianLong

    2008-01-01

    The early phase of phytohormone induction is a vital stage of somatic embryogenesis. This phase includes a key process for acquiring cellular totipotency through cellular dedifferentiation. To unravel the molecular mechanism of cellular dedifferentiation in cotton, we constructed a cDNA library using the suppression subtractive hybridization method. A total of 286 differential cDNA clones were sequenced and identified. Among these clones, 112 unique ESTs were significantly up-regulated during the early phase of phytohormone induction, and 40.2% of the ESTs were first identified. GST was highly expressed from 6 to 24 h after induction with phytohormone treatment. PRPs were predominantly expressed and exhibited distinct expression patterns in different treatments, suggesting that they are closely related to cellular dedifferentiation in cotton. Putative GhSAMS, GhSAMDC, GhSAHH and GhACO3 involvement in SAM metabolism was identified in this library. The analysis of qRT-PCR showed that two remarkable increased expressions of the four SAM-related genes happened during the early phase of phytohormone induction, and that a highly positive correlation existed between GhSAMS and GhSAHH. The highest expression level of GhSAMS might be associated with its reentry into the cell cycle. The histological observations further showed that some cells accomplished cellular dedifferentiation and division within 72 h in 2,4-D treatment, and that cellular dedifferentiation might be regulated through two alterations in SAM-dependent transmethylation activity in cotton. In addition, the expression patterns of differential genes in different treatments disclosed the complicated interaction between 2, 4-D and kinetin.

  14. TWO STAGE FRAMEWORK FOR ALTERED FINGERPRINT MATCHING

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. Anoop; M.G. Mini

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint alteration is the process of masking one’s identity from personal identification systems especially in boarder control security systems. Failure of matching the altered fingerprint of the criminals against the watch list of fingerprints can help them to break the security system. This fact leads to the need of a method for altered fingerprint matching. This paper presents a two stage method for altered fingerprint matching. In first stage, approximated global ridge orientation fie...

  15. Cellular Therapy for Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltis, Peter J; Schwarz, Nisha; Toledo-Flores, Deborah; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF) is underpinned by complex changes at subcellular, cellular and extracellular levels in the ventricular myocardium. For all of the gains that conventional treatments for HF have brought to mortality and morbidity, they do not adequately address the loss of cardiomyocyte numbers in the remodeling ventricle. Originally conceived to address this problem, cellular transplantation for HF has already gone through several stages of evolution over the past two decades. Various cell types and delivery routes have been implemented to positive effect in preclinical models of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy, with pleiotropic benefits observed in terms of myocardial remodeling, systolic and diastolic performance, perfusion, fibrosis, inflammation, metabolism and electrophysiology. To a large extent, these salubrious effects are now attributed to the indirect, paracrine capacity of transplanted stem cells to facilitate endogenous cardiac repair processes. Promising results have also followed in early phase human studies, although these have been relatively modest and somewhat inconsistent. This review details the preclinical and clinical evidence currently available regarding the use of pluripotent stem cells and adult-derived progenitor cells for cardiomyopathy and HF. It outlines the important lessons that have been learned to this point in time, and balances the promise of this exciting field against the key challenges and questions that still need to be addressed at all levels of research, to ensure that cell therapy realizes its full potential by adding to the armamentarium of HF management. PMID:27280304

  16. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.......Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...

  17. Plant growth conditions alter phytolith carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley L Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM that are trapped during the process of silicification. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin and carbohydrate complexes. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicifies, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a glass wastebasket. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map the distribution of OM in phytoliths, and to analyze individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants grown under different laboratory treatments. Using mapping, we showed that OM in phytoliths is distributed throughout the silica and is not related to dark spots visible in light microscopy, previously assumed to be the repository for phytolith OM. The Raman spectra exhibited common bands indicative of C-H stretching modes of general OM, and further more diagnostic bands consistent with carbohydrates, lignins and other OM. These Raman spectra exhibited variability of spectral signatures and of relative intensities between sample treatments indicating that differing growth conditions altered the phytolith carbon. This may have strong implications for understanding the mechanism of phytolith formation, and for use of phytolith carbon isotope values in dating or paleoclimate reconstruction.

  18. Mitochondrial Morphology and Fundamental Parameters of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Are Altered in Caenorhabditis elegans Strains Deficient in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Homeostasis Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anthony L; Rooney, John P; Kubik, Laura L; Gonzalez, Claudia P; Song, Dong Hoon; Meyer, Joel N

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors), carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler) and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1)-, fusion (fzo-1)-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1)-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1)-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes. PMID:26106885

  19. Mitochondrial Morphology and Fundamental Parameters of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Are Altered in Caenorhabditis elegans Strains Deficient in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Homeostasis Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L Luz

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor, we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1-, fusion (fzo-1-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes.

  20. Systems biology analysis merging phenotype, metabolomic and genomic data identifies Non-SMC Condensin I Complex, Subunit G (NCAPG) and cellular maintenance processes as major contributors to genetic variability in bovine feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Philipp; Reverter, Antonio; Weikard, Rosemarie; Suhre, Karsten; Hammon, Harald M; Albrecht, Elke; Kuehn, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Feed efficiency is a paramount factor for livestock economy. Previous studies had indicated a substantial heritability of several feed efficiency traits. In our study, we investigated the genetic background of residual feed intake, a commonly used parameter of feed efficiency, in a cattle resource population generated from crossing dairy and beef cattle. Starting from a whole genome association analysis, we subsequently performed combined phenotype-metabolome-genome analysis taking a systems biology approach by inferring gene networks based on partial correlation and information theory approaches. Our data about biological processes enriched with genes from the feed efficiency network suggest that genetic variation in feed efficiency is driven by genetic modulation of basic processes relevant to general cellular functions. When looking at the predicted upstream regulators from the feed efficiency network, the Tumor Protein P53 (TP53) and Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 (TGFB1) genes stood out regarding significance of overlap and number of target molecules in the data set. These results further support the hypothesis that TP53 is a major upstream regulator for genetic variation of feed efficiency. Furthermore, our data revealed a significant effect of both, the Non-SMC Condensin I Complex, Subunit G (NCAPG) I442M (rs109570900) and the Growth /differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) Q204X (rs110344317) loci, on residual feed intake and feed conversion. For both loci, the growth promoting allele at the onset of puberty was associated with a negative, but favorable effect on residual feed intake. The elevated energy demand for increased growth triggered by the NCAPG 442M allele is obviously not fully compensated for by an increased efficiency in converting feed into body tissue. As a consequence, the individuals carrying the NCAPG 442M allele had an additional demand for energy uptake that is reflected by the association of the allele with increased daily energy intake as

  1. Cellular compartmentalization of secondary metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Corby eKistler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal secondary metabolism is often considered apart from the essential housekeeping functions of the cell. However, there are clear links between fundamental cellular metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to secondary metabolite synthesis. Besides utilizing key biochemical precursors shared with the most essential processes of the cell (e.g. amino acids, acetyl CoA, NADPH, enzymes for secondary metabolite synthesis are compartmentalized at conserved subcellular sites that position pathway enzymes to use these common biochemical precursors. Co-compartmentalization of secondary metabolism pathway enzymes also may function to channel precursors, promote pathway efficiency and sequester pathway intermediates and products from the rest of the cell. In this review we discuss the compartmentalization of three well-studied fungal secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways for penicillin G, aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol, and summarize evidence used to infer subcellular localization. We also discuss how these metabolites potentially are trafficked within the cell and may be exported.

  2. Multiuser Cellular Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Modern radio communication is faced with a problem about how to distribute restricted frequency to users in a certain space. Since our task is to minimize the number of repeaters, a natural idea is enlarging coverage area. However, coverage has restrictions. First, service area has to be divided economically as repeater's coverage is limited. In this paper, our fundamental method is to adopt seamless cellular network division. Second, underlying physics content in frequency distribution problem is interference between two close frequencies. Consequently, we choose a proper frequency width of 0.1MHz and a relevantly reliable setting to apply one frequency several times. We make a few general assumptions to simplify real situation. For instance, immobile users yield to homogenous distribution; repeaters can receive and transmit information in any given frequency in duplex operation; coverage is mainly decided by antenna height. Two models are built up to solve 1000 users and 10000 users situations respectively....

  3. Real time kinetic flow cytometry measurements of cellular parameter changes evoked by nanosecond pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Csaba; Pérez-García, Esther; Bajnok, Anna; McBean, Gethin; Toldi, Gergely; Blanco-Fernandez, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel method to increase cell proliferation rate. The phenomenon is based on the microporation of cellular organelles and membranes. However, we have limited information on the effects of nsPEF on cell physiology. Several studies have attempted to describe the effects of this process, however no real time measurements have been conducted to date. In this study we designed a model system which allows the measurement of cellular processes before, during and after nsPEF treatment in real time. The system employs a Vabrema Mitoplicator(TM) nsPEF field generating instrument connected to a BD Accuri C6 cytometer with a silicon tube led through a peristaltic pump. This model system was applied to observe the effects of nsPEF in mammalian C6 glioblastoma (C6 glioma) and HEK-293 cell lines. Viability (using DRAQ7 dye), intracellular calcium levels (using Fluo-4 dye) and scatter characteristics were measured in a kinetic manner. Data were analyzed using the FACSKin software. The viability and morphology of the investigated cells was not altered upon nsPEF treatment. The response of HEK-293 cells to ionomycin as positive control was significantly lower in the nsPEF treated samples compared to non-treated cells. This difference was not observed in C6 cells. FSC and SSC values were not altered significantly by the nsPEF treatment. Our results indicate that this model system is capable of reliably investigating the effects of nsPEF on cellular processes in real time. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:26990601

  4. Online isolation of defects in cellular nanocomputers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teijiro Isokawa; Shin'ya Kowada; Ferdinand Peper; Naotake Kamiura; Nobuyuki Matsui

    2007-01-01

    Unreliability will be a major issue for computers built from components at nanometer scales.Thus,it's to be expected that such computers will need a high degree of defect-tolerance to overcome components' defects which have arisen during the process of manufacturing.This paper presents a novel approach to defect-tolerance that is especially geared towards nanocomputers based on asynchronous cellular automata.According to this approach,defective cells are detected and isolated by small configurations that move around randomly in cellular space.These configurations,called random flies,will attach to configurations that are static,which is typical for configurations that contain defective cells.On the other hand,dynamic configurations,like those that conduct computations,will not be isolated from the rest of the cellular space by the random flies,and will be able to continue their operations unaffectedly.

  5. Cellular and molecular basis of mammary microcalcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Mammary microcalcifications represent one of the most reliable mammographic features of non-palpable breast cancer and are often the sole indicator of the disease. However, it is unknown whether these microcalcifications are a sign of degeneration or an active cellular process. The aims of this project were to establish and characterise an in vitro model of mammary mineralisation in monolayer, 3D scaffolds and in vivo and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process, focus...

