Sample records for altay orogenic belt

  1. Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra of different origin quartz from Altay Orogenic belt, Xinjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Kaixuan [School of Nuclear Resource and Safety Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China)], E-mail:; Liu Zehua; Zeng Sheng; Liu Yan; Xie Yanshi [School of Nuclear Resource and Safety Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Rieser, Uwe [School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)


    Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra are measured for different types of geological origin quartz from the Altay orogenic belt, northern Xinjiang, China. The results show striking differences which appear to be characteristic of their geological origin. Granitic quartz is dominated by emission bands at 420-430 nm, 550-560 nm, at a temperature of 170 deg. C. Pegmatite quartz is characterized by an intense 480 nm emission band at 170 deg. C. Volcanic quartz has exclusive UV (340-360 nm) and violet (410-430 nm) emission bands. Hydrothermal quartz exhibits very different TL spectral characteristics because of different hydrothermal activity and mineralization. Only one TL peaks at 485 nm/170 deg. C was observed in sedimentary quartz. An intense 730 nm emission band observed at 170 deg. C considered generally to be characteristics of feldspar was observed in quartz from granite and hydrothermal Au-bearing quartz. This TL peak is probably related to the centre of [FeO{sub 4}]{sup 0} on an Si site. All samples show an intense 990-1000 nm emission band at 330 deg. C. Identical types of quartz formed in different regions or different geological and tectonic settings can also exhibit striking differences in TL spectra.

  2. Science Letters: Discovery of ultrahigh-T spinel-garnet granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Altay orogenic belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉子龙; 陈汉林; SANTOSHM.; 杨树锋


    We first report discovery of the spinel-garnet-orthopyroxene granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Fuyun region of the late Paleozoic Altay orogenic belt in Central Asia, NW China. The rock is characterized by an assemblage of garnet, orthopyroxene, spinel, cordierite, biotite, plagioclase and quartz. Symplectites of orthopyroxene and spinel, and orthopyroxene and cordierite indicate decompression under UHT conditions. Mineral chemistry shows that the orthopyroxenes have high XMg and Al2O3 contents (up to 9.23 wt%). Biotites are enriched in TiO2 and XMg and are stable under granulite facies conditions. The garnet and quartz from the rock carry monophase fluid inclusions which show peak melting temperatures of around -56.7℃, indicating a pure CO2 species being presented during the ultrahigh-T metamorphism in the Altay orogenic belt. The inclusions homogenize into a liquid phase at temperatures around 15.3-23.8℃ translating into CO2 densities of the order of 0.86-0.88g/cm3. Based on preliminary mineral paragenesis, reaction textures and petrogenetic grid considerations, we infer that the rock was subjected to UHT conditions. The CO2-rich fluids were trapped during exhumation along a clockwise P-T path following isothermal decompression under UHT conditions.

  3. Early Silurian (~ 440 Ma) adakitic, andesitic and Nb-enriched basaltic lavas in the southern Altay Range, Northern Xinjiang (western China): Slab melting and implications for crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Xiang; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Lin; Yang, Yue-Heng


    As an important part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), the Altay Range contains large-scale Paleozoic magmatic rocks. However, owing to the lack of precise age constraints, the tectonic setting and petrogenesis of the magmatic rocks in this area have been controversial, which has led to the debate on Phanerozoic crustal growth mechanisms and accretionary orogenic processes in the CAOB. Herein, we report geochronological and geochemical data of the Suoerkuduke adakitic, andesitic and Nb-enriched basaltic (NEB) lavas in the southern margin of the southern Altay Range. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb analyses for five adakitic, andesitic and NEB samples indicate that they were coevally generated in the Early Silurian (~ 440 Ma). The adakites and basaltic andesites are geochemically characterized by high Na2O/K2O, Sr/Y, Al2O3, Sr, εNd(t) and zircon εHf(t) values and relatively low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios. The NEBs are sodium-rich and have higher TiO2, P2O5, Zr, Nb, and Nb/U values than those of typical arc basalts. They also have positive εNd(t) values and positive and variable zircon εHf(t) values. We suggest that the Suoerkuduke adakites were derived by a partial melting of the subducted oceanic crust with minor overlying sediments, and the continuous compositional variations between adakites and basaltic andesites confirm that the interaction between slab melts and mantle peridotite played an important role in the formation of basaltic andesites. The associated NEBs were possibly generated by a partial melting of mantle wedge peridotites metasomatized by slab-derived adakitic melts and minor fluids. In combination with the occurrence of voluminous Silurian-Devonian granitoids, coeval ophiolite mélanges, and a series of intra-arc basins, a slab window model triggered by slab tearing is proposed to account for the formation of the Suoerkuduke adakite-basaltic andesite-NEB suites. The upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle through the slab window probably caused

  4. Early Silurian (~ 440 Ma) adakites and high-Nb basaltic rocks in the southern Altay Range (Northern Xinjiang): Slab melting and implications for crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Shen, X.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Q.; Ma, L.


    As an important part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), the Altay Range contain large-scale Paleozoic magmatic rocks. However, owing to lack of precise age constraints, the tectonic setting and petrogenesis of the magmatic rocks in this area have been controversial, which cause the debate on Phanerozoic crustal growth mechanism and accretionary orogenic processes in CAOB. Here we report geochronological and geochemical data of the Suoerkuduke adakites and associated high-Nb basaltic rocks in the southern margin of the southern Altay Range. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb isotopic data for five adakite and high-Nb basaltic rock samples indicate that they were generated in the Early Silurian (~ 440 Ma). The adakites are geochemically characterized by high Na2O/K2O (1.3 to 16.7), Sr/Y (21 to 117), Al2O3 (13.0 to 18.3 wt.%), Sr (405 to 1813 ppm), ɛNd(t) (+3.6 to +6.5) and zircon ɛHf(t) (+10.8 to +18.9) values and relatively low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7046 to 0.7049). The high-Nb basaltic rocks are sodium-rich (Na2O/K2O = 1.5-5.5) and have higher TiO2 (2.99 to 3.49 wt.%), P2O5 (1.09 to 1.56 wt.%), Zr (335 to 431 ppm), Nb (17.7 to 20.9 ppm), and Nb/U (11.7 to 30.2) values than those of typical arc basalts. They also have positive ɛNd(t) values (+5.4 to +8.4) and positive and variable zircon ɛHf(t) values (+0.71 - +16.9). We suggest that the Suoerkuduke adakites were derived by partial melting of subducted oceanic crust with minor overlying sediments, and the high-Nb basaltic rocks were possibly generated by partial melting of mantle wedge peridotite metasomatized by slab-derived adakitic melts and minor fluids. In combination with the occurrence of voluminous Silurian-Devonian granitoids, coeval ophiolite mélanges, and a series of intra-arc basins, a slab window model triggered by slab tearing or breakoff is proposed to interpret the formation of the Suoerkuduke adakite and high-Nb basaltic rock suites. The upwelling of asthenospheric mantle through the slab window

  5. Seismic tomography beneath the orogenic belts and adjacent basins of northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Three-dimensional velocity images of the crust and upper mantlebeneath orogenic belts and adjacent basins of the northwestern continent of China are reconstructed by seismic tomography, based on arrival data of P wave recorded in seismic networks in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu of China and Kyrgyzstan. The velocity images of upper crust demonstrate the tectonic framework on the ground surface. High velocities are observed beneath orogenic belts, and low velocities are observed in the basins and depressions that are obviously related to unconsolidated sediments. The velocity image in mid-crust maintains the above features, and in addition low velocities appear in some earthquake regions and a low velocity boundary separates the western Tianshan Mts. from eastern Tianshan Mts. The orogenic belts and the northern Tibetan plateau have a Moho depth over 50 km, whereas the depths of the Moho in basins and depressions are smaller than 50 km. The velocity images of upper mantle clearly reveal the colliding relationship and location of deep boundaries of the continental blocks in northwestern China, indicating a weakness of the upper mantle structure of orogenic belts. The top depth of upper mantle asthenosphere varies from place to place. It seems shallower under the northern Tibetan plateau, Altay and Qilian Mts., and deeper under the Tarim and Tianshan regions. Hot mantle probably rose to the bottom of some orogenic belts along tectonic boundaries when continental blocks collided to each other. Therefore their dynamic features are closely correlated to the formation and evolution of orogenic belts in northwestern China.

  6. Pn anisotropic tomography under the entire Tienshan orogenic belt (United States)

    Zhou, Zhigang; Lei, Jianshe


    We present a new anisotropic tomography of the uppermost mantle under the Tienshan orogenic belt and surrounding regions using a number of Pn arrival-time data hand-picked from portable seismic stations and chosen from the Xinjiang provincial observation bulletins and the EHB datasets. Our results exhibit prominent lateral heterogeneities in the study region. Distinct low-velocity anomalies are visible under the tectonically active regions, such as the Tienshan orogenic belt and western Kunlun Mountains, whereas pronounced high-velocity anomalies are imaged beneath the stable blocks, such as the Kazakh shield, the Junggar, Tarim, Qaidam, and Turpan-Hami basins, and the Tajik depression. Most strong earthquakes (Ms > 7.0) are mainly distributed along the transition zone of high to low velocity anomalies, suggesting a possible correlation between the strong earthquakes and the upper mantle structure. The fast directions of Pn anisotropy beneath the Tienshan orogenic belt are generally parallel to its striking orientation, whereas those beneath Pamir show a northward arc-shaped distribution. The Pn fast-velocity directions on the boundaries of the Kazakh shield and the Tarim and Junngar basins are approximately perpendicular to the strike of the Tienshan orogenic belt. By integrating with previous findings, our results suggest that the Tarim and Kazakh lithospheric materials could have underthrusted beneath the Tienshan orogenic belt that leads to the hot mantle material upwelling under the Tienshan orogenic belt, which is attributable to the Indo-Asian collision. These dynamic processes could play important roles in the Tienshan mountain building.

  7. Geometry, kinematics and evolution of the Tongbai orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shaoying; XU Bei; WANG Changqiu; ZHAN Sheng; DENG Rongjing


    The Tongbai orogenic belt (TOB) is composed of six tectonic units. From south to north these units are: Tongbai gneiss rise (TGR); Hongyihe-Luozhuang eclogite belt (HLE); Maopo-Hujiazhai igneous rock belt (MHI); Zhoujiawan flysch belt (ZFB); Yangzhuang greenschist belt (YGB); and Dongjiazhuang marble belt (DMB).The geometry and kinematic images of the TOB include: the antiformal structures caused by a later uplift process, the top-to-north ductile shear structure that related to a process that the ultrahigh pressure rocks are brought to surface, the top-to-south ductile shear thrust and the sinistrial shear structures related to a south-north direction compression, and the east-west direction fold structures in the upper crust. In the view of the multistage subduction-collision orogenic belt, according to the characters of petrology and its distribution, geometry, kinematics and structural chronology in these tectonic units, tectonic evolution of the TOB can be divided into four stages: oceanic crust subduction during 400-300 Ma, continental collision during 270-250 Ma, continental deep subduction and uplift during 250-205 Ma and doming deformation during 200-185 Ma.

  8. Regional Fault Systems of Qaidam Basin and Adjacent Orogenic Belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the regional fault systems of Qaidam basin and adjacent orogenic belts. Field investigation and seismic interpretation indicate that five regional fault systems occurred in the Qaidam and adjacent mountain belts, controlling the development and evolution of the Qaidam basin. These fault systems are: (1)north Qaidam-Qilian Mountain fault system; (2) south Qaidam-East Kunlun Mountain fault system; (3)Altun strike-slip fault system; (4)Elashan strike-slip fault system, and (5) Gansen-Xiaochaidan fault system. It is indicated that the fault systems controlled the orientation of the Qaidam basin, the formation and distribution of secondary faults within the basin,the migration of depocenters and the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation belt.

  9. Qinling Orogenic Belt: Its Palaeozoic- Mesozoic Evolution and Metallogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The formation, development and evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt can be divided into three stages: (1) formation and development of Precambrian basement in the Late Archaean- Palaeoproterozoic (3.0- 1.6 Ga), (2) plate evolution (0.8- 0.2 Ga), and (3) intracontinental orogeny and tectonic evolution in the Mesozoic. The Devonian (D) and Triassic (T) were the key transition period of the tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt. That is to say, in the Devonian, the Qinling micro-plate was separated from the northern margin of the Yangtze plate (passive continental margin). This period witnessed transition of the micro-plate from the compressional to extensional state, and consequently three types of sedimentary basins were formed, namely, the rift hydrothermal basin in the micro-plate, restricted ocean basin in the south, and residual ocean basin resulting from collision on the northern margin. In the Triassic the Qinling area was turned into the intracontinental orogen.The Devonian and Triassic were the main periods of enrichment of large amounts of metals. In the Devonian, many sedex-type massive Pb-Zn- (Cu)-Ag deposits were formed in the hydrothermal basins. In the Triassic (Indosinian-Yanshanian movements), many sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits and reworked sedimentary type Pb-Zn-Hg-Sb (Au) deposits were formed in the rift hydrothermal basins. Many ductile shear zone-related gold deposits were formed in the restricted ocean basins and residual ocean basins on the two sides of the Qinling micro-plate. The above-mentioned discussion indicates that metallogenesis is not only consistent with geological events, but also controlled by them.

  10. Dynamic Settings and Interactions between Basin Subsidence and Orogeny in Zhoukou Depression and Dabie Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents a study of the geo-dynamic setting and the relation between orogenic uplift and basin subsidence in the inland Zhoukou depression and Dabie orogenic belt. Since the Mesozoic the evolution of Zhoukou depression can be divided into three stages: (1) foreland basin, (2) transitional stage, (3) fault depression. Formation and variations of basin were not only related to the orogenesis, but also consistent with the orogenic uplift.

  11. Structural inversion of the Tamworth Belt: Insights into the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, Australia (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Robinson, J.; Glen, R.; Roberts, J.


    The middle to late Permian Hunter Bowen Event is credited with the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, yet contention surrounds the structural dynamics responsible for the development of this curvature. Debate is largely centred on the roles of orogen parallel strike-slip and orogen normal extension and contraction to explain the development of curvature. To evaluate the dynamic history of the Hunter Bowen Event, we present new kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt. The Tamworth Belt formed as a Carboniferous forearc basin and was subsequently inverted during the Hunter Bowen Event. Kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt are based on new maps and cross-sections built from a synthesis of best-available mapping, chronostratigraphic data and new interpretations of depth-converted seismic data. The following conclusions are made from our study: (i) the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly driven by margin normal contraction (east-west shortening; present-day coordinates), and; (ii) variations in structural style along the strike of the Tamworth Belt can be explained by orthogonal vs. oblique inversion, which reflects the angular relationship between the principal shortening vector and continental-arc margin. Given these conclusions, we suggest that curvature around the controversial Manning Bend was influenced by the presence of primary curvature in the continental margin, and that the Hastings Block was translated along a sinistral strike-slip fault system that formed along this oblique (with respect to the regional east-west extension and convergence direction) part of the margin. Given the available temporal data, the translation of the Hastings Block took place in the Early Permian (Asselian) and therefore preceded the Hunter Bowen Event. Accordingly, we suggest that the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly associated with enhancing curvature that was either primary in origin, or associated with fault block translation

  12. Recent advances about of the orogenic modern belt (1000-500 M.A.) in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in lithologic, structural, tectonic and geo tectonic data about a 1000-500 m.y.orogenic belt developed at the East of Uruguay, arrived in the 80, are here described. Conclusions are mainly based on the 1/100.000 scale geologic map of a 6000 sq. km comprised between Sierra Ballena, Sierra de Animas, Pan de Azucar and Mariscala. These new data clearly states the lithological distribution and contribute to guide strategic prospect ion.

  13. Axial Belt Provenance: modern river sands from the core of collision orogens (United States)

    Resentini, A.; Vezzoli, G.; Paparella, P.; Padoan, M.; Andò, S.; Malusà, M.; Garzanti, E.


    Collision orogens have a complex structure, including diverse rock units assembled in various ways by geodynamic processes. Consequently, orogenic detritus embraces a varied range of signatures, and unravelling provenance of clastic wedges accumulated in adjacent foreland basins, foredeeps, or remnant-ocean basins is an arduous task. Dickinson and Suczek (1979) and Dickinson (1985) recognized the intrinsically composite nature of orogenic detritus, but did not attempt to establish clear conceptual and operational distinctions within their broad "Recycled Orogenic Provenance". In the Alpine and Himalayan belts, the bulk of the detritus is produced by focused erosion of the central backbone of the orogen, characterized by high topography and exhumation rates (Garzanti et al., 2004; Najman, 2006). Detritus derived from such axial nappe pile, including slivers of thinned continental-margin lithosphere metamorphosed at depth during early collisional stages, has diagnostic general features, which allows us to define an "Axial Belt Provenance" (Garzanti et al., 2007). In detail, "Axial Belt" detrital signatures are influenced by metamorphic grade of source rocks and relative abundance of continental versus oceanic protoliths, typifying distinct subprovenances. Metasedimentary cover nappes shed lithic to quartzolithic detritus, including metapelite, metapsammite, and metacarbonate grains of various ranks; only amphibolite-facies metasediments supply abundant heavy minerals (e.g., almandine garnet, staurolite, kyanite, sillimanite, diopsidic clinopyroxene). Continental-basement nappes shed hornblende-rich quartzofeldspathic detritus. Largely retrogressed blueschist to eclogite-facies metaophiolites supply albite, metabasite and foliated antigorite-serpentinite grains, along with abundant heavy minerals (epidote, zoisite, clinozoisite, lawsonite, actinolitic to barroisitic amphiboles, glaucophane, omphacitic clinopyroxene). Increasing metamorphic grade and deeper

  14. An important form of basin-mountain coupling:Orogenic belt and flank basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Erchie


    Orogeny is always associated with the erosion and sediments carried by both transverse and longitudinal river systems. Those two river systems transport sediments into foreland or hinterland basin and flank basin. Longitudinal river systems prevail in and around the Tibetan Plateau due to the fact that they flow parallel to the strike of structures within the developing mountain belt. The flank basins surrounded the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas are developed in different tectonic settings, including inland,continental margin and deep ocean, most of them containing oil and natural gas. Those basins not only have longer evolution histories than foreland basins but also are more complete in their records of deposition. Coupling of orogeny and flank basin deposition also occurred widely in pre-Cenozoic time, in particular, the coupling between the Qinling orogenic belt and Songpan-Ganzi flysch flank basin is the most distinctive. The evolution of ancient latitudinal rivers derived from the Qinling orogenic belt during periods of mountain building was controlled not only by landforms but also by the lateral extrusion of the crustal fragments.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Baoqing; ZENG Qiaosong; LIU Shunsheng; WANG Shijie


    As the structural body related to temporal-spatial evolution and tectonic dynamic system, the orogenic belt and basin are not only dependent on each other in space but also closely related with each other in terms of infrastructure, matter transference and dynamic mechanisms. By using apatite fission-track method, the authors firstly analyze the uplift and denudation ratios of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt, and by using tectonically deformed combination analysis and tectonic-thermal simulation the main geological occurrences are also illustrated. It is found that there must have had multi-phase differential uplift and denudation phenomena in the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Then, the regional evolution pattern of qualitative and quantitative denudation process is obtained during the post-orogenic period. On the basis of summarizing evolution process of the basin-range system in the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic and its effects on regional environment, the influence of evolution process on geomorphologic landscapes change, water system vicissitude, eco-environment succession and drainage basin system evolution is discussed.

  16. Late Mesozoic deformations of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma orogenic belt, Northeast Russia (United States)

    Fridovsky, Valery


    The Verkhoyansk-Kolyma orogenic belt marks the boundary between the Kolyma-Omolon superterrane (microcontinent) and the submerged eastern margin of the North Asian craton. The orogenic system is remark able for its large number of economically viable gold deposits (Natalka, Pavlik, Rodionovskoe, Drazhnoe, Bazovskoe, Badran, Malo-Tarynskoe, etc.). The Verkhoyansk - Kolyma orogenic belt is subdivided into Kular-Nera and the Polousny-Debin terranes. The Kular-Nera terrane is mainly composed of the Upper Permian, Triassic, and Lower Jurassic black shales that are metamorphosed at lower greenschist facies conditions. The Charky-Indigirka and the Chai-Yureya faults separate the Kular-Nera from the Polousny-Debin terrane that is predominantly composed of the Jurassic flyschoi dturbidites. The deformation structure of the region evolved in association with several late Mesozoic tectonic events that took place in the north-eastern part ofthe Paleo-Pacific. In Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous several generations of fold and thrust systems were formed due to frontal accretion of the Kolyma-Omolon superterrane to the eastern margin of the North Asian craton.Thrusting and folding was accompanied by granitic magmatism, metamorphic reworking of the Late Paleozoic and the Early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, and formation of Au-Sn-W mineralization. Three stages of deformation related to frontal accretion can be distinguished. First stage D1 has developed in the north-eastern part of the Verkhoyansk - Kolyma orogenic belt. Early tight and isoclinal folds F1 and assosiated thrusts are characteristic of D1. Major thrusts, linear concentric folds F2 and cleavage were formed during D2. The main ore-controlling structures are thrust faults forming imbricate fan systems. Frontal and oblique ramps and systems of bedding and cross thrusts forming duplexes are common. It is notable that mineralized tectonized zones commonly develop along thrusts at the contacts of rocks of contrasting competence

  17. Geological setting and tectonic subdivision of the Neoproterozoic orogenic belt of Tuludimtu, western Ethiopia (United States)

    Allen, Alistair; Tadesse, Gebremedhin


    The N-S trending Tuludimtu Belt in the extreme west of Ethiopia has been subdivided into five lithotectonic domains, from east to west, the Didesa, Kemashi, Dengi, Sirkole and Daka domains. The Kemashi, Dengi and Sirkole Domains, forming the core of the belt, contain volcano-sedimentary successions, whilst the Didesa and Daka Domains are gneiss terranes, interpreted to represent the eastern and western forelands of the Tuludimtu Belt. The Kemashi Domain, which consists of an ophiolitic sequence of ultramafic and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks together with sedimentary rocks of oceanic affinity, is interpreted as oceanic crust and is considered to represent an arc-continent suture zone. The Dengi Domain, composed of mafic to felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks, and a sequence of volcanoclastic, volcanogenic, and carbonate sediments, is interpreted as a volcanic arc. The Sirkole Domain consists of alternating gneiss and volcano-sedimentary sequences, interpreted as an imbricated basement-cover thrust-nappe complex. All the domains are intruded by syn- and post-kinematic Neoproterozoic granitoids. Structural analysis within the Didesa and Daka Domains indicate the presence of pre-Pan African structures, upon which Neoproterozoic deformation has been superimposed. The gneissic rocks of these two domains are regarded as pre-Pan African continental fragments amalgamated to West Gondwana during Neoproterozoic collision events. Unconformably overlying all of the above are a series of tilted but internally undeformed conglomerate-sandstone-shale sequences, regarded as post-accretionary molasse-type deposits, formed during gravitational collapse of the Tuludimtu Belt. The Tuludimtu Belt is interpreted as a collision orogenic belt formed during the assembly of West Gondwana prior to final closure of the Mozambique Ocean.

  18. Tectonic Subdivision of Dabie Orogenic Belt, Central China: Evidence from Pb Isotope Geochemistry of Late Mesozoic Basalts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡少平; 张本仁


    It has long been debated that the Dabie orogenic belt belongs to the North China or Yangtze craton. In recent years, eastern China has been suggested, based on the Pb isotopic compositions of Phanerozoic ore and Mesozoic granitoid K-feldspar (revealing the crust Pb) in combination with Meso-Cenozoic basalts (revealing the mantle Pb), being divided into the North China and Yangtze Pb isotopic provinces, where the crust and mantle of the Yangtze craton are characterized by more radiogenic Pb. In this sense, previous researchers suggested that the pro-EW-trending Dabie orogenic belt with less radiogenic Pb in the crust was part of the North China craton. In this paper, however, the Late Cretaceous basalts in the central and southern parts of the Dabie orogenic belt are characterized by some more radiogenic Pb (206pb/204pb = 17. 936 - 18. 349, 207pb/204pb = 15. 500 - 15. 688, 208pb/204pb = 38. 399 - 38. 775 )and a unique U-Th-Pb trace element system similar to those of the Yangtze craton, showing that the Mesozoic mantle is of the Yangtze type. In addition, the decoupled Pb isotopic compositions between crust and mantle were considerably derived from their rheological inhomogeneity, implying a complicated evolution of the Dabie orogenic belt.

  19. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia): Implications for crustal reworking and syn-orogenic uranium mineralizations (United States)

    Eglinger, Aurélien; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Goncalves, Philippe; Zeh, Armin; Durand, Cyril; Deloule, Etienne


    The internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia) hosts a dozen uranium occurrences mostly located within kyanite micaschists in a shear zone marking the contact between metasedimentary rocks attributed to the Katanga Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequence and migmatites coring domes developed dominantly at the expense of the pre-Neoproterozoic basement. The P-T-t-d paths reconstructed for these rocks combining field observations, microstructural analysis, metamorphic petrology and thermobarometry and geochronology indicate that they have recorded burial and exhumation during the Pan-African orogeny. Both units of the Katanga metasedimentary sequence and pre-Katanga migmatitic basement have underwent minimum peak P-T conditions of ~ 9-11 kbar and ~ 640-660 °C, dated at ca. 530 Ma by garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochrons. This suggests that this entire continental segment has been buried up to a depth of 40-50 km with geothermal gradients of 15-20 ° 1 during the Pan-African orogeny and the formation of the West Gondwana supercontinent. Syn-orogenic exhumation of the partially molten root of the Lufilian belt is attested by isothermal decompression under P-T conditions of ~ 6-8 kbar at ca. 530-500 Ma, witnessing an increase of the geothermal gradients to 25-30 °C·km- 1. Uranium mineralizations that consist of uraninite and brannerite took place at temperatures ranging from ~ 600 to 700 °C, and have been dated at ca. 540-530 Ma by U-Pb ages on uraninite. The main uranium deposition thus occurred at the transition from the syn-orogenic burial to the syn-orogenic exhumation stages and has been then partially transposed and locally remobilized during the post-orogenic exhumation accommodated by activation of low-angle extensional detachment.

  20. Genesis of Yangla Banded Skarn-Hosted Copper Deposit in Tethys Orogenic Belt of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Yangla copper deposit is the largest banded skarn-hosted copper deposit found recently in the Tethys orogenic belt of Southwestern China. On the basis of the study of distribution, petrology and mineralogy as well as major element, REE and isotope geochemistry, the authors find that the banded skarn, which hosts the deposit, was precipitated from hydrothermal solutions in the form of exhalate sediment. Therefore, the banded skarn-hosted copper deposit is a Sedex-type deposit, with a series of stacked, conformable lenses underlain by at least one stringer zone. The deposit, intercalated at the contact of lower clastic rock and upper carbonate rock of Gajinxueshan Group, was formed in the Carboniferous ((296.1±7.0) Ma), contemporary to the host Gajinxueshan Group. The interpretation of the genesis of Yangla banded skarn-hosted copper deposit is of fundamental exploration significance for the discovery of Sedex-type copper deposit in the region.

  1. Characteristics and Evolution of the Progressive Metamorphic Belt in Azubai Area of Altay%阿尔泰阿祖拜地区递增变质带特征及演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏宝; 张洋; 王书芬; 李金和


    The Azubai area of Altay,has experienced two types regional metamorphism,the first type is regional low-temperature dynamic metamorphism and the second one belongs to regional dynamic heat flow metamorphic type.The progressive metamorphic belt to Azubai is just one of the typical representation of the latter type,in peripheral contact metamorphic belt of the granitic mass,has developed sillimanite-cordierite belt,andalusite-staurolite belt and biotite-garnet belt in turn and the intension of progressive metamorphism tend to weakened. Combines the characteristics of deformationc and metamorphism and isotope ages,we could identify three stages of deformationc and metamorphism.In the early stage, the metamorphism is characterized by typical metamorphic mineral assemblage of greenschist facies with low metamorphic temperature;The intermediate stage,mainly with regional dynamic heat flow metamorphism,the typical progressive metamorphic belt was formed; Retrogressive metamorphism occurred in the late stage.Different metamorphic types reveal different tectonic conditions and record the evolutionary history and geodynamic process in Azubai area of Altay,Xinjiang.%新疆阿尔泰阿祖拜地区发育两种类型区域变质作用,第一种为区域低温动力变质作用,第二种为区域动力热流变质作用.阿祖拜地区递增变质带是后者的典型代表之一,从花岗岩体外接触带依次发育矽线石-堇青带、红柱石-十字石带、黑云母-石榴石带,递增变质作用强度呈逐渐减弱趋势.结合变形变质作用特征和同位素年龄,可识别出3个变形变质阶段.早期阶段以区域低温动力变质作用为主,形成绿片岩相变质岩石组合;峰期阶段为区域动力热流变质作用,形成典型的递增变质带;晚期阶段则属退化变质作用.不同变质作用类型代表了不同大地构造环境,记录了造山带演化历史年和动力学过程.

  2. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.


    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  3. Modelling of current crustal tectonic deformation in the Chinese Tianshan orogenic belt constrained by GPS observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to discover the deformation characteristics of the Tianshan mountain range for a better understanding of the geodynamics of the Tianshan orogenic belt. Constrained by the GPS-derived velocity vectors of crustal movement, the current velocity field, stress field and strain rate in the Tianshan mountains have been retrieved from a three-dimensional numerical model presented in this paper by using the finite-element code ANSYS, on the basis of geological structures, tectonic regimes, active fault belts and seismic velocity structures of the crust and upper mantle. The results suggest that: (1) the general direction of crustal movement is NNE, and yet gradually turns to NE from west to east; (2) the regional stress field is characterized by near N–S tectonic compression, resulting in crustal shortening in the near N–S direction as well; and (3) the shortening strain rate is ∼10−8 a−1 and decreases gradually from west to east. Our results support the opinion that the crustal deformation of the Tianshan mountain range is controlled by the clockwise rotation of the Tarim basin

  4. Geochemistry of metavolcanics from the Neoproterozoic Tuludimtu orogenic belt, western Ethiopia (United States)

    Tadesse, Gebremedhin; Allen, Alistair


    The 200 km wide Tuludimtu Belt of Western Ethiopia is one of a series of N-S trending Neoproterozoic orogenic belts of the East African Orogenic Province in southeastern Sudan and western and southern Ethiopia. The Tuludimtu Belt consists of deformed greenschist facies metasediments and metavolcanics, flanked to the east and west by gneissic terranes, all of which are invaded by pre-, syn- and post-tectonic intrusives ranging from ultramafic to felsic in composition. The Tuludimtu Belt has been subdivided into five lithotectonic domains, from east to west, the Didesa, Kemashi, Dengi, Sirkole and Daka Domains. On the basis of lithological associations, the three domains in the core of the belt, the Kemashi, Dengi and Sirkole Domains, are respectively interpreted to represent an ophiolitic terrane of oceanic crustal origin, a volcanic arc, and a fold-thrust terrane composed of interleaved thrust sheets of gneissic basement and cover strata. The Didesa and Daka Domains are composed of moderate- to high-grade gneisses, possibly representing the basement forelands to the belt. Major and trace element geochemistry for metavolcanics of predominantly basaltic and andesitic composition from the Kemashi, Dengi and Didesa Domains, are presented, and a preliminary analysis of the data undertaken. Two suites of metavolcanics are clearly differentiated by the discrimination diagrams. The samples from all three domains are predominantly tholeiitic, subalkaline basalts and andesites. Bivariate plots reveal weak negative correlations of SiO 2 and Al 2O 3 with MgO, and a positive correlation of CaO with MgO, indicating that magmas evolved by fractionation of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and olivine from the parent liquids. Trace element spider diagrams show a tight coherence of patterns for the Dengi and Sirkole samples, suggestive that alteration did not accompany metamorphic processes to any great extent, and a slight depletion of HFS elements possibly due to fractionation

  5. Sand fairway mapping as a tool for tectonic restoration in orogenic belts (United States)

    Butler, Rob


    The interplay between regional subsidence mechanisms and local deformation associated with individual fold-thrust structures is commonly investigated in neotectonic subaerial systems using tectonic geomorphology. Taking these approaches back into the early evolution of mountain belts is difficult as much of the key evidence is lost through erosion. The challenge is to develop appropriate tools for investigating these early stages of orogenesis. However, many such systems developed under water. In these settings the connections between regional and local tectonics are manifest in complex bathymetry. Turbidity currents flowing between and across these structures will interact with their substrate and thus their deposits, tied to stratigraphic ages, can chart tectonic evolution. Understanding the depositional processes of the turbidity currents provides substantial further insight on confining seabed geometry and thus can establish significant control on the evolution of bathymetric gradients and continuity through basins. However, reading these records commonly demands working in structurally deformed terrains that hitherto have discouraged sedimentological study. This is now changing. Sand fairway mapping provides a key approach. Fairway maps chart connectivity between basins and hence their relative elevation through time. Larger-scale tectonic reconstructions may be tested by linking fairway maps to sand composition and other provenance data. More detailed turbidite sedimentology provides substantial further insight. In confined turbidite systems, it is the coarser sand component that accumulates in the deeper basin with fines fractionated onto the flanks. Flow bypass, evidenced by abrupt breaks in grading within individual event beds, can be used to predict sand fraction distribution down fairways. Integrating sedimentology into fairway maps can chart syntectonic slope evolution and thus provide high resolution tools equivalent to those in subaerial tectonic

  6. Uranium cycle and tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Lufilian Pan-African orogenic belt (Zambia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is an incompatible and lithophile element, and thus more concentrated in silicate melt produced by the partial melting of the mantle related to continental crust formation. Uranium can be used as a geochemical tracer to discuss the generation and the evolution of continental crust. This thesis, focused on the Pan-African Lufilian belt in Zambia, combines structural geology, metamorphic petrology and thermos-barometry, fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology in order to characterize the uranium cycle for this crustal segment. Silici-clastic and evaporitic sediments have been deposited within an intra-continental rift during the dislocation of the Rodinia super-continent during the early Neo-proterozoic. U-Pb ages on detrital zircon grains in these units indicate a dominant Paleo-proterozoic provenance. The same zircon grains show sub-chondritic εHf (between 0 and -15) and yield Hf model ages between ∼2.9 and 2.5 Ga. These data suggest that the continental crust was generated before the end of the Archean (< 2.5 Ga) associated with uranium extraction from the mantle. This old crust has been reworked by deformation and metamorphism during the Proterozoic. Uranium has been re-mobilized and reconcentrated during several orogenic cycles until the Pan-African orogeny. During this Pan-African cycle, U-Pb and REY (REE and Yttrium) signatures of uranium oxides indicate a first mineralizing event at ca. 650 Ma during the continental rifting. This event is related to late diagenesis hydrothermal processes at the basement/cover interface with the circulation of basinal brines linked to evaporites of the Roan. The second stage, dated at 530 Ma, is connected to metamorphic highly saline fluid circulations, synchronous to the metamorphic peak of the Lufilian orogeny (P=9±3 kbar; T=610±30 deg. C). These fluids are derived from the Roan evaporite dissolution. Some late uranium re-mobilizations are described during exhumation of metamorphic rocks and their

  7. Early Mesozoic granitoid and rhyolite magmatism of the Bureya Terrane of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Age and geodynamic setting (United States)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Kotov, A. B.; Kudryashov, N. M.; Kovach, V. P.


