Sample records for alter call meaning

  1. Bonobos extract meaning from call sequences.

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    Zanna Clay

    Full Text Available Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred and apples (less preferred at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system.

  2. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

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    Jessie P. Bunkley


    Full Text Available Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband noise 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With over half a million producing gas wells in the U.S. this infrastructure is a major source of noise pollution across the landscape. We conducted a ‘natural experiment’ in the second largest gas extraction field in the U.S. to investigate the potential effects of gas compressor station noise on the activity levels of the local bat assemblage. We used acoustic monitoring to compare the activity level (number of minutes in a night with a bat call of the bat assemblage at sites with compressor stations to sites lacking this infrastructure. We found that activity levels for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis were 40% lower at loud compressor sites compared to quieter well pads, whereas the activity levels of four other species (Myotis californicus, M. cillolabrum, M. lucifugus, Parastrellus hesperus were not affected by noise. Furthermore, our results reveal that the assemblage of bat species emitting low frequency (35 kHz echolocation did not exhibit altered activity levels in noise. Lower activity levels of Brazilian free-tailed bats at loud sites indicate a potential reduction in habitat for this species. Additionally, a comparison of echolocation search calls produced by free-tailed bats at sites with and without compressor stations reveal that this species modifies its echolocation search calls in noise—producing longer calls with a narrower bandwidth. Call alterations might affect prey

  3. Video call or chat? Negotiation of meaning and issues of face in telecollaboration

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    R. van der Zwaard; A. Bannink


    In an attempt to evaluate the influence of the type of digital medium on language learner communication, this study examines negotiation of meaning during interaction between native speakers and non-native speakers of English in a task-based advanced second language classroom via two forms of real-t

  4. Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption

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    Lukasz Stelinski


    Full Text Available Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species of tortricids (Grapholita molesta (Busck and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris. We find that females of both species not only “autodetect,” but that learning (change in behavior following experience occurs, which affects behavior for at least 24 hours after pheromone pre-exposure. Specifically, female calling in both species is advanced at least 24 hours, but not 5 days, following pheromone pre-exposure. Also, the propensity of female moths to initiate flight and the duration of flights, as quantified by a laboratory flight mill, were advanced in pre-exposed females as compared with controls. Pheromone pre-exposure did not affect the proportion of mated moths when they were confined with males in small enclosures over 24 hours in laboratory assays. We discuss the possible implications of these results with respect to management of these known pest species with the use of pheromone-based mating disruption.

  5. Functional class (so called “part of speech” assignment as a kind of meaning-bound word syntactic information

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    Jadwiga Wajszczuk


    Full Text Available Functional class (so called “part of speech” assignment as a kind of meaning-bound word syntactic information The traditional division of the lexicon into parts of speech which seems to satisfy the requirements of a syntactic description, on the one hand, and a word formation description, on the other hand, cannot be looked upon as a result of a strict classification covering the totality of the lexicon and being based on a coherent set of criteria. Making the criteria more precise or correcting them is an issue of extreme importance and urgency in the work on the theory of language. Such achievements can help solve many other problems, in particular, syntactic ones. The article presents a scheme of several preliminary steps of an amelioration program (a scheme which has been improved compared to the author’s earlier attempts going in the same direction. The program is based on combinability characteristics of words, i.e. on those properties that are responsible for the tasks to be accomplished by a given class of expressions in making up a higher order unit, i.e. a syntagm (the author emphasizes this point: it is syntagm rather than sentence which is the category the recommended approach is focusing on, and that, importantly, determine the limits of syntactic rules, i.e. the ins and outs of the rules (the limits concerning the overall stock of words.

  6. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research



    The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) ...

  7. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

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    Ruth A. Lanius


    Full Text Available The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015. This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1 those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2 those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC along four dimensions: (1 time; (2 thought; (3 body; and (4 emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  8. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research. (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A


    The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) thought; (3) body; and (4) emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  9. CALL interrupted in a patient with non-specific mental retardation: gene dosage-dependent alteration of murine brain development and behavior. (United States)

    Frints, Suzanna G M; Marynen, Peter; Hartmann, Dieter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Steyaert, Jean; Schachner, Melitta; Rolf, Bettina; Craessaerts, Katleen; Snellinx, An; Hollanders, Karen; D'Hooge, Rudi; De Deyn, Peter P; Froyen, Guy


    Investigation of MR patients with 3p aberrations led to the identification of the translocation breakpoint in intron five of the neural Cell Adhesion L1-Like (CALL or CHL1) gene in a man with non-specific mental retardation and 46,Y, t(X;3)(p22.1;p26.3). The Xp breakpoint does not seem to affect a known or predicted gene. Moreover, a fusion transcript with the CALL gene could not be detected and no mutations were identified on the second allele. CALL is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system, like the mouse ortholog 'close homolog to L1' (Chl1). Chl1 expression levels in the hippocampus of Chl1(+/-) mice were half of those obtained in wild-type littermates, reflecting a gene dosage effect. Timm staining and synaptophysin immunohistochemistry of the hippocampus showed focal groups of ectopic mossy fiber synapses in the lateral CA3 region, outside the trajectory of the infra-pyramidal mossy fiber bundle in Chl1(-/-) and Chl1(+/-) mice. Behavioral assessment demonstrated mild alterations in the Chl1(-/-) animals. In the probe trial of the Morris Water Maze test, Chl1(-/-) mice displayed an altered exploratory pattern. In addition, these mice were significantly more sociable and less aggressive as demonstrated in social exploration tests. The Chl1(+/-) mice showed a phenotypic spectrum ranging from wild-type to knockout behavior. We hypothesize that a 50% reduction of CALL expression in the developing brain results in cognitive deficits. This suggests that the CALL gene at 3p26.3 is a prime candidate for an autosomal form of mental retardation. So far, mutation analysis of the CALL gene in patients with non-specific MR did not reveal any disease-associated mutations.

  10. Occupation-as-Means to Mental Health: A Review of the Literature, and a Call for Research. (United States)

    Rebeiro, Karen L.


    A literature review uncovered a discrepancy between occupational therapy theory about occupations as a means to mental health and the research conducted in this area. The research gap may explain the lack of recognition for the value of occupational therapy in mental health. (SK)

  11. Baseflow mean transit times in natural and human-altered catchments (United States)

    Boll, J.; Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Elliot, W. E.


    Baseflow is one of the most important components of the ecosystem since it provides continuous habitat to aquatic biota; regulates water chemistry, temperature, and dissolved oxygen during summer; and functions as an essential supply for drinking water and food production worldwide. This study will evaluate baseflow mean transit times (MTTs) in five natural (i.e. pristine forest) and human-altered (i.e. agricultural, urban, and mining) catchments in eastern Washington and northern Idaho during 2011-2013. Drainage area ranges from small (6.35 km2) to meso scale (342 km2) and mean annual precipitation varies from 670 mm to 1,313 mm. MTTs were evaluated by applying d18O input precipitation and output stream waters to a lumped parameter model (FlowPC 3.2) using four main theoretical distribution models: piston flow, exponential, dispersion, and piston-exponential. Precipitation samples (N=307) were collected on weekly to biweekly basis and stream samples (N=690) were collected weekly using automated samplers. Precipitation showed a strong seasonal periodicity with a sine-wave modeled amplitude of 3.03‰ and a mean annual average of d18O= -15.13‰. Mean annual stream d18O ranged from -14.87‰ to -15.80‰ across the study catchments. Our modeling results will show information for examining solute transport and water availability under current and future land use practices and climate variability within a variety of watersheds in the inland Pacific Northwest that share similar underlying geology and climate attributes.

  12. Prenatal minocycline treatment alters synaptic protein expression, and rescues reduced mother call rate in oxytocin receptor-knockout mice. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shinji; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko


    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication, difficulty in companionship, repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Recent studies have shown amelioration of ASD symptoms by intranasal administration of oxytocin and demonstrated the association of polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) gene with ASD patients. Deficient pruning of synapses by microglial cells in the brain has been proposed as potential mechanism of ASD. Other researchers have shown specific activation of microglial cells in brain regions related to sociality in patients with ASD. Although the roles of Oxtr and microglia in ASD are in the spotlight, the relationship between them remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found abnormal activation of microglial cells and a reduction of postsynaptic density protein PSD95 expression in the Oxtr-deficient brain. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of microglia during development can alter the expression of PSD95 and ameliorate abnormal mother-infant communication in Oxtr-deficient mice. Our results suggest that microglial abnormality is a potential mechanism of the development of Oxt/Oxtr mediated ASD-like phenotypes.

  13. Evaluating Ketoreductase Exchanges as a Means of Rationally Altering Polyketide Stereochemistry. (United States)

    Annaval, Thibault; Paris, Cédric; Leadlay, Peter F; Jacob, Christophe; Weissman, Kira J


    Modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) are multidomain multienzymes responsible for the biosynthesis in bacteria of a wide range of polyketide secondary metabolites of clinical value. The stereochemistry of these molecules is an attractive target for genetic engineering in attempts to produce analogues exhibiting novel therapeutic properties. The exchange of ketoreductase (KR) domains in model PKSs has been shown in several cases to predictably alter the configuration of the β-hydroxy functionalities but not of the α-methyl groups. By systematic screening of a broad panel of KR domains, we have identified two donor KRs that afford modification of α-methyl group stereochemistry. To the best of our knowledge, this provides the first direct in vivo evidence of KR-catalyzed epimerization. However, none of the introduced KRs afforded simultaneous alteration of methyl and hydroxy configurations in high yield. Therefore, swapping of whole modules might be necessary to achieve such changes in stereochemistry.

  14. Significados de la salud para los niños de la calle en Medellín (Colombia The meaning of health for homeless children, Medellin, Colombia

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    Mario Hurtado Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Investigación realizada con niños en situación de calle en Medellín, Colombia. Objetivo: Conocer el significado y las prácticas en relación con la salud. Metodología: estudio cualitativo, etnográfico; se realizaron 34 entrevistas; la ética fue parte integral del proceso; el análisis se hizo con los participantes para garantizar el rigor. Resultados: el significado de salud está mediado por la posibilidad de sobrevivir. El dolor es el principal indicador de la pérdida de la salud y buscan contrarrestarlo. Las prácticas para conservar la salud se basan en el autocuidado, en prevenir enfermedades que se pueden visualizar y en consumir drogas. Conservan la salud, con hábitos saludables y prevención. Al perder la salud, recurren al autocuidado, a instituciones de apoyo y hospitales. Conclusión principal: el significado de salud depende de la forma de vida que los niños llevan. Cuando pierden la salud, pierden la libertad.It was made with homeless children in Medellin, Colombia. Objective: To know the meaning and practices according to their health. Methodology: Qualitative, ethnographic research; were made 34 interviews, ethics was an integral part of the process, the analysis was made with participants to ensure rigor. Results: The meaning of health is mediated by the possibility of survives. Pain is the main indicator of losing health and they try to counteract it. Habits focused to maintaining health are based in the self-care, prevent diseases that can be identified, and consuming drugs. To maintain health, they develop healthy habits and disease prevention. Losing health they resort to self-care, to support institutions and hospitals. Conclusions: The meaning of health depends on the way of life children have. When they lost the health, lost their freedom.

  15. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: What It Means to You. A Guide to Action for Educators (United States)

    Wing, Stephen; Beazley, Hamilton; Fine, Theodora


    The Surgeon General, the Nation's top public health officer, is appointed by the President of the United States to help protect and promote the health of the Nation. The recently published "Surgeon General's Call to Action To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking" [ED496083] highlights underage alcohol use as a major public health and…

  16. Callings and Organizational Behavior (United States)

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith


    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…


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  18. Using deposition rate as a means to alter the properties of small molecule organic glasses for OLED applications (United States)

    Kearns, Kenneth; Krzyskowski, Paige; Devereaux, Zachary


    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices rely on vapor-deposited, small molecule organic glasses. Recent work has shown that deposition condition plays a critical role in altering OLED device performance. Here it will be shown that the deposition rate alters the onset and fictive temperatures measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the deposited glass. Glasses of the common hole transport materials NPD and TPD were prepared with onset temperatures 17 and 16 K higher, respectively, than the ordinary glass prepared by cooling the supercooled liquid. The thermal stability of glasses in functioning devices can be underestimated due to increases in onset temperature relative to Tg. The fictive temperatures for NPD and TPD were 32 and 27 K lower, respectively, than the Tg of the ordinary glass. These results are consistent with literature reports on other non-OLED glasses where enhanced surface mobility allowed for glasses with similar properties to be made. Ellipsometry studies on NPD showed that the fictive and onset temperatures were consistent with the DSC results. Additionally, the modeled birefringence of the as-deposited NPD glass was non-zero and quickly decreased upon heating above the onset temperature, which has implications for device performance. Formerly at Department of Chemistry, Saginaw Valley State University.

  19. Calling Dunbar's Numbers

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    MacCarron, Pádraig; Dunbar, Robin


    The social brain hypothesis predicts that humans have an average of about 150 relationships at any given time. Within this 150, there are layers of friends of an ego, where the number of friends in a layer increases as the emotional closeness decreases. Here we analyse a mobile phone dataset, firstly, to ascertain whether layers of friends can be identified based on call frequency. We then apply different clustering algorithms to break the call frequency of egos into clusters and compare the number of alters in each cluster with the layer size predicted by the social brain hypothesis. In this dataset we find strong evidence for the existence of a layered structure. The clustering yields results that match well with previous studies for the innermost and outermost layers, but for layers in between we observe large variability.

  20. The Alteration of Neonatal Raphe Neurons by Prenatal-Perinatal Nicotine. Meaning for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (United States)

    Cerpa, Verónica J; Aylwin, María de la Luz O; Beltrán-Castillo, Sebastián; Bravo, Eduardo U; Llona, Isabel R; Richerson, George B; Eugenín, Jaime L


    Nicotine may link maternal cigarette smoking with respiratory dysfunctions in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure blunts ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and reduces central respiratory chemoreception in mouse neonates at Postnatal Days 0 (P0) to P3. This suggests that raphe neurons, which are altered in SIDS and contribute to central respiratory chemoreception, may be affected by nicotine. We therefore investigated whether prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure affects the activity, electrical properties, and chemosensitivity of raphe obscurus (ROb) neurons in mouse neonates. Osmotic minipumps, implanted subcutaneously in 5- to 7-day-pregnant CF1 mice, delivered nicotine bitartrate (60 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or saline (control) for up to 28 days. In neonates, ventilation was recorded by head-out plethysmography, c-Fos (neuronal activity marker), or serotonin autoreceptors (5HT1AR) were immunodetected using light microscopy, and patch-clamp recordings were made from raphe neurons in brainstem slices under normocarbia and hypercarbia. Prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure decreased the hypercarbia-induced ventilatory responses at P1-P5, reduced both the number of c-Fos-positive ROb neurons during eucapnic normoxia at P1-P3 and their hypercapnia-induced recruitment at P3, increased 5HT1AR immunolabeling of ROb neurons at P3-P5, and reduced the spontaneous firing frequency of ROb neurons at P3 without affecting their CO2 sensitivity or their passive and active electrical properties. These findings reveal that prenatal-perinatal nicotine reduces the activity of neonatal ROb neurons, likely as a consequence of increased expression of 5HT1ARs. This hypoactivity may change the functional state of the respiratory neural network leading to breathing vulnerability and chemosensory failure as seen in SIDS.

  1. Call Forecasting for Inbound Call Center

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    Peter Vinje


    Full Text Available In a scenario of inbound call center customer service, the ability to forecast calls is a key element and advantage. By forecasting the correct number of calls a company can predict staffing needs, meet service level requirements, improve customer satisfaction, and benefit from many other optimizations. This project will show how elementary statistics can be used to predict calls for a specific company, forecast the rate at which calls are increasing/decreasing, and determine if the calls may stop at some point.

  2. On-call duty effects on sleep-state physiological stability in male medical interns.

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    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On-call duty among medical interns is characterized by sleep deprivation and stressful working conditions, both of which alter cardiac autonomic modulation. We hypothesized that sleep stability decreased in medical interns during on-call duty. We used cardiopulmonary-coupling (CPC analysis to test our hypothesis. METHODS: We used electrocardiogram (ECG-based CPC analysis to quantify physiological parameters of sleep stability in 13 medical interns during on-call and on-call duty-free periods. There were ten 33.5-h on-call duty shifts per month for interns, each followed by 2 on-call duty-free days, over 3 months. Measurements during sleep were collected before, during, and after an on-call shift. Measurements were repeated 3 months later during an on-call duty-free period. RESULTS: The medical interns had significantly reduced stable sleep, and displayed increased latency to the first epoch of stable sleep during the on-call night shift, compared to the pre-call and on-call duty-free nights. Interns also had significantly increased rapid-eye-movement (REM sleep during the on-call night shift, compared to the pre-call and on-call duty-free nights. CONCLUSION: Medical interns suffer disrupted sleep stability and continuity during on-call night shifts. The ECG-based CPC analysis provides a straightforward means to quantify sleep quality and stability in medical staff performing shift work under stressful conditions.

  3. Rising Mean Annual Temperature Increases Carbon Flux and Alters Partitioning, but Does Not Change Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Hawaiian Tropical Montane Wet Forest (United States)

    Litton, C. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Selmants, P.


    Terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) storage exceeds that in the atmosphere by a factor of four, and represents a dynamic balance among C input, allocation, and loss. This balance is likely being altered by climate change, but the response of terrestrial C cycling to warming remains poorly quantified, particularly in tropical forests which play a disproportionately large role in the global C cycle. Over the past five years, we have quantified above- and belowground C pools and fluxes in nine permanent plots spanning a 5.2°C mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient (13-18.2°C) in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forest. This elevation gradient is unique in that substrate type and age, soil type, soil water balance, canopy vegetation, and disturbance history are constant, allowing us to isolate the impact of long-term, whole ecosystem warming on C input, allocation, loss and storage. Across the gradient, soil respiration, litterfall, litter decomposition, total belowground C flux, aboveground net primary productivity, and estimates of gross primary production (GPP) all increase linearly and positively with MAT. Carbon partitioning is dynamic, shifting from below- to aboveground with warming, likely in response to a warming-induced increase in the cycling and availability of soil nutrients. In contrast to observed patterns in C flux, live biomass C, soil C, and total ecosystem C pools remained remarkably constant with MAT. There was also no difference in soil bacterial taxon richness, phylogenetic diversity, or community composition with MAT. Taken together these results indicate that in tropical montane wet forests, increased temperatures in the absence of water limitation or disturbance will accelerate C cycling, will not alter ecosystem C storage, and will shift the products of photosynthesis from below- to aboveground. These results agree with an increasing number of studies, and collectively provide a unique insight into anticipated warming-induced changes in tropical

  4. Significado del consumo de drogas para las adolescentes de la calle, en la ciudad de Valencia, Venezuela Significado do uso de drogas para adolescentes de rua, Valencia, Venezuela Meaning of drugs use for adolescents living in the streets, Valencia, Venezuela

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    Roberto Alvarado-Chacón


    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio descriptivo de enfoque cualitativo con el objetivo de revelar el significado del consumo de drogas en las adolescentes de la calle, condición que las convierte en problema social, por lo que se busca obtener una aproximación teórica para comprender este fenómeno. Siete (7 adolescentes femeninas del paseo Cabriales en la ciudad de Valencia, en Venezuela fueron entrevistadas. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el recurso metodológico de la Teoría fundamentada (Grand Theory y la visión del Interaccionismo simbólico y de ahí surgieron las siguientes categorías: la búsqueda de no ser la buena, la reafirmación del rol femenino, el consumo como experiencia, la mirada de los otros a la adolescente que consume drogas, y la adicta como cuidadora. Finalmente, concluimos que el uso de drogas en la calle para las adolescentes del sexo femenino es una forma de protección, sobrevivencia e inclusión en los grupos.Trata-se de estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi revelar o significado do uso de drogas entre adolescentes que vivem nas ruas, condição que se torna um problema social, de modo que a abordagem teórica busca compreender esse fenômeno. Sete (7 adolescentes do sexo feminino, em Valência, Venezuela, foram entrevistadas. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se como recurso a metodologia da Grounded Theory e a visão do interacionismo simbólico, de onde emergiram as seguintes categorias: a busca de não ser bom, reafirmação do papel das mulheres, consumo como experiência, o olhar dos outros para a adolescente que usa drogas e o toxicodependente como cuidador. Por fim, conclui-se que o uso de drogas na rua, para adolescentes do sexo feminino, é uma forma de proteção, sobrevivência e inclusão grupal.This descriptive study with a qualitative approach aims to reveal the meaning of drugs use among adolescents living in the street, a condition that turns them into a social problem, so

  5. Significados de las instituciones de apoyo para los niños en situación de calle, Medellín, Colombia The meaning of support institutions for homeless children, Medellín, Colombia

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    Álvaro Giraldo Pineda


    Full Text Available Estudio realizado con niños en situación de calle en Medellín, Colombia. Objetivo: Comprender desde la mirada de los participantes, el significado de las instituciones que les brindan apoyo. Metodología: Cualitativa-etnográfica. Se realizaron 39 entrevistas, observación y diario de campo. La ética fue parte integral del proceso. El análisis se hizo con los participantes para garantizar el rigor. Resultados: Los niños ingresan a las instituciones buscando apoyo, motivados por éstas, por sí mismos o por otras personas. Según los niños, las instituciones pretenden cambiarles la personalidad, el pensamiento y el comportamiento, vinculándolos a un proceso. Para que éste se cumpla, se establecen normas que son aplicadas y sancionadas por los educadores o por los líderes. Los niños abandonan las instituciones cuando reciben castigos humillantes, por "caciqueo", aburrimiento y temores. Conclusión: La institución por ella misma no logra estos cambios, ellos se consiguen solamente por la interacción con sus amigos y "parceros".The research was made with Medellin´s street children, Colombia. Objective: Understand under the participant´s view, the meaning of support institutions. Method: Qualitative, ethnographic research. 39 Interviews, observation and field diary were realized. Ethic was fundamental piece of the process. Analysis was made with participant to guarantee the rigor. Results: Children go to these institutions looking for support, motivated by themselves, other people or the institutions. These pretend to change children´s personality, thought and behavior joining them to a process. To accomplish this, some rules has to be applied and penalized by teachers or leaders. Children leave these institutions when they received humiliating punishment, submissiveness ("caciqueo", boredom and fear. Conclusion: Institution by itself does not accomplish these changes, they are only achieved by the interaction with their friends and

  6. The Call of Humanity in The Call of the Wild

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱露; 张磊


    Jack London is one of the greatest American novelists. Many of his works are very popular among readers all over the world. This paper firstly gives a brief introduction of Jack London and The Call of the Wild. Then it analyzes the theme and main Characters of this novel. At last the implied meaning is discussed.

  7. Evaluation of call options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The European and American call options,for which the prices of their underlying asset follow compound Poisson process,are evaluated by a probability method.Formulas that can be used to evaluate the options are obtained,which include not only the elements of an option:the price of the call option,the exercise price and the expiration date,but also the riskless interest rate,nevertheless exclude the volatility of the underlying asset.In practice,the evaluated results obtained by these formulas can proved references of making strategic decision for an investor who buys the call option and a company who sells the call option.

  8. Making telephone calls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1.常见用语 a.请找某人接电话 Hello!May/Could/Can I speak to…,please? b.问对方是不是某人 Is that…(speaking)? c.问对方是谁 1)Who's speaking(calling)? 2)Who's that(speaking/calling)?

  9. A Telephone Call

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    At about two o'clock on a cold winter morning, a doctor drove seven miles in answer to a telephone call. On his coming the man who had called him in said, “Doctor, I don't have a sore throat, I don't cough.I have no pain either in the side or in the back, I'm not running a temperature, but still I feel that death is near.”

  10. Enhanced nurse call systems. (United States)


    This Evaluation focuses on high-end computerized nurse call systems--what we call enhanced systems. These are highly flexible systems that incorporate microprocessor and communications technologies to expand the capabilities of the nurse call function. Enhanced systems, which vary in configuration from one installation to the next, typically consist of a basic system that provides standard nurse call functionality and a combination of additional enhancements that provide the added functionality the facility desires. In this study, we examine the features that distinguish enhanced nurse call systems from nonenhanced systems, focusing on their application and benefit to healthcare facilities. We evaluated seven systems to determine how well they help (1) improve patient care, as well as increase satisfaction with the care provided, and (2) improve caregiver efficiency, as well as increase satisfaction with the work environment. We found that all systems meet these objectives, but not all systems perform equally well for all implementations. Our ratings will help facilities identify those systems that offer the most effective features for their intended use. The study also includes a Technology Management Guide to help readers (1) determine whether they'll benefit from the capabilities offered by enhanced systems and (2) target a system for purchase and equip the system for optimum performance and cost-effective operation.

  11. Assessing call centers’ success:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Baraka


    This paper introduces a model to evaluate the performance of call centers based on the Delone and McLean Information Systems success model. A number of indicators are identified to track the call center’s performance. Mapping of the proposed indicators to the six dimensions of the D&M model is presented. A Weighted Call Center Performance Index is proposed to assess the call center performance; the index is used to analyze the effect of the identified indicators. Policy-Weighted approach was used to assume the weights with an analysis of different weights for each dimension. The analysis of the different weights cases gave priority to the User satisfaction and net Benefits dimension as the two outcomes from the system. For the input dimensions, higher priority was given to the system quality and the service quality dimension. Call centers decision makers can use the tool to tune the different weights in order to reach the objectives set by the organization. Multiple linear regression analysis was used in order to provide a linear formula for the User Satisfaction dimension and the Net Benefits dimension in order to be able to forecast the values for these two dimensions as function of the other dimensions

  12. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke;


    30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....


    CERN Multimedia


    CERN's anemones will soon be orphans. We are looking for someone willing to look after the aquarium in the main building, for one year. If you are interested, or if you would like more information, please call 73830. (The anemones living in the aquarium thank you in anticipation.)

  14. A call for surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jensen, Christian S.; Tan, Kian-Lee


    The database field is experiencing an increasing need for survey papers. We call on more researchers to set aside time for this important writing activity. The database field is growing in population, scope of topics covered, and the number of papers published. Each year, thousands of new papers ...

  15. Alteration of Water Pollution Level with the Seasonal Changes in Mean Daily Discharge in Three Main Rivers around Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam


    Full Text Available A study based on the physicochemical parameters and dissolved metals levels from three main rivers around Dhaka City, Bangladesh, was conducted in order to determine the present pollution status and their alteration trends with the seasonal change of discharge amount. The water samples were collected from the rivers Buriganga, Turag, and Shitalakkhya during both dry and monsoon seasons. Physicochemical analyses revealed that most of the water quality parameters exceeded the recommended levels set by the Department of Environment (DoE, Bangladesh, during both the dry and monsoon seasons. A very strong positive correlation was found between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in all sampling points. Both BOD and COD values had a strong negative correlation with dissolved oxygen (DO in the Shitalakkhya River. Most of the dissolved metals concentrations in the water samples were similar. However, the concentrations of different physicochemical properties varied with the seasons. The dry season had significantly higher contamination loads, which were decreased during the monsoon season. Anthropogenic activities, as well as the variation in river water flow during different seasons were the main reasons for this high degree of water pollution.

  16. Emergency Call Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China merges several hotline call services in an effort to streamline the urban emergency system Chances are that if you find yourself in a crisis situation in China, dialing the correct emergency number could be a problem. Not because there isn't one, but quite the opposite. China has four main emergency response numbers-110 summons police help in a life-threatening situation, 119 brings out firefighters, 122 gets police activated to sort out traffic accidents and 120 ensures medical help. Along with th...

  17. Heed the Calls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ THE bombing of Libya by some of the world's major powers, including France, the United States and Britain brought a new dimension to the protests that have washed over North Africa and the Middle East in the past months.Following the UN Security Council passing the imposition of a no-fly zone over Libyan air-space, a move supported by Nigeria, South Africa and Gabon, air and sea strikes pounded Muammar Gadhafi's strongholds.The AU called for an immediate stop to hostilities on both sides.

  18. Heed the Calls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    THE bombing of Libya by some of the world’s major powers,including France, the United States and Britain brought a new dimension to the protests that have washed over North Africa and the Middle East in the past months.Following the UN Security Council passing the imposition of a no-fly zone over Libyan air-space,a move supported by Nigeria,South Africa and Gabon,air and sea strikes pounded Muammar Gadhafi’s strongholds.The AU called for an immediate stop to hostilities

  19. How Dolphins Call

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>与人类一样,海豚能通过声音相互称呼"名字"。A high-pitched"wee-o-wee-o-wee-o-wee"whistle might not soundlike much to you,but it6s exactly how a dolphin might introduce itself.Because sight is limited in the ocean,dolphins create individual"name"calls to communicate their whereabouts to friends and families.But it6snot as simple as just recognizing a voice,

  20. Call for volunteers

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory for organizing the two exceptional Open days.CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory’s personnel to help with the organisation of these two exceptional Open Days, for the visits of CERN personnel and their families on the Saturday and above all for the major public Open Day on the Sunday. As for the 50th anniversary in 2004, the success of the Open Days will depend on a large number of volunteers. All those working for CERN as well as retired members of the personnel can contribute to making this event a success. Many guides will be needed at the LHC points, for the activities at the surface and to man the reception and information points. The aim of these major Open Days is to give the local populations the opportunity to discover the fruits of almost 20 years of work carried out at CERN. We are hoping for some 2000 volunteers for the two Open Days, on the Saturday from 9 a.m. to ...


    CERN Multimedia

    Service Médical


    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA: EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME: Open 24h/24h 748-49-50 AMG- Association Of Geneva Doctors: Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin 719-61-11 EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 CHILDREN'S EMERGENCIES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112   FRANCE: EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ...

  2. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs


    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  3. Too close to call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter


    The note briefly outlines a new model for the explanation of US presidential elections, founded on (a) recent economic growth and (b) a measure of what may be called “’the cost of ruling”. The former is based in changes in real disposable income for the period following a mid-term election, while...... the latter combines factors of incumbency and terms-in-office. The model is applied to data from the US presidential elections 1932-2008 and has considerable explanatory power for the variation in the incumbent party’s candidate’s share of the two-party vote (R2=0.74). The model is controlled against...

  4. Beware of the Spirits that You Call!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Consuelo; Schoeneborn, Dennis; Sergi, Viviane

    use in texts. Drawing on empirical material from three qualitative case studies on project organizing, we show that attempts to create order through texts (i.e. by closing and fixing meaning) simultaneously trigger disorder (i.e. open up the possibility of multiple meanings). As we argue, this dynamic...... plays a key role in the development of projects (and more broadly organizations), keeping them in motion by calling forth continuous processes of meaning negotiation....

  5. Communication cliques in mobile phone calling networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing


    People in modern societies form different social networks through numerous means of communication. These communication networks reflect different aspects of human's societal structure. The billing records of calls among mobile phone users enable us to construct a directed calling network (DCN) and its Bonferroni network (SVDCN) in which the preferential communications are statistically validated. Here we perform a comparative investigation of the cliques of the original DCN and its SVDCN constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that the statistical properties of the cliques of the two calling networks are qualitatively similar and the clique members in the DCN and the SVDCN exhibit idiosyncratic behaviors quantitatively. Members in large cliques are found to be spatially close to each other. Based on the clique degree profile of each mobile phone user, the most active users in the two calling networks can be classified in to seve...

  6. Need telomere maintenance? Call 911. (United States)

    Francia, Sofia; Weiss, Robert S; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio


    "Natura non facit saltum" (nature makes no leap) the Latins used to say, meaning that nature does not like discontinuities. Cells make no exception and indeed any discontinuity in the DNA double helix is promptly detected, triggering an alteration of cell proliferation and an attempt to repair. Yet, linear chromosomes bear DNA ends that are compatible with normal cell proliferation and they escape, under normal conditions, any repair. How telomeres, the chromosomes tips, achieve that is not fully understood. We recently observed that the Rad9/Hus1/Rad1 (911) complex, previously known for its functions in DNA metabolism and DNA damage responses, is constitutively associated with telomeres and plays an important role in their maintenance. Here, we summarize the available data and discuss the potential mechanisms of 911 action at telomeres.

  7. Internalized Meaning Factualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Jakob


    The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue...... that is internal to meaning discourse, then we can preserve the normativity of meaning and yet locate meaning in the natural world. I develop a generic motivation for this position, but argue that, since this motivation is consistent with the Ramsey-Carnap-Lewis-Jackson reductionist strategy, internalized meaning...

  8. Mean Field ICA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt


    This thesis describes investigations and improvements of a technique for Independent Component Analysis (ICA), called "Mean Field ICA". The main focus of the thesis is the optimization part of the algorithm, the so-called "EM algorithm". Using different approaches it is demonstrated that the EM...... Gradient Recipe is applicable to a wide selection of models. Furthermore, the Mean Field ICA model is extended to incorporate ltering over time in a so-called "convolutive ICA" model. Finally, by using mixture of Gaussians as source priors, the generative and ltering approach to ICA is compared...

  9. Untangling Magmatic Processes and Hydrothermal Alteration of in situ Superfast Spreading Ocean Crust at ODP/IODP Site 1256 with Fuzzy c-means Cluster Analysis of Rock Magnetic Properties (United States)

    Dekkers, M. J.; Heslop, D.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Acton, G.; Krasa, D.