  6. Pirin inhibits cellular senescence in melanocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciulli, Silvia; Luise, Chiara; Scafetta, Gaia; Capra, Maria; Giardina, Giuseppina; Nuciforo, Paolo; Bosari, Silvano; Viale, Giuseppe; Mazzarol, Giovanni; Tonelli, Chiara; Lanfrancone, Luisa; Alcalay, Myriam

    2011-05-01

    Cellular senescence has been widely recognized as a tumor suppressing mechanism that acts as a barrier to cancer development after oncogenic stimuli. A prominent in vivo model of the senescence barrier is represented by nevi, which are composed of melanocytes that, after an initial phase of proliferation induced by activated oncogenes (most commonly BRAF), are blocked in a state of cellular senescence. Transformation to melanoma occurs when genes involved in controlling senescence are mutated or silenced and cells reacquire the capacity to proliferate. Pirin (PIR) is a highly conserved nuclear protein that likely functions as a transcriptional regulator whose expression levels are altered in different types of tumors. We analyzed the expression pattern of PIR in adult human tissues and found that it is expressed in melanocytes and has a complex pattern of regulation in nevi and melanoma: it is rarely detected in mature nevi, but is expressed at high levels in a subset of melanomas. Loss of function and overexpression experiments in normal and transformed melanocytic cells revealed that PIR is involved in the negative control of cellular senescence and that its expression is necessary to overcome the senescence barrier. Our results suggest that PIR may have a relevant role in melanoma progression. PMID:21514450

  7. Data for mitochondrial proteomic alterations in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Lance M; Stauch, Kelly L; Fox, Howard S

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria are a critical organelle involved in many cellular processes, and due to the nature of the brain, neuronal cells are almost completely reliant on these organelles for energy generation. Due to the fact that biomedical research tends to investigate disease state pathogenesis, one area of mitochondrial research commonly overlooked is homeostatic responses to energy demands. Therefore, to elucidate mitochondrial alterations occurring during the developmentally important phase of E18 to P7 in the brain, we quantified the proteins in the mitochondrial proteome as well as proteins interacting with the mitochondria. We identified a large number of significantly altered proteins involved in a variety of pathways including glycolysis, mitochondrial trafficking, mitophagy, and the unfolded protein response. These results are important because we identified alterations thought to be homeostatic in nature occurring within mitochondria, and these results may be used to identify any abnormal deviations in the mitochondrial proteome occurring during this period of brain development. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article "Proteomic analysis of mitochondria from embryonic and postnatal rat brains reveals response to developmental changes in energy demands" in the Journal of Proteomics. PMID:26217684

  8. Never-ageing cellular senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrunc, Müge; d’Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Cellular senescence was historically discovered as a form of cellular ageing of in vitro cultured cells. It has been under the spotlight following the evidence of oncogene-induced senescence in vivo and its role as a potent tumour suppressor mechanism. Presently, a PubMed search using keywords ‘cellular senescence and cancer’ reveals 8398 number of references (by April 2011) showing that while our knowledge of senescence keeps expanding, the complexity of the phenomenon keeps us – researchers...

  9. The State of Cellular Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Youngbin

    2003-01-01

    Cellular probe technology is one of several potentially promising technologies for obtaining accurate travel time information. In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated E911 requirements that cellular location be provided when 911 emergency calls come in to emergency management authorities. The E911 requirements allow 50 -300 meters from the emergency call location, depending on the type of cellular phone technology used and whether handset-based or network-based solutions...

  10. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Nanni, Valentina; Reina, Giacomo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Canini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin), and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. PMID:26893562

  11. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismondi A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Angelo Gismondi,1 Valentina Nanni,1 Giacomo Reina,2 Silvia Orlanducci,2 Maria Letizia Terranova,2 Antonella Canini1 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy Abstract: For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. Keywords: citropten, cytoskeletal structure, plant secondary metabolite, melanoma, internalization kinetics

  12. Natural Products as Tools for Defining How Cellular Metabolism Influences Cellular Immune and Inflammatory Function during Chronic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. Lovelace

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic viral infections like those caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cause disease that establishes an ongoing state of chronic inflammation. While there have been tremendous improvements towards curing HCV with directly acting antiviral agents (DAA and keeping HIV viral loads below detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART, there is still a need to control inflammation in these diseases. Recent studies indicate that many natural products like curcumin, resveratrol and silymarin alter cellular metabolism and signal transduction pathways via enzymes such as adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, and these pathways directly influence cellular inflammatory status (such as NF-κB and immune function. Natural products represent a vast toolkit to dissect and define how cellular metabolism controls cellular immune and inflammatory function.

  13. Cellular bioluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David K; Noguchi, Takako

    2012-08-01

    Bioluminescence imaging of live cells has recently been recognized as an important alternative to fluorescence imaging. Fluorescent probes are much brighter than bioluminescent probes (luciferase enzymes) and, therefore, provide much better spatial and temporal resolution and much better contrast for delineating cell structure. However, with bioluminescence imaging there is virtually no background or toxicity. As a result, bioluminescence can be superior to fluorescence for detecting and quantifying molecules and their interactions in living cells, particularly in long-term studies. Structurally diverse luciferases from beetle and marine species have been used for a wide variety of applications, including tracking cells in vivo, detecting protein-protein interactions, measuring levels of calcium and other signaling molecules, detecting protease activity, and reporting circadian clock gene expression. Such applications can be optimized by the use of brighter and variously colored luciferases, brighter microscope optics, and ultrasensitive, low-noise cameras. This article presents a review of how bioluminescence differs from fluorescence, its applications to cellular imaging, and available probes, optics, and detectors. It also gives practical suggestions for optimal bioluminescence imaging of single cells.

  14. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  15. Implications of TGFβ on transcriptome and cellular biofunctions of palatal mesenchyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan eZhu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of the palate comprises sequential stages of growth, elevation and fusion of the palatal shelves. The mesenchymal component of palates plays a major role in early phases of palatogenesis, such as growth and elevation. Failure in these steps may result in cleft palate, the second most common birth defect in the world. These early stages of palatogenesis require precise and chronological orchestration of key physiological processes, such as growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. There is compelling evidence for the vital role of TGFβ-mediated regulation of palate development. We hypothesized that the isoforms of TGFβ regulate different cellular biofunctions of the palatal mesenchyme to various extents. Human embryonic palatal mesenchyme (HEPM cells were treated with TGFβ1, β2, and β3 for microarray-based gene expression studies in order to identify the roles of TGFβ in the transcriptome of the palatal mesenchyme. Following normalization and modeling of 28,869 human genes, 566 transcripts were detected as differentially expressed in TGFβ-treated HEPM cells. Out of these altered transcripts, 234 of them were clustered in cellular biofunctions, including growth and proliferation, development, morphology, movement, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Biological interpretation and network analysis of the genes active in cellular biofunctions were performed using IPA. Among the differentially expressed genes, 11 of them were previously identified as being crucial for palatogenesis (EDN1, INHBA, LHX8, PDGFC, PIGA, RUNX1, SNAI1, SMAD3, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and TGFβR1. These genes were used for a merged interaction network with cellular behaviors. Overall, we have determined that more than 2% of human transcripts were differentially expressed in response to TGFβ treatment in HEPM cells. Our results suggest that both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 orchestrate major cellular biofunctions within the palatal mesenchyme in vitro by

  16. Adaptive optics without altering visual perception

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig,, I.; NW, Hart; HJ, Hofer

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive optics combined with visual psychophysics creates the potential to study the relationship between visual function and the retina at the cellular scale. This potential is hampered, however, by visual interference from the wavefront-sensing beacon used during correction. For example, we have previously shown that even a dim, visible beacon can alter stimulus perception (Hofer, H. J., Blaschke, J., Patolia, J., & Koenig, D. E. (2012). Fixation light hue bias revisited: Implications for ...

  17. Cellular and molecular modifier pathways in tauopathies: the big picture from screening invertebrate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Shabab B; Dräger, Nina M; Rasse, Tobias M; Voigt, Aaron; Jahn, Thomas R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal tau accumulations were observed and documented in post-mortem brains of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before the identification of mutations in the Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene, encoding the tau protein, in a different neurodegenerative disease called Frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). The discovery of mutations in the MAPT gene associated with FTDP-17 highlighted that dysfunctions in tau alone are sufficient to cause neurodegeneration. Invertebrate models have been diligently utilized in investigating tauopathies, contributing to the understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in disease etiology. An important discovery came with the demonstration that over-expression of human tau in Drosophila leads to premature mortality and neuronal dysfunction including neurodegeneration, recapitulating some key neuropathological features of the human disease. The simplicity of handling invertebrate models combined with the availability of a diverse range of experimental resources make these models, in particular Drosophila a powerful invertebrate screening tool. Consequently, several large-scale screens have been performed using Drosophila, to identify modifiers of tau toxicity. The screens have revealed not only common cellular and molecular pathways, but in some instances the same modifier has been independently identified in two or more screens suggesting a possible role for these modifiers in regulating tau toxicity. The purpose of this review is to discuss the genetic modifier screens on tauopathies performed in Drosophila and C. elegans models, and to highlight the common cellular and molecular pathways that have emerged from these studies. Here, we summarize results of tau toxicity screens providing mechanistic insights into pathological alterations in tauopathies. Key pathways or modifiers that have been identified are associated with a broad range of processes

  18. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation.

  19. Hypogene and supergene alteration of the zeolite-bearing pyroclastic deposits at Tell Rimah, Jordan, and rift-related processes along the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System during the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

    2012-09-01

    The boundary between the Arabian and African plates, is marked in the Middle East by one of the most prominent deep-seated lineamentary structures, called the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System (DSTFS). Structural and mineralogical processes related to the DSTFS were correlated with equivalent processes leading to the alteration of pyroclastic deposits of alkali-olivine basaltic to nepheline basaltic composition which formed during a time span of less than 0.5 Ma. The large deposit of Tell Rimah, Jordan, is operated for the exploitation of zeolites, tuffs, and as pozzolana raw material. Four discrete stages of mineralizations have been distinguished from each other within these volcanic-hosted mineral deposits. (1) Hypogene syneruptive alteration of pyroclastic rocks produced siliceous gels ("allophane"), smectite, analcime, and phillipsite in vesicles when the groundwater level was low in the rift basin of the DSTFS. The lake-level lowstand caused the fluid system in the pyroclastic cone to become self-sufficient and it has been considered as a closed hydrothermal system. (2) Periods of tectonic and magmatic quiescence grinded the detrital sedimentation in the rift basin to a halt, while triggering a supergene alteration in the eruptive cones on the adjacent Arabian Plate. (3) Epigenetic alteration affected the pyroclastic rocks in the distal part of the DSTFS as a result of a rising water level. The water gradually filled the pore space of the permeable pyroclastic deposits almost to completeness and caused meniscus and blocky cements of calcite, phillipsite and chabazite to develop. In the rift basin, contemporaneously with the alteration of the pyroclastic rocks, freshwater limestones formed on calcareous bedrocks. Ba and Mn minerals in these freshwater limestones were supplied by subaquatic brines. Subsequently, a drastic lowering of the lake water level in the DSTFS converted the system of subaquatic freshwater limestones into subaerial tufa and travertine. As

  20. About Strongly Universal Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Margenstern

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a strongly universal cellular automaton on the line with 11 states and the standard neighbourhood. We embed this construction into several tilings of the hyperbolic plane and of the hyperbolic 3D space giving rise to strongly universal cellular automata with 10 states.

  1. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  2. Altered emotional interference processing in the amygdala and insula in women with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ☆ ☆☆

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Steven E.; Buchholz, Katherine R.; Brown, Wilson J.; Yan, Laura; Durbin, Anthony; Sheline, Yvette I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterized by distinct behavioral and physiological changes. Given the significant impairments related to PTSD, examination of the biological underpinnings is crucial to the development of theoretical models and improved treatments of PTSD. Methods We used an attentional interference task using emotional distracters to test for top-down versus bottom-up dysfunction in the interaction of cognitive-control circuitry and emotion-processing c...

  3. Vanderbilt University Study Creates New Roadmap for Cellular Activity - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists studying cellular processes have long sought to measure redox modifications because they provide one of the normal layers of cell control. But redox disruption or oxidative stress at the cellular level can also create a pathway to diseases like

  4. The interconnection of wet and dry deposition and the alteration of deposition budgets due to incorporation of new process understanding in regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. L.; Bash, J. O.; Foley, K. M.; Gilliam, R.; Pinder, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Deposition is affected by the chemical and physical processes represented in the regional models as well as source strength. The overall production and loss budget (wet and dry deposition) is dynamically connected and adjusts internally to changes in process representation. In addition, the scrubbing of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is one of several processes that remove pollutants, creating a coupling with the atmospheric aqueous and gas phase chemistry that can influence wet deposition rates in a nonlinear manner. We explore through model sensitivities with the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model the influence on wet and dry deposition, and the overall continental nitrogen budget, of changes in three process representations in the model: (1) incorporation of lightning generated NO, (2) improved representation of convective precipitation, and (3) replacement of the typical unidirectional dry deposition of NH3 with a state of the science representation of NH3 bi-directional air-surface exchange. Results of the sensitivity studies will be presented. (1) Incorporation of lightning generated NO significantly reduces a negative bias in summer wet nitrate deposition, but is sensitive to the choice of convective parameterization. (2) Use of a less active trigger of convective precipitation in the WRF meteorological model to reduce summertime precipitation over prediction bias reduces the generation of NO from lightning. It also reduces the wet deposition of nitrate and increases the dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen, as well as changing (reducing) the surface level exposure to ozone. Improvements in the convective precipitation processes also result in more non-precipitating clouds leading to an increase in SO4 production through the aqueous pathway resulting in improvements in summertime SO4 ambient aerosol estimates.(3) Incorporation of state of the science ammonia bi-directional air surface exchange affects both the dry

  5. Development, alteration and real time dynamics of conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Siebelmann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT is thought to play a key role in initiating ocular surface related immune responses. This study was planned to get first profound insights into the function of CALT related to development, cellular dynamics and morphological alteration using a novel mouse model. METHODS: Expression and morphology of CALT were investigated using BALB/c mice kept under different housing conditions, after topical antigen-stimulation and following lymphadenectomy and splenectomy. Particles and bacteria were applied topically to study antigen-transport. Intravital visualization was performed using two-photon microscopy. RESULTS: Postnatal development and ultrastructure of CALT in the mouse is similar to humans. Topical antigen-challenge significantly alters CALT expression. Bacterial translocation is demonstrated via lymphoepithelium whereas cellular velocities within follicles were approximately 8 µm/min. CONCLUSIONS: CALT in the mouse is an immunological interface of the ocular surface, featuring dynamic processes such as morphological plasticity, particle/bacteria transport and cellular migration.