    Early Mesozoic granitoids and volcanic rocks are widespread throughout the structures of all of the continental massifs in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, although its tectonic setting is not yet clear. Generally, they are associated with subduction and plume processes or rifting. Such uncertainty is mostly explained by the unequal investigation of Early Mesozoic magmatism. This paper presents the results of geochemical, Sm-Nd isotope, and U-Pb geochronologic (ID-TIMS) studies of "key-type" Early Mesozoic magmatic rock complexes of the Bureya Terrane. This is one of the largest continental massifs in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt and knowledge of its geological structure is of fundamental importance in understanding the history of its formation. It has been established that the leucogranites of the Altakhtinsky Complex and the trachyrhyolites of the Talovsky Complex are practically coeval (~ 209-208 Ma). The subalkaline leucogranites of the Kharinsky Complex have a slightly younger age of ~ 199 Ma. These data correspond to the general stage of Early Mesozoic magmatic and metamorphic events (236-180 Ma) in most continental massifs in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We believe that large-scale Early Mesozoic events were related to the amalgamation of the continental massifs of the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt into a single continental structure (the Amur superterrane or microcontinent Amuria) and collision with the North Asian Craton. It should be noted that the collision processes were followed by crustal thickening, thus creating the conditions for metamorphism and formation of magmatic rock complexes of various geochemical types.

  8. CHIME dating method and its application to the analysis of evolutional history of orogenic belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Adachi, Mamoru; Kato, Takenori; Yogo, Setsuo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)


    This paper outlines the CHIME (chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron method: Suzuki and Adachi, 1991a, b; Adachi and Suzuki, 1992) dating method and reviews its application to the event analysis of orogenic belts. The reviewed examples of the CHIME geochronology include (1) the electron microprobe observations of Pb diffusion in metamorphosed detrital monazites from high-grade Ryoke paragneisses (Suzuki et al., 1994), (2) the recycled Precambrian clastic materials from the Mino terrane (Adachi and Suzuki, 1993, 1994), (3) the late Permian-early Triassic metamorphism and plutonism in the Hida terrane (Suzuki and Adachi, 1991b, 1994), (4) the relationship between the Hikami Granite and Siluro-Devonian clastic rocks in the South Kitakami terrane (Suzuki et al, 1992; Adachi et al., 1994), and (5) the denudation history of the high T/P Ryoke metamorphic belt (Suzuki and Adachi, 1998). The CHIME dating method is based on precise electron microprobe analyses of Th, U and Pb as low as 0.01wt.% in an area of 5 {mu}m across within a single grain of compositionally ununiformed Th-and U-bearing accessory minerals like monazite and zircon. This method has an advantage of high spatial resolution, and provides a new vista on the study of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks that underwent complex thermo-tectonic history. Monazite is most suitable to the CHIME dating, since it shows a concordant Th-U-Pb relation, contains 5-20 wt.% ThO{sub 2} and 0.1-1.5wt.% UO{sub 2} that can produce 0.01-0.06wt.% PbO during 50 Myr, and remains immune to significant Pb-loss during the sillimanite grade metamorphism; it has great chronological potential for the analysis of the detailed sequence of geologic events. (author)

  9. CHIME dating method and its application to the analysis of evolutional history of orogenic belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the CHIME (chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron method: Suzuki and Adachi, 1991a, b; Adachi and Suzuki, 1992) dating method and reviews its application to the event analysis of orogenic belts. The reviewed examples of the CHIME geochronology include (1) the electron microprobe observations of Pb diffusion in metamorphosed detrital monazites from high-grade Ryoke paragneisses (Suzuki et al., 1994), (2) the recycled Precambrian clastic materials from the Mino terrane (Adachi and Suzuki, 1993, 1994), (3) the late Permian-early Triassic metamorphism and plutonism in the Hida terrane (Suzuki and Adachi, 1991b, 1994), (4) the relationship between the Hikami Granite and Siluro-Devonian clastic rocks in the South Kitakami terrane (Suzuki et al, 1992; Adachi et al., 1994), and (5) the denudation history of the high T/P Ryoke metamorphic belt (Suzuki and Adachi, 1998). The CHIME dating method is based on precise electron microprobe analyses of Th, U and Pb as low as 0.01wt.% in an area of 5 μm across within a single grain of compositionally ununiformed Th-and U-bearing accessory minerals like monazite and zircon. This method has an advantage of high spatial resolution, and provides a new vista on the study of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks that underwent complex thermo-tectonic history. Monazite is most suitable to the CHIME dating, since it shows a concordant Th-U-Pb relation, contains 5-20 wt.% ThO2 and 0.1-1.5wt.% UO2 that can produce 0.01-0.06wt.% PbO during 50 Myr, and remains immune to significant Pb-loss during the sillimanite grade metamorphism; it has great chronological potential for the analysis of the detailed sequence of geologic events. (author)

  10. Strong Lg-wave attenuation in the Middle East continental collision orogenic belt (United States)

    Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi


    Using Lg-wave Q tomography, we construct a broadband crustal attenuation model for the Middle East. The QLg images reveal a relationship between attenuation and geological structures. Strong attenuation is found in the continental collision orogenic belt that extends from the Turkish and Iranian plateau to the Pamir plateau. We investigate the frequency dependence of QLg in different geologic formations. The results illustrate that QLg values generally increase with increasing frequency but exhibit complex relationships both with frequency and between regions. An average QLg value between 0.2 and 2.0 Hz, QLg (0.2-2.0 Hz), may be a critical index for crustal attenuation and is used to infer the regional geology. Low-QLg anomalies are present in the eastern Turkish plateau and correlate well with low Pn-velocities and Cenozoic volcanic activity, thus indicating possible partial melting within the crust in this region. Very strong attenuation is also observed in central Iran, the Afghanistan block, and the southern Caspian Sea. This in line with the previously observed high crustal temperature, high-conductivity layers, and thick marine sediments in these areas, suggests the high Lg attenuation is caused by abnormally high tectonic and thermal activities.

  11. Mianlüe tectonic zone and Mianlüe suture zone on southern margin of Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Mianlue tectonic zone (Mianlue zone), an ancient suture zone in addition to theShangdan suture in the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt, marks an important tectonic division geo-logically separating north from south and connecting east with west in China continent. To de-termine present structural geometry and kinematics in the Mianlue tectonic zone and to recon-struct the formation and evolution history involving plate subduction and collision in theQinling-Dabie orogenic belt, through a multidisciplinary study, are significant for exploring themountain-building orogenesis of the central orogenic system and the entire process of the majorChinese continental amalgamation during the Indosinian.

  12. Evolution, source and tectonic significance of Early Mesozoic granitoid magmatism in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (central segment) (United States)

    Li, Shan; Wang, Tao; Wilde, Simon A.; Tong, Ying


    Numerous Early Mesozoic granitoids have been recognized from the central segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). They can be broadly classified into two groups according to zircon U-Pb ages: an early-stage group covering the time span from Early to Middle Triassic (250-230 Ma) and a late-stage group emplaced during Late Triassic to Early Jurassic (ca. 230-190 Ma). Early-stage (250-230 Ma) granitoids are mainly distributed in the western Central Mongolia-Erguna Belt (CMEB), the western Altai Belt (AB), the South Mongolia-Xing'an Belt (SMXB) and the Beishan-Inner Mongolia-Jilin Belt (BIJB). They consist mainly of quartz-diorites, granodiorites and monzogranites, mostly of I-type, with minor mafic intrusions, with some of them showing adakite-like signatures and some with S-type features. Late-stage (230-190 Ma) granitoids mainly occur in the North Mongolia-Transbaikalia Belt (NMTB), the eastern CMEB (Erguna massif) and the eastern Altai Belt (AB). They are predominately syenogranites, monzogranites and syenites, associated with many alkaline granites and mafic intrusions and are A-type and transitional I-A type or highly fractionated I-type granites.

  13. A crustal model of the ultrahigh-pressure Dabie Shan orogenic belt, China, derived from deep seismic refraction profiling (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Zeng, Rong-Sheng; Mooney, W.D.; Hacker, B.R.


    We present a new crustal cross section through the east-west trending ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) Dabie Shan orogenic belt, east central China, based on a 400-km-long seismic refraction profile. Data from our profile reveal that the cratonal blocks north and south of the orogen are composed of 35-km-thick crust consisting of three layers (upper, middle, and lower crust) with average seismic velocities of 6.0±0.2 km/s, 6.5±0.1 km/s, and 6.8±0.1 km/s. The crust reaches a maximum thickness of 41.5 km beneath the northern margin of the orogen, and thus the present-day root beneath the orogen is only 6.5 km thick. The upper mantle velocity is 8.0±0.1 km/s. Modeling of shear wave data indicate that Poisson's ratio increases from 0.24±0.02 in the upper crust to 0.27±0.03 in the lower crust. This result is consistent with a dominantly felsic upper crustal composition and a mafic lower crustal composition within the amphibolite or granulite metamorphic facies. Our seismic model indicates that eclogite, which is abundant in surface exposures within the orogen, is not a volumetrically significant component in the middle or lower crust. Much of the Triassic structure associated with the formation of the UHP rocks of the Dabie Shan has been obscured by post-Triassic igneous activity, extension and large-offset strike-slip faulting. Nevertheless, we can identify a high-velocity (6.3 km/s) zone in the upper (<5 km depth) crustal core of the orogen which we interpret as a zone of ultrahigh-pressure rocks, a north dipping suture, and an apparent Moho offset that marks a likely active strike-slip fault.

  14. Transpressional deformation, strain partitioning and fold superimposition in the southern Chinese Altai, Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Cai, Keda; Chen, Ming; He, Yulin


    Transpressional deformation has played an important role in the late Paleozoic evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and understanding the structural evolution of such transpressional zones is crucial for tectonic reconstructions. Here we focus on the transpressional Irtysh Shear Zone with an aim at understanding amalgamation processes between the Chinese Altai and the West/East Junggar. We mapped macroscopic fold structures in the southern Chinese Altai and analyzed their relationships with the development of the adjacent Irtysh Shear Zone. Structural observations from these macroscopic folds show evidence for four generations of folding and associated fabrics. The earlier fabric (S1), is locally recognized in low strain areas, and is commonly isoclinally folded by F2 folds that have an axial plane orientation parallel to the dominant fabric (S2). S2 is associated with a shallowly plunging stretching lineation (L2), and defines ∼NW-SE tight-close upright macroscopic folds (F3) with the doubly plunging geometry. F3 folds are superimposed by ∼NNW-SSE gentle F4 folds. The F3 and F4 folds are kinematically compatible with sinistral transpressional deformation along the Irtysh Shear Zone and may represent strain partitioning during deformation. The sub-parallelism of F3 fold axis with the Irtysh Shear Zone may have resulted from strain partitioning associated with simple shear deformation along narrow mylonite zones and pure shear-dominant deformation (F3) in fold zones. The strain partitioning may have become less efficient in the later stage of transpressional deformation, so that a fraction of transcurrent components was partitioned into F4 folds.

  15. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan (United States)

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.


    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  16. Northwest trending tectonic belt in the middle Yanshan Orogenic Belt of northeast Hebei Province, North China:Tectonic evolution and geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Changhou; WU; Ganguo; WANG; Genhou; ZHANG; Weijie


    The northwest trending tectonic belt in the middle part of the Mesozoic intraplate Yanshan Orogenic Belt, northeast Hebei Province, is composed of thrusts, extensional faults,strike-slip faults and syntectonic sedimentations as well. The northeastward basement-involved major thrusting deformation occurred between 174Ma and 168MaBP and was followed by an intrusion of the granitic plutonic rocks. As a part of the post-thrusting extensional deformations a northwest extending volcano-sedimentation system of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous formed in the southwest side of the belt. These volcano-sedimentary sequences are divided into Tuchengzi Formation, Zhangjiakou Formation, Yixian Formation and Jiufotang Formation respectively. They are characterized by southeastward migration as a result of the increasing down-dip slip displacement along the major extensional fault toward the southeast of the belt.The provenance area of the Jiufotang Formation north to it experienced southwestward thrusting during and after its later sedimentation. The thrusting in this stage resulted in the formation of an asymmetric footwall syncline with vergence to SW in the Jiufotang Formation in the NE side of the basin. Finally a dextral strike-slip deformation occurred along the NW tectonic belt. The striking tectono-geomorphological features and present seismic activities along this belt indicate that it has been being active since Cenozoic era and is still in the active state at present. This northwest extending tectonic belt was following the same direction and location as the existing fault systems within the basement as revealed by former geological and geophysical studies. So it is reasonable to infer the Mesozoic deformation along this belt to be a result of reactivation of the basement structures in a favorable tectonic stress field. The reactivation of basement structures might be taken as one of the mechanisms of intraplate deformation and orogeny.

  17. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiles Reveal The Crust Structures Beneath Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt and Its Neighboring Area (United States)

    Hou, H.; Gao, R.; Keller, R. G.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Li, H.; Xiong, X.; Guo, L.


    The Xing'an-Mongolia orogenic belt (XMOB) as the eastern part of the CAOB (Central Asian Orogenic Belt) is one of the remarkably reworked and crustal accretionary belts during the Phanerozoic in the world. It is located between the northern margin of the North China craton and the southern margin of the Siberia craton and is characterized by large-scale Mesozoic magmatism, and forms a key part of the NE-trending Mesozoic magmatic belt in East China. Therefore, it will be of great importance to study the contact relationship between these blocks, which will prodive important information on the study of mineralization and assessment of earthquake disaster. A major problem with all previous publications on Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic belt was the lack of a seismic section which could potentially image the zone or the dominant vergence of crustal structures at depth. In the view of above, deep seismic profiling data acquisition finished in last three years and the newly processing seismic reflection profiles in this belt were possible under the support of SinoProbe project and China Geological Survey. As we not only focuse on the deep structures of crust, but also carry about the relationships between the shallow reflection fabrics with surface geology. Therefore, different with oil industrial data accquistion, we develop some deep seismic reflection techniques such as three levels of explosive shots were adopted for enough energy reflected from all crust, long offset with single side length of 15 km on symmetrical for the modeling of shallow crust by use of tomographic method, meanwhile we share the shots large than 500 kg with seismic refraction survey line providing more rays for modeling deep velocity strucutre. The seismic reflection data were mainly using the seismic processing package ProMAX and the CGG processing system, following the processing steps with special methods such as tomographic inversion static corrections, surface-consistent amplitude compensation

  18. The genesis of gold mineralisation hosted by orogenic belts: A lead isotope investigation of Irish gold deposits


    Standish, CD; Dhuime, B.; Chapman, RJ; Hawkesworth, CJ; Pike, AWG


    Lead isotope analyses have been performed on 109 gold and 23 sulphide samples from 34 Irish gold occurrences, including 27 placers, and used to shed light on the sources of mineralising fluids and metals associated with gold mineralisation hosted by orogenic belts. The Pb isotope ratios of lode and placer gold range from 206Pb/204Pb=17.287-18.679, 207Pb/204Pb=15.382-15.661, and 208Pb/204Pb=37.517-38.635, consistent with the Pb isotopic data on previously reported Irish sulphide mineralisation...

  19. Late Devonian Anoxia Events in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: a Global Phenomenon (United States)

    Carmichael, S. K.; Waters, J. A.; Suttner, T. J.; Kido, E.; DeReuil, A. A.; Moore, L. M.; Batchelor, C. J.


    Atmospheric CO2 values decreased dramatically during the Middle Devonian due to the rapid rise of land plants. These changing environmental conditions resulted in widespread anoxia and extinction events throughout the Late Devonian, including the critical Kellwasser and Hangenberg anoxia events, which are associated with major mass extinctions at both the beginning and end of the Famennian Stage of the Late Devonian. Fammenian sediments in northwestern Xinjiang Province, China, represent a highly fossiliferous shallow marine setting associated with a Devonian oceanic island arc complex. Analysis of multiple geochemical proxies (such as U/Th, Ba, normalized P2O5, V/Cr, Zr), magnetic susceptibility, and mineralogical data (biogenic apatite and pyrite framboids) indicates that these Famennian sequences record not only the Upper Kellwasser Anoxic Event at the Frasnian/Famennian (F/F) boundary but also the rebound from the F/F extinction event. Preliminary evidence suggests that the Hangenberg Anoxic Event can also be recognized in the same sequence, although our biostratigraphic control is less precise. Previous studies of the Kellwasser and Hangenberg Events have been performed on continental shelf environments of Laurussia, Gondwana, Siberia, and South China. The Devonian formations of northwest Xinjiang in this study, however, are part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which is thought to have formed as part of a complex amalgamation of intra-oceanic island arcs and continental fragments prior to the end of the latest Carboniferous. These results allow us to confirm the presence of the Kellwasser and Hangenberg Events in the open oceanic part of Paleotethys, indicating that both events were global in scope. The presence of an abundant diverse Famennian fauna between these anoxia/extinction events suggests that the shallow marine ecosystems in the CAOB were somewhat protected due to their tectonic location and relative isolation within an open ocean system

  20. The Modi Taung-Nankwe gold district, Slate belt, central Myanmar: mesothermal veins in a Mesozoic orogen (United States)

    Mitchell, A. H. G.; Ausa, C. A.; Deiparine, L.; Hlaing, T.; Htay, N.; Khine, A.


    The recently discovered quartz-gold veins comprising the Modi Taung-Nankwe gold district in central Myanmar are largely hosted by mudstones of the late Palaeozoic Slate belt. Mesozoic rocks of the Paunglaung-Mawchi zone separate the Slate belt from the Shan Scarp and Shan Plateau to the east. At Modi Taung 5 km of exploration adits indicate that the veins, within steeply dipping oblique reverse-slip shear zones, are displaced by movements along the shears, intruded by late Jurassic calc-alkaline dykes, and offset on conjugate cross-faults. Drill intercepts show that mineralization extends vertically for more than 500 m. Coarse visible gold, book-and-ribbon texture and stylolitic laminations, and trace metal values are consistent with mineralization at mesothermal depths of several kilometres in the brittle-ductile regime. Our field observations suggest that mineralization took place in the early Jurassic following collision of Myanmar on the passive western margin of a Greater Shan-Thai continental block with an oceanic arc on the overriding plate to the west. Collision generated intra-continental thrusting in and east of the Paunglaung-Mawchi zone, metamorphism of Plateau rocks thrust west beneath the Slate belt to form the Mogok Metamorphics, and ascent of mineralizing fluids expelled from dehydrating underthrust rocks. Reversal in orogenic polarity initiated late Jurassic eastward subduction of oceanic crust beneath Myanmar, and generation of a magmatic arc with dykes cutting the quartz-gold veins. Renewed east-directed thrusting translated the Slate belt over arc clastics, and probably resulted in exhumation of the Mogok Metamorphics and offsets of the veins on conjugate faults. Young K/Ar, Rb 87/Sr 86 and Ar 40/Ar 39 ages on the Mogok Metamorphic belt imply renewed Tertiary uplift and possibly intrusion of mid-Tertiary or Palaeogene granites.

  1. Cambro-Ordovician Granites in the Araçuaí Belt, in Brazil: snapshots from a late orogenic collapse (United States)

    De Campos, Cristina P.; Mendes, Júlio Cesar; de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; Ludka, Isabel P.


    Along the Brazilian Coast, surrounding the São Francisco Craton and adjacent mobile belts, deep segments of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo) generated over 120 Ma of successive magmatic episodes of granitic magmatism. The c.630-585 Ma calc-alkaline magmatic arc consists of metatonalite to metagranodiorite, with metadioritic to noritic facies and enclaves. During the syn-collisional and crustal thickening stage (c. 585 to 560 Ma) S-type metagranites have been built by dehydration melting of a diverse package of sediments. Around 545-525 Ma late orogenic crustal remelting formed mostly non-foliated garnet-cordierite leucogranites. In the post-orogenic stage (c. 510-480 Ma) inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutons intruded previous units. This work will focus on the youngest post-orogenic magmatism. It will present the state of the art by reviewing structural measurements, detailed mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data. The architecture of around 10 plutons, ranging from c. 20 to 200 km2 in surface area, unravels deep mushroom- to funnel-like magma chambers and/or conduits. Available data point towards different compositional domains, which are interfingered in complex concentric layers, so that, each pluton depicts a unique internal flow pattern. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented or folded layers of granite, in a hybrid K-gabbroic/dioritic matrix, contrast with predominantly homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by magmatic shear zones where mixing is enhanced, also resulting in hybrid compositions. Sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks locally depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least

  2. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China (United States)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen


    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  3. Isotopic composition, sources of crustal magmatism, and structure of caledonian crust in the lake zone, Central Asian orogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New estimates of Caledonian crust composition in the lake zone (Western Mongolia) of the Central Asian orogenic belt, made on the basis of isotopic and geochemical studies of both magmatic and sedimentary rocks, including different-age granitoids that emerged at the continental stage of the zone evolution are presented. According to data obtained by Sm-Nd- and Ar-Ar-dating the age of the rocks from different masses of the zone made up 570 and 545 bill. years respectively. Relying on U-Pb-dating of the granitoids by zircons, the age groups of acid continental magmatism of the territory in the range of 494 - ∼200 bill. years were determined

  4. Zircon dating of Neoproterozoic and Cambrian ophiolites in West Mongolia and implications for the timing of orogenic processes in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Jian, Ping; Kröner, Alfred; Jahn, Bor-ming; Windley, Brian F.; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fuqin; Miao, Laicheng; Tomurhuu, Dondov; Liu, Dunyi


    We present new isotopic and trace element data to review the geochronological/geochemical/geological evolution of the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and find a fundamental geological problem in West Mongolia, which has traditionally been subdivided into northwestern early Paleozoic (formerly Caledonian) and southerly late Paleozoic (formerly Hercynian) belts by the Main Mongolian Lineament (MML). We resolve this problem with SHRIMP zircon dating of ophiolites and re-evaluation of much published literature. In Northwest Mongolia the Dariv-Khantaishir ophiolite marks the boundary between the Lake arc in the west and the Dzabkhan-Baydrag microcontinent in the east. Zircons from a microgabbro and four plagiogranites yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 568 ± 5 Ma, 567 ± 4 Ma, 560 ± 8 Ma (Dariv), 573 ± 8 Ma and 566 ± 7 Ma (Khantaishir) that we interpret as reflecting the time of ophiolite formation (ca. 573-560 Ma). Metamorphic zircons from an amphibolite on a thrust boundary between the Khantaishir ophiolite and the Dzabkhan-Baydrag microcontinent formed at 514 ± 8 Ma, which we interpret as the time of overthrusting. In South Mongolia the Gobi Altai ophiolite and the Trans-Altai Gurvan Sayhan-Zoolen forearc with an ophiolite basement were investigated. Zircons of a layered gabbro (lower ophiolite crust) and a leucogabbro (mid-upper crust) of the Gobi Altai ophiolite yielded crystallization ages of 523 ± 5 Ma and 518 ± 6 Ma. The age data constrain the formation time of ophiolite within ca. 523-518 Ma. Zircons from four samples of the Gurvan Sayhan-Zoolen forearc, with similar hybrid adakite-boninite affinities, yielded 519 ± 4 Ma for an anorthosite, ≥ 512 ± 4 Ma for a hornblendite and 520 ± 5 and 511 ± 5 Ma for two diorites. The ophiolite basement has an upper age limit of 494 ± 6 Ma, determined by dating a tonalite dike cutting the Zoolen ophiolite. Integrating available zircon ages as well as geochemical and geological data

  5. The constraints of strain partitioning and geochronology in Luonan-Luanchuan tectonic belts on Qinling orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Luonan-Luanchuan tectonic belt lies between the North China Block and Qinling Mountains, in- cluding the Luonan-Luanchuan fault zone and the strong deformation zone to the north of the fault. The ductile shear zone, imbricate brittle fault and duplex structure in the fault zone now are the expression of the same tectonic event in different depth. Such lineation structure exists in the tectonic belts as mineral lineation, elongation lineation, crenulation lineation, sheath folds and so on, indicating NE-directed plate motion. Fold axes and thrusts in the strong deformation zone are inclined to the Luonan-Luanchuan fault zone at small angles. The structures with different natures show a regular pattern, produced during oblique convergence of plates. The convergence factors are as follows:The direction of plate convergence is 22°, 31° and the angle between the plate convergence direction and plate boundary is 73°, 82° respectively in the west and east segment. The Luonan-Luanchuan tectonic belt was deformed strongly in 372 Ma, resulted from Erlangping back-arc ocean basin subduction sin- istrally and obliquely to North China Block during the collision of North China Block and South China Block.

  6. Cross-sectional anatomy and geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogenic belt (northern Turkey) (United States)

    Hippolyte, J.-C.; Espurt, N.; Kaymakci, N.; Sangu, E.; Müller, C.


    Geophysical data allowed the construction of a ~250-km-long lithospheric-scale balanced cross section of the southern Black Sea margin (Espurt et al. in Lithosphere 6:26-34, 2014). In this paper, we combine structural field data, stratigraphic data, and fault kinematics analyses with the 70-km-long onshore part of the section to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogen. These data reveal new aspects of the structural evolution of the Pontides since the Early Cretaceous. The Central Pontides is a doubly vergent orogenic wedge that results from the inversion of normal faults. Extensional subsidence occurred with an ENE-trend from Aptian to Paleocene. We infer that the Black Sea back-arc basin also opened during this period, which was also the period of subduction of the Tethys Ocean below the Pontides. As in the Western Pontides, the Cretaceous-Paleocene subsidence was interrupted from Latest Albian to Coniacian time by uplift and erosion that was probably related to a block collision and accretion in the subduction zone. The restoration of the section to its pre-shortening state (Paleocene) shows that fault-related subsidence locally reached 3600 m within the forearc basin. Structural inversion occurred from Early Eocene to Mid-Miocene as a result of collision and indentation of the Pontides by the Kırşehir continental block to the south, with 27.5 km (~28 %) shortening along the section studied. The inversion was characterized by NNE-trending shortening that predated the Late Neogene dextral escape of Anatolia along the North Anatolian Fault and the modern stress field characterized by NW-trending compression within the Eocene Boyabat basin.

  7. The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East: Terranes and the formation of continental lithosphere based on geological and isotopic data (United States)

    Khanchuk, A. I.; Kemkin, I. V.; Kruk, N. N.


    The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East, consists of folded terranes made up of Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, turbidite basins, and island arc terranes that are overlapped unconformably by undeformed upper Cenomanian to Cenozoic volcanic deposits. The Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, together with the Early Cretaceous island arc, are related to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. The turbidite basin, which began to form at the beginning of the Early Cretaceous, is related to left-lateral movement of the Paleo-Pacific plate along the Paleo-Asian continental margin. The collage of terranes that make up the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt was amalgamated in two stages. The first began after Jurassic subduction beneath the Asian continent was terminated, and the second took place in the late Albian, when the Early Cretaceous island arc collided with the continental margin. Intense deformation of the terranes took place along the continental margin in the form of large-scale translations from south to north, together with oroclinal folding. The deformation resulted in rapid thickening of sediments in the upper crust, resulting in turn in the formation of granitic-metamorphic material in the continental lithosphere. In the southwestern part of the Sikhote-Alin orogen, granites were intruded during the Hauterivian-Aptian, while the entire orogenic belt was affected by intrusions in the late Albian-early Cenomanian. Synorogenic intraplate volcanic rocks and alkaline ultramafic-mafic intrusions also testify to the fact that the orogenic processes in the Sikhote-Alin were related to a transform continental margin, and not to subduction. Geochemical and Nd isotopic data indicate, the primary continental crust of the Sikhote-Alin was of a "hybrid" nature, consisting of juvenile basic components accreted from an oceanic plate and recycled sedimentary material derived from the erosion of ancient blocks.

  8. Crustal structure of the eastern Qinling orogenic belt and implication for reactivation since the Cretaceous (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Chen, Y. John


    A high resolution crustal model of the eastern Qinling belt and central North China Craton (central NCC) is obtained along a N-S trending profile (corridor) by joint inversion of surface wave and receiver function. The NCC is one of the oldest cratons on Earth and the Qinling belt is the suture zone between the NCC and South China block (SCB). The Qinling belt is characterized by low crustal velocity (observed just above the Moho, consistent with the regional high bulk Vp/Vs ratio (> 1.8). The forward gravity modeling supports the presence of a high-density layer (3.05 g/cm3) at the base of the crust beneath the central NCC. We propose that the high velocity in the lowermost crust beneath the central NCC is most likely due to the repeated mafic underplating, which also results in high crustal Vp/Vs ratio and is responsible for the rapid crustal uplift during the late Mesozoic.

  9. Intermediate P/T-type regional metamorphism of the Isua Supracrustal Belt, southern west Greenland: The oldest Pacific-type orogenic belt? (United States)

    Arai, Tatsuyuki; Omori, Soichi; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Maruyama, Shigenori


    The 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB), southwest Greenland, might be the oldest accretionary complex on Earth. Regional metamorphism of the ISB has a potential to constrain the tectonothermal history of the Earth during the Eoarchean. Chemical and modal analyses of metabasite in the study area (i.e., the northeast part of the ISB) show that the metamorphic grade increases from greenschist facies in the northern part of the study area to amphibolite facies in the southern part. To determine the precise metamorphic P-T ranges, isochemical phase diagrams of minerals of metabasite were made using Perple_X. A synthesis of the estimated metamorphic P-T ranges of the ISB indicates that both the metamorphic pressure and temperature increase systematically to the south in the study area from 3 kbar and 380 °C to 6 kbar and 560 °C. The monotonous metamorphic P-T change suggests that the northeast part of the ISB preserves regional metamorphism resulting from the subduction of an accretionary complex although the ISB experienced metamorphic overprints during the Neoarchean. Both the presence of the regional metamorphism and an accretionary complex having originating at subduction zone suggest that the ISB may be the oldest Pacific-type orogenic belt. The progressive metamorphism can be considered as a record of intermediate-P/T type geothermal gradient at the subduction zone in the Eoarchean. Intermediate-P/T type geothermal gradient is typical at the current zones of subducting young oceanic crust, such as in the case of the Philippine Sea Plate in the southwest part of Japan. Considering the fact that almost all metamorphisms in the Archean are greenschist-amphibolite facies, the intermediate-P/T type geothermal gradient at the ISB might have been worldwide in the Archean. This would indicate that the subduction of young micro-plates was common because of the vigorous convection of hot mantle in the Archean.

