WorldWideScience

Sample records for alter breathing cardiovascular

  1. Altered Nocturnal Cardiovascular Control in Children With Sleep-Disordered Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamad, Fatima; Immanuel, Sarah; Liu, Xiao; Pamula, Yvonne; Kontos, Anna; Martin, James; Kennedy, Declan; Kohler, Mark; Porta, Alberto; Baumert, Mathias

    2017-10-01

    To assess cardiovascular control during sleep in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and the effect of adenotonsillectomy in comparison to healthy nonsnoring children. Cardiorespiratory signals obtained from overnight polysomnographic recordings of 28 children with SDB and 34 healthy nonsnoring children were analyzed. We employed an autoregressive closed-loop model with heart period (RR) and pulse transit time (PTT) as outputs and respiration as an external input to obtain estimates of respiratory gain and baroreflex gain. Mean and variability of PTT were increased in children with SDB across all stages of sleep. Low frequency power of RR and PTT were attenuated during non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Baroreflex sensitivity was reduced in children with SDB in stage 2 sleep, while respiratory gain was increased in slow wave sleep. After adenotonsillectomy, these indices normalized in the SDB group attaining values comparable to those of healthy children. In children with mild-to-moderate SDB, vasomotor activity is increased and baroreflex sensitivity decreased during quiet, event-free non-REM sleep. Adenotonsillectomy appears to reverse this effect. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  3. Breathing Patterns In The Newborn And Related Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transition from foetal to neonatal life is a dramatic one; it demands considerable and effective physiological alteration in the newborn to ensure survival. Simultaneously cardio-respiratory adjustments are initiated and breathing maintained on a continuous basis. The basic movements in the human foetus being about 8 ...

  4. The effects of breath-holding on pulmonary regurgitation measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu-Narayan Sonya V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary regurgitation is a common and clinically important residual lesion after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR phase contrast velocity mapping is widely used for measurement of pulmonary regurgitant fraction. Breath-hold acquisitions, usually acquired during held expiration, are more convenient than the non-breath-hold approach, but we hypothesized that breath-holding might affect the amount of pulmonary regurgitation. Methods Forty-three adult patients with a previous repair of tetralogy of Fallot and residual pulmonary regurgitation were investigated with CMR. In each, pulmonary regurgitant fraction was measured from velocity maps transecting the pulmonary trunk, acquired during held expiration, held inspiration, by non-breath-hold acquisition, and also from the difference of right and left ventricular stroke volume measurements. Results Pulmonary regurgitant fraction was lower when measured by velocity mapping in held expiration compared with held inspiration, non-breath-hold or stroke volume difference (30.8 vs. 37.0, 35.6, 35.4%, p = 0.00017, 0.0035, 0.026. The regurgitant volume was lower in held expiration than in held inspiration (41.9 vs. 48.3, p = 0.0018. Pulmonary forward flow volume was larger during held expiration than during non-breath-hold (132 vs. 124 ml, p = 0.0024. Conclusion Pulmonary regurgitant fraction was significantly lower in held expiration compared with held inspiration, free breathing and stroke volume difference. Altered airway pressure could be a contributory factor. This information is relevant if breath-hold acquisition is to be substituted for non-breath-hold in the investigation of patients with a view to re-intervention.

  5. The psychobiology of strained breathing and its cardiovascular implications : A functional system review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, D S

    Strained breathing is a natural respiratory pattern, with cardiovascular implications. It is associated with social factors, attention, expectation, and anxiety and with defense behavior in animals. An inhibition of active behavior is characteristic. Strained breathing is based on the functional

  6. Nocturia, sleep-disordered breathing, and cardiovascular morbidity in a community-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sairam Parthasarathy

    Full Text Available Nocturia has been independently associated with cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality, but such studies did not adjust for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB, which may have mediated such a relationship. Our aims were to determine whether an association between nocturia and cardiovascular morbidity exists that is independent of SDB. We also determined whether nocturia is independently associated with SDB.In order to accomplish these aims we performed a cross-sectional analysis of the Sleep Heart Health Study that contained information regarding SDB, nocturia, and cardiovascular morbidity in a middle-age to elderly community-based population. In 6342 participants (age 63±11 [SD] years, 53% women, after adjusting for known confounders such as age, body mass index, diuretic use, diabetes mellitus, alpha-blocker use, nocturia was independently associated with SDB (measured as Apnea Hypopnea index >15 per hour; OR 1.3; 95%CI, 1.2-1.5. After adjusting for SDB and other known confounders, nocturia was independently associated with prevalent hypertension (OR 1.23; 95%CI 1.08-1.40; P = 0.002, cardiovascular disease (OR 1.26; 95%CI 1.05-1.52; P = 0.02 and stroke (OR 1.62; 95%CI 1.14-2.30; P = 0.007. Moreover, nocturia was also associated with adverse objective alterations of sleep as measured by polysomnography and self-reported excessive daytime sleepiness (P<0.05.Nocturia is independently associated with sleep-disordered breathing. After adjusting for SDB, there remained an association between nocturia and cardiovascular morbidity. Such results support screening for SDB in patients with nocturia, but the mechanisms underlying the relationship between nocturia and cardiovascular morbidity requires further study. MeSH terms: Nocturia, sleep-disordered breathing, obstructive sleep apnea, sleep apnea, polysomnography, hypertension.

  7. The importance of sleep-disordered breathing in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Dominik; Woehrle, Holger; Bitter, Thomas; Fox, Henrik; Cowie, Martin R; Böhm, Michael; Oldenburg, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea and central sleep apnoea/Cheyne-Stokes respiration are collectively referred to as sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Rapidly accumulating evidence suggests that both forms of SDB, and often a combination of both, are highly prevalent in patients with a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome and stroke. The presence of SDB in these patients is independently associated with worse cardiac function and exercise tolerance, recurrent arrhythmias, infarct expansion, decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Recent data suggest positive effects of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on quality of life and cardiovascular function. In addition, ongoing clinical trials may soon provide first definitive data on PAP therapy of SDB on hard outcomes such as mortality. This review presents current data highlighting links between SDB and a variety of cardiovascular conditions, the importance of recognising and diagnosing SDB in patients with cardiovascular disease, and the effects of effective SDB treatment on cardiovascular endpoints.

  8. Patent foramen ovale: a novel cardiovascular risk factor in patients with sleep disordered breathing and high altitude dwellers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhai, Emrush; Scherrer, Urs; Rimoldi, Stefano F

    2016-01-01

    Diseases associated with chronic hypoxaemia are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Epidemiological data indicate that cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to this problem, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Sleep disordered breathing and high altitude exposure are frequent conditions associated with hypoxaemia. Recent evidence suggests that in these conditions the concomitant presence of a patent foramen ovale plays an important pathogenic role. For example, in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea the presence of a patent foramen ovale is associated with more severe sleep disordered breathing, nocturnal oxygen desaturation, generalised endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension. After patent foramen ovale closure, both sleep disordered breathing and cardiovascular phenotype improve, suggesting the existence of a possible causal link. During short-term high altitude exposure, the presence of a patent foramen ovale, by aggravating altitude-induced hypoxaemia, facilitates exaggerated pulmonary hypertension. Interestingly, there is increasing evidence showing that in high-altitude dwellers a patent foramen ovale also alters the cardiovascular phenotype. In this article we will summarise recent evidence demonstrating how a patent foramen ovale alters the cardiovascular phenotype and increases cardiovascular risk in patients with sleep disordered breathing and high-altitude dwellers.

  9. [Cardiovascular alterations associated with doping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, D; Büttner, A

    2015-05-01

    Doping -the abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids in particular- is widespread in amateur and recreational sports and does not solely represent a problem of professional sports. Excessive overdose of anabolic steroids is well documented in bodybuilding or powerlifting leading to significant side effects. Cardiovascular damages are most relevant next to adverse endocrine effects.Clinical cases as well as forensic investigations of fatalities or steroid consumption in connection with trafficking of doping agents provide only anecdotal evidence of correlations between side effects and substance abuse. Analytical verification and self-declarations of steroid users have repeatedly confirmed the presumption of weekly dosages between 300 and 2000 mg, extra to the fact that co-administration of therapeutics to treat side-effects represent a routine procedure. Beside the most frequent use of medications used to treat erectile dysfunction or estrogenic side-effects, a substantial number of antihypertensive drugs of various classes, i.e. beta-blockers, diuretics, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers, as well as ACE inhibitors were recently confiscated in relevant doping cases. The presumptive correlation between misuse of anabolic steroids and self-treatment of cardiovascular side effects was explicitly confirmed by detailed user statements.Two representative fatalities of bodybuilders were introduced to outline characteristic, often lethal side effects of excessive steroid abuse. Moreover, illustrative autopsy findings of steroid acne, thrombotic occlusion of Ramus interventricularis anterior and signs of cardiac infarctions are presented.A potential steroid abuse should be carefully considered in cases of medical consultations of patients exhibiting apparent constitutional modifications and corresponding adverse effects. Moreover, common self-medications -as frequently applied by steroid consumers- should be taken into therapeutic considerations.

  10. Facial and dental alterations according to the breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    RETAMOSO, Luciana Borges; KNOP, Luégya Amorin Henriques; GUARIZA FILHO, Odilon; TANAKA, Orlando Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy in the literature about possible interaction of the respiratory mode with the facial and dental structures. Objectives The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment of the changes in facial and dental structures in Angle’s Class II, division 1 malocclusion individuals, divided according to the respiratory pattern (predominantly nasal or mouth), at two distinct moments of craniofacial development. Material and Methods Pogonium and nose measurements were made on the lateral cephalometric tracings (LS’-Pog’, LS’-B’, B’-Pog’, Pog’-PogTeg’, Line NB, Pog-NB, N'-Prn, Prn-NPog, N-Prn-Sn, Prn-Sn-LS). Dental measurements were made on the plaster models (distances between the tips of the canine cusps and the tips of mesial cusps of the first molars) of 40 individuals aged 10 to 14 years (moment 1) and 13 to 16 years (moment 2), 23 being nose breathers (NB) and 17 being predominantly mouth breathers (MB). Results The Student’s-t test and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were applied to indicate differences between the mean values of these variables according to the moments and/or respiratory mode. Conclusions There were alterations in the facial measurements, without interference of the breathing pattern. However, the breathing pattern influenced dental alterations. PMID:21552720

  11. Breathing patterns and cardiovascular autonomic modulation during hypoxia induced by simulated altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, L; Passino, C; Wilmerding, V; Dallam, G M; Parker, D L; Robergs, R A; Appenzeller, O

    2001-05-01

    To assess the influence of different breathing patterns on autonomic cardiovascular modulation during acute exposure to altitude-induced hypoxia. We measured relative changes in minute ventilation (VE), oxygen saturation (%SaO2), spectral analysis of RR interval and blood pressure, and response to stimulation of carotid baroreceptors (neck suction) at baseline and after acute (1 h) hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 5,000 m, in a hypobaric chamber). We studied 19 human subjects: nine controls and 10 Western yoga trainees of similar age, while breathing spontaneously, at 15 breaths/min (controlled breathing) and during 'complete yogic breathing' (slow diaphragmatic + thoracic breathing, approximately 5 breaths/min) in yoga trainees, or simple slow breathing in controls. At baseline %SaO2, VE and autonomic pattern were similar in both groups; simulated altitude increased VE in controls but not in yoga trainees; %SaO2 decreased in all subjects (Pbreathing, controlled breathing and yogic or slow breathing, respectively). Simulated altitude decreased RR interval (from 879 +/- 45 to 770 +/- 39, P breathing. No effect of altitude was seen on stimulation of carotid baroreceptors in both groups. Well-performed slow yogic breathing maintains better blood oxygenation without increasing VE (i.e. seems to be a more efficient breathing) and reduces sympathetic activation during altitude-induced hypoxia.

  12. Effect of Modified Slow Breathing Exercise on Perceived Stress and Basal Cardiovascular Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, G. Sunil; Gaur, G.S.; Pal, G.K.

    2018-01-01

    Context: Different types of breathing exercises have varied effects on cardiovascular parameters and the stress levels in an individual. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a modified form of isolated alternate nostril, slow breathing exercise on perceived stress, and cardiovascular parameters in young, male volunteers. Settings and Design: This was a randomized control study carried out at Advanced Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research, Department of Physiology, J...

  13. Influence of short breathing stop on the cardiovascular system during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poderienė, Kristina; Trinkūnas, Eugenijus; Poderys, Jonas; Grūnovas, Albinas

    2011-01-01

    Breathing is both a voluntary and an involuntary action, and the changes in breathing intensity or breathing stops has an influence on vegetative functions of the body during exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the possible changes in cardiovascular parameters when patients shortly stopped to breath at the beginning of exercise testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Two series of investigation were performed. During the first investigation, the psychomotor tonus was assessed, and the breathing frequency during exercising was monitored in the cohort of 27 healthy adult males who were recruited for the first time to be participants of exercise testing. All the participants performed the Roufier exercise test (30 squats per 45 s). A 12-lead electrocardiogram was continuously recorded during exercise and first two minutes of recovery, and arterial blood pressure was measured at each minute of experiment. During the second investigation, the influence of short breathing stop for 15 s on the changes in cardiovascular functional parameters during exercise test was evaluated. RESULTS. The results obtained during the study showed that patients who had increased psychomotor tonus stopped the breathing involuntary more frequently at the beginning of exercise testing. An involuntary or voluntary breathing stop at the beginning of exercising had an influence on the dynamics of cardiovascular parameters during exercise and recovery: heart rate increased more slowly; lesser changes in the JT interval of electrocardiogram, a trend toward an increase in the arterial blood pressure, and a significantly slower recovery of cardiovascular parameters were documented. CONCLUSION. An involuntary breathing stop caused the changes in cardiovascular parameters during exercise and recovery; therefore, functional status might be assessed not so accurately.

  14. Acute effects on cardiovascular oscillations during controlled slow yogic breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Lata Bhagat

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Significant increase in cardiovascular oscillations and baroreflex recruitments during-ANB suggested a dynamic interaction between respiratory and cardiovascular system. Enhanced phasic relationship with some delay indicated the complexity of the system. It indicated that respiratory and cardiovascular oscillations were coupled through multiple regulatory mechanisms, such as mechanical coupling, baroreflex and central cardiovascular control.

  15. Effect of modified slow breathing exercise on perceived stress and basal cardiovascular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sunil Naik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Different types of breathing exercises have varied effects on cardiovascular parameters and the stress levels in an individual. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a modified form of isolated alternate nostril, slow breathing exercise on perceived stress, and cardiovascular parameters in young, male volunteers. Settings and Design: This was a randomized control study carried out at Advanced Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry in 2014. Subjects and Methods: Hundred healthy male volunteers were randomized into control group, n = 50 and slow breathing group (study, n = 50. Slow breathing exercise training was given to study group for 30 min a day, 5 times/week for 12 weeks, under the supervision of certified yoga trainers. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS using Cohen's questionnaire, anthropometric parameters such as body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks. The control group did not receive any intervention. Slow breathing exercise training was provided for the study group. During the study period, one volunteer opted out of the study group due to personal reasons. Results: HR, SBP, DBP, and PSS decreased significantly (P 0.05 was observed in BMI and WHR. There was no significant change in the control group. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of modified slow breathing exercise reduced perceived stress and improved the cardiovascular parameters. The above results indicate that our modified slow breathing exercise is effective in reducing stress and improving the cardiovascular parameters.

  16. Effect of Modified Slow Breathing Exercise on Perceived Stress and Basal Cardiovascular Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, G Sunil; Gaur, G S; Pal, G K

    2018-01-01

    Different types of breathing exercises have varied effects on cardiovascular parameters and the stress levels in an individual. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a modified form of isolated alternate nostril, slow breathing exercise on perceived stress, and cardiovascular parameters in young, male volunteers. This was a randomized control study carried out at Advanced Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry in 2014. Hundred healthy male volunteers were randomized into control group, n = 50 and slow breathing group (study), n = 50. Slow breathing exercise training was given to study group for 30 min a day, 5 times/week for 12 weeks, under the supervision of certified yoga trainers. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) using Cohen's questionnaire, anthropometric parameters such as body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks. The control group did not receive any intervention. Slow breathing exercise training was provided for the study group. During the study period, one volunteer opted out of the study group due to personal reasons. HR, SBP, DBP, and PSS decreased significantly ( P 0.05) was observed in BMI and WHR. There was no significant change in the control group. Twelve weeks of modified slow breathing exercise reduced perceived stress and improved the cardiovascular parameters. The above results indicate that our modified slow breathing exercise is effective in reducing stress and improving the cardiovascular parameters.

  17. Postural Change Alters Autonomic Responses to Breath-Holding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S.; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony; Stewart, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    We used breath-holding during inspiration as a model to study the effect of pulmonary stretch on sympathetic nerve activity. Twelve healthy subjects (7 females, 5 males; 19–27 yrs) were tested while they performed an inspiratory breath-hold, both supine and during a 60° head-up tilt (HUT 60). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), oxygen saturation (SaO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) were recorded. Cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. While breath-holding, ETCO2 increased significantly from 41±2 to 60±2 Torr during supine (pBreath-holding results in initial reductions of MSNA, MAP and HR by the pulmonary stretch reflex followed by increased sympathetic activity related to the arterial baroreflex and chemoreflex. PMID:20012144

  18. Fear of suffocation alters respiration during obstructed breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappens, Meike; Smets, Elyn; Van Den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to investigate whether fear of suffocation predicts healthy persons' respiratory and affective responses to obstructed breathing as evoked by inspiratory resistive loads. Participants (N = 27 women, ages between 18 and 21 years) completed the Fear of Suffocation scale and underwent 16 trials in which an inspiratory resistive load of 15 cmH(2)O/l/s (small) or 40 cmH(2)O/l/s (large) was added to the breathing circuit for 40 s. Fear of suffocation was associated with higher arousal ratings for both loads. Loaded breathing was associated with a decrease in minute ventilation, but progressively less so for participants scoring higher on fear of suffocation when breathing against the large load. The present findings document a potentially panicogenic mechanism that may maintain and worsen respiratory discomfort in persons with fear of suffocation. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: an outcome-based definition of hypopneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Naresh M; Newman, Anne B; Young, Terry B; Resnick, Helaine E; Sanders, Mark H

    2008-05-15

    Epidemiologic studies on the consequences of sleep-disordered breathing invariably use the apnea-hypopnea index as the primary measure of disease severity. Although hypopneas constitute a majority of disordered breathing events, significant controversy remains about the best criteria used to define these events. The current investigation sought to assess the most appropriate definition for hypopneas that would be best correlated with cardiovascular disease. A community sample of middle-aged and older adults was recruited as part of the Sleep Heart Health Study. Full-montage polysomnography was conducted and hypopneas were defined using different thresholds of oxyhemoglobin desaturation with and without arousals. Prevalent cardiovascular disease was assessed based on self-report. Logistic regression analysis was used to characterize the independent association between the hypopnea index and prevalent cardiovascular disease. Using a sample of 6,106 adults with complete data on cardiovascular disease status and polysomnography, the current study found that hypopneas associated with an oxyhemoglobin desaturation of 4% or more were associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease independent of confounding covariates. The adjusted prevalent odds ratios for quartiles of the hypopnea index using a 4% desaturation criterion were as follows: 1.00 (7.69 events/h). Hypopnea measures based on less than 4% oxyhemoglobin desaturation or presence of arousals showed no association with cardiovascular disease. Hypopneas comprise a significant component of sleep-disordered breathing in the general community. By varying the criteria for defining hypopneas, this study demonstrates that hypopneas with a desaturation of at least 4% are independently associated with cardiovascular disease. In contrast, no association was observed between cardiovascular disease and hypopneas associated with milder desaturations or arousals.

  20. Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smaller structures called bronchi. The process of breathing (respiration) is divided into two distinct phases, inspiration (inhalation) and expiration (exhalation). During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward while the muscles between the ribs contract and pull upward. This ...

  1. [Autonomic nervous system alteration in multiple sclerosis patients with urinary symptoms. Clinical, urodynamic and cardiovascular study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, G; Raibaut, P; Hubeaux, K; Jousse, M; Sheikh Ismaël, S; Lapeyre, E

    2013-12-01

    To assess symptoms related to autonomic nervous system alteration in a population of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and presenting with urinary symptoms. We investigated 65 patients (mean age 47.5 years) suffering from MS, and presenting with urological dysfunction by means of symptom scores, urodynamic investigation, cardiovascular autonomic function tests (orthostatic hypotension testing, Valsalva test, deep breath test, cold pressor test) and sympathetic skin responses. Forty-five (69%) patients suffered from overactive bladder, 48 (73%) from voiding dysfunction, 14 (21%) from urinary retention and 13 (20%) from fecal incontinence. Urodynamic investigation demonstrated overactive detrusor in 46 (70%) cases, and underactive detrusor in four (6%) cases. Twenty-five (38%) patients had dysautonomia without correlation neither with clinical or urodynamic data, nor gravity of multiple sclerosis (EDSS). In this series, the prevalence of dysautonomia was high in patients suffering from MS and presenting with urinary disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic fluoxetine treatment alters cardiovascular functions in unanesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Carlos C; Tavares, Rodrigo F; Guimarães, Franscisco S; Correa, Fernando M A; Joca, Sâmia R L; Resstel, Leonardo B M

    2011-11-30

    In the present study, we investigated the effects induced by fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg) for either 1 or 21 consecutive days on arterial pressure and heart rate basal levels, baroreflex activity, hemodynamic responses to vasoactive agents and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress. Mild hypertension was observed after 21 days of treatment, but not after administration for 1 day. Moreover, chronic treatment affected the baroreflex control of heart rate, which was characterized by a reduced reflex tachycardia and an enhanced bradycardiac baroreflex response. The pressor responses to systemic administration of the selective α(1)-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, as well as the depressor responses to systemic infusion of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, were reduced after chronic fluoxetine treatment. Fluoxetine treatment for 21 days reduced both the pressor and tachycardiac responses evoked by acute restraint stress. In conclusion, the results indicate the development of mild hypertension after chronic fluoxetine treatment. This effect was followed by changes in the baroreflex control of heart rate and altered vascular responsiveness to pressor and depressor agents, which may explain, at least in part, the increase in arterial pressure. Chronic fluoxetine treatment also affected cardiovascular responses to restraint stress, thus indicating that fluoxetine may affect cardiovascular adaptation under conditions of stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Humans: Alteration in Cardiovascular Regulation and Function During Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Alterations in cardiovascular regulation and function that occur during and after space flight have been reported. These alterations are manifested, for example, by reduced orthostatic tolerance upon reentry to the earth's gravity from space. However, the precise physiologic mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain to be fully elucidated. Perhaps, as a result, effective countermeasures have yet to be developed. In this project we apply a powerful, new method - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system so that effective countermeasures can be developed. CSI involves the mathematical analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in non-invasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV - respiratory activity) in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of all the physiologic mechanisms coupling these signals, CSI provides a model of the closed-loop cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject. The model includes quantitative descriptions of the heart rate baroreflex, autonomic function, as well as other important physiologic mechanisms. We are in the process of incorporating beat-to-beat fluctuations of stroke volume into the CSI technique in order to quantify additional physiologic mechanisms such as those involved in control of peripheral vascular resistance and alterations in cardiac contractility. We apply CSI in conjunction with the two general protocols of the Human Studies Core project. The first protocol involves ground-based, human head down tilt bed rest to simulate microgravity and acute stressors - upright tilt, standing and bicycle exercise - to provide orthostatic and exercise challenges. The second protocol is intended to be the same as the first but with the addition of sleep deprivation to determine whether

  4. Calculation algorithms alter the breath-by-breath gas exchange values when abrupt changes in ventilation occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cettolo, Valentina; Francescato, Maria Pia

    2018-05-01

    The automatic metabolic units calculate breath-by-breath gas exchange from the expiratory data only, applying an algorithm ('expiration-only' algorithm) that neglects the changes in the lung gas stores. These last are theoretically taken into account by a recently proposed algorithm, based on an alternative view of the respiratory cycle ('alternative respiratory cycle' algorithm). The performance of the two algorithms was investigated where changes in the lung gas stores were induced by abrupt increases in ventilation above the physiological demand. Oxygen, carbon dioxide fractions and ventilatory flow were recorded at the mouth in 15 healthy subjects during quiet breathing and during 20-s hyperventilation manoeuvres performed at 5-min intervals in resting conditions. Oxygen uptakes and carbon dioxide exhalations were calculated throughout the acquisition periods by the two algorithms. Average ventilation amounted to 6·1 ± 1·4 l min -1 during quiet breathing and increased to 41·8 ± 27·2 l min -1 during the manoeuvres (Pgas exchange data and noise. Conversely, during hyperventilation, the 'alternative respiratory cycle' algorithm provided significantly lower gas exchange data as compared to the values yielded by the 'expiration-only' algorithm. For the first breath of hyperventilation, the average values provided by the two algorithms amounted to 0·37 ± 0·34 l min -1 versus 0·96 ± 0·73 l min -1 for O 2 uptake and 0·45 ± 0·36 l min -1 versus 0·80 ± 0·58 l min -1 for exhaled CO 2 (Pgas exchange values as compared to the 'expiration-only' approach. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Trained breathing-induced oxygenation acutely reverses cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Pasquale; Mereu, Roberto; De Barbieri, Giacomo; Rampino, Teresa; Di Toro, Alessandro; Groop, Per-Henrik; Dal Canton, Antonio; Bernardi, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, evaluated as baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), could be acutely corrected by slow breathing or oxygen administration in patients with type 1 diabetes, thus suggesting a functional component of the disorder. We tested this hypothesis in patients with the type 2 diabetes with or without renal impairment. Twenty-six patients with type 2 diabetes (aged 61.0 ± 0.8 years, mean ± SEM; duration of diabetes 10.5 ± 2 years, BMI 29.9 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), GFR 68.1 ± 5.6 ml/min) and 24 healthy controls (aged 58.5 ± 1.0 years) were studied. BRS was obtained from recordings of RR interval and systolic blood pressure fluctuations during spontaneous and during slow, deep (6 breaths/min) controlled breathing in conditions of normoxia or hyperoxia (5 l/min oxygen). During spontaneous breathing, diabetic patients had lower RR interval and lower BRS compared with the control subjects (7.1 ± 1.2 vs. 12.6 ± 2.0 ms/mmHg, p breathing and oxygen administration significantly increased arterial saturation, reduced RR interval and increased BRS in both groups (to 9.6 ± 1.8 and 15.4 ± 2.4 ms/mmHg, respectively, p breathing and hyperoxia (p breathing during normoxia). Autonomic dysfunction present in patients with type 2 diabetes can be partially reversed by slow breathing, suggesting a functional role of hypoxia, also in patients with DKD. Interventions known to relieve tissue hypoxia and improve autonomic function, like physical activity, may be useful in the prevention and management of complications in patients with diabetes.

  6. Breathing and sense of self: visuo-respiratory conflicts alter body self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Dan; Herbelin, Bruno; Similowski, Thomas; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    Bodily self-consciousness depends on the processing of interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. It can be disrupted by inducing signal conflicts. Breathing, at the crossroad between interoception and exteroception, should contribute to bodily self-consciousness. We induced visuo-respiratory conflicts in 17 subjects presented with a virtual body or a parallelepidedal object flashing synchronously or asynchronously with their breathing. A questionnaire detected illusory changes in bodily self-consciousness and breathing agency (the feeling of sensing one's breathing command). Changes in self-location were tested by measuring reaction time during mental ball drop (MBD). Synchronous illumination changed the perceived location of breathing (body: p=0.008 vs. asynchronous; object: p=0.013). It resulted in a significant change in breathing agency, but no changes in self-identification. This was corroborated by prolonged MBD reaction time (body: +0.045s, 95%CI [0.013; 0.08], p=0.007). We conclude that breathing modulates bodily self-consciousness. We also conclude that one can induce the irruption of unattended breathing into consciousness without modifying respiratory mechanics or gas exchange. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High spatial and temporal resolution retrospective cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance from shortened free breathing real-time acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Kellman, Peter; Larocca, Gina; Arai, Andrew E; Hansen, Michael S

    2013-11-14

    Cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is challenging in patients who cannot perform repeated breath holds. Real-time, free-breathing acquisition is an alternative, but image quality is typically inferior. There is a clinical need for techniques that achieve similar image quality to the segmented cine using a free breathing acquisition. Previously, high quality retrospectively gated cine images have been reconstructed from real-time acquisitions using parallel imaging and motion correction. These methods had limited clinical applicability due to lengthy acquisitions and volumetric measurements obtained with such methods have not previously been evaluated systematically. This study introduces a new retrospective reconstruction scheme for real-time cine imaging which aims to shorten the required acquisition. A real-time acquisition of 16-20s per acquired slice was inputted into a retrospective cine reconstruction algorithm, which employed non-rigid registration to remove respiratory motion and SPIRiT non-linear reconstruction with temporal regularization to fill in missing data. The algorithm was used to reconstruct cine loops with high spatial (1.3-1.8 × 1.8-2.1 mm²) and temporal resolution (retrospectively gated, 30 cardiac phases, temporal resolution 34.3 ± 9.1 ms). Validation was performed in 15 healthy volunteers using two different acquisition resolutions (256 × 144/192 × 128 matrix sizes). For each subject, 9 to 12 short axis and 3 long axis slices were imaged with both segmented and real-time acquisitions. The retrospectively reconstructed real-time cine images were compared to a traditional segmented breath-held acquisition in terms of image quality scores. Image quality scoring was performed by two experts using a scale between 1 and 5 (poor to good). For every subject, LAX and three SAX slices were selected and reviewed in the random order. The reviewers were blinded to the reconstruction approach and acquisition protocols and

  8. Ventilatory and Cardiovascular Regulation in the Air-Breathing Fish Pangasianodon Hypophthalmus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    bradycardia and a post air-breathing tachycardia as well as a hypercarbic bradycardia. Furthermore, we document that injections of lactate ions in the blood at physiological concentrations induce a strong hypoxic ventilatory response in P. hypophthalmus independent of arterial pH. This mechanism was recently...

  9. Immediate effect of chandra nadi pranayama (left unilateral forced nostril breathing on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Recent studies have reported differential physiological and psychological effects produced by exclusive right and left nostril breathing and clinical research is required to prove immediate and sustained efficacy of these techniques in various psychosomatic conditions such as hypertension (HT. The present study was designed to determine immediate effects of 27 rounds of exclusive left nostril breathing, a yogic pranayama technique known as chandra nadi pranayama (CNP on cardiovascular parameters in patients of essential HT. Materials and Methods : Twenty two patients of essential HT under regular standard medical management were individually taught to perform CNP by a qualified yoga instructor with a regularity of 6 breaths/min throughout a performance of 27 rounds of CNP. Pre and post intervention heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measurements were recorded using non-invasive semi-automatic BP monitor and Students t test for paired data used to determine significant differences. Results : Twenty seven rounds of CNP produced an immediate decrease in all the measured cardiovascular parameters with the decrease in HR, systolic pressure (SP, pulse pressure, rate-pressure product and double product being statistically significant. Further, gender-based sub-analysis of our data revealed that our male participants evidenced significant reductions in HR and SP with an insignificant decrease in diastolic pressure, while in female participants only HR decreased significantly with an insignificant decrease in SP. Discussion and Conclusion : It is concluded that CNP is effective in reducing HR and SP in hypertensive patients on regular standard medical management. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previously published reports on immediate effects of left UFNB in patients of HT and ours is the first to report on this beneficial clinical effect. This may be due to a normalization of autonomic cardiovascular rhythms with increased

  10. The altered complexity of cardiovascular regulation in depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Steffen; Voss, Andreas; Koschke, Mandy; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Major depressive disorders (MDD) are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Even if it is known that MDD are accompanied by an autonomic dysbalance with increased sympathetic and/or reduced parasympathetic activity, to date only limited information is available about the degree and complexity of cardiovascular regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of MDD on the autonomous nervous system and cardiovascular complexity by means of linear and nonlinear indices from heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV, BPV). From 57 non-medicated patients and 57 matched healthy controls with respect to age and gender HRV and BPV in time and frequency domain, symbolic dynamics, compression entropy, multiscale entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, Poincaré plot analysis and baroreflex sensitivity were analysed from 30 min short-term recordings. Complexity indices from nonlinear dynamics demonstrated considerable changes in autonomous regulation due to MDD. For the first time we could show that non-medicated depressed patients who were matched with respect to age and gender reveal a significantly changed short-term as well as long-term complexity of cardiovascular regulation. These results suggest substantial changes in autonomic control probably due to a change of interactions between different physiological control loops in MDD

  11. Quantitating aortic regurgitation by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: significant variations due to slice location and breath holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Hamilton-Craig, Christian; Cawley, Peter J; Mitsumori, Lee M; Otto, Catherine M; Maki, Jeffrey H

    2016-09-01

    Compare variability in flow measurements by phase contrast MRI, performed at different locations in the aorta and pulmonary artery (PA) using breath-held (BH) and free-breathing (FB) sequences. Fifty-seven patients with valvular heart disease, confirmed by echocardiography, were scanned using BH technique at 3 locations in the ascending aorta (SOV = sinus of Valsalva, STJ = sinotubular junction, ASC = ascending aorta at level of right pulmonary artery) and 2 locations in PA. Single FB measurement was obtained at STJ for aorta. Obtained metrics (SV = stroke volume, FV = forward volume, BV = backward volume, RF = regurgitant fraction) were evaluated separately for patients with aortic regurgitation (AR, n = 31) and mitral regurgitation (n = 26). No difference was noted between the two measurements in the PA. Significant differences were noted in measured SV at different aortic locations. SV measurements obtained at ASC correlated best with the measurements obtained in the PA. Strongest correlation of AR was measured at the STJ. Measurements of flow volumes by phase contrast MRI differ depending on slice location. When using stroke volumes to calculate pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio (Qp/Qs), ASC should be used. For quantifying aortic regurgitation, measurement should be obtained at STJ. • Aortic regurgitation can be accurately measured by MRI. • Aortic regurgitation measurement by MRI varies according to the location where measured. • Aortic regurgitation can also be measured by MRI without breath hold.

  12. Chronic fluoxetine treatment alters cardiovascular functions in unanesthetized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Crestani, Carlos Cesar [UNESP; Tavares, Rodrigo F.; Guimaraes, Franscisco S.; Correa, Fernando M. A.; Joca, Samia R. L.; Resstel, Leonardo B. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects induced by fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg) for either 1 or 21 consecutive days on arterial pressure and heart rate basal levels, baroreflex activity, hemodynamic responses to vasoactive agents and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress. Mild hypertension was observed after 21 days of treatment, but not after administration for 1 day. Moreover, chronic treatment affected the baroreflex control of heart rate, which was characterized ...

  13. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction and altered autophagy in cardiovascular aging and disease: from mechanisms to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzetti, Emanuele; Csiszar, Anna; Dutta, Debapriya; Balagopal, Gauthami; Calvani, Riccardo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-08-15

    Advanced age is associated with a disproportionate prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Intrinsic alterations in the heart and the vasculature occurring over the life course render the cardiovascular system more vulnerable to various stressors in late life, ultimately favoring the development of CVD. Several lines of evidence indicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a major contributor to cardiovascular senescence. Besides being less bioenergetically efficient, damaged mitochondria also produce increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, with detrimental structural and functional consequences for the cardiovascular system. The age-related accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondrial likely results from the combination of impaired clearance of damaged organelles by autophagy and inadequate replenishment of the cellular mitochondrial pool by mitochondriogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about relevant mechanisms and consequences of age-related mitochondrial decay and alterations in mitochondrial quality control in the cardiovascular system. The involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular conditions especially prevalent in late life and the emerging connections with neurodegeneration are also illustrated. Special emphasis is placed on recent discoveries on the role played by alterations in mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission), mitophagy, and their interconnections in the context of age-related CVD and endothelial dysfunction. Finally, we discuss pharmacological interventions targeting mitochondrial dysfunction to delay cardiovascular aging and manage CVD.

  14. Endothelium and Its Alterations in Cardiovascular Diseases: Life Style Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Favero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium, which forms the inner cellular lining of blood vessels and lymphatics, is a highly metabolically active organ that is involved in many physiopathological processes, including the control of vasomotor tone, barrier function, leukocyte adhesion, and trafficking and inflammation. In this review, we summarized and described the following: (i endothelial cell function in physiological conditions and (ii endothelial cell activation and dysfunction in the main cardiovascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis, and hypertension and to diabetes, cigarette smoking, and aging physiological process. Finally, we presented the currently available evidence that supports the beneficial effects of physical activity and various dietary compounds on endothelial functions.

  15. Exhaled breath condensate methods adapted from human studies using longitudinal metabolomics for predicting early health alterations in dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras, Eva; Aksenov, Alexander A; Baird, Mark; Novick, Brittany; Schivo, Michael; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Pasamontes, Alberto; Parry, Celeste; Foutouhi, Soraya; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Weimer, Bart C; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring health conditions is essential to detect early asymptomatic stages of a disease. To achieve this, blood, urine and breath samples are commonly used as a routine clinical diagnostic. These samples offer the opportunity to detect specific metabolites related to diseases and provide a better understanding of their development. Although blood samples are commonly used routinely to monitor health, the implementation of a relatively noninvasive technique, such as exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis, may further benefit the well-being of both humans and other animals. EBC analysis can be used to track possible physical or biochemical alterations caused by common diseases of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), such as infections or inflammatory-mediated processes. We have used an untargeted metabolomic method with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of EBC samples to determine biomarkers related to disease development. In this study, five dolphins under human care were followed up for 1 year. We collected paired blood, physical examination information, and EBC samples. We then statistically correlated this information to predict specific health alterations. Three dolphins provided promising case study information about biomarkers related to cutaneous infections, respiratory infections, dental disease, or hormonal changes (pregnancy). The use of complementary liquid chromatography platforms, with hydrophilic interaction chromatography and reverse-phased columns, allowed us to detect a wide spectrum of EBC biomarker compounds that could be related to these health alterations. Moreover, these two analytical techniques not only provided complementary metabolite information but in both cases they also provided promising diagnostic information for these health conditions. Graphical abstract Collection of the exhaled condensed breath from a bottlenose dolphin from U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP).

  16. Hypothyroidism Affects D2 Receptor-mediated Breathing without altering D2 Receptor Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Evelyn H.; Rio, Rodrigo Del; Schultz, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age- matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a periphera...

  17. Hypothyroidism affects D2 receptor-mediated breathing without altering D2 receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Evelyn H; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-03-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age-matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a peripheral D2 receptor agonist), increased oxygen consumption and body temperature in awake air-exposed hypothyroid female hamsters and stimulated their ventilation before and following exposure to hypoxia. Carmoxirole depressed frequency of breathing in euthyroid hamsters prior to, during and following hypoxia exposures and stimulated it in the hypothyroid hamsters following hypoxia. Although hypothyroidism did not affect expression of D2 receptors, it influenced central D2 modulation of breathing in a disparate manner relative to euthyroid hamsters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-reported obstructive sleep apnea, simple snoring, and various markers of sleep-disordered breathing as predictors of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiranen, Teemu J; Kronholm, Erkki; Rissanen, Harri; Partinen, Markku; Jula, Antti M

    2016-05-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether self-reported obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), simple snoring, and various markers of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with cardiovascular risk. We examined a representative nationwide cohort of 5177 Finnish adults aged ≥30 years. The participants underwent measurement of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and answered SDB-related questions derived from the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, which were used to operationalize self-reported OSA. The primary end point was incidence of a cardiovascular event (cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, or coronary interventions). During a median follow-up of 11.2 years and 52,910 person-years of follow-up, 634 participants suffered a cardiovascular event. In multivariable-adjusted Cox models, self-reported OSA (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.73; p = 0.03) was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Self-reported simple snoring by itself was not associated with future cardiovascular events (HR 0.88 versus non-snorers, 95 % CI 0.75-1.04, p = 0.15). However, among snorers (n = 3152), frequent breathing cessations (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.26-3.81, p = 0.006) and very loud and irregular snoring (HR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.31-2.54, p snoring variables are associated with cardiovascular risk, whereas simple snoring is not. In clinical practice and in surveys, questions concerning only habitual snoring should be amended with questions focusing on respiratory pauses and snoring stertorousness, which can be used to estimate the risk of OSA and cardiovascular events.

  19. Clinical and cardiovascular alterations produced by scorpion envenomation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Cordeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a common problem that occurs in tropical and subtropical countries and assumes great medical-sanitary importance due to its fatal effect on sensitive individuals, being able to lead children and aged people to death. The envenomation lethal potential is responsible for the serious cardiopulmonary alterations the scorpion toxin produces in its victims. The present research evaluated the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom on dogs, using two distinct doses: a dose that simulates natural envenomation (0.4 mg/total dose, and an experimental dose (0.25 mg/kg. General clinical signs were observed at different moments after envenomation, and specific data related to the cardiopulmonary system were evaluated by systemic arterial pressure measurement, CK-MB enzymatic activity dosage, and radiographic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations. Results demonstrated that the scorpion venom, in experimental doses, was able to cause acute and reversible cardiac injury in few days, and, in the dose that simulated natural accident, it produced clinical signs of light envenomation, such as local pain, hyperesthesia, sialorrhea, vomiting, diarrhea, sneeze and prostration.