  6. Hyperglycaemia Alters Thymic Epithelial Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alexandrovna Abramova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is considered to be a consequence of unchecked auto-immune processes. Alterations in immune system responses are thought to be the cause of the disease, but the possibility that altered metabolite levels (glucose can establish the disease by specifically acting on and altering thymus stroma functions has not been investigated. Therefore, the direct effect of hyperglycaemia (HG on central tolerance mechanisms as a causative agent needs to be investigated.

  7. Molecular and cellular pathways associated with chromosome 1p deletions during colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne CM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Claire M Payne, Cheray Crowley-Skillicorn, Carol Bernstein, Hana Holubec, Harris BernsteinDepartment of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Chromosomal instability is a major pathway of sporadic colon carcinogenesis. Chromosome arm 1p appears to be one of the “hot spots” in the non-neoplastic mucosa that, when deleted, is associated with the initiation of carcinogenesis. Chromosome arm 1p contains genes associated with DNA repair, spindle checkpoint function, apoptosis, multiple microRNAs, the Wnt signaling pathway, tumor suppression, antioxidant activities, and defense against environmental toxins. Loss of 1p is dangerous since it would likely contribute to genomic instability leading to tumorigenesis. The 1p deletion-associated colon carcinogenesis pathways are reviewed at the molecular and cellular levels. Sporadic colon cancer is strongly linked to a high-fat/low-vegetable/low-micronutrient, Western-style diet. We also consider how selected dietary-related compounds (eg, excess hydrophobic bile acids, and low levels of folic acid, niacin, plant-derived antioxidants, and other modulatory compounds might affect processes leading to chromosomal deletions, and to the molecular and cellular pathways specifically altered by chromosome 1p loss.Keywords: chromosome 1p, colon carcinogenesis, molecular pathways, cellular pathways

  8. Proteomic alterations in root tips of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under altered gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H. Q.; Wang, H.

    Gravity has a profound influence on plant growth and development Removed the influence of gravitational acceleration by spaceflight caused a wide range of cellular changes in plant Whole seedling that germinated and grown on clinostats showed the absent of gravitropism At the cellular level clinostat treatment has specific effects on plant cells such as induce alterations in cell wall composition increase production of heat-soluble proteins impact on the cellular energy metabolism facilitate a uniform distribution of plastids amyloplasts and increase number and volume of nucleoli A number of recent studies have shown that the exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings and callus cells to gravity stimulation hyper g-forces or clinostat rotation induces alterations in gene expression In our previous study the proteome of the Arabidopsis thaliana callus cells were separated by high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis 2-DE Image analysis revealed that 80 protein spots showed quantitative and qualitative variations after exposure to clinostat rotation treatment We report here a systematic proteomic approach to investigate the altered gravity responsive proteins in root tip of Arabidopsis thaliana cv Landsberg erecta Three-day-old seedlings were exposed for 12h to a horizontal clinostat rotation H simulated weightlessness altered g-forces by centrifugation 7g hypergravity a vertical clinostat rotation V clinostat control or a stationary control grown conditions Total proteins of roots were extracted

  9. Vector-averaged gravity does not alter acetylcholine receptor single channel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitstetter, R.; Gruener, R.

    1994-01-01

    To examine the physiological sensitivity of membrane receptors to altered gravity, we examined the single channel properties of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), in co-cultures of Xenopus myocytes and neurons, to vector-averaged gravity in the clinostat. This experimental paradigm produces an environment in which, from the cell's perspective, the gravitational vector is "nulled" by continuous averaging. In that respect, the clinostat simulates one aspect of space microgravity where the gravity force is greatly reduced. After clinorotation, the AChR channel mean open-time and conductance were statistically not different from control values but showed a rotation-dependent trend that suggests a process of cellular adaptation to clinorotation. These findings therefore suggest that the ACHR channel function may not be affected in the microgravity of space despite changes in the receptor's cellular organization.

  10. Anticancer agent CHS-828 inhibits cellular synthesis of NAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, U.H.; Christensen, M.K.; Bjorkling, F.;

    2008-01-01

    Malignant cells display increased demands for energy production and DNA repair. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is required for both processes and is also continuously degraded by cellular enzymes. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is a crucial factor in the resynthesis of NA...

  11. Cellular modifications and interventions for the damaged heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explore cellular modification processes associated with heart disease, as well as harnessing its potential for treatment and prevention of detrimental electrophysiological consequences of heart disease. For regenerative cell replacement therapies, optimal differentiatio

  12. Sumo and the cellular stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Enserink, Jorrit M.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin family member Sumo has important functions in many cellular processes including DNA repair, transcription and cell division. Numerous studies have shown that Sumo is essential for maintaining cell homeostasis when the cell encounters endogenous or environmental stress, such as osmotic stress, hypoxia, heat shock, genotoxic stress, and nutrient stress. Regulation of transcription is a key component of the Sumo stress response, and multiple mechanisms have been described by which ...

  13. Cellular events and biomarkers of wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Jumaat Mohd Yussof; Effat Omar; Pai, Dinker R.; Suneet Sood

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have identified several of the cellular events associated with wound healing. Platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, and fibroblasts primarily contribute to the process. They release cytokines including interleukins (ILs) and TNF-α, and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is perhaps the most important. The cytokines and growth factors manipulate the inflammatory phase of healing. Cytokines are chemotactic for white cells and fibroblasts, while the growth f...

  14. Oxidative stress action in cellular aging

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Cristine de Oliveira; João Paulo Ferreira Schoffen

    2010-01-01

    Various theories try to explain the biological aging by changing the functions and structure of organic systems and cells. During lifetime, free radicals in the oxidative stress lead to lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes, homeostasis imbalance, chemical residues formation, gene mutations in DNA, dysfunction of certain organelles, and the arise of diseases due to cell death and/or injury. This review describes the action of oxidative stress in the cells aging process, emphasizing the fac...

  15. Coordination of autophagy with other cellular activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan WANG; Zheng-hong QIN

    2013-01-01

    The cell biological phenomenon of autophagy has attracted increasing attention in recent years,partly as a consequence of the discovery of key components of its cellular machinery.Autophagy plays a crucial role in a myriad of cellular functions.Autophagy has its own regulatory mechanisms,but this process is not isolated.Autophagy is coordinated with other cellular activities to maintain cell homeostasis.Autophagy is critical for a range of human physiological processes.The multifunctional roles of autophagy are explained by its ability to interact with several key components of various cell pathways.In this review,we focus on the coordination between autophagy and other physiological processes,including the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS),energy homeostasis,aging,programmed cell death,the immune responses,microbial invasion and inflammation.The insights gained from investigating autophagic networks should increase our understanding of their roles in human diseases and their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Boltzmann learning of parameters in cellular neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    1992-01-01

    The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified ...... by unsupervised adaptation of an image segmentation cellular network. The learning rule is applied to adaptive segmentation of satellite imagery......The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified...

  17. Review: 2-mercaptoethanol alteration of in vitro immune functions of species other than murine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, Robert E

    2014-01-15

    Descriptions that organosulfurs could alter biologically relevant cellular functions began some 40years ago when cell mediated and humoral murine in vitro immune responses were reported to be dramatically enhanced by any of four xenobiotic, sulfhydryl compounds-2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), dithiothreitol, glutathione, and l-cysteine; the most effective of the four was 2-ME. These findings triggered a plethora of reports defining 2-ME benefits for a multitude of immunological processes, primarily with murine models. This led to investigations on 2-ME alterations of (a) immune functions in other species, (b) activities of other cell-types, and (c) in situ diseases. In addition, the early findings may have been instrumental in the identification of the previously undefined anticarcinogenic chemicals in specific foods as organosulfurs. Outside the plant organosulfurs, there are no comprehensive reviews of these areas to help define mechanisms by which organosulfurs function as well as identify potential alternative uses. Therefore, the present review will focus on 2-ME alterations of in vitro immune functions in species other than murine; namely, fish, amphibian, reptile, avian, whales, dolphins, rat, hamster, rabbit, guinea pig, feline, canine, porcine, ovine, bovine, and human. Processes, some unique to a given species, were in general, enhanced and in some cases dependent upon the presence of 2-ME. The largest benefits occurred in media that were serum free, followed by those in autologous serum and then fetal bovine serum supplemented medium. Concentrations of 2-ME were generally in the low μM range, with exceptions of those for salamander (20mM), turtles (70mM) and dolphins (7mM). The few studies designed to assess mechanisms found that changes induced by 2-ME were generally accompanied by alterations of reduced/oxidized glutathione cellular concentrations. The major benefit for most studies, however, was to increase the sensitivity of the culture environment, which

  18. Actual problems of cellular cardiomyoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kaupov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides review of cellular technologies used incardiology, describes types of cellular preparations depending onsources of cells and types of compounding cells. The generalmechanisms of therapies with stem cells applications are described.Use of cellular preparations for treatment of cardiovascular diseasesand is improvement of the forecast at patients with heartinsufficiency of various genesis is considered as alternative topractice with organ transplantations. Efforts of biotechnologicallaboratories are directed on search of optimum population of cellsfor application in cardiology and studying of mechanisms andfactors regulating function of cardiac stem cells.

  19. Graviperception and graviresponse at the cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräucker, Richard; Cogoli, Augusto; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    Studies under varied acceleration conditions demonstrated that free living cells such as protists are able to perceive changes of the acceleration conditions. Recent studies favorite the hypothesis that in these systems gravity is perceived either by intracellular receptors (statocyst-like organelles), heavy cell organelles (such as nucleus) and/or by sensing the cell mass by means of ion channels located in the cell membrane. Mammalian cells in microgravity were profoundly influenced. Alteration in the cellular mechanisms and structures in mammalian cells like signal transduction and the cytoskeleton were detected. It can be speculated that the depression of the immune system may become a serious health issue on flights to and from Mars.

  20. [Effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test under conditions of altered photoperiod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopova, I Iu; Zamorskiĭ, I I

    2011-03-01

    The effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei (the nucleus caudatus, globus pallidus. nucleus accumbens. amygdaloid complex) of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test has been studied under conditions of altered photoperiod. It has been shown that constant darkness levels the effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of lipid peroxidation, preserves the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase at a higher level, lowers the activity of glutathione peroxidase. Under light, the sensitivity of basal nuclei neurons to acute hypoxia is enhanced, the latter being reflected in intensification of lipid peroxidation at the expense of increased formation of dien conjugates. The activity of catalase at that considerably exceeds the level of even intact rats in all the structures. It has been established that an altered photoperiod modulates the effect of acute hypoxia on the parameters of rat's activity in the open field, the character of their change depending on the nature of a photophase change.