  10. Petrogenesis of the Dengzhazi A-type pluton from the Taihang-Yanshan Mesozoic orogenic belts, North China Craton (United States)

    Xiaolu, Niu; Bin, Chen; Xu, Ma


    The voluminous Mesozoic monzonitic to monzogranitic rocks in the north China craton (NCC) mostly show high-K calc-alkaline and I-type granitoids features. The Dengzhazi granitic pluton, however, shows features typical of A-type granites. The A-type pluton was emplaced in the Taihang-Yanshan orogenic belts of the northern margin of the NCC, with zircon U-Pb ages of around 140 Ma. The Dengzhazi A-type granites are characterized by high SiO 2 (70.2-77.7 wt.%), K 2O + Na 2O, Zr, Nb, Ga, Zn, and Y contents as well as high Ga/Al ratios, and extremely low CaO, Ba, Sr. In addition, they show high zircon saturation temperatures (870-950 °C), low water and low oxygen fugacity. All these features are consistent with the A-type affinity of the pluton. In situ Hf isotopic analyses for the dated zircons show relatively small range of ɛHf( t) (-13 to -17). They also have homogeneous initial Nd isotopic compositions with ɛNd( t) ranging from -15.1 to -16.3. The Hf and Nd isotopic data suggest that the Dengzhazi A-type granites originated from a homogeneous crustal source, probably the Archean mafic-intermediate granulites. Taking into account the high temperatures, the low H 2O and fO 2 of the magma system, we believe that partial melting of the granulites should have been triggered by underplating of mantle-derived magmas at the base of the mafic lower crust in an extensional regime. The Dengzhazi A-type granite is the oldest pluton of the Taihang-Yanshan Mesozoic magma belts, signifying the commencement of extensive underplating of mafic magmas, and thus of lithospheric thinning in the northern NCC.

  11. Distribution, Microfabric, and Geochemical Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks in Central Orogenic Belt, China: Implications for a Hydrothermal Sedimentation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhong Li


    Full Text Available Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian—Ordovician, and Carboniferous—Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08–95.30%, Ba (42.45–503.0 ppm, and ΣREE (3.28–19.75 ppm suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn, Sc/Th, (La/YbN, and (La/CeN ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics.

  12. Sediment yield along the Andes: continental budget, regional variations, and comparisons with other basins from orogenic mountain belts (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Restrepo, Juan D.


    We assess the sediment yield at 119 gauging stations distributed from Colombia to Patagonia, covering the different morphotectonic and morphoclimatic settings of the Andes. The most productive areas are the Meta River basin within the northern Andes and the Bolivian and northern Argentina-Chaco systems, which produce an average of 3345, 4909 and 2654 t km2 y- 1 of sediment, respectively. The rivers of the northern and central Andes (excluding the Pacific watersheds of Peru, northern Chile, and central Argentina) have a weighted mean sediment yield of 2045 t km- 2 y- 1 and produce 2.25 GTy- 1 of total sediment. A major constraint estimating the Andean continental budget of sediment yield lies in the lack of gauging data for the Peruvian region. Using the available gauge stations, the regional sediment yield appears underestimated. Assuming a higher value of sediment yield for the Peruvian Andes, the total budget for the whole central Andes could range between 2.57 GT y- 1 and 3.44 GT y- 1. A minimum of ~ 0.55 GT y- 1 and a probable maximum of ~ 1.74 GT y- 1 of sediment are deposited in the intramontane and surrounding proximal sedimentary basins. The magnitude of sediment yield in the Andes is comparable to other rivers draining orogenic belts around the world.

  13. Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Daba Shan Thrust Belt in the southern Qinling orogen, central China: Constraints from surface geology and reflection seismology (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Dong, Shuwen; Yin, An; Zhang, Yueqiao; Shi, Wei


    The Daba Shan Thrust Belt is located along the southern margin of the Qinling orogen that separates the north China block in the north from the south China block in the south. Despite decades of research, the total magnitude of shortening accommodated by continent-continent convergence across the Qinling orogen after Triassic ocean closure between north and south China remains poorly constrained. The lack of knowledge on the shortening magnitude in turn limits our ability to test a wide array of tectonic models for the development of the Qinling orogen and thus the convergence history between north and south China. In order to address this issue, we construct a balanced cross section and develop a new kinematic model for the evolution of the Daba Shan Thrust Belt. This work was accomplished by integrating (1) surface geologic mapping, (2) detailed kinematic analysis of key structures, (3) existing geochronologic and thermochronological data, and (4) a recently obtained lithospheric-scale seismic reflection profile. Restoration of the cross section indicates that the minimum shortening strain increases northward from ~10% in the foreland to >45% in the thrust belt interior. The estimated amount of upper crustal shortening across the Daba Shan Thrust Belt is >130 km, which is sufficient to allow the inferred mafic lower crust of the subducted south China lithosphere to have experienced eclogite phase transition. Thus, our work supports that the development of the Daba Shan Thrust Belt may have been driven by slab pull of the subducted mafic lower crust at the leading edge of the down-plunging south China continental lithosphere.

  14. Tectonic-Climate Interactions in Action Orogenic Belts: Quantification of Dynamic Topography with SRTM data (United States)

    Burbank, Douglas W.; Oskin, Mike; Niemi, Nathan; Miller, Scott


    This project was undertaken to examine the approach to steady state in collisional mountain belts. Although the primary thrust of this grant was to look at larger collisional mountain belts, such as the Himalaya, the Tien Shan, and Southern Alps, we began by looking at smaller structures represented by growing and propagating folds. Like ranges that are evolving toward a topographic steady state, these folds undergo a series of morphologic changes as they are progressively uplifted and eroded. We wanted to document the nature of these changes and to try to discern some of the underlying controls on them. We initially focused on the Wheeler Ridge anticline in southern California. Subsequently, we progressed to looking at the topographic development and the effects of differential uplift and glaciation on the Kyrgyz Range in the northern Tien Shan. This range is unusual inasmuch as it is transformed along its length from a simple uplift with a largely preserved Mesozoic erosion surface arching across it to a highly dissected and heavily glaciated uplift in the region where uplift has been sustained at higher rates over longer intervals. In efforts to understand the distribution of erosion rates at 10(exp 3) - 10(exp 5) year time scales, cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) concentrations have been gaining increasingly widespread usage (Brown et al., 1995; Riebe et al., 2004; Riebe et al., 2001; Vance et al., 2003). Most studies to date, however, have been conducted in slowly eroding ranges. In rapidly eroding mountains where landslides deliver most of the sediments to the rivers, we hypothesized that CRN concentrations could be highly perturbed by the stochastic processes of landsliding. Therefore, we undertook the development of a numerical model that simulated the effects of both landsliding and grain-by-grain attrition within fluvial catchments. This modeling effort has shown the effects of catchment size and erosion rate on CRN concentrations and allows a prediction of

  15. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    He, Dengfa


    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth. Some researchers considered the basement of the Junggar Basin as a Precambrian continental crust, which is not consistent with the petrological compositions of the adjacent orogenic belts and the crust isotopic compositions revealed by the volcanic rocks in the basin. Others, on the contrary, proposed an oceanic crust basement model that does not match with the crustal thickness and geophysical characteristics of the Junggar area. Additionally, there are several viewponits, such as the duplex basement with the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks and the overlying pre-Carboniferous folded basement, and the collaged basement by the Precambrian micro-continent block in the central part and the Hercynian accretionary folded belts circling it. Anyway, it is necessary to explain the property of basement rock, its strong inhomogeneous compositions as well as the geophysical features. In this paper, based on the borehole data from more than 300 industry wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a scale of 1:50,000), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and processes and its later evolution on a basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Pre-Cambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan- Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan- Baijiahai-Qitai island arcs respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du


    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  17. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.


    The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion-collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China. Copper mineralization is spatially associated with an altered early Paleozoic porphyritic granodiorite, which intruded tonalites and volcaniclastic rocks. Alteration zones surrounding the mineralization progress outward from a potassic to a feldspar-destructive phyllic assemblage. Mineralization consists mainly of quartz-sulfide stockworks and disseminated sulfides, with ore minerals chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, and minor galena and sphalerite. Gangue minerals include quartz, orthoclase, biotite, sericite, and K-feldspar. Zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of the ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 444.6 ± 7.8 Ma, with a group of inherited zircons yielding a mean U-Pb age of 485 ± 12 Ma, consistent with the emplacement age (485.3 ± 6.2 Ma) of the barren precursor tonalite. Rhenium and osmium analyses of molybdenite grains returned model ages of 442.9 ± 6.8 Ma and 443.3 ± 6.2 Ma, indicating mineralization was coeval with the emplacement of the host porphyritic granodiorite. Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite (208.9-213.2 ppm) suggest a mantle Re source. The tonalities are medium-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by enrichment of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), and minor negative Eu anomalies. They have εHf(t) values in the range of +3.6 to +11.1, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.67-1.13 Ga, suggesting that the ca. 485 Ma barren tonalites were products of arc magmatism incorporating melts from the mantle wedge and the lithosphere. In contrast, the

  18. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.


    The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion–collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu–Pb–Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China. Copper mineralization is spatially associated with an altered early Paleozoic porphyritic granodiorite, which intruded tonalites and volcaniclastic rocks. Alteration zones surrounding the mineralization progress outward from a potassic to a feldspar-destructive phyllic assemblage. Mineralization consists mainly of quartz-sulfide stockworks and disseminated sulfides, with ore minerals chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, and minor galena and sphalerite. Gangue minerals include quartz, orthoclase, biotite, sericite, and K-feldspar. Zircon LA-ICPMS U–Pb dating of the ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 444.6 ± 7.8 Ma, with a group of inherited zircons yielding a mean U–Pb age of 485 ± 12 Ma, consistent with the emplacement age (485.3 ± 6.2 Ma) of the barren precursor tonalite. Rhenium and osmium analyses of molybdenite grains returned model ages of 442.9 ± 6.8 Ma and 443.3 ± 6.2 Ma, indicating mineralization was coeval with the emplacement of the host porphyritic granodiorite. Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite (208.9–213.2 ppm) suggest a mantle Re source. The tonalities are medium-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by enrichment of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), and minor negative Eu anomalies. They have εHf(t) values in the range of +3.6 to +11.1, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.67–1.13 Ga, suggesting that the ca. 485 Ma barren tonalites were products of arc magmatism incorporating melts from the mantle wedge and

  19. From folding to transpressional faulting: the Cenozoic Fusha structural belt in front of the Western Kunlun Orogen, northwestern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Cheng, Xiao-Gan; Chen, Han-Lin; Li, Kang; Fan, Xiao-Gen; Wang, Chun-Yang


    Fusha structural belt (FSB) is one of the most important tectonic units in front of the Western Kunlun Orogen, northwestern Tibetan Plateau (NW China), in which the Kekeya oil field was discovered in 1971. However, there is no new oil field discovered since then due to the unclarity of the intense and complex Cenozoic deformation in this area. Based on field investigation, seismic interpretation and Continuous Electromagnetic Profile data, we analyze in detail the Cenozoic deformation history, emphasizing on the spatial and temporal variation of the deformation of the FSB in this paper. The result suggests that the FSB was dominated by two deformation events, (1) early (Miocene-early Pliocene) folding event expressed by anticline, with the western segment E-W orienting, while the eastern segment NWW-SEE orienting and (2) later (since late Pliocene) transpressional faulting event that destroyed and divided the earlier anticline into a number of fault blocks. The transpressional faulting caused dextral strike-slip reverse fault, with the dip angles decreasing eastward from ~90° to <45°. The dextral strike-slip reverse fault developed in the core of the anticline in the western part which caused the anticline into several fault blocks, while in the eastern part, the fault developed in the north limb of the anticline with the core of the anticline reserved. Based on the spatial variation of structural characteristics, we propose that the fault block traps and anticline traps in the eastern segment and fault block traps in western segment are favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation.

  20. From folding to transpressional faulting: the Cenozoic Fusha structural belt in front of the Western Kunlun Orogen, northwestern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Cheng, Xiao-Gan; Chen, Han-Lin; Li, Kang; Fan, Xiao-Gen; Wang, Chun-Yang


    Fusha structural belt (FSB) is one of the most important tectonic units in front of the Western Kunlun Orogen, northwestern Tibetan Plateau (NW China), in which the Kekeya oil field was discovered in 1971. However, there is no new oil field discovered since then due to the unclarity of the intense and complex Cenozoic deformation in this area. Based on field investigation, seismic interpretation and Continuous Electromagnetic Profile data, we analyze in detail the Cenozoic deformation history, emphasizing on the spatial and temporal variation of the deformation of the FSB in this paper. The result suggests that the FSB was dominated by two deformation events, (1) early (Miocene-early Pliocene) folding event expressed by anticline, with the western segment E-W orienting, while the eastern segment NWW-SEE orienting and (2) later (since late Pliocene) transpressional faulting event that destroyed and divided the earlier anticline into a number of fault blocks. The transpressional faulting caused dextral strike-slip reverse fault, with the dip angles decreasing eastward from ~90° to <45°. The dextral strike-slip reverse fault developed in the core of the anticline in the western part which caused the anticline into several fault blocks, while in the eastern part, the fault developed in the north limb of the anticline with the core of the anticline reserved. Based on the spatial variation of structural characteristics, we propose that the fault block traps and anticline traps in the eastern segment and fault block traps in western segment are favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation.

  1. An interpretation of the aeromagnetic data covering portion of the Damara orogenic belt, with special reference to the occurrence of uraniferous granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis comprises primarily palaeomagnetic studies within the Damara orogenic belt of South West Africa (Namibia), as well as an interpretation of the regional structure, utilizing published aeromagnetic data. The prime objectives of the study were to aid uranium exploration programmes in this area by establishing any possible magnetic relationships associated with the uraniferous granites in the area, and to interpret regional structure from the aeromagnetic data. Cursory interpretation of the airborne radiometric data is also undertaken. Gravity traverses, conducted across three dome structures with which uranium mineralisation is intimately associated, are interpreted in order to determine the origin of these structures

  2. Upper Paleozoic tectonics in the Tien Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): insight from new structural data (Kyrgyzstan) (United States)

    Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément


    Due to successive block accretions, the polarity of structures and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are several conflicting models about the polarity of subduction during the Paleozoic, the number of microplates and oceanic basins and the timing of tectonic events in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan. In this study, we propose new structural maps and cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (MTS and STS respectively). These cross-sections highlight an overall dextral strike-slip shear zone in the MTS and a north verging structure related to south-dipping subduction in the STS. These structures are Carboniferous in age and sealed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. In detail, the STS exhibits two deformation phases. The first one is characterized by coeval top-to-the north thrusting and top-to-the-South normal shearing at the boundaries of large continental unit that underwent High-Pressure (Eclogite facies) metamorphism. We ascribe this phase to the exhumation of underthrusted passive margin units of the MTS. The second one corresponds to a top to the North nappe stacking that we link to the last collisional events between the MTS and the Tarim block. Later on, during the Late Carboniferous, a major deformation stage is characterized by the deformation of the MTS and its thrusting over the NTS. This deformation occurred on a large dextral shear zone between the NTS and the MTS known as Song-Kul Zone or Nikolaiev Line as a "side effect" of the Tarim/MTS collision. Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the CAOB. The resulting model comprises the underthrusting of the MTS-Kazakh platform beneath the Tarim and its exhumation followed by the folding, shortening and thickening of the internal metamorphic units during the last collisional events which partitioned the deformation between the STS and the MTS. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton

  3. Tectonic evolution and crustal-scale structure of Kyrgyz Central Asian Orogenic Belt: new insights from the Darius programme (United States)

    Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Guillot, Stéphane; Mikolaichuk, Alexander


    Mechanisms and history of the Late Palaeozoic accretion followed by formation of trunscurrent strike-slip faults were studied in the southern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) within Kyrgyz South Tianshan. 1. South Tianshan Suture: ending accretion process after docking of Tarim craton This study gives insights into the crustal-scale structure and Upper Paleozoic history of this mountain belt, currently intensely reactivated by the India-Asia collision. Structural, petrological and geochronological studies were carried out within South Tianshan suture east of the Talas-Ferghana Fault (TFF). New data highlight a south-dipping structure featured by a HP metamorphic core complex comprised of c. 320 Ma continental and oceanic eclogites exhumed by top-to-North motion. A large massif (10 x 50 km) of continental HP rocks in the Atbashi Range is comprised of hectometric boudins of eclogites embedded in metapelites and gneissesMetamorphic units exhibit blueschist to eclogite facies conditions, with oceanic (MORB) rocks in the blueschist facies representing the accretionary oceanic prism being thrusted by oceanic rocks and a continental unit in the eclogite facies (510 ± 50°C and 24 ± 2 kbar). Evidence for eclogite facies both in metasediments and mafic lithologies and geological structure are in agreement with a previously thinned continental margin. Subduction of this thinned COT (Continent-Ocean Transition) probably occurred by slab pull in a south-dipping subduction zone, while another north-dipping subduction was active below Middle Tianshan. Final stacking of Middle and South Tianshan occurred at 320-310 Ma. These opposite subduction zones are still reflected in the main structures of Tianshan. Reactivation of the South-dipping structures since 30-25 Ma is ascribed to explain the current Tianshan intra-continental subduction from seismology. 2. Talas-Ferghana Fault (TFF) activity & Basin formation After this accretionary episode, the South Tianshan

  4. Influence of syn-sedimentary faults on orogenic structures in a collisional belt: Insights from the inner zone of the Northern Apennines (Italy) (United States)

    Brogi, Andrea


    This paper discusses the possible influence of syn-sedimentary structures on the development of orogenic structures during positive tectonic inversion in the inner Northern Apennines (Italy). Examples from key areas located in southern Tuscany provided original cartographic, structural and kinematics data for Late Oligocene-Early Miocene thrusts, organized in duplex systems, verging in the opposite direction of the foreland propagation (back-thrusts), which affected the Late Triassic-Oligocene sedimentary succession of the Tuscan Domain, previously affected by pre-orogenic structures. These latter consist of mesoscopic-to cartographic-scale Jurassic syn-sedimentary normal faults and extensional structures, which gave rise to effective stratigraphic lateral variation and mechanical heterogeneities. Structural analysis of both syn-sedimentary faults and back-thrusts were therefore compared in order to discuss the possible role of the pre-existing anisotropies in influencing the evolution of the back-thrusts. As a result, it can be reasonably proposed that back-thrusts trajectories and stacking pattern were controlled by relevant syn-sedimentary normal faults; these latter were reactivated, in some cases, if properly oriented. Such an issue adds new inputs for discussing the potential role of structural inheritance during tectonic inversions, and helps to better understand the processes suitable for the development of back-thrusts in the inner zones of orogenic belts, as it is the case of the inner Northern Apennines.

  5. Lithospheric composition and structure beneath the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt--On deep-seated xenoliths in Minggang region of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Fengxiang; WANG; Chunyang; ZHENG; Jianping


    Swarms of mafic-intermediate volcaniclastic bodies occur in the Minggang region of Henan Province, a tectonic boundary between the North Qinling and the North China Block, and emplaced at (178.31±3.77) Ma. These volcanic rocks are subalkaline basaltic andesites and contain abundance of lower crust and mantle xenoliths. Thus this area is an ideal place to reveal the lithospheric composition and structure beneath the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt. Geochemical data indicate that these mafic granulites, eclogites and metagabbros have trace elemental and Pb isotopic characteristics very similar to those rocks from the South Qinling Block, representing the lower part of lower crust of the South Qinling which subducted beneath the North China Block. Talcic peridotites represent the overlying mantle wedge materials of the North China Block, which underwent the metasomatism of the acidic melt/fluid released from the underlying lower crust of the South Qinling Block. Deep tectonic model proposed in this paper is that after the Late Paleozoic South Qinling lithosphere subducted northward and decoupled, the upper part of the lithosphere emplaced under the North Qinling and the lower part continuously subducted northward under the North China Block. In Early Mesozoic, the North Qinling Block obducted northward and the North China Block inserted into the Qinling orogenic belt in a crocodile-mouth shape.

  6. Structural evolution of the Irtysh Shear Zone (northwestern China) and implications for the amalgamation of arc systems in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Cai, Keda; Yu, Yang


    The NW-SE Irtysh Shear Zone is a major tectonic boundary in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which supposedly records the amalgamation history between the peri-Siberian orogenic system and the Kazakhstan/south Mongolia orogenic system. However, the tectonic evolution of the Irtysh Shear Zone is not fully understood. Here we present new structural and geochronological data, which together with other constraints on the timing of deformation suggests that the Irtysh Shear Zone was subjected to three phases of deformation in the late Paleozoic. D1 is locally recognized as folded foliations in low strain areas and as an internal fabric within garnet porphyroblasts. D2 is represented by a shallowly dipping fabric and related ˜ NW-SE stretching lineations oriented sub-parallel to the strike of the orogen. D2 foliations are folded by ˜ NW-SE folds (F3) that are bounded by a series of mylonite zones with evidence for sinistral/reverse kinematics. These fold and shear structures are kinematically compatible, and thus interpreted to result from a transpressional deformation phase (D3). Two samples of mica schists yielded youngest detrital zircon peaks at ˜322 Ma, placing a maximum constraint on the timing of D1-D3 deformation. A ˜ NE-SW granitic dyke swarm (˜252 Ma) crosscuts D3 fold structures and mylonitic fabrics in the central part of the shear zone, but is displaced by a mylonite zone that represents the southern boundary of the Irtysh Shear Zone. This observation indicates that the major phase of D3 transpressional deformation took place prior to ˜252 Ma, although later phases of reactivation in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are likely. The late Paleozoic deformation (D1-D3 at ˜322-252 Ma) overlaps in time with the collision between the Chinese Altai and the intra-oceanic arc system of the East Junggar. We therefore interpret that three episodes of late Paleozoic deformation represent orogenic thickening (D1), collapse (D2), and transpressional deformation (D3

  7. 新疆阿尔泰成矿带可可塔勒花岗岩体锆石LA-ICP-MSU-Pb年龄及其地质意义%LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of Keketale granite body in Altay metallogenic belt, Xinjiang, and its geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永观; 张传林; 周刚; 丁汝福; 邢怀学; 余明刚; 高卫华


    A great number of granites that widely exposed in Altay metallogenic belt, Xmjlang, are closely related to mineralizations, especially, the magmatic activity with an age about 400Ma is an important magmatic mineralization event in Altay region, and many metal deposits are closely related with the magmatism-tec- tonism happened during this period in the region. This paper studies on the Keketale biotite granite body outcropped in Keketale lead-zinc mineral district. The granite body yields a LA-1CP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 401.8 士 1.5 Ma, which means that the Keketale granite body is the product of an important magma tism ectonism happened in the period about 400 Ma in Altay metallogenic belt. The biotite granite body intruded into the volcanic strata of lower Devonian Kangbutiebao group, and there are obvious alterations of wall-rocks shown in the contact zone between the granite body and wall rocks. The intrusion of the bi- otite granite body and its magmatic thermal activity might contribute to activation, migration, concentra- tion and mineralization of the metallogenic materials in this area.%新疆阿尔泰成矿带花岗岩发育,其中很多花岗岩与成矿作用有着密切的联系,特别是400Ma左右的岩浆活动是阿尔泰地区一次重要的岩浆成矿活动,阿尔泰许多金属矿床与这一时期的岩浆构造作用有关。本次研究的出露于可可塔勒铅锌矿区的黑云母花岗岩体,其锆石LA-ICPMSU-Pb年龄为(401.8士1.5)Ma,表明可可塔勒花岗岩是阿尔泰成矿带400Ma左右发生的一次重要岩浆构造作用的产物,该黑云母花岗岩体侵入于矿区下泥盆统康布铁堡组火山岩地层中,岩体与围岩接触带附近的围岩蚀变明显,该黑云母花岗岩的侵入以及其后期的岩浆热液活动可能对区内成矿物质的活化、迁移、富集、成矿具有一定的贡献。

  8. Tectonic evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Evidence from zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ChuanLin; LU SongNian; YU HaiFeng; YE HaiMin


    The Western Kunlun Range in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is composed of the North Kunlun Terrane,the South Kunlun Terrane and the Karakorum-Tianshuihai Terrane. Here we report zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of some metamorphic and igneous rocks and field observations in order to provide a better understanding of their Precambrian and Palaeozoic-early Mesozoic tectonic evolution.Based on these data we draw the following conclusions: (1) The paragneisses in the North Kunlun Terrane are likely of late Mesoproterozoic age rather than Palaeoproterozoic age as previously thought,representing tectonothermal episodes at 1.0-0.9 Ga and ~0.8 Ga. (2) The North Kunlun Terrane was an orogenic belt accreted to the southern margin of Tarim during late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic, the two episodes of metamorphisms correspond to the assemblage and breakup of Rodinia respectively. (3) The Bulunkuole Group in western South Kunlun Terrane, which was considered to be the Palaeoproterozoic basement of the South Kunlun Terrane by previous studies, is now subdivided into the late Neoproterzoic to early Palaeozoic paragneisses (khondalite) and the early Mesozoic metamorphic volcano-sedimentary series; the paragneisses were thrust onto the metamorphic volcano-sedimentary series from south to north, with two main teconothermal episodes (i.e., Caledonian,460-400 Ma, and Hercynian-Indosinian, 340-200 Ma), and have been documented by zircon U-Pb ages.(4) In the eastern part of the South Kunlun Terrane, a gneissic granodiorite pluton, which intruded the khondalite, was crystallized at ca. 505 Ma and metamorphosed at ca. 240 Ma. In combination with geochronology data of the paragneiss, we suggest that the South Kunlun Terrane was a Caledonian accretionary orogenic belt and overprinted by late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic arc magmatism.

  9. Tectonic evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau:Evidence from zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Western Kunlun Range in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is composed of the North Kunlun Terrane,the South Kunlun Terrane and the Karakorum-Tianshuihai Terrane. Here we report zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of some metamorphic and igneous rocks and field observations in order to pro-vide a better understanding of their Precambrian and Palaeozoic-early Mesozoic tectonic evolution. Based on these data we draw the following conclusions: (1) The paragneisses in the North Kunlun Terrane are likely of late Mesoproterozoic age rather than Palaeoproterozoic age as previously thought,representing tectonothermal episodes at 1.0―0.9 Ga and ~0.8 Ga. (2) The North Kunlun Terrane was an orogenic belt accreted to the southern margin of Tarim during late Mesoproterozoic to early Neopro-terozoic,the two episodes of metamorphisms correspond to the assemblage and breakup of Rodinia respectively. (3) The Bulunkuole Group in western South Kunlun Terrane,which was considered to be the Palaeoproterozoic basement of the South Kunlun Terrane by previous studies,is now subdivided into the late Neoproterzoic to early Palaeozoic paragneisses (khondalite) and the early Mesozoic metamorphic volcano-sedimentary series; the paragneisses were thrust onto the metamorphic vol-cano-sedimentary series from south to north,with two main teconothermal episodes (i.e.,Caledonian,460―400 Ma,and Hercynian-Indosinian,340―200 Ma),and have been documented by zircon U-Pb ages. (4) In the eastern part of the South Kunlun Terrane,a gneissic granodiorite pluton,which intruded the khondalite,was crystallized at ca. 505 Ma and metamorphosed at ca. 240 Ma. In combination with geochronology data of the paragneiss,we suggest that the South Kunlun Terrane was a Caledonian accretionary orogenic belt and overprinted by late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic arc magmatism.

  10. Early Paleozoic magmatic history of central Inner Mongolia, China: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Southeast Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Liu, Changfeng; Zhu, Yan; Zhou, Zhiguang; Jiang, Tian; Liu, Wencan; Li, Hongying; Wu, Chu; Ye, Baoying


    To provide insights into the Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the southern portion of the long-lived Central Asian Orogenic Belt, we have conducted major and trace element analyses and zircon U-Pb dating of granitoid samples from central Inner Mongolia. Our study area covers three pre-Mesozoic tectonic units from north to south: the Wenduermiao subduction-accretionary complex, the Bainaimiao magmatic belt, and the northern margin of the North China craton. Our new geochronological and geochemical data show the temporal and genetic relationships between the three tectonic units. Accordingly, we suggest that the Wenduermiao subduction-accretionary complex developed in the Middle Cambrian-Late Silurian (509-421 Ma), comprising of coeval oceanic crust, arc magmatism, and forearc deposits. The Bainaimiao continental arc was developed during the Late Cambrian to Early Silurian (501-437 Ma), which superposed on the basement with the affinity of the North China craton. The back-arc basin opened prior to Early Silurian and lasted to the Late Silurian, which is slightly younger than Bainaimiao island arc. The Wenduermiao Ocean, between the Wenduermiao subduction-accretionary complex and the Bainaimiao continental arc, existed in Early Paleozoic.

  11. Detrital zircon provenance constraints on the initial uplift and denudation of the Chinese western Tianshan after the assembly of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Han, Yigui; Zhao, Guochun; Sun, Min; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Hou, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Dongxing; Wang, Bo


    U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data of detrital zircons from late Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata along the southern flank of the Chinese western Tianshan enable to identify provenance changes and reconstruct early stage uplift and denudation history of the Tianshan range. Detrital zircons from Permian and Early-Middle Triassic siliciclastic rocks show two prominent age populations at 500-390 Ma and 310-260 Ma, and subordinate Precambrian ages at ~ 2.5 Ga, 2.0-1.7 Ga, 1.2-0.9 Ga and 900-600 Ma, with rare ages between 390 and 310 Ma. These characteristics and zircon εHf(t) data consistently suggest a sediment source predominantly from the Tarim Craton, rather than the Central Tianshan-Yili Block. In contrast, Late Triassic to Cretaceous strata additionally contain abundant 390-310 Ma and 260-220 Ma detrital zircons, implying multiple source regions from the Central Tianshan-Yili Block, Tarim Craton, and Western Kunlun Orogen. A significant switch of sedimentary provenances occurred in the mid-Triassic and is consistent with contemporaneous change of paleocurrent directions and the onset of intense tectonothermal events in the broad region of the Chinese western Tianshan and Kyrgyz Tianshan. These data collectively indicate that the significant surface uplift and denudation of the Tianshan range were probably initiated in the mid-Triassic (~ 240 Ma) after the assembly of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. This uplifting event represents an intracontinental orogeny most likely in response to the collision between the Qiangtang Block and southern Eurasia, following the closure of the western part of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  12. Partially Melted UHP Eclogite in the Sulu Orogenic Belt, China and its rheological significance to deep continental subduction: Micro- to Macro-scale Evidence (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Kusky, Timothy; Polat, Ali; Wang, Songjie; Jiang, Xingfu; Zong, Keqing; Wang, Junpeng; Deng, Hao; Fu, Jianmin


    Partially Melted UHP Eclogite in the Sulu Orogenic Belt, China and its rheological significance to deep continental subduction: Micro- to Macro-scale Evidence Numerous studies have described partial melting processes in low-high pressure meta-sedimentary rocks, some of which may generate melts that coalesce to form plutons. However, migmatized ultrahigh pressure (UHP) eclogite has never been clearly described from the microscale to macroscale, though experimental studies prove dehydration partial melting of eclogite at high pressure condition1 and low degrees of partially melted eclogite have been reported from the Qaidam UHP orogenic belt in NW China2,3 or inferred from multiphase solid (MS) inclusions within eclogite4 in the Sulu UHP belt. We present field-based documentation of decompression partial melting of UHP eclogite from Yangkou and General's Hill, Sulu Orogen. Migmatized eclogite shows successive stages of anatexis, initially starting from intragranular and grain boundary melt droplets, which grow into a 3D interconnected intergranular network, then segregate and accumulate in pressure shadow areas, and finally merge to form melt channels and dikes that transport melts to upper lithospheric levels. In-situ phengite breakdown-induced partial melting is directly identified by MS inclusions of Kfs+ barium-bearing Kfs + Pl in garnet, connected by 4-10 μm wide veinlets consisting of Bt + Kfs + Pl next to the phengite. Intergranular veinlets of plagioclase + K-feldspar first form isolated beads of melt along grain boundaries and triple junctions of quartz, and with higher degrees of melting, eventually form interconnected 3D networks along grain boundaries in the leucosome, allowing melt to escape from the intergranular realm and collect in low-stress areas. U-Pb (zircon) dating and petrological analyses on residue and leucocratic rocks shows that partial melting occurred at 228-219 Ma, shortly after peak UHP metamorphism (~230 Ma), and at depths of 30-90 km

  13. Geochronological Significance of the Post-Orogenic Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks in the Hongqiling Area of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guangliang; Wu Fuyuan


    in NE Chinaand in the Altay-Tianshan-Junggar Orogenic Belt in Northern Xinjiang indicates that mafic intrusions are an important magmatic suite that evolved during post-orogenic processes.Portions of this mafic magma could have underplated the lower crust, and served as a heat source for associated late-stage granitic magmas.