  20. Acceleration sensors in abdominal wall position as a non-invasive approach to detect early breathing alterations induced by intolerance of increased airway resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Thomas; Bruells, Christian S; Rossaint, Rolf; Steffen, Henning; Disselhorst-Klug, Catherine; Czaplik, Michael; Zoremba, Norbert

    2017-11-10

    Early detection of respiratory overload is crucial to mechanically ventilated patients, especially during phases of spontaneous breathing. Although a diversity of methods and indices has been established, there is no highly specific approach to predict respiratory failure. This study aimed to evaluate acceleration sensors in abdominal and thoracic wall positions to detect alterations in breathing excursions in a setting of gradual increasing airway resistance. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers were committed to a standardized protocol of a two-minutes step-down spontaneous breathing on a 5 mm, 4 mm and then 3 mm orally placed endotracheal tube. Accelerator sensors in thoracic and abdominal wall position monitored breathing excursions. 15 participants passed the breathing protocol ("completed" group), 14 individuals cancelled the protocol due to subjective intolerance to the increasing airway resistance ("abandoned" group). Gradual increased respiratory workload led to a significant decrease of acceleration in abdominal wall position in the "abandoned" group compared to the "completed" group (p breathing alterations prior to respiratory failure. EK 309-15; by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany. Retrospectively registered 28th of December 2015.

  1. Prenatal nicotine alters maturation of breathing and neural circuits regulating respiratory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlière, Sophie; Perrin, David; Peyronnet, Julie; Boussouar, Aurélien; Annat, Guy; Viale, Jean-Paul; Pequignot, Jacqueline; Pequignot, Jean-Marc; Dalmaz, Yvette

    2008-06-30

    While perinatal nicotine effects on ventilation have been widely investigated, the prenatal impact of nicotine treatment during gestation on both breathing and neural circuits involved in respiratory control remains unknown. We examined the effects of nicotine, from embryonic day 5 (E5) to E20, on baseline ventilation, the two hypoxic ventilatory response components and in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity in carotid bodies and brainstem areas, assessed at postnatal day 7 (P7), P11 and P21. In pups prenatally exposed to nicotine, baseline ventilation and hypoxic ventilatory response were increased at P7 (+48%) and P11 (+46%), with increased tidal volume (p<0.05). Hypoxia blunted frequency response at P7 and revealed unstable ventilation at P11. In carotid bodies, TH activity increased by 20% at P7 and decreased by 48% at P11 (p<0.05). In most brainstem areas it was reduced by 20-33% until P11. Changes were resolved by P21. Prenatal nicotine led to postnatal ventilatory sequelae, partly resulting from impaired maturation of peripheral chemoreceptors and brainstem integrative sites.

  2. Sleep disordered breathing, hypoxia and inflammation: associations with sickness behaviour in community dwelling elderly with and without cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Peter; Svensson, Erland; Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf; Jaarsma, Tiny; Broström, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation can induce a cluster of symptoms, referred to as sickness behaviour (e.g., depressive symptoms, sleep disturbances, pain and fatigue). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are common in older adults. CVD is associated with an increased inflammatory activity and in SDB, hypoxia can also increase inflammation. The purpose of this study is to explore if SDB-related hypoxia is associated differently with inflammation and the presence of sickness behaviour in older adults with and without CVD. Three hundred and thirty-one older adults, whose mean age is 78 years, underwent one-night polygraphic recording to measure SDB and hypoxia. CVD was established by a clinical investigation. Questionnaires were used to measure sickness behaviour and depressive symptoms. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was used as a marker of inflammation. Structural Equation Modelling showed that SDB-related hypoxia was associated with inflammation (β > 0.40) which mediated indirect associations with sickness behaviour (β = 0.19) and depressive symptoms (β = 0.11), but only in those with CVD (n = 119). In this model, inflammation had a direct effect on sickness behaviour (β = 0.43) and an indirect effect on depressive symptoms (β = 0.24). Hypoxia had the strongest effect (i.e., β = 0.41; significant) on inflammation, whereas the AHI or ODI had weak and non-significant effects (β = 0.03 and β = 0.15). Older adults with CVD and SDB are at a particular risk of developing sickness behaviour and depressive symptoms. The effect of SDB was mainly caused by hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxia is an important marker of SDB severity in older adults with CVD.

  3. Bisphenol A alters the cardiovascular response to hypoxia in Danio rerio embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Alysha D; Ickes, Jessica R; Bagatto, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the cardiovascular response to hypoxia was altered by the presence of bisphenol A (BPA) in Danio rerio embryos. It was expected that BPA exposure would affect cardiovascular parameters during hypoxia more than normoxia due to an interaction between BPA and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) pathway. We demonstrate that BPA exposure has a minimal effect during normoxia but can severely affect the cardiovascular system during a hypoxic event. Cardiovascular response was measured in vivo using video microscopy and digital motion analysis. RBC density increased 35% in hypoxia alone but decreased 48% with addition of 0.25mg/L BPA. Tissue vascularization (% coverage) was unaffected by hypoxia alone but decreased 37% with addition of 0.25mg/L BPA. The diameter and RBC velocity of arteries were more sensitive than veins to BPA exposure during both normoxia and hypoxia. Arterial RBC velocity decreased 42% during normoxia and 52% during hypoxia with 1mg/L BPA. This decrease in velocity may in part be due to the 86% decrease in heart rate (ƒH) observed during co-exposure to hypoxia and 5mg/L BPA. While stroke volume (SV) was unaffected by treatment, cardiac output (Q) decreased by 69% with co-exposure. ƒH and Q were not affected by BPA exposure during normoxia. Development ultimately slowed by 146% and mortality rates were 95% during hypoxia when exposed to 5mg/L BPA. Our results show for the first time that BPA exposure alters the cardiovascular system during hypoxia more so than normoxia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Total sleep deprivation alters cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Durocher, John J; Larson, Robert A; Dellavalla, Joseph P; Carter, Jason R

    2012-09-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress (MS) and cold pressor test (CPT) has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent epidemiological studies identify sleep deprivation as an important risk factor for hypertension, yet the relations between sleep deprivation and cardiovascular reactivity remain equivocal. We hypothesized that 24-h total sleep deprivation (TSD) would augment cardiovascular reactivity to MS and CPT and blunt the MS-induced forearm vasodilation. Because the associations between TSD and hypertension appear to be stronger in women, a secondary aim was to probe for sex differences. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded during MS and CPT in 28 young, healthy subjects (14 men and 14 women) after normal sleep (NS) and 24-h TSD (randomized, crossover design). Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was recorded during MS. MAP, FVC, and MSNA (n = 10) responses to MS were not different between NS and TSD (condition × time, P > 0.05). Likewise, MAP and MSNA (n = 6) responses to CPT were not different between NS and TSD (condition × time, P > 0.05). In contrast, increases in HR during both MS and CPT were augmented after TSD (condition × time, P ≤ 0.05), and these augmented HR responses persisted during both recoveries. When analyzed for sex differences, cardiovascular reactivity to MS and CPT was not different between sexes (condition × time × sex, P > 0.05). We conclude that TSD does not significantly alter MAP, MSNA, or forearm vascular responses to MS and CPT. The augmented tachycardia responses during and after both acute stressors provide new insight regarding the emerging links among sleep deprivation, stress, and cardiovascular risk.

  5. Acrolein inhalation alters arterial blood gases and triggers carotid body-mediated cardiovascular responses in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Christina M; Hazari, Mehdi S; Ledbetter, Allen D; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P; Cascio, Wayne E; Winsett, Darrell W; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure affects autonomic function, heart rate, blood pressure and left ventricular function. While the mechanism for these effects is uncertain, several studies have reported that air pollution exposure modifies activity of the carotid body, the major organ that senses changes in arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, and elicits downstream changes in autonomic control and cardiac function. We hypothesized that exposure to acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde and mucosal irritant found in cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust, would activate the carotid body chemoreceptor response and lead to secondary cardiovascular responses in rats. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed once for 3 h to 3 ppm acrolein gas or filtered air in whole body plethysmograph chambers. To determine if the carotid body mediated acrolein-induced cardiovascular responses, rats were pretreated with an inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), an enzyme essential for carotid body signal transduction. Acrolein exposure induced several cardiovascular effects. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure increased during exposure, while cardiac contractility decreased 1 day after exposure. The cardiovascular effects were associated with decreases in pO2, breathing frequency and expiratory time, and increases in sympathetic tone during exposure followed by parasympathetic dominance after exposure. The CSE inhibitor prevented the cardiovascular effects of acrolein exposure. Pretreatment with the CSE inhibitor prevented the cardiovascular effects of acrolein, suggesting that the cardiovascular responses with acrolein may be mediated by carotid body-triggered changes in autonomic tone. (This abstract does not reflect EPA policy.).

  6. When Breathing Interferes with Cognition: Experimental Inspiratory Loading Alters Timed Up-and-Go Test in Normal Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierat, Marie-Cécile; Demiri, Suela; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Allali, Gilles; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Adler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Human breathing stems from automatic brainstem neural processes. It can also be operated by cortico-subcortical networks, especially when breathing becomes uncomfortable because of external or internal inspiratory loads. How the "irruption of breathing into consciousness" interacts with cognition remains unclear, but a case report in a patient with defective automatic breathing (Ondine's curse syndrome) has shown that there was a cognitive cost of breathing when the respiratory cortical networks were engaged. In a pilot study of putative breathing-cognition interactions, the present study relied on a randomized design to test the hypothesis that experimentally loaded breathing in 28 young healthy subjects would have a negative impact on cognition as tested by "timed up-and-go" test (TUG) and its imagery version (iTUG). Progressive inspiratory threshold loading resulted in slower TUG and iTUG performance. Participants consistently imagined themselves faster than they actually were. However, progressive inspiratory loading slowed iTUG more than TUG, a finding that is unexpected with regard to the known effects of dual tasking on TUG and iTUG (slower TUG but stable iTUG). Insofar as the cortical networks engaged in response to inspiratory loading are also activated during complex locomotor tasks requiring cognitive inputs, we infer that competition for cortical resources may account for the breathing-cognition interference that is evidenced here.

  7. Cardiovascular and respiratory alterations in dogs during cervical myelography using ioversol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.A. Melo e Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid infusion of most contrast mediums and the steps involved in performing a cervical myelography have adverse affects that can discourage its use in the radiographic diagnosis of spinal cord diseases. Thus, the cardiovascular and respiratory alterations associated with neck flexion, subarachnoid puncture, and cerebrospinal fluid drainage during subarachnoid infusion of ioversol (320mgI/mL in dogs under general anesthesia using isoflurane were evaluated. The dogs received subarachnoid infusion of autologous cerebrospinal fluid kept at 38°C - control group (GC; ioversol 0.3mL/kg at 25°C (GI25 and ioversol 0.3mL/kg heated to 38°C (GI38. Each dog had its heart rate (HR, systolic arterial pressure (SAP, diastolic arterial pressure (DAP, respiratory rate (RR, oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2 and electrocardiography readings (PR and QT intervals recorded. Group comparisons showed no statistical difference regarding neck positioning, subarachnoid puncture, and subarachnoid infusion of contrast medium on HR, RR and SaO2, cardiac rhythm or conduction. However, isoflurane significantly increased PR and QT intervals. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the steps involved in cervical myelography and the use of ioversol 320mgI/mL at 0.3mL/kg (25ºC and 38ºC during cervical myelography did not result in relevant cardiovascular and respiratory alterations, except for an elevation in arterial pressure after injection of ioversol.

  8. Increased plasma soluble endoglin levels as an indicator of cardiovascular alterations in hypertensive and diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Salgado Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoglin is involved in the regulation of endothelial function, but there are no studies concerning its relation with hypertension- and diabetes-associated pathologies. Thus, we studied the relationship between plasma levels of soluble endoglin and cardiovascular alterations associated with hypertension and diabetes. Methods We analyzed 288 patients: 64 with type 2 diabetes, 159 with hypertension and 65 healthy patients. We assessed the relationship of soluble endoglin plasma levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with basal glycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction (assessed by pressure wave velocity, hypertensive retinopathy (by Keith-Wagener classification, left ventricular hypertrophy (by Cornell and Sokolow indexes, cardiovascular risk and target organ (heart, vascular, kidney damage. Results There are significant correlations between endoglin and glycemia, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, pressure wave velocity and electrocardiographically assessed left ventricular hypertrophy. Endoglin levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes who had nondipper and extreme dipper circadian blood pressure patterns than in dipper circadian patterns, in patients with hypertension and diabetes who had riser pattern than in the other patients, and in patients with diabetes but not hypertension who had extreme dipper pattern than in dipper, nondipper and riser groups. There was also a significant correlation between plasma-soluble endoglin and lower levels of systolic night-day ratio. Higher endoglin levels were found in patients with diabetes who had retinopathy, in patients with diabetes who had a high probability of 10-year cardiovascular risk, and in patients with diabetes and hypertension who had three or more damaged target organs (heart, vessels, kidney than in those with no organs affected. Conclusions This study shows that endoglin is an indicator of

  9. Cardiovascular alterations do exist in children with stage-2 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşdemir, Mehmet; Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler; Canpolat, Nur; Konukoğlu, Dildar; Ağbaş, Ayşe; Sevim, Meltem Dönmez; Çalışkan, Salim; Sever, Lale

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. However, it is not well known when and how cardiovascular alterations start. This cross-sectional, controlled study consisted of 25 patients and 28 healthy controls. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility coefficient and β stiffness index), and echocardiography were assessed to evaluate CVD. Routine biochemical parameters, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and high sensitive C- reactive protein were measured to determine cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension was found in 12 patients (48 %). Patients had higher FGF23 levels and aPWV-standard deviation score (SDS) as compared to the controls (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). Aortic PWV-SDS was predicted by increased daytime systolic blood pressure load (β = 0.512, p = 0.009, R 2  = 0.262). Neither cIMT nor distensibility differed between the groups; however, older age and high level of FGF23 were independent predictors of β stiffness index in patients (β = 0.507, p = 0.005, R 2  = 0.461 and β = 0.502, p = 0.005, R 2  = 0.461, respectively). As compared to controls, patients had worse left ventricular diastolic function [lower E/A ratio p = 0.006) and increased left atrial dimension (p children with stage-2 CKD. Good control of BP and decreasing the level of FGF23 may be useful to slow down the progression of cardiovascular complications.

  10. Impacts of fat fromruminants’ meat on cardiovascular health and possible strategies to alter its lipid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Larraín, Rafael E.

    2017-01-01

    intake of fat, saturated FAs and cholesterol as a means of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, ruminant meat has some bioactive lipids such as C18:1t11 and C18:2 c9, t11 which have been reported to have positive effects on human health. In order to improve muscle fat composition......In the last few decades there has been increased consumer interest in the fatty acid (FA) composition of ruminant meat due to its content of saturated FAs, which have been implicated in diseases associated with modern life. However, recent studies have questioned the recommendations to reduce...... from a human health standpoint, oilseeds, plant oils andmarine oils can be used in ruminant diets. On the other hand,molecular mechanisms play an important role in the alteration of the FA composition of muscle fat. Genetics offer a wide range of possibilities for improvement of muscle fat...

  11. Sleep disordered breathing, insomnia, and health related quality of life -- a comparison between age and gender matched elderly with heart failure or without cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Peter; Arestedt, Kristoffer; Alehagen, Urban; Svanborg, Eva; Dahlström, Ulf; Broström, Anders

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study are (I) to compare the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and insomnia between elderly with heart failure (HF) and age and gender matched elderly without cardiovascular disease (CVD), and (II) to examine the association between HF, SDB and insomnia, as well as their impact on health related quality of life (Hr-QoL). Three hundred and thirty-one elderly (71-87 years) community-living individuals underwent sleep recordings and echocardiography. Questionnaires assessed insomnia and Hr-QoL. Comparisons were made between age and gender matched individuals with HF (n=36) and without CVD (n=36). The HF group had higher mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (17.6 vs. 6.3, pinsomnia or EDS. SDB, DMS and EDS are more common in elderly with HF. SDB is not an obvious cause for sleep complaints or poor Hr-QoL in elderly. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Spontaneous breathing or mechanical ventilation alters lung compliance and tissue association of exogenous surfactant in preterm newborn rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Kajsa; Bouhafs, Rabea K L; Jarstrand, Connie; Curstedt, Tore; Blennow, Mats; Robertson, Bengt

    2005-05-01

    In preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant administration followed by immediate extubation to spontaneous breathing with nasal continuous positive airway pressure reduces the need for mechanical ventilation. With this treatment approach, repeated doses of surfactant are rarely indicated. We used a rabbit model to test the hypothesis that exogenous surfactant therapy followed by spontaneous breathing results in a more sustained initial treatment response compared with treatment followed by mechanical ventilation. Preterm rabbits (gestational age 28.5 d) were treated with pharyngeal deposition of 200 mg/kg radiolabeled surfactant (14C-Curosurf) and randomized to 4 h of spontaneous breathing or mechanical ventilation or to a control group, killed immediately after surfactant administration. With pharyngeal deposition, 46 +/- 10% (mean +/- SEM) of the administered surfactant reached the lungs. The dynamic lung-thorax compliance was higher in spontaneously breathing compared with mechanically ventilated animals (median, 9.9 and 0.75 ml x cm H2O(-1) x kg(-1), respectively; p mechanically ventilated animals (p mechanically ventilated animals. We conclude that the initial lung tissue association of exogenous surfactant is impaired by mechanical ventilation. This is associated with a reduction of dynamic compliance and evidence of increased surfactant inactivation.

  13. High molecular weight barley β-glucan alters gut microbiota toward reduced cardiovascular disease risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological cholesterol-lowering benefits of β-glucan have been well documented, however, whether modulation of gut microbiota by β-glucan is associated with these physiological effects remains unknown. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine the impact of β-glucan on the composition of gut microbiota in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals and to identify if the altered microbiota are associated with bioactivity of β-glucan in improving risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Using a randomized, controlled crossover study design, individuals received for 5-week either a treatment breakfast containing 3g high molecular weight (HMW, 3g low molecular weight (LMW, 5g LMW barley β-glucan or wheat and rice (WR. The American Heart Association (AHA diet served as the background diet for all treatment groups. Phases were separated by 4-week washout periods. Fecal samples were collected at the end of each intervention phase and subjected to Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results revealed that at the phylum level, supplementation of 3g/d HMW β-glucan increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes abundances compared to control (P < 0.001. At the genus level, consumption of 3g/d HMW β-glucan increased Bacteroides (P < 0.003, tended to increase Prevotella (P < 0.1 but decreased Dorea (P < 0.1, whereas diets containing 5g LMW β-glucan and 3g LMW β-glucan failed to alter the gut microbiota composition. Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Dorea composition correlated (P < 0.05 with shifts of CVD risk factors, including body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, as well as triglyceride levels. Our data suggest that consumption of HMW β-glucan favourably alters the composition of the gut microbiota and this altered microbiota profile associates with a reduction of CVD risk markers. Together, our study suggests that β-glucan induced shifts in gut microbiota in a MW-dependent manner and that might be one of

  14. Total sleep deprivation alters cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Huan; Durocher, John J.; Larson, Robert A.; DellaValla, Joseph P.; Carter, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress (MS) and cold pressor test (CPT) has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent epidemiological studies identify sleep deprivation as an important risk factor for hypertension, yet the relations between sleep deprivation and cardiovascular reactivity remain equivocal. We hypothesized that 24-h total sleep deprivation (TSD) would augment cardiovascular reactivity to MS and CPT and blunt the MS-induced forearm vasodilat...

  15. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortness of breath; Breathlessness; Difficulty breathing; Dyspnea ... There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people ... even though they don't have a medical condition. Others may ...

  16. Kalpaamruthaa ameliorates mitochondrial and metabolic alterations in diabetes mellitus induced cardiovascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Raja; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanadham

    2014-12-01

    Efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa on the activities of lipid and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, electron transport chain complexes and mitochondrial ATPases were studied in heart and liver of experimental rats. Cardiovascular damage (CVD) was developed in 8 weeks after type 2 diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 hr interval). In CVD-induced rats, the activities of total lipase, cholesterol ester hydrolase and cholesterol ester synthetase were increased, while lipoprotein lipase and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activities were decreased. The activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes were altered by Kalpaamruthaa in CVD-induced rats towards normal. Kalpaamruthaa modulated the activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphogluco-isomerase, aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase) and glycogenolytic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase) along with increased glycogen content in the liver of CVD-induced rats. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, Complexes and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) were decreased in CVD-induced rats, which were ameliorated by the treatment with Kalpaamruthaa. This study ascertained the efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa for the treatment of CVD in diabetes through the modulation of metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  17. Compressed sensing real-time cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance: accurate assessment of left ventricular function in a single-breath-hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Tomoyuki; Kido, Teruhito; Nakamura, Masashi; Watanabe, Kouki; Schmidt, Michaela; Forman, Christoph; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2016-08-24

    Cardiovascular cine magnetic resonance (CMR) accelerated by compressed sensing (CS) is used to assess left ventricular (LV) function. However, it is difficult for prospective CS cine CMR to capture the complete end-diastolic phase, which can lead to underestimation of the end-diastolic volume (EDV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF), compared to retrospective standard cine CMR. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic quality and accuracy of single-breath-hold full cardiac cycle CS cine CMR, acquired over two heart beats, to quantify LV volume in comparison to multi-breath-hold standard cine CMR. Eighty-one participants underwent standard segmented breath-hold cine and CS real-time cine CMR examinations to obtain a stack of eight contiguous short-axis images with same high spatial (1.7 × 1.7 mm(2)) and temporal resolution (41 ms). Two radiologists independently performed qualitative analysis of image quality (score, 1 [i.e., "nondiagnostic"] to 5 [i.e., "excellent"]) and quantitative analysis of the LV volume measurements. The total examination time was 113 ± 7 s for standard cine CMR and 24 ± 4 s for CS cine CMR (p cine image quality was slightly lower than standard cine (4.8 ± 0.5 for standard vs. 4.4 ± 0.5 for CS; p cine were above 4 (i.e., good). No significant differences existed between standard and CS cine MR for all quantitative LV measurements. The mean differences with 95 % confidence interval (CI), based on Bland-Altman analysis, were 1.3 mL (95 % CI, -14.6 - 17.2) for LV end-diastolic volume, 0.2 mL (95 % CI, -9.8 to10.3) for LV end-systolic volume, 1.1 mL (95 % CI, -10.5 to 12.7) for LV stroke volume, 1.0 g (95 % CI, -11.2 to 13.3) for LV mass, and 0.4 % (95 % CI, -4.8 - 5.6) for LV ejection fraction. The interobserver and intraobserver variability for CS cine MR ranged from -4.8 - 1.6 % and from -7.3 - 9.3 %, respectively, with slopes of the regressions ranging 0.88-1.0 and 0

  18. Use of thoracic impedance sensors to screen for sleep-disordered breathing in patients with cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupard, L; Mathieu, M; Sartène, R; Goldman, M

    2008-01-01

    Screening patients for the possibility of sleep apnoea, one of the most common forms of sleep-disordered breathing, requires measurement of respiration. We propose a simple method to estimate the amplitude modulation of a respiratory tidal volume, using a semi-quantitative measure of respiration based on thoracic impedance (TI). Because respiratory volume changes may be accommodated by varying displacements of the rib cage (RC) and abdomen (AB), the latter produced by outward motion of the diaphragm, it is necessary for any useful measure of respiration to be closely related to both RC and AB displacements. Because the relative contributions of RC and AB displacements to respiratory tidal volume vary in different body positions, the present measurements were recorded from subjects in supine, and right and left lateral decubitus postures. We observed a clear linear relationship between TI and both RC and AB signals in all three body positions. There were no statistically significant differences between observed relationships between TI and AB and between TI and RC, and these relationships were independent of the body position. TI sensors appear to be a useful candidate for a simple method of screening for sleep apnoea, especially in a cardiology clinical setting. Further investigation is warranted for the refinement of algorithms to detect changes in amplitude modulation occurring with apnoeas and to remove artefacts due to gross body movements

  19. Sleep-disordered breathing does not affect nocturnal dipping, as assessed by pulse transit time, in preschool children: evidence for early intervention to prevent adverse cardiovascular effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Lauren C; Nixon, Gillian M; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Biggs, Sarah N; Davey, Margot J; Trinder, John; Walter, Lisa M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-04-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with reduced nocturnal dipping of blood pressure (BP) and sleep disruption in adults, and these features confer an increased risk of cardiovascular events. As SDB prevalence in children peaks during the preschool years, we investigated nocturnal dipping and sleep fragmentation in preschool children with SDB. Children (3-5 years; n=163) grouped by obstructive apnoea hypopnoea index (OAHI): control, no snoring history and OAHI ≤1 event/h; primary snoring, OAHI ≤1 event/h; mild SDB, >1-≤5 events/h; moderate-severe SDB, >5 events/h. Pulse transit time (PTT), an inverse continuous indicator of BP changes, and heart rate (HR) during total sleep time and the first period of rapid eye movement (REM), non-REM (NREM)1/2 and NREM3/4 sleep were expressed as percentage change from wake before sleep onset. The sleep fragmentation index (SFI) was calculated as the number of sleep stage transitions or awakenings per hour of sleep. There were no group differences in the change in PTT or HR from wake to total sleep time or to individual sleep stages or in the proportion of children in the quartile with the smallest change in PTT during total sleep. Children with moderate-severe SDB had higher SFI than primary snoring (PS) or mild SDB groups (p<0.05 for both) and controls (p=0.07). In contrast to adults, nocturnal dipping is preserved in young children with SDB, despite increased sleep fragmentation. As there is evidence that nocturnal dipping is similarly preserved at the school age, childhood may pose a window of opportunity for resolution of SDB when the cardiovascular effects are less marked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Red wine polyphenols prevent metabolic and cardiovascular alterations associated with obesity in Zucker fatty rats (Fa/Fa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelali Agouni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with increased risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies report an inverse association between dietary flavonoid consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. We studied the potential beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of red wine polyphenol extract, Provinols, on obesity-associated alterations with respect to metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular functions in Zucker fatty (ZF rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ZF rats or their lean littermates received normal diet or supplemented with Provinols for 8 weeks. Provinols improved glucose metabolism by reducing plasma glucose and fructosamine in ZF rats. Moreover, it reduced circulating triglycerides and total cholesterol as well as LDL-cholesterol in ZF rats. Echocardiography measurements demonstrated that Provinols improved cardiac performance as evidenced by an increase in left ventricular fractional shortening and cardiac output associated with decreased peripheral arterial resistances in ZF rats. Regarding vascular function, Provinols corrected endothelial dysfunction in aortas from ZF rats by improving endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine (Ach. Provinols enhanced NO bioavailability resulting from increased nitric oxide (NO production through enhanced endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS activity and reduced superoxide anion release via decreased expression of NADPH oxidase membrane sub-unit, Nox-1. In small mesenteric arteries, although Provinols did not affect the endothelium-dependent response to Ach; it enhanced the endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor component of the response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Use of red wine polyphenols may be a potential mechanism for prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic alterations associated with obesity.

  1. Aging alters muscle reflex control of autonomic cardiovascular responses to rhythmic contractions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Simranjit K; Weavil, Joshua C; Venturelli, Massimo; Rossman, Matthew J; Gmelch, Benjamin S; Bledsoe, Amber D; Richardson, Russell S; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the influence of aging on the group III/IV muscle afferents in the exercise pressor reflex-mediated cardiovascular response to rhythmic exercise. Nine old (OLD; 68 ± 2 yr) and nine young (YNG; 24 ± 2 yr) males performed single-leg knee extensor exercise (15 W, 30 W, 80% max) under control conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing feedback from group III/IV leg muscle afferents. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output, leg blood flow (QL), systemic (SVC) and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were continuously determined. With no hemodynamic effect at rest, fentanyl blockade during exercise attenuated both cardiac output and QL ∼17% in YNG, while the decrease in cardiac output in OLD (∼5%) was significantly smaller with no impact on QL (P = 0.8). Therefore, in the face of similar significant ∼7% reduction in MAP during exercise with fentanyl blockade in both groups, LVC significantly increased ∼11% in OLD, but decreased ∼8% in YNG. The opposing direction of change was reflected in SVC with a significant ∼5% increase in OLD and a ∼12% decrease in YNG. Thus while cardiac output seems to account for the majority of group III/IV-mediated MAP responses in YNG, the impact of neural feedback on the heart may decrease with age and alterations in SVC become more prominent in mediating the similar exercise pressor reflex in OLD. Interestingly, in terms of peripheral hemodynamics, while group III/IV-mediated feedback plays a clear role in increasing LVC during exercise in the YNG, these afferents seem to actually reduce LVC in OLD. These peripheral findings may help explain the limited exercise-induced peripheral vasodilation often associated with aging. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. The cardiovascular and respiratory effects of medetomidine and thiopentone anaesthesia in dogs breathing at an altitude of 1486 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Joubert

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardio-respiratory effects of the combination of medetomidine and thiopentone followed by reversal with atipamezole as a combination for anaesthesia in 10 healthy German Shepherd dogs breathing spontaneously in a room at an altitude of 1486 m above sea level with an ambient air pressure of 651 mmHg. After the placement of intravenous and intra-arterial catheters, baseline samples were collected. Medetomidine (0.010 mg/kg was administered intravenously and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded every minute for 5 minutes. Thiopentone was then slowly administered until intubation conditions were ideal. An endotracheal tube was placed and the dogs breathed room air spontaneously. Blood pressure, pulse oximetry, respiratory and heart rate, capnography, blood gas analysis and arterial lactate were performed or recorded every 10 minutes for the duration of the trial. Thiopentone was administered to maintain anaesthesia. After 60 minutes, atipamezole (0.025 mg/kg was given intramuscularly. Data were recorded for the next 30 minutes. A dose of 8.7 mg/kg of thiopentone was required to anaesthetise the dogs after the administration of 0.010 mg/kg of medetomidine. Heart rate decreased from 96.7 at baseline to 38.5 5 minutes after the administration of medetomidine (P < 0.05. Heart rate then increased with the administration of thiopentone to 103.2 (P < 0.05. Blood pressure increased from 169.4/86.2 mmHg to 253.2/143.0 mmHg 5 minutes after the administration of medetomidine (P < 0.05. Blood pressure then slowly returned towards normal. Heart rate and blood pressure returned to baseline values after the administration of atipamezole. Arterial oxygen tension decreased from baseline levels (84.1 mmHg to 57.8 mmHg after the administration of medetomidine and thiopentone (P < 0.05. This was accompanied by arterial desaturation from 94.7 to 79.7 % (P < 0.05. A decrease in respiratory rate from 71.8 bpm to 12

  3. Acrolein Inhalation Alters Arterial Blood Gases and Triggers Carotid Body Mediated Cardiovascular Responses in Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. While the mechanisms accounting for these effects are unclear, several epidemiological studies have reported decreases in oxygen ...

  4. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  5. Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerath, Winfried; Verbraecken, Johan; Andreas, Stefan; Arzt, Michael; Bloch, Konrad E; Brack, Thomas; Buyse, Bertien; De Backer, Wilfried; Eckert, Danny Joel; Grote, Ludger; Hagmeyer, Lars; Hedner, Jan; Jennum, Poul; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Miltz, Carla; McNicholas, Walter T; Montserrat, Josep; Naughton, Matthew; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Pevernagie, Dirk; Sanner, Bernd; Testelmans, Dries; Tonia, Thomy; Vrijsen, Bart; Wijkstra, Peter; Levy, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can

  6. Thickness alterations of retinal nerve fiber layer in children with sleep-disordered breathing due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinici, Emine; Tatar, Arzu

    2015-08-01

    This study is designed to assess whether hypoxia which is caused by apnea and hypopnea episodes, has an effect on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in pediatric patients with Adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH). Fifty-seven children patient with AHT, and 31 healthy non-AHT children (between 6 and 12 ages) were enrolled in this study. Obstructive symptoms of the patients with ATH were assessed by using OSA-18 survey. The patients were divided into 2 groups as mild (>60 and 80) OSAS patients, according to OSA-18 survey total scores. RNFL thickness, in the four quadrants (superior, nasal, inferior and temporal) patient's both eyes, was measured by optical coherence tomography. RNFL parameters of control and patient groups were compared. Correlation between OSA survey scores and RNFL thickness of the patient groups were examined. A positive correlation was found between ages and RNLF thickness of all subjects enrolled in this study (r=+0.107, p0.05). No statistically significant alteration in RNFL thickness was found between the patient and control groups (p>0.05). Age range (6-12) of the patients with ATH in our study considers that possible OSAS time was not long enough to affect RNLF thickness. Remembering the risk of optic injury development in children with ATH (in a long term), tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy operations shouldn't be delayed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nocturnal breathing in cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Sylvie; Lanfranchi, Paola; Montplaisir, Jacques; Nielsen, Tore; Dore, Annie; Khairy, Paul; Marcotte, François; Mercier, Lise-Andrée

    2008-08-18

    Sleep disordered breathing is frequently observed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of heart disease, acute and chronic hypoxia have been shown to promote sleep-related periodic breathing with central apnea characterized by a repetitive reduction or lack of respiratory activity. Cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) is associated with chronic hypoxia, regardless of whether an increase in pulmonary artery pressures coexists. Sleep aggravated hypoxia has been observed in many such patients, but it remains to be determined whether sleep disordered breathing is contributory. We, therefore, sought to assess sleep-related breathing pattern in patients with CCHD. Adults with CCHD, resting arterial oxygen saturation 40% were prospectively enrolled in a cross-sectional study. To assess sleep and respiratory indices, subjects underwent a standardized clinical appraisal that included arterial blood gas analysis and a comprehensive sleep study with an ambulatory device. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >or=5/h was considered to indicate sleep apnea. Ten adults with CCHD, aged 38+/-11 years, completed the study. Seven patients had elevated pulmonary artery pressures, with a mean systolic pressure of 86.3+/-18.1 mm Hg. All patients demonstrated normal sleep parameters. Oxygen saturation further declined in 5 patients during sleep. However, no associated alteration in respiratory parameters was observed and no significant arrhythmia. The mean AHI was 1.1+/-1.0/h. No subject met the pre-defined criterion for sleep apnea. Although further oxygen desaturation may be observed during sleep in patients with CCHD, it occurs in the absence of sleep disordered breathing.

  8. Buspirone maintenance does not alter the reinforcing, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of intranasal methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R; Strickland, Justin C; Stoops, William W; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R

    2017-12-01

    Medications development efforts for methamphetamine-use disorder have targeted central monoamines because these systems are directly involved in the effects of methamphetamine. Buspirone is a dopamine autoreceptor and D3 receptor antagonist and partial agonist at serotonin 1A receptors, making it a logical candidate medication for methamphetamine-use disorder. Buspirone effects on abuse-related behaviors of methamphetamine have been mixed in clinical and preclinical studies. Experimental research using maintenance dosing, which models therapeutic use, is limited. This study evaluated the influence of buspirone maintenance on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine using a self-administration procedure, which has predictive validity for clinical efficacy. The impact of buspirone maintenance on the subjective and cardiovascular response to methamphetamine was also determined. Eight research participants (1 female) reporting recent illicit stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind protocol in which the pharmacodynamic effects of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 15, and 30mg) were assessed after at least 6days of buspirone (0 and 45mg/day) maintenance. Intranasal methamphetamine functioned as a reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like subjective (e.g., increased ratings of Good Effects and Like Drug) and cardiovascular (e.g., elevated blood pressure) effects. These effects of methamphetamine were similar under buspirone and placebo maintenance conditions. Maintenance on buspirone was well tolerated and devoid of effects when administered alone. These data suggest that buspirone is unlikely to be an effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine-use disorder. Given the central role of monoamines in methamphetamine-use disorder, it is reasonable for future studies to continue to target these systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Island tameness: an altered cardiovascular stress response in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael; Tarlow, Elisa; Cyr, Nicole E; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-03-30

    Island tameness is a widely documented phenomenon in which island species, particularly those that have evolved with no or few natural predators, show a greatly reduced behavioral response when faced with unfamiliar predators. This insufficient anti-predator response has led to widespread population declines among many island species exposed to novel predators, and has become a serious conservation problem. Despite its prevalence, the underlying physiology of island tameness is not known. Here we report that although Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) initiated flight from an evolutionarily recent and unfamiliar potential predator (humans), they failed to show the cardiovascular stress response that facilitates successful escape, even after a prior capture experience. In contrast, when approached by a native predator (the Galápagos hawk; Buteo galapagoensis), marine iguanas show markedly increased heart rate independent of initiating escape movement. The secretion of catecholamines appears to be central to the initiation of escape behavior: naïve animals remotely injected with epinephrine immediately increased flight initiation distance, whereas those injected with corticosterone did not. Our results provide the first evidence that muted escape behavior in predator-naïve species is indicative of both a cognitive deficit in recognizing potential predators and a catecholamine deficit in response. Understanding how the response to predators differs in predator-naïve species could enable the design of maximally effective techniques for inducing an anti-predator response in these vulnerable species. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gestational Diabetes Alters Functions in Offspring's Umbilical Cord Cells With Implications for Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrithraj, Ajith Isaac; Kodali, Anjaneyulu; Nguyen, Linh; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong; Chang, Cheng Wei; Karnani, Neerja; Ng, Kai Lyn; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap Seng; Stünkel, Walter

    2017-07-01

    Because noncommunicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus have their roots in prenatal development and conditions such as maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we aimed to test this hypothesis in primary cells derived from the offspring of mothers with GDM compared with control subjects. We have assessed primary umbilical cord-derived cells such as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells from the offspring of mothers with and without GDM. We have compared the primary isolates in cell-based assays measuring proliferation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and the ability to support blood vessel growth. We conducted gene expression microarray studies with subsequent pathway analysis and candidate gene validation. We observed striking differences between the two groups, such as lower metabolic rates and impairment of endothelial tube formation in cells with GDM background. HUVECs from subjects with maternal GDM have lower expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-xL, suggesting compromised angiogenic capabilities. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed blood vessel formation as a major pathway enriched in the GDM-derived HUVECs with the surface marker CD44 as a gene underexpressed in the GDM group. Functional validation of CD44 revealed that it regulates tube formation in HUVECs, thereby providing insights into a pathway imprinted in primary umbilical cord-derived cells from GDM offspring. Our data demonstrate that primary cells isolated from the umbilical cord of offspring born to mothers with GDM maintain metabolic and molecular imprints of maternal hyperglycemia, reflecting an increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  11. Synthetic cannabinoids found in "spice" products alter body temperature and cardiovascular parameters in conscious male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W; Gramling, Benjamin R; Justinova, Zuzana; Thorndike, Eric B; Baumann, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The misuse of synthetic cannabinoids is a persistent public health concern. Because these drugs target the same cannabinoid receptors as the active ingredient of marijuana, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), we compared the effects of synthetic cannabinoids and THC on body temperature and cardiovascular parameters. Biotelemetry transmitters for the measurement of body temperature or blood pressure (BP) were surgically implanted into separate groups of male rats. THC and the synthetic cannabinoids CP55,940, JWH-018, AM2201 and XLR-11 were injected s.c., and rats were placed into isolation cubicles for 3h. THC and synthetic cannabinoids produced dose-related decreases in body temperature that were most prominent in the final 2h of the session. The rank order of potency was CP55,940>AM2201=JWH-018>THC=XLR-11. The cannabinoid inverse agonist rimonabant antagonized the hypothermic effect of all compounds. Synthetic cannabinoids elevated BP in comparison to vehicle treatment during the first h of the session, while heart rate was unaffected. The rank order of potency for BP increases was similar to that seen for hypothermia. Hypertensive effects of CP55,940 and JWH-018 were not antagonized by rimonabant or the neutral antagonist AM4113. However, the BP responses to both drugs were antagonized by pretreatment with either the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium or the α 1 adrenergic antagonist prazosin. Our results show that synthetic cannabinoids produce hypothermia in rats by a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors, while they increase BP by a mechanism independent of these sites. The hypertensive effect appears to involve central sympathetic outflow. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Symptoms associated with weak respiratory muscles: Air “hunger” (gasping, labored breathing) with an without activity Fatigue ... Start your own fundraising event & help create a world without ALS Start an Event Site Map | Press ...

  13. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... described as moist, dry, fine, and coarse. Rhonchi. Sounds that resemble snoring. They occur when air is blocked or air flow becomes rough through the large airways. Stridor. Wheeze-like sound heard when a person breathes. Usually it is ...