  1. SNP microarray analyses reveal copy number alterations and progressive genome reorganization during tumor development in SVT/t driven mice breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor development is known to be a stepwise process involving dynamic changes that affect cellular integrity and cellular behavior. This complex interaction between genomic organization and gene, as well as protein expression is not yet fully understood. Tumor characterization by gene expression analyses is not sufficient, since expression levels are only available as a snapshot of the cell status. So far, research has mainly focused on gene expression profiling or alterations in oncogenes, even though DNA microarray platforms would allow for high-throughput analyses of copy number alterations (CNAs). We analyzed DNA from mouse mammary gland epithelial cells using the Affymetrix Mouse Diversity Genotyping array (MOUSEDIVm520650) and calculated the CNAs. Segmental copy number alterations were computed based on the probeset CNAs using the circular binary segmentation algorithm. Motif search was performed in breakpoint regions (inter-segment regions) with the MEME suite to identify common motif sequences. Here we present a four stage mouse model addressing copy number alterations in tumorigenesis. No considerable changes in CNA were identified for non-transgenic mice, but a stepwise increase in CNA was found during tumor development. The segmental copy number alteration revealed informative chromosomal fragmentation patterns. In inter-segment regions (hypothetical breakpoint sides) unique motifs were found. Our analyses suggest genome reorganization as a stepwise process that involves amplifications and deletions of chromosomal regions. We conclude from distinctive fragmentation patterns that conserved as well as individual breakpoints exist which promote tumorigenesis

  2. Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes exposure in A549 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ju

    Full Text Available The wide application of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT has raised serious concerns about their safety on human health and the environment. However, the potential harmful effects of MWCNT remain unclear and contradictory. To clarify the potentially toxic effects of MWCNT and to elucidate the associated underlying mechanisms, the effects of MWCNT on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were examined at both the cellular and the protein level. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were examined, followed by a proteomic analysis (2-DE coupled with LC-MS/MS of the cellular response to MWCNT. Our results demonstrate that MWCNT induces cytotoxicity in A549 cells only at relatively high concentrations and longer exposure time. Within a relatively low dosage range (30 µg/ml and short time period (24 h, MWCNT treatment does not induce significant cytotoxicity, cell cycle changes, apoptosis, or DNA damage. However, at these low doses and times, MWCNT treatment causes significant changes in protein expression. A total of 106 proteins show altered expression at various time points and dosages, and of these, 52 proteins were further identified by MS. Identified proteins are involved in several cellular processes including proliferation, stress, and cellular skeleton organization. In particular, MWCNT treatment causes increases in actin expression. This increase has the potential to contribute to increased migration capacity and may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS.

  3. Classification of Cells with Membrane Staining and/or Fixation Based on Cellular Specific Membrane Capacitance and Cytoplasm Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Bin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell electrical properties (e.g., specific membrane capacitance (Cspecific membrane and cytoplasm conductivity (σcytoplasm have been regarded as potential label-free biophysical markers for the evaluation of cellular status. However, whether there exist correlations between these biophysical markers and cellular status (e.g., membrane-associate protein expression is still unknown. To further validate the utility of single-cell electrical properties in cell type classification, Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm of single PC-3 cells with membrane staining and/or fixation were analyzed and compared in this study. Four subtypes of PC-3 cells were prepared: untreated PC-3 cells, PC-3 cells with anti-EpCAM staining, PC-3 cells with fixation, and fixed PC-3 cells with anti-EpCAM staining. In experiments, suspended single cells were aspirated through microfluidic constriction channels with raw impedance data quantified and translated to Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm. As to experimental results, significant differences in Cspecific membrane were observed for both live and fixed PC-3 cells with and without membrane staining, indicating that membrane staining proteins can contribute to electrical properties of cellular membranes. In addition, a significant decrease in σcytoplasm was located for PC-3 cells with and without fixation, suggesting that cytoplasm protein crosslinking during the fixation process can alter the cytoplasm conductivity. Overall, we have demonstrated how to classify single cells based on cellular electrical properties.

  4. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  5. Thymocyte migration: an affair of multiple cellular interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino W.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration is a crucial event in the general process of thymocyte differentiation. The cellular interactions involved in the control of this migration are beginning to be defined. At least chemokines and extracellular matrix proteins appear to be part of the game. Cells of the thymic microenvironment produce these two groups of molecules, whereas developing thymocytes express the corresponding receptors. Moreover, although chemokines and extracellular matrix can drive thymocyte migration per se, a combined role for these molecules appears to contribute to the resulting migration patterns of thymocytes in their various stages of differentiation. The dynamics of chemokine and extracellular matrix production and degradation is not yet well understood. However, matrix metalloproteinases are likely to play a role in the breakdown of intrathymic extracellular matrix contents. Thus, the physiological migration of thymocytes should be envisioned as a resulting vector of multiple, simultaneous and/or sequential stimuli involving chemokines, adhesive and de-adhesive extracellular matrix proteins, as well as matrix metalloproteinases. Accordingly, it is conceivable that any pathological change in any of these loops may result in the alteration of normal thymocyte migration. This seems to be the case in murine infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. A better knowledge of the physiological mechanisms governing thymocyte migration will provide new clues for designing therapeutic strategies targeting developing T cells.

  6. Impaired nonspecific cellular immunity in experimental cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughneen, P T; Drath, D B; Kulkarni, A D; Rowlands, B J

    1987-11-01

    The abilities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), to demonstrate chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and superoxide release after bile duct ligation in the rat were investigated to determine the effect of cholestasis on nonspecific cellular immune mechanisms. Chemotactic response to C5a and FMLP, phagocytosis of 14C labeled Staphylococcus aureus, and zymosan-induced superoxide release were evaluated 21 days after bile duct ligation (BDL), sham operation, or in normal controls. Serum total bilirubin level was elevated after BDL (p less than 0.01). Chemotactic ability was similar to each group. PMN phagocytic uptake of 14C labeled Staphylococcus aureus was depressed in BDL (p less than 0.05). BDL rats exhibited impaired PAM phagocytic indices and improved PMN superoxide release (p less than 0.03). PAM superoxide release was similar in each study group. Alterations in phagocytic function with cholestasis are important deficits in nonspecific cellular immunity that may contribute to the high incidence of infective complications associated with obstructive jaundice. PMID:2823730

  7. Piezoelectric nanoribbons for monitoring cellular deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh D.; Deshmukh, Nikhil; Nagarah, John M.; Kramer, Tal; Purohit, Prashant K.; Berry, Michael J.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2012-09-01

    Methods for probing mechanical responses of mammalian cells to electrical excitations can improve our understanding of cellular physiology and function. The electrical response of neuronal cells to applied voltages has been studied in detail, but less is known about their mechanical response to electrical excitations. Studies using atomic force microscopes (AFMs) have shown that mammalian cells exhibit voltage-induced mechanical deflections at nanometre scales, but AFM measurements can be invasive and difficult to multiplex. Here we show that mechanical deformations of neuronal cells in response to electrical excitations can be measured using piezoelectric PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) nanoribbons, and we find that cells deflect by 1 nm when 120 mV is applied to the cell membrane. The measured cellular forces agree with a theoretical model in which depolarization caused by an applied voltage induces a change in membrane tension, which results in the cell altering its radius so that the pressure remains constant across the membrane. We also transfer arrays of PZT nanoribbons onto a silicone elastomer and measure mechanical deformations on a cow lung that mimics respiration. The PZT nanoribbons offer a minimally invasive and scalable platform for electromechanical biosensing.

  8. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Advances in Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common soft tissue malignancy in childhood and adolescence. The two major histological subtypes of RMS are alveolar RMS, driven by the fusion protein PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR, and embryonic RMS, which is usually genetically heterogeneous. The prognosis of RMS has improved in the past several decades due to multidisciplinary care. However, in recent years, the treatment of patients with metastatic or refractory RMS has reached a plateau. Thus, to improve the survival rate of RMS patients and their overall well-being, further understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of RMS and identification of novel therapeutic targets are imperative. In this review, we describe the most recent discoveries in the molecular and cellular biology of RMS, including alterations in oncogenic pathways, miRNA (miR, in vivo models, stem cells, and important signal transduction cascades implicated in the development and progression of RMS. Furthermore, we discuss novel potential targeted therapies that may improve the current treatment of RMS.

  9. Klotho-Dependent Cellular Transport Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopjani, M; Dërmaku-Sopjani, M

    2016-01-01

    Klotho is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the hKL gene. This protein is known to have aging suppressor effects and is predominantly expressed in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney, parathyroid glands, and choroid plexus of the brain. The Klotho protein exists in both full-length membrane form and a soluble secreted form, which exerts numerous distinct functions. The extracellular domain of Klotho can be enzymatically cleaved off and released into the systemic circulation where it functions as β-glucuronidase and a hormone. Soluble Klotho is a multifunction protein present in the biological fluids including blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid of mammals. Klotho deficiency leads to multiple organ failure accompanied by early appearance of multiple age-related disorders and early death, whereas overexpression of Klotho results in the opposite effects. Klotho, an enzyme and hormone, has been reported to participate in the regulation of cellular transport processes across the plasma membrane either indirectly through inhibiting calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) formation or other mechanism, or by directly affecting transporter proteins, including ion channels, cellular carriers, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Accordingly, Klotho protein serves as a powerful regulator of cellular transport across the plasma membrane. Importantly, Klotho-dependent cellular transport regulation implies stimulatory or inhibitory effects. Klotho has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of multiple calcium and potassium ion channels, and various cellular carriers including the Na(+)-coupled cotransporters such as NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIb, EAAT3, and EAAT4, CreaT1 as well as Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. These regulations are parts of the antiaging function of Klotho, which will be discussing throughout this chapter. Clearly, further experimental efforts are required to investigate the effect of Klotho on other transport proteins and underlying molecular mechanisms by which Klotho

  10. Cytokines as cellular communicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Debets

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines and their receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases. Here we present a detailed review on cytokines, receptors and signalling routes, and show that one important lesson from cytokine biology is the complex and diverse regulation of cytokine activity. The activity of cytokines is controlled at the level of transcription, translation, storage, processing, posttranslational modification, trapping, binding by soluble proteins, and receptor number and/or function. Translation of this diverse regulation in strategies aimed at the control of cytokine activity will result in the development of more specific and selective drugs to treat diseases.

  11. On Cellular Darwinism: Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Larry

    2016-01-01

    The significant role of mitochondria within cells is becoming increasingly clear. This letter uses the NKCS model of coupled fitness landscapes to explore aspects of organelle-nucleus coevolution. The phenomenon of mitochondrial diversity is allowed to emerge under a simple intracellular evolutionary process, including varying the relative rate of evolution by the organelle. It is shown how the conditions for the maintenance of more than one genetic variant of mitochondria are similar to those previously suggested as needed for the original symbiotic origins of the relationship using the NKCS model.

  12. Cellular mechanisms during vascular development

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system is an essential organ in vertebrate animals and provides the organism with enough oxygen and nutrients. It is composed of an interconnected network of blood vessels, which form using a number of different morphogenetic mechanisms. Angiogenesis describes the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. A number of molecular pathways have been shown to be essential during angiogenesis. However, cellular architecture of blood vessels as well as cellular mechanisms...

  13. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the...

  14. Pyrogenic organic matter can alter microbial communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Caroline; Gao, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Silberg, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbes communicate with each other to manage a large range of processes that occur more efficiently when microbes are able to act simultaneously. This coordination occurs through the continuous production of signaling compounds that are easily diffused into and out of cells. As the number of microbes in a localized environment increases, the internal cellular concentration of these signaling compounds increases, and when a threshold concentration is reached, gene expression shifts, leading to altered (and coordinated) microbial behaviors. Many of these coordinated behaviors have biogeochemically important outcomes. For example, methanogenesis, denitrification, biofilm formation, and the development of plant-rhizobial symbioses are all regulated by a simple class of cell-cell signaling molecules known as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Pyrogenic organic matter in soils can act to disrupt microbial communication through multiple pathways. In the case of AHLs, charcoal's very high surface area can sorb these signaling compounds, preventing microbes from detecting each others' presence (Masiello et al., 2014). In addition, the lactone ring in AHLs is vulnerable to pH increases accompanying PyOM inputs, with soil pH values higher than 7-8 leading to ring opening and compound destabilization. Different microbes use different classes of signaling compounds, and not all microbial signaling compounds are pH-vulnerable. This implies that PyOM-driven pH increases may trigger differential outcomes for Gram negative bacteria vs fungi, for example. A charcoal-driven reduction in microbes' ability to detect cell-cell communication compounds may lead to a shift in the ability of microbes to participate in key steps of C and N cycling. For example, an increase in an archaeon-specific AHL has been shown to lead to a cascade of metabolic processes that eventually results in the upregulation of CH4 production (Zhang et al., 2012). Alterations in similar AHL compounds leads to

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.