  14. A mineralogical, petrological and geochemical study of a suite of rocks from the Damara Orogenic Belt South West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was a pilot study in which the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of a suite of rocks from the Khan/Swakop area of the Damara Orogen were investigated. Petrographic and mineralogical data are presented for about 140 samples. This data (1) assisted in the selection of suitable samples for chemical analysis; (2) aided in the classification of the samples as a basis for geochemical classification; (3) allowed the samples to be correlated with the regional geology of the area. It was found that petrographic examination alone cannot be used to distinguish between mineralised and unmineralised alaskites. Certain features although not exclusive to mineralised and unmineralised alaskites are nevertheless in general characteristic of these rocks types. the X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that mineralised alaskites, even from different localites, produced characteristic X-ray diffractograms which separated them from the rest of the rock-types including the unmineralised alaskites. The geochemical interpretation of the data showed that it was possible to distinguish between the main rock groups using both the major and trace elements. With using the trace elements only this distinction was not possible. Mineralogical relationships within the rock groups could be inferred from the geochemical results thereby complementing the petrographic investigation. It was established that in the main, mineralised alaskites are K-feldspar rich with biotite and no muscovite and that the thorium and rare-earth contents should be high

  15. Compositional change of granitoids from Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey) at ca. 84 Ma: Response to slab rollback of the Black Sea (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Eyuboglu, Yener; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rızaoǧlu, Tamer; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Xu, Li-Juan


    Magma generation and evolution is a natural consequence of mantle dynamics and crust-mantle interaction. As a result, changes of magma compositions in time and space can be used, in turn, to infer these deep processes. In this paper we report new zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope, whole-rock major and trace element, and Nd isotope data for the granitoids from Kürtün in Eastern Pontides. These data, together with the data in the literature, reveal the occurrence of magma compositional variations at ca. 84 Ma in the region, providing new insights into the mantle dynamics responsible for the generation of the extensive Late Cretaceous felsic magmatism in Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey) (Eyuboglu et al., 2015). Group I samples (SiO2 = 77-62 wt.%) were concentrated in 91-86 Ma and are characterized by their low CaO (1.6-1.5 wt.%) and Th (8.2-3.0 ppm) contents and low K2O/Na2O (0.7-0.1) and Th/La (0.4-0.2) ratios. Group II samples (SiO2 = 71-63 wt.%) were concentrated in 82-72 Ma and include high concentrations of CaO (5.2-3.0 wt.%) and Th (29.6-14.3), high K2O/Na2O (1.5-1.1) and varying Th/La (1.0-0.5) ratios. Group I samples have positive zircon eHf(t) (+9.6 to +7.6) and whole-rock eNd(t) (+3.5 to +2.5), significantly differing from those of Group II samples with eHf(t) of +1.9 to -1.5 and whole-rock eNd(t) of -3.6 to -3.8. Modeling results indicate that the Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of Group I and II samples can be interpreted as having derived from partial melting of the low-K amphibolite within the juvenile lower crust beneath the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt that incorporated into 15-20% and 70-75% enriched components from the basement rocks represented by the Carboniferous granites exposed in the region, respectively. In combination with the geological observations that indicate the occurrence of regional thermal subsidence (Bektaş et al., 1999) and extensional structure (Bektaş et al., 1999, 2001) during the Campanian (83.6-72.1 Ma), the coeval

  16. Lithospheric structure beneath the central and western North China Craton and the adjacent Qilian orogenic belt from Rayleigh wave dispersion analysis (United States)

    Wei, Zigen; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Mingming; Ling, Yuan


    We used surface wave tomography to image the lithospheric S-wave velocity structure along a linear seismic array across the central and western North China Craton (NCC) and the adjacent Qilian orogenic belt (QB). Using waveform data from 8 earthquakes collected at 60 broadband stations, Rayleigh wave phase velocities were measured at periods of 20-120 s and subsequently inverted for reliable S-wave velocities from 60 to 200 km depth. Distinct lithospheric structures and marked lateral variations were revealed beneath the study region, correlating well with regional geological and tectonic features. The average S-wave velocity from 60 to 200 km depth beneath the array is ~ 4.45 km/s, ~ 1% lower than that in model AK135. High velocities of > 4.45 km/s are most pronounced beneath the stable Ordos Block (western NCC). However, the depth to which the observed high velocity body extends varies significantly laterally. It is deepest (~ 200 km) under eastern Ordos, and becomes shallower on both sides along the array. The maximum depth of the high velocity body gradually shallows westward and reaches ~ 110 km near the western edge of Ordos. This depth variation suggests a coexistence of both preserved and modified lithosphere in Ordos. The depth of high velocities decreases rapidly eastward by > 80 km over a lateral distance of evolution of NCC.

  17. An interpretation of the aeromagnetic data covering portion of the Damara orogenic belt, with special reference to the occurance of uraniferous granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis comprises primarily palaeomagnetic studies within the Damara orogenic belt of South West Africa (Namibia), as well as an interpretation of the regional structure, utilizing published aeromagnetic data. Cursory interpretation of the airborne radiometric data is also undertaken. Gravity traverses, conducted across three dome structures with which uranium mineralisation is intimately associated, are interpreted in order to determine the origin of these structures. A number of features, having an important bearing on both the uraniferous granite occurrences and the regional structure of the area, are recognised for the first time in this study, viz.: a) all currently known uraniferous alaskitic granite occurences of economic interest are hallmarked. b) Virtual geomagnetic poles were derived for the 500 Ma tectonothermal event and for the basement rocks in the area. c) A close correlation exists between positive magnetic anomalies and high radiometric responses over the red granites, reactivated basement and over the Salem Granite Suite and other late- to post-tectonic granites. d) a number of structural lineaments and broader lineament zones are, apart from the Okahandja lineament, identified and named for the first time. e) A post-F3 (northeast) structural phase, F4, is recognised as being a major structural event of particular significance to the emplacement of uraniferous granite. f) The gravity studies indicate that the investigated dome structures result from an interplay between both vertical and lateral stress components

  18. The tectono-magmatic evolution of the occidental terrane and the Paraiba do Sul Klippe within the Neoproterozoic Ribeira orogenic Belt, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occidental Terrane is envisaged as the eastern/southeastern reworked margin of the Sao Francisco/Rio de la Plata plate associated with and E-trending subduction under the Congo plate. The Paraiba do Sul Klippe is part of the Oriental Terrane, envisaged as a portion of the Congo plate. A collisional-stage resulted in intense westward deformation of the Occidental Terrane under intermediate pressure metamorphism (syn-D1+D2 events). A late-collisional stage resulted in subvertical folding and steep shear zones (D3 event). Both stages were associated with voluminous crustal-derived granites. U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology as well as geochemical and structural data point to three magmatic episodes: a syn-collisional stage 1; a syn-collisional stage 2; and a late-collisional stage. This paper presents a magmatic evolutionary model for this crustal segment of the Ribeira orogenic belt based on new geological data of Brasiliano granites and data available in the literature. (author)

  19. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Eastern Erenhot ophiolitic complex: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Inner Mongolia-Daxinganling Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Ke; Li, Jianfeng; Tang, Wenhao; Chen, Yan; Luo, Zhiwen


    The Eastern Erenhot ophiolitic complex (EOC) is one of the numerous fragments of oceanic lithosphere in southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. It is composed dominantly of serpentinized ultramafic rocks with subordinate gabbros, mafic lavas and minor plagiogranite dikes. Zircons from two gabbros and one plagiogranite yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 354.2 ± 4.5 Ma, 353.3 ± 3.7 Ma and 344.8 ± 5.5 Ma. These ages suggest that the oceanic crust of the EOC formed in a maximum time period of 10 Ma, and that the plagiogranite may have formed later than the gabbroic section. An undeformed and unmetamorphosed dioritic porphyry dike intruded in the Carboniferous strata near the EOC has an intrusive age of 313.6 ± 2.9 Ma and provides a possible younger minimum time limit for the formation of the early Carboniferous ophiolitic complex. All the mafic rocks have similar chondrite normalized REE patterns characterized by moderate depletion in LREE with (La/Yb)N (0.20-0.75) similar to normal middle oceanic ridge basalt (N-MORB). The PM-normalized trace element patterns of the gabbros and massive basalts are also reasonably consistent, essentially similar to those of N-MORB except for some enrichment in LILE (e.g. Rb, Ba) and slightly negative Ti anomalies. The plagiogranite samples are characterized by lower K2O (0.45-0.73 wt%) comparable with oceanic plagiogranite. They have LREE-enriched, chondrite-normalized REE patterns with varying Eu anomalies and the trace elements (e.g. Rb, Y, Nb) show similarity to volcanic arc granite. These geochemical features of the EOC show a similar volcanic arc affinity, suggesting that they form in a back-arc-type environment. Their origin is attributed to asthenospheric upwelling and further lithospheric extension during early Carboniferous, formed as a consequence of slab breakoff on collision of the northern early to mid-Paleozoic orogenic terrane and the Hunshandake Block.

  20. Neoproterozoic diamictite-bearing sedimentary rocks in the northern Yili Block and their constraints on the Precambrian evolution of microcontinents in the Western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    He, Jingwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Zheng, Bihai; Wu, Hailin; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Yuanzhi


    The origin and tectonic setting of Precambrian sequences in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) have been debated due to a lack of high resolution geochronological data. Answering this question is essential for the understanding of the tectonic framework and Precambrian evolution of the blocks within the CAOB. Here we reported LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon U-Pb ages and in-situ Hf isotopic data for Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block, an important component of the CAOB, in order to provide information on possible provenance and regional tectonic evolution. A total of 271 concordant U-Pb zircon ages from Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block define three major age populations of 1900-1400 Ma, 1300-1150 Ma and 700-580 Ma, which are quite different from cratons and microcontinents involved in the CAOB. Although it is not completely consistent with the local basement ages, an autochthonous provenance interpretation is more suitable. Some zircon grains show significant old Hf model ages (TDMC; 3.9-2.4 Ga) and reveal continental crust as old as Paleoarchean probably existed. Continuous Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations exhibit large variations in the εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the long-time involvement of both reworked ancient crust and juvenile material. Similar Mesoproterozoic evolution pattern is identified in many continental terranes involved in the CAOB that surround the Tarim Craton. Based on our analysis and published research, we postulate that the northern Yili Block, together with Chinese Central Tianshan, Kyrgyz North Tianshan and some other microcontinents surrounding the Tarim Craton, once constituted the continental margin of the Tarim Craton in the Mesoproterozoic, formed by long-lived accretionary processes. Most of the late Neoproterozoic zircons exhibit significant positive εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the addition of juvenile crust. It is consistent with the tectonic event related to the East Africa

  1. Petrogenesis and tectonic significance of the late Triassic mafic dikes and felsic volcanic rocks in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt, Northern Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Niu, Yaoling; Li, Jiyong; Ye, Lei; Kong, Juanjuan; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Guorui


    We present zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical data on the late Triassic mafic dikes (diabase) and felsic volcanic rocks (rhyolite and rhyolitic tuffs) in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB). These rocks give a small age window of 228-218 Ma. The mafic dikes represent evolved alkaline basaltic melts intruding ~ 8-9 Myrs older and volumetrically more abundant A-type granite batholith. Their rare earth element (REE) and multi-element patterns are similar to those of the present-day ocean island basalts (OIBs) except for a weak continental crustal signature (i.e., enrichment of Rb and Pb and weak depletion of Nb, Ta and Ti). Their trace element characteristics together with the high 87Sr/86Sr (0.7076-0.7104), low εNd(t) (- 2.18 to - 3.46), low εHf(t) (- 2.85 to - 4.59) and variable Pb isotopic ratios are consistent with melts derived from metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle with crustal contamination. The felsic volcanic rocks are characterized by high LREE/HREE (e.g., [La/Yb]N of 5.71-17.00) with a negative Eu anomaly and strong depletion in Sr and P, resembling the model upper continental crust (UCC). Given the high 87Sr/86Sr (0.7213-0.7550) and less negative εNd(t) (- 3.83 to - 5.09) and εHf(t) (- 3.06 to - 3.83) than the UCC plus the overlapping isotopes with the mafic dikes and high Nb-Ta rhyolites, the felsic volcanic rocks are best interpreted as resulting from melting-induced mixing with 45-50% crustal materials and 50-55% mantle-derived mafic melts probably parental to the mafic dikes. Such mantle-derived melts underplated and intruded the deep crust as juvenile crustal materials. Partial melting of such juvenile crust produced felsic melts parental to the felsic volcanic rocks in the EKOB. We hypothesize that the late Triassic mafic dikes and felsic volcanic rocks are associated with post-collisional extension and related orogenic collapse. Such processes are probably significant in causing asthenospheric upwelling, decompression melting

  2. Petrogenesis and U-Pb zircon chronology of felsic tuffs interbedded with turbidites (Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, NE Turkey): Implications for Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region and accumulation rates of turbidite sequences (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener


    The Meso-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, which is one of the key areas of the Alpine-Himalayan system, is still controversial due to lack of systematic geological, geophysical, geochemical and chronological data. The prevailing interpretation is that this belt represents the southern margin of Eurasia during the Mesozoic and its geodynamic evolution is related to northward subduction of oceanic lithosphere. This paper reports the first detailed geological, geochemical and chronological data from felsic tuffs interbedded with late Cretaceous turbidites in the Southern Zone of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt. Individual tuff layers are thin, mostly shards and 10-20% broken quartz crystals, whereas the crystal-rich tuffs consist of > 50% crystals. The zircon U-Pb data show three statistically distinct ages at 84, 81 and 77 Ma, with uncertainties of about 1 Ma, suggesting that tuff-forming late Cretaceous magmatism started about 84 Ma ago and was episodically active over a minimum of 7 Ma. The age data also indicate that the average accumulation rate of the turbiditic sequence that hosts the felsic tuffs remained constant between 36 and 40 cm/10 ky. Their enrichment in LIL and LRE elements relative to HFS and HRE elements, and also strongly negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, are consistent with those of magmas generated by subduction-related processes. The tuffs have relatively low initial ratios of 143Nd/144Nd (0.512296-0.512484; εNd: - 2.1 and - 7.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.704896-0.706159). Their initial Pb isotopic compositions range from 18.604 to 18.646 for 206Pb/204Pb, from 15.644 to 15.654 for 207Pb/206Pb and from 38.712 to 38.763 for 208Pb/204Pb. The distribution of Sr-Nd isotopic compositions in the late Cretaceous igneous rocks from different locations of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt is consistent with two-component mixing between depleted mantle and crust. However, the Pb isotopic data are not compatible with two

  3. Mantle Response to Collision, Slab Breakoff & Lithospheric Tearing in Anatolian Orogenic Belts, and Cenozoic Geodynamics of the Aegean-Eastern Mediterranean Region (United States)

    Dilek, Yildirim; Altunkaynak, Safak


    The geochemical and temporal evolution of the Cenozoic magmatism in the Aegean, Western Anatolian and peri-Arabian regions shows that plate tectonic events, mantle dynamics, and magmatism were closely linked in space and time. The mantle responded to collision-driven crustal thickening, slab breakoff, delamination, and lithospheric tearing swiftly, within geologically short time scales (few million years). This geodynamic continuum resulted in lateral mantle flow, whole-sale extension and accompanying magmatism that in turn caused the collapse of tectonically and magmatically weakened orogenic crust. Initial stages of post-collisional magmatism (~45 Ma) thermally weakened the orogenic crust in Tethyan continental collision zones, giving way into large-scale extension and lower crustal exhumation via core complex formation starting around 25-23 Ma. Slab breakoff was the most common driving force for the early stages of post-collisional magmatism in the Tethyan mountain belts in the eastern Mediterranean region. Magmatic rocks produced at this stage are represented by calc-alkaline-shoshonitic to transitional (in composition) igneous suites. Subsequent lithospheric delamination or partial convective removal of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle in collision-induced, overthickened orogenic lithosphere caused decompressional melting of the upwelling asthenosphere that in turn resulted in alkaline basaltic magmatism (punctuated by the collisional accretion of several ribbon continents (i.e. Pelagonia, Sakarya, Tauride-South Armenian) to the southern margin of Eurasia, and by related slab breakoff events. Exhumation of middle to lower crustal rocks and the formation of extensional metamorphic domes occurred in the backarc region of this progressively southward-migrated trench and the Tethyan (Afro-Arabian) slab throughout the Cenozoic. Thus, slab retreat played a major role in the Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Aegean and Western Anatolian regions. However

  4. Late Paleozoic tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Altai segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from metamorphic P-T pseudosection and zircon U-Pb dating of ultra-high-temperature granulite (United States)

    Li, Zilong; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yinqi; Santosh, M.; Chen, Hanlin; Xiao, Wenjiao


    Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies rocks offer important constraints on crustal evolution processes and tectonic history of orogens. UHT granulites are generally rare in Phanerozoic orogens. In this study, we investigate the late Paleozoic pelitic UHT granulites from Altai in the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The diagnostic minerals in these rocks include high alumina orthopyroxene (Al2O3 up to 9.76 wt.%, and y(opx) = AlVI in orthopyroxene up to 0.21) coexisting with sillimanite and quartz, and low Zn spinel (ZnO = 1.85-2.50 wt.%) overgrowth with quartz. Cordierite corona separates sillimanite from orthopyroxene. The high alumina orthopyroxene is replaced by symplectites of low-alumina orthopyroxene (~ 5.80 wt.% Al2O3) and cordierite. These textural observations are consistent with a significant decompression following the peak UHT metamorphism. Phase equilibrium modeling using pseudosections and the y(opx) isopleths indicate an anti-clockwise P-T path for the exhumation of the Altai orogenic belt. The pre-peak assemblage of spinel + quartz in garnet is stable at high- to ultra-high-temperature and low-pressure conditions (P 940 °C and 7.8 to 10 kbar. Subsequent near-isothermal decompression occurred at 890 to 940 °C and 5 to 6 kbar. The final-stage cooling is recorded at 750 and 800 °C and 4 to 5 kbar accompanied by a decrease in the y(opx) values (0.11-0.12). In the UHT granulite, zircon grains are commonly enclosed within cordierite. The overgrowth rims of the zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 277 ± 2 Ma using LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, which is interpreted to mark the timing of decompression and cooling. We propose that the anti-clockwise P-T path of the UHT granulite in the Altai orogenic belt could be related to an extensional event related to the sinistral strike-slip along the Irtish tectonic belt after the subduction and slab detachment during the convergence of the Kazakhstan-Junggar plate and

  5. Petrological and geochemical features of the Jingtieshan banded iron formation (BIF): A unique type of BIF from the Northern Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Zuo-Heng; Duan, Shi-Gang; Zhao, Xin-Min


    The Jingtieshan banded iron formation (BIF) is located in the Northern Qilian Orogenic Belt (NQOB) in NW China. The BIFs are hosted in Mesoproterozoic Jingtieshan Group, a dominantly clastic-carbonate sedimentary formation, and was metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. The Jingtieshan BIFs include oxide-, carbonate- and mixed carbonate-oxide facies, and consist of alternating iron-rich and silica-rich bands. The BIFs are composed essentially of specularite and jasper, with minor carbonate minerals and barite. The SiO2 + Fe2O3 content is markedly high in the oxide facies BIF, followed by FeO, CO2 and Ba, with the other elements usually lower than 1%, suggesting that the original chemical sediments were composed of Fe, Si, CO32- and Ba. The positive correlation between Al2O3, TiO2 and Zr in the BIFs indicates that these chemical sediments incorporate minor detrital components. Oxide facies BIF shows low HFSE, low ∑REE and low Y/Ho. The Post Archean Australian Shale-normalized REE patterns for Jingtieshan BIFs are characterized slight LREE depletion, strong positive Eu anomalies and lack of significant negative Ce anomalies. Siderite in the carbonate- and mixed carbonate-oxide facies BIF shows negative δ13C values varying from -8.4‰ to -3.0‰, and δ18O values show a range of -16.6‰ to -11.7‰. The geochemical signatures and carbon-oxygen isotopes suggest origin from high-temperature hydrothermal fluids with weak seawater signature for the sediments of Jingtieshan BIFs. The absence of negative Ce anomalies and the high Fe3+/∑Fe ratios of the oxide facies BIF do not support ocean anoxia. In contrast to the three main types (Algoma-, Superior- and Rapitan-type) of global BIFs, the Jingtieshan BIFs represent a unique type with features similar to those of sedimentary-exhalative mineralization.

  6. Crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai: Implications for the continental evolution and growth of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Buslov, M. M.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ming; Rubanova, E. S.; Kulikova, A. V.; Voytishek, E. E.


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a gigantic tectonic collage of numerous accreted terranes. However, its geodynamic evolution has been hotly debated primarily due to incomplete knowledge on the nature of these enigmatic terranes. This work presents new detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data to constrain the crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai, a critical segment of Altai-Mongolian terrane. The youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 470 Ma constrain that the Terekta Formation, previously envisaged as Precambrian basement, was actually deposited after the Middle Ordovician. As for the three more sedimentary sequences above the Terekta Formation, they have youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 425 Ma, 440 Ma and 380 Ma, respectively, indicating their depositions likely in the Late Silurian to Devonian. From all analyses, it is noted that many zircon U-Pb ages cluster at ca. 520 Ma and ca. 800 Ma, and these zircons display oscillatory zoning and have subhedral to euhedral morphology, which, collectively, suggests that adjacent Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks were possibly dominant in the sedimentary provenance. Additionally, a few rounded Archean to Mesoproterozoic zircon grains are characterized by complex texture, which are interpreted as recycling materials probably derived from the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent. Precambrian rocks have not been identified in the Russian Altai, Chinese Altai and Mongolian Altai so far, therefore, Precambrian basement may not exist in the Altai-Mongolian terrane, but this terrane probably represents a large subduction-accretion complex built on the margin of the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent in the Early Paleozoic. Multiple episodes of ridge-trench interaction may have caused inputs of mantle-derived magmas to trigger partial melting of the newly accreted crustal materials, which contributed to the accretionary complex. During accretionary orogenesis of the CAOB, formation of such subduction-accretion complex is

  7. Paleozoic structure of Middle Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan Central Asian Orogenic Belt): Insights on the polarity and timing of tectonic motions, subductions, and lateral correlations (United States)

    Jourdon, Anthony; Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Petit, Carole; Bellahsen, Nicolas


    The structure and Palaeozoic tectonic evolution in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are numerous and conflicting models about the polarity of tectonic motions in the Paleozoic, the number of continental blocks and oceanic basins involved and the timing of tectonic events. In this study we propose new maps and structural cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (TS). These cross-sections allow us to highlight an overall South-verging structure in the Middle TS, with a thick-skin style involving the crystalline basement. This deformation occurred during the Early Carboniferous, and is sealed by an Upper Carboniferous unconformity. We ascribe this structure to an Upper Plate deformation linked to north-dipping subduction below Middle TS. In contrast, the South TS exhibits a north-verging structure, linked to south-dipping subduction, which is evidenced by an accretionary prism, a volcanic arc, and high-pressure rocks (Loury et al., 2015), and is correlated to similar structures in the Chinese TS (e.g., Charvet et al., 2011). Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the Middle and South TS CAOB. The resulting model comprises a long-lived north-dipping subduction of the Turkestan Ocean below the Middle TS-Karazakh Platform and a short-lived south-dipping subduction of a marginal back-arc basin below the Tarim. Consequently, the South TS is interpreted as a rifted block from the Tarim. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton to the CAOB corresponds to a rapid collision phase (320-300 Ma). This put an end to the long-lived Paleozoic subduction history in the CAOB. Charvet, J., Shu, L., et al., 2011. Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Tianshan belt, NW China. Science China Earth Sciences, 54, 166-184. Loury, C. , Rolland, Y., Guillot S., Mikolaichuk, A.V., Lanari, P., Bruguier, O., D.Bosch, 2015. Crustal-scale structure of South Tien Shan

  8. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China (United States)

    Kun-Feng Qiu; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song; Hao-Cheng Yu; Kai-Rui Song; Nan Li


    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  9. Nature and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from peridotite xenoliths in the central part of the Great Xing'an Range, NE China (United States)

    Pan, Shaokui; Zheng, Jianping; Griffin, W. L.; Xu, Yixian; Li, Xiyao


    Our knowledge of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is still sparse. Petrologic, major- and trace-element studies on the peridotite xenoliths from the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Aershan area, the central part of the Great Xing'an Range, NE China, provide insights into the nature and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the eastern part of the belt. According to the REE patterns of clinopyroxene, these peridotites can be divided into three groups which show clear differences in microstructure, geochemistry and equilibration temperature. Group 1 xenoliths (LREE-depleted patterns of Cpx) are lherzolites, with protogranular microstructure and high modal Cpx (8-13 wt.%), low Cr# in spinel ( 3300, (La/Yb)N asthenospheric material played a key role in modifying the lithospheric mantle underneath the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, and resulted in mantle heterogeneity, which is characterized by juvenile fertile lithospheric material (e.g. Group 1) mixed with older, moderately refractory relics (e.g. Group 2), with the fertile type dominating the shallower levels.

  10. Kinematic 3-D Retro-Modeling of an Orogenic Bend in the South Limón Fold-and-Thrust Belt, Eastern Costa Rica: Prediction of the Incremental Internal Strain Distribution (United States)

    Brandes, Christian; Tanner, David C.; Winsemann, Jutta


    The South Limón fold-and-thrust belt, in the back-arc area of southern Costa Rica, is characterized by a 90° curvature of the strike of the thrust planes and is therefore a natural laboratory for the analysis of curved orogens. The analysis of curved fold-and-thrust belts is a challenge because of the varying structural orientations within the belt. Based on seismic reflection lines, we created a 3-D subsurface model containing three major thrust faults and three stratigraphic horizons. 3-D kinematic retro-deformation modeling was carried out to analyze the spatial evolution of the fold-and-thrust belt. The maximum amount of displacement on each of the faults is (from hinterland to foreland); thrust 1: 800 m; thrust 2: 600 m; thrust 3: 250 m. The model was restored sequentially to its pre-deformational state. The strain history of the stratigraphic horizons in the model was calculated at every step. This shows that the internal strain pattern has an abrupt change at the orogenic bend. Contractional strain occurs in the forelimbs of the hanging-wall anticlines, while a zone of dilative strain spreads from the anticline crests to the backlimbs. The modeling shows that a NNE-directed transport direction best explains the structural evolution of the bend. This would require a left-lateral strike-slip zone in the North to compensate for the movement and thereby decoupling the South Limón fold-and-thrust belt from northern Costa Rica. Therefore, our modeling supports the presence of the Trans-Isthmic fault system, at least during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  11. Geochronology, mantle source composition and geodynamic constraints on the origin of Neoarchean mafic dikes in the Zanhuang Complex, Central Orogenic Belt, North China Craton (United States)

    Deng, Hao; Kusky, Timothy; Polat, Ali; Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Lu; Fu, Jianmin; Wang, Zhensheng; Yuan, Ye


    Mafic granulitic and amphibolitic boudins dispersed in Archean felsic gneisses are widely distributed in the Central Orogenic Belt (COB) and the Eastern Block of the North China Craton (NCC) and are considered to constitute deformed mafic dike swarms. Previous studies have demonstrated that the mafic dikes in the Zanhuang Complex of the NCC intruded the fabrics of an Archean mélange belt and were boudinaged during younger deformation. Igneous zircons from an undeformed mafic dike yield a 207Pb/206Pb age of 2535 ± 30 Ma, which is interpreted as the crystallization age. In addition, pegmatites cutting across the mafic dikes in the field also yield an igneous zircon 207Pb/206Pb age of 2504 ± 16 Ma, providing strong evidence that the mafic dikes in the NCC intruded during the Neoarchean. Metamorphic zircons from one deformed mafic dike sample yield a metamorphic 207Pb/206Pb age of 2090 ± 83 Ma, and another four samples from deformed mafic dikes have a consistent metamorphic zircon age of ca. 1850 Ma, indicating that the mafic dikes underwent at least two generations of Paleoproterozoic metamorphism of ca. 2.1 Ga and ca. 1.85 Ga. Previously reported trace element systematics of the mafic dikes are consistent with an arc-related lithospheric mantle source region, rather than an ocean island basalt (OIB)-like source region. The new whole rock Nd isotopic composition (ɛNd(t) = + 0.71 to + 3.70) is relatively more evolved compared to that of the depleted mantle at 2.5 Ga, indicating an enriched lithospheric mantle source. Accordingly, the mafic dikes are proposed to have been formed in a subduction-related environment and their enriched mantle source was metasomatized by the melts and fluids derived from the subducted slab. Based on previous studies of the NCC and new geochronological and isotopic data in this contribution, a new comprehensive tectonic model is proposed for the evolution of the NCC between 2.7 Ga and 1.85 Ga: (1) from 2.7 to 2.5 Ga, an oceanic arc

  12. Timing and nature of the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean: constraints from ophiolitic gabbros in the northern Great Xing'an Range, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yongjiang; Liu, Binqiang; Wen, Quanbo; Li, Weimin; Liu, Qing


    Jifeng ophiolitic mélange (ultramafic rocks, meta-basalts and gabbros) crops out in the northern segment of the Great Xing'an Range, the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which marks the closure of the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean associated with the collision between the Erguna block and Xing'an block. In order to investigate the formation age and magma source of the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange, the gabbros from newly discovered the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange are studied with zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopes. Zircon U-Pb dating from the ophiolitic gabbros yields U-Pb age of 647 ± 5.3 Ma, which may represent the formation age of the ophiolitic mélange. The gabbros display low SiO2, TiO2, K2O contents, high Na2O, LREE contents and indistinctive REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 1.97-2.98]. It shows an E-MORB-like affinity, while the element concentrations of the Jifeng samples are lower than that of E-MORB. More importantly, Nb displays negative anomaly in comparison with Th, which shows a transitional SSZ-type ophiolite signature. Moreover, the ɛ Hf ( t) values of ~647 Ma zircons in the gabbros range from +8.4 to +13.4, and the corresponding Hf single-stage ages ( T DM1) are between 687 and 902 Ma, which is obviously older than the crystallization age of 647 Ma. These geochemical features can be explained as melts from the partial melting of a depleted mantle source meta-somatized by fluids derived from a subducted slab. Accordingly, we conclude that the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange is probably related to transitional SSZ-type ophiolite and developed in an intra-oceanic subduction, which indicates that an ocean (the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean) existed between the Erguna block and Xing'an block. The Ocean's formation might be no later than the Neoproterozoic (647 Ma), and it was closed in the Late Cambrian because of the collision between the Erguna block and Xing'an block.

  13. Crustal melting and magma mixing in a continental arc setting: Evidence from the Yaloman intrusive complex in the Gorny Altai terrane, Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Kulikova, Anna V.; Rubanova, Elena S.


    Granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves may retain important information on crust-mantle interaction, and thus are significant for study of crustal growth and differentiation. An integrated petrological, geochronological and geochemical study on the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, was conducted to determine their source nature, petrogenesis and geodynamics. Mafic enclaves are common in the plutons, and a zircon U-Pb age (389 Ma ± 4 Ma) indicates that they are coeval with their granitoid hosts (ca. 393-387 Ma). Petrographic observations reveal that these mafic enclaves probably represent magmatic globules commingled with their host magmas. The relatively low SiO2 contents (46.0-60.7 wt.%) and high Mg# (38.9-56.5) further suggest that mantle-derived mafic melts served as a crucial component in the formation of these mafic enclaves. The granitoid hosts, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, are I-type in origin, possessing higher SiO2 contents (60.2-69.9 wt.%) and lower Mg# (32.0-44.2). Their zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the magmas were dominated by remelting of Neoproterozoic (0.79-1.07 Ga) crustal materials. Meanwhile, the geochemical modeling, together with the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves and the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases, suggests that magma mixing possibly contributed significantly to the geochemical variation of the granitoid hosts. Our results imply that mafic magmas from the mantle not only provided substantial heat to melt the lower crust, but also mixed with the crust-derived melts to form the diverse granitoids. The oxidizing and water-enriched properties inferred from the mineral assemblages and compositions imply that the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex were possibly formed in a continental arc-related setting, which is also supported by their geochemistry. The

  14. Permian doleritic dikes in the Beishan Orogenic Belt, NW China: Asthenosphere-lithosphere interaction in response to slab break-off (United States)

    Zhang, Yunying; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Long, Xiaoping; Xia, Xiaoping; Wang, Xinyu; Huang, Zongying


    Extensive Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions crop out within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Because the magmatic activity is spatially and temporally associated with the Tarim Large Igneous Province (LIP), a mantle plume has been invoked to explain the petrogenesis of these mafic-ultramafic rocks. In order to test this hypothesis, we present new geochronological and geochemical data for doleritic dike swarms in the Beishan area, southern CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating of the Yinaoxia and Gubaoquan doleritic dikes indicates that they were emplaced during the Early Permian (ca. 282 Ma). The Yinaoxia doleritic dikes have higher Mg# (52-74) and εNd(t) values (9.0-9.1) than the Gubaoquan dikes (Mg# = 35-56; εNd(t) = 5.8-7.4), indicating that the former are more primitive than the latter. The Gubaoquan dikes are characterized by higher Ba/Nb (15-276), Ba/La (6-103), Th/Yb (0.12-0.24) and Th/Nb (0.20-0.36) ratios, suggesting that their parental magmas contained more subduction-related material. Calculated parental magmatic compositions in equilibrium with Cr-rich clinopyroxenes within the dikes have LREE-depleted to flat REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 0.57-1.28) and negative to slightly positive Nb anomalies ((Nb/La)PM = 0.33-0.91). These data suggest that their parental magmas may have been generated by interaction between depleted asthenospheric mantle and metasomatized lithospheric mantle. Using clinopyroxene-liquid thermobarometers, we estimate a temperature range of 1142 °C-1276 °C, indicative of an upper asthenospheric mantle source. Although the doleritic dikes in Beishan are coeval with the Tarim LIP, their petrological and geochemical compositions do not suggest the abnormally high mantle temperatures or OIB-like mantle signatures that characterize the mantle source of the Tarim LIP magmas. This means that the Permian Tarim mantle plume cannot account for the formation of the doleritic dikes in the Beishan area, and that the Tarim LIP does not extend to the

  15. Correlation of Coseismic Velocity and Static Volumetric Strain Changes Induced by the 2010 Mw6.3 Jiasian Earthquake under the Southern Taiwan Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Wu, S. M.; Hung, S. H.