  14. Increased visceral adipose tissue and altered adiposity distribution in premenopausal lupus patients: correlation with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguro, L P C; Paupitz, J A; Caparbo, V F; Bonfa, E; Pereira, R M R

    2018-01-01

    Objective Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) correlates with cardiovascular risk factors and has never been assessed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our aim was to evaluate VAT in premenopausal SLE patients. Methods Sixty-three premenopausal SLE patients and 186 age-matched healthy women were included. Demographic, anthropometric, disease and treatment parameters were evaluated. VAT was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with APEX 4.0 software. Results SLE patients had a disease duration of 5.25 ± 3.80 years, SLEDAI activity score of 4.35 ± 5.13, SLICC/ACR-DI of 0.70 ± 0.80, current prednisone dose of 11.60 ± 12.10 mg/day and cumulative glucocorticoid dose of 22.34 ± 12.94 g. Overweight/obese SLE patients and controls had similar VAT parameters ( p > 0.05). Among individuals with BMI  0.05) but patients had higher values of VAT parameters (VAT mass: 260.60 ± 117.23 vs. 194.77 ± 71.42 g, p = 0.001; VAT area: 54.05 ± 24.30 vs. 40.40 ± 14.82 cm 2 , p = 0.001; VAT volume: 281.75 ± 126.81 vs. 210.61 ± 77.29 cm 3 , p = 0.001) and trunk/limb fat mass ratio (0.78 ± 0.21 vs. 0.67 ± 0.12, p = 0.002) compared to controls. In SLE, VAT area correlated with weight ( r = 0.66, p  0.05). Conclusion This study provides original evidence that SLE is associated with increased VAT and altered adiposity distribution. The correlation with traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, independent of current glucocorticoid dose and disease activity, suggests the role of visceral fat as an additional tool for risk assessment in these young patients.

  15. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth (and tongue!) for at least two minutes twice ... and drinks. This helps prevent damage to your teeth and is great for your overall health. Brush after sweets. If you eat or drink sugary ...

  16. Altered TGFβ signaling and cardiovascular manifestations in patients with autosomal recessive cutis laxa type I caused by fibulin-4 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Marjolijn; Holm, Tammy; Veith, Regan; Callewaert, Bert L; Adès, Lesley C; Baspinar, Osman; Pickart, Angela; Dasouki, Majed; Hoyer, Juliane; Rauch, Anita; Trapane, Pamela; Earing, Michael G; Coucke, Paul J; Sakai, Lynn Y; Dietz, Harry C; De Paepe, Anne M; Loeys, Bart L

    2010-01-01

    Fibulin-4 is a member of the fibulin family, a group of extracellular matrix proteins prominently expressed in medial layers of large veins and arteries. Involvement of the FBLN4 gene in cardiovascular pathology was shown in a murine model and in three patients affected with cutis laxa in association with systemic involvement. To elucidate the contribution of FBLN4 in human disease, we investigated two cohorts of patients. Direct sequencing of 17 patients with cutis laxa revealed no FBLN4 mutations. In a second group of 22 patients presenting with arterial tortuosity, stenosis and aneurysms, FBLN4 mutations were identified in three patients, two homozygous missense mutations (p.Glu126Lys and p.Ala397Thr) and compound heterozygosity for missense mutation p.Glu126Val and frameshift mutation c.577delC. Immunoblotting analysis showed a decreased amount of fibulin-4 protein in the fibroblast culture media of two patients, a finding sustained by diminished fibulin-4 in the extracellular matrix of the aortic wall on immunohistochemistry. pSmad2 and CTGF immunostaining of aortic and lung tissue revealed an increase in transforming growth factor (TGF)β signaling. This was confirmed by pSmad2 immunoblotting of fibroblast cultures. In conclusion, patients with recessive FBLN4 mutations are predominantly characterized by aortic aneurysms, arterial tortuosity and stenosis. This confirms the important role of fibulin-4 in vascular elastic fiber assembly. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the involvement of altered TGFβ signaling in the pathogenesis of FBLN4 mutations in humans. PMID:20389311

  17. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in mice results in reduced systolic blood pressure and plasma renin, increased aortic eNOS expression, and altered cardiovascular structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egecioglu, E; Andersson, I J; Bollano, E

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the development of cardiovascular structure and function, female GHR gene-disrupted or knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at age 18 wk were used. GHR KO mice had lower plasma renin levels (12 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 4 mGU/ml, P ... to acetylcholine (P functional and morphological changes in both heart and vasculature that are beyond the observed alterations in body size...

  18. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety and/or Depression Previous History of Malignancy 6 (10) 4 (7) 9 (15) 1 (2) 21 (36) 2 (3) Beck Depression Inventory * 8.8±10.1...2a. Finalizing a detailed study manual explicitly outlining inclusion/exclusion criteria, protocols for recruitment, questionnaire administration...of results into de -identified study database (months 6-40) ongoing at all sites Task 4. Cognitive, Sleep, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular

  19. Does the addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation alter patient outcomes following high-risk open upper abdominal surgery? Cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Y R; Li, S K; Rickard, M J F X

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether the inclusion of deep breathing exercises in physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation confers any additional benefit in reducing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) when patients are treated once daily after elective open upper abdominal surgery. This study also compared postoperative outcomes following early and delayed mobilisation. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Single-centre study in a teaching hospital. Eighty-six high-risk patients undergoing elective open upper abdominal surgery. Three groups: early mobilisation (Group A), early mobilisation plus breathing exercises (Group B), and delayed mobilisation (mobilised from third postoperative day) plus breathing exercises (Group C). PPCs and postoperative outcomes [number of days until discharge from physiotherapy, physiotherapy input and length of stay (LOS)]. There was no significant difference in PPCs between Groups A and B. The LOS for Group A {mean 10.7 [standard deviation (SD) 5.0] days} was significantly shorter than the LOS for Groups B [mean 16.7 (SD 9.7) days] and C [mean 15.2 (SD 9.8) days; P=0.036]. The greatest difference was between Groups A and B (mean difference -5.93, 95% confidence interval -10.22 to -1.65; P=0.008). Group C had fewer smokers (26%) and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0%) compared with Group B (53% and 14%, respectively). This may have led to fewer PPCs in Group C, but the difference was not significant. Despite Group C having fewer PPCs and less physiotherapy input, the number of days until discharge from physiotherapy and LOS were similar to Group B. The addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation did not further reduce PPCs compared with mobility alone. PPCs can be reduced with once-daily physiotherapy if the patients are mobilised to a moderate level of exertion. Delayed mobilisation tended to increase physiotherapy input and the number of days until discharge from physiotherapy

  20. Feasibility of free-breathing, GRAPPA-based, real-time cardiac cine assessment of left-ventricular function in cardiovascular patients at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaomei; Schwab, Felix; Marcus, Roy; Hetterich, Holger; Theisen, Daniel; Kramer, Harald; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Schlett, Christopher L; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F; Bamberg, Fabian

    2015-05-01

    To determine the feasibility of free-breathing, GRAPPA-based, real-time (RT) cine 3T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high acceleration factors for the assessment of left-ventricular function in a cohort of patients as compared to conventional segmented cine imaging. In this prospective cohort study, subjects with various cardiac conditions underwent MRI involving two RT cine sequences (high resolution and low resolution) and standard segmented cine imaging. Standard qualitative and quantitative parameters of left-ventricular function were quantified. Among 25 subjects, 24 were included in the analysis (mean age: 50.5±21 years, 67% male, 25% with cardiomyopathy). RT cine derived quantitative parameters of volumes and left ventricular mass were strongly correlated with segmented cine imaging (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: >0.72 for both RT cines) but correlation for peak ejection and filling rates were moderate to poor for both RT cines (ICCcines significantly underestimated peak ejection and filling rates (>103.2±178 ml/s). Among patient-related factors, heart rate was strongly predictive for deviation of measurements (pcine MRI at 3T is feasible for qualitative and quantitative assessment of left ventricular function for low and high-resolution sequences but results in significant underestimation of systolic function, peak ejection and filling rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, V.

    1973-01-01

    Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

  2. Feasibility of free-breathing, GRAPPA-based, real-time cardiac cine assessment of left-ventricular function in cardiovascular patients at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaomei; Schwab, Felix; Marcus, Roy; Hetterich, Holger; Theisen, Daniel; Kramer, Harald; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Schlett, Christopher L.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Grappa-based real time cine cardiac MRI is feasible for assessment of left ventricular function. • Significant underestimation of systolic function, peak ejection and filling rates needs to be considered. • Heart rate is the only positive predictor of the deviation of obtained parameters. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine the feasibility of free-breathing, GRAPPA-based, real-time (RT) cine 3 T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high acceleration factors for the assessment of left-ventricular function in a cohort of patients as compared to conventional segmented cine imaging. Materials and methods: In this prospective cohort study, subjects with various cardiac conditions underwent MRI involving two RT cine sequences (high resolution and low resolution) and standard segmented cine imaging. Standard qualitative and quantitative parameters of left-ventricular function were quantified. Results: Among 25 subjects, 24 were included in the analysis (mean age: 50.5 ± 21 years, 67% male, 25% with cardiomyopathy). RT cine derived quantitative parameters of volumes and left ventricular mass were strongly correlated with segmented cine imaging (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: >0.72 for both RT cines) but correlation for peak ejection and filling rates were moderate to poor for both RT cines (ICC < 0.40). Similarly, RT cines significantly underestimated peak ejection and filling rates (>103.2 ± 178 ml/s). Among patient-related factors, heart rate was strongly predictive for deviation of measurements (p < 0.05). Conclusions: RT cine MRI at 3 T is feasible for qualitative and quantitative assessment of left ventricular function for low and high-resolution sequences but results in significant underestimation of systolic function, peak ejection and filling rates

  3. The prodromal phase of obesity-related chronic kidney disease: early alterations in cardiovascular and renal function in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Anke; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-11-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a relevant health condition with multi-organ involvement. Obesity shows significant tracking into adult life and is associated with an increased risk of serious adverse health outcomes both during childhood and later adulthood. The classical sequelae of obesity such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome and inflammation do develop at a paediatric age. Cardiovascular consequences, such as increased carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular hypertrophy, as well as functional alterations of the heart and arteries, are commonly traceable at an early age. Renal involvement can occur at a young age and is associated with a high probability of progressive chronic kidney disease. There is solid evidence suggesting that consequent treatment including both lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy can reduce cardiovascular, metabolic and renal risks in obese children and adolescents.

  4. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...... is unlikely to reside in oscillatory breathing movements, because such patterns emerge in preparations retaining only the medulla (and perhaps only the spinal cord). However, momentary changes in breathing patterns induced by affect, startle, whole-body movement changes, or compensatory ventilatory changes...... of hippocampal contributions to breathing control should be viewed in the context that significant interactions exist between blood pressure changes and ventilation, and that modest breathing challenges, such as exposure to hypercapnia or to increased resistive loads, bring into action a vast array of brain...

  5. Breath holding spell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000967.htm Breath holding spell To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some children have breath holding spells. This is an involuntary stop in breathing ...

  6. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  7. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea; Heart failure - orthopnea ... Heart failure Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions ...

  8. Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... training, I started experiencing decreased exercise endurance, trouble breathing, and coughing. These symptoms affected my ability to ...

  9. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  10. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... level is often dependent on his or her breathing pattern. Therefore, people with chronic lung conditions may ...

  11. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  12. Traveling with breathing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000066.htm Traveling with breathing problems To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most ...

  13. Breathing - slowed or stopped

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bradypnea. Labored or difficult breathing is known as dyspnea. ... Premature birth Seizures Common causes of breathing trouble (dyspnea) in adults include: Allergic reaction that causes tongue, ...

  14. Associations between personal exposures to VOCs and alterations in cardiovascular physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007...

  15. Associations between Personal Exposures to VOCs and Alterations in Cardiovascular Physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007 (5 seas...

  16. Do variable rates of alcohol drinking alter the ability to use transdermal alcohol monitors to estimate peak breath alcohol and total number of drinks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Lake, Sarah L; Roache, John D; Cates, Sharon E; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2014-10-01

    Transdermal alcohol monitoring is a noninvasive method that continuously gathers transdermal alcohol concentrations (TAC) in real time; thus, its use is becoming increasingly more common in alcohol research. In previous studies, we developed models that use TAC data to estimate peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and standard units consumed when the rate of consumption was tightly controlled. Twenty-two healthy participants aged 21 to 52 who reported consuming alcohol on 1 to 4 days per week were recruited from the community. The final study sample included 11 men and 8 women. Both TAC and BrAC were monitored while each participant drank 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 beers in the laboratory on 5 separate days. In contrast to previous studies, a self-paced alcohol administration procedure was used. While there was considerable variation in the times it took to consume each beer, key TAC parameters were not affected by pace of drinking. TAC data were then used in combination with the previously derived equations and estimated peak BrAC and standard units of alcohol consumed. Transdermal alcohol monitoring can be used to reliably estimate peak BrAC and standard number of units consumed regardless of the rate of consumption, further demonstrating its usefulness in clinical research. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Propionyl-L-carnitine Corrects Metabolic and Cardiovascular Alterations in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Improves Liver Respiratory Chain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Carmen; Duluc, Lucie; Chalopin, Matthieu; Simard, Gilles; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Herrera, Maria Dolores; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2012-01-01

    Aims Obesity is a primary contributor to acquired insulin resistance leading to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular alterations. The carnitine derivate, propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), plays a key role in energy control. Our aim was to evaluate metabolic and cardiovascular effects of PLC in diet-induced obese mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 9 weeks and then divided into two groups, receiving either free- (vehicle-HF) or PLC-supplemented water (200 mg/kg/day) during 4 additional weeks. Standard diet-fed animals were used as lean controls (vehicle-ST). Body weight and food intake were monitored. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were assessed, as well as the HOMAIR, the serum lipid profile, the hepatic and muscular mitochondrial activity and the tissue nitric oxide (NO) liberation. Systolic blood pressure, cardiac and endothelial functions were also evaluated. Results Vehicle-HF displayed a greater increase of body weight compared to vehicle-ST that was completely reversed by PLC treatment without affecting food intake. PLC improved the insulin-resistant state and reversed the increased total cholesterol but not the increase in free fatty acid, triglyceride and HDL/LDL ratio induced by high-fat diet. Vehicle-HF exhibited a reduced cardiac output/body weight ratio, endothelial dysfunction and tissue decrease of NO production, all of them being improved by PLC treatment. Finally, the decrease of hepatic mitochondrial activity by high-fat diet was reversed by PLC. Conclusions Oral administration of PLC improves the insulin-resistant state developed by obese animals and decreases the cardiovascular risk associated to this metabolic alteration probably via correction of mitochondrial function. PMID:22457831

  18. Propionyl-L-carnitine corrects metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in diet-induced obese mice and improves liver respiratory chain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mingorance

    Full Text Available AIMS: Obesity is a primary contributor to acquired insulin resistance leading to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular alterations. The carnitine derivate, propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC, plays a key role in energy control. Our aim was to evaluate metabolic and cardiovascular effects of PLC in diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 9 weeks and then divided into two groups, receiving either free- (vehicle-HF or PLC-supplemented water (200 mg/kg/day during 4 additional weeks. Standard diet-fed animals were used as lean controls (vehicle-ST. Body weight and food intake were monitored. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were assessed, as well as the HOMA(IR, the serum lipid profile, the hepatic and muscular mitochondrial activity and the tissue nitric oxide (NO liberation. Systolic blood pressure, cardiac and endothelial functions were also evaluated. RESULTS: Vehicle-HF displayed a greater increase of body weight compared to vehicle-ST that was completely reversed by PLC treatment without affecting food intake. PLC improved the insulin-resistant state and reversed the increased total cholesterol but not the increase in free fatty acid, triglyceride and HDL/LDL ratio induced by high-fat diet. Vehicle-HF exhibited a reduced cardiac output/body weight ratio, endothelial dysfunction and tissue decrease of NO production, all of them being improved by PLC treatment. Finally, the decrease of hepatic mitochondrial activity by high-fat diet was reversed by PLC. CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of PLC improves the insulin-resistant state developed by obese animals and decreases the cardiovascular risk associated to this metabolic alteration probably via correction of mitochondrial function.

  19. Propionyl-L-carnitine corrects metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in diet-induced obese mice and improves liver respiratory chain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Carmen; Duluc, Lucie; Chalopin, Matthieu; Simard, Gilles; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Herrera, Maria Dolores; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a primary contributor to acquired insulin resistance leading to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular alterations. The carnitine derivate, propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), plays a key role in energy control. Our aim was to evaluate metabolic and cardiovascular effects of PLC in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 9 weeks and then divided into two groups, receiving either free- (vehicle-HF) or PLC-supplemented water (200 mg/kg/day) during 4 additional weeks. Standard diet-fed animals were used as lean controls (vehicle-ST). Body weight and food intake were monitored. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were assessed, as well as the HOMA(IR), the serum lipid profile, the hepatic and muscular mitochondrial activity and the tissue nitric oxide (NO) liberation. Systolic blood pressure, cardiac and endothelial functions were also evaluated. Vehicle-HF displayed a greater increase of body weight compared to vehicle-ST that was completely reversed by PLC treatment without affecting food intake. PLC improved the insulin-resistant state and reversed the increased total cholesterol but not the increase in free fatty acid, triglyceride and HDL/LDL ratio induced by high-fat diet. Vehicle-HF exhibited a reduced cardiac output/body weight ratio, endothelial dysfunction and tissue decrease of NO production, all of them being improved by PLC treatment. Finally, the decrease of hepatic mitochondrial activity by high-fat diet was reversed by PLC. Oral administration of PLC improves the insulin-resistant state developed by obese animals and decreases the cardiovascular risk associated to this metabolic alteration probably via correction of mitochondrial function.

  20. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Ashini; Coburn, Cary G.; Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert; Leon-Olea, Martha; Gaertner, Mark; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Curras-Collazo, Margarita C.

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3

  1. Ocorrência de rinite, respiração oral e alterações orofaciais em adolescentes asmáticos Occurrence of rhinitis, mouth breathing and orofacial alterations in adolescents with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a ocorrência de rinite, respiração oral e alterações orofaciais em adolescentes asmáticos. MÉTODO: estudo do tipo transversal, realizado com 155 adolescentes asmáticos de 12 a 15 anos e de ambos os sexos, atendidos no Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira. O levantamento de dados consistiu de duas etapas: a primeira para análise dos prontuários dos pacientes e da realização de dois testes para avaliação adicional da função respiratória. Sendo um com o auxílio do espelho de Glatzel e o outro com a contagem do tempo de permanência da água na boca. A segunda por meio de exame clínico para identificação das alterações orofaciais. RESULTADOS: a frequência de rinite alérgica foi elevada (80,6%, não existindo diferença significante entre o sexo feminino (80,9% e o masculino (80,5%. Quanto ao padrão de respiração 32,9% dos asmáticos apresentaram respiração oronasal. As alterações faciais mais frequentes para o sexo masculino foram: olheiras (93,1%, palato ogival (82,8%, lábios ressecados (70,1%, selamento labial inadequado (77,0%, olhos caídos (62,1% e face alongada (57,5%. O sexo feminino apresentou as maiores frequências para as seguintes características: olheiras (91,2%, palato ogival (85,3%, selamento labial inadequado (67,6%, lábios ressecados (63,2% face alongada (66,2% e lábio superior estreito (57,4%. CONCLUSÃO: em adolescentes asmáticos a frequência de rinite alérgica foi alta, bem como a ocorrência de respiração oral e de alterações faciais.PURPOSE: to determine the occurrence of rhinitis, mouth breathing and orofacial alterations in adolescents with asthma. METHOD: cross-sectional study was conducted with 155 adolescents with asthma from 12 to 15 years old and both sexes, treated at the Institute Professor Fernando Figueira. The survey consisted of two phases: the first to review patients' records and carrying out two tests for further evaluation of

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) and Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Carolina; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Montano, Nicola; Losurdo, Anna; Parati, Gianfranco

    2017-08-28

    There is increasing evidence of a relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular diseases. The strong association between OSA and arterial hypertension, in particular in patients with resistant hypertension and/or a non-dipping profile, has been extensively reported. The relationship between OSA and high blood pressure (BP) has been found independent from a number of confounders, but several factors may affect this relationship, including age and sex. It is thus important to better assess pathophysiologic and clinical interactions between OSA and arterial hypertension, also aimed at optimizing treatment approaches in OSA and hypertensive patients with co-morbidities. Among possible mechanisms, cardiovascular autonomic control alterations, altered mechanics of ventilation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system should be considered with particular attention. Additionally, available studies also support the occurrence of a bidirectional association between OSA and cardiovascular alterations, in particular heart failure, stroke and cardiac arrhythmias, emphasizing that greater attention is needed to both identify and treat sleep apneas in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, a number of aspects of such a relationship are still to be clarified, in particular with regard to gender differences, effect of sleep-related breathing disorders in childhood, and influence of OSA treatment on cardiovascular risk, and they may represent important targets for future studies.

  3. Mice long-term high-fat diet feeding recapitulates human cardiovascular alterations: an animal model to study the early phases of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián D Calligaris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypercaloric diet ingestion and sedentary lifestyle result in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of clinical features secondary to obesity, considered as a pre-diabetic condition and recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. To better understand the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, animal models that reproduce the etiology, course and outcomes of these pathologies are required. The aim of this work was to characterize the long-term effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the mice cardiovascular system, in order to make available a new animal model for diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS/RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standardized high-fat diet (obese or regular diet (normal for 16 months. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated testing plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Arterial pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer (non invasive method and by hemodynamic parameters (invasive method. Cardiac anatomy was described based on echocardiography and histological studies. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization under a stress test. Cardiac remodelling and metabolic biomarkers were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. As of month eight, the obese mice were overweight, hyperglycaemic, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic. At month 16, they also presented normal arterial pressure but altered vascular reactivity (vasoconstriction, and cardiac contractility reserve reduction, heart mass increase, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart metabolic compensations. By contrast, the normal mice remained healthy throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Mice fed with a high-fat diet for prolonged time recapitulates the etiology, course and outcomes of the early phases of human diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  4. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  5. Slow Breathing and Hypoxic Challenge: Cardiorespiratory Consequences and Their Central Neural Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Critchley, Hugo D.; Nicotra, Alessia; Chiesa, Patrizia A.; Nagai, Yoko; Gray, Marcus A.; Minati, Ludovico; Bernardi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Controlled slow breathing (at 6/min, a rate frequently adopted during yoga practice) can benefit cardiovascular function, including responses to hypoxia. We tested the neural substrates of cardiorespiratory control in humans during volitional controlled breathing and hypoxic challenge using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy volunteers were scanned during paced (slow and normal rate) breathing and during spontaneous breathing of normoxic and hypoxic (13% inspired O2)...

  6. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo ... through your mouth. Smoking is also a major cause of bad breath. There are lots of myths ...

  7. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breath-Holding Spells KidsHealth / For Parents / Breath-Holding Spells What's in ... Spells Print en español Espasmos de sollozo About Breath-Holding Spells Many of us have heard stories about stubborn ...

  8. Cardiovascular health effects following exposure of human volunteers during fire extinction exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maria Helena Guerra; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Pedersen, Peter Bøgh

    2017-01-01

    of cardiovascular effects in young conscripts training to become firefighters. Methods: Healthy conscripts (n = 43) who participated in a rescue educational course for firefighting were enrolled in the study. The exposure period consisted of a three-day training course where the conscripts participated in various....... Firefighting training was associated with elevated urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (105%, 95% CI: 52; 157%), increased body temperature, decreased microvascular function (-18%, 95% CI: -26; -9%) and altered HRV. There was no difference in cardiovascular measurements for the two types of fires. Conclusion......: Observations from this fire extinction training show that PM exposure mainly occurs in situations where firefighters removed the self-contained breathing apparatus. Altered cardiovascular disease endpoints after the firefighting exercise period were most likely due to complex effects from PM exposure, physical...

  9. Navy Bean and Rice Bran Intake Alters the Plasma Metabolome of Children at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal cholesterol in childhood predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adulthood. Navy beans and rice bran have demonstrated efficacy in regulating blood lipids in adults and children; however, their effects on modulating the child plasma metabolome has not been investigated and warrants investigation. A pilot, randomized-controlled, clinical trial was conducted in 38 children (10 ± 0.8 years old with abnormal cholesterol. Participants consumed a snack for 4 weeks containing either: no navy bean or rice bran (control; 17.5 g/day cooked navy bean powder; 15 g/day heat-stabilized rice bran; or 9 g/day navy beans and 8 g/day rice bran. Plasma metabolites were extracted using 80% methanol for global, non-targeted metabolic profiling via ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Differences in plasma metabolite levels after 4 weeks of dietary intervention compared to control and baseline were analyzed using analysis of variance and Welch’s t-tests (p ≤ 0.05. Navy bean and/or rice bran consumption influenced 71 plasma compounds compared to control (p ≤ 0.05, with lipids representing 46% of the total plasma metabolome. Significant changes were determined for 18 plasma lipids in the navy bean group and 10 plasma lipids for the rice bran group compared to control, and 48 lipids in the navy bean group and 40 in the rice bran group compared to baseline. These results support the hypothesis that consumption of these foods impact blood lipid metabolism with implications for reducing CVD risk in children. Complementary and distinct lipid pathways were affected by the diet groups, including acylcarnitines and lysolipids (navy bean, sphingolipids (rice bran, and phospholipids (navy bean + rice bran. Navy bean consumption decreased free fatty acids associated with metabolic diseases (palmitate and arachidonate and increased the relative abundance of endogenous anti-inflammatory lipids

  10. Breathing changes accompanying balance improvement during biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirjaková, Zuzana; Neumannová, Kateřina; Kimijanová, Jana; Šuttová, Kristína; Janura, Miroslav; Hlavačka, František

    2017-06-09

    The aim of this study was to determine whether respiration would be altered during visual biofeedback condition while standing on a foam surface. Fifty young, healthy subjects (24 men, 26 women) were divided into a spirometry group, in which additional spirometry analysis was performed, and a control group. All subjects were tested in two conditions: 1) standing on a foam surface and 2) standing on a foam surface with visual biofeedback (VF) based on the centre of pressure (CoP). CoP amplitude and velocity in anterior-posterior (Aap, Vap) and medial-lateral (Aml, Vml) directions were measured by the force platform. Breathing movements were recorded by two pairs of 3D accelerometers attached on the upper chest (upper chest breathing - UCB) and the lower chest (lower chest breathing - LCB). Results showed that significant decreases of CoP amplitude and velocity in both directions were accompanied by a significant decrease of lower chest breathing, and an increase of LCB frequency was seen during VF condition compared to control condition in both groups. Moreover, a significant decrease in tidal volume and increased breathing frequency during VF condition were confirmed by spirometric analysis. Reduced breathing movements and volumes as well as increased breathing frequency are probably part of an involuntary strategy activated to maximize balance improvement during VF condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol breath test: gas exchange issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlastala, Michael P; Anderson, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    The alcohol breath test is reviewed with a focus on gas exchange factors affecting its accuracy. The basis of the alcohol breath test is the assumption that alveolar air reaches the mouth during exhalation with no change in alcohol concentration. Recent investigations have shown that alcohol concentration is altered during its transit to the mouth. The exhaled alcohol concentration is modified by interaction with the mucosa of the pulmonary airways. Exhaled alcohol concentration is not an accurate indicator of alveolar alcohol concentration. Measuring alcohol concentration in the breath is very different process than measuring a blood level from air equilibrated with a blood sample. Airway exchange of alcohol leads to a bias against certain individuals depending on the anatomic and physiologic characteristics. Methodological modifications are proposed to improve the accuracy of the alcohol breath test to become fair to all. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Early vascular alterations in SLE and RA patients--a step towards understanding the associated cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Santos

    Full Text Available Accelerated atherosclerosis represents a major problem in both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, and endothelial damage is a key feature of atherogenesis. We aimed to assess early endothelial changes in SLE and RA female patients (127 SLE and 107 RA without previous CV events. Biomarkers of endothelial cell activation (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1, thrombomodulin (TM, and tissue factor (TF were measured and endothelial function was assessed using peripheral artery tonometry. Reactive hyperemia index (RHI, an indicator of microvascular reactivity, and augmentation index (AIx, a measure of arterial stiffness, were obtained. In addition, traditional CV risk factors, disease activity and medication were determined. Women with SLE displayed higher sICAM-1 and TM and lower TF levels than women with RA (p = 0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. These differences remained significant after controlling for CV risk factors and medication. Serum levels of vascular biomarkers were increased in active disease and a moderate correlation was observed between sVCAM-1 levels and lupus disease activity (rho = 0.246 and between TF levels and RA disease activity (rho = 0.301. Although RHI was similar across the groups, AIx was higher in lupus as compared to RA (p = 0.04. Also in active SLE, a trend towards poorer vasodilation was observed (p = 0.06. In conclusion, women with SLE and RA present with distinct patterns of endothelial cell activation biomarkers not explained by differences in traditional CV risk factors. Early vascular alterations are more pronounced in SLE which is in line with the higher CV risk of these patients.

  13. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crestani, Carlos C.; Lopes da Silva, Andréia; Scopinho, América A.; Ruginsk, Silvia G.; Uchoa, Ernane T.; Correa, Fernando M.A.; Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Resstel, Leonardo B.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α 1 -adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β 2 -adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT 1A receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity contribute to

  14. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestani, Carlos C. [Department of Natural Active Principles and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. Estadual Paulista—UNESP (Brazil); Lopes da Silva, Andréia [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Scopinho, América A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ruginsk, Silvia G.; Uchoa, Ernane T. [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Correa, Fernando M.A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Resstel, Leonardo B.M., E-mail: leoresstel@yahoo.com.br [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT{sub 1A} receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity

  15. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitos, Silvia F; Arakaki, Renata; Solé, Dirceu; Weckx, Luc L M

    2013-01-01

    To assess speech alterations in mouth-breathing children, and to correlate them with the respiratory type, etiology, gender, and age. A total of 439 mouth-breathers were evaluated, aged between 4 and 12 years. The presence of speech alterations in children older than 5 years was considered delayed speech development. The observed alterations were tongue interposition (TI), frontal lisp (FL), articulatory disorders (AD), sound omissions (SO), and lateral lisp (LL). The etiology of mouth breathing, gender, age, respiratory type, and speech disorders were correlated. Speech alterations were diagnosed in 31.2% of patients, unrelated to the respiratory type: oral or mixed. Increased frequency of articulatory disorders and more than one speech disorder were observed in males. TI was observed in 53.3% patients, followed by AD in 26.3%, and by FL in 21.9%. The co-occurrence of two or more speech alterations was observed in 24.8% of the children. Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  17. Human muscle-specific A-kinase anchoring protein (mAKAP) polymorphisms modulate the susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases by altering cAMP/ PKA signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Santosh V; Jadhav, Shweta M; Anderson, Kody L; Katsonis, Panagiotis; Lichtarge, Olivier; McConnell, Bradley K

    2018-03-30

    One of the crucial cardiac signaling pathways is cAMP-mediated PKA signal transduction which is regulated by a family of scaffolding proteins, A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Muscle-specific AKAP (mAKAP) partly regulates cardiac cAMP/PKA signaling by binding to PKA and phosphodiesterase4D3 (PDE4D3) among other proteins and plays a central role in modulating cardiac remodeling. Moreover, genetics plays an incomparable role in modifying the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Especially, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in various proteins have been shown to predispose individuals to CVDs. Hence, we hypothesized that human mAKAP polymorphisms found in humans with CVDs alter cAMP/PKA pathway influencing the susceptibility of individuals to CVDs. Our computational analyses revealed two mAKAP SNPs found in cardiac disease related patients with highest predicted deleterious effects, Ser(S) 1653 Arg(R) and Glu(E) 2124 Gly(G). Co-immunoprecipitation data in HEK293T cells showed that S1653R SNP, present in the PDE4D3 binding domain of mAKAP, changed the binding of PDE4D3 to mAKAP and E2124G SNP, flanking the 3'-PKA binding domain, changed the binding of PKA before and after stimulation with isoproterenol. These SNPs significantly altered intracellular cAMP levels, global PKA activity and cytosolic PDE activity when compared with the wild-type (WT) before and after isoproterenol stimulation. PKA-mediated phosphorylation of pathological markers was found to be up-regulated after cell stimulation in both mutants. In conclusion, human mAKAP polymorphisms may influence the propensity of developing CVDs by affecting cAMP/PKA signaling supporting the clinical significance of PKA-mAKAP-PDE4D3 interactions.

  18. Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony R; Drvis, Ivan; Dujic, Zeljko; MacLeod, David B; Ainslie, Philip N

    2018-03-07

    What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport. In apnea sport, people compete in disciplines relating to underwater distances or simply maximal breath hold duration - with the current (oxygen un-supplemented) static breath hold record at 11:35 min. Remarkably, many ultra-elite apneists are able to supress respiratory urges to the point where consciousness fundamentally limits a breath hold duration. Here, arterial oxygen saturations as low as ∼50% have been reported. In such cases, oxygen conservation to maintain cerebral functioning is critical, where responses ascribed to the mammalian dive reflex - e.g., sympathetically mediated peripheral vaconstriction, and vagally mediated bradycardia - are central. In defence of maintaining global cerebral oxygen delivery during prolonged breath holds, the cerebral blood flow may increase by ∼100% from resting values. Interestingly, near the termination of prolonged dry static breath holds, recent studies also indicate that reductions in the cerebral oxidative metabolism can occur, likely attributable to the extreme hypercapnia and irrespective of the hypoxemia. In this review we highlight and discuss the recent data on the cardiovascular, metabolic and particularly cerebrovascular function in competitive apneists performing maximal static breath holds. The physiological adaptation and maladaptation with regular breath hold training are also summarized, and future research areas in this unique physiological field are highlighted

  19. Pulmonary Function Responses to Active Cycle Breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic heart failure patients experience restrictive respiratory dysfunction, resulting in alterations of FEV1, FVC and FEV /FVC as demonstrated in exercise 1 intolerance, dyspnoea and poor quality of life (QoL). Active Cycle of Breathing Techniques (ACBT) is traditionally used by Physiotherapists in the management of ...

  20. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000053.htm How to breathe when you are short of breath ... Watch TV Use your computer Read a newspaper How to do Pursed lip Breathing The steps to ...

  1. Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem As ... However, aging sometimes brings on other more serious breathing problems including incapacitating shortness of breath, chest discomfort, ...

  2. From breathing to respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Breath alcohol test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breath alcohol test measures the amount of alcohol in the blood by testing exhaled air. The test is performed by blowing ... breath machine 15 minutes after alcohol consumption. The test determines how much alcohol it takes to raise the blood-alcohol level ...

  4. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also placed on proper use of the abdominal muscles to better control episodes of shortness of breath, limit overuse of the accessory muscles and manage respiratory symptoms. Monitor Breathing During an activity, it is important to pause frequently to check ...

  5. Systematic review with meta-analysis: risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease suggest a shared altered metabolic and cardiovascular profile between lean and obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookoian, S; Pirola, C J

    2017-07-01

    The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with the co-occurrence of multiple pathological conditions characterising the metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity in particular. However, NAFLD also develops in lean subjects, whose risk factors remain poorly defined. We performed a meta-analysis of 15 studies, along with the data pertaining to our own population (n=336 patients). Data from lean (n=1966) and obese (n=5938) patients with NAFLD were analysed; lean (n=9946) and obese (n=6027) subjects without NAFLD served as controls. Relative to the lean non-NAFLD controls, lean patients with NAFLD were older (3.79±0.72 years, P=1.36×10 -6 ) and exhibited the entire spectrum of the MetS risk factors. Specifically, they had a significant (P=10 -10 ) increase in plasma glucose levels (6.44±1.12 mg/dL) and HOMA-IR (0.52±0.094-unit increment), blood lipids (triglycerides: 48.37±3.6, P=10 -10 and total cholesterol: 7.04±3.8, mg/dL, P=4.2×10 -7 ), systolic (5.64±0.7) and diastolic (3.37±0.9) blood pressure (mm Hg), P=10 -10 , and waist circumference (5.88±0.4 cm, P=10 -10 ); values denote difference in means±SE. Nevertheless, the overall alterations in the obese group were much more severe when compared to lean subjects, regardless of the presence of NAFLD. Meta-regression suggested that NAFLD is a modifier of the level of blood lipids. Lean and obese patients with NAFLD share a common altered metabolic and cardiovascular profile. The former, while having normal body weight, showed excess of abdominal adipose tissue as well as other MetS features. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 4D cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity mapping of alterations of right heart flow patterns and main pulmonary artery hemodynamics in tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess changes in right heart flow and pulmonary artery hemodynamics in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) we used whole heart, four dimensional (4D) velocity mapping (VM) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods CMR studies were performed in 11 subjects with rTOF (5M/6F; 20.1 ± 12.4 years) and 10 normal volunteers (6M/4F; 34.2 ± 13.4 years) on clinical 1.5T and 3.0T MR scanners. 4D VM-CMR was performed using PC VIPR (Phase Contrast Vastly undersampled Isotropic Projection Reconstruction). Interactive streamline and particle trace visualizations of the superior and inferior vena cava (IVC and SVC, respectively), right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and pulmonary artery (PA) were generated and reviewed by three experienced readers. Main PA net flow, retrograde flow, peak flow, time-to-peak flow, peak acceleration, resistance index and mean wall shear stress were quantified. Differences in flow patterns between the two groups were tested using Fisher's exact test. Differences in quantitative parameters were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Results 4D VM-CMR was successfully performed in all volunteers and subjects with TOF. Right heart flow patterns in rTOF subjects were characterized by (a) greater SVC/IVC flow during diastole than systole, (b) increased vortical flow patterns in the RA and in the RV during diastole, and (c) increased helical or vortical flow features in the PA's. Differences in main PA retrograde flow, resistance index, peak flow, time-to-peak flow, peak acceleration and mean wall shear stress were statistically significant. Conclusions Whole heart 4D VM-CMR with PC VIPR enables detection of both normal and abnormal right heart flow patterns, which may allow for comprehensive studies to evaluate interdependencies of post-surgically altered geometries and hemodynamics. PMID:22313680

  7. Sleep-disordered Breathing and Cancer Mortality: Results from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, F. Javier; Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Finn, Laurel; Hla, Khin Mae; Farré, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with total and cardiovascular mortality, but an association with cancer mortality has not been studied. Results from in vitro and animal studies suggest that intermittent hypoxia promotes cancer tumor growth.

  8. Alterações no modo respiratório, na oclusão e na fala em escolares: ocorrências e relações Alterations in breathing mode, occlusion and speech in school-age children: occurrences and relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cristina Berwig

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a ocorrência de alterações no modo respiratório, má oclusão e distúrbio articulatório, bem como a relação entre as mesmas, em crianças de escolas públicas do município de Santa Maria/Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: 308 crianças de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 6 e 11 anos, foram submetidas às avaliações fonoaudiológica e ortodôntica, sendo selecionadas 235, de acordo com critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Das informações coletadas nas avaliações, consideraram-se o modo respiratório, a classificação da oclusão segundo Angle e as alterações oclusais vertical e transversal, bem como o distúrbio articulatório. RESULTADOS: 60,43% crianças apresentaram alterações no modo respiratório; 97,02% más oclusões de Angle; 28,94% alteração oclusal vertical e transversal e 14,89% apresentaram distúrbio articulatório. Relações significativas foram encontradas entre distúrbio articulatório e alteração oclusal vertical e transversal, modo respiratório e má oclusão de Angle e entre má oclusão de Angle e alteração oclusal vertical e transversal. CONCLUSÃO: as más oclusões e as alterações do modo respiratório foram frequentes no grupo de escolares estudados. As relações verificadas reforçam a ideia de que existe uma estreita relação entre as estruturas e funções do sistema estomatognático, razão pela qual merecem atenção de diversos profissionais da área da saúde.PURPOSE: to check the occurrence of articulation disorders, alterations in breathing mode and malocclusion as well as the relation among theses variables in public-school children. METHODS: 308 female and male children aged between 6 and 11 years were submitted to speech pathologic and orthodontic evaluations, being selected 235. From the information collected in the evaluations, we considered: breathing mode, malocclusion by Angle's classification and transverse alterations, as well as articulation disorder

  9. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough air. Shortness of breath — known medically as dyspnea — is often described as an intense tightening in ... properly. Schwartzstein RM. Approach to the patient with dyspnea. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 4, ...

  10. Mapleson's Breathing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where...

  11. Morbidity prior to a Diagnosis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes burden to the sufferer, the healthcare system, and society. Most studies have focused on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) after a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS); however, the overall morbidity prior...

  12. Imposed Work of Breathing and Breathing Comfort of Nonintubated Volunteers Breathing with Three Portable Ventilators and a Critical Care Ventilator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the imposed inspiratory work of breathing and breathing comfort of nonintubated healthy volunteers breathing spontaneously through three portable ventilators...