    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated ODP (IODP) Hole 1256D (6.44.1' N, 91.56.1' W) on the Cocos Plate occurs in 15.2 Ma oceanic crust generated by superfast seafloor spreading. Presently, it is the only drill hole that has sampled all three oceanic crust layers in a tectonically undisturbed setting. Here we interpret down-hole trends in several rock-magnetic parameters with fuzzy c-means cluster analysis, a multivariate statistical technique. The parameters include the magnetization ratio, the coercivity ratio, the coercive force, the low-field susceptibility, and the Curie temperature. By their combined, multivariate, analysis the effects of magmatic and hydrothermal processes can be evaluated. The optimal number of clusters - a key point in the analysis because there is no a priori information on this - was determined through a combination of approaches: by calculation of several cluster validity indices, by testing for coherent cluster distributions on non-linear-map plots, and importantly by testing for stability of the cluster solution from all possible starting points. Here, we consider a solution robust if the cluster allocation is independent of the starting configuration. The five-cluster solution appeared to be robust. Three clusters are distinguished in the extrusive segment of the Hole that express increasing hydrothermal alteration of the lavas. The sheeted dike and gabbro portions are characterized by two clusters, both with higher coercivities than in lava samples. Extensive alteration, however, can obliterate magnetic property differences between lavas, dikes, and gabbros. The imprint of thermochemical alteration on the iron-titanium oxides is only partially related to the porosity of the rocks. All clusters display rock magnetic characteristics in line with a stable NRM. This implies that the entire sampled sequence of ocean crust can contribute to marine magnetic anomalies. Determination of the absolute paleointensity with thermal techniques is

  10. Call Centre- Computer Telephone Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević


    Full Text Available Call centre largely came into being as a result of consumerneeds converging with enabling technology- and by the companiesrecognising the revenue opportunities generated by meetingthose needs thereby increasing customer satisfaction. Regardlessof the specific application or activity of a Call centre, customersatisfaction with the interaction is critical to the revenuegenerated or protected by the Call centre. Physical(v, Call centreset up is a place that includes computer, telephone and supervisorstation. Call centre can be available 24 hours a day - whenthe customer wants to make a purchase, needs information, orsimply wishes to register a complaint.

  11. Communication cliques in mobile phone calling networks (United States)

    Li, Ming-Xia; Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing


    People in modern societies form different social networks through numerous means of communication. These communication networks reflect different aspects of human's societal structure. The billing records of calls among mobile phone users enable us to construct a directed calling network (DCN) and its Bonferroni network (SVDCN) in which the preferential communications are statistically validated. Here we perform a comparative investigation of the cliques of the original DCN and its SVDCN constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that the statistical properties of the cliques of the two calling networks are qualitatively similar and the clique members in the DCN and the SVDCN exhibit idiosyncratic behaviors quantitatively. Members in large cliques are found to be spatially close to each other. Based on the clique degree profile of each mobile phone user, the most active users in the two calling networks can be classified in to several groups. The users in different groups are found to have different calling behaviors. Our study unveils interesting communication behaviors among mobile phone users that are densely connected to each other.

  12. Application of Affect to CALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This essay mainly attempts to discuss some affective factors in CALL, with focus on affective influence on English (foreign language) learning and thus concludes that in the process of CALL related affect should be activated and made good use of to better foreign language teaching and learning.

  13. Agency, Context and Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard


    history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed....

  14. The difficult medical emergency call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Viereck, Søren


    BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories and the ......BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories...... and the effect of categorization on mortality. METHODS: Register-based study in a 2-year period based on emergency call data from the emergency medical dispatch center in Copenhagen combined with nationwide register data. Logistic regression analysis (N = 78,040 individuals) was used for identification...

  15. The Wireless Nursing Call System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun


    This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight into the cha......This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight...

  16. Dialogue-Based CALL: An Overview of Existing Research (United States)

    Bibauw, Serge; François, Thomas; Desmet, Piet


    Dialogue-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) covers applications and systems allowing a learner to practice the target language in a meaning-focused conversational activity with an automated agent. We first present a common definition for dialogue-based CALL, based on three features: dialogue as the activity unit, computer as the…

  17. An Evaluation Framework for CALL (United States)

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James


    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  18. Learning as Calling and Responding (United States)

    Jons, Lotta


    According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

  19. Calle y Saberes en Movimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Aguirre Aguilar


    Full Text Available En México el rezago, el ausentismo, la deserción escolar, el trabajo a temprana edad y el inicio de una vida en la calle, en repetidas ocasiones son consecuencia de un núcleo familiar desarticulado o de una débil relación intrafamiliar, así como de una condición socioeconómica en desventaja. Ante esta problemática, la Secretaría de Educación Pública, instancia gubernamental encargada de garantizar una educación de calidad para la población, trabaja coordinadamente con organizaciones de la sociedad civil e instancias públicas, para la reintegración a los espacios educativos de los niños, niñas y jóvenes en situación de calle.

  20. Call for improving air quality (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  1. Ultrasound call detection in capybara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene S.C. Nogueira


    Full Text Available The vocal repertoire of some animal species has been considered a non-invasive tool to predict distress reactivity. In rats ultrasound emissions were reported as distress indicator. Capybaras[ vocal repertoire was reported recently and seems to have ultrasound calls, but this has not yet been confirmed. Thus, in order to check if a poor state of welfare was linked to ultrasound calls in the capybara vocal repertoire, the aim of this study was to track the presence of ultrasound emissions in 11 animals under three conditions: 1 unrestrained; 2 intermediately restrained, and 3 highly restrained. The ultrasound track identified frequencies in the range of 31.8±3.5 kHz in adults and 33.2±8.5 kHz in juveniles. These ultrasound frequencies occurred only when animals were highly restrained, physically restrained or injured during handling. We concluded that these calls with ultrasound components are related to pain and restraint because they did not occur when animals were free of restraint. Thus we suggest that this vocalization may be used as an additional tool to assess capybaras[ welfare.

  2. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs (United States)

    Aihara, Ikkyu


    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  3. Advanced Call Center Supporting WAP Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Traditional call centers can be accessed via speech only, and the call center based on web provides both data and speech access, but it needs a powerful terminal-computer. By analyzing traditional call centers and call centers based on web, this paper presents the framework of an advanced call center supporting WAP access. A typical service is also described in detail.

  4. Paul’s call to be a holy man (apostle: In his own words and in other words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Pilch


    Full Text Available This brief survey and analysis of the statements made by Paul about his experience of God calling him to be an apostle in Galatians 1:15-16; 1 Corinth 15:8-9; 2 Corinth 4:6; and Philippians 3:12 were chiefly conducted from an intentionally limited social science perspective. The article argues that the investigator can gain deeper insights into Paul’s statements “in his own words” by submitting them to a social scientific analysis especially drawing upon psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience. These social sciences demonstrate that Paul’s call was received in an altered state of consciousness experience. As with all such experiences, Paul drew upon the latent discourse of his culture to interpret his vision. It was God’s intent and initiative to relate to Paul (Galatians in an ASC. Paul considered his call experience and commission to be on par with experiences of the Risen Jesus by others (1 Corinthians. Paul also drew upon the full meaning of light imagery in his tradition (his culture’s latent discourse to interpret his call (2 Corinthians. Finally, he was fully aware that his experience took place in an altered state of consciousness (Philippians which was a well-known and familiar experience in his culture.

  5. Default Meanings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. M. Jaszczolt


    In this paper I present some aspects of the controversy surrounding the semantics/pragmatics boundary and offer a possible solution in the form of Default Semantics. First, I present a brief introduction to Paul Grice's approach to meaning as intentional communication. Next, I address the problem of the unit of which truth conditions should be predicated, assuming after Grice that the most successful approach to meaning has to make use of truth conditions.Further, I extend the discussion to some aspects of neo-Gricean pragmatics, most notably the issue of pragmatic processing that contributes to the truth-conditional representation and the proposed shortcuts through this processing in the form of default meanings. In the main part, I present the theory of Default Semantics ( Jaszczolt 2005a) , assess some arguments in favour of such an interactive theory of meaning that combines information from various sources, and address the issue of compositionality of meaning so conceived. In the final part, I apply the theory of Default Semantics to expressions with future-time reference in English in order to demonstrate the advantages of a framework that combines various types of information about utterance meaning in one, merged semantic representation. The main advantage turns out to be, in this domain, the unified treatment of all expressions with future-time reference.

  6. Intonational meaning. (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar


    Traditionally, prosodic studies have focused on the study of intonational form and the study of intonational meaning has been relatively neglected. Similarly, the fields of semantics and pragmatics have paid little attention to the pragmatic uses of intonation. As a result, there is no firm agreement within the linguistic community on how to integrate the analysis of intonational meaning across languages into a unified prosodic, semantic, and pragmatic approach. This article provides an overview of the literature on intonational meaning, describing the recent advances made in the fields of prosody, semantics/pragmatics, and syntax. Several theoretical approaches to explaining the semantics and pragmatics of intonation are presented. A common feature to most frameworks is that intonation (1) should be regarded as an integral part of linguistic grammar; and (2) typically encodes meanings related to the modal aspect of propositions. However, features such as compositionality, duality of structure, and context-dependency are still hotly debated issues. These features will be discussed from different theoretical perspectives, and we will identify potential advances related to the full integration of intonational meaning into dynamic and multidimensional models of meaning.

  7. Weighted Mean Impact Analysis


    Burger, Svenja


    Linear regression is a popular tool that is often applied to biometric and epidemiological data. It relies on strong model assumptions that are rarely satisfied. To overcome this difficulty, Brannath and Scharpenberg (2014) proposed a new population based interpretation of linear regression coefficients. The idea is to quantify how much the unconditional mean of the dependent variable Y can be changed by changing the distribution of the independent variable X. The maximum change is called "me...

  8. Contextual Meaning and Word Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Istvan Kecskes


    The paper has three goals: 1 ) Explain the role of context and word in meaning construction and comprehension. 2) Present a model that can explain meaning generated by both monolingual and multilingual meaning construction systems. 3) Discuss how the model can be applied to explain major issues in pragmatics.Pragmatics is understood here in a narrow sense as defined by Sperber & Noveck: "...pragmatics is the study of how linguistic properties and contextual factors interact in the interpretation of utterances" ( Sperber & Noveck 2004:1 ). It is argued that world knowledge is available to interlocutors in two forms: as encapsulated in lexical items based on prior encounters and experience (conventionalized cognitive context), and as provided by the actual situational context framed by the situation in which the interaction takes place. Meaning formally expressed in the linguistic interactional context is created on-the-spot, and is the result of the interaction of the two sides of world knowledge and the actual situational context.The paper makes three claims: First, supremacy of context is not unconditional in language processing. Second,salient meaning rather than literal meaning of lexical units plays a central role in comprehension. Third, intercultural communication differs from intracultural communication in the conceptual content of conventionalized cognitive contexts rather than in communicative means.

  9. The Fuzzy Set Called 'Imitations.' (United States)

    Moerk, Ernst L.

    This investigation addresses problems of defining verbal imitation, and suggests solutions by analyzing verbal interactions between two children and their mothers. Children were between 18 and 35 months old, with a mean length of utterance between 1.4 and 4.2 morphemes. Analyses focus upon the uses these children made of maternal models; 10…

  10. Justification for setting the individual animal genotype call rate threshold at eighty-five percent. (United States)

    Purfield, D C; McClure, M; Berry, D P


    Data quality of SNP arrays impacts the accuracy and precision of downstream data analyses. One such quality control measure often imposed is a threshold on individual animal call rate. Different call rate thresholds have been applied across studies; little is known, however, about the impact of these thresholds on the quality of the genotype data. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of different call rate thresholds on the integrity of the genotypes but also to quantify the contribution of different factors to the variability in animal call rate. Data included 142,342 samples genotyped on a custom Illumina genotype panel from 141,591 dairy and beef cattle; the number of Illumina SNP on the panel was 14,371. The mean animal call rate across all samples was 99.09%; 487 animals had both a low call rate (call rate (≥99%) after resampling and regenotyping. Several factors were associated ( call rate including animal sex, the sampling herd, the date of genotyping, the genotyping plate, and the plate well. The genotype and allele concordance between the genotypes of the 487 low- and high-call rate individuals improved at a diminishing rate as mean animal call rate increased. Mean genotype and allele concordance rates of 0.987 and 0.997, respectively, existed when animal call rate was between 85 and 90%, increasing to 0.998 and 0.999, respectively, when animal call rate was between 95 and call rate animals increased when animal call rate improved; an allele concordance rate of 1.00 was achieved when animal call rate was between 85 and call rate animals improved as animal call rate increased; the mean genotype concordance rate of the imputed nonobserved SNP was 0.41 when animal call rate was call rate was between 95 and call rate was call rate threshold of 85%.

  11. Calling under pressure: Short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frants Havmand; Marrero Perez, Jacobo; Johnson, Mark


    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species...... among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic...... DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows...

  12. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call signs. The table which follows indicates the composition and blocks of international call signs available...

  13. Advanced Call Center Supporting WAP Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANXiao-hua; CHENJun-liang


    Traditional call centers can be accessed via speech only, and the call center based on web provides both da-ta and speech access,but it needs a powerful terminal-computer.By analyzing traditional call centers and call cen-ters based on web, this paper presents the framework of an advanced call center supporting WAP access.A typical service is also described in detail.

  14. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call (United States)


    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public: Federal...: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD),...


    CERN Multimedia


    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.  


    CERN Document Server


    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  17. How to call the Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia


    The telephone numbers for the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from "wired" telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.


    CERN Multimedia


    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.


    CERN Multimedia


    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note: the number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  20. Do market participants learn from conference calls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, E.; Verbeeten, F.; Mertens, G.


    We examine whether market participants learn from the information that is disseminated during the Q-and-A section of conference calls. Specifically, we investigate whether stock prices react to information on intangible assets provided during conference calls, and whether conference calls interactio

  1. Calling behavior of blue and fin whales off California (United States)

    Oleson, Erin Marie

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an effective means for evaluating cetacean presence in remote regions and over long time periods, and may become an important component of cetacean abundance surveys. To use passive acoustic recordings for abundance estimation, an understanding of the behavioral ecology of cetacean calling is crucial. In this dissertation, I develop a better understanding of how blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus ) whales use sound with the goal of evaluating passive acoustic techniques for studying their populations. Both blue and fin whales produce several different call types, though the behavioral and environmental context of these calls have not been widely investigated. To better understand how calling is used by these whales off California I have employed both new technologies and traditional techniques, including acoustic recording tags, continuous long-term autonomous acoustic recordings, and simultaneous shipboard acoustic and visual surveys. The outcome of these investigations has led to several conclusions. The production of blue whale calls varies with sex, behavior, season, location, and time of day. Each blue whale call type has a distinct behavioral context, including a male-only bias in the production of song, a call type thought to function in reproduction, and the production of some calls by both sexes. Long-term acoustic records, when interpreted using all call types, provide a more accurate measure of the local seasonal presence of whales, and how they use the region annually, seasonally and daily. The relative occurrence of different call types may indicate prime foraging habitat and the presence of different segments of the population. The proportion of animals heard calling changes seasonally and geographically relative to the number seen, indicating the calibration of acoustic and visual surveys is complex and requires further study on the motivations behind call production and the behavior of calling whales

  2. Static analysis of function calls in Erlang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Horpácsi


    Full Text Available Functions and their relations can affect numerous properties and metrics of a functional program. To identify and represent the functions and their calling connections, software analysers commonly apply semantic function analysis, which derives the static call graph of the program, based on its source code. Function calls however may be dynamic and complex, making it difficult to statically identify the callee. Dynamic calls are determined just at run-time, static analysis therefore cannot be expected to fully identify every call. Nevertheless, by utilising the results of a properly performed data-flow analysis as well as taking ambiguous references into account, numerous dynamic calls are discoverable and representable. We consider cases where the identifiers of the callee are statically determined, but they flow into the call expression from a different program point, and also, we manage to handle function calls whose identifiers are not fully identifiable at compile-time. By utilising the improved reference analysis, we extend the static call graph with various information about dynamic function calls. We investigate such a function call analysis in the programming language Erlang.

  3. Multidimensional views on mobile call network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengqi YANG; Bin WU; Bai WANG


    Recent studies on social network have spurred significant interests in human behaviors. Nowadays, various kinds of interpersonal human interactions, from mobile calls to emalls, provide particular avenues to explore the inher-ent properties of communication patterns. In this article, we present a comprehensive study on a massive anonymous call records obtained from a major mobile service operator. The important difference laid in our work and previous mainly topological analyses is that we report on multiple aspects of the dataset. By investigating the calls of the users, we find out that most calls tend to last within one minute. Call du-ration between two females is much longer than that of two males. But calls of males generally involve more stations than that of female, indicating a larger mobile range of the males. We also observed that people tend to communicate more with each other when they share similar characters. Besides, the network is well-connected and robust to random attack. We also demonstrate that the close-knit sub-groups with little discrepancy in the characteristics of its involved users usually evoke more calls. Another interesting discov-ery is that call behaviors among people between workdays and weekends is obviously distinct. Generally speaking, the goal that we research on call network through multidimen-sional analyses is to uncover the intricate patterns of human communications and put up reasonable insights into future service intelligence.

  4. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis


    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  5. When They Talk about CALL: Discourse in a Required CALL Class (United States)

    Kessler, Greg


    This study investigates preservice teachers' discourse about CALL in a required CALL class which combines theory and practice. Thirty-three students in a Linguistics MA program CALL course were observed over a 10-week quarter. For all of these students, it was their first formal exposure to CALL as a discipline. Communication in the class…

  6. Complexity Theory and CALL Curriculum in Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani


    Full Text Available Complexity theory literally indicates the complexity of a system, behavior, or a process. Its connotative meaning, while, implies dynamism, openness, sensitivity to initial conditions and feedback, and adaptation properties of a system. Regarding English as a Foreign/ Second Language (EFL/ESL this theory emphasizes on the complexity of the process of teaching and learning, including all the properties of a complex system. The purpose of the current study is to discuss the role of CALL as a modern technology in simplifying the process of teaching and learning a new language while integrating into the complexity theory. Nonetheless, the findings obtained from reviewing previously conducted studies in this field confirmed the usefulness of CALL curriculum in EFL/ESL contexts. These findings can also provide pedagogical implications for employing computer as an effective teaching and learning tool. Keywords: Second/foreign language curriculum, CALL, Complexity theory

  7. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calling in. 401.64 Section 401.64... SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every vessel, intending to transit or in transit, shall report on the assigned frequency to the designated Seaway...

  8. Answering the "Call of the Mountain"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Villegas, Martha


    In response to the age of the ‘anthropocene,’ as some authors are calling this epoch in which one single species is disrupting major natural systems (Steffen et al 2011), there are calls for more radical, learning-based sustainability that generates deep transformations in individuals an

  9. Integrated Language Skills CALL Course Design (United States)

    Watson, Kevin; Agawa, Grant


    The importance of a structured learning framework or interrelated frameworks is the cornerstone of a solid English as a foreign language (EFL) computer-assisted language learning (CALL) curriculum. While the benefits of CALL are widely promoted in the literature, there is often an endemic discord separating theory and practice. Oftentimes the…

  10. The Call to Teach and Teacher Hopefulness (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.


    The purpose of this paper is to explore teacher motivation and well-being. Our analysis focuses on two central concepts, the notion of a "calling to teach" and of teacher "hopefulness." Data from 205 preservice and inservice teachers were collected to determine teachers' sense of calling and level of hope. Results indicate that overwhelmingly,…

  11. A CALL for Improved School Leadership (United States)

    Halverson, Richard; Kelley, Carolyn; Shaw, James


    The Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) is a formative assessment that provides feedback to schools on the research-based leadership practices necessary to improve teaching and learning. Instead of focusing on an individual leader, CALL measures leadership practices in tasks carried out by actors across the school and…

  12. CALL in Lebanese Elementary ESL Writing Classrooms (United States)

    Fidaoui, Diana; Bahous, Rima; Bacha, Nahla N.


    This article discusses the effectiveness of using computer assisted language learning (CALL) in motivating fourth-grade English as a second language (ESL) students to develop better writing skills. It also seeks to explore the perceptions of ESL teachers and students regarding the use of CALL in the ESL classroom. The study involved 48 fourth…

  13. Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sanchita


    Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently.      CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators.  The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...

  14. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  15. External GSM phone calls now made simpler

    CERN Multimedia


    On 2 July, the IT/CS Telecom Service introduced a new service making external calls from CERN GSM phones easier. A specific prefix is no longer needed for calls outside CERN. External calls from CERN GSM phones are to be simplified. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix to call an external number from the CERN GSM network.The Telecom Section of the IT/CS Group is introducing a new system that will make life easier for GSM users. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix (333) to call an external number from the CERN GSM network. Simply dial the number directly like any other Swiss GSM customer. CERN currently has its own private GSM network with the Swiss mobile operator, Sunrise, covering the whole of Switzerland. This network was initially intended exclusively for calls between CERN numbers (replacing the old beeper system). A special system was later introduced for external calls, allowing them to pass thr...

  16. Effects of age and temperature on calling behavior of carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under laboratory conditions. (United States)

    Soofbaf, M; Nouri, G; Goldansaz, S H; Asghari-Zakaria, R


    The sexual calling behaviour of Ectomyelois ceratoniae, (zell.) was observed in the laboratory under 16L: 8D photoperiodic regime and three different constant temperatures, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C. E. ceratoniae, females showed a broad late-scotophase peak of calling activity without any calling throughout the photophase. Most females started calling during the eclosion day on, regardless of the temperature. With increasing age, moths initiated calling significantly earlier at night and the mean time spent calling increased significantly on successive days of calling. There was an inverse relationship between mean time spent calling and mean onset time of calling (r = -0.8079, p < 0.0001) and these parameters significantly affected by age and square of temperature.

  17. Enhanced call effort in Japanese tree frogs infected by amphibian chytrid fungus. (United States)

    An, Deuknam; Waldman, Bruce


    Some amphibians have evolved resistance to the devastating disease chytridiomycosis, associated with global population declines, but immune defences can be costly. We recorded advertisement calls of male Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) in the field. We then assessed whether individuals were infected by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causal agent of the disease. This allowed us to analyse call properties of males as a function of their infection status. Infected males called more rapidly and produced longer calls than uninfected males. This enhanced call effort may reflect pathogen manipulation of host behaviour to foster disease transmission. Alternatively, increased calling may have resulted from selection on infected males to reproduce earlier because of their shortened expected lifespan. Our results raise the possibility that sublethal effects of Bd alter amphibian life histories, which contributes to long-term population declines.

  18. Improving of an Artificial Neural Networks Forecasting Model for Determining of the Number of Calls in 112 Emergency Call Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Aydemir


    Full Text Available Forecasting studies are extremely important in the technical, social and economic research. Generally, we know it is very difficult to forecast with higher accurate about a system by using recent values. In the scientific literature, the forecasting studies of energy, personnel planning, production planning, climate changes, sales and marketing and economics etc. are frequently found. In this paper, for an emergency calls center in Isparta province of Turkey an artificial neural network (ANN forecasting model was developed to determine the number of calls for as health, fire and security services on a pilot implementation of the emergency calls center on a single number 112. In the developed model, the gradient descent with adaptive learning and momentum (GDX algorithm is selected as the training algorithm with feed-forward back-propagation by using 80% of input data and the 20% of input data is used for testing set data from last month. After the testing, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE rate is obtained as 4.5% and it is useful to test. In addition, the forecasting results of the next month are shown that the MAPE values are 2.65%, 6.40% and 5.24% with ANN, trend analysis and ARIMA (1 1 1 models respectively and, the number of calls are found separately on the types of calls in daily. Consequently, the developed model by using ANN to forecast the number of calls in an emergency call center is more accurate than the trend analysis and ARIMA models.

  19. When seconds count: A study of communication variables in the opening segment of emergency calls. (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Koole, Tom; Nattrass, Rhona


    The opening sequence of an emergency call influences the efficiency of the ambulance dispatch time. The greeting sequences in 105 calls to a South African emergency service were analysed. Initial results suggested the advantage of a specific two-part opening sequence. An on-site experiment aimed at improving call efficiency was conducted during one shift (1100 calls). Results indicated reduced conversational repairs and a significant reduction of 4 seconds in mean call length. Implications for systems and training are derived.

  20. Mourning Dove Call-count Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) Call-Count Survey was developed to provide an index to population size and to detect annual changes in mourning dove breeding...

  1. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  2. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    The function of migratory bird calls: do they influence orientation and navigation?   Thomas Reichl1, Bent Bach Andersen2, Ole Naesbye Larsen2, Henrik Mouritsen1   1Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany 2Institute of Biology, University of Southern...... migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...

  3. Partition Decomposition for Roll Call Data

    CERN Document Server

    Leibon, Greg; Rockmore, Daniel N; Savell, Robert


    In this paper we bring to bear some new tools from statistical learning on the analysis of roll call data. We present a new data-driven model for roll call voting that is geometric in nature. We construct the model by adapting the "Partition Decoupling Method," an unsupervised learning technique originally developed for the analysis of families of time series, to produce a multiscale geometric description of a weighted network associated to a set of roll call votes. Central to this approach is the quantitative notion of a "motivation," a cluster-based and learned basis element that serves as a building block in the representation of roll call data. Motivations enable the formulation of a quantitative description of ideology and their data-dependent nature makes possible a quantitative analysis of the evolution of ideological factors. This approach is generally applicable to roll call data and we apply it in particular to the historical roll call voting of the U.S. House and Senate. This methodology provides a...

  4. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call...

  5. Calling for Help? Considering Function and Meaning when Patients Drunk-Dial Psychotherapists (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; LaPaglia, Donna; Steinfeld, Matthew


    Drunk-dialing is a term documented in both popular culture and academic literatures to describe a behavior in which a person contacts another individual by phone while intoxicated. In our collective clinical experience we have found that clients drunk-dial their clinicians too, particularly while in substance use treatment, and yet there is a noticeable absence of research on the topic to guide clinical decision-making within a process-based understanding of these events. As the parameters within which psychotherapy takes place become increasingly technologized, a literature base to document clients’ idiosyncratic use of technology will become increasingly necessary and useful. We provide a brief review of the existing research on drunk-dialing and conclude with specific questions to guide future research and practice. PMID:24023519

  6. [Assessment of the coronary circulation regulation by means of the so-called isometric contraction index]. (United States)

    Urbaszek, W; Löwe, H R; Rentsch, W; Pankau, H; Günther, K


    The index of isometric contraction formed from the quotient period of isometric contraction in the erect position by period of isometric contraction in lying position gives the possibility to separate between cardially sufficient and cardially insufficient patients with adequately disturbed regulation of the cardiac circulation. The recognition of early stages of the disturbed left-ventricular function is possible. The use of an adequate exact technique in gaining the primary data is to be presumed. Corrections of the frequency of the index of isometric contraction do not improve the evidence. In the borderline region of the index of isometric contraction with values between 1.03 and 1.1 in questionable cases a further differentiation into still normal or already latent insufficient will do by the analysis of the trend of the index of isometric contraction after the application of medicaments. The determination of the change of the direction of the index of isometric contraction after peroral application of nitroglycerin would be justifiable in routine work after the recognition of the initiaction increases in patients with latent heart insufficiency, in patients with a healthy heart it decreases. The clinical value of the index of isometric contraction as a simple test of the circulatory function is highly to be estimated.

  7. Dynamic routing based on call quality

    CERN Document Server

    Hammami, Oussama; Gabrielyan, Emin


    The telephony over IP (ToIP) is becoming a new trend in technology widely used nowadays in almost all business sectors. Its concepts rely on transiting the telephone communications through the IP network. Today, this technology is deployed increasingly what the cause of emergence of companies is offering this service as Switzernet. For several highly demanded destinations, recently fake vendors appeared in the market offering voice termination but providing only false answer supervision. The answered signal is returned immediately and calls are being charged without being connected. Different techniques are used to keep the calling party on the line. One of these techniques is to play a record of a ring back tone (while the call is already being charged). Another, more sophisticated technique is to play a human voice randomly picked up from a set of records containing contents similar to: hello, hello, I cannot hear you Apart the fact that the fallaciously established calls are charged at rates of real calls,...

  8. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene; 10.1073/pnas.1220433110


    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes, e.g., texting, cellphone conversation, and online instant messaging, but they also provide detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study the inter-call durations of the 100,000 most-active cellphone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the inter-call durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the inter-call durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3460 individuals (3.46%). The inter-call durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cellphone users with a power-law...

  9. Malware Classification based on Call Graph Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Kinable, Joris


    Each day, anti-virus companies receive tens of thousands samples of potentially harmful executables. Many of the malicious samples are variations of previously encountered malware, created by their authors to evade pattern-based detection. Dealing with these large amounts of data requires robust, automatic detection approaches. This paper studies malware classification based on call graph clustering. By representing malware samples as call graphs, it is possible to abstract certain variations away, and enable the detection of structural similarities between samples. The ability to cluster similar samples together will make more generic detection techniques possible, thereby targeting the commonalities of the samples within a cluster. To compare call graphs mutually, we compute pairwise graph similarity scores via graph matchings which approximately minimize the graph edit distance. Next, to facilitate the discovery of similar malware samples, we employ several clustering algorithms, including k-medoids and DB...

  10. Dispatching function calls across accelerator devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Arpith C.; Sallenave, Olivier H.


    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method for dispatching a function call includes receiving, at a supervisor processing element (PE) and from an origin PE, an identifier of a target device, a stack frame of the origin PE, and an address of a function called from the origin PE. The supervisor PE allocates a target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the origin PE to a new stack frame on a call stack of the target PE. The supervisor PE instructs the target PE to execute the function. The supervisor PE receives a notification that execution of the function is complete. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the target PE to the stack frame of the origin PE. The supervisor PE releases the target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE instructs the origin PE to resume execution of the program.

  11. Dispatching function calls across accelerator devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Arpith C.; Sallenave, Olivier H.


    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method for dispatching a function call includes receiving, at a supervisor processing element (PE) and from an origin PE, an identifier of a target device, a stack frame of the origin PE, and an address of a function called from the origin PE. The supervisor PE allocates a target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the origin PE to a new stack frame on a call stack of the target PE. The supervisor PE instructs the target PE to execute the function. The supervisor PE receives a notification that execution of the function is complete. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the target PE to the stack frame of the origin PE. The supervisor PE releases the target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE instructs the origin PE to resume execution of the program.

  12. Where do out-of-hours calls to a consultant microbiologist come from?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H


    There is little in the literature about out-of-hours calls to medical microbiologists. The calls taken by a consultant medical microbiologist over a five-year period in an Irish tertiary referral hospital were reviewed. Excluding calls on weekend mornings and significant evening positive blood cultures, the mean annual number of calls on a one-in-four rota was 89 (range 70-111). Over 90% of calls were received before midnight and 51% were from specialist registrars. Medical specialties, neurosurgery and intensive care were the most common departments seeking advice. Two-thirds of calls related to the management of an individual patient, but advice on infection prevention and control is increasingly requested. Calls out-of-hours are not insignificant but little is known about how these vary between hospitals and what contribution they make to patient care.

  13. Long-range acoustic detection and localization of blue whale calls in the northeast Pacific Ocean. (United States)

    Stafford, K M; Fox, C G; Clark, D S


    Analysis of acoustic signals recorded from the U.S. Navy's SOund SUrveillance System (SOSUS) was used to detect and locate blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) calls offshore in the northeast Pacific. The long, low-frequency components of these calls are characteristic of calls recorded in the presence of blue whales elsewhere in the world. Mean values for frequency and time characteristics from field-recorded blue whale calls were used to develop a simple matched filter for detecting such calls in noisy time series. The matched filter was applied to signals from three different SOSUS arrays off the coast of the Pacific Northwest to detect and associate individual calls from the same animal on the different arrays. A U.S. Navy maritime patrol aircraft was directed to an area where blue whale calls had been detected on SOSUS using these methods, and the presence of vocalizing blue whale was confirmed at the site with field recordings from sonobuoys.

  14. Analysis of The Call of The Wild

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Call of The Wild is the most famous novel written by Jack London. In this novel, London depicts the story of a powerful dog called Buck, which happened in the Gold Rush Times when a great number of people came to Alaska to find gold. It tells us how Buck learns to struggle and strive, and how his wildness is aroused. By narrating Buck' s experience, London shows us some of the temporary social characters: the indispensable struggle for mastery and the nature of humanbeings -- wild etc. It reflects the major thoughts of that time. This essay will analyze this theme -- the indispensable struggle for mastery.

  15. Securing Remote Procedure Calls over HTTPS

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Ajinkya; Pradhan, Sudeep


    Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) are widely used over the Internet as they provide a simple and elegant way of interaction between the client and the server. This paper proposes a solution for securing the remote procedure calls (RPC) by tunneling it through HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer). RPC over HTTP actually uses the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol as a transport for the traffic. SSL mandates that the server authenticates itself to the client using a digital certificate (and associated private key). SSL is normally configured to encrypt traffic before transmitting it between the server and client and vice versa.

  16. Objective Assessment of IP Video Calls with Asterisk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kapicak


    Full Text Available The paper deals with an objective assessment of IP video calls transmission over GSM and UMTS networks. Video transmission is affected by many factors in mobile network. Among these factors belong packet loss, latency and transmission rate of the mobile network. Network properties were simulated by Simena network simulator. Our team have developed a unique technique for finding defects in video appearing in video calls. This technique is built on modified Asterisk SW PBX with enabled video recording and playback functions. Transmitted video files are compared with original video file by means of size of transmitted video file and in-video-defects. We are using MSU VQMT software for finding in video defects; more precisely we are using VQM method for comparing two video sources.

  17. ParticleCall: A particle filter for base calling in next-generation sequencing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Xiaohu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing systems are capable of rapid and cost-effective DNA sequencing, thus enabling routine sequencing tasks and taking us one step closer to personalized medicine. Accuracy and lengths of their reads, however, are yet to surpass those provided by the conventional Sanger sequencing method. This motivates the search for computationally efficient algorithms capable of reliable and accurate detection of the order of nucleotides in short DNA fragments from the acquired data. Results In this paper, we consider Illumina’s sequencing-by-synthesis platform which relies on reversible terminator chemistry and describe the acquired signal by reformulating its mathematical model as a Hidden Markov Model. Relying on this model and sequential Monte Carlo methods, we develop a parameter estimation and base calling scheme called ParticleCall. ParticleCall is tested on a data set obtained by sequencing phiX174 bacteriophage using Illumina’s Genome Analyzer II. The results show that the developed base calling scheme is significantly more computationally efficient than the best performing unsupervised method currently available, while achieving the same accuracy. Conclusions The proposed ParticleCall provides more accurate calls than the Illumina’s base calling algorithm, Bustard. At the same time, ParticleCall is significantly more computationally efficient than other recent schemes with similar performance, rendering it more feasible for high-throughput sequencing data analysis. Improvement of base calling accuracy will have immediate beneficial effects on the performance of downstream applications such as SNP and genotype calling. ParticleCall is freely available at

  18. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.