  16. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Pieranna; Bonfiglio, Luca; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Cantore, Nicoletta; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Piccotti, Emily; Rossi, Bruno; Andre, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ) is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error), at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance) became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects) suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi-naturalistic motor

  17. Sleep Depth and Fatigue: Role of Cellular Inflammatory Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, KaMala S.; Motivala, S.; Olmstead, R; Irwin, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with underlying inflammation present with a high prevalence of non-specific co-morbid symptoms including sleep disturbance and fatigue. However, the association between cellular expression of proinflammatory cytokines, alterations of sleep depth and daytime fatigue has not been concurrently examined. In healthy adults (24 – 61 years old), evening levels of monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production were assessed prior to evaluation of polysomonographic sleep and me...

  18. Ubiquitin Metabolism Affects Cellular Response to Volatile Anesthetics in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Darren; Reiner, Thomas; Keeley, Jessica L.; Pizzini, Mark; Keil, Ralph L.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of action of volatile anesthetics, we are studying mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have altered sensitivity to isoflurane, a widely used clinical anesthetic. Several lines of evidence from these studies implicate a role for ubiquitin metabolism in cellular response to volatile anesthetics: (i) mutations in the ZZZ1 gene render cells resistant to isoflurane, and the ZZZ1 gene is identical to BUL1 (binds ubiquitin ligase), which appears to be invo...

  19. Nanosensor Data Processor in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Fenghui Yao; Mohamed Saleh Zein-Sabatto; Guifeng Shao; Mohammad Bodruzzaman; Mohan Malkani

    2014-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an attractive nanotechnology with the potential alterative to CMOS technology. QCA provides an interesting paradigm for faster speed, smaller size, and lower power consumption in comparison to transistor-based technology, in both communication and computation. This paper describes the design of a 4-bit multifunction nanosensor data processor (NSDP). The functions of NSDP contain (i) sending the preprocessed raw data to high-level processor, (ii) counting...

  20. Cellular identity at the single-cell level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Eser, Umut; Islam, Saiful

    2016-10-20

    A single cell creates surprising heterogeneity in a multicellular organism. While every organismal cell shares almost an identical genome, molecular interactions in cells alter the use of DNA sequences to modulate the gene of interest for specialization of cellular functions. Each cell gains a unique identity through molecular coding across the DNA, RNA, and protein conversions. On the other hand, loss of cellular identity leads to critical diseases such as cancer. Most cell identity dissection studies are based on bulk molecular assays that mask differences in individual cells. To probe cell-to-cell variability in a population, we discuss single cell approaches to decode the genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational mechanisms for cell identity formation. In combination with molecular instructions, the physical principles behind cell identity determination are examined. Deciphering and reprogramming cellular types impact biology and medicine.

  1. Cellular and molecular basis of cerebellar development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Salvador; Andreu, Abraham; Mecklenburg, Nora; Echevarria, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cerebellar development were investigated through structural descriptions and studying spontaneous mutations in animal models and humans. Advances in experimental embryology, genetic engineering, and neuroimaging techniques render today the possibility to approach the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying histogenesis and morphogenesis of the cerebellum by experimental designs. Several genes and molecules were identified to be involved in the cerebellar plate regionalization, specification, and differentiation of cerebellar neurons, as well as the establishment of cellular migratory routes and the subsequent neuronal connectivity. Indeed, pattern formation of the cerebellum requires the adequate orchestration of both key morphogenetic signals, arising from distinct brain regions, and local expression of specific transcription factors. Thus, the present review wants to revisit and discuss these morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms taking place during cerebellar development in order to understand causal processes regulating cerebellar cytoarchitecture, its highly topographically ordered circuitry and its role in brain function. PMID:23805080

  2. Cellular and Molecular Basis of Cerebellar Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eMartinez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cerebellar development were investigated through structural descriptions and studying spontaneous mutations in animal models and humans. Advances in experimental embryology, genetic engineering and neuroimaging techniques render today the possibility to approach the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying histogenesis and morphogenesis of the cerebellum by experimental designs. Several genes and molecules were identified to be involved in the cerebellar plate regionalization, specification and differentiation of cerebellar neurons, as well as the establishment of cellular migratory routes and the subsequent neuronal connectivity. Indeed, pattern formation of the cerebellum requires the adequate orchestration of both key morphogenetic signals, arising from distinct brain regions, and local expression of specific transcription factors. Thus, the present review wants to revisit and discuss these morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms taking place during cerebellar development in order to understand causal processes regulating cerebellar cytoarchitecture, its highly topographically ordered circuitry and its role in brain function.

  3. WD40 proteins propel cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnimann, Christian U; Petsalaki, Evangelia; Russell, Robert B; Müller, Christoph W

    2010-10-01

    Recent findings indicate that WD40 domains play central roles in biological processes by acting as hubs in cellular networks; however, they have been studied less intensely than other common domains, such as the kinase, PDZ or SH3 domains. As suggested by various interactome studies, they are among the most promiscuous interactors. Structural studies suggest that this property stems from their ability, as scaffolds, to interact with diverse proteins, peptides or nucleic acids using multiple surfaces or modes of interaction. A general scaffolding role is supported by the fact that no WD40 domain has been found with intrinsic enzymatic activity despite often being part of large molecular machines. We discuss the WD40 domain distributions in protein networks and structures of WD40-containing assemblies to demonstrate their versatility in mediating critical cellular functions.

  4. The effect of ion implantation on cellular adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, C R; Evans, M D; Wildish, K L; Kelly, J C; Fisher, L R; Francis, G W; Best, D J

    1993-01-01

    As there are only a finite number of materials suitable for orthopaedic reconstruction, considerable effort has been devoted recently to investigating ways of altering the surface chemistry of prosthetic materials without altering their bulk properties. Ion beam implantation is one such technique which is appropriate for orthopaedic reconstructive materials. This paper investigates the early effect of ion beam modification on cellular attachment of bone derived cells using a prototype device which measures the strength of attachment of individual cells to a silicon substratum. The results point to several conclusions. (1) There is no evidence that ion beam implantation with nitrogen, phosphorus, manganese or magnesium produces increased adhesion of human bone derived cells. (2) Surface etching with hydrofluoric acid, electron bombardment and thermal oxidation increases the strength of attachment between cells and substrata. (3) There is a correlation between wettability and rate of cellular attachment to oxygen implanted substrata during the first 2 h after cellular seeding. However, the increase in cellular attachment cannot be entirely explained by the change in critical surface tension or via increased fibronectin attachment to the substrata.

  5. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  6. Oxidized phosphatidylcholines in membrane-level cellular signaling: from biophysics to physiology and molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volinsky, Roman; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2013-06-01

    The oxidation of lipids has been shown to impact virtually all cellular processes. The paradigm has been that this involvement is due to interference with the functions of membrane-associated proteins. It is only recently that methodological advances in molecular-level detection and identification have begun to provide insights into oxidative lipid modification and its involvement in cell signaling as well as in major diseases and inflammation. Extensive evidence suggests a correlation between lipid peroxidation and degenerative neurological diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, as well as type 2 diabetes and cancer. Despite the obvious relevance of understanding the molecular basis of the above ailments, the exact modes of action of oxidized lipids have remained elusive. In this minireview, we summarize recent findings on the biophysical characteristics of biomembranes following oxidative derivatization of their lipids, and how these altered properties are involved in both physiological processes and major pathological conditions. Lipid-bearing, oxidatively truncated and functionalized acyl chains are known to modify membrane bulk physical properties, such as thermal phase behavior, bilayer thickness, hydration and polarity profiles, as manifest in the altered structural dynamics of lipid bilayers, leading to augmented membrane permeability, fast lipid transbilayer diffusion (flip-flop), loss of lipid asymmetry (scrambling) and phase segregation (the formation of 'rafts'). These changes, together with the generated reactive lipid derivatives, can be further expected to interfere with lipid-protein interactions, influencing metabolic pathways, causing inflammation, the execution phase in apoptosis and initiating pathological processes. PMID:23506295

  7. Lipids, lipid droplets and lipoproteins in their cellular context; an ultrastructural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Lipids are essential for cellular life, functioning either organized as bilayer membranes to compartmentalize cellular processes, as signaling molecules or as metabolic energy storage. Our current knowledge on lipid organization and cellular lipid homeostasis is mainly based on biochemical data. How

  8. Comparative analysis of Salmonella susceptibility and tolerance to the biocide chlorhexidine identifies a complex cellular defence network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla eCondell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is one of the most widely used biocides in health and agricultural settings as well as in the modern food industry. It is a cationic biocide of the biguanide class. Details of its mechanism of action are largely unknown. The frequent use of chlorhexidine has been questioned recently, amidst concerns that an overuse of this compound may select for bacteria displaying an altered susceptibility to antimicrobials, including clinically important anti-bacterial agents.We generated a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolate (ST24CHX that exhibited a high-level tolerant phenotype to chlorhexidine, following several rounds of in vitro selection, using sub-lethal concentrations of the biocide. This mutant showed altered suceptibility to a panel of clinically important antimicrobial compounds. Here we describe a genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and phenotypic analysis of the chlorhexidine tolerant S. Typhimurium compared with its isogenic sensitive progenitor. Results from this study describe a chlorhexidine defence network that functions in both the reference chlorhexidine sensitive isolate and the tolerant mutant. The defence network involved multiple cell targets including those associated with the synthesis and modification of the cell wall, the SOS response, virulence, and a shift in cellular metabolism towards anoxic pathways, some of which were regulated by CreB and Fur. In addition, results indicated that chlorhexidine tolerance was associated with more extensive modifications of the same cellular processes involved in this proposed network, as well as a divergent defence response involving the up-regulation of additional targets such as the flagellar apparatus and an altered cellular phosphate metabolism.These data show that sub-lethal concentrations of chlorhexidine induce distinct changes in exposed Salmonella, and our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of action and tolerance to this biocidal agent.

  9. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  10. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetish Ranjan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and 5G has a very axiomatic fact that made an entire world a global village. The cellular system employs a different design approach and technology that most commercial radio and television system use. In the cellular system, the service area is divided into cells and a transmitter is designed to serve an individual cell. The system seeks to make efficient use of available channels by using low-power transmitters to allow frequency reuse at a smaller distance. Maximizing the number of times each channel can be reused in a given geographical area is the key to an efficient cellular system design. During the past three decades, the world has seen significant changes in telecommunications industry. There have been some remarkable aspects to the rapid growth in wireless communications, as seen by the large expansion in mobile systems. This paper focuses on “Past, Present & Future of Cellular Telephony” and some light has been thrown upon the technologies of the cellular systems, namely 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and future generations like 4G and 5G systems as well.

  11. Iodinated contrast media alter immune responses in pro-inflammatory states.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Hypertonic saline causes a transient elevation of blood osmolality and has been shown to alter cellular inflammatory responses in pro-inflammatory states. Intravascular administration of iodine contrast media also causes a transient elevation of blood osmolarity.

  12. Aging, cellular senescence, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Judith

    2013-01-01

    For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses the idea that, despite seemingly opposite characteristics, the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies of aging are at least partly linked by a common biological phenomenon: a cellular stress response known as cellular senescence. The senescence response is widely recognized as a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. However, recent evidence strengthens the idea that it also drives both degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies, most likely by promoting chronic inflammation. Thus, the senescence response may be the result of antagonistically pleiotropic gene action. PMID:23140366

  13. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  14. Modeling cellular deformations using the level set formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Liu; Effler Janet C; Kutscher Brett L; Sullivan Sarah E; Robinson Douglas N; Iglesias Pablo A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Many cellular processes involve substantial shape changes. Traditional simulations of these cell shape changes require that grids and boundaries be moved as the cell's shape evolves. Here we demonstrate that accurate cell shape changes can be recreated using level set methods (LSM), in which the cellular shape is defined implicitly, thereby eschewing the need for updating boundaries. Results We obtain a viscoelastic model of Dictyostelium cells using micropipette aspiratio...

  15. Cellular Structures for Computation in the Quantum Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, S. C.; Johnson, N. F.

    1998-01-01

    We present a new cellular data processing scheme, a hybrid of existing cellular automata (CA) and gate array architectures, which is optimized for realization at the quantum scale. For conventional computing, the CA-like external clocking avoids the time-scale problems associated with ground-state relaxation schemes. For quantum computing, the architecture constitutes a novel paradigm whereby the algorithm is embedded in spatial, as opposed to temporal, structure. The architecture can be expl...