    Earthquake-induced temporal changes in seismic velocity of the earth's crust have been demonstrated to be monitored effectively by the time-lapse shifts of coda waves recently. Velocity drop during the coseismic rupture has been explicitly observed in proximity to the epicenters of large earthquakes with different styles of faulting. The origin of such sudden perturbation in crustal properties is closely related to the damage and/or volumetric strain change influenced by seismic slip distribution. In this study, we apply a coda wave interferometry method to investigate potential velocity change in both space and time related to the moderate-sized (Mw6.3) 2010 Jiasian earthquake, which nucleated deeply in the crust (~23 km), ruptured and terminated around the depth of 10 km along a previously unidentified blind thrust fault near the lithotectonic boundary of the southern Taiwan orogenic belt. To decipher the surface and crustal response to this relatively deep rupture, we first measure relative time-lapse changes of coda between different short-term time frames spanning one year covering the pre- and post-seismic stages by using the Moving Window Cross Spectral Method. Rather than determining temporal velocity variations based on a long-term reference stack, we conduct a Bayesian least-squares inversion to obtain the optimal estimates by minimizing the inconsistency between the relative time-lapse shifts of individual short-term stacks. The results show the statistically significant velocity reduction immediately after the mainshock, which is most pronounced at the pairs with the interstation paths traversing through the hanging-wall block of the ruptured fault. The sensitivity of surface wave coda arrivals mainly in the periods of 3-5 s to shear wave speed perturbation is confined within the depth of 10 km, where the crust mostly experienced extensional strain changes induced by the slip distribution from the finite-fault model. Compared with coseismic slip

  16. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong


    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  17. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of Permo-Carboniferous sandstones in central Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for provenance and tectonic evolution of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Ke; Yu, Haifei; Wu, Tairan


    The tectonic setting of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) during the Late Paleozoic has been debated for many years. Provenance analysis of Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks can effectively address this issue. In this study, eight sandstone samples were collected for zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses combined with petrographic analysis. Framework petrography and zircon morphology suggest that the samples were from recycled orogen of an igneous origin. Carboniferous rocks, with a significant age peak at 432 Ma and εHf (t) values of - 9.0 to 13.6, were mainly derived from Early to Mid-Paleozoic magmatic rocks and deposited in a piedmont zone, namely, the margin of an inland sea. Permian rocks, mostly with age peaks at 445 Ma and/or 280 Ma and εHf (t) values of - 25.2 to 11.4, dominantly originated from a pre-existing Early to Mid-Paleozoic magmatic arc and Late Paleozoic igneous rocks. These rocks formed in restricted basins of the piedmont and intermountain zones. Based on zircon spectral discrimination, sedimentary environmental analysis, and previous studies, this study supports the interpretation that the southeastern CAOB entered stages of extension and rifting during the Late Paleozoic. In the end, this study proposes a tectonic-paleogeographic reconstruction to explain the tectonic evolution of the southeastern CAOB and the exhumation-transportation-deposition processes between the basins and ranges developed in this orogen.

  18. 40Ar-39Ar and U-Pb ages of metadiorite from the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt: Evidence for Early-Paleozoic magmatic zone and excess argon in amphibole minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Single-grain zircon U-Pb and amphibole 40Ar-39Ar dating have beenconducted on a deformed and metamorphosed diorite in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt, which intruded into the middle Proterozoic Kuhai Group exposed in the south of Xiangride region, Dulan County, NW Qinghai Province. The zircon gives a concordant U-Pb age of (446.5±9.1) Ma. The amphibole yields Ar plateau age of (488.0±1.2) Ma and an isochronal age of (488.9±5.6) Ma. Age results of both stepwise released Ar and conventional K-Ar analysis are remarkably higher than that of zircon U-Pb, suggesting that the amphibole contains excess argon and the amphibole plateau age cannot be taken as the timing of metamorphism or deformation. The zircon age is interpreted to be crystallization age of the diorite pluton, which suggests that an Early-Paleozoic magmatic zone indeed existed in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt stretching along the region south to the Golmud, Normuhong and Xiangride.

  19. Devonian granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves in the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: crust-mantle interaction in a continental arc setting (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min


    Granitoids are a major component in the upper continental crust and hold key information on how did the continental crust grow and differentiate. This study focuses on the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The association of granitoids and mafic enclaves can provide important clues on the source nature, petrogenetic processes and geodynamic setting of the Yaloman intrusive complex, which in turn will shed light on the crustal evolution in the northwestern CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the granitoids, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, were emplaced in ca. 389-387 Ma. The moderate Na2O + K2O contents and low A/CNK values indicate that these rocks belong to the sub-alkaline series with metaluminous to weakly peraluminous compositions. The granitoids yield two-stage zircon Hf model ages of ca. 0.79-1.07 Ga and whole-rock Nd model ages of ca. 0.90-0.99 Ga, respectively, implying that they were mainly sourced from Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal materials. The mafic enclaves show an almost identical crystallization age of ca. 389 Ma. The identification of coarse-grained xenocrysts and acicular apatites, together with the fine-grained texture, makes us infer that these enclaves are likely to represent magmatic globules commingled with the host magmas. The low SiO2 and high MgO contents of the mafic enclaves further suggest that substantial mantle-derived mafic melts were probably involved in their formation. Importantly, the SiO2 contents of the granitoids and mafic enclaves are well correlated with other major elements and most of the trace elements. Also a broadly negative correlation exists between the SiO2 contents and whole-rock epsilon Nd (390 Ma) values of the granitoids. Given the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases within the granitoids and the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves, we propose that magma mixing probably played an important role in the formation

  20. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan


    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  1. Geochemistry, geochronology and zircon Hf isotopic study of peralkaline-alkaline intrusions along the northern margin of the North China Craton and its tectonic implication for the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei; Liao, Wen; Wang, Yanyang


    A giant Permian alkaline magmatic belt has recently been identified in southern Inner Mongolia, along the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). This belt is mainly composed of syenite, quartz syenite, alkaline granite and mafic microgranular enclaves (MME)-bearing granodiorite. In order to study the petrogenesis and tectonic implications of these rocks, we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical analysis of two Permian alkaline plutons. The first Guangxingyuan Pluton occurs in the Hexigten area and is composed of MME-bearing tonalite, K-feldspar granite and syenite. The second Durenwuliji Pluton, located in the Xianghuangqi area, comprises syenite, quartz syenite and K-feldspar granite. Zircon U-Pb dating on tonalite, K-feldspar granite, syenite and quartz syenite from the two plutons yielded a tight range of ages from 259 to 267 Ma. The peralkaline-alkaline rocks show high abundance of total alkalis (K2O + Na2O = 7.9-12.9%) and K2O contents (3.9-8.0%), enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE), and depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE). The associated tonalite and MMEs display I-type granitic geochemical affinity, with less total abundance of trace elements than the peralkaline-alkaline rocks. Zircon Hf isotopic analysis of the Guangxingyuan pluton yielded a large range of εHf(t) values from - 15.5 to + 6.7 and model ages (TDMC) from 781 to 2012 Ma. By contrast, the Hf isotopic data of the Durenwuliji pluton shows a small range of εHf(t) from + 6.2 to + 8.9 and TDMC from 667 to 816 Ma. The geochemical and Hf isotopic characteristics indicate that the parental magma was derived from a mixing of metasomatic mantle-derived mafic magma with different amount of crust-derived felsic magma, and followed by fractional crystallization. Considering previous tectonic studies in Inner Mongolia, a Permian post-orogenic extension was proposed to account for these peralkaline-alkaline intrusions following

  2. Distinct magnetic fabric in weakly deformed sediments from extensional basins and fold-and-thrust structures in the Northern Apennine orogenic belt (Italy) (United States)

    Caricchi, Chiara; Cifelli, Francesca; Kissel, Catherine; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Mattei, Massimo


    We report on results from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analyses carried out on weakly deformed fine-grained sediments from the Northern Apennine orogenic system (Italy). We sampled 63 sites from preorogenic, synorogenic, and postorogenic sequences, which differ in age, composition, depositional environment, degrees of deformation, and tectonic regimes. The magnetic fabric is typical of weakly deformed sediments, with a magnetic foliation subparallel to the bedding plane and a magnetic lineation well defined in this plane. Northern Apennine chain deposits are characterized by strongly oblate magnetic susceptibility ellipsoids, indicating that the magnetic fabric is the result of both compaction process and tectonic load experienced by the sediments during diagenesis and orogenic events. The orientation of magnetic lineation is significantly different depending whether the studied sites underwent extensional or compressional tectonic regimes. In the Northern Apennine chain, the magnetic lineation is mostly oriented NNW-SSE, parallel to the main compressional structures. It suggests a tectonic origin of the magnetic lineation with an acquisition related to the Apennines compressional phases. In the extensional Tuscan Tyrrhenian margin, magnetic lineation is oriented ENE-WSW, almost perpendicular to the main extensional faults, which represent the main deformation elements of the area. Our results demonstrate a close relationship between the shape and orientation of magnetic fabric and the tectonic history of rocks, confirming that AMS represents a valuable tool to investigate the tectonic history of weakly deformed sedimentary rocks.

  3. Gold and uranium metallogenesis in the framework of Neo-proterozoic crust growth and differentiation: example of the Mayo-Kebbi Massif (Chad) in the Central Africa Orogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mayo Kebbi massif located in southwestern Chad between the Congo craton in the South, the West African craton in the west and the Sahara meta-craton to the east exposes a segment of Neo-proterozoic juvenile crust accreted in the Central African orogenic belt during the Pan African orogeny. It consists of two greenstone belts (Zalbi and Goueygoudoum) separated by the May Kebbi calc-alkaline batholith complexes and intruded by calc-alkaline high-K granitic plutons. The whole is covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary formations. The greenstone belts contain sulphide zones hosted mainly by meta-plutonic rocks (granodiorites) and meta-basalts and meta-volcaniclastics. The mineralization comprises pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, pentlandite silver, pentlandite cobaltiferous, sphalerite, cobaltite. These sulphides are disseminated, aggregated in form of layers or are filling veins and cracks. The greenstones also contain quartz veins with calcite and chlorite comprising a mineralization made of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and gold. Gold is present both as native crystals and as electrum. The high-K calc-alkaline Zabili granitic pluton hosts uranium mineralization related to a superposition of: (1) ductile deformation and metasomatic alteration implying the interaction between magmatic minerals with a Na-rich fluid, of potential magmatic origin, coeval to the main deposition of uranium oxides, followed by (2) brittle deformation and deposition of secondary hydrated uranium silicates involving a Na-Ca-rich fluid. We propose that these uranium mineralizations represent the extreme expression of crustal differentiation as a result of Pan-African reworking of a Neo-proterozoic juvenile crustal segment. (author)

  4. Zircon ages and Hf isotopic compositions of Ordovician and Carboniferous granitoids from central Inner Mongolia and their significance for early and late Paleozoic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Shi, Yuruo; Jian, Ping; Kröner, Alfred; Li, Linlin; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Wei


    We present zircon ages and Hf-in-zircon isotopic data for plutonic rocks and review the evolution of central Inner Mongolia, China, in the early and late Paleozoic. Zircons of a granodiorite yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 472 ± 3 Ma that reflects the time of early Paleozoic magmatism. Zircon ages were also obtained for a tonalite (329 ± 3 Ma), quartz-diorite (320 ± 3 Ma), and granite vein (297 ± 2 Ma). Our results, in combination with published zircon ages and geochemical data, document distinct magmatic episodes in central Inner Mongolia. The dated samples are mostly granodiorite, tonalite and quartz-diorite in composition with intermediate to high-silica, high Na2O (3.08-4.26 wt.%), low K2O (0.89-2.86 wt.%), and high Na2O/K2O and Sr/Y ratios. Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by LREE enrichment. In mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams they show typical negative Nb and Ta anomalies, and all samples display positive εHf(t) and εNd(t) values, and low ISr. The Ordovician rocks, however, show higher Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios than the Carboniferous samples, implying that the older granitoids represent adakitic granitoids, and the Carboniferous granitoids are typical subduction-related arc granitoids but also with adakite-like compositions. The results are compatible with the view that the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Inner Mongolia evolved through operation of several subduction systems with different polarities: an early-middle Paleozoic subduction and accretion system along the northern margin of the North China Craton and the southern margin of the Mongolian terrane, and late Paleozoic northward subduction along the northern orogen and exhumation of a high-pressure metamorphic terrane on the northern margin of the North China Craton.

  5. Mesozoic lamprophyres of Gorny and Mongolian Altay (United States)

    Vasyukova, Elena


    The Chuya complex consists of more then 400 early Mesozoic lamprophyre dikes that occur in the vast territory in the structures of the Gorny and Mongolian Altay. Based on the irregular distribution of the dikes, various researchers have distinguished from 3 to 6 separate dike swarms or areas. Each of them is spatially connected with a specific simultaneous ore deposit. For example, in the Aktash area, there are the Aktash, Chagan-Uzun and other Sb-Hg deposits, in the territory of the South-Chuya area there are the Kalguta Mo-W and Chagan-Burgasy Ag-Pb deposits and within the Yustyd area there are the Askhatin-Gol Ni-Co-As deposit, Asgat, Ozernoe and Tolbonour Ag-Sb deposits. But the genetic link between the magmatic rocks and close in time and space ore deposits has not yet been proven. In this work samples of lamprophyre dikes from the largest areas (Yustyd and South Chuya) were studied. The dikes are extraordinarily similar in mineralogical and chemical aspects. The greatest differences are in the isotopic characteristics of the rocks. Lamprophyres and syenites of the South-Chuya area have negative eNd (~-4) and an elevated 87Sr/86Sr (>0.711) ratio whereas lamprophyres of the Yustyd area are close to BSE (eNd~0, 87Sr/86Sr=0.705-0.707)/ Using data on the composition of rock-forming minerals, study of chemical characteristics and composition of lamprophyre fluid inclusions, we propose different sources with similar geochemical characteristics and varying degrees of metasomatic mantle material provoked different isotopic composition. The resulting liquid rich in carbonates and composite fluids in conjunction with low degrees of melting generates approximately petrochemical and mineralogical similar compositions newly formed rocks.

  6. K-Ar dating of late Mesozoic volcanism and geochemistry of volcanic gravels in the North Huaiyang Belt, Dabie orogen: Constraints on the stratigraphic framework and exhumation of the northern Dabie orthogneiss complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two eruption episodes are identified through systematic field investigations and K-Ar dating of the lateMesozoic volcanic rocks in the North Huaiyang belt (NHB),Dabie orogenic belt, of which the earlier volcanic suitetermed Maotanchang Fm. (Fm.) occurring at Jinzhai,Xianhualing and Maotanchang, etc., was erupted from 149Ma to 138 Ma. The other named Xiaotian Fm. mainly dis-tributed at Xiaotian, Shucheng, etc., was formed between132 Ma and 116 Ma. During the eruption gap of the two vol-canic suites deposited a volcano-sedimentary conglomeratelayer, which are composed of the multi-compositional gravels, including the North Dabie orthogneiss complex (NDOC),volcanic gravels, etc. These volcanic gravels in the con-glomerate layer show identical geochemical and isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(t) =0.7084-0.7092, (Nd (t) = 21.8-24.4) to the Maotanchang Fm. volcanic rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7086-0.7102, (Nd = 19.2-24.4), but significantly distinct from those of Xiaotian Fm. (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7076-0.7084, (Nd = 17.2 - 19.2). K-Ar dating results of its underlying andoverlying volcanic sequences indicate that the conglomerate layers were deposite d at ~135 Ma. This suggests that the NDOC was rapidly exhumed to the surface dur ing or shortly before ~135 Ma and became the important provenance of the late Me sozoic volcano-sedimentary basins in the NHB. In combination with the regional v olcano-sedimentary correlation, we divided the Mesozoic stratigraphic sequence i n the NHB from base to top into Fanghushan Fm. (>160 Ma), Yuantongshan Fm. (/mid dle- lower segment of Sanjianpu Fm.) (160-149 Ma), Maotanchang Fm. (/Zhougongsh an Fm./upper segment of Sanjianpu Fm./Fenghuangtai Fm.) (149-135 Ma) and Xiaoti an Fm. (/Baidafan Fm./Heshidu Fm.) (135-116 Ma).

  7. Geochemistry and geochronology of late Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the northern part of the Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey): Implications for the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Özdamar, Şenel


    This paper presents 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb age data, Sr-Nd isotopes, whole-rock and mineral compositions of Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Ordu area of the Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt (EPOB) in northeastern Turkey. The volcanic rocks exhibit a wide compositional range: basalt, basaltic-andesites, andesites and a rhyodacite suite; they are characterized by subparallel light rare earth element (LREE)-enrichment, relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns with Eu anomalies and moderate fractionation [average (La/Yb)N = 8.55]. The geochemical results show that the volcanic rocks have calc-alkaline affinity consistent with arc volcanic rocks erupted in an active continental margin. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values vary between 0.70569 and 0.70606, while initial 143Nd/144Nd values lie between 0.51244 and 0.51249. Crustal contamination affected the mantle-originated primary magma, as indicated by increased 87Sr/86Sr and decreased 143Nd/144Nd ratios with increasing SiO2. New precise laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) 206Pb-238U age analyses of zircon and 40Ar/39Ar age data of plagioclase from the volcanics enable a more precise reconstruction of the EBOP. The ages provide insight into the timing of arc formation in this region, constrain the volcanic activity between 86 My (Coniacian) and 75 My (Campanian) and constrain the timing of closure of the Neo-Tethys.

  8. Multi-stage barites in partially melted UHP eclogite: implications for fluid/melt activities during deep continental subduction in the Sulu orogenic belt (United States)

    Wang, Songjie; Wang, Lu


    Barite (BaSO4) is well-known from deep-sea sedimentary environments but has received less attention to its presence in high-grade metamorphic rocks. Recently, barite in ultrahigh pressure (UHP) eclogite has drawn increasing attention from geologists, especially in the Dabie-Sulu orogen, since it is an important indicator for high-salinity fluid events, thus aiding in further understanding HP-UHP fluid / melt evolution. However, its formation time and mechanism in UHP eclogite are still controversial, with three representative viewpoints: (1) Liu et al. (2000) found barite-anhydrite-coesite inclusions in zircon and interpreted them to have formed by UHP metamorphic fluids; (2) Zeng et al. (2007) recognized isolated barite within K-feldspar (Kfs) and Quartz (Qz) surrounded by radial cracks in omphacite, and interpreted Kfs+Qz to be reaction products of potassium-rich fluid/melt and coesite, with the barite formed by prograde metamorphic fluids; (3) Gao et al. (2012) and Chen et al. (2014) found barite-bearing Multiphase Solid (MS) inclusions within garnet and omphacite and assumed that the barite formed by phengite breakdown possibly caused by eclogite partial melting during exhumation, though no direct evidence were proposed. The controversy above is mainly due to the lack of direct formation evidence and absence of a clear link with the metamorphic evolution of UHP eclogite along the subduction-exhumation path. We report detailed petrological and micro-structural analyses revealing four types of barites clearly linked with (1) the prograde, (2) earlier stage of partial melting and (3) later stage of crystallization differentiation, as well as (4) high-grade amphibolite-facies retrogression of a deeply subducted and partially melted intergranular coesite-bearing eclogite from Yangkou Bay, Sulu Orogen. Round barite inclusions (type-I) within UHP-stage garnet and omphacite are formed by internally buffered fluids from mineral dehydration during prograde metamorphism

  9. Magnetic fabrics of the syn to post orogenic granite suites of the Brusque metamorphic complex (Dom Feliciano Belt, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dom Feliciano belt in southern Brazil and Uruguay has accommodated the collision between the cratons of Kalahari and Congo versus the Luis Alves microplate as a fragment of the Rio de La Plata craton during the Rio Doce orogeny in the late Neoproterozoic. The Sierra Ballena - Major Gercino shear zone was interpreted as the suture between the cratons. In the state of Santa Catarina three suites of highly evolved granites intruded the Brusque metamorphic complex in the northwest of the Major Gercino shear zone. Magmatic contacts between the different suites denote to their close temporal intrusion sequence. Shear zone activity is documented by local low temperature brittle deformation of the intrusive suites. Fabrics of the granites were obtained by the measurement of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Low bulk susceptibilities (Kvol -6 SI) and a low degree of the total anisotropy (P' < 1.07) suggest a paramagnetic origin of the magnetic fabrics that may be directly correlated with the macroscopic rock fabric. Planar fabrics form a dome-like foliation pattern for the main Valsungana intrusion occupying the southwestern part of the NE-SW elongated intrusion. Linear fabrics show a weakly defined ENE-WSW trend parallel to the late stage transcurrent extension of the basement. It is suggested that a number of dome-like intrusions that follow the trend of the Major Gercino shear zone in the northwest were emplaced and subsequently amalgamated in the course of magma ascent leading to present outcrop shape of the intrusive complex

  10. ‘Indicator’ carbonaceous phyllite/graphitic schist in the Archean Kundarkocha gold deposit, Singhbhum orogenic belt, eastern India: Implications for gold mineralization vis-a-vis organic matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P R Sahoo; A S Venkatesh


    Carbonaceous rocks in the form of graphitic schist and carbonaceous phyllite are the major host rocks of the gold mineralization in Kundarkocha gold deposit of the Precambrian Singhbhum orogenic belt in eastern India. The detection of organic carbon, essentially in the carbonaceous phyllite and graphitized schist within the Precambrian terrain, is noted from this deposit. A very close relationship exists between gold mineralization and ubiquitous carbonaceous rocks containing organic carbon that seems to play a vital role in the deposition of gold in a Precambrian terrain in India and important metallogenetic implications for such type of deposits elsewhere. However, the role played by organic matter in a Precambrian gold deposit is debatable and the mechanism of precipitation of gold and other metals by organic carbon has been reported elsewhere. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results and total organic carbon (TOC) values suggest that at least part of the organic material acted as a possible source for the reduction that played a significant role in the precipitation of gold. Lithological, electron probe analysis (EPMA), fluid inclusions associated with gold mineralization, Total Carbon (TC), TOC and FTIR results suggest that the gold mineralization is spatially and genetically associated with graphitic schist, carbonaceous phyllite/shale that are constituted of immature organic carbon or kerogen. Nano-scale gold inclusions along with free milling gold are associated with sulfide mineral phases present within the carbonaceous host rocks as well as in mineralized quartz-carbonate veins. Deposition of gold could have been facilitated due to the organic redox reactions and the graphitic schist and carbonaceous phyllite zone may be considered as the indicator zone.

  11. Geochronology, geochemistry, and deformation history of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks in the Erguna Massif, NE China: Constraints on the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belt (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Shuo; Li, Yu


    This paper presents new zircon and sphene U-Pb ages, biotite and hornblende 40Ar/39Ar ages, Hf isotopic data, and geochemical data for five Mesozoic plutons in the Erguna Massif of NE China. These data are used to constrain the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belt. This new dating, when combined with previously published ages, indicates that the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (J3-K1) intrusive rocks can be subdivided into three stages that represent periods of magmatism during the Late Jurassic (~ 155 Ma), early Early Cretaceous (~ 137 Ma), and late Early Cretaceous (~ 123 Ma). In addition, the rocks have undergone later deformation recorded by peak ages of ~ 137 and ~ 123 Ma. The Late Jurassic and early Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks in the study area are dominantly syenogranites and are either A-type granites or are classified as alkaline series, suggesting that they formed in an extensional environment. The late Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks in this area are generally monzogranitic and were emplaced as dikes in an extensional environment, along with coeval bimodal volcanics. These data, combined with the presence of regional unconformities in the northern part of Hebei Province and western part of Liaoning Province, and the spatial distribution of coeval volcanic rocks in NE China, suggest the Late Jurassic and early Early Cretaceous magmatisms and the early Early Cretaceous deformation in this area occurred in an extensional environment related to the delamination of a thickened part of the crust after closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. In comparison, the late Early Cretaceous deformation and magmatism occurred in an extensional environment related to either delamination of the previously thickened crust related to the Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic regime or the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate, or the combined influence of these two tectonic regimes.

  12. 天山造山带深部探测及地球动力学研究进展%Deep probe in the Tianshan orogenic belt and its geodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷显权; 陈运平; 赵俊猛; 赵炯洋


    In order to study the geodynamics of the Tianshan orogenic belt (TOB), a large amount of works for probing the deep structure of the TOB have been conducted in this area since 1970s, and abundant achievements have been acquired. The purpose of this paper is to summarize these works and achievements. The study results show that; The crust of the TOB is relatively thicker and there is not a clear mountain root. The crustal structure is characterized by the vertically layering and the laterally blocking. The crust-mantle boundary is not clear and the Moho is dislocated beneath the basin-range junction zones. The low-velocity anomalies commonly existing in the crustal interior and the relatively higher crustal Possion's ratio imply the mechanical weakness of the crust Velocity anomalies also exist in the upper mantle, the low ones are likely to be related to the upwelling of the hot mantle materials and the high ones may be the lithospheric detachment fragments of the age-old plates. The dislocation of the Moho, the Q-value structure and the velocity anomalies can be interpreted by the underthrusting of the stable rigid geological blocks to the TOB from the south and the north, and this interpretion is also evidenced by the high-resolutional tomographic images. The shear wave splitting results imply that the upper mantle involved in the orogen movement is considerablely thick. The above knowledge suggests that the deformation and the uplift of the TOB are resulted from the combined actions of the tectonic compression of the southern and northern stable blocks and the complex crust-mantle coupling.%为了研究天山造山带的地球动力学,自1970年代以来,国内外在天山造山带开展了大量的深部探测工作,并取得了丰富的成果,本文对这些工作和成果进行了梳理和综述.已有研究结果表明:天山造山带的地壳厚度较大,但并无明显山根;地壳结构具有垂向分层和横向分块特征;壳幔界面不清晰,

  13. Geochemical features of Kulunda plain lakes (Altay region, Russia) (United States)

    Kolpakova, M. N.; Shvartsev, S. L.; Borzenko, S. V.; Isupov, V. P.; Shatskaya, S. S.


    Geochemical specifics of lake water of the Kulunda Steppe territory (Altay region, Russia) are studied. The results show that in the territory mainly chloride and less soda lakes with sodium compound are developed. It is presented that calcite and soda saturation indexes (SI) of lake water increase with growth of pH, but decrease in such minerals as gypsum and barite. The opposite situation is typical for SI depending on the salinity. It is revealed that evaporation, secondary mineral formation and various biological processes have the greatest impact on accumulation of elements in solution.

  14. Geochronology and geochemistry of early Paleozoic igneous rocks of the Lesser Xing'an Range, NE China: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Xu, Wen-liang; Pei, Fu-ping; Wang, Feng; Guo, Peng


    This paper presents new zircon U-Pb, Hf isotope, and whole-rock major and trace element data for early Paleozoic igneous rocks of the Lesser Xing'an Range, NE China, in order to constrain the early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that early Paleozoic magmatic events within the northern Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif (SZM) can be subdivided into four stages: Middle Cambrian (~ 505 Ma), Late Cambrian (~ 490 Ma), Early-Middle Ordovician (~ 470 Ma), and Late Ordovician (460-450 Ma). The Middle Cambrian monzogranites are K-rich, weakly to strongly peraluminous, and characterized by pronounced heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletions, high Sr/Y ratios, low Y concentrations, low primary zircon εHf(t) values (- 6.79 to - 1.09), and ancient two-stage model (TDM2) ages (1901-1534 Ma). These results indicate derivation from partial melting of thickened ancient crustal materials that formed during the amalgamation of the northern SZM and the northern Jiamusi Massif (JM). The Late Cambrian monzonite, quartz monzonite, and monzogranite units are chemically similar to A-type granites, and contain zircons with εHf(t) values of - 2.59 to + 1.78 and TDM2 ages of 1625-1348 Ma. We infer that these rocks formed from primary magmas generated by partial melting of Mesoproterozoic accreted lower crustal materials in a post-collisional extensional environment. The Early-Middle Ordovician quartz monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, monzogranite, and rhyolite units are calc-alkaline, relatively enriched in light REEs (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Th, and U), depleted in HREEs and high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and contain zircons with εHf(t) values of - 7.33 to + 4.98, indicative of formation in an active continental margin setting. The Late Ordovician alkali-feldspar granite and rhyolite units have A-type granite affinities that suggest they formed in

  15. Timing, petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Late Paleozoic gabbro-granodiorite-granite intrusions in the Shalazhashan of northern Alxa: Constraints on the southernmost boundary of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Shi, Xingjun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Castro, Antonio; Xiao, XuChang; Tong, Ying; Zhang, Jianjun; Guo, Lei; Yang, Qidi


    The Late Paleozoic tectonic setting and location of the southernmost boundary of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) with respect to the Alxa Block or Alxa-North China Craton (ANCC) are debated. This paper presents new geochronological, petrological, geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data of the Late Paleozoic intrusions from the Shalazhashan in northern Alxa and discusses the tectonic setting and boundary between the CAOB and ANCC. Using zircon U-Pb dating, intrusions can be broadly grouped as Late Carboniferous granodiorites (~ 301 Ma), Middle Permian gabbros (~ 264 Ma) and granites (~ 266 Ma) and Late Permian granodiorites, monzogranites and quartz monzodiorites (254-250 Ma). The Late Carboniferous granodiorites are slightly peraluminous and calcic. The remarkably high zircon Hf isotopes (εHf(t) = + 6-+ 10) and characteristics of high silica adakites suggest that these granodiorites were mainly derived from "hot" basaltic slab-melts of the subducted oceanic crust. The Middle Permian gabbros exhibited typical cumulate textures and were derived from the partial melting of depleted mantle. The Middle Permian granites are slightly peraluminous with high-K calc-alkaline and low εHf(t) values from - 0.9 to + 2.9. These granites were most likely derived from juvenile materials mixed with old crustal materials. The Late Permian granodiorites, monzogranites and quartz monzodiorites are characterized as metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, with variable Peacock alkali-lime index values from calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic. These rocks were mainly derived from juvenile crustal materials, as evidenced by their high εHf(t) values (+ 3.3 to + 8.9). The juvenile sources of the above intrusions in the Shalazhashan are similar to those of the granitoids from the CAOB but distinct from the granitoids within the Alxa Block. These findings suggest that the Shalazhashan Zone belongs to the CAOB rather than the Alxa Block and that its boundary with the Alxa block can be

  16. Nuclear weapon tests on the testing ground near Semipalatinsk and health of communities of Altay region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative analysis of morbidity, mortality and invalidization of the population of Altay region and other regions of West Siberia. It was found that in recent years in spite of a more favorable ecologic situation in this area the level of morbidity (hematological disorders, cardiovascular disorders, urinary diseases), mortality from infectious, parasitic, pulmonary diseases and malignant tumors and invalidisation of the population increased. The main cause of this is supposed to be the consequences of nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere in 1949-1962 on the testing ground near Semipalatinsk at the border of Altay region. The data on repeated pollutions by the products of nuclear disintegration in Altay region are reported

  17. Calcite Twins, a Tool for Tectonic Studies in Thrust Belts and Stable Orogenic Forelands Les macles de la calcite, un outil pour les études tectoniques dans les chaînes plissées et les avant-pays peu déformés des orogènes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacombe O.