    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  19. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion (United States)


    ... ubiquity and reliability of the nation's communications network and threaten commerce, public safety, and... completion problems adversely affect the ubiquity and reliability of the nation's telecommunications network...-distance call completion to rural areas. The ubiquity and reliability of the nation's...

  20. Make a 21st century phone call

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    Want to avoid roaming charges? Click to call anyone at CERN? How about merging your CERN landline with your existing smartphone? That's all easily done with Lync, CERN's new opt-in service that can take your calls to the next level.   The Lync application on Windows (left) and iPhone (right). Lync unites CERN's traditional telephone service with the digital sphere. "Lync gives you the gift of mobility, by letting you access your CERN landline on the go," explains Pawel Grzywaczewski, service manager of the Lync system. "Once you've registered your CERN telephone with the service, you can run the Lync application and make calls from a range of supported devices. No matter where you are in the world - be it simply out to lunch or off at an international conference - you can make a CERN call as though you were in the office. All you need is an Internet connection!" Following a recent upgrade, CERN's Lync service now has...

  1. When to call a linear system nonnegative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.


    In this paper we will consider discrete time invariant linear systems that allow for an input-state-output representation with a finite dimensional state space, and that have a finite number of inputs and outputs. The basic issue in this paper is when to call these systems nonnegative. An important

  2. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella. (United States)

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi


    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor.

  3. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Hirashima


    Full Text Available Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilinooxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilinothiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor.

  4. A Simple Selection System Called "Jobmatch." (United States)

    Sheibar, Paul


    An automated candidate-job matching system called "Jobmatch" has been implemented at Citibank, in New York City, involving job analysis, performance appraisal techniques, clerical employment, and internal mobility. A job task scale is used by supervisor and employee to determine job and candidate matching through a series of computer…

  5. What Is This Thing Called Learner's Lexicography?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro


    Learner lexicography as a research area has attracted increased attention during the past decades, but what is actually the true nature of learner lexicography? This question calls for a complex answer. Learner lexicography has as its objective to develop principles that help practitioners to pro...

  6. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness" (United States)

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith


    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  7. A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.


    Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

  8. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request for... Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board) with the requested materials in response to...

  9. Calling for Goddesses in Winesburg Ohio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Winesburg Ohio, by Sherwood Anderson, depicts a group of people living in a transitional period where the human soci⁃ety was undergoing a sudden change from an agrarian society into a modern industrial one. This article will interpret Anderson’s call from the aspect of“Goddess Revival”.

  10. Superior Ambulance Call Out Rate Forecasting Using Meteorological Data (United States)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Thornes, J. E.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.


    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use call out data obtained from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) and meteorological data from a central London meteorological station. A time-series analysis was utilized to understand the relation between temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants and different call out categories. There are statistically significant relationships between mean temperature and ambulance callout rate for most of the categories investigated. Most categories show a negative dependence on temperature, i.e. call outs increase with decreasing temperature but some categories showed a positive dependence such as alcohol related call outs. Relative humidity is significant for some categories but in general is much less important than temperature. Significant time lag effects were observed for most of the categories related to infectious illnesses, which are transferrable through human contact. These findings support the opinion that ambulance attendance callouts records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather forecasts.

  11. Animal Images in The Call of the Wild

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽; 陶阳


    There is a long history of animal images in literature. What we have known about animal literature is confined into the Greek mythology, Aesop’s Fables and some fairy tales. But in the 20th century, the development of animal literary which focuses on the real animals is great. The Call of the Wild by Jack London is a representative work of describing real animals. This paper will discuss two different images of Buck by means of two archetypes based on Archetype Theory of Carl G. Jung, shadow and hero, in order to study how Buck changed from a dog to a wolf.

  12. Designing CALL Tasks for College English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>As CALL(Computer Assisted Language Learning) became a new trend among China’s college English learners nowadays,it is time that teachers reflected on their teaching methodology innovation with the new technological advancement,one part of it is writing CALL tasks for their own individual classes.This paper presents a few basic principles and rationales of designing such tasks,and hope to work as a reminder for task writers.These principles and rationales include how to realize CLT(communicative language teaching) and learner-centredness and foster learner autonomy.In order to achieve this,it is reminded that task writers pay attention to a few points,like the communicativeness,contextualization,authenticity,and relatedness in task writing. Aspects of syllabus design,choice of texts,contents of activities and tasks and sequencing are put under investigation.

  13. Towards Building an Intelligent Call Routing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Khai Tran


    Full Text Available This paper presents EduICR - an Intelligent Call Routing system. This system can route calls to the most appropriate agent using routing rules built by the text classifier. EduICR includes the following main components: telephone communication network; Vietnamese speech recognition; Text classifier/ Natural language processor and Vietnamese speech synthesis. To our best knowledge, this is one of the first systems in Vietnam to implement the integration mechanism of text processing and speech processing. This allows voice applications to be more intelligent, able to communicate with humans in natural language with high accuracy and reasonable speed. Having been built and tested in real environment, our system proves its accuracy attaining more than 95%.

  14. Disentangling Social Networks inferred from Call Logs

    CERN Document Server

    Cebrian, Manuel; Kirkpatrick, Scott


    Analysis of an unusually detailed telephone call data set --- a month of nearly all mobile and landline phone calls placed during August 2005 the United Kingdom --- allows us to identify several different types of social networks that are formed, and relate them to different activities that generate them. We distinguish, among others, work-related and personal or leisure-focused activities and show that the networks they form have very different characteristics. Our principal tool for the analysis, k-core decomposition, shows that distinct distributions of connectivity are present in the two spheres, and that this differentiation affects dramatically the dynamics of information diffusion. Both differ from the simpler and more globally connected structure evident in communications data such as the Internet AS graph.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Dragos Paul


    Full Text Available The present article concerns present status of implementation in Romania and Europe of eCall service and the proposed business models regarding eCall function implementation in Romania. eCall system is used for reliable transmission in case of crush between In Vehicle System and Public Service Answering Point, via the voice channel of cellular and Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN. eCall service could be initiated automatically or manual the driver. All data presented in this article are part of researches made by authors in the Sectorial Contract Implementation study regarding eCall system, having as partners ITS Romania and Electronic Solution, with the Romanian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology as beneficiary.

  16. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew


    procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy...... into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio......* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux....

  17. The dance of meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup


    competence, qualifications, sense making, reasoning, meaning, intentionality, interpersonal relationship......competence, qualifications, sense making, reasoning, meaning, intentionality, interpersonal relationship...

  18. Sleep Inertia and On-Call Readiness (United States)


    effects of polyphasic & M.J. Colligan (Eds.), New York, and ultrashort sleep schedules. In: Why Spectrum, pp. 553-580. we nap, Evolution, Chronobiology...and Naitoh, P., Kelly, T., & Babkoff, H. (1993) Functions of Polyphasic and Ultrashort Sleep inertia, best time not to wake up? Sleep , C. Stampi Editor...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010467 TITLE: Sleep Inertia and On-Call Readiness DISTRIBUTION: Approved

  19. What is that Thing Called Computer Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Schokosva


    Full Text Available XXI century society, called Knowledge Society, has a direct dependency of the software products, considered by many as the most important development of modern technology. This dependence generates the need of scientists and professionals who research and develop products that meet social demands. This article describes the computer science area as one of the most demanded professions in this reality, and in order to make it known to more people.

  20. Evaluating erroneous offside calls in soccer (United States)

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Noël, Benjamin; Memmert, Daniel


    The ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects declines with increases in the visual angle separating distant objects. We explored whether these laboratory-measured limits on visual attentional spread generalize to a real life context: offside calls by soccer assistant referees. We coded all offside calls from a full year of first division German soccer matches. By determining the x-y coordinates of the relevant players and assistant referee on the soccer field we were able to calculate how far assistant referees had to spread their visual attention to perform well. Counterintuitively, assistant referees made fewer errors when they were farther away from the action due to an advantageous (smaller) visual angle on the game action. The pattern held even when we accounted for individual differences in a laboratory-based attentional spread measure of ten of the assistant referees. Our finding that errors are linked to smaller visual angles may explain the complaints of fans in some situations: Those seated directly behind the assistant referee, further from the players, might actually have it easier to make the right call because the relevant players would form a smaller visual angle. PMID:28333996

  1. A Survey of Olivine Alteration Products Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Kuebler, K.; Jolliff, B. L.; Wang, A.; Haskin, L. A.


    Identification of mineral alteration products will aid in the crucial task of interpreting past Martian environmental conditions, especially aqueous environments. Olivine has been identified at the surface of Mars and is readily altered in aqueous environments. Using Raman spectroscopy, we studied three rocks with altered olivine and compared the data with mineral chemistry from electron microprobe analysis. Although the alteration in all three samples has loosely been called iddingsite their appearances and modes of occurrences differ as described. Alteration products in all three samples are likely fine-grained mixtures.

  2. Towards Agent-Oriented Approach to a Call Management System (United States)

    Ashamalla, Amir Nabil; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    There is more chance of a completed sale if the end customers and relationship managers are suitably matched. This in turn can reduce the number of calls made by a call centre reducing operational costs such as working time and phone bills. This chapter is part of ongoing research aimed at helping a CMC to make better use of its personnel and equipment while maximizing the value of the service it offers to its client companies and end customers. This is accomplished by ensuring the optimal use of resources with appropriate real-time scheduling and load balancing and matching the end customers to appropriate relationship managers. In a globalized market, this may mean taking into account the cultural environment of the customer, as well as the appropriate profile and/or skill of the relationship manager to communicate effectively with the end customer. The chapter evaluates the suitability of a MAS to a call management system and illustrates the requirement analysis phase using i* models.

  3. [Altered states of consciousness]. (United States)

    Gora, E P


    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  4. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  5. SNP calling by sequencing pooled samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raineri Emanuele


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performing high throughput sequencing on samples pooled from different individuals is a strategy to characterize genetic variability at a small fraction of the cost required for individual sequencing. In certain circumstances some variability estimators have even lower variance than those obtained with individual sequencing. SNP calling and estimating the frequency of the minor allele from pooled samples, though, is a subtle exercise for at least three reasons. First, sequencing errors may have a much larger relevance than in individual SNP calling: while their impact in individual sequencing can be reduced by setting a restriction on a minimum number of reads per allele, this would have a strong and undesired effect in pools because it is unlikely that alleles at low frequency in the pool will be read many times. Second, the prior allele frequency for heterozygous sites in individuals is usually 0.5 (assuming one is not analyzing sequences coming from, e.g. cancer tissues, but this is not true in pools: in fact, under the standard neutral model, singletons (i.e. alleles of minimum frequency are the most common class of variants because P(f ∝ 1/f and they occur more often as the sample size increases. Third, an allele appearing only once in the reads from a pool does not necessarily correspond to a singleton in the set of individuals making up the pool, and vice versa, there can be more than one read – or, more likely, none – from a true singleton. Results To improve upon existing theory and software packages, we have developed a Bayesian approach for minor allele frequency (MAF computation and SNP calling in pools (and implemented it in a program called snape: the approach takes into account sequencing errors and allows users to choose different priors. We also set up a pipeline which can simulate the coalescence process giving rise to the SNPs, the pooling procedure and the sequencing. We used it to compare the

  6. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics. (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene


    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  7. [Emergency calls in the Samu system]. (United States)

    Barrier, G


    The French emergency medical system is public and medical. Named Samu, it is almost entirely managed by anesthesiologists specially trained for emergency medical assistance and advanced medical support. The system comprises a reception and dispatching center for emergency calls, directly connected to police and firemen, but assuring patient confidentiality. This fixed center is managing mobile units which are Medical Intensive Care Ambulances (MICA named Smur in France). The Samu's mission consists in performing urgent individual medical assistance and also medical services for treatment of mass casualties. It is also to find adequate hospital units for the patients, to perform medical transport and to be a consultant for general practitioners in emergency.

  8. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd


    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  9. Call center. Centrados en el cliente


    Leal-Alonso-de-Castañeda, José Enrique


    La empresa actual ha de estar preparada para responder al Cliente tal y como éste espera, porque no se busca un cliente puntual, sino un cliente fiel. La globalización de la economía y del acceso a los mercados exige que la empresa sea capaz de atraer al cliente no sólo con un servicio de calidad, sino además con una atención de calidad. La implantación de un Call Center (Centro de Atención al Cliente, Centro de Atención de Llamadas) constituye por todo ello una estrategia de negocio qu...

  10. Call for another special issue / book (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.


    We would like to continue the series of special issue or maybe edit a book on this topic. To complete the formerly edited special issues we would like to link natural hazards research to cultural heritage research. We see a way of doing this connected to "integrated conservation", which sees the involvment of urban planning in conservation, as well as the (urban) sociology, the integration of the user, the participatism. We further call for investigation of GIS applications for the investigation of natural hazards' impact in this field. We are open for further ideas and wait for you at the Splinter meeting.

  11. Non-Local Means Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades


    Full Text Available We present in this paper a new denoising method called non-local means. The method is based on a simple principle: replacing the color of a pixel with an average of the colors of similar pixels. But the most similar pixels to a given pixel have no reason to be close at all. It is therefore licit to scan a vast portion of the image in search of all the pixels that really resemble the pixel one wants to denoise. The paper presents two implementations of the method and displays some results.

  12. Theology links Christian ministry with God's call. (United States)

    O'Connell, L J


    Catholic health care ministry originates in and is shaped by the theme of call in the Old and New Testaments. To be specifically Catholic, health professionals and facilities must define their ministries according to the values expressed in this theological tradition. Sponsorship. The opportunity to provide health care enables religious communities to contribute to God's ongoing creation process and to reiterate Christ's call to minister to others. Although health care facility sponsorship thrusts religious communities into the arena of big business, the abandonment of the health care mission could be considered a betrayal of evangelical values. Quality of life. The implicit concern for human dignity that distinguishes Catholic health care facilities should be evident in personalized patient care, just working conditions, and a commitment to healing in the civic community. Stewardship in ethics. The development of business policies and procedures and institutional responses to social change should be carefully considered in light of the Catholic understanding of loving covenant and the Christian way of life. Shared ministry. Health care facilities have played a leading role in implementing the Second Vatican Council's vision of ministry. Sponsoring communities' continued willingness to share responsibilities with laity will be imperative in meeting the health care demands of the future.

  13. Detecting Motifs in System Call Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, William O; Aickelin, Uwe


    The search for patterns or motifs in data represents an area of key interest to many researchers. In this paper we present the Motif Tracking Algorithm, a novel immune inspired pattern identification tool that is able to identify unknown motifs which repeat within time series data. The power of the algorithm is derived from its use of a small number of parameters with minimal assumptions. The algorithm searches from a completely neutral perspective that is independent of the data being analysed, and the underlying motifs. In this paper the motif tracking algorithm is applied to the search for patterns within sequences of low level system calls between the Linux kernel and the operating system's user space. The MTA is able to compress data found in large system call data sets to a limited number of motifs which summarise that data. The motifs provide a resource from which a profile of executed processes can be built. The potential for these profiles and new implications for security research are highlighted. A...

  14. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  15. Milton Nascimento: una calle llamada mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos De Souza


    Full Text Available El punto de partida de este estudio consistirá en la exploración de la musicalidad de Milton Nascimento y de sus compañeros del “movimiento” “Clube da Esquina”, destacándose la relevancia del conjunto de esa obra para la cultura brasilera. El referido “movimiento” floreció en Minas Gerais en el auge de uno de los períodos más críticos de la historia contemporánea brasilera: la dictadura militar. En tanto, el “Clube da Esquina” – dado a la diversidad de los temas tratados en sus letras y su singularidad poética -, luego se difundió por todo el espacio cultural brasilero. Hablar del “Clube da Esquina” no es tarea fácil porque hay una dolorosa ausencia o pálida presencia de este movimiento en estudios que se ocupan de nuestra música popular. El “Clube da Esquina” fue un círculo de amigos que se reunieron en un pequeño pub en la esquina de la Calle Divinópolis y Calle Paraisópolis, en un bucólico barrio de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais - Brasil, llamado Santa Teresa. Era parte de esa hermandad, interesada en música, cine y poesía, Milton Nascimento, Wagner Tiso, Fernando Brant, Toninho Horta, Beto Guedes, Moura Tavinho, los hermanos Lô y Marcio Borges, Robertinho Silva, Nivaldo Ornelas, Ronaldo Bastos, Murilo Antunes Nelson Angelo y Novelli, entre otros. En estas reuniones, regadas con mucha cerveza, Milton Nascimento y sus compañeros. Milton fue y sigue siendo la mayor referencia del movimiento “Clube da Esquina”. Abstract The starting point of this study will explore the music of Milton Nascimento and his fellow "movement" "Clube da Esquina", highlighting the relevance of all this work to the Brazilian culture. The aforementioned "movement" flourished in Minas Gerais at the height of one of the most critical periods in Brazilian contemporary history: the military dictatorship. Meanwhile, the "Clube da Esquina" - given the diversity of topics in his lyrics and his unique poetic - and then spread

  16. Evaluation of incoming calls to intensive care unit for emergency assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Düger


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine mean admission time after calls, resuscitation success rate, and determine the rate of medical emergency team (MET calls of clinics in hospital by assessing the incoming calls to MET at intensive care unit. Methods. This study was conducted by collecting emergency call forms of 147 patients. The data including age, gender, medical diagnosis, the name of the caller department, cause of call, occurrence time, call time, attending time, medical care termination time and the outcomes were extracted from the forms or patient files. Event declaration time was accepted as minute time difference between occurrence time and call time. Duration of admission was accepted as minute time difference between call times and attending time. Duration of resuscitation was accepted as minute time difference between attending time and medical care termination time. Results. Mean event declaration time was 3.3 ± 3.0 minutes. Mean duration of admission was 3.7 ± 1.6 minutes. Mean duration of resuscitation was 20.5 ± 12.7 minutes. The resuscitation of 84 patients (63.6% was successful while 48 patients (36.4% died at the end of resuscitation. It was found that the patients with a result of successful resuscitation were significantly younger and their duration of resuscitation was significantly shorter. Conclusion. We indicate that MET system is an essential part of in-hospital emergency medical care system. We suggest that a blue code call system should be established by intensive care unit members and announced to all hospital staff.

  17. Making meaning(s with cover designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Reed


    Full Text Available In this article Halliday’s systemic functional grammar, Kress and Van Leeuwen’s grammar of visual design and Bernstein’s work on pedagogic discourse are drawn on in order to analyze some of the ways in which meanings are made and some meanings privileged over others in the designing, both visual and discursive, of the covers of three course books prepared for teacher education programmes in South Africa. The primary aim of this analysis is to understand what meanings are offered to readers as entrants into or as established members of communities of practice in the teaching profession and the academy.

  18. Call research: major themes and issues Call research: major themes and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Levy


    Full Text Available Ao invés de apresentar uma perspectiva subjetiva sobre temas principais e questões de pesquisa em CALL, este artigo pretende oferecer um relatório em que, pelo menos em parte, os conceitos desenvolvidos são extraídos a partir de evidências empíricas. Espera-se que esse enfoque venha a oferecer uma descrição mais objetiva do trabalho contemporâneo de pesquisa em CALL. Para alcançar este objetivo, o presente trabalho está baseado em um corpus de 47 artigos de pesquisas em CALL, publicados em livros e periódicos de 1999. Com este fundamento, apresenta-se um modelo para a descrição e análise das pesquisas em CALL, assim como são representadas na literatura. Dois principais direcionamentos e outros três importantes, porém menos freqüentes, são descritos em detalhes, usando exemplos do corpus; e também consideram-se as implicações para pesquisas futuras. Uma ênfase particular será dada à identificação das metas dos pesquisadores de CALL e ao esclarecimento dos atributos singulares da pesquisa neste campo. Rather than provide a purely subjective perspective on major themes and issues in CALL research, this paper aims to provide an account where, at least in part, the views advanced are drawn from empirical evidence. It is hoped that this approach will provide a more objective description of contemporary CALL research work. To achieve this goal, the present paper is based upon a corpus of 47 CALL research articles published in books and journals in 1999. With this foundation it sets out a framework for the description and analysis of CALL research as it is represented in the literature. Two major directions and three important, though less frequent, directions are described in detail, using examples from the corpus, and the implications for research in the future are considered. Particular emphasis will be placed on identifying the goals of CALL researchers and on clarifying the unique attributes of research in this

  19. Glucocorticoid and androgen signaling pathways diverge between advertisement calling and non-calling fish. (United States)

    Genova, Rachel M; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Knapp, Rosemary; Fergus, Daniel; Bass, Andrew H


    Behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms of social vocalization in teleost fish are influenced by the glucocorticoid cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11kT). The relative abundance of both 11kT, which binds to androgen receptors (ARα, ARβ), and cortisol, which binds to glucocorticoid receptors (GR-1, GR-2), is regulated by 11β-hydroxylase (11βH) that converts 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and testosterone to 11β-OH-testosterone, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) that converts cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone and 11β-OH-testosterone to 11kT. In midshipman fish, we tested the hypothesis that plasma steroid levels, mRNA abundance for 11βH and 11βHSD in the vocal muscle and testis (known site of 11kT synthesis), and mRNA abundances for ARs and GRs in vocal muscle, would differ between males that did or did not recently produce 'hum' advertisement calls. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that non-calling male vocal muscle had significantly higher mRNA levels for all receptors except ARα, and a strong trend for higher 11βHSD; 11βH was similar to that in calling males. Calling males had higher plasma and testis 11kT, but lower plasma cortisol, levels. Testis enzyme levels did not differ between male groups, although calling males showed a positive linear correlation between plasma 11kT and testis 11βHSD mRNA levels, consistent with testis being the main source of plasma 11kT. We propose that higher vocal muscle 11βHSD levels in non-calling males reflect increased local conversion of elevated cortisol to cortisone, providing protection from cortisol-related toxicity, while increased receptor expression in non-calling males functions as a preparatory mechanism for meeting the physiological demands of future vocalization.

  20. Learner Attitudes towards CALL Applications at YADIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal OKAN & Pınar TORUN


    Full Text Available The use of educational technology to assist learners in their language studies has become agreat concern for scholars over the past decade. YADIM (School for Foreign Languages at ÇukurovaUniversity in Turkey has invested substantially to introduce students to computer-based languagelearning materials and to integrate technology into existing curriculum. This paper reports on attitudesof YADİM students towards the use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL and theirperceptions on CALL’s relevancy to their regular classroom work. Surveys and follow-up interviewsexplored how learners see the role of the instructor and the accessibility of the labs. The paper alsolooks at how students assess the impact of technology on their language learning process.

  1. Comprometimento organizacional de trabalhadores de call center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely César Martins Paiva


    Full Text Available RESUMOO Neste artigo, analisa-se como se apresenta o comprometimento organizacional de trabalhadores de um call center, localizado em Belo (A Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brasil. Após o delineamento conceitual UJ do tema central, são expostos os resultados de um estudo de caso descritivo, realizado com abordagens quantitativa e qualitativa. Os dados de 399 questionários e 22 entrevistas são, respectivamente, tratados estatisticamente e submetidos à análise de conteúdo. A base de comprometimento que predominou entre esses infoproletários foi "obrigação pelo desempenho" e, em menor grau, "afetiva". Foi observado que quanto maior é o seu tempo de experiência nesse tipo de organização, menores são os níveis de comprometimento de modo geral, fatos esclarecidos, parcialmente, por meio das entrevistas.

  2. HVC contributes toward conspecific contact call responding in male Bengalese finches. (United States)

    Urbano, Catherine M; Aston, Avery E; Cooper, Brenton G


    The processes of producing and acquiring birdsong, like human speech, utilize interdependent neural systems for vocal learning and production. In addition to song, these brain areas are undoubtedly used for other affiliative behaviors. Oscine sound production is lateralized because their vocal organ contains two independently controlled sound sources. Therefore, songbirds offer a unique opportunity to study the biological relevance of lateralized behavioral control. Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) produce different types of sound with each sound source: the left sound generator produces tonal frequencies from 1 to 4 kHz and the right sound source produces the lower frequency (<2 kHz) tonal and broadband sounds. We sought to investigate whether the premotor nucleus HVC contributes toward lateralized auditory processing of conspecific vocalizations. We ablated either the left or the right HVC and tested birds with the callback paradigm using female contact calls that were filtered to accentuate particular frequency ranges. The results show that (a) the acoustic frequency of call stimuli drives different patterns of calling behavior and that (b) both HVC nuclei contribute toward contact call production, but HVC ablation does not alter the number of short calls produced upon hearing a female contact call. These data are consistent with the emerging view that the motor production and auditory processing are linked and suggest that HVC may contribute toward affiliative behaviors by promoting the production of contact call responses.

  3. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies. (United States)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki


    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  4. Called to respond: The potential of unveiling hiddens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Black


    Full Text Available Interested in exploring how personal stories and aesthetic modes of representing experiences can nudge open academic and educational spaces, this article/collection of particles seeks to document our encounters of being affected and called to respond to things the other has written and represented. As a way of engaging with questions about what research and research data might be and become, our attention has been drawn to stories and images from our lives that we have not shaken off – and to how, as we have opened these to the other, making once private moments public, our hiddens have morphed tenderly into a shared knowing and being. As we have acted on the call we have felt to respond we have found ourselves entering spaces of collaboration, communion, contemplation, and conversation – spaces illuminated by what we have not been able to – and cannot – set aside. Using visual and poetic materials we explore heartfelt and heartbroken aspects of our educational worlds and lives, to be present with each other and our (reemerging personal and professional meanings. We see the shared body (of work, of writing, of image that develops from the taking of brave steps and the risky slipping off of academic masks and language, as a manifestation of the trusted and nurturing spaces that can be generated through collaborative opportunities to gather together. These steps towards unveiling hiddens are producing in us and of us a friendship, fluency, and fluidity as we write new ways of becoming. In turn, we hope the uncovering and revealing of our dialogue in the public gathering of this journal might supports readers’ telling of their own life stories through what calls them to respond.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Badulescu


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship plays an important role in shaping economies and producing economic added value. Among other determinants of the economic activity, the influence of religion on economic activity was a major concern in socio-economic research. However, how the religion affects the decision to enter into entrepreneurship has been approached in fewer studies and researches. The decision to enter into entrepreneurship is a complex process, determined by many factors, from different sources, exerting various influences. Thus, it was argued that certain religions can foster business initiative, while others inhibit it. On the other hand, individuals and communities, separated by native environment, prove outstanding entrepreneurial capabilities and determination. Although the “protestant” attributes of entrepreneurship have long ceased to make the rule in researching the religious perspective on the entrepreneurial phenomenon, the temptation to explain some successful business by vocation, gift or even by ”call” still exists in contemporary research. A significant part of entrepreneurs, self-declared as religious, are deeply convinced of the divine grace bestowed on them and their businesses, while other entrepreneurs avoid to associate ”calling” with business success. There are certain reasons explaining this reluctance, e.g. caution, separation between religious practice and business, fear that entrepreneurial failure could mean lack of divine grace etc. The theological studies accept and promote the concept of calling in trade and business, but they place it in a pastoral context, i.e. the true calling should be realized in the act of faith and religiously guided. Nevertheless, examples of entrepreneurial activity, both honest and successful, can also occur outside the revelation of calling.

  6. Calle y calles de Brasil: imágenes, lecturas y etnografías


    Montoya-Uriarte, Urpi; Universidad Federal de Bahía (Brasil)


    En este artículo me propongo reflexionar acerca de la calle de la ciudad contemporánea, movida por una pasión por lo urbano y una formación en antropología. La vida de las calles nos dice mucho sobre el tipo de ciudad en las que se encuentran. Sin embargo, son pocos los esfuerzos para captarla en sus detalles, particularidades, singularidades. Como urbanistas, parecemos conformarnos con las imágenes mentales que tenemos de ellas y como intelectuales, muchas veces, nos contentamos con reproduc...

  7. Male discrimination of receptive and unreceptive female calls by temporal features. (United States)

    Elliott, Taffeta M; Kelley, Darcy B


    In murky, crowded ponds in South Africa, female clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis (Daudin), vocalize to signal reproductive state. Female calls consist of acoustically similar clicks delivered in trains with characteristic rates. The rapping call of a sexually receptive female has a more rapid click rate [81 ms mean interclick interval (ICI)] than the ticking call of an unreceptive female (219 ms ICI). Rapping stimulates male advertisement calling, whereas ticking suppresses an already calling male. We examined how males label and discriminate female click rates. A labeling boundary experiment revealed that males perceive click rates between the means of rapping and ticking as lying on a continuum. They respond to 98 and 160 ms ICI as though to rapping and ticking, respectively. However, calling evoked by a click rate equally common to both calls (120 ms ICI) did not differ from the response to either rapping or ticking. A second experiment evaluated whether males discriminate click rates both labeled as ticking (180 and 219 ms ICI). Ticking suppresses advertising males, and suppressed males habituate (resume calling) to prolonged ticking. Both ticking stimuli suppressed males with equal effectiveness, and males habituated in equivalent amounts of time. When the stimulus was switched during habituation, no dishabituation occurred. We conclude that male labeling of click trains as rapping or ticking reflects an ambiguity resulting from the overlap in ICIs naturally occurring in the calls. Males do not respond differentially to click rates within the ticking category. Males thus combine discriminating and non-discriminating strategies in responding to the salient feature of female calls.

  8. Taking the Danish Speech Trainer from CALL to ICALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter


    Talebob (Speech Bob) is a newly developed interactive CALL-tool for training Danish speech with special regard to the pronunciation of highly idiomatic phrases. Talebob is currently being tested in primary schools in Nuuk, Hafnarfjörður and Tórshavn (where Danish is taught as a L2). The purpose...... of the current paper is twofold. We first introduce Talebob in its publicly available version, commenting on its linguistic, technical, and didactic principles. Secondly, we present our current plans and goals for the next version of Talebob focusing on linguistic and educational perspectives. Taking Talebob II...... as a point of departure, we wish to invite a discussion of ICALL as a means of modernizing the L2 educational programmes in the Nordic area....

  9. CALL and Less Commonly Taught Languages: Challenges and Opportunities (United States)

    Ward, Monica


    Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) researchers face many challenges in developing effective, high-quality CALL. CALL research has a very strong focus on the Most Commonly Taught Languages (MCLTs), particularly English. CALL researchers working with Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs) face further constraints. LCTLs can range from…

  10. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  11. REMINDER: In a medical emergency call 74444

    CERN Multimedia


    What happened? A CERN colleague, complaining of pains that might indicate serious heart problem, went to the ?infirmary' on the Prévessin site for medical aid. He was unaware that the ?infirmary' was in fact no such thing, but the office of the French contractors' medical practitioner, and, on top of that, it was closed. He therefore took his own car and went to the CERN Fire Station on the Meyrin Site (Building 65). The firemen and the CERN medical team took care of him and requested helicopter transport to the Geneva cantonal hospital, where he responded well to medical treatment. What do we learn from this event? You must call the CERN internal number 74444 in the event of serious and acute illness, and do not have to present yourself in person or get somebody to go with you. This number is not reserved exclusively for accident, pollution, fire etc. The Firemen can prodice professional assistance at all times as required: first aid on the spot, amulance transport and medical assistance as necessary. ...

  12. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma" (United States)

    Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Ibarrola-de Andrés, Carolina; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco


    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed. PMID:23919110

  13. Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James


    Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.

  14. A science of meaning. Can behaviorism bring meaning to psychological science? (United States)

    DeGrandpre, R J


    An argument is presented for making meaning a central dependent variable in psychological science. Principles of operant psychology are then interpreted as providing a basic foundation for a science of meaning. The emphasis here is on the generality of basic operant concepts, where learning is a process of meaning making that is governed largely by natural contingencies; reinforcement is an organic process in which environment-behavior relations are selected, defined here as a dialectical process of meaning making; and reinforcers are experiential consequences with acquired, ecologically derived meanings. The author concludes with a call for a more interdisciplinary science of psychology, focusing on the individual in society.

  15. Means on scattered compacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banakh T.


    Full Text Available We prove that a separable Hausdor_ topological space X containing a cocountable subset homeomorphic to [0, ω1] admits no separately continuous mean operation and no diagonally continuous n-mean for n ≥ 2.

  16. Optimal temporal placement of the call in beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Künzell


    Full Text Available The call is a tactical component in beach volleyball attacks. Through the call, the setter indicates to his or her teammate an open spot in the opponent’s court. In two experimental conditions, we investigated the interval between the call and the ball-hand contact (“call shot interval”, CSI of top-level athletes. We show that the probability that a given call is followed is dependent on the duration of the CSI and the number of call options. Longer CSIs result in an increased probability that the given call will be followed, whilst increasing the call options results in a decrease in probability. On average, there is a 50% probability that the call will be followed if the call precedes the shot by 460 ms and if a single call option (“line” is expected. If the attacker has to choose between three call options (“line”, “cut”, “no-one” a 50% probability that the call will be followed is observed at an CSI of 542 ms. It did not appear that gender influenced the ability to follow a call. We recommend that in practice and in competition, players and coaches should consider the proper duration of the CSI for effective calling.