  13. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on Cardiovascular Autonomic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Suzanne M; Muresan, Cristen; Schoerning, Laura; Winkelman, John W; Taylor, J Andrew

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate specific alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control. Patients with moderate-severe restless legs syndrome (n = 20, 80% female) and controls (n = 20) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease were enrolled. We assessed cardiovagal baroreflex gain via the modified Oxford technique, sympathetically mediated vascular responses to isometric exercise to fatigue, bradycardiac response to Valsalva maneuver, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during paced breathing. Standard electrocardiography, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiration, and popliteal blood flow velocity were recorded continuously. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups. However, baroreflex gain averaged 14.3 ± 1.4 msec/mm Hg in restless legs syndrome and was lower than in controls (22.6 ± 3.5 msec/mm Hg, P = 0.04). Hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise were similar between groups, though participants with restless legs syndrome had lower leg blood flow (P leg vascular resistance (P restless legs syndrome demonstrate compromised cardiovagal control, specific to the arterial baroreflex, with greater peripheral vascular resistance, potentially due to heightened sympathetic outflow. These autonomic alterations may directly relate to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in restless legs syndrome. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Trembach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n=14, 45 to 60 years (n=13, 60 to 75 years (n=12, and older than 75 years (n=8. Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO2 test was performed the following day. Results. No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding (r=0.13 and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2 (r=0.07. In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO2 test. Conclusion. A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  15. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods . The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years ( n = 14), 45 to 60 years ( n = 13), 60 to 75 years ( n = 12), and older than 75 years ( n = 8). Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO 2 ) test was performed the following day. Results . No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding ( r = 0.13) and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO 2 ( r = 0.07). In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO 2 test. Conclusion . A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  16. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy: Conventional cardiovascular laboratory testing and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, W.; Smith, A. A. J.; Karemaker, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Cardiovascular reflex tests remain the investigational cornerstone for the assessment of patients in the clinical autonomic laboratory. Three cardiovagal tests have been found suitable for testing: the instantaneous heart rate responses induced by deep breathing, Valsalva's manoeuvre and standing

  17. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  18. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  19. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  20. Radon-in-breath measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    A review of literature on the area of radon breath measurements has shown that respiratory factors have been largely ignored. The history of breathing room-air radon concentrations and the variations in respiratory parameters for each individual have been the major contributing factors for poor reproducibility in radon breath measurements performed by past researchers

  1. Alteration in respiratory physiology in obesity for anesthesia-critical care physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porhomayon, J; Papadakos, P; Singh, A; Nader, N D

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is known to be a major risk factor of a whole range of cardiovascular, metabolic and respiratory disorders. The pattern of regional fat distribution plays an important role in the pre-disposition of obese subjects to respiratory complications. Obesity is responsible for important changes in respiratory function both during spontaneous breathing as well as during general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. The most characteristic abnormalities consist of decreased functional residual capacity, reduced expiratory reserve volume, decreased compliance and increased resistance of the respiratory system. Breathing at low lung volume promotes airway closure in the dependent lung zones with consequent gas exchange abnormalities even though lung carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity is normal or increased. Weight loss can reduce many of the alterations in pulmonary function related to obesity.

  2. Postural control of mouth breathing school aged children regarding gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggia, Bruna; Correa, Bruna; Pranke, Gabriel Ivan; Facco, Rudi; Rossi, Angela Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Postural control of mouth breathing school aged children. To compare the posture and body balance of school aged children groups, with and without oral breathing considering the variable gender. The study was developed at a municipal school in the city of Santa Maria (Brazil) and received prior approval of the ethics committee of the University of Santa Maria. The study group (with oral breathing) and the control group (without oral breathing) were selected based on an anamnesis, age (between 8 and 12 years), assessment of the stomatognathic system and auditory evaluation. The final sample was composed by 51 children in the study group (20 female and 31 male) and 58 in the control group (34 female and 24 male). Both groups were submitted to a dynamic posturography (sensory organization test--SOT) and to a postural assessment in right and left lateral view. Regarding the female gender, a statistically significant difference was observed for the angle that evaluates head horizontal alignment; for the SOT III value and for all SOT mean values. As for the male gender, a significant numerical difference was observed for the knee angle, for the ankle angle, for the SOT III value, for the SOT IV value and for all SOT mean values. School aged children with oral breathing present postural alterations; females present head positing alterations and males present alterations in the position of the inferior limbs. The body balance of school aged children with oral breathing, of both genders, demonstrated to be altered when compared to children without oral breathing, especially in the presence of sensorial conflict.

  3. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensitivity of ventilation in amphibious crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, breathing air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Andrew T; Henry, Raymond P

    2004-05-01

    Amphibious crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, were acclimated to breathing either air or water and exposed to altered levels of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide in the medium. Hypercapnia (22, 36 and 73 torr CO(2)) stimulated a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) in both groups of crabs, with a much greater effect on scaphognathite frequency (Deltaf(SC)=+700%) in air-breathing crabs than water-breathing crabs (Deltaf(SC)=+100%). In contrast, hyperoxia induced significant hypoventilation in both sets of crabs. However, simultaneous hyperoxia and hypercapnia triggered a greater than 10-fold increase in f(SC) in air-breathing crabs but no change in water-breathing crabs. For water-breathing crabs hypoxia simultaneous with hypercapnia triggered the same response as hypoxia alone-bradycardia (-50%), and a significant increase in f(SC) at moderate exposures but not at the more extreme levels. The response of air-breathing crabs to hypoxia concurrent with hypercapnia was proportionally closer to the response to hypercapnia alone than to hypoxia. Thus, C. guanhumi were more sensitive to ambient CO(2) than O(2) when breathing air, characteristic of fully terrestrial species, and more sensitive to ambient O(2) when breathing water, characteristic of fully aquatic species. C. guanhumi possesses both an O(2)- and a CO(2)-based ventilatory drive whether breathing air or water, but the relative importance switches when the respiratory medium is altered.

  4. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  6. [TMJ, eating and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    The study of the relationship between temporomandibular joints (TMJ), mastication and ventilation and the involvement of these two functions in the genesis of primary Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and in some dentofacial deformities, was initiated in France, more than 30years, by Professor Raymond Gola. Once criticized the weakness of the scientific literature in this domain, the originality of the TMJ within the masticatory system is recalled with its huge adaptation potential to very different biomechanical constraints according to the age and masticatory activities during the day. But the biomechanics of the masticatory system does not stop at night and the positions of the mandible and head during sleep should be studied carefully. In case of nocturnal mouth breathing with open mouth, the predominant sleeping position (generating small but long-term strengths) may be deleterious to the condyle-disc complex, to the surrounding muscles and the occlusal relationships. Some condyle-disc displacements and asymmetric malocclusions occur in this long portion of life what sleep, especially as oral breathing leads to a lot of dysfunctions (low position of the tongue, labio-lingual dysfunctions, exacerbation of bruxism sleep…). The aim of this work was to share our multidisciplinary experience of the biomechanical consequences of the nocturnal mouth breathing on the face involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, allergists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and radiologists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Postirradiation cardiovascular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.N.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction may be defined as the inability of any element of the cardiovascular system to perform adequately upon demand, leading to inadequate performance and nutritive insufficiency of various parts of the body. Exposure to supralethal doses of radiation (accidental and therapeutic) has been show to induce significant alterations in cardiovascular function in man. These findings indicate that, after irradiation, cardiovascular function is a major determinant of continued performance and even survival. For the two persons who received massive radiation doses (45 and 88 Gy, respectively) in criticality accidents, the inability to maintain systematic arterial blood pressure (AP) was the immediate cause of death. In a study of cancer patients given partial-body irradiation, two acute lethalities were attributed to myocardial infarction after an acute hypotensive episode during the first few hours postexposure. Although radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction has been observed in many species, its severity, duration, and even etiology may vary with the species, level of exposure, and dose rate. For this reason, our consideration of the effects of radiation on cardiovascular performance is limited to the circulatory derangements that occur in rat, dog, and monkey after supralethal doses and lead to radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in these experimental models. The authors consider other recent data as they pertain to the etiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in irradiated animals

  8. Electronic Nose Functionality for Breath Gas Analysis during Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E.; Hummel, Thomas; Fetter, Viktor; Helwig, Andreas; Lenic, Joachim; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkow, Dimitrij; Chouker, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav

    2017-06-01

    The presence of humans in space represents a constant threat for their health and safety. Environmental factors such as living in a closed confinement, as well as exposure to microgravity and radiation, are associated with significant changes in bone metabolism, muscular atrophy, and altered immune response, which has impacts on human performance and possibly results in severe illness. Thus, maintaining and monitoring of crew health status has the highest priority to ensure whole mission success. With manned deep space missions to moon or mars appearing at the horizon where short-term repatriation back to earth is impossible the availability of appropriate diagnostic platforms for crew health status is urgently needed. In response to this need, the present experiment evaluated the functionality and practicability of a metal oxide based sensor system (eNose) together with a newly developed breath gas collecting device under the condition of altering acceleration. Parabolic flights were performed with an Airbus A300 ZeroG at Bordeaux, France. Ambient air and exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers was analyzed during steady state flight and parabolic flight maneuvres. All volunteers completed the study, the breath gas collecting device valves worked appropriately, and breathing through the collecting device was easy and did not induce discomfort. During breath gas measurements, significant changes in metal oxide sensors, mainly sensitive to aromatic and sulphur containing compounds, were observed with alternating conditions of acceleration. Similarly, metal oxide sensors showed significant changes in all sensors during ambient air measurements. The eNose as well as the newly developed breath gas collecting device, showed appropriate functionality and practicability during alternating conditions of acceleration which is a prerequisite for the intended use of the eNose aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for breath gas analysis and crew health status

  9. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several decades. These trends are also visible in developing economies like India. Childhood obesity impacts all the major organ systems of the body and is well known to result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated atherosclerotic processes, including elevated blood pressure (BP, atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiac structural and functional changes and obstructive sleep apnea. Probable mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include insulin resistance, sodium retention, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and altered vascular function. Adiposity promotes cardiovascular risk clustering during childhood and adolescence. Insulin resistance has a strong association with childhood obesity. A variety of proinflammatory mediators that are associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction are also known to be influenced by obesity levels. Obesity in early life promotes atherosclerotic disease in vascular structures such as the aorta and the coronary arteries. Childhood and adolescent adiposity has strong influences on the structure and function of the heart, predominantly of the left ventricle. Obesity compromises pulmonary function and increases the risk of sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. Neglecting childhood and adolescent obesity will compromise the cardiovascular health of the pediatric population and is likely to result in a serious public health crisis in future.

  10. Effect of rosary prayer and yoga mantras on autonomic cardiovascular rhythms: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, L; Sleight, P; Bandinelli, G; Cencetti, S; Fattorini, L; Wdowczyc-Szulc, J; Lagi, A

    To test whether rhythmic formulas such as the rosary and yoga mantras can synchronise and reinforce inherent cardiovascular rhythms and modify baroreflex sensitivity. Comparison of effects of recitation of the Ave Maria (in Latin) or of a mantra, during spontaneous and metronome controlled breathing, on breathing rate and on spontaneous oscillations in RR interval, and on blood pressure and cerebral circulation. Florence and Pavia, Italy. 23 healthy adults. Breathing rate, regularity of breathing, baroreflex sensitivity, frequency of cardiovascular oscillations. Both prayer and mantra caused striking, powerful, and synchronous increases in existing cardiovascular rhythms when recited six times a minute. Baroreflex sensitivity also increased significantly, from 9.5 (SD 4.6) to 11.5 (4.9) ms/mm Hg, P<0.05. Rhythm formulas that involve breathing at six breaths per minute induce favourable psychological and possibly physiological effects.

  11. Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca y alteraciones del ritmo cardiaco asociados a la terapia con células progenitoras en enfermedad cardiovascular Heart rate variability and cardiac rhythm alterations associated with stem cell therapy in cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Orrego

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en los pacientes con falla cardiaca y cardiopatía isquémica elegibles para la terapia de células progenitoras derivadas de la médula ósea, se ha demostrado la disminución de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca [medida por la desviación estándar del intervalo RR (NN SDNN, siglas en inglés], situación que se relaciona con un aumento del riesgo cardiovascular y de eventos arrítmicos, como consecuencia de una disfunción del sistema nervioso autónomo. Métodos: se analizaron los pacientes que recibieron trasplante autólogo derivado de la médula ósea y que tenían enfermedad cardiaca isquémica aguda o crónica con fracción de eyección menor del 45%, susceptibles o no de revascularización quirúrgica y zonas de tejido miocárdico necrótico y viable. Se les realizó monitoreo Holter de 24 horas pre-trasplante, a los dos, seis y doce meses posteriores a la intervención. Resultados: se analizaron los datos de 16 pacientes, en lo referente al promedio de la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, mínima y media, la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca y la aparición de arritmias ventriculares malignas. La terapia con células progenitoras derivadas de la médula ósea, se asoció con una mejoría estadísticamente significativa en la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca (SDNN pasando de 65,44 ± 27 ms a 102,12 ± 37,88 ms (p= 0,004 y 100,23 ± 42,88 ms (p= 0,013 a los dos y seis meses respectivamente. En cuanto a la clasificación de riesgo cardiovascular de acuerdo con la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca (SDNN, todos los pacientes considerados de alto riesgo (SDNN Introduction: in patients with chronic heart failure and ischemic cardiopathy eligible for therapy with stem cells derived from bone marrow, it has been demonstrated that there is a decrease in Heart Rate Variability (HRV, measured by the standard deviation of RR interval (NN SDNN, situation related to an increase of cardiovascular risk and arrhythmic

  12. Excitatory amino acid receptor blockade within the caudal pressor area and rostral ventrolateral medulla alters cardiovascular responses to nucleus raphe obscurus stimulation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressor responses elicited by stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO depend on the integrity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. Therefore, to test the participation of excitatory amino acid (EAA receptors in the cardiovascular responses evoked by NRO stimulation (1 ms, 100 Hz, 40-70 µA, for 10 s, the EAA antagonist kynurenic acid (Kyn was microinjected at different sites in the ventrolateral medullar surface (2.7 nmol/200 nl of male Wistar rats (270-320 g, N = 39 and NRO stimulation was repeated. The effects of NRO stimulation were: hypertension (deltaMAP = +43 ± 1 mmHg, P<0.01, bradycardia (deltaHR = -30 ± 7 bpm, P<0.01 and apnea. Bilateral microinjection of Kyn into the RVLM, which did not change baseline parameters, almost abolished the bradycardia induced by NRO stimulation (deltaHR = -61 ± 3 before vs -2 ± 3 bpm after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. Unilateral microinjection of Kyn into the CVLM did not change baseline parameters or reduce the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 5 before vs +48 ± 5 mmHg after Kyn, N = 6. Kyn bilaterally microinjected into the caudal pressor area reduced blood pressure and heart rate and almost abolished the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 4 mmHg before vs +4 ± 2 mmHg after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. These results indicate that EAA receptors on the medullary ventrolateral surface play a role in the modulation of the cardiovascular responses induced by NRO stimulation, and also suggest that the RVLM participates in the modulation of heart rate responses and that the caudal pressor area modulates the pressor response following NRO stimulation.

  13. Antioxidants from diet or supplements do not alter inflammatory markers in adults with cardiovascular disease risk. A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Tsao, Philip; Rigdon, Joseph; Gardner, Christopher D

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidants have been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects, but there is a lack of research comparing food to supplement antioxidant sources. The aim of this study was to determine if increases in intake of foods naturally rich in antioxidants would lower blood levels of inflammatory markers more than consuming antioxidant supplements among adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Eighty-eight generally healthy adults with ≥1 elevated risk factor for cardiovascular disease were randomized in a single-blind (diets)/double-blind (supplements), parallel-group study for 8 weeks. Participants consumed (1) usual diet and placebo pills (n = 29), (2) usual diet and antioxidant supplements (n = 29), or (3) antioxidant-rich foods closely matched to antioxidant content of supplements and placebo (n = 30). Usual diet combined with antioxidant supplements or increased antioxidant-rich food intake was designed to approximately double daily habitual antioxidant intake. Antioxidant pills included carotenoids, mixed tocopherols, vitamin C, and selenium. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for inflammatory marker concentrations of interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Participants in the intervention groups successfully doubled most antioxidants as verified by diet records and elevated blood concentrations in treatment groups. Baseline levels of inflammatory markers for the entire study group were 110 ± 65 pg/mL for monocyte chemotactic protein-1, 0.9 ± 0.7 pg/mL for interleukin-6, and 217 ± 56 ng/mL for soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (means ± standard deviation) and did not differ by treatment arm. After 8 weeks, there were no significant within-group changes or between-group 8-week change differences in inflammatory marker concentrations. In conclusion, no beneficial effects were detected on the inflammatory markers investigated in response to antioxidants from foods or supplements. Copyright

  14. Slow Breathing and Hypoxic Challenge: Cardiorespiratory Consequences and Their Central Neural Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Hugo D.; Nicotra, Alessia; Chiesa, Patrizia A.; Nagai, Yoko; Gray, Marcus A.; Minati, Ludovico; Bernardi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Controlled slow breathing (at 6/min, a rate frequently adopted during yoga practice) can benefit cardiovascular function, including responses to hypoxia. We tested the neural substrates of cardiorespiratory control in humans during volitional controlled breathing and hypoxic challenge using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy volunteers were scanned during paced (slow and normal rate) breathing and during spontaneous breathing of normoxic and hypoxic (13% inspired O2) air. Cardiovascular and respiratory measures were acquired concurrently, including beat-to-beat blood pressure from a subset of participants (N = 7). Slow breathing was associated with increased tidal ventilatory volume. Induced hypoxia raised heart rate and suppressed heart rate variability. Within the brain, slow breathing activated dorsal pons, periaqueductal grey matter, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus and lateral and anterior insular cortices. Blocks of hypoxia activated mid pons, bilateral amygdalae, anterior insular and occipitotemporal cortices. Interaction between slow breathing and hypoxia was expressed in ventral striatal and frontal polar activity. Across conditions, within brainstem, dorsal medullary and pontine activity correlated with tidal volume and inversely with heart rate. Activity in rostroventral medulla correlated with beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate variability. Widespread insula and striatal activity tracked decreases in heart rate, while subregions of insular cortex correlated with momentary increases in tidal volume. Our findings define slow breathing effects on central and cardiovascular responses to hypoxic challenge. They highlight the recruitment of discrete brainstem nuclei to cardiorespiratory control, and the engagement of corticostriatal circuitry in support of physiological responses that accompany breathing regulation during hypoxic challenge. PMID:25973923

  15. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas and...

  16. Etiopathogenetic Mechanisms of Pulmonary Hypertension in Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Adegunsoye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common disorder with significant health consequences and is on the rise in consonance with the obesity pandemic. In view of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and pulmonary hypertension as depicted by multiple studies, current clinical practice guidelines categorize obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for pulmonary hypertension and recommend an assessment for sleep disordered breathing in evaluating patients with pulmonary hypertension. The dysregulatory mechanisms associated with hypoxemic episodes observed in sleep related breathing disorders contribute to the onset of pulmonary hypertension and identification of these potentially treatable factors might help in the reduction of overall cardiovascular mortality.

  17. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality.Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  18. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    breathing through walls. Other remote breath tracking systems has been presented that are based on the Ultra-wideband radar technique. However, these systems have two drawbacks. Firstly, they penetrate walls. It is therefore harder to contain the emitted radiation and they could be used for unsolicited...

  19. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  20. Investigation into breath meditation: Phenomenological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This integral heuristic phenomenological investigation records participants' experiences of a single session of breath meditation with special reference to psychotherapy and sport psychology. There were 8 participants, 4 men and 4 women, with mean age of 45 years and age range from 31 to 62 years. Various breathing ...

  1. Cocoa Consumption Alters the Global DNA Methylation of Peripheral Leukocytes in Humans with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Crescenti

    Full Text Available DNA methylation regulates gene expression and can be modified by different bioactive compounds in foods, such as polyphenols. Cocoa is a rich source of polyphenols, but its role in DNA methylation is still unknown. The objective was to assess the effect of cocoa consumption on DNA methylation and to determine whether the enzymes involved in the DNA methylation process participate in the mechanisms by which cocoa exerts these effects in humans. The global DNA methylation levels in the peripheral blood were evaluated in 214 volunteers who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive or hypercholesterolemic. The volunteers were divided into two groups: 110 subjects who consumed cocoa (6 g/d for two weeks and 104 control subjects. In addition, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from six subjects were treated with a cocoa extract to analyze the mRNA levels of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR genes. Cocoa consumption significantly reduced the DNA methylation levels (2.991±0.366 vs. 3.909±0.380, p<0.001. Additionally, we found an association between the cocoa effects on DNA methylation and three polymorphisms located in the MTHFR, MTRR, and DNMT3B genes. Furthermore, in PBMCs, the cocoa extract significantly lowered the mRNA levels of the DNMTs, MTHFR, and MTRR. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the consumption of cocoa decreases the global DNA methylation of peripheral leukocytes in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. In vitro experiments with PBMCs suggest that cocoa may exert this effect partially via the down-regulation of DNMTs, MTHFR and MTRR, which are key genes involved in this epigenetic process.Clinicaltrials.govNCT00511420 and NCT00502047.

  2. Assessing and ensuring patient safety during breath-holding for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, M J; Green, S; Stevens, A M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2014-11-01

    While there is recent interest in using repeated deep inspiratory breath-holds, or prolonged single breath-holds, to improve radiotherapy delivery, breath-holding has risks. There are no published guidelines for monitoring patient safety, and there is little clinical awareness of the pronounced blood pressure rise and the potential for gradual asphyxia that occur during breath-holding. We describe the blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holding with air and test whether it can be abolished simply by pre-oxygenation and hypocapnia. We measured blood pressure, oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate in 12 healthy, untrained subjects performing breath-holds. Even for deep inspiratory breath-holds with air, the blood pressure rose progressively (e.g. mean systolic pressure rose from 133 ± 5 to 175 ± 8 mmHg at breakpoint, p breath-hold duration and prevented the development of asphyxia but failed to abolish the pressure rise. The pressure rise was not a function of breath-hold duration and was not signalled by any fall in heart rate (remaining at resting levels of 72 ± 2 beats per minute). Colleagues should be aware of the progressive blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holding that so far is not easily prevented. In breast cancer patients scheduled for breath-holds, we recommend routine screening for heart, cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular disease, routine monitoring of patient blood pressure and SpO2 during breath-holding and requesting patients to stop if systolic pressure rises consistently >180 mmHg and or SpO2 falls breath-holds, or prolonged single breath-holding techniques, to improve radiotherapy delivery. But there appears to be no clinical awareness of the risks to patients from breath-holding. We demonstrate the progressive blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holds with air, which we show cannot be prevented by the simple expedient of pre-oxygenation and hypocapnia. We propose patient

  3. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  4. Altered Protein Expression of Cardiac CYP2J and Hepatic CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4F in a Mouse Model of Type II Diabetes—A Link in the Onset and Development of Cardiovascular Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Drolet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid can be metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450 enzymes in a tissue- and cell-specific manner to generate vasoactive products such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs-cardioprotective and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs-cardiotoxic. Type II diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. A mouse model of Type II diabetes (C57BLKS/J-db/db was used. After sacrifice, livers and hearts were collected, washed, and snap frozen. Total proteins were extracted. Western blots were performed to assess cardiac CYP2J and hepatic CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4F protein expression, respectively. Significant decreases in relative protein expression of cardiac CYP2J and hepatic CYP2C were observed in Type II diabetes animals compared to controls (CYP2J: 0.80 ± 0.03 vs. 1.05 ± 0.06, n = 20, p < 0.001; (CYP2C: 1.56 ± 0.17 vs. 2.21 ± 0.19, n = 19, p < 0.01. In contrast, significant increases in relative protein expression of both hepatic CYP4A and CYP4F were noted in Type II diabetes mice compared to controls (CYP4A: 1.06 ± 0.09 vs. 0.18 ± 0.01, n = 19, p < 0.001; (CYP4F: 2.53 ± 0.22 vs. 1.10 ± 0.07, n = 19, p < 0.001. These alterations induced by Type II diabetes in the endogenous pathway (CYP450 of arachidonic acid metabolism may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease by disrupting the fine equilibrium between cardioprotective (CYP2J/CYP2C-generated and cardiotoxic (CYP4A/CYP4F-generated metabolites of arachidonic acid.

  5. Sympathetic and Catecholaminergic Alterations in Sleep Apnea with Particular Emphasis on Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahed eHakim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is involved in the regulation of major organ functions in the human body, and disruption of sleep potentially can elicit organ dysfunction. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most prevalent sleep disorder of breathing in adults and children, and its manifestations reflect the interactions between intermittent hypoxia (IH, intermittent hypercapnia, increased intra-thoracic pressure swings, and sleep fragmentation, as elicited by the episodic changes in upper airway resistance during sleep. The sympathetic nervous system is an important modulator of the cardiovascular, immune, endocrine and metabolic systems, and alterations in autonomic activity may lead to metabolic imbalance and organ dysfunction. Here we review how OSA and its constitutive components can lead to perturbation of the autonomic nervous system in general, and to altered regulation of catecholamines, both of which then playing an important role in some of the mechanisms underlying OSA-induced morbidities.

  6. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  7. Practice It: Deep Conscious Breathing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    No time to sit and breathe? No problem; take your breathing practice with you! Deep conscious breathing can also be done with the eyes open wherever you happen to be—simply pause and take two to three full deep breaths (inhale deeply and exhale completely).

  8. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Cardiovascular Remodeling Is Reversed by Normoxia in a Mouse Model of Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Grattoni, Anabel L; Alvarez-Buvé, Roger; Torres, Marta; Farré, Ramon; Montserrat, Josep M; Dalmases, Mireia; Almendros, Isaac; Barbé, Ferran; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is the principal injurious factor involved in the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with OSA. The gold standard for treatment is CPAP, which eliminates IH and appears to reduce cardiovascular risk. There is no experimental evidence on the reversibility of cardiovascular remodeling after IH withdrawal. The objective of the present study is to assess the reversibility of early cardiovascular structural remodeling induced by IH after resumption of normoxic breathing in a novel recovery animal model mimicking OSA treatment. We investigated cardiovascular remodeling in C57BL/6 mice exposed to IH for 6 weeks vs the normoxia group and its spontaneous recovery after 6 subsequent weeks under normoxia. Aortic expansive remodeling was induced by IH, with intima-media thickening and without lumen perimeter changes. Elastic fiber network disorganization, fragmentation, and estrangement between the end points of disrupted fibers were increased by IH. Extracellular matrix turnover was altered, as visualized by collagen and mucoid interlaminar accumulation. Furthermore, left ventricular perivascular fibrosis was increased by IH, whereas cardiomyocytes size was unaffected. These cardiovascular remodeling events induced by IH were normalized after recovery in normoxia, mimicking CPAP treatment. The early structural cardiovascular remodeling induced by IH was normalized after IH removal, revealing a novel recovery model for studying the effects of OSA treatment. Our findings suggest the clinical relevance of early detection and effective treatment of OSA in patients to prevent the natural course of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  10. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  11. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  12. Effects of glucose ingestion on autonomic and cardiovascular measures during rest and mental challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synowski, S.J.; Kop, W.J.; Warwick, Z.S.; Waldstein, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of dietary sugar consumption may result in dysregulated glucose metabolism and lead to elevated cardiovascular disease risk via autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular dysfunction. Altered cardiovascular function can be examined using perturbation tasks such as mental

  13. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauro Salomoni

    Full Text Available Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential

  14. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  15. Prediction of lung cancer using volatile biomarkers in breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Altorki, Nasser; Austin, John H M; Cameron, Robert B; Cataneo, Renee N; Greenberg, Joel; Kloss, Robert; Maxfield, Roger A; Munawar, Muhammad I; Pass, Harvey I; Rashid, Asif; Rom, William N; Schmitt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Normal metabolism generates several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are excreted in the breath (e.g. alkanes). In patients with lung cancer, induction of high-risk cytochrome p450 genotypes may accelerate catabolism of these VOCs, so that their altered abundance in breath may provide biomarkers of lung cancer. VOCs in 1.0 L alveolar breath were analyzed in 193 subjects with primary lung cancer and 211 controls with a negative chest CT. Subjects were randomly assigned to a training set or to a prediction set in a 2:1 split. A fuzzy logic model of breath biomarkers of lung cancer was constructed in the training set and then tested in subjects in the prediction set by generating their typicality scores for lung cancer. Mean typicality scores employing a 16 VOC model were significantly higher in lung cancer patients than in the control group (pmodel predicted primary lung cancer with 84.6% sensitivity, 80.0% specificity, and 0.88 area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Predictive accuracy was similar in TNM stages 1 through 4, and was not affected by current or former tobacco smoking. The predictive model achieved near-maximal performance with six breath VOCs, and was progressively degraded by random classifiers. Predictions with fuzzy logic were consistently superior to multilinear analysis. If applied to a population with 2% prevalence of lung cancer, a screening breath test would have a negative predictive value of 0.985 and a positive predictive value of 0.163 (true positive rate =0.277, false positive rate =0.029). A two-minute breath test predicted lung cancer with accuracy comparable to screening CT of chest. The accuracy of the test was not affected by TNM stage of disease or tobacco smoking. Alterations in breath VOCs in lung cancer were consistent with a non-linear pathophysiologic process, such as an off-on switch controlling high-risk cytochrome p450 activity. Further research is needed to determine if detection

  16. Cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanAman, M.; Mueller, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Soon after Roentgen documented the uses of x-rays in 1895, fluoroscopic and film evaluation of the heart began. Even today the chest roentgenogram remains one of the first and most frequently used studies for the evaluation of the normal and abnormal heart and great vessels. This chapter gives an overview of plain film evaluation of the cardiovascular system and follow up with comments on the newer imaging modalities of computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography, in the cardiovascular disease workup. The authors present an evaluation of plain films of the chest, which remains their most cost effective, available, simple, and reliable initial screening tool in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease

  17. Craniofacial growth variations in nasal-breathing, oral-breathing, and tracheotomized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakor, Silvia Fuerte; Enlow, Donald H; Pontes, Paulo; De Biase, Noemi Grigoletto

    2011-10-01

    Childhood oral breathing can alter muscular balance and lead to facial deformities. No articles in the literature have reported on the alteration of facial growth patterns in patients who have received tracheotomies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate craniofacial developmental consequences originating from variations in breathing mechanisms in children who are nasal breathers or oral breathers, and those who have been tracheotomized. The sample was divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The nasal group had a mean age of 13.9 years, the oral group had a mean age of 12.7 years, and the tracheotomy group had a mean age of 12.8 years. The masseter and suprahyoid muscles were evaluated with electromyography. The following measurements were made: facial, maxillary, and mandibular widths; nasion-sella-gnathion angle; and facial index. The tracheotomized group was similar to the nasal group for greater activity of the masseter muscles than of the suprahyoid muscles during mastication, as well as in the measurements of facial, maxillary, and mandibular widths. The oral group showed reductions in each category. The tracheotomized group was similar to the oral group during maximum dental occlusion for significantly higher activity of the suprahyoid muscles compared with the masseter muscles, with reductions in vertical values. A childhood tracheotomy might affect facial development in a way comparable with that of oral breathers, including abnormal facial growth variations. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating......, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  19. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  20. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Hitos

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.

  1. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  2. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  3. Stroke and sleep-disordered breathing: A relationship under construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Olga; Arboix, Adrià

    2016-02-16

    The association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cardiovascular risk has been the focus of attention in recent years. Sleep disorders are emerging risk factors for cardiovascular disease and have been related to the whole spectrum of stroke, including transient ischemic attack, ischemic cerebral infarction and intracerebral haemorrhage. It has been shown that lacunar stroke or lacunar infarctions affecting the internal capsule or the protuberance are associated with a higher frequency of SDB. Acute stroke patients with associated SDB have a worse prognosis and a higher mortality as compared to patients with first-ever stroke without SDB. Preliminary studies provide evidence of the usefulness of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure when SDB is present in stroke patients.

  4. Analytical methodologies for broad metabolite coverage of exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Schivo, Michael; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-09-01

    Breath analysis has been gaining popularity as a non-invasive technique that is amenable to a broad range of medical uses. One of the persistent problems hampering the wide application of the breath analysis method is measurement variability of metabolite abundances stemming from differences in both sampling and analysis methodologies used in various studies. Mass spectrometry has been a method of choice for comprehensive metabolomic analysis. For the first time in the present study, we juxtapose the most commonly employed mass spectrometry-based analysis methodologies and directly compare the resultant coverages of detected compounds in exhaled breath condensate in order to guide methodology choices for exhaled breath condensate analysis studies. Four methods were explored to broaden the range of measured compounds across both the volatile and non-volatile domain. Liquid phase sampling with polyacrylate Solid-Phase MicroExtraction fiber, liquid phase extraction with a polydimethylsiloxane patch, and headspace sampling using Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane Solid-Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were tested for the analysis of volatile fraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used for analysis of non-volatile fraction. We found that liquid phase breath condensate extraction was notably superior compared to headspace extraction and differences in employed sorbents manifested altered metabolite coverages. The most pronounced effect was substantially enhanced metabolite capture for larger, higher-boiling compounds using polyacrylate SPME liquid phase sampling. The analysis of the non-volatile fraction of breath condensate by hydrophilic and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry indicated orthogonal metabolite coverage by these chromatography modes. We found that the metabolite coverage

  5. Cardiovascular genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wung, Shu-Fen; Hickey, Kathleen T; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Gallek, Matthew J

    2013-03-01

    This article provides an update on cardiovascular genomics using three clinically relevant exemplars, including myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRUCT: Recent advances in cardiovascular genomic research, testing, and clinical implications are presented. Genomic nurse experts reviewed and summarized recent salient literature to provide updates on three selected cardiovascular genomic conditions. Research is ongoing to discover comprehensive genetic markers contributing to many common forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including MI and stroke. However, genomic technologies are increasingly being used clinically, particularly in patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who are at risk for SCD. Currently, there are no clinically recommended genetic tests for many common forms of CVD even though direct-to-consumer genetic tests are being marketed to healthcare providers and the general public. On the other hand, genetic testing for patients with certain single gene conditions, including channelopathies (e.g., LQTS) and cardiomyopathies (e.g., HCM), is recommended clinically. Nurses play a pivotal role in cardiogenetics and are actively engaged in direct clinical care of patients and families with a wide variety of heritable conditions. It is important for nurses to understand current development of cardiovascular genomics and be prepared to translate the new genomic knowledge into practice. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. 14CO2 in breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, J.L.; Lopez-Majano, V.

    1981-01-01

    The diagnosis of metabolic disorders can be made by detecting 14 CO 2 in the breath. This is possible because 14 CO 2 can label any organic compound without any deteriorations in the nature of the compound. This type of analysis is dependable, noninvasive and simple to perform with a scintillation counter. (orig.)

  7. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  8. Breathing retraining: a rational placebo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, B.; de Ruiter, C.; van Dyck, R.

    1992-01-01

    Breathing retraining of patients with Hyperventilation Syndrome (HVS) and/or panic disorder is discussed to evaluate its clinical effectiveness and to examine the mechanism that mediates its effect. In relation to this theoretical question, the validity of HVS as a scientific model is discussed and

  9. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  10. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and that...

  11. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  12. Breath psychotherapy | Edwards | Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breath psychotherapy is an approach that makes direct use of the breath in healing. There are many forms of breathbased healing: basic breathing and relaxation methods, with or without the practice of psychological skills such as imagery, centring and concentration; expressive physical and emotional techniques; ...

  13. Consciously controlled breathing decreases the high-frequency component of heart rate variability by inhibiting cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Konosuke; Maruyama, Ryoko

    2014-07-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat alterations in heart rate, comprises sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities of the heart. HRV analysis is used to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. Since respiration could be a confounding factor in HRV evaluation, some studies recommend consciously controlled breathing to standardize the method. However, it remains unclear whether controlled breathing affects HRV measurement. We compared the effects of controlled breathing on HRV with those of spontaneous breathing. In 20 healthy volunteers, we measured respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume, and blood pressure (BP) and recorded electrocardiograms during spontaneous breathing (14.8 ± 0.7 breaths/min) and controlled breathing at 15 (0.25 Hz) and 6 (0.10 Hz) breaths/min. Compared to spontaneous breathing, controlled breathing at 0.25 Hz showed a higher heart rate and a lower high-frequency (HF) component, an index of parasympathetic nerve activity, although the f was the same. During controlled breathing at 0.10 Hz, the ratio of the low frequency (LF) to HF components (LF/HF), an index of sympathetic nerve activity, increased greatly and HF decreased, while heart rate and BP remained almost unchanged. Thus, controlled breathing at 0.25 Hz, which requires mental concentration, might inhibit parasympathetic nerve activity. During controlled breathing at 0.10 Hz, LF/HF increases because some HF subcomponents are synchronized with f and probably move into the LF band. This increment leads to misinterpretation of the true autonomic nervous regulation. We recommend that the respiratory pattern of participants should be evaluated before spectral HRV analysis to correctly understand changes in autonomic nervous regulation.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  15. Cardiovascular KATPchannels and advanced aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua-Qian; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Coetzee, William A

    2016-01-01

    With advanced aging, there is a decline in innate cardiovascular function. This decline is not general in nature. Instead, specific changes occur that impact the basic cardiovascular function, which include alterations in biochemical pathways and ion channel function. This review focuses on a particular ion channel that couple the latter two processes, namely the K ATP channel, which opening is promoted by alterations in intracellular energy metabolism. We show that the intrinsic properties of the K ATP channel changes with advanced aging and argue that the channel can be further modulated by biochemical changes. The importance is widespread, given the ubiquitous nature of the K ATP channel in the cardiovascular system where it can regulate processes as diverse as cardiac function, blood flow and protection mechanisms against superimposed stress, such as cardiac ischemia. We highlight questions that remain to be answered before the K ATP channel can be considered as a viable target for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Neurovascular alterations in chronic hepatitis C: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vedovetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C is a major health problem: approximately 170 million people are infected with the hepatitis C virus worldwide. It is unclear whether chronic hepatitis C affects atherosclerosis and whether it can cause endothelial and/or autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction. Materials and methods: From April 2008 through April 2009, we studied 76 patients with biopsyconfirmed chronic hepatitis C and no evidence of cirrhosis, ascites, portal hypertension, encephalopathy, or hepatocellular carcinoma. The age-, sex-, BMI- and cardiovascular risk factor- matched control group comprised 76 healthy, HCV-negative individuals with no evidence of liver, autoimmune, or immunoproliferative diseases and no history of cardiovascular events. Twenty five of the hepatitis C patients were treatment-naive; the other 51 had been treated with interferon (but only 25 had persistent virological responses. Color Doppler sonography was used to measure the intima-media-thickness (IMT of the common and internal carotid arteries. Endothelial function was assessed in the brachial artery with the flow-mediated-dilatation (FMD test. The ANS was assessed with the tilt, laying to standing, Valsalva, hand grip, deep breath, and stroop tests. Results: The case group (mean age 52 + 13 years had a significantly higher internal carotid IMT (0.86 + 0.3 vs 0.67 + 0.1 mmfor controls; p = 0.002. Chronic hepatitis C was also associated with an odds ratio for carotid plaque formation (reflected by an IMT > 1.3 mm of 2.15. Cases also had significantly reduced FMD in the brachial artery (0.46 + 0.9 vs 0.76 + 0.7 for controls; p = 0.005 and significantly altered sympathetic and parasympathetic function (p = 0.001 vs controls in the Valsalva, hand grip, deep breath, and stroop tests. Within the case group, all alterations were more severe in patients with significant viremia. Discussion: Our findings suggest that chronic hepatitis C may be a nonclassic cardiovascular risk

  17. Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    process linking cardiovascular risk factors for atherosclerosis and its complications to an altered arterial ... others are also associated with enhanced atherosclerosis. There are many reports of the relationship ... scale prospective cohort studies have shown that CRP predicts incident myocardial infarction, stroke and ...

  18. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Incorporating freeze-dried strawberry powder into a high-fat meal does not alter postprandial vascular function or blood markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Gaugler, Trent L; Lambert, Joshua D; Proctor, David N; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-02-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism-an exaggerated spike in triglycerides, glucose, and insulin-increases cardiovascular disease risk by inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may blunt these effects when they are incorporated into a high-fat, calorie-dense meal. Strawberries are a rich source of polyphenols, but there is little research on their postprandial effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 40 g freeze-dried strawberry powder (∼1 lb. or 0.45 kg fresh strawberries) to a high-fat (50 g total fat) meal on postprandial vascular function, as well as triglyceride, glucose, and insulin responses. Healthy, overweight or obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 31 ± 0.5] adults (mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 2 y; 17 men and 13 women) consumed a control meal and a strawberry meal in a randomized crossover design. Testing sessions were separated by ≥1 wk for men and ∼1 mo for women to control for hormonal variations. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after the meal. Central blood pressure and arterial stiffness indexes were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 h postmeal with the use of pulse waveform analysis. There were no significant differences between the strawberry and control meals for any outcomes. Consumption of either meal significantly decreased the augmentation index at 2 and 4 h (P < 0.002) and significantly increased triglycerides, insulin, and glucose at all time points (P < 0.001) relative to baseline. The strawberry intervention did not alter vascular function or attenuate postprandial metabolic derangements in triglycerides, glucose, or insulin relative to the control meal. Additional research is needed to clarify whether strawberries or other polyphenol-rich interventions improve postprandial responses, and future studies should take into account the acute meal-induced improvements in measures of vascular function. This trial was registered

  20. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in non-diabetic Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five standard cardiovascular reflex (CVR) tests namely: heart rate response to deep breathing, Valsalva manoevre and posture, as well as blood pressure response to hand grip and posture were used to evaluate the cardiac autonomic functions. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered, with neurological examination ...