  16. Huntingtin processing in pathogenesis of Huntington disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenghong QIN; Zhenlun GU

    2004-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the protein named huntingtin.The expansion of polyglutamine tract induces selective degeneration of striatal projection neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons. The bio-hallmark of HD is the formation of intranuclear inclusions and cytoplasmic aggregates in association with other cellular proteins in vulnerable neurons. Accumulation of N-terminal mutant huntingtin in HD brains is prominent. These pathological features are related to protein misfolding and impairments in protein processing and degradation in neurons. This review focused on the role of proteases in huntingtin cleavage and degradation and the contribution of altered processing of mutant huntingtin to HD pathogenesis.

  17. Adaptive stochastic cellular automata: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.; Lee, Y. C.; Jones, R. D.; Barnes, C. W.; Flake, G. W.; O'Rourke, M. K.; Lee, K.; Chen, H. H.; Sun, G. Z.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Chen, D.; Giles, C. L.

    1990-09-01

    The stochastic learning cellular automata model has been applied to the problem of controlling unstable systems. Two example unstable systems studied are controlled by an adaptive stochastic cellular automata algorithm with an adaptive critic. The reinforcement learning algorithm and the architecture of the stochastic CA controller are presented. Learning to balance a single pole is discussed in detail. Balancing an inverted double pendulum highlights the power of the stochastic CA approach. The stochastic CA model is compared to conventional adaptive control and artificial neural network approaches.

  18. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the system spontaneously splitting into stable domains separated by static boundaries, some synchronously oscillating and the others incoherent. When the coupling range is local, nontrivial coherent structures with different periodicities are formed.

  19. Cellular senescence in aging primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Utz; Ferreira, Mark; Condel, Laura; Carey, Dee; Sedivy, John M

    2006-03-01

    The aging of organisms is characterized by a gradual functional decline of all organ systems. Mammalian somatic cells in culture display a limited proliferative life span, at the end of which they undergo an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as replicative senescence. Whether cellular senescence contributes to organismal aging has been controversial. We investigated telomere dysfunction, a recently discovered biomarker of cellular senescence, and found that the number of senescent fibroblasts increases exponentially in the skin of aging baboons, reaching >15% of all cells in very old individuals. In addition, the same cells contain activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase and heterochromatinized nuclei, confirming their senescent status. PMID:16456035

  20. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    the specific organelle that mesoporous silica nanoparticles could approach via the identification of harvested proteins from exocytosis process. Based on the study of endo- and exocytosis behavior of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials, we can design smarter drug delivery vehicles for cancer therapy that can be effectively controlled. The destination, uptake efficiency and the cellular distribution of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials can be programmable. As a result, release mechanism and release rate of drug delivery systems can be a well-controlled process. The deep investigation of an endo- and exocytosis study of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials promotes the development of drug delivery applications.

  1. Using the Biodatamation(TM) strategy to learn introductory college biology: Value-added effects on selected students' conceptual understanding and conceptual integration of the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Jewel Jurovich

    The purpose of this exploratory research was to study how students learn photosynthesis and cellular respiration and to determine the value added to the student's learning by each of the three technology-scaffolded learning strategy components (animated concept presentations and WebQuest-style activities, data collection, and student-constructed animations) of the BioDatamation(TM) (BDM) Program. BDM learning strategies utilized the Theory of Interacting Visual Fields(TM) (TIVF) (Reuter & Wandersee, 2002a, 2002b; 2003a, 2003b) which holds that meaningful knowledge is hierarchically constructed using the past, present, and future visual fields, with visual metacognitive components that are derived from the principles of Visual Behavior (Jones, 1995), Human Constructivist Theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998a), and Visual Information Design Theory (Tufte, 1990, 1997, 2001). Student alternative conceptions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration were determined by the item analysis of 263,267 Biology Advanced Placement Examinations and were used to develop the BDM instructional strategy and interview questions. The subjects were 24 undergraduate students of high and low biology prior knowledge enrolled in an introductory-level General Biology course at a major research university in the Deep South. Fifteen participants received BDM instruction which included original and innovative learning materials and laboratories in 6 phases; 8 of the 15 participants were the subject of in depth, extended individual analysis. The other 9 participants received traditional, non-BDM instruction. Interviews which included participants' creation of concept maps and visual field diagrams were conducted after each phase. Various content analyses, including Chi's Verbal Analysis and quantitizing/qualitizing were used for data analysis. The total value added to integrative knowledge during BDM instruction with the three visual fields was an average increase of 56% for cellular respiration

  2. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  3. Gene expression alterations in brains of mice infected with three strains of scrapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Race Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which occur in humans and various animal species. Examples include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep, and experimental mice. To gain insights into TSE pathogenesis, we made and used cDNA microarrays to identify disease-associated alterations in gene expression. Brain gene expression in scrapie-infected mice was compared to mock-infected mice at pre-symptomatic and symptomatic time points. Three strains of mouse scrapie that show striking differences in neuropathology were studied: ME7, 22L, and Chandler/RML. Results In symptomatic mice, over 400 significant gene expression alterations were identified. In contrast, only 22 genes showed significant alteration in the pre-symptomatic animals. We also identified genes that showed significant differences in alterations in gene expression between strains. Genes identified in this study encode proteins that are involved in many cellular processes including protein folding, endosome/lysosome function, immunity, synapse function, metal ion binding, calcium regulation and cytoskeletal function. Conclusion These studies shed light on the complex molecular events that occur during prion disease, and identify genes whose further study may yield new insights into strain specific neuropathogenesis and ante-mortem tests for TSEs.

  4. Microwave components for cellular portable radiotelephone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraguchi, Masahiro; Aikawa, Masayoshi

    1995-09-01

    Mobile and personal communication systems are expected to represent a huge market for microwave components in the coming years. A number of components in silicon bipolar, silicon Bi-CMOS, GaAs MESFET, HBT and HEMT are now becoming available for system application. There are tradeoffs among the competing technologies with regard to performance, cost, reliability and time-to-market. This paper describes process selection and requirements of cost and r.f. performances to microwave semiconductor components for digital cellular and cordless telephones. Furthermore, new circuit techniques which were developed by NTT are presented.

  5. Cellular automata modelling of hantarvirus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Karim, Mohamad Faisal [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: faisal@usm.my; Md Ismail, Ahmad Izani [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: izani@cs.usm.my; Ching, Hoe Bee [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: Bee_Ching_Janice_Hoe@dell.com

    2009-09-15

    Hantaviruses are a group of viruses which have been identified as being responsible for the outbreak of diseases such as the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. In an effort to understand the characteristics and dynamics of hantavirus infection, mathematical models based on differential equations have been developed and widely studied. However, such models neglect the local characteristics of the spreading process and do not include variable susceptibility of individuals. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach based on cellular automata to analyze and study the spatiotemporal patterns of hantavirus infection.

  6. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M;

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in ra...

  7. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, MQT; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian H.;

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN(-...

  8. Physiological, cellular and biochemical thermal stress response of intertidal shrimps with different vertical distributions: Palaemon elegans and Palaemon serratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Diana; Mendonça, Vanessa; Dias, Marta; Roma, Joana; Costa, Pedro M; Larguinho, Miguel; Vinagre, Catarina; Diniz, Mário S

    2015-05-01

    The ability to cope with high temperature variations is a critical factor in intertidal communities. Two species of intertidal rocky shore shrimps (Palaemon sp.) with different vertical distributions were collected from the Portuguese coast in order to test if they were differentially sensitive to thermal stress. Three distinct levels of biological organization (organismal, biochemical, and cellular) were surveyed. The shrimp were exposed to a constant rate of temperature increase of 1°C x h(-1), starting at 20°C until reaching the CTMax (critical thermal maximum). During heat stress, two biomarkers of protein damage were quantified in the muscle via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays: heat shock proteins HSP70 (hsp70/hsc70) and total ubiquitin. Muscle histopathological alterations caused by temperature were also evaluated. CTMax values were not significantly different between the congeners (P. elegans 33.4 ± 0.5 °C; P. serratus 33.0 ± 0.5 °C). Biomarker levels did not increase along the temperature trial, but P. elegans (higher intertidal) showed higher amounts of HSP70 and total ubiquitin than P. serratus (lower intertidal). HSP70 and total ubiquitin levels showed a positive significant correlation in both species, suggesting that their association is important in thermal tolerance. Histopathological observations of muscle tissue in P. serratus showed no gross alterations due to temperature but did show localized atrophy of muscle fibers at CTMax. In P. elegans, alterations occurred at a larger scale, showing multiple foci of atrophic muscular fascicles caused by necrotic or autolytic processes. In conclusion, Palaemon congeners displayed different responses to stress at a cellular level, with P. elegans having greater biomarker levels and histopathological alterations. PMID:25582544

  9. Engineering Cellular Photocomposite Materials Using Convective Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlin D. Velev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabricating industrial-scale photoreactive composite materials containing living cells, requires a deposition strategy that unifies colloid science and cell biology. Convective assembly can rapidly deposit suspended particles, including whole cells and waterborne latex polymer particles into thin (<10 µm thick, organized films with engineered adhesion, composition, thickness, and particle packing. These highly ordered composites can stabilize the diverse functions of photosynthetic cells for use as biophotoabsorbers, as artificial leaves for hydrogen or oxygen evolution, carbon dioxide assimilation, and add self-cleaning capabilities for releasing or digesting surface contaminants. This paper reviews the non-biological convective assembly literature, with an emphasis on how the method can be modified to deposit living cells starting from a batch process to its current state as a continuous process capable of fabricating larger multi-layer biocomposite coatings from diverse particle suspensions. Further development of this method will help solve the challenges of engineering multi-layered cellular photocomposite materials with high reactivity, stability, and robustness by clarifying how process, substrate, and particle parameters affect coating microstructure. We also describe how these methods can be used to selectively immobilize photosynthetic cells to create biomimetic leaves and compare these biocomposite coatings to other cellular encapsulation systems.

  10. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Meredith E; Myers, David R; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J; Switz, Neil A; Sulchek, Todd A; Graham, Michael D; Lam, Wilbur A

    2016-02-23

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  11. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Relays Metabolic Signals to Promote Cellular Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Fanny L

    2016-01-01

    While sensing the cell environment, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) interacts with different pathways involved in cellular homeostasis. This review summarizes evidence suggesting that cellular regeneration in the context of aging and diseases can be modulated by AHR signaling on stem cells. New insights connect orphaned observations into AHR interactions with critical signaling pathways such as WNT to propose a role of this ligand-activated transcription factor in the modulation of cellular regeneration by altering pathways that nurture cellular expansion such as changes in the metabolic efficiency rather than by directly altering cell cycling, proliferation, or cell death. Targeting the AHR to promote regeneration might prove to be a useful strategy to avoid unbalanced disruptions of homeostasis that may promote disease and also provide biological rationale for potential regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:27563312

  12. Cellular and molecular aspects of plant adaptation to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Kozeko, Liudmyla

    2016-07-01

    Elucidation of the range and mechanisms of the biological effects of microgravity is one of the urgent fundamental tasks of space and gravitational biology. The absence of forbidding on plant growth and development in orbital flight allows studying different aspects of plant adaptation to this factor that is directly connected with development of the technologies of bioregenerative life-support systems. Microgravity belongs to the environmental factors which cause adaptive reactions at the cellular and molecular levels in the range of physiological responses in the framework of genetically determined program of ontogenesis. It is known that cells of a multicellular organism not only take part in reactions of the organism but also carry out processes that maintain their integrity. In light of these principles, the problem of identification of biochemical, physiological and structural patterns that can have adaptive significance at the cellular and molecular levels in real and simulated microgravity is considered. It is pointed that plant cell responses in microgravity and under clinorotation vary according to growth phase, physiological state, and taxonomic position of the object. At the same time, the responses have, to some degree, a similar character reflecting the changes in the cell organelle functional load. The maintenance of the plasmalemma fluidity at the certain level, an activation of both the antioxidant system and expression of HSP genes, especially HSP70, under increasing reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation intensity and alteration in protein homeostasis, are a strategic paradigm of rapid (primary) cell adaptation to microgravity. In this sense, biological membranes, especially plasmalemma, and their properties and functions may be considered as the most sensitive indicators of the influence of gravity or altered gravity on a cell. The plasmalemma lipid bilayer is a border between the cell internal content and environment, so it is a mediator

  13. Cellular and molecular aspects of plant adaptation to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Kozeko, Liudmyla

    2016-07-01

    Elucidation of the range and mechanisms of the biological effects of microgravity is one of the urgent fundamental tasks of space and gravitational biology. The absence of forbidding on plant growth and development in orbital flight allows studying different aspects of plant adaptation to this factor that is directly connected with development of the technologies of bioregenerative life-support systems. Microgravity belongs to the environmental factors which cause adaptive reactions at the cellular and molecular levels in the range of physiological responses in the framework of genetically determined program of ontogenesis. It is known that cells of a multicellular organism not only take part in reactions of the organism but also carry out processes that maintain their integrity. In light of these principles, the problem of identification of biochemical, physiological and structural patterns that can have adaptive significance at the cellular and molecular levels in real and simulated microgravity is considered. It is pointed that plant cell responses in microgravity and under clinorotation vary according to growth phase, physiological state, and taxonomic position of the object. At the same time, the responses have, to some degree, a similar character reflecting the changes in the cell organelle functional load. The maintenance of the plasmalemma fluidity at the certain level, an activation of both the antioxidant system and expression of HSP genes, especially HSP70, under increasing reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation intensity and alteration in protein homeostasis, are a strategic paradigm of rapid (primary) cell adaptation to microgravity. In this sense, biological membranes, especially plasmalemma, and their properties and functions may be considered as the most sensitive indicators of the influence of gravity or altered gravity on a cell. The plasmalemma lipid bilayer is a border between the cell internal content and environment, so it is a mediator

  14. Connecting Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Preservice Teachers' Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary H.; Schwartz, Renee S.