  17. Sleep and recovery in physicians on night call: a longitudinal field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmberg Birgitta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that physicians' night-call duty may cause impaired performance and adverse effects on subjective health, but there is limited knowledge about effects on sleep duration and recovery time. In recent years occupational stress and impaired well-being among anaesthesiologists have been frequently reported for in the scientific literature. Given their main focus on handling patients with life-threatening conditions, when on call, one might expect sleep and recovery to be negatively affected by work, especially in this specialist group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a 16-hour night-call schedule allowed for sufficient recovery in anaesthesiologists compared with other physician specialists handling less life-threatening conditions, when on call. Methods Sleep, monitored by actigraphy and Karolinska Sleep Diary/Sleepiness Scale on one night after daytime work, one night call, the following first and second nights post-call, and a Saturday night, was compared between 15 anaesthesiologists and 17 paediatricians and ear, nose, and throat surgeons. Results Recovery patterns over the days after night call did not differ between groups, but between days. Mean night sleep for all physicians was 3 hours when on call, 7 h both nights post-call and Saturday, and 6 h after daytime work (p Conclusions Despite considerable sleep loss during work on night call, and unexpectedly short sleep after ordinary day work, the physicians' self-reports indicate full recovery after two nights' sleep. We conclude that these 16-hour night duties were compatible with a short-term recovery in both physician groups, but the limited sleep duration in general still implies a long-term health concern. These results may contribute to the establishment of safe working hours for night-call duty in physicians and other health-care workers.

  18. Bipartisan proposal calls for SGR repeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Washington Post (11/1, Carey reports a bipartisan group of legislators has agreed on a framework replacing the “problematic” Medicare payment formula in an attempt to end the annual Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR or “doc fix” debate. The current system is set to reduce Medicare physician payments by approximately 25% on Jan. 1 without Congressional intervention. Senate Finance Committee Chairman Max Baucus (D-MT and House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Dave Camp (R-MI introduced a draft proposal that would “encourage care management services for individuals with complex chronic care needs through the development of new payment codes for such services, as well as leverage physician-developed standard of care guidelines to avoid the unnecessary provision of services”. The Committees value your feedback on this proposal. Please submit written comments to the Finance SGR comments mailbox at and the Ways & Means SGR comments mailbox at by Tuesday, November 12, …

  19. Arginine vasotocin injection increases probability of calling in cricket frogs, but causes call changes characteristic of less aggressive males. (United States)

    Marler, C A; Chu, J; Wilczynski, W


    Male cricket frogs, Acris crepitans communicate to males and females using advertisement calls, which are arranged into call groups. Calls at the middle and end, but not beginning of the call group, are modified in response to male-male aggressive interactions. We found in this field study of male cricket frogs in natural breeding choruses that the peptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) not only increased the probability that males called after injections, but also caused modifications in middle and end calls to produce calls characteristic of less aggressive males. Moreover, AVT-injected males showed significantly greater increases in call dominant frequency than saline-injected males, again, a characteristic of less aggressive males. Cricket frog calls are used to both repel males and attract females, thus call changes may relate to male-male and/or male-female interactions. Saline-injected males also demonstrated significant changes in several call traits, including changes that occurred in the beginning and middle calls of the call groups, but not the end calls. AVT appeared to block some call changes produced through handling. These data suggest that AVT can influence acoustic communication in frogs in several ways, including effects on call characteristics and dominant frequency, as well as potentially blocking some handling effects.

  20. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari


    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  1. OVarCall: Bayesian Mutation Calling Method Utilizing Overlapping Paired-End Reads. (United States)

    Moriyama, Takuya; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru


    Detection of somatic mutations from tumor and matched normal sequencing data has become a standard approach in cancer research. Although a number of mutation callers have been developed, it is still difficult to detect mutations with low allele frequency even in exome sequencing. We expect that overlapping paired-end read information is effective for this purpose, but no mutation caller has modeled overlapping information statistically in a proper form in exome sequence data. Here, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical method, OVar- Call (, where overlapping paired-end read information improves the accuracy of low allele frequency mutation detection. Firstly, we construct two generative models: one is for reads with somatic variants generated from tumor cells and the other is for reads that does not have somatic variants but potentially includes sequence errors. Secondly, we calculate marginal likelihood for each model using a variational Bayesian algorithm to compute Bayes factor for the detection of somatic mutations. We empirically evaluated the performance of OVarCall and confirmed its better performance than other existing methods.

  2. Meaning Negotiations of Collaborative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie; Zandee, Danielle P.


    engages with recent debates about the complexity of such new governance forms, as well as discussions on the relationship between discourse and materiality and the calls made to develop multi-method approaches to study complex organizational phenomena. In effect, the chapter develops empirical......This chapter explores the potential for developing organizational discourse approaches through ethnographic fieldwork in the context of collaborative governance: a procedure to involve stakeholders in public problem solving of, for example, policy and service innovation. In doing so, the researcher...... and analytical approaches to unfold discourse-material aspects of the negotiations of meanings and matters of such new governance form in practice. The chapter provides examples based on ethnographic fieldwork in collaborations across actors from the welfare area of education. In conclusion, the author reflects...

  3. New degradation call admission control for increasing WCDMA system capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ningqing; Lu Zhi; Gu Xuemai


    Propose a new degradation call admission control(DCAC)scheme, which can be used in wideband code division multiple access communication system. So-called degradation is that non-real time call has the characteristic of variable bit rate, so decreasing its bit rate can reduce the load of the system, consequently the system can admit new call which should be blocked when the system is close to full load, therefore new call's access probability increases. This paper brings forward design project and does system simulation, simulation proves that DCAC can effectively decrease calls' blocking probability and increase the total number of the on-line users.

  4. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan


    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  5. The Differences across Distributed Leadership Practices by School Position According to the Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) (United States)

    Blitz, Mark H.; Modeste, Marsha


    The Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) is a multi-source assessment of distributed instructional leadership. As part of the validation of CALL, researchers examined differences between teacher and leader ratings in assessing distributed leadership practices. The authors utilized a t-test for equality of means for the…

  6. Parallel k-means++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A parallelization of the k-means++ seed selection algorithm on three distinct hardware platforms: GPU, multicore CPU, and multithreaded architecture. K-means++ was developed by David Arthur and Sergei Vassilvitskii in 2007 as an extension of the k-means data clustering technique. These algorithms allow people to cluster multidimensional data, by attempting to minimize the mean distance of data points within a cluster. K-means++ improved upon traditional k-means by using a more intelligent approach to selecting the initial seeds for the clustering process. While k-means++ has become a popular alternative to traditional k-means clustering, little work has been done to parallelize this technique. We have developed original C++ code for parallelizing the algorithm on three unique hardware architectures: GPU using NVidia's CUDA/Thrust framework, multicore CPU using OpenMP, and the Cray XMT multithreaded architecture. By parallelizing the process for these platforms, we are able to perform k-means++ clustering much more quickly than it could be done before.

  7. Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders (United States)

    Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura


    This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

  8. 76 FR 17933 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey (United States)


    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate... Directorate, Office of Infrastructure Protection. Title: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670.... SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate...

  9. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)


    Riva, de la, Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime


    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the calls. Two phenograms based on the characteristics of the mating calls are constructed, the first one using a traditional multivariate technique (UPGMA) and the second one using audiospectrogram c...

  10. Environmental Influences On Diel Calling Behavior In Baleen Whales (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Environmental Influences On Diel Calling Behavior In...understanding of the social and environmental factors that influence variability in the calling behavior of baleen whales. One of the most prevalent...observations in passive acoustic recordings over scales of days to months is diel calling behavior (i.e., higher calling rates by day versus night or

  11. A General Study on the Major Features of CALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As Computer Assisted language Learning (CALL) has become a hot issue in the second language acquisition, this paper attempts to discuss two of the important features of CALL: the student-centered and interactiveness. It is ex-plained in the paper that these two features are the most important features characterized by CALL and they can be bet-ter realized in a CALL class than in a traditional class.

  12. The So-Called 'Face on Mars' (United States)


    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  13. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas


    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  14. Searching for the lost meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gaetano


    Full Text Available Not only defi ning the nature of schizophrenia, but even defi ning schizophrenia as a diagnostic entity is still a challengefor psychiatry. The current diagnostic systems and the related approach to psychopathology are of little aid to thispurpose, and have inadvertently resulted in an impoverished clinical practice. There is substantial meaning underlyingschizophrenic symptoms that would appear bizarre and senseless from the viewpoint of a purely descriptive method.Psychiatry needs to devise an approach that embraces the complexity of the different perspectives of explanationand understanding of mental illness, examining the interplay of each element in the subjective experience. Symptomssuch as delusion and hallucinations cannot merely be conceptualized as false judgment or lacking of external object,respectively, as they refl ect the fact that patients try to make sense of their different, globally altered experience ofthe self, of others and of the world. This line of reasoning builds on previous work in the phenomenological traditionpostulating a disturbance in sensorimotor processes, which bond human beings with one another while remainingimperceptible to consciousness. This suggestion is consistent with a large body of research highlighting impairmentin sensory processing in schizophrenia. Other authors underscored the importance of subtle alterations of functionsother than sensorimotor processes, such as experiential anomalies of affectivity, cognition-perception and body-motorexperience, alterations of self-awareness, and disturbances in reciprocal attunement leading to disconnection from acommon register of meanings and loss of common sense. Heidegger refers to a human being as Being intrinsically selfrevelatoryin the unity of physis and logos. He refers to the lived experience of being constantly in the everyday situationas being located, “thrown” into the world. The existence is always ‘in the world’, ‘near the things

  15. Processing Film, Processing Meaning (United States)

    Perkowski, Lisa M.


    Adolescents are at a ripe age to make meaning and think abstractly (Kerlavage, 1998); yet, they are not "born knowing how to get ideas into materials, or how materials can be manipulated to shape ideas and meaning" (Burton, 2012, p. 14). Adolescents need guidance in understanding abstract concepts, and art teachers play an important role…

  16. Una calle nunca es una calle: el mundo de los frigoríficos


    Moschen, Susana; Rodríguez Iozza, Gisela B.; Scaglia, Roxana B.; Dobarro, Claudia; Omelusik, M. Alejandra


    Repensando nuestra práctica docente, desde lo trabajado en el transcurso de la Especial Preparación correspondiente al área de Ciencias Sociales y en el Seminario: Patrimonio y Educación Preuniversitaria, es que nos propusimos la incorporación al Proyecto de Ciencias Sociales, como estudio de caso: los frigoríficos Swift y Armour. Se trata de un sitio histórico, una de las nominaciones a la lista patrimonial existente a nivel nacional, a escala de la microrregión del Gran La Plata; la calle N...

  17. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency Call Center Service. 25.284 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service. (a) Providers of mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call...

  18. Territorial calls in the Little Owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars B.; Sunde, Peter; Rahbek, Carsten


    With the aim of quantifying spatio-temporal and social factors affecting territorial calls in LittleOwls,we collected data on the calling behaviour of radio tracked individuals from a low-density population in Northern Jutland, Denmark. There was considerable seasonal variation in calling activity...

  19. Pricing of convertible bonds with hard call features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Jolle O.; Smid, Peter P.M.; Koning, Ruud H.


    This paper discusses the development of a valuation model for convertible bonds with hard call features. We define a hard call feature as the possibility for the issuer to redeem a convertible bond before maturity by paying the call price to the bondholder. We use the binomial approach to model conv

  20. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations. (United States)


    ... remains on for a period in excess of three minutes. The automatic cutoff system must be designed so the... Safety Pool for highway call box systems subject to the following requirements: (1) Call box transmitters... effective radiated power (ERP). (3) The height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1 meters (20...

  1. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs. (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B


    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure.

  2. Linguistics, Procedure and Technique in CALL Teacher Education (United States)

    Torsani, Simone


    Research in CALL education has identified a series of goals and constraints for technology in language education that need to be taken into account when designing a CALL syllabus. This article presents a theoretical framework for syllabus design based on the identification of three areas of expertise within CALL: linguistic knowledge, procedural…

  3. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  4. 78 FR 35956 - Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call (United States)


    ... Bureau of Land Management Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Conference Call. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and... Advisory Council (RAC) Subgroup will host a conference call. DATES: The Utah RAC Subgroup will host...

  5. 75 FR 16163 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing... the Secretary of the Treasury, announces the call of all FHA debentures, with a coupon rate of 5..., ``outstanding'' as of March 31, 2010. The date of the call is July 1, 2010. The debentures will be redeemed...

  6. 76 FR 17429 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a debenture call of... the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, announces the call of all FHA debentures, with a...

  7. 76 FR 43688 - Committee Meeting via Conference Call (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Committee Meeting via Conference Call AGENCY..., August 16, 2011, from 1 p.m. to 2:30 pm E.S.T. This meeting, to be held via audio conference call, is open to the public. Details for accessing the full Committee Conference Call are cited below: Toll...

  8. 29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-call time. 785.17 Section 785.17 Labor Regulations... On-call time. An employee who is required to remain on call on the employer's premises or so close thereto that he cannot use the time effectively for his own purposes is working while “on call”....

  9. 77 FR 18258 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a debenture call of... impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at...

  10. Calling and Career Preparation: Investigating Developmental Patterns and Temporal Precedence (United States)

    Hirschi, Andreas; Herrmann, Anne


    The presence of a calling and career development are assumed to be closely related. However, the nature of and reason for this relationship have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized the existence of reciprocal effects between calling and three dimensions of career preparation and assessed the change of the presence of a calling,…

  11. Scalable K-Means++

    CERN Document Server

    Bahmani, Bahman; Vattani, Andrea; Kumar, Ravi; Vassilvitskii, Sergei


    Over half a century old and showing no signs of aging, k-means remains one of the most popular data processing algorithms. As is well-known, a proper initialization of k-means is crucial for obtaining a good final solution. The recently proposed k-means++ initialization algorithm achieves this, obtaining an initial set of centers that is provably close to the optimum solution. A major downside of the k-means++ is its inherent sequential nature, which limits its applicability to massive data: one must make k passes over the data to find a good initial set of centers. In this work we show how to drastically reduce the number of passes needed to obtain, in parallel, a good initialization. This is unlike prevailing efforts on parallelizing k-means that have mostly focused on the post-initialization phases of k-means. We prove that our proposed initialization algorithm k-means|| obtains a nearly optimal solution after a logarithmic number of passes, and then show that in practice a constant number of passes suffic...

  12. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí


    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  13. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness. (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A


    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  14. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein


    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  15. Meaning in Work Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    meaningful is still lacking (Harpaz & Fu, 2002), as are definitions of key terms. Here, I define meaning as the experience that something fits into a wider context or coheres within a larger whole.     I conceptualize meaning in work life as deriving from four factors, each of which helps us contribute...... to something larger than ourselves (Seligman, 2002) through our work. Thus, a person experiences meaning in work life when she... A. is able to use her signature strengths at work (Peterson and Seligman, 2004), B. makes an important contribution to the workplace (Drucker, 1999), C. participates in a productive...

  16. Individual distinctiveness in call types of wild western female gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Salmi

    Full Text Available Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo. Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized, suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication.

  17. The Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service: High Frequency of Nontransported Calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin E. Phillips


    Full Text Available Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%. Nineteen (19% percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (. Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made.

  18. The efficiency and quality dilemma: What drives South African call centre management performance indicators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Banks


    Full Text Available Orientation: Call centres have become principal channels of communication with customers. Therefore, companies attempt to reduce costs and improve the quality of their interactions with customers simultaneously. These objectives are often conflicting and call centre managers struggle to balance the efficiency and quality priorities of the business.Research purpose: This study explored the key performance indicators that drive management practices in the South African call centre industry in the context of the dilemma between efficiency and quality.Motivation for the study: The South African government has identified call centres as a method of creating jobs and foreign investment. Management practices affect centres’ performance. Understanding these practices will help to achieve these aims.Research design: The researchers used a web-based questionnaire in a survey with South African call centre managers in more than 44 different organisations that represented nine industry sectors.Main findings: This study indicated that the dilemma between efficiency and quality is prevalent in South African call centres and that efficiency key performance indicators drive management practices.Practical/managerial implications: The inconsistencies the study reported mean that South African organisations should assess the alignment between their organisational visions, the strategic intentions of their call centres and the performance measures they use to assess their call centre managers.Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the relatively small amount of empirical research available on the call centre industry in South Africa. It contributes to the industry’s attempt to position itself favourably for local and international outsourcing opportunities.

  19. Soils - Mean Permeability (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas. The...

  20. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.


    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  1. Meaning in couples relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues T.F.


    Full Text Available Based on psycholinguistics and L. Vygotsky’s (2007 theories on sign, meaning and sense categories, as later discussed by A. Leontiev (2004, 2009, we present a case study that focuses on the intricacies of a love relationship for a woman who remained in a painful marriage. Interview material is presented in a Relational-Historical Psychology theoretical framework to provide central categories of meaning and sense. This is understood as a privileged method for apprehending the uniqueness of a human being. To segment the qualitative material, we used the “Analysis of the Nuclei of Meanings for the Apprehension of the Constitution of Sense,” by Aguiar and Ozella (2006, 2013. This approach seeks to discriminate the meanings and senses that constitute the content of a speech sample.

  2. Stats means business

    CERN Document Server

    Buglear, John


    Stats Means Business is an introductory textbook written for Business, Hospitality and Tourism students who take modules on Statistics or Quantitative research methods. Recognising that most users of this book will have limited if any grounding in the subject, this book minimises technical language, provides clear definition of key terms, and gives emphasis to interpretation rather than technique.Stats Means Business enables readers to:appreciate the importance of statistical analysis in business, hospitality and tourism understand statis

  3. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Miller


    Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  4. Carbon-neutral McCall : developing a zero energy campus in McCall, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobus, F.; Bickford, K. [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States)


    This paper reported on an interdisciplinary design studio that was recently formed at the University of Idaho to focus on the construction of a carbon-neutral field campus in McCall, Idaho. The field campus is used to teach high school students about science, place and community. The design studio included students from the departments of Architecture and Interior Design as well as collaboration from faculty members in Architecture, Interior Design, Landscape Architecture, Bioregional Planning, and Conservation Social Sciences. The 2006 studio focused on site development issues and preliminary schematic designs of different building types that will eventually be built on campus. The second carbon-neutral studio held in 2008 concentrated on the design of a single, carbon-neutral living facility at the McCall Field Campus to house 16 people. The goals of the 2008 studio were to utilize the principles of fire-wise construction, make use of underutilized materials, obtain carbon-neutral performance, and act as a learning instrument for the occupants. The project is ongoing in the form of an interdisciplinary workshop in which a team of architects and engineers will refine the design and material decisions made during the 2008 carbon-neutral studio. This paper focused on the work of the fall 2008 studio, describing building type research and preliminary energy calculations for the living facility. First, student findings regarding the carbon-neutral material and building technology possibilities in this region were presented. Next, the findings regarding carbon-neutral building performance were presented with an emphasis on passive solar techniques for the intermountain west region. The new sustainable design curriculum aims to design and construct buildings that will reflect the sustainable values taught at the campus. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Acoustic Characteristics of Advertisement Calls in Babina adenopleura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobin FANG; Xia QIU; Yilin ZHOU; Luyi YANG; Yi ZHAO; Weihong ZHENG; Jinsong LIU


    Acoustic communication is the most important form of communication in anuran amphibians. To understand the acoustic characteristics of male Babina adenopleura, we recorded advertisement calls and analyzed their acoustic parameters during the breeding season. Male B. adenopleura produced calls with a variable number of notes (1–5), and each note contained harmonics. Although 6%of call notes did not exhibit frequency modulation (FM), two call note FM patterns were observed:(1) upward FM;(2) upward–downward FM. With the exception of 1-and 5-note calls, the duration of successive notes decreased monotonically. With the exception of 1 note calls, the fundamental frequency of the first note was lowest, then increased; the greatest change in the fundamental frequency was always between notes 1 and 2. The dominant frequency varied between calls. For example for the ifrst call note the dominant frequency occurred in some cases in the ifrst harmonic (located in the 605.320 ± 64.533 Hz frequency band), the second harmonic (918 ± 9 Hz band), the fourth harmonic (1712 ± 333 Hz band), the sixth harmonic (the 2165 ± 152 Hz band), the seventh harmonic (the 2269 ± 140 Hz band), the eighth harmonic (the 2466 ± 15 Hz band) or the ninth harmonic (the 2636 ± 21 Hz band). Although male B. adenopleura advertisement calls have a distinctive structure, they have similar characteristics to the calls of the music frog, B. daunchina.

  6. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs. (United States)

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J


    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430].

  7. Pairing call-response surveys and distance sampling for a mammalian carnivore (United States)

    Hansen, Sara J. K.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Underwood, Harold B.; Gibbs, James P.


    Density estimates accounting for differential animal detectability are difficult to acquire for wide-ranging and elusive species such as mammalian carnivores. Pairing distance sampling with call-response surveys may provide an efficient means of tracking changes in populations of coyotes (Canis latrans), a species of particular interest in the eastern United States. Blind field trials in rural New York State indicated 119-m linear error for triangulated coyote calls, and a 1.8-km distance threshold for call detectability, which was sufficient to estimate a detection function with precision using distance sampling. We conducted statewide road-based surveys with sampling locations spaced ≥6 km apart from June to August 2010. Each detected call (be it a single or group) counted as a single object, representing 1 territorial pair, because of uncertainty in the number of vocalizing animals. From 524 survey points and 75 detections, we estimated the probability of detecting a calling coyote to be 0.17 ± 0.02 SE, yielding a detection-corrected index of 0.75 pairs/10 km2 (95% CI: 0.52–1.1, 18.5% CV) for a minimum of 8,133 pairs across rural New York State. Importantly, we consider this an index rather than true estimate of abundance given the unknown probability of coyote availability for detection during our surveys. Even so, pairing distance sampling with call-response surveys provided a novel, efficient, and noninvasive means of monitoring populations of wide-ranging and elusive, albeit reliably vocal, mammalian carnivores. Our approach offers an effective new means of tracking species like coyotes, one that is readily extendable to other species and geographic extents, provided key assumptions of distance sampling are met.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Jiang


    Full Text Available Technological advances have brought about the ever-increasing utilisation of computer-assisted language learning (CALL media in the learning of a second language (L2. Computer-mediated communication, for example, provides a practical means for extending the learning of spoken language, a challenging process in tonal languages such as Chinese, beyond the realms of the classroom. In order to effectively improve spoken language competency, however, CALL applications must also reproduce the social interaction that lies at the heart of language learning and language use. This study draws on data obtained from the utilisation of CALL in the learning of L2 Chinese to explore whether this medium can be used to extend opportunities for rapport-building in language teaching beyond the face-to-face interaction of the classroom. Rapport's importance lies in its potential to enhance learning, motivate learners, and reduce learner anxiety. To date, CALL's potential in relation to this facet of social interaction remains a neglected area of research. The results of this exploratory study suggest that CALL may help foster learner-teacher rapport and that scaffolding, such as strategically composing rapport-fostering questions in sound-files, is conducive to this outcome. The study provides an instruction model for this application of CALL.

  9. Reinterpreting features of the advertisement call of Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885; Anura, Microhylidae). (United States)

    Giaretta, Ariovaldo Antonio; Vo, Pacific; Herche, Jesse; Tang, Justine Nicole; Gridi-Papp, Marcos


    The advertisement call of Dermatonotus muelleri was originally described by Nelson (1973) in a brief section of a review on the mating calls of the Microhylinae. He used two calls from São Leopoldo, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil to determine that they have i) dominant frequency between 1.500-2.200 kHz (mean 1.854 + 0.216 kHz), and ii) harmonic intervals between 0.140 and 0.150 kHz (0.146 +/- 0.005 kHz). Nelson (1973) based his description on an audiospectrogram produced with high frequency resolution and did not quantify the pulse structure of the calls. More recently, Giaretta and colleagues (2013) expanded on the original description using a larger set of calls recorded from Gurinhat, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil. They quantified the temporal structure of the call and confirmed that the dominant frequency is around 1.8 kHz. In addition, they identified a secondary low frequency band at 667 Hz.

  10. Epilepsy in patients with GRIN2A alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stülpnagel, Celina; Ensslen, M; Møller, R S


    OBJECTIVE: To delineate the genetic, neurodevelopmental and epileptic spectrum associated with GRIN2A alterations with emphasis on epilepsy treatment. METHODS: Retrospective study of 19 patients (7 females; age: 1-38 years; mean 10.1 years) with epilepsy and GRIN2A alteration. Genetic variants we...

  11. Evaluative Meaning in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Jurko


    Full Text Available Evaluative meaning is frequently understood as a form of connotation, pertaining to single lexical items. However, the term has recently been applied also to longer stretches of text, spanning several words. The paper generally deals with the latter aspect and provides a corpus-driven analysis of several Slovene and English phrases that may appear semantically neutral, yet turn out to be heavily non-neutral in terms of their semantic properties. After a short introduction of the main approaches to the topic, including its dilemmas, the paper focuses on the L1-into-L2 translation of such strings, with particular emphasis on proper rendering of the evaluative meaning. While further research is warranted into the matter, the work presented here attests to the complex and ubiquitous nature of the Sinclairian extended unit of meaning.

  12. Modular Design of Call Control Layer in Telephony Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Basicevic


    Full Text Available An important property of a telephony system is the call control model on which it is based. It is noted that many call control models in the past, especially those in PSTN/ISDN networks follow centralized model. For such a model, typical is significant coupling of modules belonging to different services with the basic call control module which is aware of all active telephony features in the system. Although sometimes based on distributed model, VoIP call control models still manifest some of the listed problems of their predecessors. In this paper we present a fully distributed model which exhibits minimal coupling of modules belonging to different services and a simple basic call control module. The model is based on taxonomies of call control services which are presented in the paper. Also, the implementation of several typical services is described.

  13. In- and Out-of-the-Money Convertible Bond Calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechman, Ken; Lunde, Asger; Zebedee, Allan


    Convertible bond calls typically cause significant reactions in equity prices. The empirical research largely finds negative and positive announcement effects for the in-the-money and the out-of-the-money calls respectively. However, this research has difficulty distinguishing between the two main...... theoretical explanations: the signaling effect and the price pressure effect. In this paper, we differentiate between these two effects by using a unique data set of the in- and the out-of-the-money calls in the United States during the period of 1993 to 2007. We find that the announcement effect for the in......-the-money call is predominantly explained by the subsequent order imbalances; and the stock market's reaction is spread over an entire trading day, which is consistent with the price pressure effect. In contrast, the announcement effect for the out-of-the-money call is driven by the size of the called...

  14. A synthetic operational account of call-by-need evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerny, Ian; Danvy, Olivier


    We present the first operational account of call by need that connects syntactic theory and implementation practice. Syntactic theory: the storeless operational semantics using syntax rewriting to account for demand-driven computation and for caching intermediate results. Implementational practice...... is that the theory of call by need agrees with the theory of call by name, and that the practice of call by need optimizes the practice of call by name. Our operational account takes the form of three new calculi for lazy evaluation of lambda-terms and our synthesis takes the form of three lock-step equivalences......-terms. Our results reveal a genuine and principled unity of computational theory and computational practice, one that readily applies to variations on the general theme of call by need....

  15. Computing meaning v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry; Pulman, Stephen


    This book is a collection of papers by leading researchers in computational semantics. It presents a state-of-the-art overview of recent and current research in computational semantics, including descriptions of new methods for constructing and improving resources for semantic computation, such as WordNet, VerbNet, and semantically annotated corpora. It also presents new statistical methods in semantic computation, such as the application of distributional semantics in the compositional calculation of sentence meanings. Computing the meaning of sentences, texts, and spoken or texted dialogue i

  16. Intersubjective meaning making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob

    of single-touch screen interaction among 8-9 year-old children presented here, shows that while the constraints of single-touch screens does not support equality of interaction at the verbal and the physical level, there seems to be an intersubjective learning outcome. More precisely, the constraints...... of single-touch screens offer support for intersubjective meaning making in its ability of constraining the interaction. By presenting a short embodied interaction analysis of 22 seconds of collaboration, I illustrate how an embodied interaction perspective on intersubjective meaning making can tell...... a different story about touch-screen supported collaborative learning....

  17. Female preferences for spectral call properties in the western genetic lineage of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis). (United States)

    Schrode, Katrina M; Ward, Jessica L; Vélez, Alejandro; Bee, Mark A


    Female frogs discriminate among potential mates based on individual variation in male advertisement calls. While considerable data have accumulated allowing comparisons of female preference functions among species, we still lack fundamental knowledge about how and why the shapes of preference functions for particular call properties vary among populations within all but a few species. Here, we report results from a study aimed at describing female preference functions for spectral call properties in Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis). Widespread throughout the eastern half of North America, Cope's gray treefrog is the diploid member of the cryptic diploid-tetraploid Hyla versicolor species complex, and its populations are divided into two distinct genetic lineages (eastern and western). In this study of a western lineage population, we recorded and analyzed the spectral properties of 1000 advertisement calls from 50 males and conducted two-choice phonotaxis experiments to estimate a population-level preference function. Females preferred calls with average frequencies over calls with frequencies that were 2 or 3 semitones (1.4 or 2.1 standard deviations, respectively) lower than the population mean. We observed no behavioral discrimination between calls with average and higher-than-average frequencies. Preferences discriminating against low-frequency calls were weak and were abolished by attenuating the preferred average call by 3 dB. We discuss these results in light of previous studies of eastern lineage populations, geographic variation in female preference functions, and the potential adaptive value of discriminating against calls with low frequencies.

  18. External morphology and calling song characteristics in Tibicen plebejus (Hemiptera: Cicadidae). (United States)

    Mehdipour, Maedeh; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Zamanian, Hossein


    Tibicen plebejus is the largest cicada native to the ecosystem in northern Iran. The male cicada produces a loud calling song for attracting females from a long distance. It is presumed that the female selects a mate based on a combination of passive and active mechanisms, but it is not known if she selects for size, nor if the male's size correlates with any characteristic of the advertisement call. In this study, we report the relationship between calling song features and morphological characters in the male of T. plebejus. Research was conducted in northern Iran during the summer of 2010. Seventeen males were collected and their calling songs were recorded in a natural environment. Two morphological characters were measured: length and weight. Maximum, minimum and average of values of 10 key acoustic variables of the calling song were analyzed: phrase duration, phrase part 1, phrase part 2, number of phrases per minute, echeme duration, echeme period, interecheme interval, number of echeme per second, echeme/intereheme ratio, and dominant frequency. The data were tested for the level of association between morphology and acoustic variables using simple linear regression. In conclusion, in terms of song structure, three significant positive correlations existed between length and (1) mean echeme duration, (2) mean echeme/interecheme ratio, (3) maximum echeme/interecheme ratio. We found out also four significant negative correlations between both length and weight with (1) minimum interecheme intervals, (2) mean dominant frequency, (3) minimum dominant frequency, (4) maximum dominant frequency, and between weight and (1) minimum interecheme intervals, (2) mean dominant frequency, (3) minimum dominant frequency, (4) maximum dominant frequency. It can be found that larger males of T. plebejus produce songs of lower frequency and are less silent between echemes.

  19. 40 CFR 155.48 - Data Call-In. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Call-In. 155.48 Section 155.48... STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.48 Data Call-In. The Agency may issue a Data Call-In notice under FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) at any time if the Agency believes that...

  20. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings. (United States)

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin


    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  1. The meaning of talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lorenzo


    Full Text Available The knowledge society gives a remarkable role to human potentialities into organizations. For this reason has emerged talent management. But it is necessary to know its meaning to put on practice programs. In this paper, the author analyzes different points of views about this topic.

  2. PR Means Positive Results. (United States)

    Foree, Marilyn


    Describes the advantages of public relations to a school music program. Suggests that, to succeed, a music program must have the support of school administrators, teachers, parents, and students alike. Recommends means of attracting support from the four groups. Stresses the importance of effective local publicity. (SG)

  3. Meaning = Information + Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo


    Notions like meaning, signal, intentionality, are difficult to relate to a physical word. I study a purely physical definition of "meaningful information", from which these notions can be derived. It is inspired by a model recently illustrated by Kolchinsky and Wolpert, and improves on Dretske classic work on the relation between knowledge and information. I discuss what makes a physical process into a "signal".

  4. Meaning in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica


    A model for context-dependent natural language semantics is proposed and formalized in terms of possible worlds. The meaning of a sentence depends on context and at the same time affects that context representing the knowledge about the world collected from a discourse. The model fits well...

  5. Conversations across Meaning Variance (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto


    Progressive interpretations of scientific theories have long been denounced as naive, because of the inescapability of meaning variance. The charge reportedly applies to recent realist moves that focus on theory-parts rather than whole theories. This paper considers the question of what "theory-parts" of epistemic significance (if any) relevantly…

  6. The meaning of curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    diffusion to volume growth. We are e.g. interested in obtaining precise bounds for mean exit times for Brownian motions and for isoperimetric inequalities. One way to obtain such bounds are via curvature controlled comparison with corresponding values in constant curvature spaces and in other tailor-made so...

  7. Engagement Means Everyone (United States)

    Patton, Carol


    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  8. The Measurement of Meaning. (United States)

    Osgood, Charles E.; And Others

    The problem of measuring meaning viewed strictly as a psychological conception via the application of semantic differential theory is presented in this study. The first half of the book discusses theoretical background, logic of semantic measurement, basic factor analysis research, and a critical scientific evaluation of measuring procedures. The…

  9. Ressourcenorientierte Diagnostik im Alter


    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas


    Trotz der im Alter zunehmenden körperlichen, kognitiven und sozialen Verlusten bleibt das subjektive Wohlbefinden relativ stabil. Dies weist auf die vielen Ressourcen älterer Menschen hin. Dieser Artikel stellt für die klinische Ressourcendiagnostik relevante Verfahren vor und erläutert die zugrunde liegenden Konzepte. Berücksichtigt werden Aktivitäten und Erlebnisse als Ressourcen, emotionale Ressourcen (positiver Affekt, Lebenszufriedenheit, Selbstwerterleben, Lebensqualität), motivationale...

  10. Mean particle diameters: from statistical definition to physical understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, M.


    Mean particle diameters are important for the science of particulate systems. This thesis deals with a definition system for these mean diameters, called Moment-Ratio (M-R) definition system, and provides a general statistical and physical basis. Also, the current DIN/ISO definition system is discus

  11. Time-Aware Exploratory Search: Exploring Word Meaning through Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, D.; Santucci, G.; de Rijke, M.; Angelini, M.; Granato, G.L.