  1. Cardiovascular disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    risk factors. These associations involve obesity and. 37 may be modified by improving fitness . Sedentary lifestyle with its associated risk is increasing becoming rampant in Africa due to rural to urban migration. Injury to endothelium causes endothelial dysfunction. Cardiovascular disease: A Global Epidemic extending into.

  2. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  3. Assessing the Relationship Between Meteorological Parameters, Air Pollution And Cardiovascular Mortality of Mashhad City Based on Time Series Model

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Hatami; Mitra Mohammadi Mohammadi; Reza Esmaeli; Mandana Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies conducted in the past two decades indicate that air pollution causes increase in cardiovascular, breathing and chronic bronchitis disorders and even causes cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between meteorological parameters, air pollution and cardiovascular mortality in the city of Mashhad in 2014 by a time series model. Data on mortality from cardiovascular disease, meteorological parameters and air pollutio...

  4. The Use of Breathing Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic, Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton E; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Scenario: Research has shown a link between poor core stability and chronic, nonspecific low back pain, with data to suggest that alterations in core muscle activation patterns, breathing patterns, lung function, and diaphragm mechanics may occur. Traditional treatment approaches for chronic, nonspecific low back pain focus on exercise and manual therapy interventions, however it is not clear whether breathing exercises are effective in treating back pain. Focused Clinical Question: In adults with chronic, nonspecific low back pain, are breathing exercises effective in reducing pain, improving respiratory function, and/or health related quality of life? Summary of Key Findings: Following a literature search, 3 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. All reviewed studies were critically appraised at level 2 evidence and reported improvements in either low back pain or quality of life following breathing program intervention. Clinical Bottom Line: Exercise programs were shown to be effective in improving lung function, reducing back pain, and improving quality of life. Breathing program frequencies ranged from daily to 2-3 times per week, with durations ranging from 4 to 8 weeks. Based on these results, athletic trainers and physical therapists caring for patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain should consider the inclusion of breathing exercises for the treatment of back pain when such treatments align with the clinician's own judgment and clinical expertise and the patient's preferences and values. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support the use of breathing exercises in the treatment of chronic, nonspecific low back pain.

  5. The Key Roles of Negative Pressure Breathing and Exercise in the Development of Interstitial Pulmonary Edema in Professional Male SCUBA Divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Olivier; Regnard, Jacques; Gempp, Emmanuel; Louge, Pierre; Brocq, François Xavier; Schmid, Bruno; Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Crunel, Valentin; Maurin, Adrien; Chopard, Romain; MacIver, David Hunter

    2018-01-03

    Immersion pulmonary edema is potentially a catastrophic condition; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms are ill-defined. This study assessed the individual and combined effects of exertion and negative pressure breathing on the cardiovascular system during the development of pulmonary edema in SCUBA divers. Sixteen male professional SCUBA divers performed four SCUBA dives in a freshwater pool at 1 m depth while breathing air at either a positive or negative pressure both at rest or with exercise. Echocardiography and lung ultrasound were used to assess the cardiovascular changes and lung comet score (a measure of interstitial pulmonary edema). The ultrasound lung comet score was 0 following both the dives at rest regardless of breathing pressure. Following exercise, the mean comet score rose to 4.2 with positive pressure breathing and increased to 15.1 with negative pressure breathing. The development of interstitial pulmonary edema was significantly related to inferior vena cava diameter, right atrial area, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, right ventricular fractional area change, and pulmonary artery pressure. Exercise combined with negative pressure breathing induced the greatest changes in these cardiovascular indices and lung comet score. A diver using negative pressure breathing while exercising is at greatest risk of developing interstitial pulmonary edema. The development of immersion pulmonary edema is closely related to hemodynamic changes in the right but not the left ventricle. Our findings have important implications for divers and understanding the mechanisms of pulmonary edema in other clinical settings.

  6. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  7. Mapleson′s breathing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej K Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  8. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine.

  9. TR-BREATH: Time-Reversal Breathing Rate Estimation and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Han, Yi; Chen, Yan; Lai, Hung-Quoc; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Liu, K J Ray

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce TR-BREATH, a time-reversal (TR)-based contact-free breathing monitoring system. It is capable of breathing detection and multiperson breathing rate estimation within a short period of time using off-the-shelf WiFi devices. The proposed system exploits the channel state information (CSI) to capture the miniature variations in the environment caused by breathing. To magnify the CSI variations, TR-BREATH projects CSIs into the TR resonating strength (TRRS) feature space and analyzes the TRRS by the Root-MUSIC and affinity propagation algorithms. Extensive experiment results indoor demonstrate a perfect detection rate of breathing. With only 10 s of measurement, a mean accuracy of can be obtained for single-person breathing rate estimation under the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenario. Furthermore, it achieves a mean accuracy of in breathing rate estimation for a dozen people under the line-of-sight scenario and a mean accuracy of in breathing rate estimation of nine people under the NLOS scenario, both with 63 s of measurement. Moreover, TR-BREATH can estimate the number of people with an error around 1. We also demonstrate that TR-BREATH is robust against packet loss and motions. With the prevailing of WiFi, TR-BREATH can be applied for in-home and real-time breathing monitoring.

  10. Brain responses to emotional stimuli during breath holding and hypoxia: an approach based on the independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Danilo; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Bedini, Remo; Pingitore, Alessandro; Passera, Mirko; Landi, Alberto; L'Abbate, Antonio; Sebastiani, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary breath holding represents a physiological model of hypoxia. It consists of two phases of oxygen saturation dynamics: an initial slow decrease (normoxic phase) followed by a rapid drop (hypoxic phase) during which transitory neurological symptoms as well as slight impairment of integrated cerebral functions, such as emotional processing, can occur. This study investigated how breath holding affects emotional processing. To this aim we characterized the modulation of event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by emotional-laden pictures as a function of breath holding time course. We recorded ERPs during free breathing and breath holding performed in air by elite apnea divers. We modeled brain responses during free breathing with four independent components distributed over different brain areas derived by an approach based on the independent component analysis (ICASSO). We described ERP changes during breath holding by estimating amplitude scaling and time shifting of the same components (component adaptation analysis). Component 1 included the main EEG features of emotional processing, had a posterior localization and did not change during breath holding; component 2, localized over temporo-frontal regions, was present only in unpleasant stimuli responses and decreased during breath holding, with no differences between breath holding phases; component 3, localized on the fronto-central midline regions, showed phase-independent breath holding decreases; component 4, quite widespread but with frontal prevalence, decreased in parallel with the hypoxic trend. The spatial localization of these components was compatible with a set of processing modules that affects the automatic and intentional controls of attention. The reduction of unpleasant-related ERP components suggests that the evaluation of aversive and/or possibly dangerous situations might be altered during breath holding.

  11. Effects of Oral Breathing on the Nutritional Status: Why does it Happen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha, Daniele Andrade da

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some children who breathe through the mouth and present nocturnal obstructive apnea can present a delay in the pondero-statural growth. Objective: The objective of this article is to analyze the orofacial myofunctional alterations found in oral breathers and the effects on their nutritional status. It focuses on the importance of the interdisciplinary team following up with the overall oral breathing alterations. Method: The used method was a literature's revision based on articles published in indexed scientific magazines, books and post-graduation works. Most articles were identified on LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO databases. Results: A relation between oral breathing and an alteration in the general feeding process is noticeable and associated with difficulties in smelling, tasting, and orofacial myofunctional disorders, what comes to have an effect on the nutritional status. Final commentaries: The wide range of causes involved in oral breathing requires an interdisciplinary team trained to identify such alterations, enabling preventive measures to be undertaken, in order to avoid alterations in the general health, regular development of the face, as well as in the nutritional status in these individuals' relevant growth stages.

  12. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, F.; Mineur, L.; Paoli, J.B.; Bodez, V.; Oozeer, R.; Garcia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  13. Cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow

  14. Bacterial overgrowth can be detected by breath hydrogen measurement before clinical manifestations in suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Jávor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen breath test is a non-invasive and inexpensive method for estimation of small bowel transit time, detection of excess bacteria in the small intestine and demonstration of maldigestion or malabsorption. Until now, little has been known about breath hydrogen excretion in lambs. The aim of our study was to assess the patterns of breath hydrogen excretion in lambs before and after feeding ewe’s milk, and to evaluate pathological and/or physiological alterations in the lambs’ gastrointestinal function. We assumed that intestinal disorders may influence the breath hydrogen concentrations, which could be detected early in the subclinical stage. A total of 52 healthy black-headed Dorper lambs were included in the study. Breath hydrogen was measured after overnight fasting and at 30, 60 and 90 min after the start of feeding. There was a 2-week follow-up period after the measurements to assess the gastrointestinal health of lambs. During the follow-up period, clinical signs of diarrhoea developed in 6 lambs. Based on our results in healthy lambs, the median concentration of baseline breath hydrogen was 1.00 parts per million (minimum: 0.00, maximum: 2.00. We observed a significant elevation in breath hydrogen concentrations 60 min after feeding (P = 0.004, whereas the values detected 30 min after feeding were similar to the baseline values. Regarding the lambs in which clinical signs of diarrhoea developed, we revealed significantly higher baseline breath hydrogen concentrations compared to those which remained healthy (P < 0.001. Our observations underline that hydrogen breath test may be a useful tool for indicating potential bacterial overgrowth before any clinical signs of diarrhoea.

  15. Epidemiology of sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, P; Riha, R L

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the community (up to 20%). A subset of these patients has concurrent symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness attributable to their nocturnal breathing disorder and is classified as having obstructive sleep....... In moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure has been shown to be effective. Questions remain as to how to screen patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Should time-consuming diagnostic procedures with high sensitivity and specificity...... apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (4-5% of the middle-aged population). There is strong evidence for an association of sleep apnoea with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, as well as adverse public health consequences. Treatment and diagnosis have remained largely unchanged over the past 25 yrs...

  16. The effects of sighing on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaschillo, Evgeny G; Vaschillo, Bronya; Buckman, Jennifer F; Nguyen-Louie, Tam; Heiss, Sydney; Pandina, Robert J; Bates, Marsha E

    2015-03-01

    Elicitation of high-amplitude oscillations in the cardiovascular system may serve to dampen psychophysiological reactivity to emotional and cognitive loading. Prior work has used paced breathing to impose clinically valuable high-amplitude ∼ 0.1 Hz oscillations. In this study, we investigated whether rhythmical sighing could likewise produce high-amplitude cardiovascular oscillations in the very low frequency range (0.003-0.05 Hz). ECG, respiration, skin conductance, and beat-to-beat blood pressure were collected in 24 healthy participants during baseline, 0.1 Hz paced breathing, and 0.02 Hz paced sighing (1 sigh every 50s, with normal breathing interspersed). Results showed that each sigh elicited a strong, well-defined reaction in the cardiovascular system. This reaction did not habituate when participants repeatedly sighed for 8.5 min. The result was a high-amplitude 0.02 Hz oscillation in multiple cardiovascular parameters. Thus, paced sighing is a reliable method for imposing very low frequency oscillations in the cardiovascular system, which has research and clinical implications that warrant further study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  18. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Mette K; Van Vulpen, Marco; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P M; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W; Barendrecht, Maurits M; Zonnenberg, Bernard A

    2013-01-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  19. The effect of a heat and moisture exchanger on gas flow in a Mapleson F breathing system during inhalational induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, J M; Wheeler, D W; Pook, J A

    2000-06-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) humidify, warm and filter inspired gas, protecting patients and apparatus during anaesthesia. Their incorporation into paediatric anaesthetic breathing systems is recommended. We experienced delays in inhalational induction whilst using a Mapleson F breathing system with an HME. We have demonstrated that the HME significantly alters gas flow within the breathing system. Approximately half of the fresh gas flow is delivered to the patient, the remainder being wasted into the expiratory limb of the breathing system. We suggest that the HME should be removed from the Mapleson F breathing system until inhalational induction is complete, or that the reservoir bag is completely occluded until an effective seal is obtained with the mask.

  20. Cardiovascular manifestations of subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Manikandan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH is one of the devastating conditions, especially the aneurysmal bleed which has high mortality as well as morbidity. The mortality and morbidity caused by SAH have been recognised to be caused by both neurological and systemic causes. The alterations in systemic and other organ damage could cause death in up to 40% of SAH patients. Among the systemic manifestations, cardiovascular and respiratory complications increase hospitalisation and worsen the outcome. The main pathophysiological mechanism is the increased sympathetic activation causing myocardial necrosis. Various cardiovascular manifestations range from electrocardiogram changes to myocardial ischaemia, cardiac failure and arrhythmias. This review deals with the cardiac manifestations in SAH patients.

  1. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable...

  2. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a) Restriction...

  3. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to gasoline...

  4. Sleep Disordered Breathing and Nocturnal Hypoxemia in Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesell, P. L.; Owoyemi, O.; Oneal, P.; Nouraie, M.; Klings, E.S.; Rock, A.; Mellman, T. A.; Berihun, T.; Lavella, J.; Taylor, R. E.; Perrine, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is reported in up to 69% of adolescents and children with sickle cell disease (SCD) [1], but data regarding the prevalence of SDB in adults with SCD are limited. To obtain a preliminary assessment of the frequency and degree of sleep-related hypoxemia and potential associations with cardiovascular function in adults with SCD, we performed overnight sleep studies, 6-minute walk tests, echocardiograms, hematologic and chemistry panels, and administered the Pitts...

  5. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  6. Investigation of breathing parameters during odor perception and olfactory imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, A M; Kopietz, R; Albrecht, J; Schöpf, V; Pollatos, O; Schreder, T; May, J; Linn, J; Brückmann, H; Wiesmann, M

    2009-01-01

    Compared with visual and auditory imagery, little is known about olfactory imagery. There is evidence that respiration may be altered by both olfactory perception and olfactory imagery. In order to investigate this relationship, breathing parameters (respiratory minute volume, respiratory amplitude, and breathing rate) in human subjects during olfactory perception and olfactory imagery were investigated. Fifty-six subjects having normal olfactory function were tested. Nasal respiration was measured using a respiratory pressure sensor. Using an experimental block design, we alternately presented odors or asked the subjects to imagine a given smell. Four different pleasant odors were used: banana, rose, coffee, and lemon odor. We detected a significant increase in respiratory minute volume between olfactory perception and the baseline condition as well as between olfactory imagery and baseline condition. Additionally we found significant differences in the respiratory amplitude between imagery and baseline condition and between odor and imagery condition. Differences in the breathing rate between olfactory perception, olfactory imagery, and baseline were not statistically significant. We conclude from our results that olfactory perception and olfactory imagery both have effects on the human respiratory profile and that these effects are based on a common underlying mechanism.

  7. Autonomic dysfunction in children with sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lisa M; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Anderson, Vicki; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2013-05-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has adverse effects on cardiovascular health in adults, partly due to changes in autonomic activity. However, there have been limited studies in children. We analysed the impact of SDB and sleep stage on autonomic control of heart rate in 7-12-year-old children, utilizing spectral heart rate variability (HRV) as a measure of autonomic activity. Eighty children underwent overnight polysomnography. Subjects were grouped according to their obstructive apnoea-hypopnoea index (OAHI): controls, OAHI ≤1 event/h and no history of snoring; primary snorers (PS) OAHI ≤1, Mild (OAHI 1-5) and moderate/severe (MS) OAHI >5. HRV was analysed during Wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) 1&2, slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM. Compared with controls, total power, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power were reduced in all SDB severities during REM. LF/HF ratio was less in MS SDB (median = 0.34; range, 0.20-0.49; p children with SDB, which may signify an overall depression of autonomic tone, perhaps a consequence of their elevated blood pressure during sleep coupled with repeated exposure to SDB event-related cardiovascular disturbance. Further research is warranted to elucidate the long-term effects on the cardiovascular system of subjects exhibiting impaired HRV and elevated BP in childhood.

  8. Influence of mouth breathing on the dentofacial growth of children: a cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Bahija; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Umar, Dilshad; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of mouth breathing, facial, and structural growth alterations, especially during childhood has been discussed in medical and dental literature. The relevance of airway obstruction and its assumed effect on facial growth continues to be debated. This study was aimed at assessing the dental and soft tissue abnormalities in mouth breathing children with and without adenoid hypertrophy. Fifty children aged between 6 and 12 years following otolaryngological examination were divided into three groups: Group I (MBA): Twenty mouth breathing children with enlarged adenoids and 60% of nasopharynx obstruction; Group II (MB): Twenty mouth breathing children without any nasal obstruction; Group III (nasal breathers [NB]): Ten nose breathing healthy individuals (control group). Digital lateral cephalograms were obtained and the dental and soft tissue parameters were assessed using the cephalometric software, Dolphin Imaging 11.5 version. Comparison was done using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. There was a significant increase in IMPA (P = 0.001 and 0.007 respectively), interlabial gap (P = 0.007 and 0.002 respectively) and facial convexity (P breathing habit exhibited a significant increase in lower incisor proclination, lip incompetency and convex facial profile. The presence of adenoids accentuated the facial convexity and mentolabial sulcus depth.

  9. Selenium and antioxidant levels decreased in blood of children with breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Khaled; Farghaly, Hikma S; Badry, Reda; Othman, Hisham A K

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that the imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant systems might be involved in the pathophysiology of breath-holding spells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the oxidant-antioxidant status in children with breath-holding spells compared to healthy children. In a case control study, 67 children with breath-holding spells were compared with 60 healthy children. Malondialdehyde values of the patients were significantly higher than those in control. Levels of selenium, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase of the patient group are significantly lower than those in control. The present study gives helpful data about oxidant-antioxidant systems alterations in breath-holding spells in such a large patient group. These data give support to the hypothesis of the imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant systems, and selenium deficiency might be involved in the pathophysiology of breath-holding spells, suggesting the role of this system dysregulation in breath-holding spells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Human breathing patterns on mouthpiece or face mask during air, CO2, or low O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J A; Bishop, B

    1982-11-01

    Steady-state breathing patterns on mouthpiece and noseclip (MP) and face mask (MASK) during air and chemostimulated breathing were obtained from pneumotachometer flow. On air, all 10 subjects decreased frequency (f) and increased tidal volume (VT) on MP relative to that on MASK without changing ventilation (VE), mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI), or mean expiratory flow (VT/TE). On elevated CO2 and low O2, MP exaggerated the increase in VE, f, and VT/TE due to profoundly shortened TE. On elevated CO2, MASK exaggerated VT increase with little change in f. Increased VE and VT/TI were thus due to increased VT. During low O2 on MASK, both VT and f increased. During isocapnia, shortened TE accounted for increased f; during hypocapnia, increased f was related primarily to shortened TI. Thus the choice of a mouthpiece or face mask differentially alters breathing pattern on air and all components of ventilatory responses to chemostimuli. In addition, breathing apparatus effects are not a simple consequence of a shift from oronasal to oral breathing, since a noseclip under the mask did not change breathing pattern from that on mask alone.

  11. Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Mahboob; Das, Pinaki; Ghosh, Parasar; Zaman, Md Salim Uz; Boro, Madhusmita; Sadhu, Manika; Mazumdar, Ardhendu

    2015-01-01

    Objective is to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in SLE by simple non-invasive tests. A case control study was carried out involving 18-50 yrs old previously diagnosed SLE patients and same number of age and sex-matched controls. Parasympathetic function was assessed by heart rate (HR) response to Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing and standing. Sympathetic function was evaluated by blood pressure response to standing and sustained hand-grip test (HGT). There were 50 female SLE patients. They had significantly higher minimum resting HR and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). HR variation with deep breathing, expiratory inspiratory ratio, 30:15 ratio and DBP change in response to HGT were significantly lower inpatients compared to controls. Thirty patients (60%) had at least one abnormal or two borderline test results indicating autonomic impairment of which 27 had parasympathetic dysfunction and 7 had sympathetic dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction is common in SLE with higher prevalence of parasympathetic impairment.

  12. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  13. Method for breathing related ECG triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, W.; Neeb, W.; Wellner, U.

    1984-02-01

    A method for breathing related ECG triggering has been developed. It can be applied in radionuclid-angiocardioscintigraphy promising new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of breathing related heart function without invasive manipulations. High resolution images of the heart can be obtained using this method by steering the NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) or the cine CT (ultrafast transmission computerized tomography) acquisition.

  14. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  15. Breathing Better with a COPD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of the lungs. Normal luNg CoPD luNg breathiNg better with a CoPD DiagNosis 3 DiagNosis aND ... Using a machine called a spirometer, this noninvasive breathing test measures the amount of air a person ...

  16. The effect of breath freshener strips on two types of breath alcohol testing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L; Guillen, Jennifer

    2004-07-01

    The potential for breath freshener strips to interfere with the accuracy of a breath alcohol test was studied. Twelve varieties of breath freshener strips from five manufacturers were examined. Breath tests were conducted using the infrared based BAC DataMaster or the fuel cell based Alco-Sensor IV-XL, 30 and 150 seconds after placing a breath strip on the tongue. No effect was observed using the Alco-Sensor system. Some of the strips gave a small reading at 30 seconds (less than or equal to 0.010 g/210 L apparent alcohol) using the DataMaster. Readings on the DataMaster returned to zero by the 150 second test. A proper pre-test observation and deprivation period should prevent any interference from breath freshener strips on breath alcohol testing.

  17. Pattern of breathing in brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, T C; Kurpershoek, C

    1986-10-01

    The pattern of breathing was assessed in 19 brachycephalic dogs, using tidal breathing flow-volume loop (TBFVL) analysis. Fifteen dogs had TBFVL consistent with a fixed-type upper airway obstruction, whereas 4 dogs had a TBFVL indicative of a nonfixed upper airway obstruction. The dogs did not have a TBFVL shape the same as that considered normal for healthy nonbrachycephalic dogs. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops from brachycephalic dogs that were considered to have a normal respiratory tract (n = 11) were similar to those of dogs with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction (n = 8). Respiration was monitored continuously for short periods (20 to 50 minutes) in 3 brachycephalic dogs resting in a cage in a quiet, darkened laboratory; 2 of these dogs had periodic breathing patterns characterized by multiple episodes of alternating hypopnea and arousal. Brachycephalic dogs may be at risk for the development of disordered breathing during sleep.

  18. BREATH OF USE AND VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran ACAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breathable, who escorted us in every aspect of our lives and our survival is our primary activity, allowing for quality of life in a healthy way. quality of breaths taken the right technique, you need both health professional sense should perhaps take advantage of individuals who want to achieve success in life is the primary rule. When the diaphragm is born with assisted breathing lungs of every person's life starts to grow to keep up with the flurry lose this special and important skills. First and foremost, which is important for our body health, including every aspect of proper breathing, especially correct use of the voice carries particular importance. In this article, breathing subject discussed, correct breathing and our lives have tried to give us information about the benefits of both vocal training.

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep in breath holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, J; Hasegawa, T; Shimohira, M; Fukumizu, M; Iwakawa, Y

    2000-07-01

    One-night polysomnography was performed on seven subjects suffering from breath-holding spells, including one whose death was suggested to be a consequence of a breath-holding spell. The fatal case showed no rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep, although he exhibited REMs during wakefulness. The average numbers of both REMs and bursts of REMs in REM sleep in the other six breath holders were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The breath holders showed no airway obstruction, desaturation, or sleep fragmentation. Since the rapid ocular activity in REM sleep is generated in the brain stem, we hypothesized that a functional brainstem disturbance is involved in the occurrence of breath-holding spells.

  20. Air-breathing changes the pattern for temperature-induced pH regulation in a bimodal breathing teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Thomsen, Mikkel Thy; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2017-11-09

    It is well established that ectothermic vertebrates regulate a lower arterial pH when temperature increases. Typically, water-breathers reduce arterial pH by altering plasma [HCO 3 - ], whilst air-breathers rely on ventilatory adjustments to modulate arterial PCO 2 . However, no studies have investigated whether the shift from water- to air-breathing within a species changes the mechanisms for temperature-induced pH regulation. Here, we used the striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus to examine how pH regulation is affected by water- versus air-breathing, since P. hypophthalmus can accommodate all gas exchange by its well-developed gills in normoxic water, but achieves the same metabolic rate with aerial oxygen uptake using its the swim-bladder when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. We, therefore, measured arterial acid-base status in P. hypophthalmus as temperature changed between 20 and 35 °C in either normoxic or severely hypoxic water. In normoxic water, where P. hypophthalmus relied entirely on branchial gas exchange, P. hypophthalmus exhibited the typical teleost reduction in plasma [HCO 3 - ] and arterial pH when temperature rose. However, when forced to increase air-breathing in hypoxic water, arterial PCO 2 fell due to a branchial hyperventilation, but it increased with temperature most likely due to passive CO 2 retention. We propose that the rise in arterial PCO 2 reflects a passive consequence of the progressive transition to air breathing at higher temperatures, and that this response fortuitously matches the new regulated pH a , relieving the requirement for branchial ion exchange.

  1. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  2. Evaluation of changes in sleep breathing patterns after primary palatoplasty in cleft children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justice E. Reilly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a need to more clearly understand the characteristics of breathing patterns in children with cleft palate inthe first year of life, as there is little data available to guide current practice. Pierre Robin patients are known to have a higher incidence, however we hypothesised sleep breathing disturbance is not confined to this sub-group of cleft patient. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of sleep disordered breathing patterns in a cohort of infants with oronasal clefts (cleft palate with or without cleft lip to describe the spectrum of sleep breathing patterns both pre and post palate repair. Sleep breathing studies were performed pre- and post-operatively in sequential infants referred to a regional cleft lip andpalate unit. Results of sleep breathing studies were analysed according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine scoring guidelines and correlated with clinical history and details of peri-operative respiratory compromise. The degree of sleep disordered breathingwas characterised using desaturation indices (number of desaturations from baseline SpO2 of >=4%, per hour. Results: Thirty-nine infants were included in this study, twenty-five female and fourteen male. Twelve had isolated Cleft Palate aspart of an associated syndrome. Patients were categorised into Isolated Cleft Palate, Isolated Cleft Palate in the context of Pierre Robin Sequence, and those with Cleft Lip and Palate. All groups demonstrated some degree of sleep breathing abnormality. Not unsurprisingly the eight infants with Pierre Robin Sequence had a significantly higher desaturation index before surgicalintervention (p=0.043, and were more likely to require a pre-operative airway intervention (p=0.009. Palate repair in this group did not alter the relative distribution of patients in each severity category of sleep disorder breathing. Surgical repair ofthe secondary palate in the remaining children was associated with some

  3. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent.......Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  4. Sleep disordered breathing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Deepti; Guilleminault, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is increasingly being recognised as a cause of morbidity even in young children. With an estimated prevalence of 1 to 4 per cent, SDB results from having a structurally narrow airway combined with reduced neuromuscular tone and increased airway collapsibility. SDB in children differs from adults in a number of ways, including presenting symptoms and treatment. Presentation may differ according to the age of the child. Children have a more varied presentation from snoring and frequent arousals to enuresis to hyperactivity. Those with Down syndrome, midface hypoplasia or neuromuscular disorders are at higher risk for developing SDB. First line definitive treatment in children involves tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Rapid maxillary expansion, allergy treatment and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are other options. As untreated SDB results in complications as learning difficulties, memory loss and a long term increase in risk of hypertension, depression and poor growth, it is important to diagnose SDB.

  5. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  6. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  7. Sleep and the Cardiovascular System in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Grace R; Pinto, Swaroop

    2017-06-01

    Subspecialty pediatric practice provides comprehensive medical care for a range of ages, from premature infants to children, and often includes adults with complex medical and surgical issues that warrant multidisciplinary care. Normal physiologic variations involving different body systems occur during sleep and these vary with age, stage of sleep, and underlying health conditions. This article is a concise review of the cardiovascular (CV) physiology and pathophysiology in children, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) contributing to CV morbidity, congenital and acquired CV pathology resulting in SDB, and the relationship between SDB and CV morbidity in different clinical syndromes and systemic diseases in the expanded pediatric population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thyroid disease and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones, specifically triiodothyronine (T3), have significant effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical thyroid disease, and low T3 syndrome each cause cardiac and cardiovascular abnormalities through both genomic and nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. In compromised health, such as occurs in heart disease, alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism may further impair cardiac and cardiovascular function. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease may benefit from including analysis of thyroid hormone status, including serum total T3 levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Assessment of influence of breath holding and hyperventilation on human postural stability with spectral analysis of stabilographic signal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhov, M V; Makarenkova, E A; Mel'nikov, A A; Vikulov, A D

    2014-01-01

    The influence of breath holding and voluntary hyperventilation on the classic stabilometric parameters and the frequency characteristic of stabilographic signal were studied. We measured the stabilometric parameters on the force platform ("Ritm", Russia) on the healthy volunteers (n = 107) during quiet breath, voluntary hyperventilation (20 seconds) and maximal inspiratory breath holding (20 seconds). Respiratory frequency, respiratory amplitude and ventilation were estimated with strain gauge. We found that antero-posterior and medio-lateral sway amplitude and velocity as well as sway surface at breath-holding and at quiet breathing were the same, so breath holding didn't influence the postural stability. However the spectral parameters shifted to the high frequency range due to alteration of the respiratory muscles contractions during breath-holding versus quiet breath. Voluntary hyperventilation caused significant increase of all stabilographic indices that implied an impairment of postural stability, which was due to the increase of respiration frequency and amplitude. We also found that the spectral indices moved toward the high-frequency range with more pronounced degree of this shift versus breath holding. Besides, amplitudes of spectral peaks also increased. Perhaps such change of spectral indices was due to distortion of proprioceptive information because of increased excitability of nerve fibers during hyperventilation. Maximal inspiration breath holding causes strain of the postural control mechanisms that is reflected as elevation of postural sway frequency with no postural stability changes. Hyperventilation leads to the most prominent strain of balance function and decrease of steadiness that is manifested as increase of center of pressure oscillations amplitude and frequency.

  10. Immediate effects of breath holding maneuvers onto composition of exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2014-09-01

    Rapid concentration changes due to physiological or pathophysiological effects rather than appearance of unique disease biomarkers are important for clinical application of breath research. Simple maneuvers such as breath holding may significantly affect breath biomarker concentrations. In this study, exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed in real time before and after different breath holding maneuvers. Continuous breath-resolved measurements (PTR-ToF-MS-8000) were performed in 31 healthy human subjects in a side-stream sampling mode. After 1 min of tidal breathing participants held their breath for 10, 20, 40, 60 s and as long as possible. Afterwards they continued to breathe normally for another minute. VOC profiles could be monitored in real time by assigning online PTR-ToF-MS data to alveolar or inspired phases of breath. Sudden and profound changes of exhaled VOC concentrations were recorded after different breath holding maneuvers. VOC concentrations returned to base line levels 10-20 s after breath holding. Breath holding induced concentration changes depended on physico-chemical properties of the substances. When substance concentrations were normalized onto end-tidal CO2 content, variation of acetone concentrations decreased, whereas variations of isoprene concentrations were not affected. As the effects of breathing patterns on exhaled substance concentrations depend on individual substance properties, sampling procedures have to be validated for each compound by means of appropriate real-time analysis. Normalization of exhaled concentrations onto exhaled CO2 is only valid for substances having similar physico-chemical properties as CO2.

  11. Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Malkanthi; Rumberger, John A; Azumano, Isao; Napolitano, Joseph J; Citrolo, Danielle; Kamiya, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    High serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The efficacy of pantethine treatment on cardiovascular risk markers was investigated in a randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled study, in a low to moderate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk North American population eligible for statin therapy, using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines. A total of 32 subjects were randomized to pantethine (600 mg/day from weeks 1 to 8 and 900 mg/day from weeks 9 to 16) or placebo. Compared with placebo, the participants on pantethine showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol at 16 weeks (P=0.040) and LDL-C at 8 and 16 weeks (P=0.020 and P=0.006, respectively), and decreasing trends in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at week 8 and week 12 (P=0.102 and P=0.145, respectively) that reached significance by week 16 (P=0.042). An 11% decrease in LDL-C from baseline was seen in participants on pantethine, at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16, while participants on placebo showed a 3% increase at week 16. This decrease was significant between groups at weeks 8 (P=0.027) and 16 (P=0.010). The homocysteine levels for both groups did not change significantly from baseline to week 16. Coenzyme Q10 significantly increased from baseline to week 4 and remained elevated until week 16, in both the pantethine and placebo groups. After 16 weeks, the participants on placebo did not show significant improvement in any CVD risk end points. This study confirms that pantethine lowers cardiovascular risk markers in low to moderate CVD risk participants eligible for statins according to NCEP guidelines.

  12. Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Malkanthi Evans,1 John A Rumberger,2 Isao Azumano,3 Joseph J Napolitano,4 Danielle Citrolo,5 Toshikazu Kamiya5 1KGK Synergize Inc, London, ON, Canada; 2The Princeton Longevity Center, Princeton, NJ, USA; 3Daiichi Fine Chemical Co, Ltd, Toyama, Japan; 4Independent Consultant, Allentown, PA, USA; 5Kyowa Hakko USA, New York, NY, USA Abstract: High serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The efficacy of pantethine treatment on cardiovascular risk markers was investigated in a randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled study, in a low to moderate cardiovascular disease (CVD risk North American population eligible for statin therapy, using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP guidelines. A total of 32 subjects were randomized to pantethine (600 mg/day from weeks 1 to 8 and 900 mg/day from weeks 9 to16 or placebo. Compared with placebo, the participants on pantethine showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol at 16 weeks (P=0.040 and LDL-C at 8 and 16 weeks (P=0.020 and P=0.006, respectively, and decreasing trends in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at week 8 and week 12 (P=0.102 and P=0.145, respectively that reached significance by week 16 (P=0.042. An 11% decrease in LDL-C from baseline was seen in participants on pantethine, at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16, while participants on placebo showed a 3% increase at week 16. This decrease was significant between groups at weeks 8 (P=0.027 and 16 (P=0.010. The homocysteine levels for both groups did not change significantly from baseline to week 16. Coenzyme Q10 significantly increased from baseline to week 4 and remained elevated until week 16, in both the pantethine and placebo groups. After 16 weeks, the participants on placebo did not show significant improvement in any CVD risk end points. This study confirms that pantethine lowers cardiovascular risk markers in low to moderate CVD risk participants

  13. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  14. Semiquantitative assessment of breath hydrogen testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jacqueline S; Kalubovila, Udaya; Irving, Peter M; Gibson, Peter R

    2013-09-01

    A major use of breath hydrogen testing is to assess absorptive capacity for sugars to assist dietary design for management of gut symptoms. Qualitative reporting takes no account of the vigor of hydrogen response and provides little insight into degrees of malabsorption. This study aimed to describe a semiquantitative reporting method and to compare results with those reported qualitatively. In consecutive Caucasian patients with Crohn's disease (n = 87), ulcerative colitis (59), functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) (162), and healthy controls (76), area under the curve was calculated for lactulose (15 g). This was compared with that for lactose (50 g) and fructose (35 g). Degree of malabsorption was categorized into arbitrary groups. Semiquantitative results for ≥ 30% (designated "convincing") malabsorption was most similar to those using a qualitative cutoff value of 20 ppm, but in 38% and 21% of patients, the classification of malabsorption (nil or clinically significant) changed for fructose and lactose, respectively. Using a cutoff of 10 ppm, 49% and 5% were classified differently. Crohn's disease had a higher prevalence (42%) of convincing fructose malabsorption than controls (24%) or patients with FGID (33%) (P malabsorption (38%) was in ulcerative colitis, greater than controls (18%) and FGID (18%) (P < 0.02). Semiquantitative assessment provides different results with different clinical implications in more than one third of patients, but disease-related alterations in prevalence are similar to those defined qualitatively. This method may be preferable because it lessens the confounding influence of the vigor of the hydrogen response. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  16. Effectiveness of resisted abdominal exercise versus resisted diaphragmatic breathing exercise on cardio vascular endurance in sports men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Gopaladhas, Anilkumar Panigrah, Elanchezhian Chinnavan, Rishikesavan Ragupathy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ackground and Purpose: The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of resisted abdominal exercise and resisted diaphragmatic breathing exercise on cardiovascular endurance to prescribe a fitness program. Study design and setting: Experimental study, YMCA Fitness Foundation Academy, Pachaiyappa Arts and Science College. Study Sample: 30 sports men. Inclusion criteria: Sportsmen with the age group of 18-30 years. Exclusion Criteria: Individuals with postural deviations like scoliosis, Kyphosis, cardiovascular diseases like history of rheumatic heart disease, obstructive lung diseases, vascular problem in lower limb. Tools: Step up and step down endurance test Procedure: 30 individuals are divided into two groups. Group-I was taught resisted diaphragmatic breathing exercise. Group-II was taught resisted abdominal exercise. Pre-test values of step up and step down, endurance level of athletes were assessed and documented. Total duration of the study is 8 weeks. At the end of 8th week post-test endurance were reassessed using step test. Results: Paired t test was used to analyze the effect of cardiovascular endurance. The post test mean values of all the variables of group-I were improved than that of group-II (p<0.005. Conclusion: Resisted diaphragm breathing has shown improvement in cardiovascular endurance in sports men.

  17. Immediate effects of breathing re-education on respiratory function and range of motion in chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeampattanaporn, Orawan; Mekhora, Keerin; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Wongsathikun, Jatuporn

    2014-07-01

    Neck pain is associated with certain breathingpatterns and may lead to altered respiratory function. Moreover the altered breathing patterns may cause neck pain symptoms. This study has determined the effects of respiratory muscle reeducation on neck pain symptoms and respiratory function. Subjects with chronic neck pain (n = 36) were re-educated with three breathing patterns for 30 min. The pain intensity at rest and at the end-of-range of each neck movement, the cervical range of motion (CROM) measured from photographic images and the chest expansion during full inhalation and exhalation recorded using videography were evaluated before and after breathing re-education. Upper trapezius, anterior scalene, and sternocleidomastoid activity were evaluated during normal and deep breathing using surface electromyography, and the respiratory function measured by a spirometer was also evaluated during the same period. The pain intensity and the muscle activity were significantly decreased after re-education. The CROM and chest expansion at lower rib cage were significantly increased after re-education. Breathing re-education can change breathing patterns and increase chest expansion. This change leads to an improvement in CROM Positive consequences may result from the improvement in diaphragm contraction or reduced activity of accessory muscles.

  18. Effects of various Prāṇāyāma on cardiovascular and autonomic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nivethitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular functions are controlled by neural factors, temperature, hormones, etc., Of these, neural factors primarily concern the autonomic nervous system, which plays a major role in maintaining and regulating cardiac functions, e.g., blood pressure and heart rate. Prāṇāyāma is one of the most important yogic practices. There are various review articles on Yoga and its effects but, though Prāṇāyāma is a part of yoga, there is lack of review articles. To the best of our knowledge there is no known review article on effect of various Prāṇāyāma on cardiovascular and autonomic variables. To provide a general overview about the effect of various prāṇāyāma (breathing techniques on cardiovascular and autonomic variables. A narrative review was performed based on the available scientific literature. An electronic data search was performed in Medline/PubMed database to review relevant articles, using keywords such as “Prāṇāyāma, Yogic breathing techniques, Unilateral nostril breathing, Alternate nostril breathing, Kapalbhati, Bhastrika and Bhramari Pranayama”. All the relevant articles published from 1988 to 06-04-2016 were included in this review. Slow type of yogic breathing technique was reported to produce beneficial effect on cardiovascular and autonomic variables while fast breathing techniques do not produce such effects. There is lack of consistency in the results of specific nostril yogic breathing techniques and the mechanisms behind the effects of various prāṇāyāma. This review suggests that different types of Prāṇāyāma techniques produce different effects and the mechanisms behind these effects are not fully understood.

  19. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  20. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141 Section... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen. (b...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 25.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) Fixed (stationary, or built in) protective breathing equipment must be installed for the use of the flightcrew, and at least one portable protective breathing equipment shall be...

  2. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a breathing...

  3. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance shall...

  4. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated with...

  5. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337... Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate holder shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the equipment, breathing gas, and communication requirements contained in paragraph...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they enter...