    Full Text Available Calcite twins have been used for a long time as indicators of stress/strain orientations and magnitudes. Recent developments during the last 15 years point toward significant improvements of existing techniques as well as new applications of calcite twin analysis in thrust belts and forelands. This paper summarizes the principles of the most common techniques in this tectonic field and illustrates some aspects of the use of calcite twins to constrain not only stress/strain orientations and magnitudes, but also to some extent paleotemperature or paleoburial in orogenic forelands. This review is based in a large part on the studies that I conducted in various geological settings such as the forelands of Taiwan, Pyrenees, Zagros, Rockies and Albanides orogens. The contribution of calcite twin analysis to the understanding of the intraplate stress transmission away from plate boundaries is also emphasized. Les macles de la calcite sont utilisees depuis longtemps comme indicateurs de paleocontraintes et comme marqueurs de la deformation finie, en orientations comme en grandeurs. Au cours des 15 dernieres annees, des ameliorations importantes des methodes d’analyses existantes ont ete realisees et ont donne lieu a de nouvelles applications dans les chaines plissees et les avant-pays peu deformes des orogenes. Cet article resume le principe des methodes les plus utilisees en tectonique et illustre quelques apports de l’analyse des macles de la calcite pour la caracterisation non seulement des orientations et des grandeurs des paleocontraintes et de la deformation finie, mais egalement dans une certaine mesure de la paleotemperature et du paleoenfouissement. Cette revue se fonde en grande partie sur les etudes regionales que j’ai effectuees dans des contextes geologiques varies, comme les avant-pays des chaines de Taiwan, des Pyrenees, du Zagros, des Rocheuses et des Albanides. Cet article discutera egalement la contribution de l’etude des

  18. Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic granitoid magmatism in the Qinling Orogen, China: Constraints on orogenic process (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Chengli


    The Qinling Orogen is one of the main orogenic belts in Asia and is characterized by multi-stage orogenic processes and the development of voluminous magmatic intrusions. The results of zircon U-Pb dating indicate that granitoid magmatism in the Qinling Orogen mainly occurred in four distinct periods: the Neoproterozoic (979-711 Ma), Paleozoic (507-400 Ma), and Early (252-185 Ma) and Late (158-100 Ma) Mesozoic. The Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism in the Qinling Orogen is represented by strongly deformed S-type granites emplaced at 979-911 Ma, weakly deformed I-type granites at 894-815 Ma, and A-type granites at 759-711 Ma. They can be interpreted as the products of respectively syn-collisional, post-collisional and extensional setting, in response to the assembly and breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. The Paleozoic magmatism can be temporally classified into three stages of 507-470 Ma, 460-422 Ma and ˜415-400 Ma. They were genetically related to the subduction of the Shangdan Ocean and subsequent collision of the southern North China Block and the South Qinling Belt. The 507-470 Ma magmatism is spatially and temporally related to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the studied area. The 460-422 Ma magmatism with an extensive development in the North Qinling Belt is characterized by I-type granitoids and originated from the lower crust with the involvement of mantle-derived magma in a collisional setting. The magmatism with the formation age of ˜415-400 Ma only occurred in the middle part of the North Qinling Belt and is dominated by I-type granitoid intrusions, and probably formed in the late-stage of a collisional setting. Early Mesozoic magmatism in the study area occurred between 252 and 185 Ma, with the cluster in 225-200 Ma. It took place predominantly in the western part of the South Qinling Belt. The 250-240 Ma I-type granitoids are of small volume and show high Sr/Y ratios, and may have been formed in a continental arc setting related to subduction

  19. Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic Sedimentary Basins Evolution of Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt%兴蒙造山系新元古代-古生代沉积盆地演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文麟; 骆满生; 王成刚; 徐增连


    Based on comprehensive analysis of the type,sedimentary formation,biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy for 24 main sedimentary basins,we study the evolution of sedimentary basins of Xing-Meng orogenic belt in the Neoproterozoic-Paleo-zoic,dividing it into six phases as follows.(1)The epicontinental accretion in the Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian character-ized by the assembly of Ergun and Xingan blocks,as Huanyu-Xinlin ophiolite accreted to margin of southern Ergun blocks;(2)The stable epicontinental sediment in the Terreneuvian-Serises 2,with the feature of a relatively stable clastic-calciclastic sediment around the blocks while Jiamusi massif affected by Late Pan-African metamorphic event;(3)The formation of archi-pelagic arc-basin systems in the Early and Middle Ordovician,marked by the distribution of arc-basin in the margin of Duobaoshan and the different levels oceanic crust subduction effect among other land masses;(4)The development of archipe-lagic arc-basin systems in the Late Ordovician to Pridoli,as the erosion of the uplifted land masses;(5)The subduction of ar-chipelagic arc-basin systems in the Early Devonian to Early Carboniferous,characterized by the collage of Ergun-Xingan and Songnen blocks and the transformation of western margin of Jiamusi massif from passive to active in the late Early Carbonifer-ous;(6)The oceanic-continental transition in the Late Carboniferous-Lopingian,characterized by the assembly of Jiamusi mas-sif,Songnen massif,and Khanka massif.Massifs of Northeast China completely collaged to a whole.%在系统分析兴蒙造山系新元古代-古生代24个沉积盆地类型、沉积建造、生物地层与年代地层等特征的基础上,划分了6个沉积大地构造演化阶段并对其进行讨论:(1)新元古代-寒武纪早期陆缘增生阶段:额尔古纳地块向南增生并与兴安地块拼贴,形成环宇-新林蛇绿岩拼合带;(2)寒武纪纽芬兰世-第二世陆缘稳定沉积阶段:各地块边

  20. And the Variscan Orogen Buckled (United States)

    Pastor-Galán, D.; Groenewegen, T.; Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; Langereis, C. G.


    Oroclines are the largest scale folds in nature, and as folds can be produced by bending or by buckling. The most commonly invoked bending mechanisms are indentation (the Himalayan syntaxes) and slab roll-back (The Calabria Arc) whereas buckling usually are commonly related with collision of the apex of ribbon continents along strike (Alaskan oroclines). In Western Europe the tectonostratigraphic zonation of Variscan orogen shows a complex 'S' shape pattern recently interpreted as a double orocline consisting of a northern and southern arc. The northern arc, known as Cantabria-Asturias Arc or Cantabrian Orocline, was developed after closure of the Rheic Ocean and the building and collapse of the Variscan orogenic edifice and, therefore, is considered post-Variscan in age. On the other hand, neither the geometry nor the kinematics of the so-called Central Iberian orocline, situated at the south of the Iberian peninsula are properly known. However, it seems reasonable to think that both oroclines developed at the same time as other coupled oroclines, such as the New England oroclines or the Carpathian oroclines. The particular paleogeography of the Variscan belt in Pangea and the kinematics of the oroclinal formation make impossible the mechanisms of indentation or buckling of a ribbon continent. The occurrence of an intense syn- and slightly post-Cantabrian orocline magmatic event (310-290 Ma) has been linked to the development of the orocline(s) due to the particular spatial-temporal distribution of these post-tectonic granitoids and its isotopic signature which would imply that the oroclines (if synchronous) are thick-skinned. This magmatic pulse has also been interpreted as due to slab roll-back. We present widespread evidences of buckling around the whole orocline at different lithospheric levels and new insights of the particular geometry of the southern orocline which is difficult to reconcile with a roll-back related origin. Therefore, a major change in the

  1. Linking magmatism with collision in an accretionary orogen (United States)

    Li, Shan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Wilde, Simon A.; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Guo, Qian-Qian


    A compilation of U-Pb age, geochemical and isotopic data for granitoid plutons in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), enables evaluation of the interaction between magmatism and orogenesis in the context of Paleo-Asian oceanic closure and continental amalgamation. These constraints, in conjunction with other geological evidence, indicate that following consumption of the ocean, collision-related calc-alkaline granitoid and mafic magmatism occurred from 255 ± 2 Ma to 251 ± 2 Ma along the Solonker-Xar Moron suture zone. The linear or belt distribution of end-Permian magmatism is interpreted to have taken place in a setting of final orogenic contraction and weak crustal thickening, probably as a result of slab break-off. Crustal anatexis slightly post-dated the early phase of collision, producing adakite-like granitoids with some S-type granites during the Early-Middle Triassic (ca. 251–245 Ma). Between 235 and 220 Ma, the local tectonic regime switched from compression to extension, most likely caused by regional lithospheric extension and orogenic collapse. Collision-related magmatism from the southern CAOB is thus a prime example of the minor, yet tell-tale linking of magmatism with orogenic contraction and collision in an archipelago-type accretionary orogen.

  2. Studies on radiation-induced colour change of tourmaline from Altay in Xinjang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced colour change of tourmaline from Altay in Xingjang was studied by heat treatment, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, absorption spectrometry. It was shown that the colour change effect conditioned by the change of 19500 cm-1 and 13800 cm-1 spectra ascribed to d-d transition of Mn3+ and Fe2+ in b site

  3. The Analysis of Metamorphism-deformation Sequence for the Paired Metamorphic Belt in West Tianshan Orogen:An Example from Chahanwusu Area,Zhaosu County,Xinjiang%西天山造山带双变质带变质变形序列分析--以新疆昭苏县察汗乌苏一带为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    西天山造山带中双变质带以新疆昭苏察汗乌苏一带较为典型,根据变质作用的不同,划分出绿片岩相绢云母绿泥石带、绿片岩相蓝闪石带、角闪岩相黑云母普通角闪石带、角闪岩相矽线石铁铝榴石带等变质相带;按其变质作用以及构造变形程度分为上部层次脆性性构造层、中上部层次、深部层次3种构造层次。根据之间的相互叠加关系,确立了造山带内的岩石主要存在着3期以上构造变形特征;在主要的3期构造变形过程中见有相应的变质矿物,并根据生成的矿物组合与变形之间的相互关系,通过变质矿物先后生成关系与岩石的结构、构造建立了变质与变形序列关系,确立了变质与变形非简单一一对应,而是具有渗透叠加和循环往复的特点。%The paired metamorphic belt of West Tianshan Orogen is more typical in Chahanwusu Area,Xinjiang. According to the difference of metamorphism,this paired metamorphic belt can be divided into several metamorphic facies zone,including sericite-chlorite zone with greeanschist-facies,glaucophane zone with greenschist facies,biotite-hornblende zone with amphibolite facies belt and sillimanite-almandite zone with amphibolite facies. Based on the degree of metamorphism and tectonic deformation,this paired metamorphic belt can be divided into three kinds of structur-al levels:the brittle structural layer in the upper level,the structural layers in the middle-upper level and the ones in the lower level. After analyzing the superimposed relationship among these structural levels,more than threetimes of tectonic deformation characteristics have been distin-guished in the rocks of West Tianshan Orogen. And the corresponding metamorphic minerals for these three tectonic stages in the process of deformation can be observed. And then,the interre-lationship between generated mineral association and deformation has been discussed,the rela

  4. Deciphering orogenic evolution


    Rolland, Yan; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Jolivet, Laurent


    Deciphering orogenic evolution requires the integration of a growing number of geological and geophysical techniques on various spatial and temporal scales. Contrasting visions of mountain building and lithospheric deformation have been proposed in recent years. These models depend on the respective roles assigned to the mantle, the crust or the sediments. This article summarizes the contents of the Special Issue dedicated to 'Geodynamics and Orogenesis' following the 'Réunion previous termde...

  5. Anticlockwise P-T evolution at ∼280 Ma recorded from ultrahigh-temperature metapelitic granulite in the Chinese Altai orogenic belt, a possible link with the Tarim mantle plume? (United States)

    Tong, Laixi; Xu, Yi-Gang; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Yibing; Liu, Zhao


    An ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metapelitic granulite assemblage consisting of garnet(g)-spinel(sp)-orthopyroxene(opx)-sillimanite(sil)-cordierite(cd)-ilmenite(ilm)-biotite(bi)-plagioclase(pl)-quartz(q) occurs within migmatitic paragneiss near Kalasu in the Chinese Altai, NW China. Textural relations, mineral compositions and P-T estimates, indicate three stages of mineral assemblages: (1) pre-peak prograde stage (M1) consisting of a sp-sil-bearing or sp-opx-bearing inclusion assemblage, with low-Al2O3 contents (4-5 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and P-T conditions of ∼7 kbar and ∼890 °C, (2) peak UHT stage (M2) comprising a g-opx-cd-bearing coarse-grained assemblage, with high-Al2O3 contents (8-9 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and peak conditions of ∼8 kbar and ∼970 °C, and (3) post-peak HT stage (M3) containing an oriented opx-bi-sil-bearing assemblage in matrix, with moderate amounts of Al2O3 (6-7 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and P-T conditions of 8-9 kbar and ∼870 °C. The three discrete stages define an anticlockwise P-T path involving initial prograde heating and post-peak near isobaric cooling. Such a near isobaric cooling anticlockwise P-T path suggests that UHT metamorphism likely occurred in an overall extensional tectonic setting with associated underplating of mantle-derived mafic magma. A SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 278 ± 2 Ma obtained from the metapelitic granulite indicates UHT metamorphism in the Altai orogen occurred during the Permian, coeval with spacially associated mantle-derived mafic intrusions (∼280 Ma) and the Tarim mantle plume (∼275 Ma). Thus, the Permian UHT metamorphism of the Chinese Altai is likely associated with underplating and heating of mantle-derived mafic magma as a result of the Tarim mantle plume.

  6. Study on Mechanism of Formation of Volcanic Rock in North Altay by Using Rare Earths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁峰; 周涛发; 岳书仓


    The characteristics of rare earth elements in the Devonian and Carboniferous volcanic rocks were studied in the north Altay. And the mechanism of formation of volcanic rocks were discussed by using the rare earth elements. The correlativity of rare earth elements and major elements shows that the fractional crystallization is undistinguishable during the formation of Devonian and Carboniferous volcanic rocks, and the mechanism of formation of volcanic rocks may be the partial melting. The further study of the relationship of manifold rare earth elements shows that the mechanism of formation of Devonian and Carboniferous volcanic rocks in the north Altay is the partial melting. And the result also shows that the rare earth elements in the Devonian and Carboniferous volcanic rocks inherited the characteristics of those in its source materiels.

  7. The adder (Vipera berus) in Southern Altay Mountains: population characteristics, distribution, morphology and phylogenetic position. (United States)

    Cui, Shaopeng; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Daiqiang; Sun, Jizhou; Chu, Hongjun; Li, Chunwang; Jiang, Zhigang


    As the most widely distributed snake in Eurasia, the adder (Vipera berus) has been extensively investigated in Europe but poorly understood in Asia. The Southern Altay Mountains represent the adder's southern distribution limit in Central Asia, whereas its population status has never been assessed. We conducted, for the first time, field surveys for the adder at two areas of Southern Altay Mountains using a combination of line transects and random searches. We also described the morphological characteristics of the collected specimens and conducted analyses of external morphology and molecular phylogeny. The results showed that the adder distributed in both survey sites and we recorded a total of 34 sightings. In Kanas river valley, the estimated encounter rate over a total of 137 km transects was 0.15 ± 0.05 sightings/km. The occurrence of melanism was only 17%. The small size was typical for the adders in Southern Altay Mountains in contrast to other geographic populations of the nominate subspecies. A phylogenetic tree obtained by Bayesian Inference based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (1,023 bp) grouped them within the Northern clade of the species but failed to separate them from the subspecies V. b. sachalinensis. Our discovery extends the distribution range of V. berus and provides a basis for further researches. We discuss the hypothesis that the adder expands its distribution border to the southwest along the mountains' elevation gradient, but the population abundance declines gradually due to a drying climate. PMID:27602300

  8. Late-orogenic, post-orogenic, and anorogenic granites: Distinction by major-element and trace-element chemistry and possible origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))


    Granites classified into four categories based solely on tectonics of occurrence and associated rock types also have compositional characteristics that are consistent within groups and different among groups. Orogenically related granites include late-orogenic varieties (LO) associated with calc-alkaline batholiths, and post-orogenic varieties (PO), which occur in broad zones of isolated diapiric plutons in recently deformed orogenic belts. Inclined REE patterns, moderate Sr contents, and K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} relationships show that late-orogenic granites formed by fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and amphibole from calcalkaline magmas. Flatter REE patterns and K{sub 2}O contents near 5%, plus the absence of associated magmatic rocks, indicate that the post-orogenic granites developed by partial melting of subduction-produced mafic/intermediate magmatic rocks. Both the late- and post-orogenic granites can be part of material newly added to continental crust as a result of orogeny. Anorogenic granites in anorthosite/rapakivi complexes (AR) or alkaline ring complexes (RC) have LIL contents too high to have been equilibrated with a mafic mineral assemblage. These anorogenic rocks probably formed by partial melting of preexisting sialic crust and do not represent new crustal increment.

  9. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and P-T-t paths constraining tectonic processes in orogenic belts: results from Qilian and Kunlun mountains (Western China) and Radstadt mountains (Eastern Alps, Austria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    rifting of the continental crust during the Permian (290 - 250 Ma). Austroalpine Permo-Mesozoic cover rocks were deformed during the Cretaceous (around 80 Ma) and the Paleogene (55 - 50 Ma), the latter ages found in deeper tectonic levels and represent the collision of Austroalpine and Penninic tectonic units. The Penninic nappe complex displays a rather continuous decrease of ages from c. 37 to 25 Ma from high to deep levels. A second age group of c. 22 Ma was found both in low-temperature release steps and as plateau ages in higher parts of the Penninic unit. It is attributed to a thermal overprint due to ductile extension of the over thickened orogenic wedge. These new age data show that tectonic accretion lasted over a period of more than 65 - 50 Ma. (author)

  10. Plate tectonics and orogenic research after 25 years: Synopsis of a Tethyan perspective (United States)

    Şengör, A. M. Celâl


    Orogeny, the process by which the earth's prominent mountain ranges are constructed, is herein defined as a collective term for convergent margin processes. The recognition that strains and displacements of very considerable magnitude occur along all of the three dimensions within an orogenic belt has grown gradually during the last two centuries. Investigation of orogenic belts along cross-sections reveals that there are a large number of types of orogenic belts. These are divided into four main orders ( transpressional, subduction-controlled, obduction-controlled, and collision-controlled) consisting of two superfamilies, eight families, and twenty genera. Cross-sectional studies of orogenic belts show that the cross-sectional area during orogeny is not conserved. Similarly, map-view studies of orogenic belts reveal that an absolute minimum of 60% (by length) of them display significant strike-slip motion along their trend which leads also to a non-conservation of the cross-sectional area during orogeny. Thus, rigorous line and area balancing across orogenic belts now is not possible. Large orogenic belts are commonly made up of tectonic collages of microcontinents, island arcs, and accretionary complexes, generally disrupted to form smaller, fault-bounded tectonic entities of diverse sorts. The recently developed "terrane analysis" was developed to aid the study of these but it resembles the early concepts of Alpine nappes and is found to be a retrogressive step in tectonic research mainly because of its disclaim of most genetic connotations. The temporal aspects of orogeny have been debated for over 200 years in terms of continuous vs. world-wide, synchronously episodic orogeny. Plate tectonics has provided a rigorous rationale and something approaching a consensus for continuous orogeny. I conclude that there are as yet no shortcuts to establishing the kinematics of continental deformation except by the traditional methods of field geology aided by relevant

  11. Architecture and Kinematics of the Dabie Orogen, Central Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shutong; LIU Yican; CHEN Guanbao; WU Weiping


    The geometry of the Dabie Mountains is manifested in terms of the distribution of petro-tectonic units in three dimensions. It is identified into three segments from east to west, four horizons in vertical profiles and eight petrotectonic units from north to south. Three segments are the east, middle and west segments. Four horizons, from top to bottom, are two different meta-tectonic melange in the uppermost part, underthrust basement and cover below them, and mantle at the bottom of the profiles. Eight petro-tectonic units from north to south are: (1) the hinterland basin, (2) the meta-flysch, (3) the ultramafic rock belt (UM) + Sujiahe eclogite belt (SH), (4) eclogite belt 2 (Ec2) with most eclogites of continental affinity, (5) eclogite belt 1 (Ecl1) with some eclogite of oceanic affinity, (6) the Dabie complex or underthrust basement of the Yangtze continent, (7) the Susong and Zhangbaling Groups or underthrust cover of the Yangtze continent and (8) the foreland belt. The (3), (4) and (5) units belong to meta-tectonic melange. Some ultrahigh pressure metamorphic minerals such as coesite and micro-diamonds have been found in (3) and (4) units; a possible ultrahigh pressure mineral,clinozoisite aggregate pseudomorph after lawsonite, was found in unit (5). The three tectonic units are speculated to be coherent initially; the UM and SH units are suggested to be the root belt in the east, middle and west segments respectively.The kinematics of the Dabie orogen is divided into three stages: top-to-south thrusting during the eclogite-granulite facies metamorphism, top-to-north extension during the amphibolite metamorphic stage, and faults or shear bands of brittle deformation and greenschist facies metamorphism were formed in the post-orogenic stage since the Late Jurassic and the movement pictures of these faults is different from each other.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem ARIKOĞLU


    Full Text Available Nostratic language of the theory of names Holger Pedersen his paternity, İlliç Svıtiç theory developed by the Afro-Asiatic, Kartvel, Elam-Dravid, Indo-European, Ural-Yukagir, Eskimo-Aleut, Altai, Korea, the Japanese language group of the common historical roots a defense theory. According to the theory of our day with each other within the same family or language group are not considered languages, at an earlier date (14 -10 thousands BC was based on the same origin. 8 thousand years ago, was separated from the main group of the Altaic language group. But today, many elements of restructuring through leksic history helps to establish ties. Altaic languages or language groups, with the above-mentioned links between the evaluation of the studies, examples are given in words. These links have been limited to elements leksical notice. Nostratik dil teorisi, isim babalığını Holger Pedersen’in yaptığı ve İlliç Svitıç tarafından geliştirilen; Afro-Asyatik, Kartvel, Elam-Dravit, Hint-Avrupa, Ural-Yukagir, Eskimo-Aleut, Altay, Kore ve Japon dillerinin aynı kökene dayandığını savunan bir teoridir.Bu teoriye göre, günümüzdeki pek çok dil ailesi MÖ 14-10 bin yıllarında aynı kökene dayanıyordu. 8 bin yıl önce Altay dil grubu ana gruptan ayrıldı. Fakat günümüzde pek çok leksik unsur tarihî bağların tespit edilmesine yardımcı olmaktadır. Altay dilleri veya dil grubunun diğer dil aileleriyle olan bağları, örnek kelimelerle gösterilmektedir. Bu bağlantılar daha çok leksik unsurlarla sınırlı tutulmuştur.

  13. Origin and Tectonic Evolution of the Orogenic Nappe Structure Belt and Relative Basins of the Cuba Islands%古巴推覆构造带周边盆地充填序列及其构造演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈榕; 吴朝东; 申延平; 张晨晨; 房亚男


    came from different plate as exhibited by their unique stratigraphy. The Yucatan unit originated from the Yucatan platform and the Bahama unit was formed at the Bahama platform in Jurassic. The Central Arc unit derived from the Caribbean Arc in Cretaceous and the South Arc unit came from the Caribbean Arc at Paleocene. During the K-T boundary, the Caribbean Arc collided with the North American plate margin. The collision cohered the various parts of Cuba together, and promoted the development of the fold-thrust belt and related basins.

  14. 新疆阿勒泰滑雪运动研究%Xinjiang Altay skiing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿不拉·玉素甫; 胡金明; 阿依夏木古丽·吐尔逊


    自从开展冬季奥运会以来,欧洲国家运动员几乎包揽所有雪上竞赛项目金牌,欧洲大众参与滑雪运动的人数众多,使得世人普遍认为滑雪运动起源于欧洲。运用文献资料、实地调查、专家访谈等方法以新疆阿勒泰滑雪运动的产生历史背景为基础,探究新疆阿勒泰滑雪运动的产生与特点、分布与传承,并针对现状提出相应发展对策,从而更好地发展新疆阿勒泰滑雪运动,发展中国竞技滑雪运动。%Since the development of the Winter Olympics,as athletes from European countries have won almost all the skiing competition gold medals,and there is a broad participation of skiing in Europe,it is generally thought that skiing originated from Europe.On the basis of Xinjiang Altay skiing history,this article has employed the methods of literature review,field survey and expert interview to probe into Xinjiang Altay skiing,including its origin and characteristics, distribution and inheritance, and put forward the corresponding countermeasures in view of the present situation,thus better accelerating development of Xinjiang Altay skiing as well as China competitive skiing.

  15. Linking magmatism with collision in an accretionary orogen


    Li, Shan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Wilde, Simon A.; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Guo, Qian-Qian


    A compilation of U-Pb age, geochemical and isotopic data for granitoid plutons in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), enables evaluation of the interaction between magmatism and orogenesis in the context of Paleo-Asian oceanic closure and continental amalgamation. These constraints, in conjunction with other geological evidence, indicate that following consumption of the ocean, collision-related calc-alkaline granitoid and mafic magmatism occurred from 255 ± 2 Ma to 251 ± 2 Ma al...

  16. Stress Dynamics of Magma Activity during Orogenic Evolution: An Example from Kinmen Island, SE China (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Chuan; Yeh, En-Chao; Lin, Jian-Wei; Lee, Chi-Yu; Chen, Rou-Fei; Lin, Wayne; Hsieh, Pei-Shan; Lin, Cheng-Kuo; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki


    During orogeny, a mountain belt experienced different orogenic stages with various conditions of temperature, pressure, stress and fluid pressure. The speculation, that the orogenic stresses evolve from reverse faulting via strike-slip faulting to normal faulting stress regimes corresponding to syn-orogenic, post-orogenic and an-orogenic stage respectively, has been proposed but has not been proved yet. Here we report the study of dikes from Kinmen Island can shed light on understanding the stress evolution of orogeny. The Kinmen Island, located in the southeastern continental margin of Mainland China, cropped out the middle to lower crust of NE structural grain, which was experienced deformation and metamorphism during Late Yenshanian Orogeny(LYO). Based on previous studies of geochemistry, geochronology, and P-T conditions, various types of dike have been identified. They are syn-orognic dikes of amphibolite (130-110Ma), post-orogenic dikes of pegmatite and aplite (110-100Ma), and an-orogenic dike of gabbro (94-76Ma). During syn-orogenic stage of LYO, dike intrusion appeared as low-angle dip, which reflected that reverse faulting regime and horizontal maximum stress direction in E-W orientation. In post-orogenic stage, stress would be divided into two sub-stages. The early one was strike-slip faulting regime and horizontal maximum stress was in NW-SE orientation. The late one was normal faulting regime and horizontal maximum stress direction returned to E-W orientation. Finally, an-orogenic dike intrusion striked NE-SW with vertical dip, which displayed that normal faulting regime and NE-SW horizontal maximum stress direction. Our observation is consistent with the expected stress evolution during orogeny. Deviatoric stresses from new findings were decreased at early post-orogenic stage but increased after late post-orogenic stage, indicating the change of fluid pressure ratio with time. The spatiotemporal variation of stress field might be suggested the change

  17. Orogenic Thrust Belt, Gulf of Mexico Basin [gcthrustbg (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide the general location of the Ouachita and Appalachian structural fronts slightly modified from Plate 4, Natural resources, Gulf of Mexico Basin...

  18. Orogenic structural inheritance and rifted passive margin formation (United States)

    Salazar Mora, Claudio A.; Huismans, Ritske S.


    Structural inheritance is related to mechanical weaknesses in the lithosphere due to previous tectonic events, e.g. rifting, subduction and collision. The North and South Atlantic rifted passive margins that formed during the breakup of Western Gondwana, are parallel to the older Caledonide and the Brasiliano-Pan-African orogenic belts. In the South Atlantic, 'old' mantle lithospheric fabric resulting from crystallographic preferred orientation of olivine is suggested to play a role during rifted margin formation (Tommasi and Vauchez, 2001). Magnetometric and gravimetric mapping of onshore structures in the Camamu and Almada basins suggest that extensional faults are controlled by two different directions of inherited older Brasiliano structures in the upper lithosphere (Ferreira et al., 2009). In the South Atlantic Campos Basin, 3D seismic data indicate that inherited basement structures provide a first order control on basin structure (Fetter, 2009). Here we investigate the role of structural inheritance on the formation of rifted passive margins with high-resolution 2D thermo-mechanical numerical experiments. The numerical domain is 1200 km long and 600 km deep and represents the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Model experiments were carried out by creating self-consistent orogenic inheritance where a first phase of orogen formation is followed by extension. We focus in particular on the role of varying amount of orogenic shortening, crustal rheology, contrasting styles of orogen formation on rifted margin style, and the time delay between orogeny and subsequent rifted passive formation. Model results are compared to contrasting structural styles of rifted passive margin formation as observed in the South Atlantic. Ferreira, T.S., Caixeta, J.M., Lima, F.D., 2009. Basement control in Camamu and Almada rift basins. Boletim de Geociências da Petrobrás 17, 69-88. Fetter, M., 2009. The role of basement tectonic reactivation on the structural evolution

  19. Late-stage orogenic processes: How to link surface motion with distinct lithospheric processes (United States)

    Neubauer, F.; Heberer, B.


    There is still a lack of knowledge of surface expression caused by deep-seated lithospheric processes, and how such processes could be distinguished from other, e.g. climate-induced, surface processes like denudation. Surface expressions of deep-seated lithospheric processes in convergent settings are expected to have been long-lived and to show large wave-length structures creating a dynamic topography (Wortel and Spakman, 2000; Cloetingh and Ziegler, 2007). Resulting continent-continent collisional orogens are bivergent, and the principal vergency of collisional orogens is controlled by the previous subduction of oceanic lithosphere (Beaumont et al., 1996). A number of tectonic processes are shown to be active during late orogenic phases and these processes particularly result in specific patterns of surface uplift and denudation of the evolving orogens as well as subsidence in the associated foreland basin. A number of these processes are not fully understood. Late-stage orogenic processes include, among others, slab break-off, slab delamination respectively of lithospheric roots, back-thrusting, tectonic indentation and consequent orogen-parallel lateral extrusion and formation of Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) faults acting on the subducting lithosphere (Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975; Wortel and Spakman, 2000; Ratschbacher et al., 1991; Govers and Wortel, 2005). Here, we discuss these processes mainly in terms of their near-surface geological expressions within the orogen and the associated foreland basins, and how these processes could be distinguished by such geological features. We also show distinct theoretical models applied to the arcuate Alpine-Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaric system, which is driven by the oblique convergence of Africa-Europe. Slab-break-off results in lateral orogen-parallel migration of sharp subsidence in a linear belt in front of the slab window, coupled subsidence and subsequent uplift/basin inversion of peripheral foreland

  20. 青藏高原东南缘哀牢山构造带泥质高压麻粒岩的发现及其构造意义%Discovery of high-pressure pelitic granulite in Ailaoshan orogenic belt,southeastern Tibet, and its tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚学祥; 赵宇浩; 朱路华; 李志群


    High-pressure pelitic granulite containing porphyroblasts of garnet (Grt), sillimanite ( Sil), K-feldspar ( Kf) and plagioclase (PI) , and inclusions of spinel (Spl) , kyanite ( Ky) , sapphirine (Spr) and rutile (Rut) have been found from the Ailaoshan orogenic belt, southeastern Tihet, regarded as a key indicator for identification of the boundary between the Indochina and South China blocks. The temperatures and pressures calculated by garnet-biotite-plagioclase-quartz geothermobarometery and high-temperature equilibrium spinel ± quartz assemblage show the formation and evolution of the graunlite had experienced clockwise P-T path from high-pressurc/-tcmpcrature to mid-temperature and low-pressure metamorphism. That are: 1) the high-pressure/-temperature metamorphism (HP/HT) is characterized by an assemblage of Ky ± Sil ± Grt1 ± Kf1 ± PI1 ± Spr ± Ter( Kf ± PI) ± Bt1 ± Spl ± Qtz ± Ilm1 ± Rut1, and the peak P-T conditions of > 10.4kbar at 850 ~ 919℃ ; 2) the mid-temperature and low-pressure retrogressive metamorphism characterized by an assemblage of Grt2 ± Bt2 ± PI2 ± Ms ± Qtz ± Ilm, ± Rut2, and two stage P-T conditions of 4. 9 ~ 6. 5kbar at 664 -754℃ and 3. 5 -3. 9kbar at 572 -576T respectively. The dynamic metamorphic path was that the metapelitic rock experienced high-pressure/-temperature granulite-facies metamorphism in lower continental crust ( >30 km) exhumated to mid-upper crust rapidly, it might be related to the continental collision and underthrusting between the Indochina and South China blocks, and exhumation and slip shearing lately.%哀牢山构造带泥质高压麻粒岩主要由石榴石、夕线石、钾长石和斜长石变斑晶及尖晶石、铁假蓝宝石、蓝晶石、石英、金红石和钛铁矿包裹体组成,为确定印支地块和华南地块的边界提供了关键性标志.石榴石-黑云母-斜长石-石英地质温压计(GBPQ)计算结果及标志性高温矿物组合(Spl+ Qz)表明泥质高压麻粒岩

  1. The crust-mantle interaction in continental subduction channels: Zircon evidence from orogenic peridotite in the Sulu orogen (United States)

    Li, Hai-Yong; Chen, Ren-Xu; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Hu, Zhaochu


    A combined secondary ion mass spectrometer and laser ablation-(multicollector)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer study of zircon U-Pb ages, trace elements, and O and Hf isotopes was carried out for orogenic peridotite and its host gneiss in the Sulu orogen. Newly grown zircon domains exhibit weak zoning or no zoning, relatively low Th/U ratios (earth element (HREE) contents, steep middle rare earth element-HREE patterns, negative Eu anomalies, and negative to low δ18O values of -11.3 to 0.9‰ and U-Pb ages of 220 ± 2 to 231 ± 4 Ma. Thus, these zircons would have grown from metasomatic fluids during the early exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust. The infiltration of metasomatic fluids into the peridotite is also indicated by the occurrence of hydrous minerals such as amphibole, serpentine, and chlorite. In contrast, relict zircon domains exhibit magmatic zircon characteristics. Their U-Pb ages and trace element and Hf-O isotope compositions are similar to those for protolith zircons from ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt. Thus, these relict magmatic zircons would be physically transported into the peridotite by metasomatic fluids originated from the deeply subducted continental crust. Therefore, the peridotite underwent metasomatism by aqueous solutions derived from dehydration of the deeply subducted continental crust during the early exhumation. It is these crustally derived fluids that would have brought not only such chemical components as Zr and Si but also tiny zircon grains from the deeply subducted crustal rocks into the peridotite at the slab-mantle interface in continental subduction channels. As such, the orogenic peridotite records the crust-mantle interaction at the deep continental subduction zone.