    With more longitudinal archives becoming digitized and publicly available, new uses emerge. Collections that span centuries call for a time-aware exploration approach, a coordinated environment supporting understanding the development of word usage and meaning through time, with the means to leverag

  12. What psychology means to me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sugarman


    Full Text Available The author takes on the task of describing the interface between emotion and cognition by way of a narrative about psychology, and its meaning to his life. Using time as an overall metaphor, or perhaps a foundation stone underpinning a series of seemingly unconnected events, some insight is given into the author's personal life. The author invokes the works of feminist philosopher and author, Susan Faludi, to portray some aspects of his journey through fantasy, and then the reality of a disparate practice on two continents in psychology and neuropsychology. With particular reference to Faludi's portrayal of men as failed heroes without a role in modern society, the author discovers that all of his work with others has been a work with his own troubled soul, and his failed heroism. Calling on his early role models, and life with and without a sense of purpose, he learns from his clients the value of courage and patience, a spiritual as well as intellectual journey that leads him to become many things to many people in order to heal them, and himself.

  13. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory. (United States)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel


    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life.

  14. A Review of the Use of Script-Based Tracking in CALL Research for Data Sharing: Applications Providing Meaning Aids (United States)

    Hwu, Fenfang


    Using script-based tracking to gain insights into the way students learn or process language information can be traced as far back as to the 1980s. Nevertheless, researchers continue to face challenges in collecting and studying this type of data. The objective of this study is to propose data sharing through data repositories as a way to (a) ease…

  15. Negotiating meaning through artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena


    This research contributes to the domain of strategy making, specifically to unpacking the complexity of sociomateriality in strategy discourse. Scholars have emphasized the potential of artefacts to enhance sensemaking during strategizing. However there is a lack of insight into how artefacts...... and conversational aspects are linked at the micro‑level of discourse, also how artefacts and sensemaking shape one another. This research addresses this gap by empirically analyzing strategy discourse within a facilitated modelling workshop. Considering strategizing as a socially constructed activity, the author...... analyzes a workshop transcript to assess the extent to which stakeholders’ appropriation of artefacts supports them in engaging in negotiation of meaning with action implications. Moreover, how artefacts and negotiation of meaning shape one another is identified. The data suggest that appropriating...

  16. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach (United States)

    McDonald, Peter


    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  17. Immunisation hotline calls as five-in-one vaccine introduced. (United States)

    Fisher-Jeffes, Lisa; Finlay, Fiona


    Announcement of the introduction of the five-in-one vaccine (DTaP/IPV/Hib) into the primary immunisation schedule was made on 9 August 2004. In this study all calls to the immunisation hotline were recorded between 9 August 2004 and 19 November 2004, noting who called and the nature of their enquiry. A total of 208 calls were received during the study period, and of these 23 (11.1%) related to the new vaccine. Calls were from parents (10/23, 43%), health visitors (9/23, 39%) and practice nurses (3/23, 13%). A variety of themes were covered in calls including local availability of the five-in-one vaccine, vaccine safety, mercury content and efficacy. Calls not connected with the new vaccine concerned mostly adolescent MMR (17.3%) as there was a local mumps epidemic. Others related to clarification of a child's immunisation status (13.5%), primary MMR immunisation (13.5%), vaccination scheduling or administration difficulties (12%), other schedule (12.5%) and non-schedule vaccines (2.4%), vaccine reactions (2.4%), travel vaccines (6%), BCG (6%), and a few miscellaneous queries (3%). Overall questions about the new five-in-one vaccine accounted for an extra 23 calls to the immunisation hotline during the study period (11.1% of calls).

  18. 75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey (United States)


    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-Day Notice and request for comments; New... Protection Data Call Survey. Form: Not Applicable. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Affected Public: Federal,...

  19. Called to Teach: A Study of Highly Motivated Preservice Teachers. (United States)

    Serow, Robert C.


    Examines the belief that teaching is not merely a job but a calling, analyzing survey and interview data from 527 preservice teachers. Compared to other preservice teachers, those who felt a calling displayed significantly more enthusiasm, commitment to teaching, and willingness to accept sacrifices and extra duties. (SM)

  20. 77 FR 12646 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... ``Treasury'') called for the submission of Large Position Reports by those entities whose...

  1. 78 FR 17469 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... ``Treasury'') called for the submission of Large Position Reports by those entities whose...

  2. 75 FR 77955 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... ``Treasury'') called for the submission of Large Position Reports by those entities whose...

  3. How can I help you? User instructions in telephone calls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steehouder, Michael; Hartman, Daniel


    We a small corpus of instructions given in phone calls to customers who need support for programming their universal remote control, to make it suitable for their particular TV set VCR, Audio, etc. Typically, in these calls the operator or 'agent' coaches the client while the client is performing ac

  4. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay. (United States)


    ... minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments made pursuant to employment agreements. Typically, such minimum... illustrated as follows: An employment agreement provides a minimum of 3 hours' pay at time and one-half for... Friday, inclusive, in a workweek beginning on Monday, and are paid overtime compensation at time and...

  5. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi


    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  6. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime


    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the

  7. Evaluation of Static JavaScript Call Graph Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.-J.


    This thesis consists of a replication study in which two algorithms to compute JavaScript call graphs have been implemented and evaluated. Existing IDE support for JavaScript is hampered due to the dynamic nature of the language. Previous studies partially solve call graph computation for JavaScript

  8. 76 FR 14684 - Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Call for nominations. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to request...

  9. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call. (United States)


    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance by conference telephone call. 6.4 Section 6.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings...

  10. 75 FR 14622 - Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Resource Advisory Council Call for Nominations. SUMMARY: The...

  11. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs. (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric


    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution.

  12. Establishing Self-access with CALL in Chinese Tertiary Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYuwen; LiHeng


    This paper aims tO bridge up the gap between theoretical perspectives of self-access language learning (SALL) and practice of computer assisted language learning (CALL) in Chinese tertiary education. While much of the paper presented ideas dealing with issues related to SALL and CALL, they are supported by references to relevant literature and research.

  13. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award (United States)

    Berry, John N., III


    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  14. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process (United States)

    Nesbitt, Dallas


    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  15. Feeling, Meaning, and Intentionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer


    This article addresses the phenomenology of aesthetic experience. It first, critically, considers one of the most influential approaches to the psychophysics of aesthetic perception, viz. neuroaesthetics. Hereafter, it outlines constitutive tenets of aesthetic perception in terms of a particular...... relative to its object and the tools for meaning-making specific to that object, and not relative to the feeling (of beauty) it may elicit. Finally, I sketch the import this fact may have on a research program in empirical aesthetics....

  16. A Study of Olivine Alteration to Iddingsite Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Kuebler, K. E.; Wang, Alian; Haskin, L. A.; Jolliff, B. L.


    A crucial task of Mars surface science is to determine past environmental conditions, especially aqueous environments and their nature. Identification of mineral alteration by water is one way to do this. Recent work interprets TES spectra as indicating altered basalt on Mars. Olivine, a primary basaltic mineral, is easily altered by aqueous solutions. Alteration assemblages of olivine may be specific to deuteric, hydrothermal, surface water, or metamorphic environments. Raman spectra are produced by molecular vibrations and provide direct means for studying and identifying alteration products. Here, we present a combined study of changes in the chemical composition and Raman spectra of an olivine as it alters to iddingsite. Iddingsite is found in some SNC meteorites and is presumably present on Mars. The term 'iddingsite' has been used as a catch-all term to describe reddish alteration products of olivine, although some authors ascribe a narrower definition: an angstrom-scale intergrowth of goethite and smectite (presumably saponite) formed in an oxidizing and fluid-rich environment. Alteration conserves Fe (albeit oxidized) but requires addition of Al and H2O and removal of Mg and Si. The smectite that forms may be removed by continued alteration. Dehydration of the goethite forms hematite. Our purpose is to study the mineral assemblage, determine the structural and chemical variability of the components with respect to the degree of alteration, and to find spectral indicators of alteration that will be useful during in-situ analyses on Mars.

  17. Practical theologians’ calling to serve in the field of gerontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria M. Theron


    Full Text Available The South African demographic statistics echo the global trend of an ageing population. This fact poses challenges to the country’s labour supply, to health care, retirement and intergenerational relations. The elderly are faced with specific challenges such as negative views regarding older people, discrimination and prejudice based on age, changing roles, the loss of a support system when children emigrate, financial problems, abuse and neglect, emotions of fear and depression, and the struggle to find meaning in life and suffering. The field of study that concerns ageing and older adulthood is called gerontology. Joan Erber defines it as ‘the study of the biological, behavioural, and social phenomena that occur from the point of maturity to old age.’ It is an interdisciplinary field where different disciplines seek to address the problems associated with ageing. Biologists focus on the biological processes of ageing, psychologists focus on aspects like mental abilities, personality and behaviour, whilst sociologists study the social roles, group behaviour and status of older people. The question may be asked what is being done regarding the spiritual and emotional needs of the elderly. This is the niche of practical theology, as indicated by one definition of practical theology that it is ‘a place where religious belief, tradition and practice meet contemporary experiences, questions and actions and conducts a dialogue that is mutually enriching, intellectually critical, and practically transforming’ according to Pattison and Woodward. The aims of this exploratory article are (1 to investigate to what extent research in practical theology has addressed the spiritual and emotional needs of the elderly and (2 to identify opportunities where practical theology may provide service in the field of gerontology.

  18. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela


    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  19. Investigating CALL in the Classroom: Situational Variables to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Liutkus


    Full Text Available A new paradigm in second language pedagogy has Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL playing a significant role. Much of the literature to-date claims that CALL can have a positive impact on students’ second language acquisition (SLA. Mixed method of research produces data to investigate if CALL positively affects student language proficiency, motivation and autonomy. Classroom observation of participants in their natural environment is a qualitative technique used but has situational variables that could skew results if not structured. A questionnaire is a quantitative tool that can offer insight regarding participants’ perception of performance but can contradict what the researcher has observed. This paper will take an in-depth look at variables such as: instructor’s pedagogical application; blending CALL into the curriculum; types of CALL implemented; feedback received and their implications for design of the data collection tools

  20. Effect of tracheosyringeal denervation on call in greenfinch (Carduelis sinica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东风; 李杰; 汪大伟; 蒋锦昌; 杨新宇; 陈浩


    After sections of left or right tracheosyringeal nerve (NXⅡts), greenfinches may repeat everyday calls, with no effect on temporal properties. It is suggested that either side of syrinx may produce sound alone and ipsilateral innervation of NXⅡts for the syringeal muscles. After section of left NXIIts, the bird produces the vocal pattern of partial tone increase, and effects on the sound intensity and sentence length average 1.4 and 2.8 times those after section of right NXIIts, suggesting that the innervation of NXIIts has left side dominance. After bilateral section of NXIIts, the call rhythm in company with expiratory motions is 98-146 times/min,on an average, and lose all sentence types and syllable structure of normal call. But the call spectra produced by tympaniform membrane vibrations without innervation still reserve frequency components similar to the tonic frequency and harmonics of normal calls.

  1. Evidence That Calls-Based and Mobility Networks Are Isomorphic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Coscia

    Full Text Available Social relations involve both face-to-face interaction as well as telecommunications. We can observe the geography of phone calls and of the mobility of cell phones in space. These two phenomena can be described as networks of connections between different points in space. We use a dataset that includes billions of phone calls made in Colombia during a six-month period. We draw the two networks and find that the call-based network resembles a higher order aggregation of the mobility network and that both are isomorphic except for a higher spatial decay coefficient of the mobility network relative to the call-based network: when we discount distance effects on the call connections with the same decay observed for mobility connections, the two networks are virtually indistinguishable.

  2. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)]. (United States)

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico


    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  4. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne


    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function ...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those.......The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...

  5. Variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness. (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Freeberg, Todd M


    The chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus Poecile) has been the focus of much research. A great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. However, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with those of chickadees. To address the paucity of data on the structure of chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, we recorded birds in field and aviary settings. Four main note types were identified in the call: Z, A, D(h), and D notes. Several acoustic parameters of each note type were measured, and statistical analyses revealed that the note types are acoustically distinct from one another. Furthermore, note types vary in the extent of individual distinctiveness reflected in their acoustic parameters. This first step towards understanding the chick-a-dee call of tufted titmice indicates that the call is comparable in structure and complexity to the calls of chickadees.

  6. Blind source computer device identification from recorded VoIP calls for forensic investigation. (United States)

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul


    The VoIP services provide fertile ground for criminal activity, thus identifying the transmitting computer devices from recorded VoIP call may help the forensic investigator to reveal useful information. It also proves the authenticity of the call recording submitted to the court as evidence. This paper extended the previous study on the use of recorded VoIP call for blind source computer device identification. Although initial results were promising but theoretical reasoning for this is yet to be found. The study suggested computing entropy of mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (entropy-MFCC) from near-silent segments as an intrinsic feature set that captures the device response function due to the tolerances in the electronic components of individual computer devices. By applying the supervised learning techniques of naïve Bayesian, linear logistic regression, neural networks and support vector machines to the entropy-MFCC features, state-of-the-art identification accuracy of near 99.9% has been achieved on different sets of computer devices for both call recording and microphone recording scenarios. Furthermore, unsupervised learning techniques, including simple k-means, expectation-maximization and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) provided promising results for call recording dataset by assigning the majority of instances to their correct clusters.

  7. Knockout of Lysosomal Enzyme-Targeting Gene Causes Abnormalities in Mouse Pup Isolation Calls (United States)

    Barnes, Terra D.; Holy, Timothy E.


    Humans lacking a working copy of the GNPTAB gene suffer from the metabolic disease Mucolipidosis type II (MLII). MLII symptoms include mental retardation, skeletal deformities and cartilage defects as well as a speech delay with most subjects unable to utter single words (Otomo et al., 2009; Cathey et al., 2010; Leroy et al., 2012). Here we asked whether mice lacking a copy of Gnptab gene exhibited vocal abnormities. We recorded ultrasonic vocalizations from 5 to 8 day old mice separated from their mother and littermates. Although Gnptab−/− pups emitted a similar number of calls, several features of the calls were different from their wild type littermates. Gnptab−/− mice showed a decrease in the length of calls, an increase in the intra-bout pause duration, significantly fewer pitch jumps with smaller mean size, and an increase in the number of isolated calls. In addition, Gnptab−/− mice vocalizations had less power, particularly in the higher frequencies. Gnptab+/− mouse vocalizations did not appear to be affected. We then attempted to classify these recordings using these features to determine the genotype of the animal. We were able to correctly identify 87% of the recordings as either Gnptab−/− or Gnptab+/+ pup, significantly better than chance, demonstrating that genotype is a strong predictor of vocalization phenotype. These data show that deletion of genes in the lysosomal enzyme targeting pathway affect mouse pup isolation calls.

  8. The Meaning of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos


    Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.

  9. Meaning construction in remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady


    F.C. Bartlett and L.S.Vygotsky were two seminal figures in the psychological study of remembering. Both emphasized the role of meaning and imagination in this process. Bartlett did this by showing the systematic and holistic changes that ensue when cultural material is repeatedly reproduced outside...... of the group to which it belongs. Vygotsky, on the other hand, attended to the ways in which we construct meaningful ―signs‖ as artificial memory aids to solve memory problems that go beyond our natural capacities. These two approaches are brought together to show how we utilize various cultural resources...

  10. Identification of sympatric bat species by the echolocation calls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    One hundred and thirty-eight echolocation calls of 63 free-flying individuals of five bat species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum,Myotis formosus,Myotis ikonnikovi,Myotis daubentoni and Murina leucogaster)were recorded (by ultrasonic bat detector (D980)) in Zhi'an village of Jilin Province,China.According to the frequency-time spectra,these calls were categorized into two types:FM/CF (constant frequency) / FM (R.ferrumequinum) and FM (frequency modulated)(M.formosus,M.ikonnikovi,M.daubentoni and M.leucogaster).Sonograms of the calls of R.ferrumequinum could easily be distinguished from those of the other four species.For the calls of the remaining four species,six echolocation call parameters,including starting frequency,ending frequency,peak frequency duration,longest inter-pulse interval and shortest inter-pulse interval,were examined by stepwise discriminant analysis.The results show that 84.1% of calls were correctly classified,which indicates that these parameters of echolocation calls play an important role in identifying bat species.These parameters can be used to test the accuracy of general predictions based on bats' morphology in the same forest and can provide essential information for assessing patterns of bat habitat use.

  11. Spectrographic Analysis of Carrion Crow Calls and Their Detection (United States)

    Shibuya, Hisashi; Yokota, Yasunari

    In recent years, damage to agricultural products, livestock, and power transmission systems by crows is regarded as a serious problem; countermeasures against crow damage are urgently necessary. This paper proposed a method for detecting crow calls in various environmental sounds. If detection and discernment of crow calls were possible, various actions could be undertaken to prevent the damage. Wildlife call detection, not only that for crows, should be executed in extremely noisy environments. We then introduced both a spectrograph estimation technique with AR modeling in which AR coefficients are temporally smoothed and interpolated and a background noise elimination technique to obtain higher-quality crow call templates. The input sounds are compared with these templates by DP matching in the metric vector space of a logarithmic cepstrum. Every input sound whose minimal distance to the template database is less than the specified threshold value is detected as a crow call. The maximal detection performance can be obtained when five call templates in the template database are utilized; the implication is that carrion crows have five distinguishable call patterns. It is shown that the proposed method achieves 95% detection rate when 1.66% misdetection rate is allowed.

  12. The experience of work in a call centre environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanet Hauptfleisch


    Full Text Available This qualitative research study explored the work experience in a call centre environment in an information technology call centre based in South Africa, which service foreign customers exclusively. Three data collection methods were used, namely narratives, in-depth interviews with call centre consultants, and observation. Following a grounded theory approach, four themes were elicited, namely the perceptions of team members, uncertainty created by a constantly changing environment, perceived distances due to management practices, and depersonalisation experienced while actually dealing with customers. In addition to this, the reported impact of these themes on work performance was explored and compared to existing research.

  13. Well Being and Job Satisfaction Among Call Centre Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegman, Inger Marie; Mathiesen, Karen; Møller, Niels


    A survey among 774 agents in four large Danish companies in house call centres shows that working in a call center is stressfull. Lack of control and autonomy, lack of potentiality and challenges, conflict between qualitative and quantitative demands and monitoring all have an adverse effect on job...... satisfaction. The survey reveals a need for improving working conditions and for development of the work as such in call centres. The survey suggests that the agents both want to participate in the process of development and that they can contribute to the process in a competent way. In the project as part...

  14. Focus on Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Wang Jingjing, Jenny

    ’s lessons. Students use a multiple choice to indicate whether a given item had a correct meaning in a given vocabulary. Data from controllers (N=3) who are native Chinese language teachers are also collected and analyzed. The findings indicate that the mapping between semantic and conceptual representation......Abstract This study examines the effect of mapping between the semantic and conceptual representation of target words 房,堂,屋, and 厅on Chinese (L2) vocabulary learning at a university class. Students (N=25) were the 2nd-year Chinese –major students at one university in Denmark. They were given tests...... of Chinese (L2) words can have a measurable effect on students’ efficacy of (Nation 2011) vocabulary learning in the classroom. The findings also reveal that conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words reinforce the students’ reliance on L 1 by building a link between L 1semantic representations and L 2...

  15. What does 'regionalisation' mean?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Ounanian, Kristen; Raakjær, Jesper


    idea, why or why not, and how people perceive different models of regionalisation. The article documents and substantiates the widespread interest in regionalisation, but it also highlights the need to develop common understandings of which options of regionalisation are available and what they offer......Regionalisation has in recent years been intensely discussed as a possible path for the future Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union. However, the motivations for moving in this direction are as varied as the perceptions of what regionalisation as a mode governance would entail in practice....... To draw implications for policy, we explore these perceptions and seek, by means of interviews and a survey of participants in the Regional Advisory Councils with hands-on experience in regional cooperation in European fisheries management, to flesh out the question whether regionalisation is seen a good...

  16. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen


    improved means of fast physical movement from one place to another. Yet, the impact that the technology of automobility came to have was not of a limited materialistic nature. As many literary and cultural critics have noted, car technology extended its influence into the field of imaginative transport....... According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...... William Carlos Williams negotiates the relationship between these two kinds of automotive transport in some of his poetic and poetic prose writings from the period when the car was introduced on a more general scale in America. Intense moments of emotional and imaginative transport in Williams are often...

  17. The meaning of embodiment. (United States)

    Kiverstein, Julian


    There is substantial disagreement among philosophers of embodied cognitive science about the meaning of embodiment. In what follows, I describe three different views that can be found in the current literature. I show how this debate centers around the question of whether the science of embodied cognition can retain the computer theory of mind. One view, which I will label body functionalism, takes the body to play the functional role of linking external resources for problem solving with internal biological machinery. Embodiment is thus understood in terms of the role the body plays in supporting the computational circuits that realize cognition. Body enactivism argues by contrast that no computational account of cognition can account for the role of commonsense knowledge in our everyday practical engagement with the world. I will attempt a reconciliation of these seemingly opposed views.

  18. Walking With Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McDuff


    Full Text Available Physical activity is beneficial for people with dementia, but little research explores subjective experiences of physical activity in this population. Interpretive description guided the analysis of 26 interviews conducted with 12 people with dementia. Three themes described the subjective meaning of everyday physical activity: Participants were attracted to activity because it improved physical well-being, provided social connections, gave opportunity to be in nature, and provided structure and focus; participants experienced impediments to activity because of physical discomfort, environmental factors, lack of enthusiasm, and memory loss; and participants made adjustments by choosing walking over other activities and by being active with others. Results show that physical activity remains important for people with dementia, although they encounter barriers. They may prefer walking with others as a form of activity. Findings could influence how nurses conceptualize wandering and suggest that walking programs could be well received by people with dementia.

  19. Improvisation and meaning. (United States)

    Gilbertson, Simon


    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  20. Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... fullstory_162446.html Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure People who added this practice to a healthy ... elevated blood pressure] are likely to develop hypertension [high blood pressure] unless they improve their lifestyle," said study author ...

  1. Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening (United States)

    ... page: Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you've got a family history of colon or rectal cancers, you probably ...

  2. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2006 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in April-June 2006 using the protocol developed by the North American Amphibian...

  3. Why and when citizens call for emergency help

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann;


    BACKGROUND: A medical emergency call is citizens' access to pre-hospital emergency care and ambulance services. Emergency medical dispatchers are gatekeepers to provision of pre-hospital resources and possibly hospital admissions. We explored causes for access, emergency priority levels......, and temporal variation within seasons, weekdays, and time of day for emergency calls to the emergency medical dispatch center in Copenhagen in a two-year study period (December 1(st), 2011 to November 30(th), 2013). METHODS: Descriptive analysis was performed for causes for access and emergency priority levels....... A Poisson regression model was used to calculate adjusted ratio estimates for the association between seasons, weekdays, and time of day overall and stratified by emergency priority levels. RESULTS: We analyzed 211,193 emergency calls for temporal variation. Of those, 167,635 calls were eligible...

  4. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2000 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at the Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge for the first time in 2000. Surveys for anurans are conducted in conjunction with...

  5. Trading Strategy Adipted Optimization of European Call Option


    Fukumi, Toshio


    Optimal pricing of European call option is described by linear stochastic differential equation. Trading strategy given by a twin of stochastic variables was integrated w.r.t. Black-Scholes formula to adopt optimal pricing to tarading strategy.

  6. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2002 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at the Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge for the first time in 2000 so this report summarizes the results of the refuge’s...

  7. Anuran Call Study Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge 1999 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During May of 1999, the Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge participated in a nation - wide anuran call count study. This report outlines the results of that survey.

  8. An Intelligent Call Admission Control Decision Mechanism for Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    S., Ramesh Babu H; S, Satyanarayana P


    The Call admission control (CAC) is one of the Radio Resource Management (RRM) techniques plays instrumental role in ensuring the desired Quality of Service (QoS) to the users working on different applications which have diversified nature of QoS requirements. This paper proposes a fuzzy neural approach for call admission control in a multi class traffic based Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN). The proposed Fuzzy Neural Call Admission Control (FNCAC) scheme is an integrated CAC module that combines the linguistic control capabilities of the fuzzy logic controller and the learning capabilities of the neural networks .The model is based on Recurrent Radial Basis Function Networks (RRBFN) which have better learning and adaptability that can be used to develop the intelligent system to handle the incoming traffic in the heterogeneous network environment. The proposed FNCAC can achieve reduced call blocking probability keeping the resource utilisation at an optimal level. In the proposed algorithm we have c...

  9. Anuran Call Study Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge 2000 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For the second consecutive year, Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge participated in a nation-wide anuran call study. This report outlines the results of that survey...

  10. Calibration with empirically weighted mean subset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul


    In this article a new calibration method called empirically weighted mean subset (EMS) is presented. The method is illustrated using spectral data. Using several near-infrared (NIR) benchmark data sets, EMS is compared to partial least-squares regression (PLS) and interval partial least-squares r......In this article a new calibration method called empirically weighted mean subset (EMS) is presented. The method is illustrated using spectral data. Using several near-infrared (NIR) benchmark data sets, EMS is compared to partial least-squares regression (PLS) and interval partial least...... is obtained by calculating the weighted mean of all coefficient vectors for subsets of the same size. The weighting is proportional to SSgamma-omega, where SSgamma is the residual sum of squares from a linear regression with subset gamma and omega is a weighting parameter estimated using cross......-validation. This construction of the weighting implies that even if some coefficients will become numerically small, none will become exactly zero. An efficient algorithm has been implemented in MATLAB to calculate the EMS solution and the source code has been made available on the Internet....

  11. Processing of communication calls in Guinea pig auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine M S Grimsley

    Full Text Available Vocal communication is an important aspect of guinea pig behaviour and a large contributor to their acoustic environment. We postulated that some cortical areas have distinctive roles in processing conspecific calls. In order to test this hypothesis we presented exemplars from all ten of their main adult vocalizations to urethane anesthetised animals while recording from each of the eight areas of the auditory cortex. We demonstrate that the primary area (AI and three adjacent auditory belt areas contain many units that give isomorphic responses to vocalizations. These are the ventrorostral belt (VRB, the transitional belt area (T that is ventral to AI and the small area (area S that is rostral to AI. Area VRB has a denser representation of cells that are better at discriminating among calls by using either a rate code or a temporal code than any other area. Furthermore, 10% of VRB cells responded to communication calls but did not respond to stimuli such as clicks, broadband noise or pure tones. Area S has a sparse distribution of call responsive cells that showed excellent temporal locking, 31% of which selectively responded to a single call. AI responded well to all vocalizations and was much more responsive to vocalizations than the adjacent dorsocaudal core area. Areas VRB, AI and S contained units with the highest levels of mutual information about call stimuli. Area T also responded well to some calls but seems to be specialized for low sound levels. The two dorsal belt areas are comparatively unresponsive to vocalizations and contain little information about the calls. AI projects to areas S, VRB and T, so there may be both rostral and ventral pathways for processing vocalizations in the guinea pig.

  12. Non-linguistic analysis of call center conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Kopparapu, Sunil Kumar


    The book focuses on the part of the audio conversation not related to language such as speaking rate (in terms of number of syllables per unit time) and emotion centric features. This text examines using non-linguistics features to infer information from phone calls to call centers. The author analyzes 'how' the conversation happens and not 'what' the conversation is about by audio signal processing and analysis.

  13. Genotype and SNP calling from next-generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Paul, Joshua S.; Albrechtsen, Anders


    Meaningful analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, which are produced extensively by genetics and genomics studies, relies crucially on the accurate calling of SNPs and genotypes. Recently developed statistical methods both improve and quantify the considerable uncertainty associated w...... with genotype calling, and will especially benefit the growing number of studies using low- to medium-coverage data. We review these methods and provide a guide for their use in NGS studies....

  14. Single Time-Stamped Tries for Retroactive Call Subsumption

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Flavio


    Tabling is an evaluation strategy for Prolog programs that works by storing answers in a table space and then by using them in similar subgoals. Some tabling engines use call by subsumption, where it is determined that a subgoal will consume answers from a more general subgoal in order to reduce the search space and increase efficiency. We designed an extension, named Retroactive Call Subsumption (RCS), that implements call by subsumption independently of the call order, thus allowing a more general subgoal to force previous called subgoals to become answer consumers. For this extension, we propose a new table space design, the Single Time Stamped Trie (STST), that is organized to make answer sharing across subsumed/subsuming subgoals simple and efficient. In this paper, we present the new STST table space design and we discuss the main modifications made to the original Time Stamped Tries approach to non-retroactive call by subsumption. In experimental results, with programs that stress some deficiencies of ...

  15. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt


    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  16. Distress calls may honestly signal bird quality to predators. (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Tella, José L; Carrete, Martina; Serrano, David; López, Guillermo


    In predator-prey interactions, both interactors may benefit from sharing information about prey vulnerability. We examined the relationship between calls used to discourage close predators (distress calls) and the health condition of the caller to test whether these signals are reliable indicators of prey quality. The structure of calls from captured lesser short-toed larks Calandrella rufescens was related to their body condition and T-cell-mediated immunocompetence. Birds in better nutritional and immunological condition utter harsher calls (i.e. they spread the call energy over a wider range of frequency) than birds in poorer conditions. Hence, the harshness of distress calls seems honestly to signal the health status of prey and thus their ability to escape, on which the predator might base its optimal foraging choice. Previous studies have investigated the honesty of songs that have evolved via sexual selection, but this is the first study, to our knowledge, the demonstrates a relationship between individual quality and a vocalization primarily shaped by natural selection.

  17. Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction (United States)

    Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

    Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

  18. Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs. (United States)

    Kiriazis, Judith; Slobodchikoff, C N


    Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. The escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, and standing upright outside the burrow for coyotes and dogs. Within these two categories there were differences in response. For hawks, only the prairie dogs that were in the direct flight path of a stooping red-tailed hawk ran to their burrows and dove inside, while for humans and human alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and diving inside. For coyotes and coyote alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and standing alert at the burrow rims, while for domestic dogs and playbacks of alarm calls for domestic dogs the prairie dogs assumed an alert posture wherever they were feeding, but did not run to their burrows. These responses to both the live predators and to predator-elicited alarm calls suggest that the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs contain meaningful referential information about the categories of predators that approach a colony of prairie dogs.

  19. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Spanjer Wright


    Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  20. Women Labour in Call Centres: Understanding Characteristics of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Dursun


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the work experiences of women employees in info-service-based offices as telephone call centres. Call centres have grown rapidly in Tur-key in recent years, creating a large number of new jobs. In particular, it is concerned with the question of whether call centre jobs are offering women new opportunities for career progression, or whether a more common bias is taking place in which women are being drawn into highly routinized jobs. The collection of data was carried out so-urcing a heterogeneous plurality of instruments. Our research confirms that work pro-cesses in call centres are close association of surveillance technologies (technologic panoptican, exploitation and high levels of discipline, highly repetitive and heavily mo-nitored, and that the association with the assembly line and Taylorism have dominated much of the rhetoric on call centres. In addition, we have observed that, the structure of women’s employment in the call centre industry tends to polarise.

  1. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets (United States)

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P.


    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results.

  2. Transforming trauma healthcare delivery in rural areas by use of an integrated call center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Agrawal


    Full Text Available Introduction: There is poor penetration of trauma healthcare delivery in rural areas. On the other hand, mobile penetration in India is now averaging 80% with most families having access to mobile phone. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the implementation and socioeconomic impact of a call center in providing healthcare delivery for patients with head and spinal injuries. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried out over a 6-month period at a level I trauma Center in New Delhi, India. A nine-seater call center was outsourced to a private company and the hospital′s electronic medical records were integrated with the call-center operations. The call center was given responsibility of maintaining appointments and scheduling clinics for the whole hospital as well as ensuring follow-up visits. Trained call-center staff handled simple patient queries and referred the rest via email to concerned doctors. A telephonic survey was done prior to the start of call-center operations and after 3 months to assess for user satisfaction. Results: The initial cost of outsourcing the call center was Rs 1.6 lakhs (US$ 4000, with a recurring cost of Rs 80,000 (US$ 2000 per month. A total of 484 patients were admitted in the department of Neurosurgery during the study period. Of these, 63% (n=305 were from rural areas. Patients′ overall experience for clinic visits improved markedly following implementation of call center. Patient satisfaction for follow-up visits increased from a mean of 32-96%. Ninety-five percent patients reported a significant decrease in waiting time in clinics 80.4% reporting improved doctor-patient interaction. A total of 52 visits could be postponed/cancelled for patients living in far flung areas resulting in major socioeconomic benefits to these families. Conclusions: As shown by our case study, call centers have the potential to revolutionize delivery of trauma healthcare to

  3. Variational formulas of higher order mean curvatures

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ling


    In this paper, we establish the first variational formula and its Euler-Lagrange equation for the total $2p$-th mean curvature functional $\\mathcal {M}_{2p}$ of a submanifold $M^n$ in a general Riemannian manifold $N^{n+m}$ for $p=0,1,...,[\\frac{n}{2}]$. As an example, we prove that closed complex submanifolds in complex projective spaces are critical points of the functional $\\mathcal {M}_{2p}$, called relatively $2p$-minimal submanifolds, for all $p$. At last, we discuss the relations between relatively $2p$-minimal submanifolds and austere submanifolds in real space forms, as well as a special variational problem.

  4. The Means of the End of Art


    Albéra, François


    Michael Rush’s book dealing with the “new media in art” presupposes that many basic issues of contemporary thinking on art are resolved by looking at art by the yardstick of the “new technologies“—to wit, video and things digital. Even though what is involved is “deterritorialization”, “dematerialization” and “explosion of boundaries”, everything happens as if these “new technologies”—which some are happier calling the “latest” technologies—were simply renewing the means of art. Like Florence...

  5. When Information Conveys Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reading


    Full Text Available While some information is clearly meaningful and some clearly is not, no one has been able to identify exactly what the difference is. The major obstacle has been the way information and meaning are conceptualized: the one in the physical realm of tangible, objective entities and the other in the mental world of intangible, subjective ones. This paper introduces an approach that incorporates both of them within a unified framework by defining them in terms of what they do, rather than what they are. Meaningful information is thus conceptualized here as patterns of matter and energy that have a tangible effect on the entities that detect them, either by changing their function, structure or behavior, while patterns of matter and energy that have no such effects are considered meaningless. The way that meaningful information can act as a causal agent in bio-behavioral systems enables us to move beyond dualistic concepts of ourselves as comprised of a material body that obeys the laws of physics and a non-material essence that is too elusive to study [1].