  7. Quantifying cerebrovascular reactivity in anterior and posterior cerebral circulations during voluntary breath holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Christina D; Steinback, Craig D; Chauhan, Uday V; Pfoh, Jamie R; Abrosimova, Maria; Vanden Berg, Emily R; Skow, Rachel J; Davenport, Margie H; Day, Trevor A

    2016-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? We developed and validated a 'stimulus index' (SI; ratio of end-tidal partial pressures of CO 2 and O 2 ) method to quantify cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in anterior and posterior cerebral circulations during breath holding. We aimed to determine whether the magnitude of CVR is correlated with breath-hold duration. What is the main finding and its importance? Using the SI method and transcranial Doppler ultrasound, we found that the magnitude of CVR of the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations is not positively correlated with physiological or psychological break-point during end-inspiratory breath holding. Our study expands the ability to quantify CVR during breath holding and elucidates factors that affect break-point. The central respiratory chemoreflex contributes to blood gas homeostasis, particularly in response to accumulation of brainstem CO 2 . Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) affects chemoreceptor stimulation inversely through CO 2 washout from brainstem tissue. Voluntary breath holding imposes alterations in blood gases, eliciting respiratory chemoreflexes, potentially contributing to breath-hold duration (i.e. break-point). However, the effects of cerebrovascular reactivity on break-point have yet to be determined. We tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of CVR contributes directly to breath-hold duration in 23 healthy human participants. We developed and validated a cerebrovascular stimulus index methodology [SI; ratio of end-tidal partial pressures of CO 2 and O 2 (P ET ,CO2/P ET ,O2)] to quantify CVR by correlating measured and interpolated values of P ET ,CO2 (r = 0.95, P breath hold. The MCAv CVR magnitude was larger than PCAv (P = 0.001; +70%) during breath holding. We then correlated MCAv and PCAv CVR with the physiological (involuntary diaphragmatic contractions) and psychological (end-point) break-point, within individuals. There were significant inverse but modest relationships

  8. Management of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Patients with Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Connor P; Ananthram, Manjula; Gottlieb, Stephen S

    2018-04-03

    This paper reviews treatment options for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with heart failure. We sought to identify therapies for SDB with the best evidence for long-term use in patients with heart failure and to minimize uncertainties in clinical practice by examining frequently discussed questions: what is the role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with heart failure? Is adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) safe in patients with heart failure? To what extent is SDB a modifiable risk factor? Consistent evidence has demonstrated that the development of SDB in patients with heart failure is a poor prognostic indicator and a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. However, despite numerous available interventions for obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea, it remains unclear what effect these therapies have on patients with heart failure. To date, all major randomized clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit with SDB therapy and one major study investigating the use of adaptive servo-ventilation demonstrated harm. Significant questions persist regarding the management of SDB in patients with heart failure. Until appropriately powered trials identify a treatment modality that increases cardiovascular survival in patients with SDB and heart failure, a patient's heart failure management should remain the priority of medical care.

  9. Analysis for drugs in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, inexpensive and simple way to collect ...

  10. Analysis for drug in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive : techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply : spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, : inexpensive and simple way to co...

  11. Healthy Living: Helping Your Child Breathe Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breathe Easier Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy ... through these narrowed airways can produce a wheezing sound. Other forms the allergy may take are sneezing, ...

  12. Breath-holding spells in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2015-02-01

    I have children in my clinic who experience seizurelike episodes in which they cry and hold their breath to the point of cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Their examination or investigation findings are normal and referral to a pediatric specialist results in no further investigation. Are breath-holding spells common, and what type of investigation is needed? A breath-holding spell is a benign paroxysmal nonepileptic disorder occurring in healthy children 6 to 48 months of age. The episodes start with a provocation such as emotional upset or minor injury, and might progress to breath holding, cyanosis, and syncope. The episodes are extremely frightening to watch but have benign consequences. Once a clinical diagnosis is made, it is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram and to rule out anemia, but no further investigation or referral is warranted. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  13. Humidifiers: Air Moisture Eases Skin, Breathing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humidifiers: Air moisture eases skin, breathing symptoms Humidifiers can ease problems caused by dry air. But they need regular maintenance. Here ... that emit water vapor or steam to increase moisture levels in the air (humidity). There are several ...

  14. Seeking Allergy Relief: When Breathing Becomes Bothersome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe June 2016 Print this issue Seeking Allergy Relief When Breathing Becomes Bothersome En español Send ... Preschoolers Benefit from Peanut Allergy Therapy Wise Choices Allergy Symptoms Runny or stuffy nose Sneezing Itchy nose, ...

  15. Atmospheric Breathing Electric Thruster for Planetary Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will investigate the development of an atmosphere-breathing electric propulsion solar-powered vehicle to explore planets such as Mars. The vehicle would...

  16. Comparison of work of breathing using drawover and continuous flow anaesthetic breathing systems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G T; McEwen, J P J; Beaton, S J; Young, D

    2007-04-01

    We compared the work of breathing under general anaesthesia in children using drawover and continuous flow anaesthetic systems. A pilot study was conducted in four children weighing > 20 kg in whom it would usually be considered appropriate to use breathing systems designed for adult anaesthesia. The pilot study compared work of breathing using the Mapleson D breathing system and the Triservice Anaesthetic Apparatus (TSAA). Work of breathing was calculated using the modified Campbell technique that calculates work using a pressure volume loop derived from oesophageal pressure and airway gas volume measurements. We found no difference in the work of breathing when comparing the Mapleson D and the TSAA in children > 20 kg. Following completion of the pilot study, we conducted a study on 10 children weighing between 10 and 20 kg comparing work of breathing using the Mapleson F breathing system and the TSAA. We found no significant difference in the work of breathing between the Mapleson F and the TSAA for these children. The TSAA can therefore be recommended for use down to a lower weight limit of 10 kg.

  17. Sharing breathlessness: investigating respiratory change during observation of breath-holding in another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Masaoka, Yuri; Kasai, Hideyo; Noguchi, Kengo; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Homma, Ikuo

    2012-03-15

    Studies of empathy show that seeing another person in pain, fear or disgust elicits the same brain activations associated with pain, fear or disgust in oneself. Our interest is to know whether respiratory change can be observed in empathy, that is, whether respiration can be altered when observing emotions in others. A discomfort associated with respiration can be breathlessness. We investigated respiratory pattern and metabolic response during observation of a breath-holding subject. We found that breathlessness occurred in participants who observed breath-holding in another person. It is interesting to note that observers felt more breathlessness after breath-holding ended with an increase in respiratory rate consistent with the breath-holder's respiratory pattern. In addition, observers with high trait anxiety felt more breathlessness accompanied with an increase in respiratory rate. An increase in respiratory rate may be involved in the perception of breathlessness, in addition to the effect of observing breath-holding, indicating shared negative emotion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. Methods. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β-hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (−, 2 (±, 3 (+, 4 (++, or 5 (+++ according to urinary ketone concentrations. Results. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Conclusions. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

  19. Long-term monitoring of breath methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polag, Daniela; Keppler, Frank

    2018-05-15

    In recent years, methane as a component of exhaled human breath has been considered as a potential bioindicator providing information on microbial activity in the intestinal tract. Several studies indicated a relationship between breath methane status and specific gastrointestinal disease. So far, almost no attention has been given to the temporal variability of breath methane production by individual persons. Thus here, for the first time, long-term monitoring was carried out measuring breath methane of three volunteers over periods between 196 and 1002days. Results were evaluated taking into consideration the health status and specific medical intervention events for each individual during the monitoring period, and included a gastroscopy procedure, a vaccination, a dietary change, and chelate therapy. As a major outcome, breath methane mixing ratios show considerable variability within a person-specific range of values. Interestingly, decreased breath methane production often coincided with gastrointestinal complaints whereas influenza infections were mostly accompanied by increased breath methane production. A gastroscopic examination as well as a change to a low-fructose diet led to a dramatic shift of methane mixing ratios from high to low methane production. In contrast, a typhus vaccination as well as single chelate injections resulted in significant short-term methane peaks. Thus, this study clearly shows that humans can change from high to low methane emitters and vice versa within relatively short time periods. In the case of low to medium methane emitters the increase observed in methane mixing ratios, likely resulting from immune reactions and inflammatory processes, might indicate non-microbial methane formation under aerobic conditions. Although detailed reaction pathways are not yet known, aerobic methane formation might be related to cellular oxidative-reductive stress reactions. However, a detailed understanding of the pathways involved in human

  20. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Periodic breathing and apnea in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, K J; Finer, N N

    1990-02-01

    The relationship between periodic breathing and idiopathic apnea of prematurity was investigated. We recorded respiratory impedance, heart rate, pulse oximetry and end-tidal CO2 from 68 untreated infants of less than or equal to 34 wk gestation with a diagnosis of idiopathic apnea of prematurity. Mean birth wt was 1476 g (SD 420) and mean gestational age was 29.9 wk (SD 2.6). Apneas of more than 15 s duration that were associated with hypoxemia or bradycardia were identified by semiautomated analysis of computerized records. A total of 1116 significant apneic spells were identified, only one of which occurred during an epoch of periodic breathing, five others occurred within 2 min of the end of an epoch of periodic breathing. Less than 0.6% of significant apneic spells occur within 2 min of periodic breathing. In all of the 12 infants that were monitored starting in the first 12 h of life, significant apneic spells were identified before 36 h of age and no precipitating factors were identified. Periodic breathing did not occur during the first 48 h of life, a finding that supports the concept that the peripheral chemoreceptor is inactive in the first 48 h of life. Periodic breathing in the premature infant is not a precursor to significant apnea.

  2. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of obesity: implications for critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peavy, Wendy C

    2009-09-01

    Obesity has become a global health crisis. The effects of obesity on the cardiovascular system pose a unique challenge for the critical care nurse. This article reviews the scope of the problem, the alterations in the cardiovascular structures and function, and the implications for critical care nursing.

  4. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, T.-H.; Jin, E.-H.; Shen, H.; Zhang, Y.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using 1 H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=–2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=–2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9–4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p 1 H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. 1 H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing acquisition.

  5. Cerebral Hemispheric Lateralization Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis May Affect Interictal Cardiovascular Autonomic Functions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokia Ghchime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is linked to the autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Seizures alter the function of different systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible factors which may be involved in interictal cardiovascular autonomic function in temporal lobe epilepsy with complex partial seizures, and with particular attention to hippocampal sclerosis. The study was conducted in 30 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (19 with left hippocampal sclerosis, 11 with right hippocampal sclerosis. All subjects underwent four tests of cardiac autonomic function: heart rate changes in response to deep breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure variations throughout resting activity and during hand grip, mental stress, and orthostatic tests. Our results show that the right cerebral hemisphere predominantly modulates sympathetic activity, while the left cerebral hemisphere mainly modulates parasympathetic activity, which mediated tachycardia and excessive bradycardia counterregulation, both of which might be involved as a mechanism of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP.

  6. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  7. Microgravity reduces sleep-disordered breathing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, A. R.; Shea, S. A.; Dijk, D. J.; Wyatt, J. K.; Riel, E.; Neri, D. F.; Czeisler, C. A.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    To understand the factors that alter sleep quality in space, we studied the effect of spaceflight on sleep-disordered breathing. We analyzed 77 8-h, full polysomnographic recordings (PSGs) from five healthy subjects before spaceflight, on four occasions per subject during either a 16- or 9-d space shuttle mission and shortly after return to earth. Microgravity was associated with a 55% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), which decreased from a preflight value of 8.3 +/- 1.6 to 3.4 +/- 0.8 events/h inflight. This reduction in AHI was accompanied by a virtual elimination of snoring, which fell from 16.5 +/- 3.0% of total sleep time preflight to 0.7 +/- 0.5% inflight. Electroencephalogram (EEG) arousals also decreased in microgravity (by 19%), and this decrease was almost entirely a consequence of the reduction in respiratory-related arousals, which fell from 5.5 +/- 1.2 arousals/h preflight to 1.8 +/- 0.6 inflight. Postflight there was a return to near or slightly above preflight levels in these variables. We conclude that sleep quality during spaceflight is not degraded by sleep-disordered breathing. This is the first direct demonstration that gravity plays a dominant role in the generation of apneas, hypopneas, and snoring in healthy subjects.

  8. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Effects of Ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Tesauro

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin receptors have been detected in the hypothalamus and the pituitary, but also in the cardiovascular system, where ghrelin exerts beneficial hemodynamic activities. Ghrelin administration acutely improves endothelial dysfunction by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and normalizes the altered balance between endothelin-1 and nitric oxide within the vasculature of patients with metabolic syndrome. Other cardiovascular effects of ghrelin include improvement of left ventricular contractility and cardiac output, as well as reduction of arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance. In addition, antinflammatory and antiapoptotic actions of ghrelin have been reported both in vivo and in vitro. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of ghrelin through GH-dependent and -independent mechanisms and the possible role of ghrelin as a therapeutic molecule for treating cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...... America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air-gulping motion at the surface, followed by swimming towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of spontaneous air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia...

  10. Cardiovascular involvement in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Lewis, Suzanne K; Biviano, Angelo B; Iyer, Vivek; Garan, Hasan; Green, Peter H

    2017-08-26

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune response to ingestion of gluten protein, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley grains, and results in both small intestinal manifestations, including villous atrophy, as well as systemic manifestations. The main treatment for the disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which typically results in the restoration of the small intestinal villi, and restoration of other affected organ systems, to their normal functioning. In an increasing number of recently published studies, there has been great interest in the occurrence of alterations in the cardiovascular system in untreated CD. Herein, published studies in which CD and cardiovascular terms appear in the title of the study were reviewed. The publications were categorized into one of several types: (1) articles (including cohort and case-control studies); (2) reviews and meta-analyses; (3) case studies (one to three patient reports); (4) letters; (5) editorials; and (6) abstracts (used when no full-length work had been published). The studies were subdivided as either heart or vascular studies, and were further characterized by the particular condition that was evident in conjunction with CD. Publication information was determined using the Google Scholar search tool. For each publication, its type and year of publication were tabulated. Salient information from each article was then compiled. It was determined that there has been a sharp increase in the number of CD - cardiovascular studies since 2000. Most of the publications are either of the type "article" or "case study". The largest number of documents published concerned CD in conjunction with cardiomyopathy (33 studies), and there have also been substantial numbers of studies published on CD and thrombosis (27), cardiovascular risk (17), atherosclerosis (13), stroke (12), arterial function (11), and ischemic heart disease (11). Based on the published research, it can be concluded that many types of cardiovascular issues

  11. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  12. Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Peter; Chester, Neil; Green, Danny; Somauroo, John; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith

    2012-02-01

    Recent reports from needle exchange programmes and other public health initiatives have suggested growing use of anabolic steroids (AS) in the UK and other countries. Data indicate that AS use is not confined to body-builders or high-level sportsmen. Use has spread to professionals working in emergency services, casual fitness enthusiasts and subelite sportsmen and women. Although the precise health consequences of AS use is largely undefined, AS use represents a growing public health concern. Data regarding the consequences of AS use on cardiovascular health are limited to case studies and a modest number of small cohort studies. Numerous case studies have linked AS use with a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or endpoints, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Large-scale epidemiological studies to support these links are absent. Consequently, the impact of AS use upon known CVD risk factors has been studied in relatively small, case-series studies. Data relating AS use to elevated blood pressure, altered lipid profiles and ECG abnormalities have been reported, but are often limited in scope, and other studies have often produced equivocal outcomes. The use of AS has been linked to the appearance of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as well as endothelial dysfunction but the data again remains controversial. The mechanisms responsible for the negative effect of AS on cardiovascular health are poorly understood, especially in humans. Possibilities include direct effects on myocytes and endothelial cells, reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, increased release of apoptogenic factors, as well as increased collagen crosslinks between myocytes. New data relating AS use to cardiovascular health risks are emerging, as novel technologies are developed (especially in non-invasive imaging) that can assess physiological structure and function. Continued efforts to fully document the cardiovascular health consequences of AS use is important to

  13. Cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Januszewicz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical expression of phaeochromocytoma may involve numerous cardiovascular manifestations, but usually presents as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension associated with other signs and symptoms of catecholamine excess. Most of the life-threatening cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma,

  14. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  15. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 29,2018 The following statistics ... clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent of ...

  16. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pbreathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (Pbreathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  18. The clinical value of breath hydrogen testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chu K; Tuck, Caroline J

    2017-03-01

    Breath hydrogen testing for assessing the presence of carbohydrate malabsorption is frequently applied to refine dietary restrictions on a low fermentable carbohydrate (FODMAP) diet. Its application has also been extended for the detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Recently, several caveats of its methodology and interpretation have emerged. A review of the evidence surrounding its application in the management of patients with a functional bowel disorder was performed. Studies were examined to assess limitations of testing methodology, interpretation of results, reproducibility, and how this relates to clinical symptoms. A wide heterogeneity in testing parameters, definition of positive/negative response, and the use of clinically irrelevant doses of test carbohydrate were common methodological limitations. These factors can subsequently impact the sensitivity, specificity, and false positive or negative detection rates. Evidence is also increasing on the poor intra-individual reproducibility in breath responses with repeated testing for fructose and lactulose. On the basis of these limitations, it is not surprising that the diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth based on a lactulose breath test yields a wide prevalence rate and is unreliable. Finally, symptom induction during a breath test has been found to correlate poorly with the presence of carbohydrate malabsorption. The evidence suggests that breath hydrogen tests have limited clinical value in guiding clinical decision for the patient with a functional bowel disorder. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Voice function differences following resting breathing versus submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J; Connor, Nadine P; Pascoe, David D

    2013-09-01

    There is little known about how physical exercise may alter physiological parameters of voice production. In this investigation, vocal function and upper airway temperature were examined following a bout of submaximal exercise and compared with a resting breathing condition. It was hypothesized that phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and perceived phonatory effort (PPE) would increase and pharyngeal temperature would decrease following an exercise bout. Using a within-participant repeated measures design, 18 consented participants (nine men and nine women) completed the study. A 20-minute equilibration task was immediately followed by 8 minutes of submaximal exercise on a stationary bike in a thermally neutral environment (25°C/40% RH). At the end of the equilibration trial and the exercise trial, measures were taken in the following order: pharyngeal temperature, PTP, and PPE. Data were analyzed using paired t tests with significance set at P function requires further study. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Si-qian;CHEN Bao-jun;LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further research, the breath test is expected to be applied in more diseases diagnosis.

  1. Helping Babies Breathe implementation in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gina Marie; Ame, Ame Masemo; Khatib, Maimuna Mohamed; Rende, Elizabeth K; Hartman, Ann Michelle; Blood-Siegfried, Jane

    2017-08-01

    To assess the efficacy and feasibility of implementing Helping Babies Breathe, a neonatal resuscitation programme for resource-limited environments. This quality improvement project focused on training midwives on Helping Babies Breathe to address high rates of neonatal mortality secondary to birth asphyxia. The convenience sample was 33 midwives in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The train-the-trainer strategy with repeated measures design was used to assess knowledge and skills at 3 time points. Observations were completed during "real-time" deliveries, and a focused interview generated feedback regarding satisfaction and sustainability. Knowledge scores and resuscitation skills significantly improved and were sustained, P < .05. Of the 62 birth observations, 19% needed intervention. All were appropriately resuscitated and survived. Results indicate that participants retained knowledge and skills and used them in clinical practice. Observations demonstrated that participants took appropriate actions when presented with a baby who was not breathing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Role of Adipokines in Atherosclerosis: Interferences with Cardiovascular Complications in Rheumatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Gómez, Rodolfo; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; González, Antonio; Lago, Francisca; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gualillo, Oreste

    2012-01-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of mortality by cardiovascular events. In fact, several rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatic patients, these alterations do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Obesity and its pathologic alteration of fat mass and dysfunction, due to an altered pattern of secretion of proinflammatory adipokines, could be one of the links between cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases. Indeed, the incidence of CVDs is augmented in obese individuals with rheumatic disorders. Thus, in this paper we explore in detail the relationships among adipokines, rheumatic diseases, and cardiovascular complications by giving to the reader a holistic vision and several suggestions for future perspectives and potential clinical implications. PMID:22910888

  3. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes during slow-wave sleep in rats are associated with electrocorticogram desynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Dias-dos-Santos

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available In awake rats a single recurrent larger tidal volume (deep breaths occurs at regular intervals, followed by oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate. In the present study we recorded the changes in blood pressure, heart rate and ventilation during the wakefulness-sleep cycle identified by electrocorticographic records in order to determine whether the deep breaths and cardiovascular oscillations were associated with changes in the electrocorticogram. During several episodes of slow-wave sleep (SWS in 7 rats the deep breaths and oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate were preceded by SWS desynchronization. The interval between deep breaths during SWS was 71 ± 4 s, the period between initial desynchronization and the generation of deep breaths was 3.98 ± 0.45 s and the duration of SWS desynchronization was 11 ± 0.65 s. Hypotension (-16 ± 1 mmHg and tachycardia (+15 ± 5 bpm were observed during deep breaths in the SWS state. These data indicate that the oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate during SWS are associated with deep breaths, which in turn are preceded by desynchronization of the electrocorticogram in this state of sleep

  4. Changes in breathing variables during a 30-minute spontaneous breathing trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Casas, Juan B; Connery, Sean M; Montoya, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) are increasingly performed. Significant changes in monitored breathing variables and the timing of those changes during the trial have important implications for its outcome determination and supervision. We aimed to study the magnitude and timing of change in breathing variables during the course of a 30-min SBT. Breathing variables were continuously measured and averaged by minute during the SBT in 32 subjects with trial success and 8 subjects with trial failure from a general ICU population. Percentage changes in breathing variables during the trial and proportions of subjects showing a ≥20% change at different time points relative to the second minute of the trial were calculated. The commonly monitored breathing variables (frequency, tidal volume, their ratio, and minute ventilation) showed median coefficients of variation of breathing variables remain relatively constant, and potentially significant changes in these variables after 10 min into the trial are uncommon. These findings should be considered when addressing aspects of duration and supervision of SBTs in weaning protocols. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Acoustic signal classification of breathing movements to virtually aid breath regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushakra, Ahmad; Faezipour, Miad

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring breath and identifying breathing movements have settled importance in many biomedical research areas, especially in the treatment of those with breathing disorders, e.g., lung cancer patients. Moreover, virtual reality (VR) revolution and their implementations on ubiquitous hand-held devices have a lot of implications, which could be used as a simulation technology for healing purposes. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to detect and classify breathing movements. The overall VR framework is intended to encourage the subjects regulate their breath by classifying the breathing movements in real time. This paper focuses on a portion of the overall VR framework that deals with classifying the acoustic signal of respiration movements. We employ Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) along with speech segmentation techniques using voice activity detection and linear thresholding to the acoustic signal of breath captured using a microphone to depict the differences between inhale and exhale in frequency domain. For every subject, 13 MFCCs of all voiced segments are computed and plotted. The inhale and exhale phases are differentiated using the sixth MFCC order, which carries important classification information. Experimental results on a number of individuals verify our proposed classification methodology.

  6. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for breath phase detection and breath cycle segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Rajkumar; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Sundaraj, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The monitoring of the respiratory rate is vital in several medical conditions, including sleep apnea because patients with sleep apnea exhibit an irregular respiratory rate compared with controls. Therefore, monitoring the respiratory rate by detecting the different breath phases is crucial. This study aimed to segment the breath cycles from pulmonary acoustic signals using the newly developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on breath phase detection and to subsequently evaluate the performance of the system. The normalised averaged power spectral density for each segment was fuzzified, and a set of fuzzy rules was formulated. The ANFIS was developed to detect the breath phases and subsequently perform breath cycle segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient values were calculated and analysed, and the proposed method was then validated using data collected at KIMS Hospital and the RALE standard dataset. The analysis of the correlation coefficient of the neuro-fuzzy model, which was performed to evaluate its performance, revealed a correlation strength of r = 0.9925, and the RMSE for the neuro-fuzzy model was found to equal 0.0069. The proposed neuro-fuzzy model performs better than the fuzzy inference system (FIS) in detecting the breath phases and segmenting the breath cycles and requires less rules than FIS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered carbon dioxide metabolism and creatine abnormalities in rett syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbach, Nicky S J; Smeets, Eric E J; Bierau, Jörgen; Keularts, Irene M L W; Plasqui, Guy; Julu, Peter O O; Engerström, Ingegerd Witt; Bakker, Jaap A.; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-01-01

    Despite their good appetite, many females with Rett syndrome (RTT) meet the criteria for moderate to severe malnutrition. Although feeding difficulties may play a part in this, other constitutional factors such as altered metabolic processes are suspected. Irregular breathing is a common clinical

  8. Aquaporins in Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Lu; Wang, Di; Shi, Yundi; Li, Xuejun

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that some aquaporins (AQPs ), including AQP1, AQP4, AQP7 and AQP9, are expressed in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and heart of cardiovascular system. These AQPs are involved in the cardiovascular function and in pathological process of related diseases, such as cerebral ischemia , congestion heart failure , hypertension and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is important to understand the accurate association between AQPs and cardiovascular system, which may provide novel approaches to prevent and treat related diseases. Here we will discuss the expression and physiological function of AQPs in cardiovascular system and summarize recent researches on AQPs related cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Dietary echium oil increases long-chain n-3 PUFAs, including docosapentaenoic acid, in blood fractions and alters biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease independently of age, sex, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Fuhrmann, Claudia; Köhler, Melanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans. We investigated the effect of EO on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and biochemical markers with respect to age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. This double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled study started with a 2-wk run-in period, during which participants (n = 80) were administered 17 g/d run-in oil. Normal-weight individuals from 2 age groups (20-35 and 49-69 y) were allotted to EO or fish oil (FO; control) groups. During the 8-wk intervention, participants were administered either 17 g/d EO (2 g SDA; n = 59) or FO [1.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); n = 19]. Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 19) were recruited for EO treatment only. During the 10-wk study, the participants followed a dietary n-3 PUFA restriction, e.g., no fish. After the 8-wk EO treatment, increases in the LC n-3 metabolites EPA (168% and 79%) and docosapentaenoic acid [DPA (68% and 39%)] were observed, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased (-5% and -23%) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Compared with FO, the efficacy of EO to increase EPA and DPA in blood was significantly lower (∼25% and ∼50%, respectively). A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower relative and net increases in EPA and DPA. Compared with baseline, EO significantly reduced serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and triglyceride (TG), but also HDL cholesterol, regardless of age and BMI. In the FO group, only TG decreased. Overall, daily intake of 15-20 g EO increased EPA and DPA in blood but had no influence on DHA. EO lowered cardiovascular risk markers, e.g., serum TG, which is particularly relevant for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Natural EO could be a noteworthy source of n-3 PUFA in human nutrition.

  10. Loss of Breathing Modulation of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Recent and Long Standing Diabetes Mellitus Type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Estañol, Bruno; Fossion, Ruben; Toledo-Roy, Juan C; Callejas-Rojas, José A; Gien-López, José A; Delgado-García, Guillermo R; Frank, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Healthy subjects under rhythmic breathing have heart interbeat intervals with a respiratory band in the frequency domain that can be an index of vagal activity. Diabetes Mellitus Type II (DM) affects the autonomic nervous system of patients, thus it can be expected changes on the vagal activity. Here, the influence of DM on the breathing modulation of the heart rate is evaluated by analyzing in the frequency domain heart interbeat interval (IBI) records obtained from 30 recently diagnosed, 15 long standing DM patients, and 30 control subjects during standardized clinical tests of controlled breathing at 0.1 Hz, supine rest and standing upright. Fourier spectral analysis of IBI records quantifies heart rate variability in different regions: low-frequencies (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz), high-frequencies (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz), and a controlled breathing peak (RP, centered around 0.1 Hz). Two new parameters are introduced: the frequency radius rf (square root of the sum of LF and HF squared) and β (power of RP divided by the sum of LF and HF). As diabetes evolves, the controlled breathing peak loses power and shifts to smaller frequencies, indicating that heart rate modulation is slower in diabetic patients than in controls. In contrast to the traditional parameters LF, HF and LF/HF, which do not show significant differences between the three populations in neither of the clinical tests, the new parameters rf and β, distinguish between control and diabetic subjects in the case of controlled breathing. Sympathetic activity that is driven by the baroreceptor reflex associated with the 0.1 Hz breathing modulations is affected in DM patients. Diabetes produces not only a rigid heartbeat with less autonomic induced variability (rf diminishes), but also alters the coupling between breathing and heart rate (reduced β), due to a progressive decline of vagal and sympathetic activity.

  11. Photochemical Reaction Altered Cardiac Toxicity of Diesel Exhaust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have indicated an association between urban air pollution exposure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of inhaled diesel exhaust and compared with photochemically altered d...

  12. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.-H. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Jin, E.-H., E-mail: erhujin1@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Shen, H. [GE China Company Ltd, Healthcare, General Electric Company, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.; He, W. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=-2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=-2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9-4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p < 0.05). In the breath-holding spectra, there were significant positive correlations between Lip peak height, area, and age (r = 0.491 and 0.521, p = 0.007 and 0.004), but not between Lip peak area and BMI. There was no statistical difference in Cho resonances between males and females. The Lip peak height and area were significantly higher in the Cho peak invisible group than in the Cho peak visible group (t = 2.661 and 2.353, p = 0.030 and 0.043). Conclusion: In vivo{sup 1}H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing

  13. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  14. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  15. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  16. Iron and zinc levels in breath-holding spells

    OpenAIRE

    DEDA, Gülhis; AKAR, M. Nejat; CİN, Şükrü; GENÇGÖNÜL, Handan

    2002-01-01

    Breath-Holding spells are a dramatic and commonly observed clinical phenomenon in childhood. The underlyingpathophysiologic mechanisms in breath-holding spells are result from autonomic nervous system dysregulation.Cerebral anoxia is the ultimate factor responsible for the loss of consciousness observed in the severe forms of breath-holding spells.It’s known that, there is relationbetween breath-holding spells and iron-deficiency anemia, and the spells resolve after oral iron supplemantation....

  17. Beat to beat variability in cardiovascular variables: noise or music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, M. L.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Smith, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiovascular variables such as heart rate, arterial blood pressure, stroke volume and the shape of electrocardiographic complexes all fluctuate on a beat to beat basis. These fluctuations have traditionally been ignored or, at best, treated as noise to be averaged out. The variability in cardiovascular signals reflects the homeodynamic interplay between perturbations to cardiovascular function and the dynamic response of the cardiovascular regulatory systems. Modern signal processing techniques provide a means of analyzing beat to beat fluctuations in cardiovascular signals, so as to permit a quantitative, noninvasive or minimally invasive method of assessing closed loop hemodynamic regulation and cardiac electrical stability. This method promises to provide a new approach to the clinical diagnosis and management of alterations in cardiovascular regulation and stability.

  18. Short hypobaric hypoxia and breathing pattern: effect of positive end expiratory pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savourey, G; Besnard, Y; Launay, J C; Guinet, A; Hanniquet, A M; Caterini, R; Bittel, J

    1999-09-01

    The ventilatory effects of a 5-cm H2O positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and its influence on the breathing pattern during short hypoxic exposure both at rest and during physical exercise were studied. There were 22 healthy subjects who were submitted to normoxia and to 4-h of hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber (4500 m, PB = 589 hPa) both at rest and during an 8-min cycle ergometer exercise (100 W) without and with a 5 cm H2O PEEP. The results show that hypoxia compared with normoxia induces increases in tidal volume (VT) (+28.5%, p breathing pattern expressed as duty cycle (tI/tt) is unchanged, whereas an increased mean inspiratory flow (VT/tI) is observed (p hypoxia significantly increases VT (+22.2% p breathing pattern in hypoxia since VT/tI and tI/tt are unchanged. Heart rate and arterial O2 saturation are also unaffected by PEEP. In conclusion, this study shows that a 4-h hypoxia modifies ventilatory parameters and mean inspiratory flow (VT/tI) at rest and during exercise (100 W), whereas a 5-cm H2O PEEP does not alter the breathing pattern despite changes in ventilatory parameters are observed.

  19. Sleep Disordered Breathing and Spinal Cord Injury: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankari, Abdulghani; Martin, Jennifer L; Badr, M Safwan

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the sleep disorders in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI/D), particularly mechanism of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and challenges in diagnosis and management. Based on a review of recent literatures and studies the paper summarizes some main challenges with respect to management of SDB in patients with SCI; and what are the responsible mechanisms of disease? What are the barriers in diagnosing and treating SDB using standard treatment such as positive airway pressure (CPAP)?. Previous studies have shown that most SCI/D patients have SDB with heterogeneity in prevalence mainly related to using different definition or methods of diagnosing SDB, while recent studies using new definition of SDB based on recommended criteria from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and also include the data on effect of SCI/D level on prevalence and describe different type of SDB. Furthermore, recent data describes simplified method of diagnosing SDB by using a combination of home sleep apnea testing and transcutaneous CO2 monitoring. Finally, emerging data has been pointing at strong relationship between SDB and cardiovascular disease including nocturnal hypertension in patients with SCI/D. The findings indicate that early testing for SDB and associated cardiovascular disease in patients with SCI is recommended and could be beneficial in reduced the high morbidity and mortality in this group of patients with disability. In addition, studies on treatment of other sleep disorders in SCI/D are not available to inform clinical decision making. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders in SCI/D is critical for the development of new effective therapies. This review provides evidence for best practices; highlights new discoveries for the diagnosis and management of sleep disorders in SCI/D, and discuss challenges and future directions.

  20. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yasuto

    1988-01-01

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13 C and 14 C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO 2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13 C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  2. Extreme breathing excitations of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Petkov, I.Zh.

    1984-01-01

    In the present paper collective breathing nuclear states, that appear in the framework of the coherent density fluctuation model (CFM) are taken into consideration. Their excitation energies are large and comparable with the binding nuclear energies. The basic CFM equation obtain in the generator-coordinate method. The possible mechanisms for the excitations for the excitations of the breathing states are deeply inelastic interactions of particles (e - , p, etc.) with nuclei, the π - -absorbtion from nuclei. It should be noted, that the energy of the Roper-resonance is comparable with the breathing nuclear excitation energies. Therefore the decay of this resonance, in principle, can lead to the breathing nuclear vibrations. The results of this work, as well as the results of some papers, obtained by means of a similar method but related to different quantum-mechanical systems, give an evidence, that the structure in detail and the character of the forces between the particles are not decisive for the considered type of excitations

  3. Practical recommendations for breathing-adapted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, L.; Giraud, P.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Dumas, J.L.; Lorchel, F.; Marre, D.; Dupont, S.; Varmenot, N.; Ginestet, C.; Caron, J.; Marchesi, V.; Ferreira, I.; Garcia, R.

    2007-01-01

    Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath-hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active techniques, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily holds his/her breath. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. This work summarizes the different experiences of the centers of the STIC 2003 project. It describes the different techniques, gives an overview of the literature and proposes a practice based on our experience. (authors)

  4. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  5. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  6. ACTIVE CYCLE BREATHING TECHNIQUES IN HEART FAILURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    47. Pulmonary Function Responses to Active Cycle. Breathing Techniques in Heart Failure Patients at the. University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Lusaka, Zambia. 1. 1. 2. 3. Charity Kapenda Muselema *, Methuselah Jere , Gershom Chongwe , Fastone M. Goma. 1Ministry of Community Development Mother and Child Health, ...

  7. A breath actuated dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially

  8. Neural, Endocrine and Local Mechanisms in the Effects of Environmental Stressors on the Cardiovascular Response to Blood Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schadt, James C

    2006-01-01

    .... Although, blood loss surely alters and compromises the highly integrated cardiovascular and respiratory control of oxygen delivery and removal of carbon dioxide, there is little if any published...

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors and collateral artery formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, D; Pasterkamp, G; Hoefer, I E

    2009-12-01

    Arterial lumen narrowing and vascular occlusion is the actual cause of morbidity and mortality in atherosclerotic disease. Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia. Hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and wall stress play a pivotal role in collateral artery formation, accompanied by the expression of various cytokines and invasion of circulating leucocytes. Arteriogenesis hence represents an important compensatory mechanism for atherosclerotic vessel occlusion. As arteriogenesis mostly occurs when lumen narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques takes place, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes) is highly likely. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease affect collateral artery growth directly and indirectly by altering hemodynamic forces or influencing cellular function and proliferation. Adequate collateralization varies significantly among atherosclerotic patients, some profit from the presence of extensive collateral networks, whereas others do not. Cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients because of the reduced protection through an alternative vascular network. Likewise, drugs primarily thought to control cardiovascular risk factors might contribute or counteract collateral artery growth. This review summarizes current knowledge on the influence of cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of cardiovascular medication on the development of collateral vessels in experimental and clinical studies.

  10. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, John W.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.; Kini, Vijay R.; Robertson, John M.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alavro A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  11. Human respiratory deposition of particles during oronasal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, David L.; Proctor, Donald F.

    Deposition of particles in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary airways is computed as a function of particle size, correcting for deposition in the parallel nasal and oral airways with oronasal breathing. Thoracic deposition is lower at all sizes for oronasal breathing than for mouth breathing via tube, and is negligible for aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 μm or larger.

  12. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  13. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  14. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as...

  15. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a) Identification. A breathing gas mixer is a device intended for use in conjunction with a respiratory support...

  17. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air... or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked before...

  18. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section 84.132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Gas Masks § 84.1132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (a) Flexible breathing tubes used in...

  20. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195 Section 84.195 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in...

  1. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked “SELF-CONTAINED...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing...

  3. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a...

  4. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF CONTAINED...

  5. The response of the vena cava to abdominal breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Kyeongmin; Choi, Jin-Oh; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Sung, Jidong; Park, Seung Woo; Oh, Jae K; Hong, Kyung Pyo

    2012-02-01

    Recently, abdominal-breathing or diaphragmatic-breathing methods have increased in popularity. Little is known how abdominal breathing affects the circulatory system. This study was designed to determine the impact of the respiratory pattern on central venous flow using echocardiography. The superior vena cava (SVC) and inferior vena cava (IVC) were observed in people who had practiced abdominal breathing for at least 2 years, while they were breathing in three different techniques: slow respiration, slow respiration with inspiratory pause, or normal respiration. In addition, the observation during normal respiration was compared with that of a control group. The abdominal-breathing group consisted of 20 people with mean duration of training of 9.6 years. The respiratory collapsibility index of IVC during slow respiration with inspiratory pause was 62±19% compared with 48±19% during normal respiration (p=0.012) in the abdominal-breathing group. The abdominal-breathing group had a higher IVC collapsibility index compared to the control group during normal respiration (48±19% versus 26±12%, pbreathing patterns or between groups. The IVC of people who practice abdominal breathing has a greater degree of collapse than those of normal people, suggesting that abdominal-breathing exercise can positively affect venous return via IVC. For those who practice abdominal breathing, the collapsibility of the IVC is the best during slow respiration with inspiratory pause. The SVC did not seem to be affected by abdominal-breathing training.

  6. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with gas...

  7. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend from the...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 29.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) If one or more cargo or baggage compartments are to be accessible in flight, protective breathing equipment must be available for an appropriate crewmember. (b) For...

  9. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and after...

  10. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  11. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened...