    2009-01-01

    The biological processes of photosynthesis and plant cellular respiration include multiple biochemical steps, occur simultaneously within plant cells, and share common molecular components. Yet, learners often compartmentalize functions and specialization of cell organelles relevant to these two processes, without considering the interconnections…

  15. Cellular heterogeneity and live cell arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Maureen A; Shepard, Jason R E

    2011-07-01

    In the past decade, the tendency to move from a global, one-size-fits-all treatment philosophy to personalized medicine is based, in part, on the nuanced differences and sub-classifications of disease states. Our knowledge of these varied states stems from not only the ability to diagnose, classify, and perform experiments on cell populations as a whole, but also from new technologies that allow interrogation of cell populations at the individual cell level. Such departures from conventional thinking are driven by the recognition that clonal cell populations have numerous activities that manifest as significant levels of non-genetic heterogeneity. Clonal populations by definition originate from a single genetic origin so are regarded as having a high level of homogeneity as compared to genetically distinct cell populations. However, analysis at the single cell level has revealed a different phenomenon; cells and organisms require an inherent level of non-genetic heterogeneity to function properly, and in some cases, to survive. The growing understanding of this occurrence has lead to the development of methods to monitor, analyze, and better characterize the heterogeneity in cell populations. Following the trend of DNA- and protein microarrays, platforms capable of simultaneously monitoring each cell in a population have been developed. These cellular microarray platforms and other related formats allow for continuous monitoring of single live cells and simultaneously generate individual cell and average population data that are more descriptive and information-rich than traditional bulk methods. These technological advances have helped develop a better understanding of the intricacies associated with biological processes and afforded greater insight into complex biological systems. The associated instruments, techniques, and reagents now allow for highly multiplexed analyses, which enable multiple cellular activities, processes, or pathways to be monitored

  16. Modeling cellular deformations using the level set formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cellular processes involve substantial shape changes. Traditional simulations of these cell shape changes require that grids and boundaries be moved as the cell's shape evolves. Here we demonstrate that accurate cell shape changes can be recreated using level set methods (LSM, in which the cellular shape is defined implicitly, thereby eschewing the need for updating boundaries. Results We obtain a viscoelastic model of Dictyostelium cells using micropipette aspiration and show how this viscoelastic model can be incorporated into LSM simulations to recreate the observed protrusion of cells into the micropipette faithfully. We also demonstrate the use of our techniques by simulating the cell shape changes elicited by the chemotactic response to an external chemoattractant gradient. Conclusion Our results provide a simple but effective means of incorporating cellular deformations into mathematical simulations of cell signaling. Such methods will be useful for simulating important cellular events such as chemotaxis and cytokinesis.

  17. Influence of corona charging in cellular polyethylene film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Brana, Gustavo; Magraner, Francisco; Quijano, Alfredo [Instituto Tecnologico de la Energia (ITE), Av. Juan de la Cierva 24, Parque Tecnologico de Valencia, 46980 Paterna-Valencia (Spain); Llovera Segovia, Pedro, E-mail: gustavo.ortega@ite.es [Instituto de TecnologIa Electrica - Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022-Valencia (Spain)

    2011-06-23

    Cellular polymers have recently attracted attention for their property of exhibiting a piezoelectric constant when they are electrically charged. The electrostatic charge generated in the voids by the internal discharges creates and internal macrodipole which is responsible for the piezoelectric effect. Charging by corona discharge is the most used method for cellular polymers. Many works has been published on polypropylene and polyethylene films mainly focused on the required expansion process or on the results obtained for raw cellular materials electrically activated. Our work is based on commercial polyethylene cellular films which have been physically characterized and electrically activated. The effect of thermal treatment, physical uniaxial or biaxial stretching and corona charging was investigated. The new method of corona charging improved the piezoelectric constant under other activation conditions.

  18. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  19. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  20. The thorny path linking cellular senescence to organismalaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Christopher K.; Mian, Saira; Campisi, Judith

    2005-08-09

    Half a century is fast approaching since Hayflick and colleagues formally described the limited ability of normal human cells to proliferate in culture (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961). This finding--that normal somatic cells, in contrast to cancer cells, cannot divide indefinitely--challenged the prevailing idea that cells from mortal multicellular organisms were intrinsically ''immortal'' (Carrell, 1912). It also spawned two hypotheses, essential elements of which persist today. The first held that the restricted proliferation of normal cells, now termed cellular senescence, suppresses cancer (Hayflick, 1965; Sager, 1991; Campisi, 2001). The second hypothesis, as explained in the article by Lorenzini et al., suggested that the limited proliferation of cells in culture recapitulated aspects of organismal aging (Hayflick, 1965; Martin, 1993). How well have these hypotheses weathered the ensuing decades? Before answering this question, we first consider current insights into the causes and consequences of cellular senescence. Like Lorenzini et al., we limit our discussion to mammals. We also focus on fibroblasts, the cell type studied by Lorenzini et al., but consider other types as well. We suggest that replicative capacity in culture is not a straightforward assessment, and that it correlates poorly with both longevity and body mass. We speculate this is due to the malleable and variable nature of replicative capacity, which renders it an indirect metric of qualitative and quantitative differences among cells to undergo senescence, a response that directly alters cellular phenotype and might indirectly alter tissue structure and function.

  1. A Novel Ex Ovo Banding Technique to Alter Intracardiac Hemodynamics in an Embryonic Chicken System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vinal; Junor, Lorain; Balhaj, Marwa; Eberth, John F; Potts, Jay D

    2016-01-01

    The new model presented here can be used to understand the influence of hemodynamics on specific cardiac developmental processes, at the cellular and molecular level. To alter intracardiac hemodynamics, fertilized chicken eggs are incubated in a humidified chamber to obtain embryos of the desired stage (HH17). Once this developmental stage is achieved, the embryo is maintained ex ovo and hemodynamics in the embryonic heart are altered by partially constricting the outflow tract (OFT) with a surgical suture at the junction of the OFT and ventricle (OVJ). Control embryos are also cultured ex ovo but are not subjected to the surgical intervention. Banded and control embryos are then incubated in a humidified incubator for the desired period of time, after which 2D ultrasound is employed to analyze the change in blood flow velocity at the OVJ as a result of OFT banding. Once embryos are maintained ex ovo, it is important to ensure adequate hydration in the incubation chamber so as to prevent drying and eventually embryo death. Using this new banded model, it is now possible to perform analyses of changes in the expression of key players involved in valve development and to understand the role of hemodynamics on cellular responses in vivo, which could not be achieved previously. PMID:27213265

  2. Altered microRNA expression following sciatic nerve resection in dorsal root ganglia of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yu; Songlin Zhou; Tianmei Qian; Yongjun Wang; Fei Ding; Xiaosong Gu

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small,non-coding RNAs (~22 nucleotides) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally,either through translational inhibition or degradation of target mRNAs.We uncovered a previously unknown alteration in the expression of miRNAs in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at 1,4,7,and 14 days after resection of the sciatic nerve in rats using microarray analysis.Thirty-two significantly upregulated and 18 downregulated miRNAs were identified in the DRG at four time points following sciatic nerve injury.The expression of four consecutively deregulated miRNAs,analyzed by real-time Taqman polymerase chain reaction,was in agreement with the microarray data (upregulated: miR-21,miR-221; downregulated:miR-500,miR-551b),The potential targets for these miRNAs,altered after sciatic nerve resection,are involved mainly in nervous system development,multi-cellular organismal development,and the regulation of cellular processes.This study demonstrated a different involvement of miRNAs in the DRG after resection of the sciatic nerve in a rat model,and it may also contribute in illustrating the molecular mechanisms responsible for nerve regeneration.

  3. Cellular Prion Protein: From Physiology to Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kikuchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The human cellular prion protein (PrPC is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored membrane glycoprotein with two N-glycosylation sites at residues 181 and 197. This protein migrates in several bands by Western blot analysis (WB. Interestingly, PNGase F treatment of human brain homogenates prior to the WB, which is known to remove the N-glycosylations, unexpectedly gives rise to two dominant bands, which are now known as C-terminal (C1 and N-terminal (N1 fragments. This resembles the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP in Alzheimer disease (AD, which can be physiologically processed by α-, β-, and γ-secretases. The processing of APP has been extensively studied, while the identity of the cellular proteases involved in the proteolysis of PrPC and their possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the neurotoxicity caused by prion proteins and the blockade of their normal proteolysis. For example, expression of non-cleavable PrPC mutants in transgenic mice generates neurotoxicity, even in the absence of infectious prions, suggesting that PrPC proteolysis is physiologically and pathologically important. As many mouse models of prion diseases have recently been developed and the knowledge about the proteases responsible for the PrPC proteolysis is accumulating, we examine the historical experimental evidence and highlight recent studies that shed new light on this issue.

  4. Single-Molecule Imaging of Cellular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keijzer, Sandra; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa; Spaink, Herman P.; Schmidt, Thomas

    Single-molecule microscopy is an emerging technique to understand the function of a protein in the context of its natural environment. In our laboratory this technique has been used to study the dynamics of signal transduction in vivo. A multitude of signal transduction cascades are initiated by interactions between proteins in the plasma membrane. These cascades start by binding a ligand to its receptor, thereby activating downstream signaling pathways which finally result in complex cellular responses. To fully understand these processes it is important to study the initial steps of the signaling cascades. Standard biological assays mostly call for overexpression of the proteins and high concentrations of ligand. This sets severe limits to the interpretation of, for instance, the time-course of the observations, given the large temporal spread caused by the diffusion-limited binding processes. Methods and limitations of single-molecule microscopy for the study of cell signaling are discussed on the example of the chemotactic signaling of the slime-mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Single-molecule studies, as reviewed in this chapter, appear to be one of the essential methodologies for the full spatiotemporal clarification of cellular signaling, one of the ultimate goals in cell biology.

  5. Cellular Auxin Homeostasis:Gatekeeping Is Housekeeping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michel Ruiz Rosquete; Elke Barbez; Jürgen Kleine-Vehn

    2012-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is essential for plant development and contributes to nearly every aspect of the plant life cycle.The spatio-temporal distribution of auxin depends on a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and cell-to-cell auxin transport.Auxin metabolism and transport are both crucial for plant development;however,it largely remains to be seen how these processes are integrated to ensure defined cellular auxin levels or even gradients within tissues or organs.In this review,we provide a glance at very diverse topics of auxin biology,such as biosynthesis,conjugation,oxidation,and transport of auxin.This broad,but certainly superficial,overview highlights the mutual importance of auxin metabolism and transport.Moreover,it allows pinpointing how auxin metabolism and transport get integrated to jointly regulate cellular auxin homeostasis.Even though these processes have been so far only separately studied,we assume that the phytohormonal crosstalk integrates and coordinates auxin metabolism and transport.Besides the integrative power of the global hormone signaling,we additionally introduce the hypothetical concept considering auxin transport components as gatekeepers for auxin responses.