  6. Stretching and joint mobilization exercises reduce call-center operators' musculoskeletal discomfort and fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Helena de Castro Lacaze


    Full Text Available AIM: We sought to evaluate musculoskeletal discomfort and mental and physical fatigue in the call-center workers of an airline company before and after a supervised exercise program compared with rest breaks during the work shift. INTRODUCTION: This was a longitudinal pilot study conducted in a flight-booking call-center for an airline in São Paulo, Brazil. Occupational health activities are recommended to decrease the negative effects of the call-center working conditions. In practice, exercise programs are commonly recommended for computer workers, but their effects have not been studied in call-center operators. METHODS: Sixty-four call-center operators participated in this study. Thirty-two subjects were placed into the experimental group and attended a 10-min daily exercise session for 2 months. Conversely, 32 participants were placed into the control group and took a 10-min daily rest break during the same period. Each subject was evaluated once a week by means of the Corlett-Bishop body map with a visual analog discomfort scale and the Chalder fatigue questionnaire. RESULTS: Musculoskeletal discomfort decreased in both groups, but the reduction was only statistically significant for the spine and buttocks (p=0.04 and the sum of the segments (p=0.01 in the experimental group. In addition, the experimental group showed significant differences in the level of mental fatigue, especially in questions related to memory Rienzo, #181ff and tiredness (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results demonstrate that appropriately designed and supervised exercise programs may be more efficient than rest breaks in decreasing discomfort and fatigue levels in call-center operators.

  7. Telephone calls to patients after discharge from the hospital: an important part of transitions of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet D. Record


    Full Text Available Background: Teaching interns patient-centered communication skills, including making structured telephone calls to patients following discharge, may improve transitions of care. Objective: To explore associations between a patient-centered care (PCC curriculum and patients’ perspectives of the quality of transitional care. Methods: We implemented a novel PCC curriculum on one of four inpatient general medicine resident teaching teams in which interns make post-discharge telephone calls to patients, contact outpatient providers, perform medication adherence reviews, and engage in patient-centered discharge planning. Between July and November of 2011, we conducted telephone surveys of patients from all four teaching teams within 30 days of discharge. In addition to asking if patients received a call from their hospital physician (intern, we administered the 3-Item Care Transitions Measure (CTM-3, which assesses patients’ perceptions of preparedness for the transition from hospital to home (possible score range 0–100. Results: The CTM-3 scores (mean±SD of PCC team patients and standard team patients were not significantly different (82.4±17.3 vs. 79.6±17.6, p=0.53. However, regardless of team assignment, patients who reported receiving a post-discharge telephone call had significantly higher CTM-3 scores than those who did not (84.7±16.0 vs. 78.2±17.4, p=0.03. Interns exposed to the PCC curriculum called their patients after discharge more often than interns never exposed (OR=2.78, 95% CI [1.25, 6.18], p=0.013. Conclusions: The post-discharge telephone call, one element of PCC, was associated with higher CTM-3 scores – which, in turn, have been shown to lessen patients’ risk of emergency department visits within 30 days of discharge.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of ultrasonic vocalizations in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome reveals limited, call type specific deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Roy

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a well-recognized form of inherited mental retardation, caused by a mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1 gene. The gene is located on the long arm of the X chromosome and encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. Absence of FMRP in fragile X patients as well as in Fmr1 knockout (KO mice results, among other changes, in abnormal dendritic spine formation and altered synaptic plasticity in the neocortex and hippocampus. Clinical features of FXS include cognitive impairment, anxiety, abnormal social interaction, mental retardation, motor coordination and speech articulation deficits. Mouse pups generate ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs when isolated from their mothers. Whether those social ultrasonic vocalizations are deficient in mouse models of FXS is unknown. Here we compared isolation-induced USVs generated by pups of Fmr1-KO mice with those of their wild type (WT littermates. Though the total number of calls was not significantly different between genotypes, a detailed analysis of 10 different categories of calls revealed that loss of Fmr1 expression in mice causes limited and call-type specific deficits in ultrasonic vocalization: the carrier frequency of flat calls was higher, the percentage of downward calls was lower and that the frequency range of complex calls was wider in Fmr1-KO mice compared to their WT littermates.

  9. Single pass kernel -means clustering method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Hitendra Sarma; P Viswanath; B Eswara Reddy


    In unsupervised classification, kernel -means clustering method has been shown to perform better than conventional -means clustering method in identifying non-isotropic clusters in a data set. The space and time requirements of this method are $O(n^2)$, where is the data set size. Because of this quadratic time complexity, the kernel -means method is not applicable to work with large data sets. The paper proposes a simple and faster version of the kernel -means clustering method, called single pass kernel k-means clustering method. The proposed method works as follows. First, a random sample $\\mathcal{S}$ is selected from the data set $\\mathcal{D}$. A partition $\\Pi_{\\mathcal{S}}$ is obtained by applying the conventional kernel -means method on the random sample $\\mathcal{S}$. The novelty of the paper is, for each cluster in $\\Pi_{\\mathcal{S}}$, the exact cluster center in the input space is obtained using the gradient descent approach. Finally, each unsampled pattern is assigned to its closest exact cluster center to get a partition of the entire data set. The proposed method needs to scan the data set only once and it is much faster than the conventional kernel -means method. The time complexity of this method is $O(s^2+t+nk)$ where is the size of the random sample $\\mathcal{S}$, is the number of clusters required, and is the time taken by the gradient descent method (to find exact cluster centers). The space complexity of the method is $O(s^2)$. The proposed method can be easily implemented and is suitable for large data sets, like those in data mining applications. Experimental results show that, with a small loss of quality, the proposed method can significantly reduce the time taken than the conventional kernel -means clustering method. The proposed method is also compared with other recent similar methods.

  10. Epigenetic Alterations in Colorectal Cancer: Emerging Biomarkers. (United States)

    Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Grady, William M; Goel, Ajay


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the fundamental processes driving the initiation and progression of CRC is the accumulation of a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes in colonic epithelial cells. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of cancer epigenetics, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation, microRNA (miRNA) and noncoding RNA deregulation, and alterations in histone modification states. Assessment of the colon cancer "epigenome" has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and altered miRNA expression. The average CRC methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes and dozens of altered miRNAs. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these epigenetic alterations, called driver events, are presumed to have a functional role in CRC. In addition, the advances in our understanding of epigenetic alterations in CRC have led to these alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in this field suggests that these epigenetic alterations will be commonly used in the near future to direct the prevention and treatment of CRC.

  11. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristiane C(A)SAR; Klaus ZUBERB(U)HLER


    There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller.In some species,there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls,but call sequences and the combinations generated by them.These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation.Until recently,however,most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old Word species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys,which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities.To address this,we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates.Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses.A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances,often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters,while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats.This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians,suggesting an early evolutionary origin.Second,recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types.These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously,notably predator type and location.Since meaningful call sequences have already been described in Old Word primates,we suggest

  12. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane CÄSAR, Klaus ZUBERBÜHLER


    Full Text Available There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller. In some species, there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls, but call sequences and the combinations generated by them. These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation. Until recently, however, most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old World species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys, which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities. To address this, we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates. Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses. A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances, often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters, while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats. This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians, suggesting an early evolutionary origin. Second, recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types. These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously, notably predator type and location. Since meaningful call sequences have already been

  13. Voice over internet protocol with prepaid calling card solutions (United States)

    Gunadi, Tri


    The VoIP technology is growing up rapidly, it has big network impact on PT Telkom Indonesia, the bigger telecommunication operator in Indonesia. Telkom has adopted VoIP and one other technology, Intelligent Network (IN). We develop those technologies together in one service product, called Internet Prepaid Calling Card (IPCC). IPCC is becoming new breakthrough for the Indonesia telecommunication services especially on VoIP and Prepaid Calling Card solutions. Network architecture of Indonesia telecommunication consists of three layer, Local, Tandem and Trunck Exchange layer. Network development researches for IPCC architecture are focus on network overlay hierarchy, Internet and PSTN. With this design hierarchy the goal of Interworking PSTN, VoIP and IN calling card, become reality. Overlay design for IPCC is not on Trunck Exchange, this is the new architecture, these overlay on Tandem and Local Exchange, to make the faster call processing. The nodes added: Gateway (GW) and Card Management Center (CMC) The GW do interfacing between PSTN and Internet Network used ISDN-PRA and Ethernet. The other functions are making bridge on circuit (PSTN) with packet (VoIP) based and real time billing process. The CMC used for data storage, pin validation, report activation, tariff system, directory number and all the administration transaction. With two nodes added the IPCC service offered to the market.

  14. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones. (United States)

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul


    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  15. [A relational database to store Poison Centers calls]. (United States)

    Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina


    Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls.

  16. The meaning of lives and the meaning of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijnck, W. de


    Meaning in life is an important aspect of human well-being and motivation. But as the notion of 'meaning in life' is not easily assimilated to that of semantic meaning, it is difficult to define. While meaning in life is standardly discussed in terms of meaningful ways of living, I here take the alt

  17. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J., E-mail: [Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3000 CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes.

  18. Impact of Homeland Security Alert level on calls to a law enforcement peer support hotline. (United States)

    Omer, Saad B; Barnett, Daniel J; Castellano, Cherie; Wierzba, Rachel K; Hiremath, Girish S; Balicer, Ran D; Everly, George S


    The Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) was established by the Department of Homeland Security to communicate the risk of a terrorist event. In order to explore the potential psychological impacts of HSAS we analyzed the effects of terror alerts on the law enforcement community. We used data from the New Jersey Cop 2 Cop crisis intervention hotline. Incidence Rate Ratios--interpreted as average relative increases in the daily number of calls to the Cop 2 Cop hotline during an increased alert period--were computed from Poisson models. The hotline received a total of 4,145 initial calls during the study period. The mean daily number of calls was higher during alert level elevation compared to prior 7 days (7.68 vs. 8.00). In the Poisson regression analysis, the Incidence Rate Ratios of number of calls received during elevated alert levels compared to the reference period of seven days preceding each change in alert were close to 1, with confidence intervals crossing 1 (i.e. not statistically significant) for all lag periods evaluated. This investigation, in the context of New Jersey law enforcement personnel, does not support the concern that elevating the alert status places undue stress upon alert recipients.

  19. Mean-field learning for satisfactory solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou


    One of the fundamental challenges in distributed interactive systems is to design efficient, accurate, and fair solutions. In such systems, a satisfactory solution is an innovative approach that aims to provide all players with a satisfactory payoff anytime and anywhere. In this paper we study fully distributed learning schemes for satisfactory solutions in games with continuous action space. Considering games where the payoff function depends only on own-action and an aggregate term, we show that the complexity of learning systems can be significantly reduced, leading to the so-called mean-field learning. We provide sufficient conditions for convergence to a satisfactory solution and we give explicit convergence time bounds. Then, several acceleration techniques are used in order to improve the convergence rate. We illustrate numerically the proposed mean-field learning schemes for quality-of-service management in communication networks. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. A three-parameter model for classifying anurans into four genera based on advertisement calls. (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Fitch, William Tecumseh


    The vocalizations of anurans are innate in structure and may therefore contain indicators of phylogenetic history. Thus, advertisement calls of species which are more closely related phylogenetically are predicted to be more similar than those of distant species. This hypothesis was evaluated by comparing several widely used machine-learning algorithms. Recordings of advertisement calls from 142 species belonging to four genera were analyzed. A logistic regression model, using mean values for dominant frequency, coefficient of variation of root-mean square energy, and spectral flux, correctly classified advertisement calls with regard to genus with an accuracy above 70%. Similar accuracy rates were obtained using these parameters with a support vector machine model, a K-nearest neighbor algorithm, and a multivariate Gaussian distribution classifier, whereas a Gaussian mixture model performed slightly worse. In contrast, models based on mel-frequency cepstral coefficients did not fare as well. Comparable accuracy levels were obtained on out-of-sample recordings from 52 of the 142 original species. The results suggest that a combination of low-level acoustic attributes is sufficient to discriminate efficiently between the vocalizations of these four genera, thus supporting the initial premise and validating the use of high-throughput algorithms on animal vocalizations to evaluate phylogenetic hypotheses.

  1. Characteristics of calls to the Israeli hotline during the Intifada. (United States)

    Gilat, Itzhak; Latzer, Yael


    The present study examined the help-seeking characteristics of callers to the ten Israeli hotline centers during the Intifada - the Palestinian uprising in the Israeli administered territories. The research method combined quantitative and qualitative analyses of the volunteers' written reports. The quantitative analysis was conducted on a sample of 21,315 structured forms, and the qualitative content analysis was carried out on a sample of 498 verbal descriptions of calls. The quantitative analysis revealed a U-shaped curve illustrating the frequency of Intifada-related calls in relation to the time of the study. The qualitative analysis showed that the main complaints of the callers were focused on direct and masked manifestations of anxiety and feelings of helplessness. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of understanding the unique psychological response to a new kind of stress, as seen from the perspective of calls to a hotline.

  2. Prototype for logging system calls and its overhead analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the capability of the virtual machine monitor,a novel approach for logging system activities is designed.In the design,the guest operating system runs on the virtual machine monitor as non-privileged mode.The redirecting and monitoring modules are added into the virtual machine monitor.When a guest application is calling a system call,it is trapped and redirected from the least privileged level into the virtual machine monitor running in the most privileged level.After logging is finished,it returns to the guest operating system running in the more privileged level and starts the system call.Compared with the traditional methods for logging system activities.the novel method makes it more difficult to destroy or tamper the logs.The preliminary evaluation shows that the prototype is simple and efficient.

  3. Intrusion detection based on system calls and homogeneous Markov chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xinguang; Duan Miyi; Sun Chunlai; Li Wenfa


    A novel method for detecting anomalous program behavior is presented, which is applicable to hostbased intrusion detection systems that monitor system call activities. The method constructs a homogeneous Markov chain model to characterize the normal behavior of a privileged program, and associates the states of the Markov chain with the unique system calls in the training data. At the detection stage, the probabilities that the Markov chain model supports the system call sequences generated by the program are computed. A low probability indicates an anomalous sequence that may result from intrusive activities. Then a decision rule based on the number of anomalous sequences in a locality frame is adopted to classify the program's behavior. The method gives attention to both computational efficiency and detection accuracy, and is especially suitable for on-line detection. It has been applied to practical host-based intrusion detection systems.

  4. Mental, physical and social health problems of call centre workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhuyar


    Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.

  5. Investigating Call Drops with Field Measurements on Commercial Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messina, Alessandro; Caragea, Gabriel; Compta, Pol Torres


    can be done per day. In this paper we present a new methodology to investigate call drops by using mobile phones to do the measurements following the concept of citizen sensing. Therefore, a mobile application for Android is made that collects all necessary data and dumps the measurement results......One of the biggest problems nowadays for network operators are occurring call drops. This problem has been increasing in the last years specially since the advent of 3G. The investigation in the operator's network is very time intensive and due to the highly priced hardware only a few measurements...... in a centralized database where the measurements are evaluated and represented on Google Maps. With a post analysis of the measurements, a classification of the call drops results is made. The collected data is also used to show some statistics related to the battery level and the received signal strength between...

  6. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周


    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  7. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Call-by-Need Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin; Munk, Johan;


    Starting from the standard call-by-need reduction for the λ-calculus that is common to Ariola, Felleisen, Maraist, Odersky, and Wadler, we inter-derive a series of hygienic semantic artifacts: a reduction-free stateless abstract machine, a continuation-passing evaluation function, and what appears...... to be the first heapless natural semantics for call-by-need evaluation. Furthermore we observe that a data structure and a judgment in this natural semantics are in defunctionalized form. The refunctionalized counterpart of this evaluation function is an extended direct semantics in the sense of Cartwright...

  8. A Call-Graph Profiler for GNU Octave

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Muthiah


    We report the design and implementation of a call-graph profiler for GNU Octave, a numerical computing platform. GNU Octave simplifies matrix computation for use in modeling or simulation. Our work provides a call-graph profiler, which is an improvement on the flat profiler. We elaborate design constraints of building a profiler for numerical computation, and benchmark the profiler by comparing it to the rudimentary timer start-stop (tic-toc) measurements, for a similar set of programs. The profiler code provides clean interfaces to internals of GNU Octave, for other (newer) profiling tools on GNU Octave.

  9. Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt (United States)

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Archer, Charles J.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeffrey J.


    Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt including creating a thread; receiving an interrupt having an interrupt type; determining whether a value of a semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled; if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are not disabled: calling, by the thread, one or more preconfigured functions in dependence upon the interrupt type of the interrupt; yielding the thread; and if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled: setting the value of the semaphore to represent to a kernel that interrupts are hard-disabled; and hard-disabling interrupts at the kernel.

  10. Informatics in Education and Koli Calling: a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The journal Informatics in Education and the conference Koli Calling are compared, starting with Simon's system for the classification of computing education papers and going on to conduct a brief bibliometric analysis of the authors of papers in both publications, including their repeat rates and the countries from which they come. The analysis finds that despite their different natures, the Lithuanian journal and the Finnish conference are highly comparable in many respects. The broad conclusion is that the two publications work well together - but it would be good to see some Lithuanian authors contributing papers to Koli Calling.

  11. Mental and Physical health related problems of Call centre workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vaibhavkumar Ramanuj


    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: The employees of a call centre in BPO may have certain occupational hazards which are unique for the industry. These may be mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from day and night shifts were interviewed to find out about various health problems. Results: Mental stress was one of the main self reported health problem, reported by 44% and 54% of the respondents of day and night shift respectively. Sleep disturbance and disturbance in biological rhythm was mainly reported by the night shift workers.

  12. Catching Power: Race, Altered Solidarities, and Science in Trinidad



    In Trinidad, "catching power" indexes the embodiment of other-than-human force, a cultivated practice that anthropologists have typically referred to as "spirit possession." This dissertation examines how "catching power" recursively transforms social scientific theories of power, and how practices codified as illicit superstition, but called science by practitioners, alter the limits of the authoritative categories of modern rationalization. For more than two centuries, colonial and postco...

  13. Plasma sialic acid alterations in neoplastic diseases. (United States)

    Dwivedi, C; Dixit, M; Kumar, S S; Reddy, H; Semenya, K A; Hardy, R E


    The several types of neoplastic transformations are accompanied by alterations in the composition of cell glycoproteins, which are major structural components of cell surfaces. One such observed alteration is in the level of sialic acid on the cell surface. In the present investigation, plasma sialic acid levels were measured in normal volunteers and neoplastic patients using thiobarbituric acid spectrophotometric methods. The mean plasma sialic acid level from 124 normal volunteers was 3.0 mumol/ml. The mean for 20 non-malignant patients was 3.2 mumol/ml. Such observed mean values of sialic acid were 3.7 mumol/ml in 64 breast cancer patients, 5.1 mumol/ml in 22 lung cancer patients, 4.1 mumol/ml in 20 colon patients, and 5.0 mumol/ml in 26 patients having ovarian, cervix, pancreas, prostate, thyroid, uterine, squamous cell, esophageal and endometrial cancers. Serial determinations of plasma sialic acid in 15 patients correlated well with the progression and regression of disease. These results indicate that plasma sialic acid levels are elevated over control levels in the different types of cancer patients studied. Assay of plasma sialic acid is not sensitive enough to be used for screening, but could be used as a prognostic determinant in a variety of neoplastic conditions.

  14. The role of temporal call structure in species recognition of male Allobates talamancae (Cope, 1875): (Anura: Dendrobatidae). (United States)

    Kollarits, Dennis; Wappl, Christian; Ringler, Max


    Acoustic species recognition in anurans depends on spectral and temporal characteristics of the advertisement call. The recognition space of a species is shaped by the likelihood of heterospecific acoustic interference. The dendrobatid frogs Allobates talamancae (Cope, 1875) and Silverstoneia flotator (Dunn, 1931) occur syntopically in south-west Costa Rica. A previous study showed that these two species avoid acoustic interference by spectral stratification. In this study, the role of the temporal call structure in the advertisement call of A. talamancae was analyzed, in particular the internote-interval duration in providing species specific temporal cues. In playback trials, artificial advertisement calls with internote-intervals deviating up to ± 90 % from the population mean internote-interval were broadcast to vocally active territorial males. The phonotactic reactions of the males indicated that, unlike in closely related species, internote-interval duration is not a call property essential for species recognition in A. talamancae. However, temporal call structure may be used for species recognition when the likelihood of heterospecific interference is high. Also, the close-encounter courtship call of male A. talamancae is described.

  15. Geoconservation and scientific rock sampling: Call for geoethical education strategies (United States)

    Druguet, Elena; Passchier, Cees W.; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Carreras, Jordi


    Some geological outcrops have a special scientific or educational value, represent a geological type locality and/or have a considerable aesthetical/photographic value. Such important outcrops require appropriate management to safeguard them from potentially damaging and destructive activities. Damage done to such rock exposures can include drill sampling by geologist undertaken in the name of scientific advancement. In order to illustrate the serious damage scientific sampling can do, we give some examples of outcrops from Western Europe, North America and South Africa, important to structural geology and petrology, where sampling was undertaken by means of drilling methods without any protective measures. After the rock coring, the aesthetic and photographic value of these delicate outcrops has decreased considerably. Unfortunately, regulation and protection mechanisms and codes of conduct can be ineffective. The many resources of geological information available to the geoscientist community (e.g. via Internet, such as outcrops stored in websites like "Outcropedia") promote access to sites of geological interest, but can also have a negative effect on their conservation. Geoethical education on rock sampling is therefore critical for conservation of the geological heritage. Geoethical principles and educational actions are aimed to be promoted at different levels to improve geological sciences development and to enhance conservation of important geological sites. Ethical protocols and codes of conduct should include geoconservation issues, being explicit about responsible sampling. Guided and inspired by the UK Geologists's Association "Code of Conduct for Rock Coring" (MacFadyen, 2010), we present a tentative outline requesting responsible behaviour: » Drill sampling is particularly threatening because it has a negative visual impact, whilst it is often unnecessary. Before sampling, geologists should think about the question "is drill sampling necessary for

  16. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls. (United States)

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav


    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms.

  17. Dream Catchers: "Margin Call," "Boss," and Climbing the Beanstalk (United States)

    Beck, Bernard


    Two recent popular entertainments, "Margin Call" (Barnum, Dodson, Jenckes, Moosa, Quinto & Chandor, 2011) and "Boss" (Safinia, 2011), depict powerful and successful groups of bosses confronting sudden, extreme threats. They are forced to react quickly and sacrifice important values to achieve survival of their organizations. In these emergencies,…

  18. 78 FR 4369 - Rates for Interstate Inmate Calling Services (United States)


    ... pros or cons of debit calling? We seek comment on ICS providers' overall experiences with offering... technologies by ICS providers impacts our analysis under section 276 of the Act. To what extent are providers currently utilizing VoIP technology to provide ICS? Would the use of VoIP technology affect the authority...

  19. Probabilistic Anomaly Detection Based On System Calls Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Maciołek


    Full Text Available We present an application of probabilistic approach to the anomaly detection (PAD. Byanalyzing selected system calls (and their arguments, the chosen applications are monitoredin the Linux environment. This allows us to estimate “(abnormality” of their behavior (bycomparison to previously collected profiles. We’ve attached results of threat detection ina typical computer environment.

  20. Development of the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale. (United States)

    Bonneson, Mary E.; Hartsough, Don M.


    Constructed and tested Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale, rating scale of caller behavior, as an outcome measure at telephone hotline facility. Psychology students rated caller behavior on role-played audiotapes. Items having respectable item-total correlations comprise final version of scale which detected meaningful differences among audiotapes.…

  1. Echolocation Call Structure of Fourteen Bat Species in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukui, Dai


    Full Text Available The echolocation calls of bats can provide useful information about species that are generally difficult to observe in the field. In many cases characteristics of call structure can be used to identify species and also to obtain information about aspects of the bat's ecology. We describe and compare the echolocation call structure of 14 of the 21 bat species found in Korea, for most of which the ecology and behavior are poorly understood. In total, 1,129 pulses were analyzed from 93 echolocation call sequences of 14 species. Analyzed pulses could be classified into three types according to the pulse shape: FM/CF/FM type, FM type and FM/QCF type. Pulse structures of all species were consistent with previous studies, although geographic variation may be indicated in some species. Overall classification rate provided by the canonical discriminant analysis was relatively low. Especially in the genera Myotis and Murina, there are large overlaps in spectral and temporal parameters between species. On the other hand, classification rates for the FM/QCF type species were relatively high. The results show that acoustic monitoring could be a powerful tool for assessing bat activity and distribution in Korea, at least for FM/QCF and FM/CF/FM species.

  2. 76 FR 44333 - National Biodefense Science Board; Call for Nominees (United States)


    ..., biotechnology, and genetic engineering with respect to threats posed by naturally occurring infectious diseases... HUMAN SERVICES National Biodefense Science Board; Call for Nominees AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of the Secretary is...

  3. Orangutan call communication and the puzzle of speech evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis E Lameira, A.


    Speech is a human hallmark. However, its evolution is little understood. It remains largely unknown which features of the call communication of our closest relatives – great apes – may have constituted speech evolutionary feedstock. In this study, I investigate the extent to which speech building bl

  4. The Call to Vocation: Life Histories of Elderly Women Religious. (United States)

    Wolf, Mary Alice


    Studied elderly religious women (n=30) using a phenomenological interview technique. Discusses women's "call to vocation," the remembered life events that influenced their decisions to enter the convent as young girls. Participants described motivations and spiritual direction. Uses remembrances of three women to demonstrate circumstances and…

  5. [So-called medullary fibromas of the kidney]. (United States)

    Postnov, Iu V; Perov, Iu L; Gribunov, Iu P


    This is the first description in the national literature of morphology of the so-called medullar fibromas of the human kidney which are considered to be hormonally-active (producing prostaglandines) tumours or tumour-like focal hyperplasias of interstitial cells of the kidney medullary layer.

  6. G-8 Leaders to Call for lighter Internet Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ PARIS - Leaders of the Group of 8 industrialized countries are set to issue a provocative call for stron-ger Internet regulation, a cause championed by the host of the meeting, President Nicolas Sarkozy of France, but fiercely opposed by some Internet companies and free-speech groups.

  7. NPC and CPPCC Delegates Call for Release of Petroleum Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Many delegates who attended the fifth session of Ninth National People's Congress and the fifth session of Ninth Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference called on the State to formulate "Petroleum and Natural Gas Law" as soon as possible for the purpose to operate petroleum and natural gas recovery, transportation and marketing on the legal basis.

  8. Integrated Learning and Health: A Call for Increasing Coordination Efforts (United States)

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Polifroni, E. Carol


    This commentary reinforces a call to recognize the need for substantive collaboration, communication, and cooperation across education and health sectors. Themes throughout the body of articles contained in the special issue are discussed as strengthening knowledge about the benefits to integration of education and health domains in prevention and…

  9. Rethinking Transfer: Learning from CALL Teacher Education as Consequential Transition (United States)

    Chao, Chin-chi


    Behind CALL teacher education (CTE) there is an unproblematized consensus of transfer, which suggests a positivist and tool-centered view of learning gains that differs from the sociocultural focus of recent teacher education research. Drawing on Beach's (2003) conceptualization of transfer as "consequential transition," this…

  10. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats. (United States)

    Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F


    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.

  11. 76 FR 67747 - Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee; Call for Nominations (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee; Call for Nominations In accordance with Public Law 112-32, The Combating Autism Reauthorization Act the Department of Health and Human Services has been authorized to continue to support the Interagency Autism...

  12. 78 FR 31977 - NASA Asteroid Initiative Call for Ideas (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Asteroid Initiative Call for Ideas AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... announces a public forum to provide a status on the agency's asteroid initiative planning and to encourage...: This meeting will be streamed live online. Viewing options will be posted at...

  13. Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives (United States)

    Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.


    This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

  14. School Social Workers and a Renewed Call to Advocacy (United States)

    Joseph, Alfred L., Jr.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne


    This article calls for school social workers to work in schools to reform school systems that have historically failed and are currently failing African American children. While the hope of education is to assist students to realize their potential, school systems across the nation are not reaching this goal. School social work has a duty, a…

  15. Musharraf calls for North-South cooperation: Science and technology

    CERN Multimedia


    "President Gen Pervez Musharraf has called for improved North-South cooperation in scinece and technology and said it would enable millions of people in the developing countries to realize the goal of rapid socio-economic progress" (1.5 page)

  16. The advertisement call of Ameerega pulchripecta (Silverstone, 1976)(Anura, Dendrobatidae). (United States)

    Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Amézquita, Adolfo


    The name Ameerega picta was once used to denote a lineage of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) distributed throughout most of the Amazon basin (Silverstone 1976); more recently, to describe a phenetic group involving at least 18 species, Lötters et al. (2007) pointed out that some of the lineages were indeed derived from the former A. picta. Among them, the nominal species with the widest distribution is A. hahneli (Haddad & Martins 1994; Twomey & Brown 2008), also an alleged complex of poorly defined species (Grant et al. 2006; Fouquet et al. 2007; Roberts et al. 2007). The mate-recognition signal, the advertisement call, was part of the evidence used to revalidate A. hahneli as a different species from A. picta. Although the advertisement call has been described for one or few individuals of other species in the group (Haddad & Martins 1994; Costa et al. 2006; Twomey & Brown 2008; Lötters et al. 2009), namely A. flavopicta, A. braccata and A. boehmei, and A. hahneli, we still lack a formal description for A. pulchripecta, the sister taxon of A. hahneli (Twomey & Brown 2008). Its call has been qualitatively described as similar to A. hahneli's call, but "deeper-voiced" (Lötters et al. 2007).

  17. 78 FR 19290 - Call for Nominations for Advisory Committees (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for Advisory Committees AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to reopen the request for...

  18. 75 FR 34487 - Sunshine Act Meetings (by Conference Call) (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings (by Conference Call) DATE AND TIMES: June 25, 2010, 1 p.m.-3 p.m. PLACE: NCD, 1331 F Street, NW., Suite 850, Washington, DC 20004. STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO...

  19. 78 FR 5832 - Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to request public...

  20. Integrating CALL into an Iranian EAP Course: Constraints and Affordances (United States)

    Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa


    Iranian universities have recently displayed a growing interest in integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into teaching/learning English. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context, however, is not keeping pace with the current changes since EAP courses are strictly text-based and exam-oriented, and little research has thus…

  1. 77 FR 23749 - Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to reopen the request for...

  2. 77 FR 3789 - Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to request public...

  3. Jack London and "the Call of the Wild"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The article vividly analyzes the characteristics of Jack London's writing theme that is the description of the con-flicts between nature and human. Based on the "call of the wild" and its hero Buck, It points out the author' s writingthoughts, that is strong will human show in their fight against nature.

  4. A Call for Change: Providing Solutions for Black Male Achievement (United States)

    Casserly, Michael; Lewis, Sharon; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata; Palacios, Moses


    In October 2010, the Council of the Great City Schools released a major report on the academic status of African American males, "A Call for Change: The Social and Educational Factors Contributing to the Outcomes of Black Males in Urban Schools." The report was the first phase of the Council's efforts to recommit the energies of the nation's urban…

  5. A mean field approach to watershed hydrology (United States)

    Bartlett, Mark; Porporato, Amilcare


    Mean field theory (also known as self-consistent field theory) is commonly used in statistical physics when modeling the space-time behavior of complex systems. The mean field theory approximates a complex multi-component system by considering a lumped (or average) effect for all individual components acting on a single component. Thus, the many body problem is reduced to a one body problem. For watershed hydrology, a mean field theory reduces the numerous point component effects to more tractable watershed averages, resulting in a consistent method for linking the average watershed fluxes to the local fluxes at each point. We apply this approach to the spatial distribution of soil moisture, and as a result, the numerous local interactions related to lateral fluxes of soil water are parameterized in terms of the average soil moisture. The mean field approach provides a basis for unifying and extending common event-based models (e.g. Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method) with more modern semi-distributed models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, the Probability Distributed (PDM) model, and TOPMODEL). We obtain simple equations for the fractions of the different source areas of runoff, the spatial variability of runoff, and the average runoff value (i.e., the so-called runoff curve). The resulting space time distribution of soil moisture offers a concise description of the variability of watershed fluxes.

  6. Neurobiology: From neurons through nonlinear dynamics to meaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, W.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    That branch of semiotics called semantics deals with the relationships between meanings and representations. In my view meanings exist only in brains without representation there. A meaning is the focus of an activity pattern that may occupy the entire available brain. It is constructed by intentional action followed by learning from the consequences of the action. Communication between brains requires reciprocal construction of representations in accordance with meanings, which elicit other meanings in other brains. A representation, as a material object or process, has no meaning in itself. EEG data indicate that neural patterns of meaning occur in trajectories of discrete steps marked by cortical state transitions, served by rapid exchanges of discrete wave packets between interactive cortical domains. These wave packets are made by self-organizing dynamics that control behavior and shape the sensitivities of sensory cortices to the sequellae of actions.

  7. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler (United States)

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R.; Townsend, Simon W.


    Language’s expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a “mobbing sequence,” potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27155011

  8. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call priority interruption and call priority interruption protection supplementary services

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva


    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call priority interruption and call priority interruption protection supplementary services

  9. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Call priority interruption and call priority interruption protection supplementary services

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva


    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Call priority interruption and call priority interruption protection supplementary services

  10. Nucleolar proteins change in altered gravity (United States)

    Sobol, M. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Gonzalez-Camacho, F.; Medina, F. J.