  12. The best breathing command for abdominal PETCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, T.; Goerres, G.; Burger, C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the best breathing command for combined PETCT scanning on a in-line system (Discovery LS, GEMS). Material and Methods: Eight patients underwent FDG PET and CT for attenuation correction and image co-registration on a combined PETCT scanner. CT was acquired during maximum inspiration (MaxInsp) with a starting point at the level of the head. Patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. Then, a CT scan was acquired during normal expiration (NormExp), which corresponded to the respiratory level reached when the patient first inhaled and then exhaled without forcing expiration. Again, CT started at the head and patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. In a third run, patients performed again the NormExp breathing manoeuvre but the breathing command was given after the start of the CT scan. Using this respiration protocol, the hold on time for the patients was between 10 and 15 seconds. All PET images were corrected for attenuation using the CT-based attenuation maps acquired with these three respiration protocols and then were reconstructed using an iterative algorithm. Results: In all patients, attenuation correction of the PET image using the CT scan acquired during MaxInsp caused mis-correction, which mimicked a decrease of FDG concentration in the base of the lungs. During MaxInsp the upper abdominal organs change their position and air filling of the lower lung zone is increased, thus, causing an underestimation of correction values. Subtraction images of the CT scans acquired during MaxInsp and NormExp illustrate the range of organ movements. Subtraction images of the attenuation corrected PET scans illustrate the deterioration of the final PET image. CT acquisition during NormExp provides better PET and co-registered PET/CT images. Using the shorter breath hold time the visual image quality was good in all patients. Conclusion: CT based attenuation correction can severely deteriorate PET image quality, if the CT scan

  13. Association between Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Heart Rate Variability in Adults at Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu C. Baltatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid intima-media thickness (IMT may be associated with alterations in the sensitivity of carotid baroreceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid IMT and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV.Methods: A total of 101 subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The carotid IMT was determined by duplex ultrasonography. The cardiac autonomic function was determined through HRV measures during the Deep Breathing Test. Linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, and left ventricular ejection fraction were used to evaluate the association between HRV parameters and carotid IMT.Results: Participants had a mean age of 60.4 ± 13.4 years and an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk score (using the Pooled Cohort Equations of 16.4 ± 17. The mean carotid media thickness was highest (0.90 ± 0.19 mm in the first quartile of the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN (19.7 ± 5.1 ms and progressively declined in each subsequent quartile to 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, 0.81 ± 0.16 mm, and 0.68 ± 0.19 in quartiles 2 (36.5 ± 5.9 ms, 3 (57.7 ± 6.2 ms and 4 (100.9 ± 22.2 ms, respectively. In multivariable adjusted models, there was a statistical significant association between SDNN and carotid IMT (OR −0.002; 95%CI −0.003 to −0.001, p = 0.005. The same significant association was found between carotid IMT and other measures of HRV, including coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CV and dispersion of points along the line of identity (SD2.Conclusions: In a cohort of individuals at increased cardiovascular risk, carotid IMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with alterations of HRV indicating an impaired cardiac autonomic control, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. Heart rate variability and stroke volume variability to detect central hypovolemia during spontaneous breathing and supported ventilation in young, healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elstad, Maja; Walløe, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular oscillations exist in many different variables and may give important diagnostic and prognostic information in patients. Variability in cardiac stroke volume (SVV) is used in clinical practice for diagnosis of hypovolemia, but currently is limited to patients on mechanical ventilation. We investigated if SVV and heart rate variability (HRV) could detect central hypovolemia in spontaneously breathing humans: We also compared cardiovascular variability during spontaneous breathing with supported mechanical ventilation.Ten subjects underwent simulated central hypovolemia by lower body negative pressure (LBNP) with >10% reduction of cardiac stroke volume. The subjects breathed spontaneously and with supported mechanical ventilation. Heart rate, respiratory frequency and mean arterial blood pressure were measured. Stroke volume (SV) was estimated by ModelFlow (Finometer). Respiratory SVV was calculated by: 1) SVV% = (SVmax − SVmin)/SVmean during one respiratory cycle, 2) SVIntegral from the power spectra (Fourier transform) at 0.15–0.4 Hz and 3) SVV-norm = (√SVIntegral)/SVmean. HRV was calculated by the same methods.During spontaneous breathing two measures of SVV and all three measures of HRV were reduced during hypovolemia compared to baseline. During spontaneous breathing SVIntegral and HRV% were best to detect hypovolemia (area under receiver operating curve 0.81). HRV% ≤ 11% and SVIntegral ≤ 12 ml 2 differentiated between hypovolemia and baseline during spontaneous breathing.During supported mechanical ventilation, none of the three measures of SVV changed and two of the HRV measures were reduced during hypovolemia. Neither measures of SVV nor HRV were classified as a good detector of hypovolemia.We conclude that HRV% and SVIntegral detect hypovolemia during spontaneous breathing and both are candidates for further clinical testing. (paper)

  15. Neurocognitive and behavioral impact of sleep disordered breathing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A

    2009-05-01

    The consequences of poor quality and/or inadequate sleep in children and adolescents have become a major public health concern, and one in which pediatric health care professionals have become increasingly involved. In particular, insufficient and/or fragmented sleep resulting from primary sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), often compounded by the presence of comorbid sleep disorders as well as by voluntary sleep curtailment related to lifestyle and environmental factors, has been implicated in a host of negative consequences. These range from metabolic dysfunction and increased cardiovascular morbidity to impairments in mood and academic performance. The following review will focus on what is currently known about the effects of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) specifically on neurobehavioral and neurocognitive function in children. Because of the scarcity of literature on the cognitive and behavioral impact of sleep disorders in infants and very young children, this review will target largely the preschool/school-aged child and adolescent populations. In addition, the focus will be on a review of the most recent literature, as a supplement to several excellent previous reviews on the topic. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  17. Effects of Nasal or Oral Breathing on Anaerobic Power Output and Metabolic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recinto, Christine; Efthemeou, Theodore; Boffelli, P Tony; Navalta, James W

    2017-01-01

    Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0-5 sec, 5-10 sec, 10-15 sec, 15-20 sec, 20-25 sec, 25-30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the pbreathing mode were observed for any power output or performance measures associated with the Wingate Anaerobic cycle test. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was significantly higher in the oral respiration condition from 10 seconds to 25 seconds during the test (pbreathing was effective in reducing hyperventilation as RER remained below 1.0. However, elevated HR with nasal breathing indicates increased cardiovascular stress associated with this mode. As breathing mode does not affect power output or performance measures during completion of a high-intensity anaerobic test, preference of the participant should be the determining factor if a choice is available.

  18. Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerath, Winfried; Verbraecken, Johan; Andreas, Stefan; Arzt, Michael; Bloch, Konrad E; Brack, Thomas; Buyse, Bertien; De Backer, Wilfried; Eckert, Danny Joel; Grote, Ludger; Hagmeyer, Lars; Hedner, Jan; Jennum, Poul; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Miltz, Carla; McNicholas, Walter T; Montserrat, Josep; Naughton, Matthew; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Pevernagie, Dirk; Sanner, Bernd; Testelmans, Dries; Tonia, Thomy; Vrijsen, Bart; Wijkstra, Peter; Levy, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can emerge under positive airway pressure treatment or opioid use, or at high altitude. As yet, there is insufficient knowledge on the clinical features, pathophysiological background and consecutive algorithms for stepped-care treatment. Most recently, it has been discussed intensively if CSA in heart failure is a "marker" of disease severity or a "mediator" of disease progression, and if and which type of positive airway pressure therapy is indicated. In addition, disturbances of respiratory drive or the translation of central impulses may result in hypoventilation, associated with cerebral or neuromuscular diseases, or severe diseases of lung or thorax. These statements report the results of an European Respiratory Society Task Force addressing actual diagnostic and therapeutic standards. The statements are based on a systematic review of the literature and a systematic two-step decision process. Although the Task Force does not make recommendations, it describes its current practice of treatment of CSA in heart failure and hypoventilation. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  19. MENOPAUSE AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Anichkov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A role of menopause as a cardiovascular risk factor is reviewed. Menopause influence on the cardiovascular system may be mediated by body fat re-allocation, metabolic, hemodynamic and pro-inflammatory changes. Besides, estrogen deprivation has a direct effect on the arterial wall. Lifestyle modification, lipid-lowering and antihypertensive treatment should be considered for cardiovascular risk reduction in postmenopausal women.

  20. Adrenomedullin and cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2012-01-01

    Summary The cardiovascular system is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, nitric oxide (NO) and other factors including neuropeptides. Research in neurohumoral factors has led to the development of many cardiovascular drugs. Adrenomedullin (ADM), initially isolated from the adrenal gland, has diverse physiological and pathophysiological functions in the cardiovascular system. It is produced in many organs and tissues including the vasculature. A...

  1. Cardiovascular molecular MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, H. J.; van der Meer, R. W.; de Roos, A.; Bax, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research, aiming to image and quantify molecular and cellular targets in vivo. MR imaging has some inherent properties that make it very suitable for cardiovascular molecular imaging. Until now, only a limited number of studies have been published on cardiovascular molecular imaging using MR imaging. Review In the current review, MR techniques that have already shown potential are discussed. Metabolic MR imaging can ...

  2. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna

    2014-01-01

    with the increasing opportunities and challenges in multidisciplinary research, the Science Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professionals (CCNAP) recognised the need for a position statement to guide researchers, policymakers and funding bodies to contribute to the advancement...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  3. Improved workflow for quantification of left ventricular volumes and mass using free-breathing motion corrected cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell; Olivieri, Laura; O'Brien, Kendall; Kellman, Peter; Xue, Hui; Hansen, Michael

    2016-02-25

    Traditional cine imaging for cardiac functional assessment requires breath-holding, which can be problematic in some situations. Free-breathing techniques have relied on multiple averages or real-time imaging, producing images that can be spatially and/or temporally blurred. To overcome this, methods have been developed to acquire real-time images over multiple cardiac cycles, which are subsequently motion corrected and reformatted to yield a single image series displaying one cardiac cycle with high temporal and spatial resolution. Application of these algorithms has required significant additional reconstruction time. The use of distributed computing was recently proposed as a way to improve clinical workflow with such algorithms. In this study, we have deployed a distributed computing version of motion corrected re-binning reconstruction for free-breathing evaluation of cardiac function. Twenty five patients and 25 volunteers underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for evaluation of left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-diastolic mass. Measurements using motion corrected re-binning were compared to those using breath-held SSFP and to free-breathing SSFP with multiple averages, and were performed by two independent observers. Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots tested agreement across techniques. Concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis tested inter-observer variability. Total scan plus reconstruction times were tested for significant differences using paired t-test. Measured volumes and mass obtained by motion corrected re-binning and by averaged free-breathing SSFP compared favorably to those obtained by breath-held SSFP (r = 0.9863/0.9813 for EDV, 0.9550/0.9685 for ESV, 0.9952/0.9771 for mass). Inter-observer variability was good with concordance correlation coefficients between observers across all acquisition types suggesting substantial agreement. Both motion

  4. Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

    2011-01-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such

  5. [Resting heart rate and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2014-07-07

    Heart rate reflects autonomic nervous system activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an increased heart rate at rest is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as an independent risk factor. It has been shown a link between cardiac autonomic balance and inflammation. Thus, an elevated heart rate produces a micro-inflammatory response and is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. In turn, decrease in heart rate produces benefits in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Alteration of other heart rate-related parameters, such as their variability and recovery after exercise, is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. Drugs reducing the heart rate (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and inhibitors of If channels) have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Although not recommended in healthy subjects, interventions for reducing heart rate constitute a reasonable therapeutic goal in certain pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Diastolic dysfunction, cardiovascular aging, and the anesthesiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David; Dudley, Michael; Groban, Leanne

    2009-09-01

    As the number of persons aged 65 years and older continues to increase, the anesthesiologist will more frequently encounter this demographic. Cardiovascular changes that occur in this patient population present difficult anesthetic challenges and place these patients at high risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The anesthesiologist should be knowledgeable about these age-related cardiovascular changes, the pathophysiology underlying them, and the appropriate perioperative management. Whether presenting for cardiac or general surgery, the anesthesiologist must identify patients with altered physiology as a result of aging or diastolic dysfunction and be prepared to modify the care plan accordingly. With a directed preoperative assessment that focuses on certain aspects of the cardiovascular system, and the assistance of powerful echocardiographic tools such as tissue Doppler, this can be achieved.

  7. [Irregular breathing during the cardiopulmonary exercise test - from mildly irregular breathing pattern to periodic breathing of oscillatory ventilation type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várnay, František; Mífková, Leona; Homolka, Pavel; Dobšák, Petr

    The fluctuating course of tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (DF) and minute ventilation (VE) during the cardio-pulmonary exercise test using a ramp incremental protocol occurs not only in patients, but relatively frequently also in healthy individuals. It can account for a number of irregularities in the course of the curves VO2, VCO2 and in particular of those of ventilatory equivalents for O2 and CO2 (EQO2, EQCO2) as well as curves of partial pressure of end-tidal oxygen and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETO2, PETCO2), which are also used, inter alia, to establish ventilatory thresholds. The presence of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) reflects the severity of heart failure and it is an independent predictor of the increased morbidity, cardiac and total mortality and sudden death caused by heart failure. However there is not a generally accepted universal definition of EOV available at present, as different criteria are used. We have not found a comparison which would indicate whether and how the "strength" of the prognostic criteria for EOV - established according to different methods - differs. Therefore it is very important to specify what method, or what criteria were used in the establishment of EOV.Key words: breathing pattern - EOV - exercise oscillatory ventilation - periodic breathing.

  8. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  9. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  10. Circadian rhythm of breath hydrogen in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, M; Iwata, M; Toda, Y; Nakae, Y; Kondo, T

    1998-08-01

    Breath hydrogen levels, which reflect colonic fermentation of undigested starches, are usually low in the fasted state. Fasting levels of breath hydrogen are important for estimation of oro-cecal transit time and diagnosis of lactase deficiency. In young women, however, fasting levels of breath hydrogen are high. To clarify the reason for this, we studied the circadian pattern of breath hydrogen and the effect of alpha-D-galactosidase on fasting breath hydrogen in one study, and the effect of sleep deprivation on fasting breath hydrogen in another study, in 13 women students aged 21-23 years. In the first study, two breath samples were collected, one in the evening and the other the next morning. On another occasion, alpha-D-galactosidase was given before dinner and breath samples were collected the next morning. In the second study, the circadian rhythm of breath hydrogen was assessed for 3 days and the subjects were deprived of sleep on the second night. Breath samples were collected every 30 min, except during the second night when samples were collected at 1-h intervals. Fasting breath hydrogen was 24 +/- 3.9 ppm (mean +/- SE), which did not differ from the value for the previous night. Alpha-D-galactosidase significantly decreased fasting breath hydrogen levels, to 17 +/- 2.4 ppm (P Sleep deprivation did not affect fasting levels of breath hydrogen. High fasting breath hydrogen levels in young women followed a circadian pattern and this may have been due, in part, to an high intake of dietary fiber on the previous day.

  11. Changes in sitting posture induce multiplanar changes in chest wall shape and motion with breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda-Joy; Chang, Angela T; Coppieters, Michel W; Hodges, Paul W

    2010-03-31

    This study examined the effect of sitting posture on regional chest wall shape in three dimensions, chest wall motion (measured with electromagnetic motion analysis system), and relative contributions of the ribcage and abdomen to tidal volume (%RC/V(t)) (measured with inductance plethysmography) in 7 healthy volunteers. In seven seated postures, increased dead space breathing automatically increased V(t) (to 1.5 V(t)) to match volume between conditions and study the effects of posture independent of volume changes. %RC/V(t) (psitting posture alter three-dimensional ribcage configuration and chest wall kinematics during breathing, while maintaining constant respiratory function. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Time-frequency methods and voluntary ramped-frequency breathing: a powerful combination for exploration of human neurophysiological mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovski, Tomislav; Cooke, William H.; Rudas, László; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally altered the timing of respiratory motoneuron activity as a means to modulate and better understand otherwise hidden human central neural and hemodynamic oscillatory mechanisms. We recorded the electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, tidal carbon dioxide concentrations, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in 13 healthy supine young men who gradually increased or decreased their breathing frequencies between 0.05 and 0.25 Hz over 9-min periods. We analyzed results with traditional time- and frequency-domain methods, and also with time-frequency methods (wavelet transform, wavelet phase coherence, and directional coupling). We determined statistical significance and identified frequency boundaries by comparing measurements with randomly generated surrogates. Our results support several major conclusions. First, respiration causally modulates both sympathetic (weakly) and vagal motoneuron (strongly) oscillations over a wide frequency range—one that extends well below the frequency of actual breaths. Second, breathing frequency broadly modulates vagal baroreflex gain, with peak gains registered in the low frequency range. Third, breathing frequency does not influence median levels of sympathetic or vagal activity over time. Fourth, phase relations between arterial pressure and sympathetic and vagal motoneurons are unaffected by breathing, and are therefore likely secondary to intrinsic responsiveness of these motoneurons to other synaptic inputs. Finally, breathing frequency does not affect phase coherence between diastolic pressure and muscle sympathetic oscillations, but it augments phase coherence between systolic pressure and R-R interval oscillations over a limited portion of the usual breathing frequency range. These results refine understanding of autonomic oscillatory processes and those physiological mechanisms known as the human respiratory gate. PMID:24114700

  13. Universe out of a breathing bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    We consider the model of a false-vacuum bubble with a thin wall where the surface energy density is composed of two different components, 'domain-wall' type and 'dust' type, with opposite signs. We find stably oscillating solutions, which we call 'breathing bubbles'. By decay to a lower mass state, such a breathing bubble could become either (i) a child universe or ii) a bubble that 'eats up' the original universe, depending on the sign of the surface energy of the domain-wall component. We also discuss the effect of the finite-thickness corrections to the thin-wall approximation and possible origins of the energy contents of our model

  14. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth; it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx an...

  15. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  16. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  17. Cardiovascular risk calculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James A. Ker

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... Introduction. Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause in the majority of cardiovascular disease events. Traditional independent risk factors for car diovascular disease include age, abnormal lipid levels, elevated blood ...

  18. Leptin: a cardiovascular perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Leptin: a cardiovascular perspective. 72. 2012 Volume 17 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Within the realms of noncommunicable disease development in South Africa, obesity is a disease that causes concern. This especially holds true for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Disheartened.

  19. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most

  20. Expiratory flow rate, breath hold and anatomic dead space influence electronic nose ability to detect lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikov, Andras; Hernadi, Marton; Korosi, Beata Zita; Kunos, Laszlo; Zsamboki, Gabriella; Sutto, Zoltan; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Horvath, Ildiko

    2014-12-16

    Electronic noses are composites of nanosensor arrays. Numerous studies showed their potential to detect lung cancer from breath samples by analysing exhaled volatile compound pattern ("breathprint"). Expiratory flow rate, breath hold and inclusion of anatomic dead space may influence the exhaled levels of some volatile compounds; however it has not been fully addressed how these factors affect electronic nose data. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate these effects. 37 healthy subjects (44 ± 14 years) and 27 patients with lung cancer (60 ± 10 years) participated in the study. After deep inhalation through a volatile organic compound filter, subjects exhaled at two different flow rates (50 ml/sec and 75 ml/sec) into Teflon-coated bags. The effect of breath hold was analysed after 10 seconds of deep inhalation. We also studied the effect of anatomic dead space by excluding this fraction and comparing alveolar air to mixed (alveolar + anatomic dead space) air samples. Exhaled air samples were processed with Cyranose 320 electronic nose. Expiratory flow rate, breath hold and the inclusion of anatomic dead space significantly altered "breathprints" in healthy individuals (p 0.05). These factors also influenced the discrimination ability of the electronic nose to detect lung cancer significantly. We have shown that expiratory flow, breath hold and dead space influence exhaled volatile compound pattern assessed with electronic nose. These findings suggest critical methodological recommendations to standardise sample collections for electronic nose measurements.

  1. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  2. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Comparison of cephalometric patterns in mouth breathing and nose breathing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Leng Muñoz, Isabel; Beltri Orta, Paola

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare cephalometric values between nasal and oral breathing children and to measure the upper and lower airway space in both groups. The study was conducted on 118 pediatric patients, 51 girls and 67 boys, from the Dental Clinic of the Universidad Europea de Madrid. The age ranges of the sample were 6-12 years old. 53 of them were mouth breathers and 65 nose breathers. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained for all of the subjects. The radiographs were analyzed and a cephalometric tracing was performed on each one. The mouth breathing children showed a more retruded mandible (SNB), and a greater inclination of the mandibular plane (NS-Go Gn) and occlusal plane (NS-O Pl.), than the nose breathing children (Pbreathing group also had a higher frequency of having the hyoid bone in a more elevated position and the nasopharyngeal air space significantly smaller than the nasal breathing group (Pbreathing children seem to have an increase in anterior lower facial height, the hyoid bone in a more elevated position and higher tendency towards having a class II malocclusion compared to nose breathing children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Asthma - A Disease of How We Breathe: Role of Breathing Exercises and Pranayam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Jhuma; Das, Rashmi Ranjan

    2017-12-16

    To describe the role of breathing exercises or yoga and/or pranayama in the management of childhood asthma. We conducted an updated literature search and retrieved relevant literature on the role of breathing exercises or yoga and/or pranayama in the management of childhood asthma. We found that the breathing exercises or yoga and/or pranayama are generally multi-component packaged interventions, and are described as follows: Papworth technique, Buteyko technique, Yoga and/or Pranayam. These techniques primarily modify the pattern of breathing to reduce hyperventilation resulting in normalisation of CO2 level, reduction of bronchospasm and resulting breathlessness. In addition they also change the behaviour, decrease anxiety, improve immunological parameters, and improve endurance of the respiratory muscles that may ultimately help asthmatic children. We found 10 clinical trials conducted in children with asthma of varying severity, and found to benefit children with chronic (mild and moderate) and uncontrolled asthma, but not acute severe asthma. Breathing exercises or yoga and/or pranayama may benefit children with chronic (mild and moderate) and uncontrolled asthma, but not acute severe asthma. Before these techniques can be incorporated into the standard care of asthmatic children, important outcomes like quality of life, medication use, and patient reported outcomes need to be evaluated in future clinical trials.

  5. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  6. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  7. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled, A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Smoking is known to adversely affect many organs and systems in human, where the cardiovascular system is one of the important targets. However, the exact mechanisms by which cigarette smoke alters myocardial and endothelial cells function and induces cardiovascular pathology are not clear. There are no reports especially with nitric oxide (NO), uric acid and hemodynamics after acute exercise in smokers up to date. This study is designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress, N...

  8. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... arteries is reduced, a factor contributing to increased arterial compliance. Endurance training may also induce alterations in the vasodilator capacity, although such adaptations are more pronounced in individuals with reduced vascular function. The microvascular net increases in size within the muscle...... allowing for an improved capacity for oxygen extraction by the muscle through a greater area for diffusion, a shorter diffusion distance, and a longer mean transit time for the erythrocyte to pass through the smallest blood vessels. The present article addresses the effect of endurance training on systemic...

  9. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  10. Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2017-07-07

    Many features of the environment have been found to exert an important influence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, progression, and severity. Changes in the environment because of migration to different geographic locations, modifications in lifestyle choices, and shifts in social policies and cultural practices alter CVD risk, even in the absence of genetic changes. Nevertheless, the cumulative impact of the environment on CVD risk has been difficult to assess and the mechanisms by which some environment factors influence CVD remain obscure. Human environments are complex, and their natural, social, and personal domains are highly variable because of diversity in human ecosystems, evolutionary histories, social structures, and individual choices. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that ecological features such as the diurnal cycles of light and day, sunlight exposure, seasons, and geographic characteristics of the natural environment such as altitude, latitude, and greenspaces are important determinants of cardiovascular health and CVD risk. In highly developed societies, the influence of the natural environment is moderated by the physical characteristics of the social environments such as the built environment and pollution, as well as by socioeconomic status and social networks. These attributes of the social environment shape lifestyle choices that significantly modify CVD risk. An understanding of how different domains of the environment, individually and collectively, affect CVD risk could lead to a better appraisal of CVD and aid in the development of new preventive and therapeutic strategies to limit the increasingly high global burden of heart disease and stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  12. Caffeine and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Duncan; Rodricks, Joseph V; Mariano, Gregory F; Chowdhury, Farah

    2017-10-01

    This report evaluates the scientific literature on caffeine with respect to potential cardiovascular outcomes, specifically relative risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), effects on arrhythmia, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, blood pressure, hypertension, and other biomarkers of effect, including heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cardiac output, plasma homocysteine levels, serum cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram (EKG) parameters, heart rate variability, endothelial/platelet function and plasma/urine catecholamine levels. Caffeine intake has been associated with a range of reversible and transient physiological effects broadly and cardiovascular effects specifically. This report attempts to understand where the delineations exist in caffeine intake and corresponding cardiovascular effects among various subpopulations. The available literature suggests that cardiovascular effects experienced by caffeine consumers at levels up to 600 mg/day are in most cases mild, transient, and reversible, with no lasting adverse effect. The point at which caffeine intake may cause harm to the cardiovascular system is not readily identifiable in part because data on the effects of daily intakes greater than 600 mg is limited. However, the evidence considered within this review suggests that typical moderate caffeine intake is not associated with increased risks of total cardiovascular disease; arrhythmia; heart failure; blood pressure changes among regular coffee drinkers; or hypertension in baseline populations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF INVERSE RATIO BREATHING VERSUS DIAPHRAGMATIC BREATHING ON INSPIRATORY VITAL CAPACITY AND THORACIC EXPANSION IN ADULT HEALTHY FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshipra Baban Pedamkar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The normal inspiratory to expiratory ratio is 1:2.However, the duration of inspiration can be increased voluntarily till the ratio becomes 2:1.This is called as inverse ratio breathing. The effects of inverse ratio ventilation have been studied on patients with respiratory failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. No studies have been carried out to study the effects of inverse ratio breathing in voluntarily breathing individuals. Hence this study was carried out to find the immediate effects of inverse ratio breathing versus diaphragmatic breathing on inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion. Methods: 30 healthy adult females in the age group 20-25 years were included in the study. Inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion at 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostal space was measured using a digital spirometer and an inelastic inch tape respectively. Diaphragmatic breathing was administered for one minute and the same parameters were measured again. A washout period of one day was given and same outcome measures were measured before and after individuals performed inverse ratio breathing with the help of a visual feedback video for one minute. Results: Data was analysed using Wilcoxon test. There was extremely significant difference between the mean increase in the inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion at the 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostals space after inverse ratio breathing as compared to diaphragmatic breathing (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion increase significantly after inverse ratio breathing.

  14. [Evaluation of cardiovascular risk in HIV positive patients in a specialized center at Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Camila; Millacura, Juan C; Saavedra, Felipe; Cortés, Claudia P

    2016-06-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of HIV epidemic, as consequence, the patients present the same medical conditions than the rest ofthe population, including cardiovascular diseases. To describe the evolution of cardiovascular risk of HIV positive patients attending to a HIV/AIDS integral clinical center. Clinical charts were reviewed, looking for cardiovascular risk markers. Our findings showed a deficient evaluation of the cardiovascular basal risks at first medical control and patients had important metabolic alterations despite hypolipidemic treatment. Given the higher cardiovascular risk of this population, increasing the effort on diagnosis and treatment of HIV patients is required.

  15. Breath acetone analyzer: diagnostic tool to monitor dietary fat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S K; Bruzek, J A; Nair, R; Judilla, A M

    1993-01-01

    Acetone, a metabolite of fat catabolism, is produced in excessive amounts in subjects on restricted-calorie weight-loss programs. Breath acetone measurements are useful as a motivational tool during dieting and for monitoring the effectiveness of weight-loss programs. We have developed a simple, easy-to-read method that quantifies the amount of acetone in a defined volume of exhaled breath after trapping the sample in a gas-analyzer column. The concentration of acetone, as measured by the length of a blue color zone in the analyzer column, correlates with results obtained by gas chromatography. Using the breath acetone analyzer to quantify breath acetone concentrations of dieting subjects, we established a correlation between breath acetone concentration and rate of fat loss (slope 52.2 nmol/L per gram per day, intercept 15.3 nmol/L, n = 78, r = 0.81). We also discussed the possibility of using breath acetone in diabetes management.

  16. Signal shape feature for automatic snore and breathing sounds classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, Takahiro; Akutagawa, Masatake; Konaka, Shinsuke; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Kashihara, Masato; Abeyratne, Udantha R; Kawata, Ikuji; Jinnouchi, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Snore analysis techniques have recently been developed for sleep studies. Most snore analysis techniques require reliable methods for the automatic classification of snore and breathing sounds in the sound recording. In this study we focus on this problem and propose an automated method to classify snore and breathing sounds based on the novel feature, ‘positive/negative amplitude ratio (PNAR)’, to measure the shape of the sound signal. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using snore and breathing recordings (snore: 22 643 episodes and breathing: 4664 episodes) from 40 subjects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the proposed method achieved 0.923 sensitivity with 0.918 specificity for snore and breathing sound classification on test data. PNAR has substantial potential as a feature in the front end of a non-contact snore/breathing-based technology for sleep studies. (paper)

  17. [Cancer and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, Carlos; Valdivielso, Pedro; González-Alegre, María Teresa; García-Iglesias, María Francisca; Estirado, Eva; Mostaza, José M

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of cancer have a shorter survival in the long term partly due to the increase in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Some chemotherapy drugs, thoracic and cranial radiotherapy and above all the transplantation of hematopoietic cells are associated with an increase in the incidence of cardiovascular events compared with general population. Some of these treatments favor the development of a metabolic syndrome that could be the intermediary between these treatments and the development of CVD. It is recommended for cancer survivors to promote healthy lifestyles and the strict control of cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurcharan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatologists treating psoriasis need to approach the disease as a potentially multisystem disorder and must alert these patients to the potentially negative effects of their disease.

  19. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysi......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  20. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  1. Crowdfunding for cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Zhang, HongJu Janet; Aydar, Mehmet; Wang, Zhen; Sun, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The competition for public cardiovascular research grants has recently increased. Independent researchers are facing increasing competition for public research grant support and ultimately may need to seek alternative funding sources. Crowdfunding, a financing method of raising funds online by pooling together small donations from the online community to support a specific initiative, seems to have significant potential. However, the feasibility of crowdfunding for cardiovascular research remains unknown. Here, we performed exploratory data analysis of the feasibility of online crowdfunding in cardiovascular research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S

    1993-01-01

    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left...... with regard to protein and tissue type affected as well as intensity of the changes. However, changes in mRNA levels (but not protein deposition) for perlecan and type IV collagen were also observed in aortas from hypertensive rats compared with controls. Increases in steady-state mRNA levels for all basement...

  3. Age alters the cardiovascular response to direct passive heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, C. T.; Wladkowski, S. L.; Cardell, A. F.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Kenney, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    During direct passive heating in young men, a dramatic increase in skin blood flow is achieved by a rise in cardiac output (Qc) and redistribution of flow from the splanchnic and renal vascular beds. To examine the effect of age on these responses, seven young (Y; 23 +/- 1 yr) and seven older (O; 70 +/- 3 yr) men were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), Qc (by acetylene rebreathing), central venous pressure (via peripherally inserted central catheter), blood pressures (by brachial auscultation), skin blood flow (from increases in forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography), splanchnic blood flow (by indocyanine green clearance), renal blood flow (by p-aminohippurate clearance), and esophageal and mean skin temperatures. Qc was significantly lower in the older than in the young men (11.1 +/- 0.7 and 7.4 +/- 0.2 l/min in Y and O, respectively, at the limit of thermal tolerance; P response (62 +/- 3 and 75 +/- 4% maximal HR in Y and O, respectively, P responses, the older men had a significantly lower increase in total blood flow directed to the skin.

  4. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S

    1993-01-01

    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left ve...

  5. Age alters the cardiovascular response to direct passive heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, C. T.; Wladkowski, S. L.; Cardell, A. F.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Kenney, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    During direct passive heating in young men, a dramatic increase in skin blood flow is achieved by a rise in cardiac output (Qc) and redistribution of flow from the splanchnic and renal vascular beds. To examine the effect of age on these responses, seven young (Y; 23 +/- 1 yr) and seven older (O; 70 +/- 3 yr) men were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), Qc (by acetylene rebreathing), central venous pressure (via peripherally inserted central catheter), blood pressures (by brachial auscultation), skin blood flow (from increases in forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography), splanchnic blood flow (by indocyanine green clearance), renal blood flow (by p-aminohippurate clearance), and esophageal and mean skin temperatures. Qc was significantly lower in the older than in the young men (11.1 +/- 0.7 and 7.4 +/- 0.2 l/min in Y and O, respectively, at the limit of thermal tolerance; P < 0. 05), despite similar increases in esophageal and mean skin temperatures and time to reach the limit of thermal tolerance. A lower stroke volume (99 +/- 7 and 68 +/- 4 ml/beat in Y and O, respectively, P < 0.05), most likely due to an attenuated increase in inotropic function during heating, was the primary factor for the lower Qc observed in the older men. Increases in HR were similar in the young and older men; however, when expressed as a percentage of maximal HR, the older men relied on a greater proportion of their chronotropic reserve to obtain the same HR response (62 +/- 3 and 75 +/- 4% maximal HR in Y and O, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the older men redistributed less blood flow from the combined splanchnic and renal circulations at the limit of thermal tolerance (960 +/- 80 and 720 +/- 100 ml/min in Y and O, respectively, P < 0. 05). As a result of these combined attenuated responses, the older men had a significantly lower increase in total blood flow directed to the skin.

  6. Hydrogen Breath Test in the Diagnosis of Digestive Tract Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the information about the mo-dern method for evaluating the state of small intestine — hydrogen breath test. Two main indications for its use — bacterial overgrowth syndrome in the small intestine and lactase deficiency are separately analyzed. The theoretical and practical aspects of using hydrogen breath test are shown. The main provisions of Rome I criteria on the use of hydrogen breath test are considered. The paper presents the results of our own researches.

  7. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos, NM; Cao, Wenqing [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  8. Effect of forced breathing on ventilatory functions of the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi L

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Ventilatory functions were studied in 36 male and 35 female subjects (mean age 18.5 years, who underwent six weeks course in forced breathing. Ventilatory functions were studied in the form of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume at the end of one second as % of FVC (FEV1%, Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Breath Holding Time. Some of these ventilatory functions were found to be increased after a course of forced breathing.

  9. Simple device for breath-level monitoring during CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, H.; Doehring, W.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the chest and abdomen requires well-defined and reproducible breath-holdings. For this purpose, a simple respiration-control device has been developed that enables the patient to monitor breath-holding during successive scans. The patient holds his/her breath at a preselected level using feedback monitoring. The device is easy to handle and suitable for all commercial CT systems

  10. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh M Punjabi; Brian S Caffo; James L Goodwin; Daniel J Gottlieb; Anne B Newman; George T O'Connor; David M Rapoport; Susan Redline; Helaine E Resnick; John A Robbins; Eyal Shahar; Mark L Unruh; Jonathan M Samet

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 1 in 10 women and 1 in 4 men have a chronic condition called sleep-disordered breathing although most are unaware of their problem. Sleep-disordered breathing, which is commonest in middle-aged and elderly people, is characterized by numerous, brief (10 second or so) interruptions of breathing during sleep. These interruptions, which usually occur when relaxation of the upper airway muscles decreases airflow, lower the level of oxygen in the blood and, as a r...

  11. Automatic Recognition of Breathing Route During Sleep Using Snoring Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Yohichiro

    This letter classifies snoring sounds into three breathing routes (oral, nasal, and oronasal) with discriminant analysis of the power spectra and k-nearest neighbor method. It is necessary to recognize breathing route during snoring, because oral snoring is a typical symptom of sleep apnea but we cannot know our own breathing and snoring condition during sleep. As a result, about 98.8% classification rate is obtained by using leave-one-out test for performance evaluation.

  12. Phase synchronization of oscillations in cardiovascular and respiratory systems in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankanag, Arina V.; Grinevich, Andrey A.; Tikhonova, Irina V.; Chaplygina, Alina V.; Chemeris, Nikolay K.

    2017-04-01

    Phase synchronization between blood flow oscillations of left and right forearm skin sites, heart rate variability (HRV) and breath rate were studied from healthy volunteers at rest. The degree of synchronization between the phases of the analyzed signals was estimated from the value of the wavelet phase coherence. High medians of values of phase wavelet coherence function were obtained for the endothelial, neurogenic, myogenic and cardiac intervals. Significant phase synchronization were demonstrated between HRV and skin blood flow oscillations in both left and right forearms in a wide frequency range from 0.04 to 0.4 Hz. Six participants exhibited low phase synchronization ( 0.5). This distribution was not affected by the sex or sympathovagal status of volunteers. Participants with low phase synchronization between breath rate and HRV featured low phase synchronization (cardiovascular system, in particular, with HRV and breath rate over a wide frequency range.

  13. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  14. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under physiological...... circumstances, and it may be used for studies in children and for field studies. Compared to classical tolerance tests the hydrogen breath test is more sensitive. It is concluded that the hydrogen breath test is a useful tool for investigations of dietary carbohydrates....

  15. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D; Obeid, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min –1 . A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min –1 , and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  16. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  17. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  18. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it ordered? As a test to evaluate lipid metabolism or cardiovascular risk, APOE genotyping is ordered when someone has: Significantly elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels that do not respond to dietary and ...

  19. Effect of oxygen on postoperative cardiovascular response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, M; Lie, C; Bisgaard, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of supplemental oxygen on postoperative cardiovascular response to submaximal exercise. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled study. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 16 patients having major abdominal operations. INTERVENTIONS: A submaximal exercise test...... in non-surgical patients and surgical patients not taking exercise. These findings do not suggest that decreased peripheral tissue oxygenation is responsible for the impaired cardiovascular response to exercise in postoperative patients....... to exercise testing, 4 of them related to both tests, 2 of them only when breathing air. Signs of myocardial ischaemia disappeared when the exercise ended. CONCLUSION: During the late postoperative period supplementary oxygen reduced heart rate in response to exercise to the same degree as observed previously...

  20. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Dantas Soares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning.

  1. Electronic response to nuclear breathing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Hendrik; Ruffini, Remo [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 28 Av. de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Xue, She-Sheng [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Based on our previous work on stationary oscillation modes of electrons around giant nuclei, we show how to treat a general driving force on the electron gas, such as the one generated by the breathing mode of the nucleus, by means of the spectral method. As an example we demonstrate this method for a system with Z = 10{sup 4} in β-equilibrium with the electrons compressed up to the nuclear radius. In this case the stationary modes can be obtained analytically, which allows for a very speedy numerical calculation of the final result.

  2. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  3. A young male with shortness of breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Fahmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary mediastinal seminoma, which presented initially with shortness of breath and a swelling in upper part of anterior chest wall. The diagnosis of primary mediastinal seminoma was established on the basis of histologic findings and was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Abdominal, pelvis and cerebral CT scan, testicular ultrasound and TC-99 MDP bone scintigraphy were negative. Chemotherapy was initiated with B.E.P. protocol (Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatinum; the patient received four cycles of chemotherapy. After 8 months, the patient was seen in the clinic; he was well.

  4. Cerebrovascular pulsatility in patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alberto R; Cabral, Digna; Lee, David J; Sacco, Ralph L; Rundek, Tatjana

    2013-05-01

    The aim of our study is to determine the association between the pulsatility index (PI), a surrogate of cerebral small vessel disease and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We conducted a transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) study of 19 consecutive patients free of stroke and cardiovascular disease, referred for the evaluation of SDB. TCD was performed by a certified technologist. Subsequent polysomnography was performed according to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. We evaluated the association between the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), the oxygen nadir, the blood flow velocities, and the Gosling PI, for the middle cerebral artery. We performed Spearman's rank correlation and nonparametric regression to evaluate the relationship between AHI, oxygen levels, and the PI. Median age was 48 years (range 37-83), with 52 % male sex (n = 10), and median BMI of 29.9 (range 25-40.4). The median AHI was 16.4 (0.2-69). The median PI was 0.97 (0.72-1.89) cm/s. The PI correlated with the AHI (rho = 0.44; p = 0.004) and with age (rho = 0.57; p = 0.001). Nonparametric regression adjusting for age showed a positive association between the AHI and the PI (standardized estimate = 0.88; p = 0.002). There was no relation between the oxygen nadir and the PI. We observed increased PI in patients with SDB during wakefulness. The PI could potentially be an estimate of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with SDB and hence allow evaluating cerebral hemodynamics during wakefulness with a clinically relevant device.

  5. Violence and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  6. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour

  7. Rebreathing in the Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems with sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L B

    1997-12-01

    The degree of rebreathing in Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems for sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms is analysed mathematically. The effects of altering the I:E ratio and of introducing an expiratory pause are investigated. The results for sinusoidal waveforms closely resemble those for a square wave. Exponential flow waveforms produce results similar to triangular flow waveforms. The Mapleson A system is always the most efficient. The Mapleson C system is efficient when the I:E ratio is 1:1, becoming less efficient with longer expiration and very inefficient with an expiratory pause. The Mapleson D system becomes efficient when the expiratory pause is long.

  8. Correction for blood pressure improves correlation between cerebrovascular reactivity assessed by breath holding and 6% CO(2) breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Kiran; Chandran, Dinu S; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity to hypercapnia are associated with changes in systemic blood pressure (BP). These confounding BP-dependent changes in cerebral blood flow velocity cause misinterpretation of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) results. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between CVR assessed by breath holding and 6% CO2 breathing after correcting for BP-dependent changes in cerebral blood flow velocity. In 33 patients of uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus, CVR was assessed as percentage changes in cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebrovascular conductance index. Percentage change in cerebral blood flow velocity during breath holding was positively correlated with that of during 6% CO2 breathing (r = .35; P = .0448). CVR during breath holding and 6% CO2 breathing were better correlated when expressed as percentage changes in cerebrovascular conductance index (r = .49; P = .0040). Similarly, breath-holding test results expressed as percentage changes in cerebral blood flow velocity correctly identified only 37.5% of the poor reactors to 6% CO2 breathing. However, when the breath-holding test results were expressed as percentage changes in cerebrovascular conductance index, 62.5% of the poor reactors to 6% CO2 breathing were correctly identified indicating a better agreement between the test results obtained by the 2 methods. Cerebrovascular response to breath holding is better correlated with that of 6% CO2 breathing when changes in cerebral blood flow velocity were corrected for associated changes in BP. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transverse craniofacial dimensions in Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion according to breathing mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Rísia David Pinto Coelho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess the relation between the transverse craniofacial dimensions of subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and the breathing mode presented by them. Forty Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion subjects of both genders participated in the study, 23 of which were predominantly nose breathers and 17 were predominantly mouth breathers. The mean age ranged from 10 years and 9 months to 14 years - Age range 1; and from 13 years and 4 months to 16 years and 6 months - Age range 2. Measurements of six transverse craniofacial dimensions were performed in P-A teleradiographs: Total Sphenoid, Total Zygomatic, Total Nasal Cavity, Total Maxilla, Total Mastoid and Total Antegonion. The transversal craniofacial dimensions were measured and compared in both groups at age ranges 1 and 2. The longitudinal assessment of age ranges 1 and 2 showed that there was no statistically significant influence of the breathing mode on the craniofacial dimensions evaluated, or on the alteration of these dimensions. Breathing mode had no influence on craniofacial development in the sample studied.