  6. Cellular factors implicated in filovirus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Hope, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replication cycle and different studies have reported the involvement of a myriad of cellular factors including plasma membrane components, cytoskeletal proteins, endosomal components, and cytosolic factors in this process. Signaling molecules such as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprising of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer have also been implicated as putative entry factors. Additionally, filoviruses are suggested to bind to a common receptor and recent studies have proposed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as potential receptor candidates. This paper summarizes the existing literature on filoviral entry with a special focus on cellular factors involved in this process and also highlights some fundamental questions. Future research aimed at answering these questions could be very useful in designing novel antiviral therapeutics. PMID:23365575

  7. Cellular Factors Implicated in Filovirus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replication cycle and different studies have reported the involvement of a myriad of cellular factors including plasma membrane components, cytoskeletal proteins, endosomal components, and cytosolic factors in this process. Signaling molecules such as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprising of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer have also been implicated as putative entry factors. Additionally, filoviruses are suggested to bind to a common receptor and recent studies have proposed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1 and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1 as potential receptor candidates. This paper summarizes the existing literature on filoviral entry with a special focus on cellular factors involved in this process and also highlights some fundamental questions. Future research aimed at answering these questions could be very useful in designing novel antiviral therapeutics.

  8. Prion disease induced alterations in gene expression in spleen and brain prior to clinical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon O Kim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyeon O Kim1, Greg P Snyder1, Tyler M Blazey1, Richard E Race2, Bruce Chesebro2, Pamela J Skinner11Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, USA; 2NIH Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, Montana, USAAbstract: Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect animals and humans. There is a need to gain understanding of prion disease pathogenesis and to develop diagnostic assays to detect prion diseases prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. The goal of this study was to identify genes that show altered expression early in the disease process in the spleen and brain of prion disease-infected mice. Using Affymetrix microarrays, we identified 67 genes that showed increased expression in the brains of prion disease-infected mice prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. These genes function in many cellular processes including immunity, the endosome/lysosome system, hormone activity, and the cytoskeleton. We confirmed a subset of these gene expression alterations using other methods and determined the time course in which these changes occur. We also identified 14 genes showing altered expression prior to the onset of clinical symptoms in spleens of prion disease infected mice. Interestingly, four genes, Atp1b1, Gh, Anp32a, and Grn, were altered at the very early time of 46 days post-infection. These gene expression alterations provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying prion disease pathogenesis and may serve as surrogate markers for the early detection and diagnosis of prion disease.Keywords: prion disease, microarrays, gene expression

  9. Morphological and cellular changes within embryonic striatal grafts associated with enriched environment and involuntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döbrössy, Máté D; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2006-12-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) and exercise have been implicated in influencing behaviour and altering neuronal processes associated with cellular morphology in both 'normal' and injured states of the CNS. Using a rodent model of Huntington's disease, we investigated whether prolonged EE or involuntary exercise can induce morphological and cellular changes within embryonic striatal transplants. Adult rats were trained on the Staircase test--requiring fine motor control to reach and collect reward pellets--prior to being lesioned unilaterally in the dorsal neostriatum with quinolinic acid. The lesioned animals received E15 whole ganglionic eminence cell suspension grafts followed by housing in EE or standard cages. Half of the animals in standard cages received daily forced exercise on a treadmill. The grafted animals showed significant functional recovery on both the Staircase test and in drug-induced rotation. Neither the housing conditions nor the training had an impact on the behaviour, with the exception of the treadmill reducing the ipsilateral drug-induced rotation observed amongst the lesioned animals. However, the animals housed in the EE had significantly increased striatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and graft neurons in these animals exhibited both greater spine densities and larger cell volumes. Animals on forced exercise regime had reduced BDNF levels and grafted cells with sparser spines. The study suggests that the context of the animal can affect the plasticity of transplanted cells. Appropriately exploiting the underlying, and yet unknown, mechanisms could lead the way to improved anatomical and potentially functional integration of the graft. PMID:17156383

  10. Fluorescence studies on radiation oxidative damage to membranes with implications to cellular radiosensitivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Mishra

    2002-12-01

    Radiation oxidative damage to plasma membrane and its consequences to cellular radiosensitivity have received increasing attention in the past few years. This review gives a brief account of radiation oxidative damage in model and cellular membranes with particular emphasis on results from our laboratory. Fluorescence and ESR spin probes have been employed to investigate the structural and functional alterations in membranes after g-irradiation. Changes in the lipid bilayer in irradiated unilamellar liposomes prepared from egg yolk lecithin (EYL) were measured by using diphenylhexatriene (DPH) as a probe. The observed increase in DPH polarization and decrease in fluorescence intensity after g-irradiation of liposomes imply radiationinduced decrease in bilayer fluidity. Inclusion of cholesterol in liposome was found to protect lipids against radiation damage, possibly by modulation of bilayer organization e.g. lipid packing. Measurements on dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes loaded with 6-carboxyfluorescein (CF) showed radiation dose-dependent release of the probe indicating radiation-induced increased permeability. Changes in plasma membrane permeability of thymocytes were monitored by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by 2,7-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate (DCH-FDA). Results suggest a correlation between ROS generation and membrane permeability changes induced by radiation within therapeutic doses (0-10 Gy). It is concluded that increase in membrane permeability was the result of ROS-mediated oxidative reactions, which might trigger processes leading to apoptotic cell death after radiation exposure.

  11. Part and Parcel of the Cardiac Autonomic Nerve System: Unravelling Its Cellular Building Blocks during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. D. Végh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system (cANS is essential for proper heart function, and complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death are associated with an altered cANS function. A changed innervation state may underlie (part of the atrial and ventricular arrhythmias observed after myocardial infarction. In other cardiac diseases, such as congenital heart disease, autonomic dysfunction may be related to disease outcome. This is also the case after heart transplantation, when the heart is denervated. Interest in the origin of the autonomic nerve system has renewed since the role of autonomic function in disease progression was recognized, and some plasticity in autonomic regeneration is evident. As with many pathological processes, autonomic dysfunction based on pathological innervation may be a partial recapitulation of the early development of innervation. As such, insight into the development of cardiac innervation and an understanding of the cellular background contributing to cardiac innervation during different phases of development is required. This review describes the development of the cANS and focuses on the cellular contributions, either directly by delivering cells or indirectly by secretion of necessary factors or cell-derivatives.

  12. Identification of Nonstationary Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AndrewI.Adamatzky

    1992-01-01

    The principal feature of nonstationary cellular automata(NCA) is that a local transitiol rule of each cell is changed at each time step depending on neighborhood configuration at previous time step.The identification problem for NCA is extraction of local transition rules and the establishment of mechanism for changing these rules using sequence of NCA configurations.We present serial and parallel algorithms for identification of NCA.

  13. The Origins of Cellular Life

    OpenAIRE

    Schrum, Jason P.; Zhu, Ting F.; SZOSTAK, JACK W.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the origin of cellular life on Earth requires the discovery of plausible pathways for the transition from complex prebiotic chemistry to simple biology, defined as the emergence of chemical assemblies capable of Darwinian evolution. We have proposed that a simple primitive cell, or protocell, would consist of two key components: a protocell membrane that defines a spatially localized compartment, and an informational polymer that allows for the replication and inheritance of fun...

  14. CELLULAR FETAL MICROCHIMERISM IN PREECLAMPSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gammill, Hilary S; Aydelotte, Tessa M.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Nkwopara, Evangelyn C.; Nelson, J. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown elevated concentrations of free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid and erythroblasts in maternal circulation in preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. Pluripotent and immunocompetent fetal cells also transfer to the maternal circulation during pregnancy, but whether concentrations of fetal mononuclear cells also differed in preeclampsia was unknown. We sought to quantify cellular fetal microchimerism in maternal circulation in women with preeclampsia and healthy con...

  15. Cellular reactions to patterned biointerfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Vera Antonie

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is to study cellular reactions to topographically, mechanically and biochemically tunable polymeric biomaterials. Different aspects of in vitro cell-biomaterial interactions were systematically studied with the murine fibroblast cell line NIH L929 and primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Besides a general cytocompatibility assessment of the applied materials and the quantification of cell adhesion per se, cell morphological changes (e.g. cell spreading) and intr...

  16. CELLULAR INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY GLYCONECTIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, O.; Sumanovski, L. T.; I. Checiu; Elisabeta Popescu; G. N. Misevic

    1999-01-01

    Cellular interactions involve many types of cell surface molecules and operate via homophilic and/or heterophilic protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate binding. Our investigations in different model-systems (marine invertebrates and mammals) have provided direct evidence that a novel class of primordial proteoglycans, named by us gliconectins, can mediate cell adhesion via a new alternative molecular mechanism of polyvalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of...

  17. The insect cellular immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R. Strand

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system of insects is divided into humoral defenses that include the production of soluble effector molecules and cellular defenses like phagocytosis and encapsulation that are mediated by hemocytes. This review summarizes current understanding of the cellular immune response. Insects produce several terminally differentiated types of hemocytes that are distinguished by morphology, molecular and antigenic markers, and function. The differentiated hemocytes that circulate in larval or nymphal stage insects arise from two sources: progenitor cells produced during embryogenesis and mesodermally derived hematopoietic organs. Regulation of hematopoiesis and hemocyte differentiation also involves several different signaling pathways. Phagocytosis and encapsulation require that hemocytes first recognize a given target as foreign followed by activation of downstream signaling and effector responses. A number of humoral and cellular receptors have been identified that recognize different microbes and multicellular parasites. In turn, activation of these receptors stimulates a number of signaling pathways that regulate different hemocyte functions. Recent studies also identify hemocytes as important sources of a number of humoral effector molecules required for killing different foreign invaders.

  18. Mathematical analysis of complex cellular activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Richard; Teka, Wondimu; Vo, Theodore; Wechselberger, Martin; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on mathematical physiology that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. The first article reviews the basic theory of calcium oscillations (common to almost all cell types), including spatio-temporal behaviors such as waves. The second article uses, and expands on, much of this basic theory to show how the interaction of cytosolic calcium oscillators with membrane ion channels can result in highly complex patterns of electrical spiking. Through these examples one can see clearly how multiple oscillatory processes interact within a cell, and how mathematical methods can be used to understand such interactions better. The two reviews provide excellent examples of how mathematics and physiology can learn from each other, and work jointly towards a better understanding of complex cellular processes. Review 1: Richard Bertram, Joel Tabak, Wondimu Teka, Theodore Vo, Martin Wechselberger: Geometric Singular Perturbation Analysis of Burst...

  19. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  20. Influence of HFE variants and cellular iron on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Zachary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in the MHC class 1-like gene known as HFE have been proposed as genetic modifiers of neurodegenerative diseases that include neuroinflammation as part of the disease process. Variants of HFE are relatively common in the general population and are most commonly associated with iron overload, but can promote subclinical cellular iron loading even in the absence of clinically identified disease. The effects of the variants as well as the resulting cellular iron dyshomeostasis potentially impact a number of disease-associated pathways. We tested the hypothesis that the two most common HFE variants, H63D and C282Y, would affect cellular secretion of cytokines and trophic factors. Methods We screened a panel of cytokines and trophic factors using a multiplexed immunoassay in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells expressing different variants of HFE. The influence of cellular iron secretion on the potent chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 was assessed using ferric ammonium citrate and the iron chelator, desferroxamine. Additionally, an antioxidant, Trolox, and an anti-inflammatory, minocycline, were tested for their effects on MCP-1 secretion in the presence of HFE variants. Results Expression of the HFE variants altered the labile iron pool in SH-SY5Y cells. Of the panel of cytokines and trophic factors analyzed, only the release of MCP-1 was affected by the HFE variants. We further examined the relationship between iron and MCP-1 and found MCP-1 secretion tightly associated with intracellular iron status. A potential direct effect of HFE is considered because, despite having similar levels of intracellular iron, the association between HFE genotype and MCP-1 expression was different for the H63D and C282Y HFE variants. Moreover, HFE genotype was a factor in the effect of minocycline, a multifaceted antibiotic used in treating a number of neurologic conditions associated with inflammation, on MCP-1