  2. Testing models of orogen exhumation using zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology: Insight from the Ligurian Alps, Northern Italy (United States)

    Maino, Matteo; Dallagiovanna, Giorgio; Dobson, Katherine J.; Gaggero, Laura; Persano, Cristina; Seno, Silvio; Stuart, Finlay M.


    Testing models of orogen exhumation requires precise constraint of the time-temperature paths of the exhumed rocks. The zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) thermochronometer has a closure temperature of ~ 140-210 °C, and can provide temporal constraints on the exhumation history of rocks through a thermal range which crucially corresponds the onset of brittle behaviour of an exhuming orogen. We performed ZHe analyses to test the existing contradictory models for the exhumation of the Ligurian Alps. The ZHe ages indicate a very rapid (1.3-6.8 mm/yr) and southward migrating exhumation of the orogen between ~ 32 and 25 Ma. These high exhumation rates are unique within the Alpine belt and cannot be reconciled with existing geodynamic models of the evolution of the Ligurian Alps. We propose a model of tectonic denudation via detachment accomplished in the shallowest crust (< 5 km) as a result of the last orogenic phase of extension.

  3. Ecosystem Services Evaluation and Its Spatial Characteristics in Central Asia’s Arid Regions: A Case Study in Altay Prefecture, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Fu


    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are important foundations to realize the sustainable development of economy and society. The question of how to quantitatively evaluate ecosystem services in a scientific way is a hot topic among international researchers. Studying the spatial characteristics of ecosystem services in arid regions can provide the theoretical and practical basis for coordinating a sustainable man-land relationship. Altay Prefecture of China, a typical arid region in Central Asia, was taken as the study area. It is on the Silk Road economic belt, which is a key region in the program of developing Western China. Three ecosystem services: water yield, soil conservation, and net primary productivity were quantitatively evaluated. The results show that (1 the spatial distribution pattern has a distinct characteristic of zonality; (2 mountain zone and mountain-oasis ecotone are the hotspots of ecosystem services; and (3 the correlation between water yield and net primary productivity shows a gradual increasing trend as altitude decreases. Objective analysis from the aspect of mechanism is given by discussing the causes of this particular pattern. It is found that altitude and slope have great influence on spatial distributions of ecosystem services, zones with the most amount of services are distributed in 1.5–2 km-altitude and 15–25°-slope. Different human activities in different regions and spatial distance decay of ecosystem services also contribute to the formation of spatial pattern. Thus, overgrazing, logging and mining are prohibited in mountain zones and mountain-oasis ecotones. Scholars are encouraged to focus on desert-ecosystem services in the future.

  4. Reconciling the detrital zircon record and crustal growth within juvenile accretionary orogens (United States)

    Spencer, C. J.; Cawood, P. A.; Roberts, N. M. W.


    Ancient cratons are generally characterised by Archaean cores surrounded by Proterozoic accretionary belts with large volumes of juvenile crust. Their crustal growth histories provide important insights into the genesis of continents and orogenic evolution. Whole-rock and detrital zircon isotopic studies are often used to deduce those histories, but the extent to which representative lithologies within the orogens are reliably sampled for such studies is not well established. This is especially true in cases where juvenile, zircon-poor mafic crust comprises a significant proportion of an orogen such as the East African (0.8-0.5 Ga), Namaqua-Natal (1.2-1.0 Ga), Trans-Hudson (1.9-1.8 Ga), and Kola (2.5 Ga). In particular, the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal orogenic belt (NNO) fringing the Kalahari Craton is a case in point in which Nd isotopic studies of whole-rock outcrop samples and U-Pb-Hf isotopic studies of detrital zircons from sediments of the Orange River (which drains the NNO) show different crust-formation ages and proportions of new and reworked crustal material. We hypothesise that this discrepancy is due to biasing of the detrital zircon record towards felsic rocks. Understanding the representative nature of the crustal archive preserved in detrital zircons remains critical for many studies of crustal evolution. We present data that: (a) addresses the scale of potential bias within an accretionary orogen containing large proportions of juvenile material, (b) demonstrates how the whole-rock and detrital zircon records can be reconciled for the Namaqua-Natal orogen to start, and (c) can be used to evaluate the effect of zircon bias on previous crustal growth models.

  5. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: A lead isotope study of an Archaean gold prospect in the Attu region, Nagssugtoqidian orogen, West Greenland


    Stendal, Henrik; Frei, Robert; Stensgaard, Bo Møller


    This paper presents a lead isotope investigation of a gold prospect south of the village Attu in the northern part of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in central West Greenland. The Attu gold prospect is a replacement gold occurrence, related to a shear/mylonite zone along a contact between orthogneissand amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian orogenic belt. The mineral occurrence is small, less than 0.5 m wide, and can be followed along strike for several hundred metres. The mineral assemblage is ...

  6. Crustal Architecture along BABEL and FIRE profiles - Insight in the Growth of the Svecofennian Orogen (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa


    The Precambrian Svecofennian orogen is characterized by LP- HT metamorphism and voluminous granitoid magmatism that usually develop in transitional to plateau stages of a collisional orogeny. Deep seismic reflection profiles BABEL and FIRE have been interpreted using PURC concepts: prowedge, retrowedg, uplifted plug, subduction conduit and elevated plateau. BABEL profiles image a transitional orogen with several nuclei displaying prowedge-uplifted plug-retrowedge architecture above paleo-subduction conduits. Prowedge and -continent are on the south-southwestern side and retrowedge and -continent on the north-northwestern side. This implies a long-lived southwesterly retreating convergent margin, where transitional accretionary orogens have developed. FIRE1-3 profiles images a hot orogen with a pronounced super-infra structure, typical of an elevated plateau stage, below the Central Finland Granitoid Complex. Large volumes of granitoid intrusions suggest large scale melting of the middle and/or lower crust. Reflection structures, analogue and numerical modeling suggest midcrustal flow. The plateau is flanked by prowedges that are characterized by HT-LP migmatite belts. The Svecofennian orogeny has progressed to an elevated plateau stage in the thickest core of the orogen, west of the arc-continent collision zone.

  7. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China (United States)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; He, Dengfa; Qi, Xuefeng


    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  8. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy G. Salnikov


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010. Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6. Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental

  9. Exhumation at orogenic indentor corners under long-term glacial conditions: Example of the St. Elias orogen, Southern Alaska (United States)

    Spotila, James A.; Berger, Aaron L.


    Syntaxial bends in convergent plate boundaries, or indentor corners, display some of the most intriguing deformation patterns on Earth and are type localities for "aneurysms" of coupled erosion, thermal weakening, and strain. The St. Elias orogen in Alaska is a small, young convergent system that has been dominated by a glacial climate for much of its history and exhibits two prominent indentor corners that are not well understood. We have added 40 new apatite (U-Th)/He ages to the already extensive dataset for the low-temperature cooling history of this orogen to constrain the pattern of exhumation in these indentor corners. Ages from the western syntaxis show minor variation across the structural hinge, suggesting that the bend has little effect on the pattern of exhumation and that structures, including the Bagley fault, connect smoothly from the orogen core to the subduction zone to the southwest. Rock uplift on the north flank of the range appears to increase steadily towards the eastern syntaxis, which represents the apex in the right-angle bend between a transform fault in the south and the collision zone in the west. Based on age-elevation relationships, zones of relative rock uplift can be defined in which the Mt. Logan massif, or the area just north of the eastern syntaxis, experienced ˜ 4.8 km greater rock uplift than background levels northwest of the western syntaxis. A bulge in relative rock uplift is symmetric about the hinge in the eastern indentor corner. However, rates of denudation in this bulge are not as rapid as the core of the fold and thrust belt and are lower than those implied by detrital cooling ages from beneath the Seward Glacier. This implies that a large bull's eye of ultra-rapid (˜ 5 mm/yr) exhumation does not occur and that the subpopulation of young detrital ages may be sourced from a narrow transpressional zone along the Fairweather fault. Unlike the Himalayan syntaxes, it thus appears that an aneurysm of coupled erosion

  10. The Xilingele complex from the eastern part of the Central Asian-Mongolia Orogenic Belt, China: Products of Early Variscan orogeny other than ancient block: Evidence from zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages%中亚-蒙古造山带东段的锡林郭勒杂岩:早华力西期造山作用的产物而非古老陆块?——锆石SHRIMP U-Pb年代学证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛怀民; 郭利军; 侯增谦; 周喜文; 童英; 潘晓菲


    锡林郭勒杂岩是华北板块北缘古生代褶皱带内出露面积最大的变质岩系,以前多被当着前寒武纪的古老地块.本文通过对该杂岩中副片麻岩和正片麻岩的锆石SHRIMP U-Pb年代学研究发现,副片麻岩中的锆石多为岩浆锆石,其~(206)pb/~(238)U加权平均年龄为406±7Ma,指示它们的原岩主要是由近同期(略早些)的岩浆岩风化后就近沉积的产物,该年龄应代表源区(岛弧型?)花岗岩的形成时间,同时也是副片麻岩原岩沉积的下限年龄.正片麻岩中岩浆锆石的~(206)pb/~(238)U加权平均年龄为382±2Ma,代表花岗片麻岩原岩的侵位年龄.岩石中锆石的变质增生边的形成年龄为337±6Ma,代表锡林郭勒杂岩发生变质和变形的时间,该变质事件可能与贺根山缝合带内所发生的一次主要的碰撞造山作用有关.这些年龄资料充分说明,锡林郭勒杂岩并非古老地块,而是华力西早期岩浆作用、沉积作用和变质作用事件的产物.整个事件是在较短的时间范围内(~70Ma)完成的,推测该杂岩发育在碰撞造山带的弧前环境.中亚-蒙古造山带东南部(内蒙古的中、东部)碰撞前的构造格局可能不是典型的多岛洋体制,由于缺少古老的陆块,造山过程更多的表现为大洋的大陆化过程,即洋内俯冲形成岛弧,岛弧在被动大陆边缘拼贴聚合转化为新的大陆.%The Xilingele complex is one of the maximal series of metamorphic rocks outcropped in the Paleozoic folded region along the northern margin of the North China Craton, has been ever considered as a Precambrian block before. In this work, we acquired zircon SHRIMP U-Pb data of the complex in order to gain the forming ages of their protoliths and metamorphism ages to constrain the orogenic processes of the eastern part of the Central Asian-Mongolia Orogenic Belt. The results are as follows: Most zircon grains from the paragneiss were formed in magma, their weighted mean

  11. Paleomagnetic constraints for the tectonic evolution of the southern Apennines belt (Italy)


    Gattacceca, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Speranza, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia


    The southern Apennine belt is formed by nappes that have undergone large (i. e. hundreds of kms) horizontal displacements. In such tectonic scenario, orogenic rotations of nappes are clearly expected, and paleomagnetism may represent a key tool to constrain displacements and understand the pre-orogenic paleogeography. Recent paleomagnetic data have shown that the Apenninic carbonate platform, on top of the nappe pile, has rotated ~80° counterclockwise (CCW) after Langhian...

  12. The role of lateral lithospheric strength heterogeneities in orogenic plateau growth: Insights from 3-D thermo-mechanical modeling (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Gerya, Taras V.


    Preexisting lateral variations in crustal thickness and lithospheric thermal state are documented for the formation of some orogenic plateaux. Here we use high-resolution 3-D thermo-mechanical simulations to investigate the influence of preexisting lateral lithospheric strength heterogeneity on the growth of orogenic plateau. The modeling results illustrate an episodic scenario for plateau growth: (1) an early rapid growth stage, characterized by rapid surface uplift and intensive crustal buckling and thickening; (2) an outward spreading stage, characterized by significant lateral expansion of the plateau edges; and (3) a mature stage, characterized by the development of the intracrustal partial melting and subduction of the surrounding lithosphere under the plateau. Sensitivity analyses indicate that lateral variation in crustal thickness favors outward spreading of orogenic plateau, while lateral variation in geothermal gradient favors crustal buckling. The model in absence of lateral strength heterogeneity leads to progressive migration of orogenic belt. Our models show that the plateau's lower crust is largely coupled with underlying lithospheric mantle and does not flow into the surrounding lithospheres, casting doubt on the lower crust flow model. We suggest that the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system can be best understood within the framework that the proto-southern Asian margin was fairly weak prior to the India-Asia collision to steer the formation of a large hot orogenic plateau there.

  13. Australian Palaeozoic palaeomagnetism and tectonics—I. Tectonostratigraphic terrane constraints from the Tasman Fold Belt (United States)

    Powell, C. McA.; Li, Z. X.; Thrupp, G. A.; Schmidt, P. W.

    The Tasman Fold Belt (TFB) of Eastern Australia can be divided into three meridional orogenic realms: the Kanmantoo, Lachlan-Thomson and New England Orogens. The geological histories of the orogens overlap, but each is distinctive. The Kanmantoo Orogen was provenance-linked to the Australian craton in the Early Cambrian, and accreted to Australia by Late Cambrian. There are many possible tectonostratigraphic terranes in the Lachlan Fold Belt (LFB) but these can be simplified to two major amalgamated terranes by the Middle Silurian. All the LFB terranes appear provenance-linked in the Ordovician, and were progressively covered, from the west, during the Late Silurian to Late Devonian, by a quartzose overlap assemblage. The New England Orogen has a fragmentary Early Palaeozoic history, but from the Devonian onwards its geology is related to a series of volcanic island and continental margin magmatic arcs. There is some evidence of provenance-linking between the Lachlan and New England Orogens in the Devono-Carboniferous but docking is not demonstrated until the mid-Carboniferous. The few reliable pre-Late Carboniferous palaeomagnetic poles available from the TFB come from the eastern LFB. The poles post-date accretion of the LFB to the Australian craton. Thus, the possibility that parts of the Lachlan-Thomson and New England Orogens contain exotic elements is yet to be tested palaeomagnetically.

  14. Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of granitoids of the western part of Altay-Sayan fold region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the results of Sm-Nd isotope dating of granitoids of the western part of Altay-Sayan fold region, performed to determine the main age boundary line of continental crust formation during its evolution, are summarized. Two isotopic provinces are identified in the region, which differ in the model Sm-Nd isotope age of granitoid protolytes. For the first province the age is 0.78-0.94 bln.a., for the second one it is 1.19-1.39 bln. a

  15. Great Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten S.; Kristensen, Per S.; Erichsen, Lars

    This paper describes aspects of the soil investigations and geotechnical evaluations for the foundation design of the 6.6 km long Great Belt West Bridge. The gravity foundations rest predominantly on glacial tills and pre-quaternary limestone. Special investigations for assessment of the soil pro...... properties for ship impact and ice loading are described briefly, and first experiences from settlement monitoring of the structure during erection are presented....

  16. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.


    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  17. Subsidence, stress regime and rotation(s) of a tectonically active sedimentary basin within the western Alpine Orogen: the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (Alpine domain, NW Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrapa, B.; Bertotti, G.; Krijgsman, W.


    The Oligocene to Miocene Tertiary Piedmont Basin (TPB) is located in the NW part of Italy at the junction between the Apennine and the Alpine thrust belts. The position of the TPB on top of the Alpine/Apennine Orogen poses fundamental questions as to the tectonics of the basin subsidence. Having und

  18. A combined noble gas and halogen study of orogenic gold mineralisation in the Alpine and Otago Schists, New Zealand


    Goodwin, Nicholas Robert John


    Quartz and pyrite samples from Pliocene-recent, sub-economic orogenic gold mineralisation in the Southern Alps and Mesozoic economic deposits in the Otago Schist Belt have been analysed for noble gases and halogens. Palaeo-hydrothermal fluids preserved in fluid inclusions were released by crushing and analysed by mass spectrometry. Helium isotope measurements confirm the absence of a mantle-derived fluid component in gold-bearing veins from the Southern Alps and at the large gold deposit at M...

  19. Interactions between tectonics, erosion, and sedimentation during the recent evolution of the alpine orogen: analogue modeling insights


    Bonnet, Cécile; Malavieille, Jacques; Mosar, Jon


    On the basis of a section across the northwestern Alpine wedge and foreland basin, analogue modeling is used to investigate the impact of surface processes on the orogenic evolution. The basis model takes into account both structural and lithological heritages of the wedge. During shortening, erosion and sedimentation are performed to maintain a critical wedge. Frontal accretion leads to the development of a foreland thrust belt; underplating leads to the formation of an antiformal nappe stac...

  20. Synkinematic intrusion of granitoid sheets, with implications for molybdenite deposits in the Knaben Zone - Sirdal Magmatic Belt, SW Norway


    Stormoen, Martin Austin


    The Knaben Zone represents a N-S-elongated zone with abundant xenolith screens and molybdenite deposits within the late Mesoproterozoic Sirdal Magmatic Belt (SMB) batholith in the Sveconorwegian orogen, in SW Norway. The SMB represents a significant component of the western vicinity of the Sveconorwegian orogen, and has recently received attention due to its lately defined sheer size and weak deformation. Through determining the significance of xenolith-rich zones the understandin...

  1. Compressional and extensional tectonics inside collisional belts: the case of the western portion of the Northern Apennines


    Carlini, Mirko


    Coeval extensional and compressional tectonics are a common feature in orogenic belts, especially in post-collisional phases. The attempt to constrain their relative timing and the responsible mechanisms led to several models taking into account different geodynamic contexts of various mountain chains. In peri-Mediterranean collisional orogens, extension and compression are commonly associated and coeval to the emplacement of far-travelled/allochthonous units. The deformation acquired by thes...

  2. Calcite Twins, a Tool for Tectonic Studies in Thrust Belts and Stable Orogenic Forelands Les macles de la calcite, un outil pour les études tectoniques dans les chaînes plissées et les avant-pays peu déformés des orogènes


    Lacombe O.


    Calcite twins have been used for a long time as indicators of stress/strain orientations and magnitudes. Recent developments during the last 15 years point toward significant improvements of existing techniques as well as new applications of calcite twin analysis in thrust belts and forelands. This paper summarizes the principles of the most common techniques in this tectonic field and illustrates some aspects of the use of calcite twins to constrain not only stress/strain orientations a...

  3. Paleozoic Orogens of Mexico and the Laurentia-Gondwana Connections: an Update (United States)

    Ortega-Gutierrez, F.


    The present position of Mexico in North America and the fixist tectonic models that prevailed prior to the seventies of the past century, have considered the main Paleozoic tectonic systems of Mexico as natural extensions of the orogens that fringed the eastern and southern sides of the Laurentian craton. Well known examples of pre-Mesozoic orogens in Mexico are the Oaxacan, Acatlan, and Chiapas polymetamorphic terranes, which have been correlated respectively with the Grenville and Appalachian-Ouachitan orogens of eastern North America. Nonetheless, several studies conducted during the last decade in these Mexican orogenic belts, have questioned their Laurentian connections, regarding northwestern Gondwana instead as the most plausible place for their birth and further tectonic evolution. This work pretends to approach the problem by briefly integrating the massive amount of new geological information, commonly generated through powerful dating methods such as LA-ICPM-MS on detrital zircon of sedimentary and metasedimentary units in the Paleozoic crustal blocks, which are widely exposed in southern and southeastern Mexico. The Acatlan Complex bears the closest relationships to the Appalachian orogenic system because it shows thermotectonic evidence for opening and closure of the two main oceans involved in building the Appalachian mountains in eastern Laurentia, whereas two other Paleozoic terranes in NW and SE Mexico, until recently rather geologically unknown, may constitute fundamental links between the Americas for the last-stage suturing and consolidation of western Pangea. The buried basement of the Yucatan platform (400,000 squared km) on the other hand, remains as one of the most relevant problems of tectonostratigraphic correlations across the Americas, because basement clasts from the Chicxulub impact ejecta reveal absolute and Nd-model ages that suggest close Gondwanan affinities. Major changes in the comprehension of the Paleozoic orogens in Mexico

  4. Noble gases fingerprint a metasedimentary fluid source in the Macraes orogenic gold deposit, New Zealand (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas R. J.; Burgess, Ray; Craw, Dave; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Ballentine, Chris J.


    The world-class Macraes orogenic gold deposit (˜10 Moz resource) formed during the late metamorphic uplift of a metasedimentary schist belt in southern New Zealand. Mineralising fluids, metals and metalloids were derived from within the metasedimentary host. Helium and argon extracted from fluid inclusions in sulphide mineral grains (three crush extractions from one sample) have crustal signatures, with no evidence for mantle input (R/Ra = 0.03). Xenon extracted from mineralised quartz samples provides evidence for extensive interaction between fluid and maturing organic material within the metasedimentary host rocks, with 132Xe/36Ar ratios up to 200 times greater than air. Similarly, I/Cl ratios for fluids extracted from mineralised quartz are similar to those of brines from marine sediments that have interacted with organic matter and are ten times higher than typical magmatic/mantle fluids. The Macraes mineralising fluids were compositionally variable, reflecting either mixing of two different crustal fluids in the metasedimentary pile or a single fluid type that has had varying degrees of interaction with the host metasediments. Evidence for additional input of meteoric water is equivocal, but minor meteoric incursion cannot be discounted. The Macraes deposit formed in a metasedimentary belt without associated coeval magmatism, and therefore represents a purely crustal metamorphogenic end member in a spectrum of orogenic hydrothermal processes that can include magmatic and/or mantle fluid input elsewhere in the world. There is no evidence for involvement of minor intercalated metabasic rocks in the Macraes mineralising system. Hydrothermal fluids that formed other, smaller, orogenic deposits in the same metamorphic belt have less pronounced noble gas and halogen evidence for crustal fluid-rock interaction than at Macraes, but these deposits also formed from broadly similar metamorphogenic processes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.ttartmann; B.Wünnemann; Hucai Zhang


    The Ejina(Gaxun Nur)Basin-enclosed by the Tibetan Plateau in the south and the Gobi Altay in the north has continuously evolved as a strong continental endorheic depositional environment.Medium scale geomorphological mapping by Landsat-and Corona-Images as well as SRTM-topographic data,combined with field-surveys and geophysical investigation provides evidence for tectonic impact on sedimentary processes during the Late Quaternary.Analyses of SRTM-Data and Landsat-Images reveal a system of up to 20m high inverted channels developed on the inactive eastern part of the large Hei river drainage delta south of the ancient lake Juyanze.The complex evolution of these landforms requires a relative lowering of the lake basin at least two times since the last 40ka.A 26m high cliff section of gravel-covered lake sediments within the Juyanze paleolake indicates a strong subsidence of the lake bottom of 10m/1000yrs since 18kaB.P.North of Ejina river oasis a distinct north-south striking scarp up to 13m high constitutes the eastern margin of the Gaxun Nur.Palaeodrainage channels derived from the Gobi Altay.They display a sinistral offset of some decametres along a set of WE-trending faults.The rhombic shape of the modern dry Gaxun Nur,fossil cliffs,well preserved beach ridges along the margins of the palaeolake system as well as gravel covered topsets of lacustrine sediments indicate local displacements of morphological features.The displacements of lake sediments at the southern margin of the modern Gaxun Nut Basin imply a subsidence of at least 0.81m/1000 yrs since a result of a pull-apart development due to the left stepping faults in a sinistral system.

  6. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  7. Orogenic Response to Augmented Erosion Associated with Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: The St. Elias Orogen of Alaska (United States)

    Berger, A. L.; Gulick, S. P.; Spotila, J. A.; Worthington, L. L.; Upton, P.; Jaeger, J. M.; Pavlis, T. L.


    Active orogens are thought to behave as internally deforming critical-taper wedges that are in rough long-term equilibrium with regional boundary conditions. Deformation, kinematics, and the thermal evolution of orogenic systems are therefore believed to be significantly influenced by spatial and temporal variations in climate. The exact role of cryosphere-geosphere interactions in natural systems, however, continues to be elusive. Here we quantify the spatial patterns of denudation and deformation, and their temporal variations, in the heavily glaciated St Elias orogen in southern Alaska. The tractable size and high latitude of the St. Elias orogen provides an ideal setting to address the real world orogenic response to focused denudation and climate change. Independent of any known change in regional tectonic convergence rate, the St. Elias orogen was subjected to the most severe transition in climate during Cenozoic time, the Late Neogene and Pleistocene onset and advance of glaciers. Low-temperature bedrock thermochronometry, thermokinematic modelling, and offshore seismic reflection and borehole data demonstrate an association between augmented glacial denudation and orogenic evolution. Coeval with the onset of enhanced glacier coverage in mid-Pleistocene time, onshore denudation and offshore sedimentation accelerated ~ten-fold, with the highest rates of exhumation (4 km/Myr (±25%)) located around a narrow zone where the mean Quaternary glacial equilibrium line altitude (ELA) intersects mean topography on the windward flank of the orogen. This climatically driven mass redistribution coincided with the transfer of strain away the seaward deformation front as well as accelerated motion along both a backthrust running the length of the orogen and a series of forethrusts that lie beneath the zone of highest glacial flux. In a cause and effect response, the expansion of glaciers thus appears to have driven an orogen scale structural reorganization leading to the

  8. Tectonics of the Tongbai-Dabie fold belt (United States)

    Wenpu, Ma

    The Qinling fold belt is the northernmost branch of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Tethys in eastern Asia and contains all the inter-reacting records of the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB). The Tongbai-Dabie fold belt is its eastern section. The Qinling belt was a collage of two orogens. The north Qinling is a late Paleozoic collision orogen, which started with Proterozoic rifting, transforming into active continental margin during the middle Ordovician. The intermitten ophiolite fragments indicate the existence of an oceanic crust at that time. The collision that occurred in the Devonian was an east-west diachronous process. The main suture zone is marked by ophiolitic melange extending nearly 500 km. The late Mesozoic molasse, volcano-plutonic activity and huge imbricate thrust system all respond to the further shortening of the crust and adjustment of the intracontinental strain. The south Qinling east of the Nanyang Basin is located to the south of Tongbai mountain. A pile of thick Sinian-Silurian volcanic and marine clastic deposits imply another marine incursion. Its history in south Shaanxi could continue to the Mesozoic. The flysch trough represented by Xinyang group may be the key area for revealing the relationship between north and south Qinling. The discussion in the paper is mainly focused on the nature and evolution of the Tongbai-Dabie fold belt.

  9. Geochemistry, Geochronology and Genesis of Gold Mineralization in Nurt of Northern Altay, Xinjiang:A Case Study on the Aketishikan Gold Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Feng; ZHOU Taofa; TAN Lugui; LUO Xianrong; YUE Shucang


    Gold deposits such as the Aketishikan, Togetobie, Tasbig-Kokeydlas, Kums and Hongshanzui gold deposits in the Nurt area in Altay of Xinjiang were found in Member 3 rhyolite tufflava, fragmental lava and ignimbrite of the Carboniferous Hongshanzui Group. Trace and rare earth elements, sulfur, lead, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, and geochronological studies indicate that the ore-forming material was mostly supplied by the Carboniferous volcanic rocks through water-rock interaction under a low-to-moderate temperature, and the hydrothermal ore-forming fluid came from meteoric water with some magmatic water input evolved from the granitic magmas. Gold deposits in the Nurt area as well as in the northern Altay might form in multiple stages, and the Yanshanian mineralization period should be paid more attention besides the Variscan mineralization period.

  10. The boundary between the eastern and western domains of the Pyrenean Orogen: a Cenozoic triple junction zone in Iberia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tavani


    Full Text Available The Cantabrian Transitional Area (CTA is located in the eastern portion of the Cantabrian Mountain Range of the northern Spain. It represents the most important internal boundary within the Upper Cretaceous to Cenozoic E–W elongated Pyrenean Orogen. In the south-verging portion of this orogen, the CTA divides the western thick-skinned Cantabrian Domain, which accommodated for a limited portion of the total N–S oriented orogenic shortening, from the Pyrenean realm to the east, where the south-verging frontal structures are characterised by a marked thiN–Skin style of deformation, and significantly contributed to accommodate the total shortening. In the Cantabrian Transitional Area, Cenozoic syn-orogenic left-lateral, right-lateral and reverse dip-slip movements have occurred along different directions, postdating early-orogenic extensional structures. The latter indicate that the southern portion of the study area formed the eastern termination of the northward concave roughly E–W oriented proto Duero Foreland Basin. This basin was flanked to the north by the thick-skinned proto Cantabrian Belt, which included in its easternmost part the northern portion of the Cantabrian Transitional Area. Onset of right-lateral strike-slip tectonics along the WNW-ESE striking Ubiernal-Venatniella Fault System, which locates to the SW of the CTA and crosses the entire Cantabrian Belt and its formerly southern foreland basin, caused the dislocation of the belt-foredeep system. Contextually, thiN–Skinned structures belonging to the eastern domain of the Pyrenean Orogen laterally propagated and incorporated the eastern part of the proto Duero Foreland Basin. Coexistence of right-lateral and reverse movements to the west and to the east, respectively, determined the onset of an intrabelt compression at the boundary between the Cantabrian and Pyrenean domains, which was the ultimate act of the fusion of the two domains into a single orogen.

  11. Early Yanshanian post-orogenic granitoids in the Nanling region——Petrological constraints and geodynamic settings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培荣; 陆建军; 范春方; 华仁民; 章邦桐


    Early Yanshanian magmatic suites predominate absolutely in the Nanling granite belt. They consist mainly of monzogranite and K-feldspar granite. There occur associations of early Yanshanian A-type granitoids (176 Ma-178 Ma) and bimodal volcanic rocks (158 Ma-179 Ma) in southern Jiangxi and southwestern Fujian in the eastern sector of the granite belt and early Yanshanian basalts (177 Ma-178 Ma) in southern Hunan in the central sector of the belt. Both the acid end-member rhyolite in the bimodal volcanic rock association and A-type granitoids in southern Jiangxi have the geochemical characteristics of intraplate granitic rocks and the basic end-member basalt of the association is intraplate tholeiite, while the basaltic rocks in southern Hunan include not only intraplate tholeiite but also intraplate alkali basalt. Therefore the early Yanshanian magmatic suites in the Nanling region are undoubtedly typical post-orogenic rock associations. Post-orogenic suites mark the end of a post-collision or late oroge

  12. Subsidence, stress regime and rotation(s) of a tectonically active sedimentary basin within the western Alpine Orogen: the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (Alpine domain, NW Italy)


    Carrapa, B.; Bertotti, G.; Krijgsman, W.


    The Oligocene to Miocene Tertiary Piedmont Basin (TPB) is located in the NW part of Italy at the junction between the Apennine and the Alpine thrust belts. The position of the TPB on top of the Alpine/Apennine Orogen poses fundamental questions as to the tectonics of the basin subsidence. Having undergone little deformation, the TPB sediments provide an insight into the stress regime and rotations in the kinematically very complex area surrounding the basin itself. In this study we integrate ...