    Discovery of gravisensitivity of cells no specified to gravity perception focused continuous attention on an elucidation of mechanisms involved in altered gravity effects at the different levels of cellular organization A nucleolus is the nuclear domain in which the major portion of ribosome biogenesis takes place This is a basic process for cell vitality beginning with the transcription of rDNA followed by processing newly synthesized pre-rRNA molecules A wide range of nucleolar proteins plays a highly significant role in all stages of biosynthesis of ribosomes Different steps of ribosome biogenesis should respond to various external factors affecting generally the cell metabolism Nevertheless a nucleolus remains not enough studied under the influence of altered environmental conditions For this reason we studied root apices from 2-day old Lepidium sativum seedlings germinated and grown under slow horizontal clinorotation and stationary conditions in darkness The extraction of cell nuclei followed by sequential fractionation of nuclear proteins according to their solubility in buffers of increasing ionic strength was carried out This procedure gave rise to 5 distinct fractions We analyzed nuclear subproteomes of the most soluble fraction called S2 It is actually a functionally significant fraction consisting of ribonucleoproteins actively engaged in pre-rRNA synthesis and processing 2D-electrophoresis of S2 fraction proteins was carried out The gels were silver stained and stained gels were scanned and analyzed

  11. Linear Logic for Meaning Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F C N; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay


    Semantic theories of natural language associate meanings with utterances by providing meanings for lexical items and rules for determining the meaning of larger units given the meanings of their parts. Meanings are often assumed to combine via function application, which works well when constituent structure trees are used to guide semantic composition. However, we believe that the functional structure of Lexical-Functional Grammar is best used to provide the syntactic information necessary for constraining derivations of meaning in a cross-linguistically uniform format. It has been difficult, however, to reconcile this approach with the combination of meanings by function application. In contrast to compositional approaches, we present a deductive approach to assembling meanings, based on reasoning with constraints, which meshes well with the unordered nature of information in the functional structure. Our use of linear logic as a `glue' for assembling meanings allows for a coherent treatment of the LFG requ...

  12. Overestimation of Knowledge about Word Meanings: The "Misplaced Meaning" Effect (United States)

    Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Keil, Frank C.


    Children and adults may not realize how much they depend on external sources in understanding word meanings. Four experiments investigated the existence and developmental course of a "Misplaced Meaning" (MM) effect, wherein children and adults overestimate their knowledge about the meanings of various words by underestimating how much…

  13. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  14. The Attitudes of The Students in Sofl Towards Call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin ASLAN


    Full Text Available With the advent of multimedia computing and the Internet, the role of computers in language instruction has now become an important issue confronting large numbers of language teachers throughout the world. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL facilities and internet resources help English teachers to search lonely to get information in a stable and comfortable manner. Besides, at educational areas, students who start learning English in an intensive program in School of Foreign Languages get various capacities and properties for their future life. In that sense, technology makes people to have self-differentiated features in order to get wide range of knowledge. This study points out the attitudes of students, who attend School of Foreign Languages, with regard to CALL by considering their tendencies emerging with described statements to realize new generation perspectives. The questionnaire applied to 171 students in SOFL at Selçuk University examined the consciousness of students towards internet.

  15. Dimensionality of organizational justice in a call center context. (United States)

    Flint, Douglas; Haley, Lynn M; McNally, Jeffrey J


    Summary.-Employees in three call centers were surveyed about their perceptions of organizational justice. Four factors were measured: distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether a two-, three-, or four-factor model best fit the call center data. A three-factor model of distributive, procedural, and informational justice provided the best fit to these data. The three-factor model that showed the best fit does not conform to any of the more traditional models identified in the organizational justice literature. This implies that the context in which organizational justice is measured may play a role in identifying which justice factors are relevant to employees. Findings add to the empirical evidence on the dimensionality of organizational justice and imply that dimensionality of organizational justice is more context-dependent than previously thought.

  16. A Program Transformation for Continuation Call-Based Tabled Execution

    CERN Document Server

    de Guzman, Pablo Chico; Hermenegildo, Manuel V


    The advantages of tabled evaluation regarding program termination and reduction of complexity are well known --as are the significant implementation, portability, and maintenance efforts that some proposals (especially those based on suspension) require. This implementation effort is reduced by program transformation-based continuation call techniques, at some efficiency cost. However, the traditional formulation of this proposal by Ramesh and Cheng limits the interleaving of tabled and non-tabled predicates and thus cannot be used as-is for arbitrary programs. In this paper we present a complete translation for the continuation call technique which, using the runtime support needed for the traditional proposal, solves these problems and makes it possible to execute arbitrary tabled programs. We present performance results which show that CCall offers a useful tradeoff that can be competitive with state-of-the-art implementations.

  17. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna


    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  18. New AIDA-2020 call for breakthrough detector technologies

    CERN Multimedia


    Physicists, engineers, and industry will be interested in a new proof-of-concept fund for breakthrough projects from the general field of detector development and testing.   Launched in the framework of the European project AIDA-2020, this open call will provide up to 200k€ of seed funding to support innovative and societal applications with a focus on industry-oriented applications. The deadline for applying is 20 October 2016. More information here.

  19. Leveraging management information in improving call centre productivity


    Manthisana Mosese; Martie Mearns


    Background: The availability and efficient use of management information is one of the key strategic levers in driving growth and competitiveness for companies. Management information facilitates vital decision making that assists organisations in improving their competitiveness. For call centre operations, competitiveness entails improving productivity and customer service, and management information is essential in this endeavour.Objectives: This research explored the use of management info...

  20. Psychopharmacology training in clinical psychology: a renewed call for action. (United States)

    Julien, Robert M


    Knowledge of psychopharmacology is essential for a clinical psychologist to practice his/her profession, regardless of whether one desires to become licensed to prescribe psychoactive medications. This commentary reiterates a call made almost 20 years ago for all practitioners to gain and utilize this knowledge. Without psychopharmacology knowledge, one is extremely limited in the ability to interact with medical prescribers and to optimally serve their patients as a valued member of the health care team.

  1. CEE/CA: Report calls for decriminalization of sex work. (United States)

    Betteridge, Glenn


    In December 2005, the Central and Eastern European Harm Reduction Network (CEEHRN) released a report calling for the decriminalization of sex work in the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEE/CA). The report brings together a wealth of published and original information concerning sex work, laws regulating sex work, epidemiological data regarding HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), services available to sex workers, and human rights abuses faced by sex workers.

  2. Genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Chul; Kang, Tae Woong; Lee, Jin Oh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studied the alteration of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. We found that alteration of Rb gene, APC were 33 %, 13 % respectively. But alterations of oncogenes such as myc, ras and mdm2 were rarely found. Our results suggests that HBV may act as oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis instead of oncogenes. 6 figs, 2 tabs. (Author).

  3. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU


    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  4. Subglottal pressure and fundamental frequency control in contact calls of juvenile Alligator mississippiensis (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Tokuda, Isao T.; Farmer, C. G.


    SUMMARY Vocalization is rare among non-avian reptiles, with the exception of the crocodilians, the sister taxon of birds. Crocodilians have a complex vocal repertoire. Their vocal and respiratory system is not well understood but appears to consist of a combination of features that are also found in the extremely vocal avian and mammalian taxa. Anatomical studies suggest that the alligator larynx is able to abduct and adduct the vocal folds, but not to elongate or shorten them, and is therefore lacking a key regulator of frequency, yet alligators can modulate fundamental frequency remarkably well. We investigated the morphological and physiological features of sound production in alligators. Vocal fold length scales isometrically across a wide range of alligator body sizes. The relationship between fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure is significant in some individuals at some isolated points, such as call onset and position of maximum fundamental frequency. The relationship is not consistent over large segments of the call. Fundamental frequency can change faster than expected by pressure changes alone, suggesting an active motor pattern controls frequency and is intrinsic to the larynx. We utilized a two-mass vocal fold model to test whether abduction and adduction could generate this motor pattern. The fine-tuned interplay between subglottal pressure and glottal adduction can achieve frequency modulations much larger than those resulting from subglottal pressure variations alone and of similar magnitude, as observed in alligator calls. We conclude that the alligator larynx represents a sound source with only two control parameters (subglottal pressure and vocal fold adduction) in contrast to the mammalian larynx in which three parameters can be altered to modulate frequency (subglottal pressure, vocal fold adduction and length/tension). PMID:21865521

  5. Prazer e sofrimento entre os trabalhadores de Call Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Scolari


    Full Text Available Os conceitos de Taylor foram fundamentais para o desenvolvimento industrial no século XX. Ainda hoje, seus ensinamentos estão presentes em diversos ramos da economia, inclusive, no setor de call center. Call center é uma estrutura que visa ao atendimento de clientes com a utilização de um terminal de computador e de um aparelho telefônico. Esse setor sofreu grande expansão e, em 2006, foi responsável pela geração de 60 mil empregos diretos, tornando-se uma forma de contato e negócios atrativa para empresas do ramo público e privado. O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar as vivências de prazer e sofrimento no trabalho entre os operadores de call centers. Foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa, estratégia de estudo de caso e método de análise dos dados, análise de conteúdo. Como resultados, foram elaboradas algumas categorias finais, entre elas as mediações no trabalho, analisada no presente artigo sob o referencial teórico da psicodinâmica do trabalho.

  6. Report Calls for National Commitment to Protect Oceans (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    A widely-anticipated report on the ecological health of ocean waters and coastal areas of the United States calls for extensive restoration and greatly improved protection of these resources. The report of the independent, non-partisan Pew Oceans Commission, released on 4 June, specifically calls for wholesale reforms in ocean governance, in fisheries and coastal management, and in federal laws and regulations pertaining to ocean and coastal pollution. It also calls for a doubling of the amount of money that the federal government spends on ocean-related research. The result of three years of research on ocean and coastal resources issues, the report declares that ``America's oceans are in a crisis'' from pollution, unwise and overuse of some resources, the pressures of human population on coastal areas, and other problems. It identifies the root cause, however, as ``a failure of both perspective and governance,'' in which regulation and management are approached with an out-of-date and non-unified set of laws and programs that were made ``on a crisis-by-crisis, sector-by-sector basis.''


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Haryadi


    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the effect of Indonesian Bank loan, the amount of demand deposits, and the Indonesia economic crisis in 1997 on the interbank call money market transactions in Indonesia using a multiple linear regression method. This study finds that the variables influencing the interbank call money market transactions are the interest rate of interbank call money market and the check money. Both variables have positive effect on the interbank money market transactions in Indonesia.Keywords: Loans, Interest Rate, Check Money, Monetary Crisis, Interbank Money Market TransactionsJEL Classification Numbers: G21, G28AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis pengaruh pinjaman Bank Indonesia terhadap tingkat bunga pasar uang antar bank, jumlah uang giral, dan krisis ekonomi Indonesia tahun 1997 terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank di Indonesia menggunakan metode regresi linier berganda. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa variabel yang berpengaruh terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank tersebut adalah tingkat bunga pasar uang antar bank dan jumlah uang giral. Dua variabel tersebut berpengaruh positif terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank di Indonesia.Keywords: Pinjaman, Tingkat Bunga, Uang Giral, Krisis Moneter, Transaksi Pasar Uang antar BankJEL Classification Numbers: G21, G28

  8. Voice over IP phone calls from your smartphone

    CERN Multimedia


    All CERN users do have a Lync account (see here) and can use Instant Messaging, presence and other features. In addition, if your number is activated on Lync IP Phone(1) system then you can make standard phone calls from your computer (Windows/Mac).   Recently, we upgraded the infrastructure to Lync 2013. One of the major features is the possibility to make Voice over IP phone calls from a smartphone using your CERN standard phone number (not mobile!). Install Lync 2013 on iPhone/iPad, Android or Windows Phone, connect to WiFi network and make phone calls as if you were in your office. There will be no roaming charges because you will be using WiFi to connect to CERN phone system(2). Register here to the presentation on Tuesday 29 April at 11 a.m. in the Technical Training Center and see the most exciting features of Lync 2013.   Looking forward to seeing you! The Lync team (1) How to register on Lync IP Phone system:

  9. A model of phone call intervention in sensitizing the change of dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Corrêa Chaves


    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a model of phone call intervention for changing dietary patterns and to assess its effectiveness. Method: A study carried out at the Health Promotion School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with 27 subjects, 3-5 phone calls contacts per user, by means of which were given orientations and interventions on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Transtheoretical Model on healthy eating. We analyzed the variables weight and body mass index, dietary patterns and overall stage of motivation to change. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with repeated measures at different stages of evaluation: pre-contact, 3rd and 5th phone calls. Results: After intervention, users showed a change in eating behavior in the third contact, and change occurred in weight and BMI in one patient. All findings were not statistically significant. There was improvement in the motivation to acquire new eating habits, also not significant. Conclusion: There was a slight change in feeding behavior, the motivation to change improved for all participants, without, however, have been effective in this type of approach.

  10. 'Phase diagram' of a mean field game

    CERN Document Server

    Swiecicki, Igor; Ullmo, Denis


    Mean field games were introduced by J-M.Lasry and P-L. Lions in the mathematical community, and independently by M. Huang and co-workers in the engineering community, to deal with optimization problems when the number of agents becomes very large. In this article we study in detail a particular example called the 'seminar problem' introduced by O.Gu\\'eant, J-M Lasry, and P-L. Lions in 2010. This model contains the main ingredients of any mean field game but has the particular feature that all agent are coupled only through a simple random event (the seminar starting time) that they all contribute to form. In the mean field limit, this event becomes deterministic and its value can be fixed through a self consistent procedure. This allows for a rather thorough understanding of the solutions of the problem, through both exact results and a detailed analysis of various limiting regimes. For a sensible class of initial configurations, distinct behaviors can be associated to different domains in the parameter space...

  11. Ocean acidification alters fish-jellyfish symbiosis. (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pitt, Kylie A; Rutte, Melchior D; Geertsma, Robbert C


    Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral-microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour. The total time that fish (yellowtail scad) spent close to their jellyfish host in a choice arena where they could see and smell their host was approximately three times shorter under future compared with ambient CO2 conditions. Likewise, the mean number of attempts to associate with jellyfish was almost three times lower in CO2-treated compared with control fish, while only 63% (high CO2) versus 86% (control) of all individuals tested initiated an association at all. By contrast, none of three fish species tested were attracted solely to jellyfish olfactory cues under present-day CO2 conditions, suggesting that the altered fish-jellyfish association is not driven by negative effects of ocean acidification on olfaction. Because shelter is not widely available in the open water column and larvae of many (and often commercially important) pelagic species associate with jellyfish for protection against predators, modification of the fish-jellyfish symbiosis might lead to higher mortality and alter species population dynamics, and potentially have flow-on effects for their fisheries.

  12. DNSC08 mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per


    -2004. It is the first global MSS without a polar gap including all of the Arctic Ocean by including laser altimetry from the ICESat mission. The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is the quantity that bridges the geoid and the mean sea surface constraining large-scale ocean circulation. Here we present a new high......The Danish National Space Center data set DNSC08 mean sea surface (MSS) is a new enhanced mapping of the mean sea surface height of the worlds oceans, derived from a combination of 12 years of satellite altimetry from a total of eight different satellites covering the period 1993...

  13. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Tsokos, M.D. CONTRACTING...Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) George Tsokos, M.D...a decreased level of disease. Further studies will expand upon these observations better outlining the function of platelets in the injury associated

  14. Limited plasticity in the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix for male advertisement calls in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. (United States)

    Pitchers, W R; Brooks, R; Jennions, M D; Tregenza, T; Dworkin, I; Hunt, J


    Phenotypic integration and plasticity are central to our understanding of how complex phenotypic traits evolve. Evolutionary change in complex quantitative traits can be predicted using the multivariate breeders' equation, but such predictions are only accurate if the matrices involved are stable over evolutionary time. Recent study, however, suggests that these matrices are temporally plastic, spatially variable and themselves evolvable. The data available on phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) stability are sparse, and largely focused on morphological traits. Here, we compared P for the structure of the complex sexual advertisement call of six divergent allopatric populations of the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We measured a subset of calls from wild-caught crickets from each of the populations and then a second subset after rearing crickets under common-garden conditions for three generations. In a second experiment, crickets from each population were reared in the laboratory on high- and low-nutrient diets and their calls recorded. In both experiments, we estimated P for call traits and used multiple methods to compare them statistically (Flury hierarchy, geometric subspace comparisons and random skewers). Despite considerable variation in means and variances of individual call traits, the structure of P was largely conserved among populations, across generations and between our rearing diets. Our finding that P remains largely stable, among populations and between environmental conditions, suggests that selection has preserved the structure of call traits in order that they can function as an integrated unit.

  15. Efficient Use of Geothermal Energy in Spas - Call for Improvements (United States)

    Straka, W.; Ponweiser, K.; Gollob, K.; Götzl, G.; Schneider, J. F.


    European partners contributed to the attempt to develop the energy flow calculation model designed for said spa into a numerical planning tool with broad applicability to other technical boundary conditions. This aim could not yet be fully achieved with the given means, by virtue of the fact that huge differences exist among spas, regarding technical design (sometimes accumulations of ad-hoc solutions to past technical problems) as well as characteristic energy demand of the various functional units of the investigated facilities. What could be achieved, though, was a better understanding how the communication between clients and consultants shall be conducted and what steps have to be taken in order to reach the original goal in a subsequent project. Furthermore, it was the ideational aim of our work to set up a network of established players, capable of influencing national developments, and make it a proponent of the envisaged improvements in their home countries and beyond. Among the recommended measures to improve on the energy management of existing thermal spas, on the one hand, there are those that only specialized knowledge can reveal or the proper application of which only painstaking monitoring and calculation can ascertain and which, therefore, will not easily be at the hand of many planners. These include, for example, combining geothermal heat with advanced heating technology (gas condensing boiler, cogeneration plant) for peak load conditions, deciding on the kind of advanced technology to be used (condensing boiler or cogeneration plus heat pump), making consistent said technology with the temperature control system (e.g. substitution of bypass design of heat exchanger control by volume flow control); introducing solar energy, in particular, has to be carefully designed. On the other hand, there are some improvements to be called for, which are meaningful and applicable even as belated additions, and in cases would, on top of this, be obvious to most non

  16. Composting plant of sewage sludges in Calles, Valencia (Spain); Planta de compostaje de fangos en la localidad de Calles (Valencia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Jimenez Sanchez, J.; Zorrilla Soriano, F.; Manuelcandela, V.


    This article explains the operation of the composting plant of muds of residual waters in the location of Calles, in Valencia. Through the composting, the sludge is transformed in wet material. This process is developed by aerobic thermopile fermentation of the organic fraction of the muds. The composting is a biological process aerobic and thermopile by decomposition of organic waste in solid phase and in controlled conditions. (Author)

  17. Burnout syndrome and weekly workload of on-call physicians: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Burnout syndrome (BS is characterized by three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal fulfillment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a possible association between BS and weekly workload, and to describe the prevalence of BS and the sociodemographic and occupational profile of on-call physicians in Maceió. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in intensive care units (ICU at public and private hospitals in Maceió. METHODS: A self-administered form was used to evaluate sociodemographic characteristics and BS through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI among 67 on-call physicians at ICUs in Maceió. Pearson's R correlation test was used to compare workload and emotional exhaustion. For other dimensions, Spearman's S test was used (P < 0.05. Other variables were represented by simple frequencies. The 95% confidence interval was calculated for each variable. RESULTS: Among the physicians studied, 55.22% were female and the mean age was 43.9 ± 8.95 years. The mean weekly workload on call was 43.85 ± 24.49 hours. The frequency of high scores in at least one of the three dimensions of MBI was 70.14%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high prevalence of BS, especially among physicians who did not practice regular physical activity, our data did not indicate any significant correlation between weekly workload and any of the three dimensions of BS in this sample. The high prevalence of BS draws attention to the importance of investigating other possible causes, in order to prevent and adequately treat it.

  18. Some Elementary Aspects of Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mowaffaq Hajja


    Full Text Available We raise several elementary questions pertaining to various aspects of means. These questions refer to both known and newly introduced families of means, and include questions of characterizations of certain families, relations among certain families, comparability among the members of certain families, and concordance of certain sequences of means. They also include questions about internality tests for certain mean-looking functions and about certain triangle centers viewed as means of the vertices. The questions are accessible to people with no background in means, and it is also expected that these people can seriously investigate, and contribute to the solutions of, these problems. The solutions are expected to require no more than simple tools from analysis, algebra, functional equations, and geometry.

  19. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Utsumi, Akira


    Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1) adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2) although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3) negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  20. Primitive entertainment prank calls in the work of counseling psychologist on Children helpline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Geronimus


    Full Text Available We explore the challenges faced by counseling psychologist when working at the Children's Helpline in cases of prank calls. The category of prank calls include such calls, when the caller asks the psychologist to discuss the imaginary situation, or do not formulate a query at all. On the basis of empirical data, we revealed the main varieties of such calls: call jokes, fantasy calls, intrusive calls, insulting calls, prank calls, calls of a sexual nature, dating calls. We explore the possible motivations of children and adolescents, entertaining by phone calls: experimentation with new social roles, expression of negative emotions, cognitive motivation, etc. We show the principles and strategies of counselors of Children's helpline working with this type of calls: they are based on cultural-historical psychology ideas and V. Satir communicative styles model.

  1. Hydrothermal surface alteration in the Copahue Geothermal Field (Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, Graciela R.; Mas, Luis C.; Bengochea, Leandro


    In the area of the Copahue Geothermal Field, there are five active geothermal manifestations, which mainly consist of fumaroles, hot springs and mud pots. Four of these manifestations are located in Argentina: Las Máquinas, Termas de Copahue, Las Maquinitas and El Anfiteatro, and the fifth on the Chilean side: Chancho Co. All of them present a strong acid sulfate country rock alteration, characterized by the assemblage alunite + kaolinite + quartz + cristobalite + pyrite + sulfur + jarosite, as the result of the base leaching by fluids concentrated in H2SO4 by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam heated environment of H2S released by deeper boiling fluids. Another alteration zone in this area, called COP-2, is a fossil geothermal manifestation which shows characteristics of neutral to alkaline alteration represented mainly by the siliceous sinter superimposed over the acid alteration. The mineralogy and zoning of these alteration zones, and their relation with the hidrothermal solutions and the major structures of the area are analized.

  2. Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.


    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.

  3. [Once again the so-called Testament of Hippocrates]. (United States)

    Sideras, Alexander


    This study is dealing with the so-called Testament of Hippocrates, a short ethic about the doctor's background, knowledge, character, appearance and behaviour towards the patient. Along with the three well-known Greek manuscripts the author is looking at two other by now unknown codices, so that the two Greek versions are accompanied by a third and larger version. After a careful consideration of the relations between the different versions he is discussing all readings of the codices explaining the terms within the background of the history of medicine. At the end he is presenting a reconstruction of the Greek original together with a German translation.

  4. [When should the nephrologist be called in the emergency room?]. (United States)

    Favre, Nathalie; Burnier, Michel; Kissling, Sébastien


    Nephrology emergencies are not the most frequent in the emergency room but they often generate some diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Most common renal emergencies are due most often to acute renal failure whatever the cause, electrolytes disturbances, hypertensive crisis and less frequently intoxications or acute decompensation of chronic kidney diseases. The goal of this paper is to review some of these clinical situations both in the diagnostic and therapeutic perspective but essentially to discuss when the nephrologist should be called in the emergency room so that the coordination of care is optimal for the patients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian POPESCU


    Full Text Available We study the kinetics of the mechanism called the Chebyshev’s paradox. We show the mechanism consecutive positions, than detailed according to the trigonometrical dials. We notice complex movements, the conducted final part has an irregular movement, with returns. The whole is explained by the appearing of 6 positions where the last conducted part and the anterior crank superpose or prolong each other, the dead point positions where the movements may change the direction. We give the diagrams explaining this ingenuous system.

  6. Assessing and Managing Acute Pain: A Call to Action. (United States)

    Jungquist, Carla R; Vallerand, April Hazard; Sicoutris, Corinna; Kwon, Kyung N; Polomano, Rosemary C


    : Acute pain, which is usually sudden in onset and time limited, serves a biological protective function, warning the body of impending danger. However, while acute pain often resolves over time with normal healing, unrelieved acute pain can disrupt activities of daily living and transition to chronic pain. This article describes the effects of unrelieved acute pain on patients and clinical outcomes. The authors call on nurses to assess and manage acute pain in accordance with evidence-based guidelines, expert consensus reports, and position statements from professional nursing organizations in order to minimize the likelihood of its becoming chronic.

  7. Nursing as a learning discipline: a call to action. (United States)

    Androwich, Ida M


    The advent of the electronic health record and numerous mobile, wireless tools with the capacity to capture, store, and transmit prodigious amounts of data, both using and creating evidence-based content and analytics for clinical decision support, requires that all care providers rethink approaches to care delivery. The nursing profession is called to acutely appreciate and support the vision of documentation systems that provide optimal decision support at the point of care, represent nursing knowledge, and are also capable of capturing care delivery outcomes that can be used to inform future care and improve the health of the public.

  8. China Calls for Overhaul of International Monetary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen


    @@ After the outbreak of the global financial crisis,there has been an outcry from developing countries,especially the so-called BRIC(Brazil,Russia,India and China),that a"diversified"international monetary system should be put in place.At their first formal summit meeting held on June,the leaders of Brazil,Russia,India and China,whose governments are some of the world's largest dollar helders,jointly declared the need for a more diversified international monetary system,sparking a drop in the greenback on world markets.

  9. Proyecto de interiorismo : edificio calle de La Paz 32, Valencia




    Este TFG trata sobre el edificio situado en la Calle de la Paz, n. 32, construido en 1906 y situado en el casco histórico de Valencia, en la Ciutat Vella. El inmueble posee un total de seis plantas. En la actualidad la planta baja está ocupada por una agencia de viajes "Viajes Paz". El resto del edificio está siendo utilizado por una única empresa de rehabilitación de inmuebles. En la planta 2ª se encuentra la secretaría, con diversas habitaciones de uso administrativo. La tercera y cuarta es...

  10. A Call for Critical Perspectives in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Winter


    Full Text Available The formation of critical poststructuralism in the United States has fundamentally transformed qualitative research. The crisis of representation first discussed in anthropology has had the effect of rethinking the foundations of qualitative research by putting ethical questions on the agenda and stimulating a search for new forms of validity. Against this backdrop, this study will analyze different methods and research strategies in critical qualitative inquiry, such as interpretive interactionism, autoethnography, and performance ethnography. The call to action inherent in these strategies and further contributions to cultural and social change will be discussed. URN:

  11. COCA Call: New Frontiers in Hand Hygiene Practices

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call, "New Frontiers in Implementation and Measurement of Hand Hygiene Practices." CDC's Katherine Ellingson discusses recent challenges in applying hand hygiene recommendations and identifies global and national campaign activities and resources that support hand hygiene in the reduction of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).  Created: 5/11/2010 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID/DHQP) and Emergency Communication System (ECS)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  12. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Theodoridis


    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  13. The meaning of biological information. (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V


    Biological information encoded in genomes is fundamentally different from and effectively orthogonal to Shannon entropy. The biologically relevant concept of information has to do with 'meaning', i.e. encoding various biological functions with various degree of evolutionary conservation. Apart from direct experimentation, the meaning, or biological information content, can be extracted and quantified from alignments of homologous nucleotide or amino acid sequences but generally not from a single sequence, using appropriately modified information theoretical formulae. For short, information encoded in genomes is defined vertically but not horizontally. Informally but substantially, biological information density seems to be equivalent to 'meaning' of genomic sequences that spans the entire range from sharply defined, universal meaning to effective meaninglessness. Large fractions of genomes, up to 90% in some plants, belong within the domain of fuzzy meaning. The sequences with fuzzy meaning can be recruited for various functions, with the meaning subsequently fixed, and also could perform generic functional roles that do not require sequence conservation. Biological meaning is continuously transferred between the genomes of selfish elements and hosts in the process of their coevolution. Thus, in order to adequately describe genome function and evolution, the concepts of information theory have to be adapted to incorporate the notion of meaning that is central to biology.

  14. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi......Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill...

  15. Need for recovery among male technical distal on-call workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, Hardy A.; Bultmann, Ute; de Looze, Michiel P.; Koolhaas, Wendy; Kantermann, Thomas; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J. L.


    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine whether need for recovery differs between workers (i) not on-call, (ii) on-call but not called and (iii) on-call and called, and (2) investigate the associations between age, health, work and social characteristics with need for recovery for the three

  16. Calling and Life Satisfaction: It's Not about Having It, It's about Living It (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Allan, Blake A.; Autin, Kelsey L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.


    The present study examined the relation of career calling to life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 553 working adults, with a specific focus on the distinction between perceiving a calling (sensing a calling to a career) and living a calling (actualizing one's calling in one's current career). As hypothesized, the relation of perceiving a…

  17. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.


    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  18. Group calls for space policies to transcend politics (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    At a 22 May briefing, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) called on Congress to “establish space exploration policy goals which transcend partisan political differences.” AIAA president and former NASA administrator Michael Griffin said the “goal of establishing human capability to b e a space-faring species is not a short-term goal,” nor is it a goal that belongs to only one political party. “We will not reach long-term goals without a stable, coherent, sensible plan that transcends elections and leaders,” said Griffin, who has provided advice to Republican U.S. presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Griffin pointed to NASA's 2008 authorization as providing the kind of vision needed for NASA. The act called for human return to the Moon and preparation for the capability for permanent bases on the Moon, among other things, he said. “That's the kind of thing that we need. All of the goals espoused by the 2008 act were long-term, generational, strategic in scope,” Griffin said, adding that the act, which had bipartisan support, demonstrated “the kind of societal support, rather than political support, that I believe our space program deserves.”


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans X Suharyanto


    Full Text Available Abstract. Nowdays, computers have been used widely in every kind of occupation. One of the health problems of the computer using is eyestrain or asthenopia. Some experts have tried to correlate the exposure of Video Display Terminal (VDT with the occurrence of asthenopia but until present there is no database about the prevelance of computer operators found they more easily become asthenopic. The complain of asthenopia itself is subjective and varies in every individual and therefore one measureable objective value is needed to determine the occurrence of the asthenopia case itself.The design of the study was using "pre and post test", it involved 72 subjects in "X"-call centre and using photostress test to measure objectively the occurrence ofasthenopia by measuring the increasing of Macular Recovery Time (MKT before and after working.The average shift of MKT was about 2.98 ± 3.57 second within 68.1 % of thesubjects, which were evaluated after 4-hour working time with their VDT. The distance between the eyes to VDT and the satisfaction with the working shift arrangement had significant correlation with the occurrence of asthenopia. There was significant correlation between subjective complaints such as pain within the area around the eyes,headache and dry eyes due to increasing of the MRTKeywords : Asthenopia, Macular Recovery Time (MRT, Call Centre, Video DisplayTerminal (VDT.

  20. Population characteristics may reduce the levels of individual call identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Delgado

    Full Text Available Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo, we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1 similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2 high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other's vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network.

  1. The advertisement calls of Quasipaa shini (Ahl, 1930) (Anura: Dicroglossidae). (United States)

    Kong, Shen Shen; Zheng, Rong Quan; Zhang, Qi Peng


    The genus Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) is currently composed of 11 species distributed in China and Southeast Asia: Quasipaa acanthophora (Dubois & Ohler 2009), Q. boulengeri (Günther 1889), Q. courtoisi (Angel 1922), Q. delacouri (Angel 1928), Q. exilispinosa (Liu & Hu, 1975), Q. fasciculispina (Inger 1970), Q. jiulongensis (Huang & Liu, 1985), Q. shini (Ahl 1930), Q. spinosa (David 1875), Q. verrucospinosa (Bourret 1937), Q. yei (Chen, Qu & Jiang 2002) (Frost 2016). These species are morphologically similar, and their taxonomy is subject to controversy (Che et al. 2009). Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggest the genus likely encompass additional cryptic species (Ye et al. 2013). Bioacoustics has contributed to studies on the taxonomy of the genus (Ye et al. 2013; Shen et al. 2015), however, to date, only the advertisement calls of Q. spinosa are known (Yu & Zheng 2009; Chen et al. 2012; Shen et al. 2015). Here, we describe the advertisement calls of Q. shini, which inhabits streams in the southern part of central China(Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi and Jiangxi) and is characterized by the presence of keratinized skin spines on the lateral surfaces of the body.

  2. [The controversy about so-called "active euthanasia"]. (United States)

    Karbowski, K


    In the past few years, the discussion about the right to kill severely ill patients for humanitarian reasons--once called euthanasia and after World War II in the German speaking countries as euphemism called 'aktive Sterbehilfe' (active help to die)--has become more intensive. Actually, only the Netherlands do officially practice euthanasia. But the variant that consists in putting a pharmaceutical at the patient's disposal in order to kill himself is very well known in other countries, e.g. in Switzerland, where the pressure on the legislator to also legalize euthanasia grows. Taking into account medico-ethical reasons, historical experiences, alarming euthanasia ideas in bioethics and social philosophy, the danger due to the impossibility to control the development in this field, and the insidious extension of euthanasia indications, the author rejects firmly the idea of legalized euthanasia. These problems are related to those that occur in fixing the moment of death of potential organ donors. A lack of organs in transplantation medicine should not lead physicians to explant organs from donors in a dying condition. For physicians who take care of potential organ donors and who have to look after their interests towards transplantation teams, it is often too difficult to cope with this task. Local ethical commissions should support them.

  3. Metaphorical Meanings. Do you see what I mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga Reimer


    Full Text Available My intention in this paper is to propose a conception of metaphorical meaning on which the meaning of a metaphor includes propositional as well as non-propositional features. I will make two general claims on behalf of the proposed account: first, it is intuitive; second, it is of theoretical value. In claiming that the proposed account is of theoretical value, I mean only that its adoption leads to an increased understanding of the nature of metaphor: of metaphorical thought and ofmetaphorical communication in particular.