  10. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  11. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L; Buchvald, Frederik; Mortensen, Jann; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    The diffusing capacity (DL) of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm) and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc). DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO). This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO), involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio in a single respiratory maneuver. The clinical utility of Dm, Vc, and DL,NO/DL,CO in the pediatric age range is currently unknown but also restricted by lack of reference values. The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO with a 5 second breath hold, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children. DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) statistical method. A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL,CO, respectively. Reference equations were established for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO and DL,CO, including the calculated values: Vc, Dm, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio. These reference values are based on the largest sample of children to date and may provide a basis for future studies of their clinical utility in differentiating between alterations in the pulmonary circulation and changes in the alveolar membrane in pediatric patients.

  12. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Thomas

    Full Text Available The diffusing capacity (DL of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc. DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO. This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO, involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio in a single respiratory maneuver. The clinical utility of Dm, Vc, and DL,NO/DL,CO in the pediatric age range is currently unknown but also restricted by lack of reference values.The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO with a 5 second breath hold, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children.DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS statistical method.A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL,CO, respectively. Reference equations were established for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO and DL,CO, including the calculated values: Vc, Dm, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio.These reference values are based on the largest sample of children to date and may provide a basis for future studies of their clinical utility in differentiating between alterations in the pulmonary circulation and changes in the alveolar membrane in pediatric patients.

  13. Breathing-synchronised electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles in patients with acute tetraplegia: A prospective proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebscher, Thomas; Schauer, Thomas; Stephan, Ralph; Prilipp, Erik; Niedeggen, Andreas; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Seidl, Rainer O

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether, by enhancing breathing depth and expectoration, early use of breathing-synchronised electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles (abdominal functional electrical stimulation, AFES) is able to reduce pulmonary complications during the acute phase of tetraplegia. Prospective proof-of-concept study. Spinal cord unit at a level 1 trauma center. Following cardiovascular stabilisation, in addition to standard treatments, patients with acute traumatic tetraplegia (ASIA Impairment Scale A or B) underwent breathing-synchronised electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles to aid expiration and expectoration. The treatment was delivered in 30-minute sessions, twice a day for 90 days. The target was for nine of 15 patients to remain free of pneumonia meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) diagnostic criteria. Eleven patients were recruited to the study between October 2011 and November 2012. Two patients left the study before completion. None of the patients contracted pneumonia during the study period. No complications from electrical stimulation were observed. AFES led to a statistically significant increase in peak inspiratory and expiratory flows and a non-statistically significant increase in tidal volume and inspiratory and expiratory flow. When surveyed, 6 out of 9 patients (67%) reported that the stimulation procedure led to a significant improvement in breathing and coughing. AFES appears to be able to improve breathing and expectoration and prevent pneumonia in the acute phase of tetraplegia (up to 90 days post-trauma). This result is being validated in a prospective multicentre comparative study.

  14. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the supplementary motor area modifies breathing patternin response to inspiratory loading in normal humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cécile eNierat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In awake humans, breathing depends on automatic brainstem pattern generators. It is also heavily influenced by cortical networks. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalographic data show that the supplementary motor area becomes active when breathing is made difficult by inspiratory mechanical loads like resistances or threshold valves This is associated with perceived respiratory discomfort. We hypothesized that manipulating the excitability of the supplementary motor area with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation would modify the breathing pattern response to an experimental inspiratory load possibly respiratory discomfort. Seven subjects (3 men, age 25±4 were studied. Breathing pattern and respiratory discomfort during inspiratory loading were described before and after conditioning the supplementary motor area with repetitive stimulation, using an excitatory paradigm (5Hz stimulation, an inhibitory paradigm, or sham stimulation. No significant change in breathing pattern during loading was observed after sham conditioning. Excitatory conditioning shortened inspiratory time (p=0.001, decreased tidal volume (p=0.016, and decreased ventilation (p=0.003, as corroborated by an increased end-tidal expired carbon dioxide (p=0.013. Inhibitory conditioning did not affect ventilation, but lengthened expiratory time (p=0.031. Respiratory discomfort was mild under baseline conditions, and unchanged after conditioning of the supplementary motor area. This is the first study to show that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation conditioning of the cerebral cortex can alter breathing pattern. A 5 Hz conditioning protocol, known to enhance corticophrenic excitability, can reduce the amount of hyperventilation induced by inspiratory threshold loading. Further studies are needed to determine whether and under what circumstances rTMS can have an effect on dyspnoea.

  15. Mechanical ventilation during anaesthesia: challenges and opportunities for investigating the respiration-related cardiovascular oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beda, Alessandro; Carvalho, Nadja C; Güldner, Andreas; Koch, Thea; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2011-08-01

    The vast majority of the available literature regarding cardiovascular oscillations refers to spontaneously breathing subjects. Only a few studies investigated cardiovascular oscillations, and especially respiration-related ones (RCVO), during intermittent positive pressure mechanical ventilation (IPPV) under anaesthesia. Only a handful considered assisted IPPV, in which spontaneous breathing activity is supported, rather than replaced as in controlled IPPV. In this paper, we review the current understanding of RCVO physiology during IPPV, from literature retrieved through PubMed website. In particular, we describe how during controlled IPPV under anaesthesia respiratory sinus arrhythmia appears to be generated by non-neural mechano-electric feedback in the heart (indirectly influenced by tonic sympathetic regulation of vascular tone and heart contractility) and not by phasic vagal modulation of central origin and/or baroreflex mechanisms. Furthermore, assisted IPPV differs from controlled IPPV in terms of RCVO, reintroducing significant central respiratory vagal modulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. This evidence indicates against applying to IPPV interpretative paradigms of RCVO derived from spontaneously breathing subjects, and against considering together IPPV and spontaneously breathing subjects for RCVO-based risk assessment. Finally, we highlight the opportunities that IPPV offers for future investigations of RCVO genesis and interactions, and we indicate several possibilities for clinical applications of RCVO during IPPV.

  16. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  17. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  18. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with macrovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Jesper; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Gulichsen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    by performing 3 cardiovascular reflex tests (response to standing, deep breathing, and valsalva). To describe possible associations, multivariate analysis with CAN as the dependent variable was performed. The prevalence of CAN was higher among patients with type 2 diabetes (35%) compared to patients with type 1......The objective was to identify the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in a cohort of individuals with diabetes in outpatient clinics from 4 different parts of Denmark and to explore the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in relation to CAN. The DAN-Study is a Danish...

  19. Optimization of Air-Breathing Engine Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    The design optimization of air-breathing propulsion engine concepts has been accomplished by soft-coupling the NASA Engine Performance Program (NEPP) analyzer with the NASA Lewis multidisciplinary optimization tool COMETBOARDS. Engine problems, with their associated design variables and constraints, were cast as nonlinear optimization problems with thrust as the merit function. Because of the large number of mission points in the flight envelope, the diversity of constraint types, and the overall distortion of the design space; the most reliable optimization algorithm available in COMETBOARDS, when used by itself, could not produce satisfactory, feasible, optimum solutions. However, COMETBOARDS' unique features-which include a cascade strategy, variable and constraint formulations, and scaling devised especially for difficult multidisciplinary applications-successfully optimized the performance of subsonic and supersonic engine concepts. Even when started from different design points, the combined COMETBOARDS and NEPP results converged to the same global optimum solution. This reliable and robust design tool eliminates manual intervention in the design of air-breathing propulsion engines and eases the cycle analysis procedures. It is also much easier to use than other codes, which is an added benefit. This paper describes COMETBOARDS and its cascade strategy and illustrates the capabilities of the combined design tool through the optimization of a high-bypass- turbofan wave-rotor-topped subsonic engine and a mixed-flow-turbofan supersonic engine.

  20. Single session of integrated "Silver Yoga" program improves cardiovascular parameters in senior citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: There is a healthy reduction in HR, BP and derived cardiovascular indices following a single yoga session in geriatric subjects. These changes may be attributed to enhanced harmony of cardiac autonomic function as a result of coordinated breath-body work and mind-body relaxation due to an integrated and #8220;Silver Yoga and #8221; program. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 134-137

  1. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  2. Results of the first semi-annual qualification testing of devices to measure breath alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Eight evidential breath testers were performance tested according to the Standard for Devices to Measure Breath Alcohol Federal Register, Vol 38, No. 212, November 5, 1973. In addition, a prototype breath tester not commercially available was tested....

  3. Hypoxia switches episodic breathing to singlet breathing in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) via a tropisetron-sensitive mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Stephen M.; Krisp, Ashley R.; Bartman, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced changes in the chelonian breathing pattern are poorly understood. Thus, breathing was measured in freely swimming adult red-eared slider turtles breathing air prior to breathing nitrogen for 4 h. Ventilation increased 10-fold within 10 min due to increased breath frequency and tidal volume. Breaths/episode decreased by ~50% within after 1 h of hypoxia while the number of singlet breaths increased from 3.1 ± 1.6 singlets/h to a maximum of 66.1 ± 23.5 singlets/h. Expiratory and ...

  4. Metabolic and cardiovascular effects of ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Schinzari, Francesca; Caramanti, Miriam; Lauro, Renato; Cardillo, Carmine

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is synthesized as a preprohormone and then proteolytically processed to yield a 28-amino acid peptide. This peptide was originally reported to induce growth hormone release; large evidence, however, has indicated many other physiological activities of ghrelin, including regulation of food intake and energy balance, as well as of lipid and glucose metabolism. Ghrelin receptors have been detected in the hypothalamus and the pituitary, but also in the cardiovascular system, where ghrelin exerts beneficial hemodynamic activities. Ghrelin administration acutely improves endothelial dysfunction by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and normalizes the altered balance between endothelin-1 and nitric oxide within the vasculature of patients with metabolic syndrome. Other cardiovascular effects of ghrelin include improvement of left ventricular contractility and cardiac output, as well as reduction of arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance. In addition, antinflammatory and antiapoptotic actions of ghrelin have been reported both in vivo and in vitro. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of ghrelin through GH-dependent and -independent mechanisms and the possible role of ghrelin as a therapeutic molecule for treating cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, Georgios; Giamouzis, Gregory; Cokkinos, Dennis V; Skoularigis, John; Triposkiadis, Filippos

    2012-06-01

    Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN), the impairment of the autonomic balance of the cardiovascular system in the setting of diabetes mellitus (DM), is frequently observed in both Type 1 and 2 DM, has detrimental effects on the quality of life and portends increased mortality. Clinical manifestations include: resting heart rate disorders, exercise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular lability, orthostatic alterations in heart rate and blood pressure, QT-interval prolongation, abnormal diurnal and nocturnal blood pressure variation, silent myocardial ischemia and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Clinical tests for autonomic nervous system evaluation, heart rate variability analysis, autonomic innervation imaging techniques, microneurography and baroreflex analysis are the main diagnostic tools for DCAN detection. Aldose reductase inhibitors and antioxidants may be helpful in DCAN therapy, but a regular, more generalized and multifactorial approach should be adopted with inclusion of lifestyle modifications, strict glycemic control and treatment of concomitant traditional cardiovascular risk factors, in order to achieve the best therapeutic results. In the present review, the authors provide aspects of DCAN pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and an algorithm regarding the evaluation and management of DCAN in DM patients.

  6. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes.

  7. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular Cardiovascular system aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Ocampo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular está asociado con un número característico de cambios a nivel bioquímico, histológico y morfológico. Sin embargo, no todas las modificaciones presentadas se asocian con deterioro en la función. Entre los cambios a nivel cardiaco se tienen: disminución en el número de miocitos y en las células del sistema de conducción cardiaca, desarrollo de fibrosis, cambios en el transporte de calcio a través de las membranas y disminución del cronotropismo, inotropismo y lusitropismo mediados por estímulo b-adrenérgico. A nivel vascular, hay incremento en la rigidez de la pared de las arterias, con aumento en la velocidad de la onda de pulso, disfunción endotelial y disminución de la vasodilatación mediada por estímulo b-adrenérgico. Durante el reposo el sistema cardiovascular es capaz de desarrollar mecanismos adaptativos eficientes, pero en situaciones de estrés como el ejercicio, los cambios asociados con el envejecimiento se hacen evidentes ya que está disminuida la capacidad para obtener la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, está incrementada la postcarga y hay disminución de la contractilidad intrínseca. Por lo anterior, los ancianos deben utilizar al máximo el mecanismo de Frank-Starling para mantener el gasto cardiaco. Los cambios estructurales y funcionales asociados con el envejecimiento cardiovascular, disminuyen de forma significativa el umbral en el cual las enfermedades cardiacas llegan a ser evidentes, y deben ser conocidos por el personal de salud encargado de cuidar a los ancianos.Cardiovascular aging is associated with characteristic biochemical, histological and morphological changes. Nevertheless, these changes are not necessarily associated to a deterioration in its function. Among the cardiac changes found, there is a reduction in the number of myocytes and of the cardiac conduction system cells, development of fibrosis, changes in the trans-membrane calcium transport and a

  8. Pulmonary Complications Resulting from Genetic Cardiovascular Disease in Two Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been considered a risk factor for exacerbation of air pollution health effects. Therefore, rodent models of CVD are increasingly used to examine mechanisms of variation in susceptibility. Pulmonary complications and altered iron homeost...

  9. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  10. Analysis of diaphragm movement during tidal breathing and during its activation while breath holding using MRI synchronized with spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOLAR, P; NEUWIRTH, J; SANDA, J; SUCHANEK, V; SVATA, Z; VOLEJNIK, J; PIVEC, M

    2009-01-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with synchronized spirometry we analyzed and compared diaphragm movement during tidal breathing and voluntary movement of the diaphragm while breath holding. Breathing cycles of 16 healthy subjects were examined using a dynamic sequence (77 slices in sagittal plane during 20 s, 1NSA, 240x256, TR4.48, TE2.24, FA90, TSE1, FOV 328). The amplitude of movement of the apex and dorsal costophrenic angle of the diaphragm were measured for two test conditions: tidal breathing and voluntary breath holding. The maximal inferior and superior positions of the diaphragm were subtracted from the corresponding positions during voluntary movements while breath holding. The average amplitude of inferio-superior movement of the diaphragm apex during tidal breathing was 27.3+/-10.2 mm (mean +/- SD), and during voluntary movement while breath holding was 32.5+/-16.2 mm. Movement of the costophrenic angle was 39+/-17.6 mm during tidal breathing and 45.5+/-21.2 mm during voluntary movement while breath holding. The inferior position of the diaphragm was lower in 11 of 16 subjects (68.75 %) and identical in 2 of 16 (12.5 %) subjects during voluntary movement compared to the breath holding. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to demonstrate that movement of the costophrenic angle and apex of the diaphragm had a linear relationship in both examined situations (r=0.876). A correlation was found between the amplitude of diaphragm movement during tidal breathing and lung volume (r=0.876). The amplitude of movement of the diaphragm with or without breathing showed no correlation to each other (r=0.074). The movement during tidal breathing shows a correlation with the changes in lung volumes. Dynamic MRI demonstrated that individuals are capable of moving their diaphragm voluntarily, but the amplitude of movement differs from person to person. In this study, the movements of the diaphragm apex and the costophrenic angle were

  11. Breathing pattern and ventilatory control in chronic tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spungen, Ann M; Bauman, William A; Lesser, Marvin; McCool, F Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Blunted ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide indicate that respiratory control is impaired when ventilation is stimulated in individuals with tetraplegia; however, respiratory control during resting breathing has not been extensively studied in this population. Our objective was to evaluate respiratory control and sigh frequency during resting breathing in persons with tetraplegia. A prospective, two-group comparative study was performed. Breathing pattern was assessed in ten outpatients with chronic tetraplegia and eight age- and gender-matched able-bodied controls. Subjects were noninvasively monitored for 1 h, while seated and at rest. Tidal volume (V(T)) was calculated from the sum of the anteroposterior displacements of the rib cage and abdomen and the axial displacement of the chest wall. Inspiratory time (T(I)), V(T), and the ratio of V(T) to inspiratory time (V(T)/T(I)) were calculated breath by breath. A sigh was defined as any breath greater than two or more times an individual's mean V(T). Minute ventilation, V(T)/T(I), and sigh frequency were reduced in tetraplegia compared with controls (5.24 +/- 1.15 vs. 7.16 +/- 1.29 L/min, P tetraplegia: R = 0.88; P = 0.001 and control: R = 0.70; P tetraplegia. These findings extend prior observations of disordered respiratory control during breathing stimulated by CO(2) in tetraplegia to resting breathing.

  12. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour.

  14. QUALITATIVE ABNORMAL FETAL BREATHING MOVEMENTS, ASSOCIATED WITH TRACHEAL ATRESIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAARSMA, R; BEKEDAM, DJ; VISSER, GHA

    A case is reported in which qualitatively, grossly abnormal fetal breathing movements turned out to be indicative of complete tracheal atresia. Fetal breathing movements were vigorous and jerky and of large amplitude; similarly abnormal movements were observed after birth. At postmortem tracheal

  15. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to...

  16. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  17. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns.

  18. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868.2375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a...

  19. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... would tell a friend. Conclusions: Participants had lop‑sided knowledge and perceptions about bad‑breath. Most Nigerian adults are their “brothers' keepers” who would tell a spouse or friend about their halitosis so they could seek treatment. Key words: Bad‑breath, emerging adults, misconceptions, Nigeria, perceptions ...

  20. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  1. Breathing and the Oboe: Playing, Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Helena

    2004-01-01

    Breathing and breath control are central to playing the oboe, yet few detailed educational resources are available to support their teaching and learning. This paper presents a review of existing knowledge and expertise in the field. It highlights common ground and points of controversy, and indicates some key areas for consideration. It points to…

  2. The breathtaking truth about breath alcohol readings of zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora Jae; Garssen, Johan; Scholey, Andrew

    INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that the hangover state starts when breath alcohol concentration is zero. METHODS: Data from 2 studies that assessed ethanol in breath, blood and urine were compared. RESULTS: The data revealed that ethanol may still be present in the blood and urine during the

  3. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour. PMID:20046299

  4. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each...

  5. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-02

    90.8%) identified the dentist as the expert on halitosis and 719 (89.4%) knew that bad‑breath is not contagious, only 4.4% and 2.5% associated bad‑breath with tooth decay and gum disease respectively. There were no significant ...

  6. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3 exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2 introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity

  7. Accelerated Ferumoxytol-Enhanced 4D Multi-phase Steady State Imaging with Contrast Enhancement (MUSIC) Cardiovascular MRI: Validation in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ziwu; Han, Fei; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Nguyen, Kim-Lien; Brunengraber, Daniel Z; Kim, Grace-Hyun J.; Finn, J. Paul; Hu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to validate a parallel imaging (PI) and compressed sensing (CS) combined reconstruction method for a recently proposed 4D non-breath-held, multiphase, steady-state imaging technique (MUSIC) cardiovascular MRI in a cohort of pediatric congenital heart disease patients. We implemented a graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated CS-PI combined reconstruction method and applied it in 13 pediatric patients who underwent cardiovascular MRI after ferumoxytol administrat...

  8. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS: characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Mari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. Methods and design All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. Discussion FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers.

  9. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS): characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtinen, Rami; Viik, Jari; Lehtimäki, Terho; Niemelä, Kari; Nikus, Kjell; Niemi, Mari; Kallio, Janne; Kööbi, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS) is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG) markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women) by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers

  10. Sleep Apnea: Types, Mechanisms, and Clinical Cardiovascular Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Shahrokh; Barbe, Ferran; Campos-Rodriguez, Francisco; Dempsey, Jerome A; Khayat, Rami; Javaheri, Sogol; Malhotra, Atul; Martinez-Garcia, Miguel A; Mehra, Reena; Pack, Allan I; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Redline, Susan; Somers, Virend K

    2017-02-21

    Sleep apnea is highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease. These disordered breathing events are associated with a profile of perturbations that include intermittent hypoxia, oxidative stress, sympathetic activation, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which are critical mediators of cardiovascular disease. Evidence supports a causal association of sleep apnea with the incidence and morbidity of hypertension, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, and stroke. Several discoveries in the pathogenesis, along with developments in the treatment of sleep apnea, have accumulated in recent years. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of sleep apnea, the evidence that addresses the links between sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease, and research that has addressed the effect of sleep apnea treatment on cardiovascular disease and clinical endpoints. Finally, we review the recent development in sleep apnea treatment options, with special consideration of treating patients with heart disease. Future directions for selective areas are suggested. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Progression of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in Holmes-Adie syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, P; Mathias, C J

    2011-09-01

    The Holmes-Adie Syndrome (HAS) is a disorder of unknown aetiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonic pupils with near light dissociation and tendon areflexia. Although considered to be benign, troublesome symptoms may result from autonomic disturbances, affecting vasomotor, sudomotor and respiratory function. It is unclear if the autonomic manifestations of the disease remain stable or progress, as longitudinal studies with detailed autonomic assessments have not been described. The authors report four HAS patients studied at intervals over 16, 8, 4 and 2 years with cardiovascular autonomic tests (head-up tilt, isometric exercise, mental arithmetic, cutaneous cold, deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre and standing). In each, there was progression of cardiovascular autonomic deficits with time, accompanied by symptomatic worsening. These observations in HAS, for the first time, indicate progression of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction of clinical significance. This has a number of implications, including those relating to aetiology and prognosis. The authors recommend regular clinical and laboratory follow-up, especially of cardiovascular autonomic function, in patients with HAS.

  12. Breathing route dependence of upper airway muscle activity during hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y X; Seto-Poon, M; Wheatley, J R

    1998-05-01

    Exercise (Ex) and hypercapnia (HC) both lead to increases in ventilation and upper airway muscle (UAM) activity. To determine whether different breathing routes (nasal vs. oral) or stimuli produced differential UAM activation, electromyographic (EMG) activity of the alae nasi (AN) and genioglossus (GG) were measured in seven normal subjects seated on a bicycle ergometer. Subjects performed paired runs during both progressive Ex and HC while breathing through the nose alone (N) or the mouth alone (O). During hyperpnea, AN EMG was greater when the subjects were breathing via N [81 +/- 6% maximum (HC) and 69 +/- 7% maximum (Ex)] than when they were breathing via O [30 +/- 5% maximum (HC) and 27 +/- 5% maximum (Ex); both P route. We conclude that UAM activation was independent of the nature of the stimulus. However, the AN muscle but not the GG muscle demonstrated breathing-route dependence of activity.

  13. Natural Vibration of a Beam with a Breathing Oblique Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method is proposed to calculate the natural frequency of a cantilever beam with a breathing oblique crack. A double-linear-springs-model is developed in the modal analysis process to describe the breathing oblique crack, and the breathing behaviour of the oblique crack is objectively simulated. The finite element method (FEM analysis software ABAQUS is used to calculate the geometric correction factors when the cracked plate is subjected to a pure bending moment at different oblique crack angles and relative depths. The Galerkin method is applied to simplify the cracked beam to a single degree of freedom system, allowing the natural frequency of the beam with the breathing oblique crack to be calculated. Compared with the natural frequencies of the breathing oblique cracked beam obtained using the ABAQUS FEM method, the proposed analytical method exhibits a high computational accuracy, with a maximum error of only 4.65%.

  14. Diabetes Drugs and Cardiovascular Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheol Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the beneficial effect of improved glycemic control on cardiovascular complications has been well established. However, the rosiglitazone experience aroused awareness of potential cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes drugs and prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue new guidelines about cardiovascular risk. Through postmarketing cardiovascular safety trials, some drugs demonstrated cardiovascular benefits, while some antidiabetic drugs raised concern about a possible increased cardiovascular risk associated with drug use. With the development of new classes of drugs, treatment options became wider and the complexity of glycemic management in type 2 diabetes has increased. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, not only the glucose-lowering effects, but also overall benefits and risks for cardiovascular disease should be taken into consideration.

  15. Recognition and Management of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikta, Donald; Khayat, Rami

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease with significant impact on morbidity and potentially mortality. SDB is highly prevalent in patients with systolic or diastolic heart failure. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose SDB in patients with heart failure because the vast majority of affected patients do not report daytime symptoms. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated improvement in heart function, exercise tolerance, and quality of life after treatment of SDB in patients with heart failure. Accumulating evidence suggests that treatment of SDB should complement the established pharmacologic therapy for chronic heart failure. However, mortality benefit has yet to be demonstrated. PMID:21086079

  16. Macromolecular Degradation Systems and Cardiovascular Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Kazuhiko; Otsu, Kinya

    2016-05-13

    Aging-related cardiovascular diseases are a rapidly increasing problem worldwide. Cardiac aging demonstrates progressive decline of diastolic dysfunction of ventricle and increase in ventricular and arterial stiffness accompanied by increased fibrosis stimulated by angiotensin II and proinflammatory cytokines. Reactive oxygen species and multiple signaling pathways on cellular senescence play major roles in the process. Aging is also associated with an alteration in steady state of macromolecular dynamics including a dysfunction of protein synthesis and degradation. Currently, impaired macromolecular degradation is considered to be closely related to enhanced inflammation and be involved in the process and mechanism of cardiac aging. Herein, we review the role and mechanisms of the degradation system of intracellular macromolecules in the process and pathophysiology of cardiovascular aging. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. NSAIDs and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Fabio; Paolillo, Stefania; Filardi, Pasquale P

    2017-01-01

    NSAIDs are the most largely used class of drugs in the world, due to their large use in many diseases, in particular for the systemic inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, today NSAIDs are less used for some of these diseases, due to several side-effects correlated to these drugs. The antiinflammatory mechanism of NSAIDs consist in the inibhition of two forms of cyclooxygenase, namely COX-1 (its block contributes to an antiplatelet effect) and COX-2 (its block has a greater antiinflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect). The COX-2 inhibition might reduce the risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, but several studies have shown the cardiovascular side effects of this inhibition. Mechanisms of the cardiovascular side effects are controversial yet, so the aim of this document is to review side-effects profile of NSAIDs and, specifically, to investigate cardiovascular consequences of NSAIDs use in clinical practice.

  18. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysi......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction...... and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  19. Mitochondria and Cardiovascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Old age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several lines of evidence in experimental animal models have indicated the central role of mitochondria both in lifespan determination and cardiovascular aging. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and biogenesis as well as the crosstalk between mitochondria and cellular signaling in cardiac and vascular aging. Intrinsic cardiac aging in the murine model closely recapitulates age-related cardiac changes in humans (left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction), while the phenotype of vascular aging include endothelial dysfunction, reduced vascular elasticity and chronic vascular inflammation. Both cardiac and vascular aging involve neurohormonal signaling (e.g. renin-angiotensin, adrenergic, insulin-IGF1 signaling) and cell-autonomous mechanisms. The potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and cardiovascular diseases are also discussed, with a focus on mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, calorie restriction, calorie restriction mimetics and exercise training. PMID:22499901

  20. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  1. Mitochondria and cardiovascular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2012-04-13

    Old age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several lines of evidence in experimental animal models have indicated the central role of mitochondria both in lifespan determination and in cardiovascular aging. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and biogenesis as well as the crosstalk between mitochondria and cellular signaling in cardiac and vascular aging. Intrinsic cardiac aging in the murine model closely recapitulates age-related cardiac changes in humans (left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction), while the phenotype of vascular aging include endothelial dysfunction, reduced vascular elasticity, and chronic vascular inflammation. Both cardiac and vascular aging involve neurohormonal signaling (eg, renin-angiotensin, adrenergic, insulin-IGF1 signaling) and cell-autonomous mechanisms. The potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and cardiovascular diseases are also discussed, with a focus on mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, calorie restriction, calorie restriction mimetics, and exercise training.

  2. Influence of breathing resistance of heat and moisture exchangers on tracheal climate and breathing pattern in laryngectomized individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, Renske J.; Muller, Sara H.; Vincent, Andrew; Sinaasappel, Michiel; Hilgers, Frans J. M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of breathing resistance of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) on endotracheal climate and breathing pattern. METHODS: Endotracheal temperature and humidity and tidal volumes were measured in 11 laryngectomized patients with a

  3. Breath Analysis as a Potential and Non-Invasive Frontier in Disease Diagnosis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs, oncologic (ODs, neurodegenerative (NDDs, chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc. allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  4. Ultrasound lung comets induced by repeated breath-hold diving, a study in underwater fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussuges, A; Coulange, M; Bessereau, J; Gargne, O; Ayme, K; Gavarry, O; Fontanari, P; Joulia, F

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary edema has been reported in breath-hold divers during fish-catching diving activity. The present study was designed to detect possible increases in extravascular lung water (EVLW) in underwater fishermen after a competition. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. They participated in two different 5-h fish-catching diving competitions: one organized in the winter (10 subjects) and one organized in the autumn (20 subjects). A questionnaire was used to record underwater activity and note respiratory problems. An increase in EVLW was investigated from the detection of ultrasound lung comets (ULC) by chest ultrasonography. Complementary investigations included echocardiography and pulmonary function testing. An increase in EVLW was detected in three out of 30 underwater fishermen after the competition. No signs of cardiovascular dysfunction were found in the entire population and in divers with an increase in the ULC score. Two divers with raised ULC presented respiratory disorders such as cough or shortness of breath. Impairment in spirometric parameters was recorded in these subjects. An increase in EVLW could be observed after a fish-catching diving competition in three out of 30 underwater fishermen. In two subjects, it was related to respiratory disorders and impairment in pulmonary flow. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Differences in the control of breathing between Andean highlanders and lowlanders after 10 days acclimatization at 3850 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slessarev, Marat; Mardimae, Alexandra; Preiss, David; Vesely, Alex; Balaban, Dahlia Y; Greene, Richard; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A

    2010-05-01

    We used Duffin's isoxic hyperoxic ( mmHg) and hypoxic ( mmHg) rebreathing tests to compare the control of breathing in eight (7 male) Andean highlanders and six (4 male) acclimatizing Caucasian lowlanders after 10 days at 3850 m. Compared to lowlanders, highlanders had an increased non-chemoreflex drive to breathe, characterized by higher basal ventilation at both hyperoxia (10.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.5 l min(1), P = 0.002) and hypoxia (13.8 +/- 1.4 vs. 5.7 +/- 0.9 l min(1), P patterning threshold. There was no difference in ventilatory recruitment thresholds (VRTs) between populations (P = 0.209). Hypoxia decreased VRT within both populations (highlanders: 36.4 +/- 1.3 to 31.7 +/- 0.7 mmHg, P hypoxia had no effect on either of the sensitivities (P = 0.192). We conclude that the control of breathing in Andean highlanders is different from that in acclimatizing lowlanders, although there are some similarities. Specifically, acclimatizing lowlanders have relatively lower non-chemoreflex drives to breathe, increased ventilatory sensitivities to CO(2), and an altered pattern of ventilatory response to CO(2) with two ventilatory sensitivities separated by a patterning threshold. Similar to highlanders and unlike lowlanders at sea-level, acclimatizing lowlanders respond to hypobaric hypoxia by decreasing their VRT instead of changing their ventilatory sensitivity to CO(2).

  6. Effect of device-guided breathing exercises on blood pressure in patients with hypertension: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altena, Mariette R; Kleefstra, Nanne; Logtenberg, Susan J; Groenier, Klaas H; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; Bilo, Henk J

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a chronic disorder with a high prevalence worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, it is sometimes hard to reach treatment goals for blood pressure (BP) with classical treatment options. Reducing breathing frequency has been advocated as a method to reduce BP. A randomized, single-blind, controlled trial was conducted in 30 non-diabetic patients with hypertension over a period of 9 weeks to evaluate the effect of a device that helps to slow breathing (Resperate) on BP and quality of life (QoL). The control group listened to music and used no other therapeutic device. There was no significant difference in change in BP between intervention and control; BP -4.2 mmHg (95% CI -12.4 to 3.9)/-2.6 mmHg (95% CI -8.4 to 3.3). This result did not alter in post hoc analyses, when patients not achieving target breathing frequency (<10 breaths/min) or non-compliant patients were excluded. QoL did not change over time. We found no effect of the Resperate on BP or QoL compared with the control group. We conclude that, at this moment, this device has no added value in the treatment of hypertension.

  7. Determination of transients and compensation capacities of breath-by-breath analysis by cubic splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Golitschek, M; Schardt, F W

    1997-07-01

    The development of breath-by-breath analysis during an ergospirometry improved the precision of the measurement. However, the abundance of data yields oscillating curves which make it very difficult to detect exactly the breakpoints, maxima and minima. By using cubic splines one is able to smooth the curve of the primary data without falsifying or distorting it. A breakpoint marks the beginning of a hyperventilation with an nonlinear increase of VE or the beginning of an excess value of CO2. Furthermore, the amount of CO2 required to compensate for the acid-base balance as well as the oxygen debt in the recovery phase can be calculated by the area under the curve.

  8. Plastics and cardiovascular health: phthalates may disrupt heart rate variability and cardiovascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, Rafael; Swiercz, Adam; Sherman, Meredith; Muselimyan, Narine; Marvar, Paul J; Posnack, Nikki Gillum

    2017-11-01

    Plastics have revolutionized medical device technology, transformed hematological care, and facilitated modern cardiology procedures. Despite these advances, studies have shown that phthalate chemicals migrate out of plastic products and that these chemicals are bioactive. Recent epidemiological and research studies have suggested that phthalate exposure adversely affects cardiovascular function. Our objective was to assess the safety and biocompatibility of phthalate chemicals and resolve the impact on cardiovascular and autonomic physiology. Adult mice were implanted with radiofrequency transmitters to monitor heart rate variability, blood pressure, and autonomic regulation in response to di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) exposure. DEHP-treated animals displayed a decrease in heart rate variability (-17% SD of normal beat-to-beat intervals and -36% high-frequency power) and an exaggerated mean arterial pressure response to ganglionic blockade (31.5% via chlorisondamine). In response to a conditioned stressor, DEHP-treated animals displayed enhanced cardiovascular reactivity (-56% SD major axis Poincarè plot) and prolonged blood pressure recovery. Alterations in cardiac gene expression of endothelin-1, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and nitric oxide synthase may partly explain these cardiovascular alterations. This is the first study to show an association between phthalate chemicals that are used in medical devices with alterations in autonomic regulation, heart rate variability, and cardiovascular reactivity. Because changes in autonomic balance often precede clinical manifestations of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and conduction abnormalities, future studies are warranted to assess the downstream impact of plastic chemical exposure on end-organ function in sensitive patient populations. This study also highlights the importance of adopting safer biomaterials, chemicals, and/or surface coatings for use in medical devices. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Phthalates are widely

  9. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent...... on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve. There also may...

  10. Sleep disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffanello, Marco; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Piacentini, Giorgio; Gasperi, Emma; Nosetti, Luana; Cavarzere, Paolo; Ramaroli, Diego Alberto; Mittal, Aliza; Antoniazzi, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Children with achondroplasia often have breathing problems, especially during sleep. The most important treatments are adenotonsillectomy (for treating upper obstruction) and/or neurosurgery (for resolving cervicomedullar junction stenosis). We reviewed the scientific literature on polysomnographic investigations which assessed the severity of respiratory disorders during sleep. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of clinical investigations in patients with achondroplasia, differentiating between those that look for neurological patterns and those that look for respiratory problems during sleep. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatosensory evoked potentials are the main tools to evaluate necessary neurosurgery and over myelopathy, respectively. The use of polysomnography enables clinicians to identify children with upper airway obstruction and to quantify disease severity; it is not suitable for MRI and/or neurosurgery considerations.

  11. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    This review aims to explain the inevitable imbalance between respiratory load, drive, and muscular force that occurs in the natural aging of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and that predisposes these patients to sleep disordered breathing (SDB). In DMD, SDB is characterized by oxygen desaturation, apneas, hypercapnia, and hypoventilation during sleep and ultimately develops into respiratory failure during wakefulness. It can be present in all age groups. Young patients risk obstructive apneas because of weight gain, secondary to progressive physical inactivity and prolonged corticosteroid therapy; older patients hypoventilate and desaturate because of respiratory muscle weakness, in particular the diaphragm. These conditions are further exacerbated during REM sleep, the phase of maximal muscle hypotonia during which the diaphragm has to provide most of the ventilation. Evidence is given to the daytime predictors of early symptoms of SDB, important indicators for the proper time to initiate mechanical ventilation.

  12. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  13. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Breathing adapted radiotherapy of breast cancer: reduction of cardiac and pulmonary doses using voluntary inspiration breath-hold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders N; Korreman, Stine; Nyström, Håkan

    2004-01-01

    of a monitored voluntary breath-hold technique for right-sided as well as for left-sided tumours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After breast-conserving surgery, 16 patients were CT-scanned in distinct respiratory phases using the varian real-time position management system for the monitoring of respiratory...... anterioposterior chest wall excursion. Each patient underwent three scans: during free breathing (FB), voluntary expiration breath-hold (EBH) and voluntary deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). For each scan, an optimised treatment plan was designed with conformal tangential fields encompassing the clinical target...... volume (CTV) of the breast and ipsilateral internal mammary nodes, and an anterior supraclavicular field. RESULTS: Breath-hold was well accepted by the patients, with a median duration of 24 s for both EBH and DIBH. The mean anterioposterior chest wall excursions were 2.5, 2.6 and 4.1 mm during FB, EBH...

  15. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiant, David; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-11-15

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB_DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P_DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB_DIBH plans give a "worst-case" scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB_DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB_DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P_DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P_DIBH plans were

  16. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  17. Acute and chronic effects of smoking on inflammation markers in exhaled breath condensate in current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczulla, A-Rembert; Noeske, Sarah; Herr, Christian; Jörres, Rudolf A; Römmelt, Horst; Vogelmeier, Claus; Bals, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking is associated with pulmonary inflammation, but the acute effects of smoking have been less well studied. Analysis of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can provide noninvasive markers that might be indicative of inflammation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the pH , electrical conductivity and the levels of ammonium and interleukin 8 (IL-8) of EBC were altered in smokers and whether they changed after smoking a single cigarette. We included 19 healthy nonsmokers (controls), 29 asymptomatic smokers, 10 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (GOLD) stages II-III], and 10 patients with exacerbated COPD. In 13 smokers, EBC was also analyzed before and after smoking. EBC was obtained during 10 min tidal breathing with a cooled RTube. pH was determined after deaeration with argon. Acute smoking did not alter the pH or ammonium and IL-8 levels, but raised conductivity. As in COPD patients, the pH was significantly decreased in chronic smokers with a history of at least 10 pack-years compared to controls. EBC can be used to detect the acute and chronic effects of smoking. The increased conductivity of EBC after smoking suggests acute inflammatory effects. The reduced pH in chronic smokers shows cigarette-induced inflammation. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney, and cardiovascular diseases: role of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Canale, Maria Paola; Rodia, Giuseppe; Di Daniele, Nicola; Lauro, Davide; Scuteri, Angelo; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-03-07

    Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Tesauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  20. The effect of mouth breathing versus nasal breathing on dentofacial and craniofacial development in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Doron; Redlich, Meir; Miri, Shalish; Hamud, Tachsin; Gross, Menachem

    2010-10-01

    To determine the effect of mouth breathing during childhood on craniofacial and dentofacial development compared to nasal breathing in malocclusion patients treated in the orthodontic clinic. Retrospective study in a tertiary medical center. Clinical variables and cephalometric parameters of 116 pediatric patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment were reviewed. The study group included 55 pediatric patients who suffered from symptoms and signs of nasal obstruction, and the control group included 61 patients who were normal nasal breathers. Mouth breathers demonstrated considerable backward and downward rotation of the mandible, increased overjet, increase in the mandible plane angle, a higher palatal plane, and narrowing of both upper and lower arches at the level of canines and first molars compared to the nasal breathers group. The prevalence of a posterior cross bite was significantly more frequent in the mouth breathers group (49%) than nose breathers (26%), (P = .006). Abnormal lip-to-tongue anterior oral seal was significantly more frequent in the mouth breathers group (56%) than in the nose breathers group (30%) (P = .05). Naso-respiratory obstruction with mouth breathing during critical growth periods in children has a higher tendency for clockwise rotation of the growing mandible, with a disproportionate increase in anterior lower vertical face height and decreased posterior facial height.