  4. Study protocol of the YOU CALL - WE CALL TRIAL: impact of a multimodal support intervention after a "mild" stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Gina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 60% of new strokes each year are "mild" in severity and this proportion is expected to rise in the years to come. Within our current health care system those with "mild" stroke are typically discharged home within days, without further referral to health or rehabilitation services other than advice to see their family physician. Those with mild stroke often have limited access to support from health professionals with stroke-specific knowledge who would typically provide critical information on topics such as secondary stroke prevention, community reintegration, medication counselling and problem solving with regard to specific concerns that arise. Isolation and lack of knowledge may lead to a worsening of health problems including stroke recurrence and unnecessary and costly health care utilization. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness, for individuals who experience a first "mild" stroke, of a sustainable, low cost, multimodal support intervention (comprising information, education and telephone support - "WE CALL" compared to a passive intervention (providing the name and phone number of a resource person available if they feel the need to - "YOU CALL", on two primary outcomes: unplanned-use of health services for negative events and quality of life. Method/Design We will recruit 384 adults who meet inclusion criteria for a first mild stroke across six Canadian sites. Baseline measures will be taken within the first month after stroke onset. Participants will be stratified according to comorbidity level and randomised to one of two groups: YOU CALL or WE CALL. Both interventions will be offered over a six months period. Primary outcomes include unplanned use of heath services for negative event (frequency calendar and quality of life (EQ-5D and Quality of Life Index. Secondary outcomes include participation level (LIFE-H, depression (Beck Depression Inventory II and use of health services for

  5. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.


    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  6. 76 FR 2712 - Sara Lee Corporation, Master Data, Cash Applications, Deductions, Collections, Call Center... (United States)


    ..., Collections, Call Center, Information Technology, Accounts Payable, General Accounts, Financial Accounts..., Collections, Call Center, Information Technology, Accounts Payable, General Accounts, Financial Accounting..., Deductions, Collections, Call Center, Information Technology, Accounts Payable, General Accounts,......

  7. [Neurocutaneous syndrome with hair alterations]. (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, F


    There are multiple neurocutaneous syndromes that may show hair alterations such as the interglabellar peak or 'widow's peak', which is an alteration of the hair implantation, in addition to the genohypotrichosis, hypertrichosis and hair shaft dysplasias. In this chapter we will focus on the latter. Out of the unspecific hair shaft dysplasias the only ones showing neurological alterations are trichorrhexis invaginata, observed in the syndrome of Netherton. Among the specific dysplasias we would like to point out monilethrix, and very especially the moniliform hair syndrome, the trichorrhexis nodosa, the pili torti and trichotiodystrophy. The latter is actually a group of syndromes which associates a series of diverse symptoms that have in common hair brittleness, fertility problems and physical and mental retardation, and they constitute the basic syndrome know as 'BIDS syndrome.

  8. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Martin


    The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)

  9. k-Odd mean labeling of prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gayathri


    Full Text Available ‎A $(p‎,‎q$ graph $G$ is said to have a $k$-odd mean‎ ‎labeling $(k ge 1$ if there exists an injection $f‎ : ‎V‎ ‎to {0‎, ‎1‎, ‎2‎, ‎ldots‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎2q‎ - ‎3}$ such that the‎ ‎induced map $f^*$ defined on $E$ by $f^*(uv =‎ ‎leftlceil frac{f(u+f(v}{2}rightrceil$ is a‎ ‎bijection from $E$ to ${2k - ‎‎‎1‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎1‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎3‎, ‎ldots‎, ‎2‎ ‎k‎ + ‎2q‎ - ‎3}$‎. ‎A graph that admits $k$-odd mean‎ ‎labeling is called $k$-odd mean graph‎. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we investigate $k$-odd mean labeling of prism $C_m times‎ ‎P_n$‎.

  10. Los citadinos de la calle, nómadas urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Omar Ruiz A.


    Full Text Available La ciudad es uno de los puntos de llegada del proceso civilizatorio que ha seguido la humanidad, pero es un punto de llegada que no es uniforme ni homogéneo. La ciudad es tan diversa como las dinámicas de vida de los ciudadanos.La manera como sus habitantes habitan la ciudad hace una de esas diferencias: Unos de manera sedentaria, otros como nómadas. La mayoría moviéndose puertas adentro, desde categorías de lo privado y lo público que no son las mismas para quienes viven explorando permanentemente la cara “callejera” de la ciudad.Junto a la ciudad sedentaria circula una ciudad nómada a otros ritmos, a otras velocidades, con otra lógica; como si un atavismo convocara a la libertad de las calles.

  11. Scaling Roll Call Votes with wnominate in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Poole


    Full Text Available This paper presents a software package designed to estimate Poole and Rosenthal W-NOMINATE scores in R. The package uses a logistic regression model to analyze political choice data, usually (though not exclusively from a legislative setting. In contrast to other scaling methods, W-NOMINATE explicitly assumes probabilistic voting based on a spatial utility function, where the parameters of the utility function and the spatial coordinates of the legislators and the votes can all be estimated on the basis of observed voting behavior. Building on software written by Poole in Fortran, the new wnominate package in R facilitates easier data input and manipulation, generates bootstrapped standard errors, and includes a new suite of graphics functions to display the results. We demonstrate the functionality of this package by conducting a natural experiment using roll calls -- an experiment which is greatly simplified by the data manipulation capabilities of the wnominate package in R.

  12. Do modern times call for an industrial policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlyn Keen and Everett Ladd, editors of Public Opinion, talk with Herbert Stein and Lester Thurow about the state of the economy, the state of the economics profession, and industrial policy. Thurow advocates a policy calling for industry to develop a program and government to reinforce it through things such as exemption from antitrust laws. His ingredients of an industrial policy are a civilian industrial arm, legalization of private investment banking, and industrial triage. Stein is concerned that a new policy will work no better than present back door policies unless political power reduces the ability of government to protect inefficient, ineffective, and too-costly industries. The forum concludes with a tentative forecast for economic recovery.

  13. Mythic Frodo and his Predestinate Call to Adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi


    Full Text Available One of the most interesting aspects of J.R.R. Tolkien’s stories, especially The Lord of the Rings is the presentation of the multidimensional characters; therefore, the complexity of interpretations concerning their actions, motives, and aims will be manifested from the beginning of the story, until the end. Following the study of a mythic hero’s adventure, initiation, and psychological aspects, the present paper focuses on the investigation of Predestinate Call to Adventure. The researcher has benefited the theories of Joseph Campbell, presented in his renowned book The Hero with a Thousand Faces and the supplementary comments of Christopher Vogler. In fact, the researcher’s motivation for the work initiated in this regard is to improve the very few previous attempts studied by others, concerning Frodo Baggins’ role as the main and the most tragic hero of The Lord of the Rings. Keywords: Mythology, Tragic hero, Mythic hero, Tolkien’s legendarium, Monomyth, Initiation

  14. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ekşi


    Full Text Available In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The designed system sends messages, including information such as vehicle location, exploding airbag number, vehicle model, age and registration plate, to emergency aid team using GPS module at the moment of crashed vehicle's airbag explosion.

  15. A two-phase system call arguments attribute analyzing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jiao; LI Jian-hua


    To detect more attacks aiming at key security data in program behavior-based anomaly detection, the data flow properties were formulated as unary and binary relations on system call arguments. A new method named two-phrase analysis (2PA) is designed to analyze the efficient relation dependency, and its description as well as advantages are discussed. During the phase of static analysis, a dependency graph was constructed according to the program's data dependency graph, which was used in the phase of dynamic learning to learn specified binary relations. The constructed dependency graph only stores the information of related arguments and events, thus improves the efficiency of the learning algorithm and reduces the size of learned relation de-pendencies. Performance evaluations show that the new method is more efficient than existing methods.

  16. Entrepreneurship research and practice: a call to action for psychology. (United States)

    Hisrich, Robert; Langan-Fox, Janice; Grant, Sharon


    Entrepreneurship is a major source of employment, economic growth, and innovation, promoting product and service quality, competition, and economic flexibility. It is also a mechanism by which many people enter the society's economic and social mainstream, aiding culture formation, population integration, and social mobility. This article aims to illuminate research opportunities for psychologists by exposing gaps in the entrepreneurship literature and describing how these gaps can be filled. A "call to action" is issued to psychologists to develop theory and undertake empirical research focusing on five key topic areas: the personality characteristics of entrepreneurs, the psychopathology of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurship education, and international entrepreneurship. Methodological issues are discussed and recommendations provided. It is shown that psychologists can help identify the factors that influence new venture creation and success and inform the construction of public policy to facilitate entrepreneurship.

  17. Recetas para subir de peso (Imitando a Sophia Calle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Hernando Nossa García


    Full Text Available In 1995, when he was flying over London suburbs, Hans-Ulrich Obrist thought to make a new interpretation of Do it —a project that previously had been televised and had involved museums—, making a domestic version. Now, somehow, the result of the instructions disclosed would become intimate, it would be exhibited quietly inside the home. Do It seeks for proposals that will be seen as permeated and transformed by the culture to where they arrive. Geography as creative element. After culminating her art studies, a woman decides never to abandon the world of artistic production. Sophie Calle and Do it help her to tolerate her life. Do it yourself.

  18. Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Jette Joost


    patient, the avoidance strategy did not necessarily represent the terminal stage, since a nurse could revert to the compromise strategy. Some of the nurses experienced painful emotions regarding these interactions. Conclusions: The avoidance strategy (emotional distance) resulted in important social......Scand J Caring Sci; 2011 Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients Purpose: To explore nurses' relationships with patients they regard as being difficult. How do nurses feel about such patients and relate to them, and what are the consequences for nurse and patient? Design and methods....... Patients' case records were studied and four meetings with the staff were arranged to discuss the findings. Data collection lasted 18 months in all. Findings: Three strategies were identified: persuasion, avoidance (emotional distance), and compromise. Interestingly, in the relationship with a particular...

  19. Critical opportunities for public health law: a call for action. (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Wood, Jennifer; Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Swanson, Jeffrey W


    Although legal interventions are responsible for many sentinel public health achievements, law is underutilized as a tool for advancing population health. Our purpose was to identify critical opportunities for public health lawmaking. We articulated key criteria and illustrated their use with 5 examples. These opportunities involve significant health problems that are potentially amenable to change through law and for which an effective legal intervention is available: optimizing graduated driver licensing laws, increasing tax rates on alcoholic beverages, regulating sodium in foods, enacting laws to facilitate reversal of opioid overdoses, and improving mental health interventions in the college setting. We call for a national conversation about critical opportunities for public health law to advance evidence-based policymaking.

  20. Call of the Wild and the Ethics of Narrative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Bartosch


    Full Text Available How can the analysis of narrative structures contribute to the understanding of what makes a text´s "environmentality" (see Buell 2005:25? By reading Call of the Wild from a narratological perspective and against the historicist foil of its discursive context, this paper seeks to illuminate how strategies of narration lend to an eco-centred reading - even despite the text´s apparent ethical orientation. The discursive circuit thus established enables a textual negotiation of diverging ethical convictions and aspects of compassion and giving voice to an animal. Eventually, reading and interpreting texts can thus be described as an "applied ethics" (Iovino 2010: 41 the features of which this essay seeks to describe as the "ethics of narrative strategies".

  1. A jolly good call for Marie Curie Fellows

    CERN Multimedia


    A new funding opportunity to train young researchers has just been announced by the European Commission. One of the calls within FP7 Marie Curie Actions requests proposals for Initial Training Network (ITN) projects, with a deadline of 22 December 2009. Project proposals are strongly encouraged at CERN and authors can receive support and guidance from the Marie Curie Steering Group. Winnie Wong: "I wouldn’t have considered a PhD if I hadn’t been a Marie Curie fellow" Dan Savu: "It’s the best of both worlds: training plus working in an international organisation" ITN projects have one key aim: training. Academic and industrial partners work together to form a network to recruit and train Marie Curie Fellows. Fellows are young researchers (typically PhD-level) from any country who combine project-based research with tailor-made training programmes, ...

  2. Life or death decisions: framing the call for help.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Y Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic blood shortages in the U.S. would be alleviated by small increases, in percentage terms, of people donating blood. The current research investigated the effects of subtle changes in charity-seeking messages on the likelihood of people responses to a call for help. We predicted that "avoid losses" messages would lead to more helping behavior than "promote gains" messages would. METHOD: Two studies investigated the effects of message framing on helping intentions and behaviors. With the help and collaboration of the Red Cross, Study 1, a field experiment, directly assessed the effectiveness of a call for blood donations that was presented as either death-preventing (losses or life-saving (gains, and as being of either more or less urgent need. With the help and collaboration of a local charity, Study 2, a lab experiment, assessed the effects of the gain-versus-loss framing of a donation-soliciting flyer on individuals' expectations of others' monetary donations as well their own volunteering behavior. Study 2 also assessed the effects of three emotional motivators - feelings of empathy, positive affect, and relational closeness. RESULT: Study 1 indicated that, on a college campus, describing blood donations as a way to "prevent a death" rather than "save a life" boosted the donation rate. Study 2 showed that framing a charity's appeals as helping people to avoid a loss led to larger expected donations, increased intentions to volunteer, and more helping behavior, independent of other emotional motivators. CONCLUSION: This research identifies and demonstrates a reliable and effective method for increasing important helping behaviors by providing charities with concrete ideas that can effectively increase helping behavior generally and potentially death-preventing behavior in particular.

  3. The Arithmetic Mean - Geometric Mean - Harmonic Mean: Inequalities and a Spectrum of Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithwijit De


    The Arithmetic Mean – Geometric Mean – Harmonic Meaninequality, AM–GM–HM inequality in short, is one of thefundamental inequalities in Algebra, and it is used extensivelyin olympiad mathematics to solve many problems. Theaim of this article is to acquaint students with the inequality,its proof and various applications.

  4. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions? (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus


    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  5. Psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment of employees in a call centre in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshona Pillay


    Full Text Available Orientation: The South African call centre industry is growing as call centres are increasingly used as a means of service delivery to customers. Positive psychologists posit that psychological capital could lead to positive outcomes such as organisational commitment of call centre staff.Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment and intended to determine whether psychological capital and job demands predict call centre employees’ organisational commitment.Motivation for the study: The study aimed to explore potential links between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment of call centre employees. It is premised on previous research that call centre job demands may be related to commitment to the organisation.Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study sampled 117 call centre employees from Durban, South Africa, and used a biographical questionnaire, psychological capital questionnaire, the job-demands-resources scale and the organisational commitment questionnaire to collect data.Main findings: Findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between psychological capital and work overload, as well as a practically and statistically significant relationship (medium effect between psychological capital and continuance organisational commitment. The results showed that psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: Psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment. Organisations can develop initiatives to enhance positive psychological states and address this relationship.Contribution: The findings could be beneficial to management and employees in considering ways to boost psychological capital in order to improve organisational commitment.

  6. Spirituality in narratives of meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Wessels


    Full Text Available This article forms part of a study which was inspired by the ever-growing need for significance expressed both by my life coaching and pastoral therapy clients as well as the need for existential meaning reported both in the lay press and academic literature. The study reflected on a life that matters with a group of co-researchers in a participatory action research relationship. The study has been positioned within pastoral theology and invited the theological discourse into a reflection of existential meaning. Adopting a critical relational constructionist epistemology, the research was positioned within a postmodern paradigm. The implications for meaning and research were explored and described. This article tells the story of how spirituality was positioned in the narratives of meaning by my fellow researchers.

  7. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  8. Spherical k-Means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hornik


    Full Text Available Clustering text documents is a fundamental task in modern data analysis, requiring approaches which perform well both in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Spherical k-means clustering is one approach to address both issues, employing cosine dissimilarities to perform prototype-based partitioning of term weight representations of the documents.This paper presents the theory underlying the standard spherical k-means problem and suitable extensions, and introduces the R extension package skmeans which provides a computational environment for spherical k-means clustering featuring several solvers: a fixed-point and genetic algorithm, and interfaces to two external solvers (CLUTO and Gmeans. Performance of these solvers is investigated by means of a large scale benchmark experiment.

  9. Search for Genomic Alterations in Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Cleft Lip and/or Palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimani, Jane W; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Shi, Min


    consisting of 1,536 SNPs, to scan for genomic alterations in a sample of monozygotic twin pairs with discordant cleft lip and/or palate phenotypes. Paired analysis for deletions, amplifications and loss of heterozygosity, along with sequence verification of SNPs with discordant genotype calls did not reveal...... any genomic discordance between twin pairs in lymphocyte DNA samples. Our results demonstrate that postzygotic genomic alterations are not a common cause of monozygotic twin discordance for isolated cleft lip and/or palate. However, rare or balanced genomic alterations, tissue-specific events...

  10. "Means and Metaphors of Change"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania


    Technology as means of changes in society and as metaphor of change seen especially in relation to the Danish avant-garde of the 1960s: the experimental school of art, den eksperimenterende kunstskole.......Technology as means of changes in society and as metaphor of change seen especially in relation to the Danish avant-garde of the 1960s: the experimental school of art, den eksperimenterende kunstskole....

  11. Art as Alterity in Education (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping


    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  12. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment (United States)

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.


    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  13. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W


    cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... give more insight into the disease. Markers from the classical complement pathway are elevated where its initiator C1q appears to derive primarily from motor neurons. Activated microglia and astrocytes are found in close proximity to dying motor neurons. Their activation status and proliferation......Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...

  14. An Alterities Required for Living Together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Amancio Da Silva


    Full Text Available This article outlines some existential concepts and socio-affective self, of others and nature on the altered perspective of Hannah Arendt (2010a, 2010b, 1997 and Leonardo Boff (1991, 1999, 2000 in their usual representations in everyday life. From the point of view of the analysis of the Cartesian world view, the self that is considering in the foreground in the face of the other and the world, representations and set up all show that there is always from the perspective of the self, the ego cogitans, egocentrism. This article urges readers to invite everyone to rethink this rather artificial logic governing human relations from Western, especially the Middle Ages, and it has shown injustices from that imbalance of meanings and judgments in the face of otherness, which bring in ourselves.

  15. Ultrasound Distinction between Simple Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and a Specific Bladder Wall Inflammatory Entity called Cystitis Cystica



    A specific representative of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) called cystitis cystica (CC) was assessed by ultrasound. The aim of the study was to delineate, by means of ultrasound measurement (US) of bladder wall thickness (BWT), the children with mere repeated UTI from those prone to frequent UTI due to CC. Two groups were compared, the control group of 30 with recurrent UTI without US CC BWT changes, and the group of 30 children with characteristic CC bladder wall thickening in who...

  16. Jaynes's View on the Meaning of ``Uninformative'' Distributions (United States)

    Blower, David J.


    Jaynes analyzed the impact of the parameters appearing in the Dirichlet distribution on our understanding of what an uninformative probability distribution might mean. These results appeared in the mid 1980s in a little read and even lesser understood paper entitled, "Monkeys, Kangaroos and N." In his discussion, Jaynes provided some revealing insights into the subtleties surrounding the so-called "ignorance priors." Ignorance must be interpreted within the context of the different spaces that crop up in inferential problems.

  17. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. (United States)

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran


    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage.

  18. Towards the Automatic Classification of Avian Flight Calls for Bioacoustic Monitoring (United States)

    Bello, Juan Pablo; Farnsworth, Andrew; Robbins, Matt; Keen, Sara; Klinck, Holger; Kelling, Steve


    Automatic classification of animal vocalizations has great potential to enhance the monitoring of species movements and behaviors. This is particularly true for monitoring nocturnal bird migration, where automated classification of migrants’ flight calls could yield new biological insights and conservation applications for birds that vocalize during migration. In this paper we investigate the automatic classification of bird species from flight calls, and in particular the relationship between two different problem formulations commonly found in the literature: classifying a short clip containing one of a fixed set of known species (N-class problem) and the continuous monitoring problem, the latter of which is relevant to migration monitoring. We implemented a state-of-the-art audio classification model based on unsupervised feature learning and evaluated it on three novel datasets, one for studying the N-class problem including over 5000 flight calls from 43 different species, and two realistic datasets for studying the monitoring scenario comprising hundreds of thousands of audio clips that were compiled by means of remote acoustic sensors deployed in the field during two migration seasons. We show that the model achieves high accuracy when classifying a clip to one of N known species, even for a large number of species. In contrast, the model does not perform as well in the continuous monitoring case. Through a detailed error analysis (that included full expert review of false positives and negatives) we show the model is confounded by varying background noise conditions and previously unseen vocalizations. We also show that the model needs to be parameterized and benchmarked differently for the continuous monitoring scenario. Finally, we show that despite the reduced performance, given the right conditions the model can still characterize the migration pattern of a specific species. The paper concludes with directions for future research. PMID:27880836

  19. Advertisement call of Scinax camposseabrai (Bokermann, 1968) (Anura: Hylidae), with comments on the call of three species of the Scinax ruber clade. (United States)

    Novaes, Gabriel; Zina, Juliana


    Scinax camposseabrai was allocated into the Scinax ruber clade by Caramaschi & Cardoso (2006) by overall similarities as snout not pointed, breeding in open areas, and an advertisement calls with multipulsed notes. This assumption about the call was based solely on an onomatopoeia provided by Bokermann (1968). Herein we provide a formal description of the advertisement call of S. camposseabrai and compare it with described calls of other S. ruber clade species. Additionally, we provide descriptions of the advertisement calls of three sympatric species of the S. ruber clade: S. eurydice (Bokermann), S. pachycrus (Miranda-Ribeiro) and S. cf. x-signatus.

  20. The nose and altered states of consciousness: Tascodrugites and Ezekiel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Pilch


    Full Text Available The Church Father Epiphanius' description of the Tascodrugite practice of placing the forefinger on the nostril during prayer call be plausibly interpreted as a strategy for inducing an altered state of consciousness (ASC. Anthropological and neurophysiological research on how this human gesture achieves such an effect which is a pan-human potential suggests a similar plausible interpretation for Ezekiel 8:17 and the experience of Jesus in the Garden on the night of his arrest (Luke 22:43-44.

  1. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. (United States)

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus


    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  2. Coverage bias and sensitivity of variant calling for four whole-genome sequencing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Rieber

    Full Text Available The emergence of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing technologies has dramatically altered the way we assess genomes in population genetics and in cancer genomics. Currently, there are four commonly used whole-genome sequencing platforms on the market: Illumina's HiSeq2000, Life Technologies' SOLiD 4 and its completely redesigned 5500xl SOLiD, and Complete Genomics' technology. A number of earlier studies have compared a subset of those sequencing platforms or compared those platforms with Sanger sequencing, which is prohibitively expensive for whole genome studies. Here we present a detailed comparison of the performance of all currently available whole genome sequencing platforms, especially regarding their ability to call SNVs and to evenly cover the genome and specific genomic regions. Unlike earlier studies, we base our comparison on four different samples, allowing us to assess the between-sample variation of the platforms. We find a pronounced GC bias in GC-rich regions for Life Technologies' platforms, with Complete Genomics performing best here, while we see the least bias in GC-poor regions for HiSeq2000 and 5500xl. HiSeq2000 gives the most uniform coverage and displays the least sample-to-sample variation. In contrast, Complete Genomics exhibits by far the smallest fraction of bases not covered, while the SOLiD platforms reveal remarkable shortcomings, especially in covering CpG islands. When comparing the performance of the four platforms for calling SNPs, HiSeq2000 and Complete Genomics achieve the highest sensitivity, while the SOLiD platforms show the lowest false positive rate. Finally, we find that integrating sequencing data from different platforms offers the potential to combine the strengths of different technologies. In summary, our results detail the strengths and weaknesses of all four whole-genome sequencing platforms. It indicates application areas that call for a specific sequencing platform and disallow other

  3. Body Language Eloquence as a Means of Linguistic Personality Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga I. Marchenko


    Full Text Available Word, sound, movement – we interact via these channels of communication. Rhetoric act cannot be considered separately from the body “language”. Human gesture doesn’t’ refer to the motion display, but to the language. You might say, it expands the idea via movement to someone else (partner, listener, audience. The same statement, accompanied with different gestures, can have opposite meaning. The special knowledge of body movements combination is called kinesics, its acquisition and application is the important means of linguistic personality formation.

  4. General Relativistic Mean Field Theory for rotating nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madokoro, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Matsuzaki, Masayuki


    The {sigma}-{omega} model Lagrangian is generalized to an accelerated frame by using the technique of general relativity which is known as tetrad formalism. We apply this model to the description of rotating nuclei within the mean field approximation, which we call General Relativistic Mean Field Theory (GRMFT) for rotating nuclei. The resulting equations of motion coincide with those of Munich group whose formulation was not based on the general relativistic transformation property of the spinor fields. Some numerical results are shown for the yrast states of the Mg isotopes and the superdeformed rotational bands in the A {approx} 60 mass region. (author)

  5. Passive acoustic monitoring, development of disturbance calls and differentiation of disturbance and advertisement calls in the Argentine croaker Umbrina canosai (Sciaenidae). (United States)

    Tellechea, J S; Fine, M L; Norbis, W


    Disturbance and advertisement calls of the Argentine croaker Umbrina canosai were recorded from coastal Uruguayan waters. Dissections indicate typical sciaenid extrinsic swimbladder muscles present exclusively in males. Disturbance calls were produced when captive U. canosai were startled, chased with a net or grabbed by the tail. Calls were unusual for sciaenids because each pulse consisted of multiple cycles. The number of cycles per pulse and dominant frequency did not change with U. canosai size, but pulse duration and interpulse interval increased. Advertisement calls were recorded from unseen choruses in the field and confirmed with captive individuals in a large tank. Advertisement calls were recorded throughout the known range of the species in Uruguay indicating a continuous belt of spawning populations. Tank recordings of the same individuals permitted explicit comparisons between the two calls. Advertisement call pulses averaged 2·4 more cycles (11·0-8·6) although pulses of both calls were basically similar as were durations and dominant frequencies. Pulse number, however, differed markedly, averaging 13·6 and 3·4 pulses for disturbance and advertisement calls respectively. Furthermore, disturbance calls were produced as a rapid series with an interpulse interval of 26-31 ms whereas advertisement call patterns were less stereotyped and ranged from <100 to 450 ms. Multicycle pulses distinguished U. canosai from other sympatric sciaenids.

  6. Distributed Graph Coloring: An Approach Based on the Calling Behavior of Japanese Tree Frogs

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Hugo


    Graph coloring, also known as vertex coloring, considers the problem of assigning colors to the nodes of a graph such that adjacent nodes do not share the same color. The optimization version of the problem concerns the minimization of the number of used colors. In this paper we deal with the problem of finding valid colorings of graphs in a distributed way, that is, by means of an algorithm that only uses local information for deciding the color of the nodes. Such algorithms prescind from any central control. Due to the fact that quite a few practical applications require to find colorings in a distributed way, the interest in distributed algorithms for graph coloring has been growing during the last decade. As an example consider wireless ad-hoc and sensor networks, where tasks such as the assignment of frequencies or the assignment of TDMA slots are strongly related to graph coloring. The algorithm proposed in this paper is inspired by the calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs. Male frogs use their calls...

  7. Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of daily ambulance calls. (United States)

    Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin


    The daily ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (temperature and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of daily ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of daily ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average temperature alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8% decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE=53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average temperature as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10% drop in prediction error (RMSE=62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of daily ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower.

  8. The Two Meanings of Economic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Polanyi


    Full Text Available In this text Karl Polanyi explains the two meanings of economic: the formal, which springs from the logical character of the means-ends relationship, and from which springs the scarcity definition of economic, and the substantive meaning, which points to the elemental fact that human beings, like all other living things, cannot exist for any length of time without a physical environment that sustains them. The two meanings, the formal and the substantive, have nothing in common. According to the author how solidly the two meanings were joined can be inferred from the ironic fate of the most controversial of modern mythological figures – economic man. Nel testo Karl Polanyi illustra i due significati di economico: il significato formale, che deriva dalla natura logica della relazione mezzi-fini e da cui discende la definizione di economico basata sulla scarsità, e il significato sostanziale, che rinvia al fatto che gli esseri umani, come tutti gli esseri viventi, non possono mantenersi in vita senza un ambiente materiale che li sostenga. I due significati non hanno nulla in comune. Secondo l’autore la solidità della congiunzione dei due termini si può capire dalla sorte ironica della più controversa fra le figure mitologiche moderne: l’uomo economico.

  9. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu


    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  10. Constructive Type Theory and the Dialogical Approach to Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Rahman


    Full Text Available In its origins Dialogical logic constituted one part of a new movement called the Erlangen School or Erlangen Constructivism. Its goal was to provide a new start to a general theory of language and of science. According to the Erlangen-School, language is not just a fact that we discover, but a human cultural accomplishment whose construction reason can and should control. The resulting project of intentionally constructing a scientific language was called the Orthosprache-project. Unfortunately, the Orthosprache-project was not further developed and seemed to fade away. It is possible that one of the reasons for this fading away is that the link between dialogical logic and Orthosprache was not sufficiently developed - in particular, the new theory of meaning to be found in dialogical logic seemed to be cut off from both the project of establishing the basis for scientific language and also from a general theory of meaning. We would like to contribute to clarifying one possible way in which a general dialogical theory of meaning could be linked to dialogical logic. The idea behind the proposal is to make use of constructive type theory in which logical inferences are preceded by the description of a fully interpreted language. The latter, we think, provides the means for a new start not only for the project of Orthosprache, but also for a general dialogical theory of meaning.

  11. Leaders Learning Orientation and the HCM-turn in call centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnaur, Dorina


    Research on call centres is increasingly concerned with high levels of work intensification and unveils deep-seated contradictions in this new form of service organizations. The current debate opposes management interests in rationalization and technologies of efficiency and control to employee...... wellbeing and the quality of the customer service. Based on a single-case study, this paper advances a differentiated view of management focusing on the mediating role of operational management in striking a balance between structural requirements and people issues. Learning orientation is identified...... as a significant leadership quality that promotes reflexivity in the ongoing processes of interpretation and meaning creation enhancing the human dimension in the production of service. Learning orientation will be related to high-commitment management (HCM) as a way to reconcile the logics of efficiency...

  12. Mean level signal crossing rate for an arbitrary stochastic process. (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Hanson, Steen G


    The issue of the mean signal level crossing rate for various probability density functions with primary relevance for optics is discussed based on a new analytical method. This method relies on a unique transformation that transforms the probability distribution under investigation into a normal probability distribution, for which the distribution of mean level crossings is known. In general, the analytical results for the mean level crossing rate are supported and confirmed by numerical simulations. In particular, we illustrate the present method by presenting analytic expressions for the mean level crossing rate for various probability distributions, including ones that previously were unavailable, such as the uniform, the so-called gamma-gamma, and the Rice-Nakagami distribution. However, in a limited number of cases the present results differ somewhat from the result reported in the literature. At present, this discrepancy remains unexplained and is laid open for future discussion.

  13. Mean level signal crossing rate for an arbitrary stochastic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, Harold T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    The issue of the mean signal level crossing rate for various probability density functions with primary relevance for optics is discussed based on a new analytical method. This method relies on a unique transformation that transforms the probability distribution under investigation into a normal...... probability distribution, for which the distribution of mean level crossings is known. In general, the analytical results for the mean level crossing rate are supported and confirmed by numerical simulations. In particular, we illustrate the present method by presenting analytic expressions for the mean level...... crossing rate for various probability distributions, including ones that previously were unavailable, such as the uniform, the so-called gamma-gamma, and the Rice–Nakagami distribution. However, in a limited number of cases the present results differ somewhat from the result reported in the literature...

  14. 49 CFR 198.37 - State one-call damage prevention program. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State one-call damage prevention program. 198.37... REGULATIONS FOR GRANTS TO AID STATE PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Adoption of One-Call Damage Prevention Program § 198.37 State one-call damage prevention program. A State must adopt a one-call damage...

  15. Analysis of Completion of Call with on-off Data Source in Wireless Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUAN Xiao-ying; SHI Bing-xin; ZOU Ling


    In wireless network, call completion probability accounts for users' satisfaction since the admitted ongoing call may be interrupted during hand-off process or even stay in the same cell when dynamically allocating resource to calls because of the loss of resource. We focus on the relationship between call's completion probability and these interruptions and develop an analytical relationship model for homogeneous cellular networks based on probability analysis. Then assuming call's data source is modeled by on-off traffic model, a two dimensional Markov process is established to compute these blocking and dropping probabilities for call's completion probability. The impacts of different new call arrival rate, call's traffic characteristic, user's mobility, call's holding time and call's admission threshold on call's completion are evaluated and compared through numerical examples. These results show that call's completion reaches its maximum value if making no difference between hand-off call and new call in the case of light traffic load. But some resource should be reserved for the hand-off call in high traffic scenario. The analytical model provides a basis for helping to set the call admission threshold.

  16. Enhancing the Autonomous Use of CALL: A New Curriculum Model in EFL (United States)

    Smith, Karen; Craig, Hana


    This action research study evaluates the effectiveness of a CALL Learner Autonomy (CALL LA) course at a Japanese university. The "C course" blends face-to-face instruction and independent study in a CALL environment. It aims to enhance learners' autonomous use of CALL in the acquisition of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). In…

  17. 17 CFR 21.00 - Preparation and transmission of information upon special call. (United States)


    ... of information upon special call. 21.00 Section 21.00 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SPECIAL CALLS § 21.00 Preparation and transmission of information upon special call. All information required upon special call shall be prepared in such form and manner and...

  18. 78 FR 70960 - Utah Resource Advisory Council Meeting/Conference Call (United States)


    ... Bureau of Land Management Utah Resource Advisory Council Meeting/Conference Call AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Meeting/Conference Call. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land... host a meeting/conference call. DATES: The BLM-Utah RAC will host a meeting/conference call on...

  19. Developing CALL to Meet the Needs of Language Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaofeng


    This paper illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of CALL. It points out that CALL is influenced by traditional language teaching and learning approaches to some extent. It concludes that what is important in our university system is that CALL design and implementation should match the users' needs, since CALL is not always better than…

  20. An Analysis of Learner Autonomy and Learning Strateg ies in CALL Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In recent years,computer assisted language learning(CALL)increasingly attracts language learners'attentions with evident advantages.This paper introduces the basic concepts concerning CALL.learner autonomy and learning strategies,and tentatively proposes suggestions for developing language learners'strategies in CALL environment based on CALL situations in China.