  13. Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis in the eastern Beishan orogen: constraints from zircon U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology (United States)

    Ao, Songjian; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian; Mao, Qigui


    The continental growth mechanism of the Altaids in Central Asia is still in controversy between models of continuous subduction-accretion versus punctuated accretion by closure of multiple oceanic basins. The Beishan orogenic belt, located in the southern Altaids, is a natural laboratory to address this controversy. Key questions that are heavily debated are: the closure time and subduction polarity of former oceans, the emplacement time of ophiolites, and the styles of accretion and collision. This paper reports new structural data, zircon ages and Ar-Ar dates from the eastern Beishan Orogen that provide information on the accretion process and tectonic affiliation of various terranes. Our geochronological and structural results show that the younging direction of accretion was northwards and the subduction zone dipped southwards under the northern margin of the Shuangyingshan micro-continent. This long-lived and continuous accretion process formed the Hanshan accretionary prism. Our field investigations show that the emplacement of the Xiaohuangshan ophiolite was controlled by oceanic crust subduction beneath the forearc accretionary prism of the Shuangyingshan-Mazongshan composite arc to the south. Moreover, we address the age and terrane affiliation of lithologies in the eastern Beishan orogen through detrital zircon geochronology of meta-sedimentary rocks. We provide new information on the ages, subduction polarities, and affiliation of constituent structural units, as well as a new model of tectonic evolution of the eastern Beishan orogen. The accretionary processes and crustal growth of Central Asia were the result of multiple sequences of accretion and collision of manifold terranes. Reference: Ao, S.J., Xiao, W., Windley, B.F., Mao, Q., Han, C., Zhang, J.e., Yang, L., Geng, J., Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis in the eastern Beishan orogen: Constraints from zircon U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Gondwana Research, doi:

  14. The tectonic frame of the Variscan Alleghanian orogen in Southern Europe and Northern Africa (United States)

    Simancas, J. Fernando; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; Azor, Antonio; Lodeiro, Francisco González; Martínez Poyatos, David J.; El Hadi, Hassan


    By confronting different geological and geophysical data, we attempt to reconstruct the Variscan-Alleghanian orogenic belt, with especial emphasis on the links between Iberia, northwest Africa, and northeast America. The northern Iberia transect corresponds to the rifted margin of Gondwana, inverted during the Variscan orogeny and overthrust in its westernmost sector by a pile of allochthonous units, some of them with oceanic affinity and witnessing an orogenic suture. The southern Iberia section reveals two sutures at both boundaries of a terrane closely tied to Gondwana, namely the Ossa-Morena Zone. The southern boundary of this zone (i.e., the contact with the South Portuguese Zone) is enhanced by amphibolites with oceanic affinity and probably represents the suture of the Rheic Ocean. The Moroccan Variscides can be divided into: (i) a western external zone, namely the Coastal Block and the Central Massif; (ii) an internal zone, namely the Eastern Meseta; (iii) an eastern external zone represented in the Anti Atlas region; and (iv) the African cratonic foreland. Since neither ophiolites nor eclogites crop out along this transect of the orogen, we consider it to be an incomplete transect, lacking the main suture zone (Rheic Ocean). Stratigraphic and faunal affinities between the Moroccan Meseta, on the one hand, and the Central Iberian, Western Asturian-Leonese, and Cantabrian zones of Iberia, on the other hand, suggest that they may well have been part of a common pre-orogenic domain at the margin of Gondwana. On the contrary, there are no counterparts in Morocco for the Ossa-Morena Zone. Thus, the northern Iberia palaeogeographic zones would prolong in the Moroccan Meseta through an eastward arcuate structure, while the suture of the Rheic Ocean would do so offshore Morocco. In our reconstruction, an Avalonian spur (Grand Banks indentor), which included the Caledonian Sehoul block in northern Morocco and the crust of the South Portuguese Zone in SW Iberia

  15. Window into the Caledonian orogen: Structure of the crust beneath the East Shetland platform, United Kingdom (United States)

    McBride, J.H.; England, R.W.


    Reprocessing and interpretation of commercial and deep seismic reflection data across the East Shetland platform and its North Sea margin provide a new view of crustal subbasement structure beneath a poorly known region of the British Caledonian orogen. The East Shetland platform, east of the Great Glen strike-slip fault system, is one of the few areas of the offshore British Caledonides that remained relatively insulated from the Mesozoic and later rifting that involved much of the area around the British Isles, thus providing an "acoustic window" into the deep structure of the orogen. Interpretation of the reflection data suggests that the crust beneath the platform retains a significant amount of its original Caledonian and older architecture. The upper to middle crust is typically poorly reflective except for individual prominent dipping reflectors with complex orientations that decrease in dip with depth and merge with a lower crustal layer of high reflectivity. The three-dimensional structural orientation of the reflectors beneath the East Shetland platform is at variance with Caledonian reflector trends observed elsewhere in the Caledonian orogen (e.g., north of the Scottish mainland), emphasizing the unique tectonic character of this part of the orogen. Upper to middle crustal reflectors are interpreted as Caledonian or older thrust surfaces that were possibly reactivated by Devonian extension associated with post-Caledonian orogenic collapse. The appearance of two levels of uneven and diffractive (i.e., corrugated) reflectivity in the lower crust, best developed on east-west-oriented profiles, is characteristic of the East Shetland platform. However, a north-south-oriented profile reveals an interpreted south-vergent folded and imbricated thrust structure in the lower crust that appears to be tied to the two levels of corrugated reflectivity on the east-west profiles. A thrust-belt origin for lower crustal reflectivity would explain its corrugated

  16. What Happened in the Trans-North China Orogen in the Period 2560-1850 Ma?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guochun ZHAO; LIU Shuwen; Min SUN; LI Sanzhong; Simon WILDE; Xiaoping XIA; Jian ZHANG; Yanhong HE


    The Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) was a Paleoproterozic continent-continent collisional belt along which the Eastern and Western Blocks amalgamated to form a coherent North China Craton (NCC). Recent geological, structural, geochemical and isotopic data show that the orogen was a continental margin or Japan-type arc along the western margin of the Eastern Block, which was separated from the Western Block by an old ocean, with eastward-directed subduction of the oceanic lithosphere beneath the western margin of the Eastern Block. At 2550-2520 Ma, the deep subduction caused partial melting of the medium-lower crust, producing copious granitoid magma that was intruded into the upper levels of the crust to form granitoid plutons in the low- to medium-grade granite-greenstone terranes. At 2530-2520 Ma, subduction of the oceanic lithosphere caused partial melting of the mantle wedge, which led to underplating of mafic magma in the lower crust and widespread mafic and minor felsic volcanism in the arc, forming part of the greenstone assemblages.Extension driven by widespread mafic to felsic volcanism led to the development of back-arc and/or intra-arc basins in the orogen. At 2520-2475 Ma, the subduction caused further partial melting of the lower crust to form large amounts of tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) magmatism. At this time following further extension of back-arc basins, episodic granitoid magmatism occurred, resulting in the emplacement of 2360 Ma, ~2250 Ma 2110-21760 Ma and ~2050 Ma granites in the orogen.Contemporary volcano-sedimentary rocks developed in the back-arc or intra-arc basins. At 2150-1920 Ma, the orogen underwent several extensional events, possibly due to subduction of an oceanic ridge,leading to emplacement of mafic dykes that were subsequently metamorphosed to amphibolites and medium- to high-pressure mafic granulites. At 1880-1820 Ma, the ocean between the Eastern and Western Blocks was completely consumed by subduction, and

  17. Hydrothermal alteration styles in ancient and modern orogenic gold deposits, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orogenic hydrothermal systems in the South Island of New Zealand were active during Mesozoic and late Cenozoic collisional deformation and metamorphism of greywacke/schist terranes. Observations on the currently active mountain-building environment yield insights on processes occurring in the upper 5-15 km of the crust, and observations on an adjacent lithologically identical exhumed ancient mountain belt provide information on processes at 10-20 km in the crust. Hydrothermal fluids were mainly derived from metamorphic dehydration reactions and/or circulating topographically driven meteoric water in these mountain belts. Three geochemically and mineralogically different types of hydrothermal alteration and vein mineralisation occurred in these orogenic belts, and gold enrichment (locally economic) occurred in some examples of each of these three types. The first type of alteration involved fluids that were in or near chemical equilibrium with their greenschist facies host rocks. Fluid flow was controlled by discontinuous fractures, and by microshears and grain boundaries in host rocks, in zones from metres to hundreds of metres thick. Vein and alteration mineralogy was similar to that of the host rocks, and included calcite and chlorite. The second type of alteration occurred where the fluids were in distinct disequilibrium with the host rocks. Fracture permeability was important for fluid flow, but abundant host rock alteration occurred as well. The alteration zones were characterised by decomposition of chlorite and replacement by ankeritic carbonate in zones up to tens of metres thick. The mineralising fluid was deep-sourced and initially rock-equilibrated, with some meteoric input. The third type of mineralisation was controlled almost exclusively by fracture permeability, and host rock alteration was minor (centimetre scale). This mineralisation type commonly involved calcite and chlorite as vein and alteration minerals, and mineralisation fluids had a major

  18. Prevalence of lung cancer Altay region as a result of nuclear weapon tests the atmosphere on the testing ground near Semipalatinsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of morbidity of lung cancer among the population of Altay region were carried out. The higher level of morbidity of village population as compared with the urban population, the high rate of lung cancer among women and the prevalence of small-cell and large-cell carcinomas were discovered. The high titer of antibodies to Epstain-Barr virus and the high degree of chromosome 'brittleness' in the oncogen areas in T-lymphocytes as well as the low value index of DNA-reparation with a high factor number which characterizes the antitumor resistance were found among the population of this region

  19. Precambrian Cratons and Fold-Belts in Brazil: Overview (United States)

    Fuck, R.


    The main Precambrian terrains recognized in Brazil comprise the Amazonian, São Francisco and Rio de la Plata cratons, surrounded by Neoproterozoic Brasiliano fold belts, making up the Borborema, Mantiqueira and Tocantins provinces. The Amazonian craton comprises an Archean core, surrounded by Paleoproterozoic terrains (Maroni-Itacaiunas, Ventuari-Tapajós, Rio Negro-Juruena), which southwestwards give way to the Mesoproterozoic Rondoniano-San Ignacio and Sunsas belts, the latter thought to be related to the Grenville belt of North America. The São Francisco craton comprises several Archean blocks (Gavião, Serrinha, Jequié) amalgamated by the Paleoproterozoic high-grade Itabuna-Salvador-Curaçá orogen. The Rio de la Plata craton, largely covered by Phanerozoic strata, is made of Paleoproterozoic basement gneiss and several Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts. Other cratonic blocks are hidden below large Phanerozoic basins, like the Paranapanema and Parnaíba blocks below the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, respectively. Several smaller Archean/Paleoproterozoic blocks appear within the Brasiliano provinces: some were strongly reworked during the Neoproterozoic orogenic events (São José do Campestre, Pernambuco-Alagoas, Goiás, Guanhães, Juiz de Fora, Curitiba), others were only marginally affected (São Luiz, Rio Apa, Luís Alves). The Brasiliano provinces are the result of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic orogenic events within the framework of West Gondwana amalgamation. The Mantiqueira Province extends from eastern Brazil to southern Uruguay and includes the Araçuaí, Ribeira and Dom Feliciano fold belts, bordering the São Francisco, Paranapanema and Rio de la Plata cratons and surrounding the Luís Alves craton. The Tocantins province in central Brazil includes the Araguaia, Paraguay and Brasília fold belts, the former bordering the Amazonian craton, the second bordering both the southern Amazonian craton and the Rio Apa block, and the last established on

  20. Orogenic Tertiary magmatism on the Macedonian Dinarides: a Review


    Boev, Blazo; Yanev, Yotzo


    Widespread Tertiary magmatism of orogenic signature developed on the Macedonian part of the Dinarides, essentially in the Serbo-Macedonian massif and in the Vardar zone (KARAMATA et al., 1992). Orogenic magmatic rocks (predominantly volcanic) are presented in 5 areas (from east to west): the Osogovo-Besna Kobila, Kratovo-Zletovo, BuCim-Borov Dol, Dojran and Kozuf.

  1. Erosion and Sediment Transport Across Pronounced Topographic and Climatic Gradients in the Himalayan Orogen (United States)

    Strecker, M. R.; Bookhagen, B.


    The interaction between the NW-directed trajectories of moisture transport associated with the Indian Summer Monsoon circulation and the high topography of the Himalayan orogen results in one of the most efficient orographic barriers on Earth. The steep topographic gradients, the impact of focused rainfall along the southern flank of the range, and northward shifts of rainfall during frequent intensified Indian Summer Monsoons are responsible for an efficient erosional regime, with some of the highest known erosion rates. The spatiotemporal correlation between various topographic, tectonic, climatic, and exhumational phenomena in this region has resulted in the formulation of models of possible long-term erosional and tectonic feedback processes that drive the lateral expansion and vertical growth of the mountain belt. However, despite an increase in thermochronologic, cosmogenic radionuclide, and sedimentological datasets that help explain the underlying mechanisms, the true nature of these relationships is still unclear and controversies particularly exist concerning the importance of the different forcing factors that drive exhumation and, ultimately, deformation. Here, we synthesize and assess these controversies with observations from studies conducted perpendicular to and along strike of the orogen, and combine them with our new basin-wide erosion-rate data from the Sutlej Valley in the NW Himalaya. In our regional comparison we highlight the importance of large river systems and climate-controlled aspects of weathering concerning fluvial mass distribution as there appear to be positive feedbacks between tectonics and surface processes. In contrast, observations from smaller catchments along the orogenic front suggest a negative correlation. Similar to other environments with steep topographic and climatic gradients, our observations from the Sutlej catchments emphasize that erosional processes in the Himalayan realm are most efficient in geomorphic

  2. Precise timing of the Early Paleozoic metamorphism and thrust deformation in the Eastern Kunlun Orogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In Dulan County, Qinghai Province NW China, the arc volcanic sequences in the northern side of the Central Fault of the East Kunlun were metamorphosed progressively from upper greenschist facies in the south to epidote-amphibolite facies in the north. High-angle thrust deforma-tion was developed synchronously with the peak metamor-phim and superimposed with later low-angle striking-slip deformation. Zircon U-Pb dating yields a concordant age of (448 ± 4) Ma for the metavolcanics. Syn-kinematic horn-blende and muscovite separated from the high-angle thrust-ing belt give 40Ar-39Ar plateau age of (427 ± 4) Ma and 408 Ma, respectively. These results precisely constrain the timing of the closure of early Paleozoic volcanic basin (Proto-Tethys) over the eastern portion of the East Kunlun Orogen, and the thrust tectonic slice had a cool rate of ca. 9℃/Ma.

  3. Sediment-hosted/orogenic gold mineral systems exploration using PALSAR remote sensing data in Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan


    The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) is genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implications for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the BRSZ Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Three generations of folding event have been discerned from remote sensing structural analysis. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Compressional tectonics structures such as NW-SE trending thrust, ENE-WSW oriented faults in mylonite and phyllite, recumbent folds and asymmetric anticlines in argillite are high potential zones for gold prospecting.

  4. Isotopic evidence for two neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic events in the Brazilia belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brasilia Belt is part of a Brasiliano/Pan African orogen developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons. The stabilization of the belt occurred after the last metamorphic event at ca. 620 Ma. There has been increasing geochronological evidence, however, for an older Neoproterozoic metamorphic event at ca. 780 Ma, observed mainly in high grade rocks of three large mafic-ultramafic complexes in the northern part of the belt. In this study we present: (i) new U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronological data, (ii) a review of the existing metamorphic ages in the Brasilia Belt, and (iii) a discussion on the tectonic model to explain the two Neoproterozoic metamorphic ages (au)

  5. The evolving anatomy of a collapsing orogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van


    The Tethys Oceans separated Africa and Arabia from Eurasia, and India from Asia. Closure of the Tethys started in the Jurassic and led to the Alpine-Himalayan mountain chain. This thesis will focus on the Aegean segment of this mountain belt. The Aegean region is occupied by a stack of nappes that



    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan


    The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest ...

  7. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza


    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  8. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A.


    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  9. Origin of Relief in a Collisional Orogen: the Case of the Canadian Rockies (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Stockmal, G.; Haspel, R.


    Contrary to popular assumption, the mountainous local relief of the Canadian Rockies probably did not originate with the thrusting that characterized the Laramide Orogeny; rather, that relief is a post-orogenic phenomenon. The magnitude of present local relief in the Rockies thrust-and-fold belt (TFB) depends the relative erosional resistance of rocks exposed at the surface. The mountains consist of high ridges of well-indurated Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks carried by thrust faults, alternating with valleys developed in softer Mesozoic clastic rocks, whereas in the foothills, where the less-resistant Mesozoic rocks are at the surface, relief is subdued. Mesozoic rocks originally blanketed the entire width of what is now the TFB, and local physiography of the belt at the end of Laramide (EOL) time must have depended on whether the Mesozoic rocks had been erosionally removed to expose the underlying, resistant Paleozoic rocks. A reconstruction of the TFB using critical-taper theory generally agrees with reconstructions from earlier stratigraphic and paleothermometry studies: what are now the front ranges in the eastern Rockies were still covered with Mesozoic rocks at the EOL. Hence this part of the belt may have comprised a high-elevation upland of relatively low relief, perhaps broadly similar to the Tibetan Plateau. Generation of modern relief, including the escarpment at the mountain front, had to await stripping of Mesozoic rocks and incision of rivers into harder substrates in post-EOL time. In the 'main ranges' in the western part of the TFB, thrusting and consequent erosion began earlier. Mesozoic cover was partly stripped off by EOL time, and probably locally in early Cretaceous time, so that part of the belt probably displayed 'mountainous' relief then. But the evolution there probably was the same, from original high-elevation, low-relief plateau to later rugged mountains.

  10. Petrology and provenance of the Neogene fluvial succession in Pishin Belt (Katawaz Basin) western Pakistan: Implications for sedimentation in peripheral forelands basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Aktar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik;


    QmFLt diagrams show recycled and transitional recycled orogenic source for both the successions. The Dasht Murgha group is rich in sedimentary and metamorphic lithics and poor in volcanic fragments (Lm35Lv18Ls47). The LmLvLs plot indicate that most of the samples lie in the fields of suture belts and...

  11. Disclosing the Paleoarchean to Ediacaran history of the São Francisco craton basement: The Porteirinha domain (northern Araçuaí orogen, Brazil) (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos; Armstrong, Richard; Pinto, Claiton Piva; Magalhães, Joana Tiago Reis; Pinheiro, Marco Aurélio Piacentini; Santos, Gabriella Galliac


    This geochronological and isotopic study focuses on one of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement domains of the São Francisco craton reworked in the Araçuaí orogen, the Porteirinha domain, Brazil. It also includes a thorough compilation of the U-Pb geochronological data related to the adjacent Archean and Rhyacian terranes from the São Francisco craton and Araçuaí orogen. The main target of this study is the TTG gneisses of the Porteirinha complex (Sample 1). The gneiss dated at 3371 ± 6 Ma unraveled a polycyclic evolution characterized by two metamorphic overprinting episodes, dated at 3146 ± 24 Ma (M1) and ca. 600 Ma (M2). The former (M1) is so far the most reliable evidence of the oldest metamorphic episode ever dated in Brazil. The latter (M2), in turn, is endemic in most of the exposed eastern cratonic margin within the Araçuaí orogen. Whole-rock Sm-Nd analysis from the gneiss provided a slightly negative εNd(t3370) = - 0.78 value, and a depleted mantle model (TDM) age of 3.5 Ga, indicating derivation mainly from the melting of a ca. 3.5 Ga tholeiitic source. Sample 2, a K-rich leuco-orthogneiss from the Rio Itacambiriçu Complex, was dated at 2657 ± 25 Ma and also presents a ca. 600 Ma M2 overprinting M2 age. The other two analyses were obtained from Rhyacian granitoids. Sample 3 is syn-collisional, peraluminous leucogranite from the Tingui granitic complex, showing a crystallization age of 2140 ± 14 Ma and strong post-crystallization Pb*-loss, also ascribed to the Ediacaran overprinting. Accordingly, it is interpreted as a correlative of the late Rhyacian (ca. 2150-2050 Ma) collisional stage of the Mantiqueira orogenic system/belt (ca. 2220-2000 Ma), overprinted by the Ediacaran collage. Sample 4 is a Rhyacian post-orogenic (post-collisional), mixed-source, peralkaline, A1-type suite, with a crystallization age of 2050 ± 10 Ma, presenting an important post-crystallization Pb*-loss related to Ediacaran collision. The focused region records some

  12. Archaean greenstone belt tectonism and basin development: some insights from the Barberton and Pietersburg greenstone belts, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa (United States)

    de Wit, Maarten J.

    The sediments in two of South Africa's major Archaean greenstone belts, the Barberton and Pietersburg greenstone belts, span an age range of some 800 million years. Both greenstone belts represent remnants of extensive fold and thrust belts with complex, but different polyphase tectonic histories. The oldest sediments were deposited between circa 3470 and 3490 M.a. on oceanic like crust preserved in the Barberton belt, possibly at the same time as sedimentation on similar oceanic crust preserved in the Pietersburg belt. Thereafter, the geologic evolution of these two belts diverged considerably. In the Barberton belt, there is clear evidence that the oceanic crust and sediments were obducted onto an intra-arc basin environment within 50 million years of its formation. The sequence was later further imbricated by northwest directed thrust stacking between 3300-3200 M.a. Basin development during both periods of thrusting took place in close proximity to active "calc-alkaline" arc systems. Deformation of the sediments within these basins took place while the same sediments were being deposited. Sedimentation took place predominantly in subaqueous environments, ranging from submarine mid-fans below the photic zone to tidal flats and deltaic plains. The sediments represent a polyhistory successor-type basin: early basins developed along a complex subduction related plate boundary; these basins later evolved into foreland depositories along and within collisional environments of an accretionary orogen. Late in the history of the Barberton greenstone belt (circa 3100 M.a.), the rocks were in places thermally reactivated and probably subjected to extensional processes; these processes overlapped in time with the main episodes of economic gold mineralization, and are of "early Witwatersrand-basin" age. The oceanic-like crust (including associated sediments) preserved in the Pietersburg belt was not significantly deformed until at least 500 million years after its formation

  13. Structural features and petroleum geology of the fold-thrust belt in the southern Tarim basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Xinyuan; LUO; Jinhai; WANG; Qinghua


    The west Kunlun fold-thrust belt (WKFTB) and the Altun fold-thrust belt (AFTB) are respectively located in the southern margin of the Tarim basin, NW China. The analyses of typical structures and regional dynamics of the fold-thrust belts reveal their different structural and petroleum features and mechanisms. WKFTB differs from AFTB by abundant fault-related folds and triangles zones, and was formed by northward extrusion of the west Kunlun orogen. AFTB was affected synchronously by northward extrusion of the Altun orogen and the sinistral strike-slipping of the Altun Fault, so it is characterized by the minor scale and the monotonous structural styles. The Aqike anticline and the Aqike fault, of which the strikes are orthogonal to the strike of the fold-thrust belts, are regarded as the adjustive structures between both of the fold-thrust belts. The oil-gas pools of WKFTB develop mainly in the faulted-related anticline traps, but the oil-gas pools of AFTB develop mainly in the low fault-block and anticlines traps related with the paleo-uplifts. There are different exploration countermeasures for both of the fold-thrust belts.

  14. Complexity and Geodynamics of Ore-accumulating Basins in the Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Researches were made of different continental-margin and intraplate basin systems in the Qinling microplate in terms of hydrothermal deposition, geodynamics of basin formation, hydrothermal sedimentary rock facies, syntectonics in the basins, and the styles of ore accumulation in the basins.

  15. A Late Cretaceous Orogen Triggering the Tertiary Rifting of the West Sunda Plate; Andaman Sea Region (United States)

    Sautter, B.; Pubellier, M. F.; Menier, D.


    Rifted Basins often develop in internal zones of orogenic belts, although the latter may not be easy to unravel. We chose the example of the super-stretched Andaman sea region affected by several stages of rifting in the internal zone of a composite collage of allochthonous terranes. We made use of a set of geophysical, geochronological and structural data to analyze the rifting evolution and reconstruct the previous compressional structures. - Starting in the late Oligocene the East Andaman Basin opened as a back arc in a right-lateral pull- apart. The rifting propagated Westward to the central Andaman basin in the Middle Miocene, and to the oceanic spreading stage in the Pliocene. - An early extension occurred in the Paleogene, marked by widespread opening of isolated continental basins onshore Malay Peninsula and offshore Andaman Shelf and Malacca Straits. The rifting was accommodated by LANF's along preexisting weakness zones such as hinges of folds and granitic batholiths. Continuous extension connected the isolated basins offshore, whereas onshore, the grabens remained confined. There, AFT data show an uplift phase around 30Ma. In the Late Cretaceous, a major deformation occurred oblique to the pre-existing Indosinian basement fabrics. The convergence was partitioned into thrusting and uplift of the Cretaceous volcanic arc in Thailand and Myanmar, inversion of Mesozoic basins, and coeval wrenching responsible for large phacoid-shaped crustal slivers bounded by wide strike slip fault zones. The slivers share similar characteristics: a thick continental core of lower Paleozoic sedimentary basins units surrounded by Late Cretaceous granitoids. Radiometric data and fission tracks indicate a widespread thermal anomaly in all West Sunda Plate synchronous to a strong uplift. In the Latest Mesozoic, the Western Margin of Sunda plate was subjected to a major E-W compression, accommodated by oblique conjugate strike slip faults, leading to the formation of a large

  16. Remagnetizations in the Variscan orogen and foreland in Czech Republic and Poland: timing, origin and links with orogenic processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grabowski, J.; Bábek, O.; Hladil, Jindřich; Narkiewicz, M.

    [Postdam] : [International Assotiation of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy], [2009]. 506- SAT -P1445-1102-506- SAT -P1445-1102. [International Assotiation of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Scientific Assembly /11./. 24.08.2009-29.09.2009, Sopron] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : remagnezations * orogenic processes * Variscan orogen Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Prevalence of pulmonary diseases among the population of different districts of Altay region, affected by irradiation during the nuclear weapon tests on the testing ground near Semipalatinsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of the prevalence rate of pulmonary diseases among the population of several districts of Altay region, exposed to different levels of irradiation during the nuclear weapon tests in 1949 was carried out. The prevalence rate of pulmonary diseases for them due to radiation dose to which the adult population was exposed in 1949 was investiged. It was found that the morbidity of their children was not immediately caused by the degree of irradiation to which their parents were exposed in 1949. Disorders of respiratory system were found among the persons born during intensive tests in the atmosphere (1949-1963) and exposed to the irradiation in 1949 during their puberty period. It is confirmed by these people ofren having acute abscesses

  18. Dynamic characteristics of conveyor belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-fu; MENG Qing-rui


    The dynamic characteristics of a belt conveyor are determined to a large extent by the properties of the belt. This paper describes experiments designed to establish the dynamic properties of belting material. The dynamic elastic modulus, viscous damping and theological constants of the belt were measured. Several properties were studied as a function of the tensile loading on the belt. These included longitudinal vibration, the natural vibration frequency in the transverse direction and the response to an impulse excitation. Vibration response was observed under several different excitation frequencies. Most of these properties have not been tested previously under conditions appropriate for the ISO/DP9856 standard. Two types of belt were tested, a steel reinforced belt and a fabric reinforced belt. The test equipment was built to provide data appropriate for designing belt conveyors. It was observed that the stress wave propagation speed increased with tensile load and that tensile load was the main factor influencing longitudinal vibrations.

  19. The JET belt limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limiter with an effective area in contact with the plasma of about 16 m2 is presently being manufactured for installation in 1987. This belt limiter consists of two toroidal rings located above and below the equatorial plane of the vacuum vessel. Each of the two rings comprises a structure with water cooling pipes and fins welded to the pipes. The limiter material in contact with the plasma (graphite or beryllium) is inserted between fins in the form of tiles. The belt limiter is designed to handle up to 40 MW of total power at flux densities of 3 - 5 MW/m2 for 10 s and to permit rapid exchange of different limiter materials. The design and manufacture of the belt limiter and the results of thermomechanical analysis for different edge properties, power levels and shot repetition rates, are reported. (author)

  20. The jet belt limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limiter with an effective area in contact with the plasma of about 16 m/sup 2/ is presently being manufactured for installation in 1987. This belt limiter consists of two toroidal rings located above and below the equatorial plane of the vacuum vessel. Each of the two rings comprises a structure with water cooling pipes and fins welded to the pipes. The limiter material in contact with the plasma (graphite or beryllium) is inserted between fins in the form of tiles. The belt limiter is designed to handle up to 40 MW of total power at flux densities of 3 - 5 MW/m/sup 2/ for 10 s and to permit rapid exchange of different limiter materials. This paper describes the design and manufacture of the belt limiter and the results of thermomechanical analysis for different edge properties, power levels and shot repetition rates

  1. Fault-related fold styles and progressions in fold-thrust belts: Insights from sandbox modeling (United States)

    Yan, Dan-Ping; Xu, Yan-Bo; Dong, Zhou-Bin; Qiu, Liang; Zhang, Sen; Wells, Michael


    Fault-related folds of variable structural styles and assemblages commonly coexist in orogenic belts with competent-incompetent interlayered sequences. Despite their commonality, the kinematic evolution of these structural styles and assemblages are often loosely constrained because multiple solutions exist in their structural progression during tectonic restoration. We use a sandbox modeling instrument with a particle image velocimetry monitor to test four designed sandbox models with multilayer competent-incompetent materials. Test results reveal that decollement folds initiate along selected incompetent layers with decreasing velocity difference and constant vorticity difference between the hanging wall and footwall of the initial fault tips. The decollement folds are progressively converted to fault-propagation folds and fault-bend folds through development of fault ramps breaking across competent layers and are followed by propagation into fault flats within an upper incompetent layer. Thick-skinned thrust is produced by initiating a decollement fault within the metamorphic basement. Progressive thrusting and uplifting of the thick-skinned thrust trigger initiation of the uppermost incompetent decollement with formation of a decollement fold and subsequent converting to fault-propagation and fault-bend folds, which combine together to form imbricate thrust. Breakouts at the base of the early formed fault ramps along the lowest incompetent layers, which may correspond to basement-cover contacts, domes the upmost decollement and imbricate thrusts to form passive roof duplexes and constitute the thin-skinned thrust belt. Structural styles and assemblages in each of tectonic stages are similar to that in the representative orogenic belts in the South China, Southern Appalachians, and Alpine orogenic belts.

  2. Petrogenesis and geochronology of the Deliktas, Sivrikaya and Devrekani granitoids and basement, Kastamonu belt-Central Pontides (NW Turkey): evidence for Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic plutonism, and geodynamic interpretation


    Nzegge, Odilia Mbonguh


    The Pontides orogenic belt (Ketin, 1966), is the central portion of an extensive belt running from western Bulgaria (Rhodope Mountains) through northern Turkey to the Caucasus. Three tectono-stratigraphically different sectors can be distinguished: the Western Pontides (Istanbul zone), the Central Pontides and the Eastern Pontides (Sakarya zone). The Central Pontides, located between the Izmir-Ankara suture to the south and the Black Sea to the north is the geographical term for the arched ce...

  3. Strong imprint of past orogenic events on the thermochronological record (United States)

    Braun, Jean


    Using a simple solution to the heat conduction equation, I show how, at the end of an orogenic event, the relaxation of isotherms from a syn-orogenic advection-dominated geometry to a post-orogenic conduction-dominated geometry leads to the creation of a thick iso-age crustal layer. Subsequent erosion of this layer yields peculiar age-elevation profiles and detrital age distributions that cannot be easily interpreted using traditional techniques. I illustrate these points by using a simple analytical solution of the heat equation as well as a transient, three-dimensional numerical model. I also demonstrate that the age of the end of an orogenic event is so strongly imprinted in the thermochronological record that it erases most of the information pertaining to the orogenic phase itself and the subsequent isostatically-driven exhumation. The concept is used to explain two thermochronological datasets from the Himalayas and demonstrate that their most likely interpretation involves the sudden interruption of extremely fast exhumation accommodated by movement along the South Tibetan Detachment in the Higher Himalayas around 15 Ma.

  4. Lawsonite Blueschists in Recycled Mélange Involved in K-Rich Orogenic Magmatism (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Prelevic, D.; Foley, S. F.; Buhre, S.; Galer, S. J. G.


    The origin of K-rich orogenic magmatism in the Alpine-Himalayan belt and its relationship to the large-scale elevations in several massifs of the orogen is controversial, particularly the significance of the widespread presence of a geochemical signal typical for recycled continental crust. Two competing scenarios invoke direct melting of continental crust during deep intercontinental subduction and removal of heavily metasomatised mantle lithosphere by delamination into the convecting mantle. Here we investigate the coupling of high Th/La ratio with crustal isotopic signatures in K-rich orogenic lavas that does not occur in volcanic rocks from other collisional environments to distinguish between these two models. High-pressure experimental results on a phyllite representing upper crustal composition and a detailed mineral and geochemical study of blueschists from Tavşanlı mélange, Turkey, indicate that this geochemical fingerprint originates by melting of subducted mélange. Melting of crust at the top of the subducted continental lithosphere cannot produce observed fingerprint, whereas lawsonites, especially those with terrigenous sediment origin from blueschists with high Th/La can. Lawsonites that grow in various components of a subduction mélange inherit the geochemical characteristics of either oceanic or continental protoliths. It is currently uncertain whether those carrying the high Th/La signature originate by direct melting of continental blocks in the mélange or by the introduction of supercritical fluids from lawsonite blueschist of continental origin that infiltrate oceanic sediment blocks. Either way, the high Th/La is later released into subsequently formed melts. This confirms the supposition that lawsonite is the main progenitor of the high Th/La and Sm/La ratio. However, lawsonite must break down completely to impart this unique feature to subsequent magmas. The source regions of the potassic volcanic rocks consist of blueschist facies m

  5. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  6. Shear Zone Development and Rheology in the Deep Orogenic Crust (United States)

    Marsh, J. H.; Johnson, S. E.; Gerbi, C. C.; Culshaw, N. G.


    Within the Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) of the southwestern Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada, a number of allocthonous lithotectonic domains are juxtaposed along crustal-scale shear zones. Extensive exposure of variably reworked granulites of the interior Parry Sound domain (iPSD) has enabled investigation of the structural and petrologic character of domain-bounding shear zones within the deep orogenic crust. Recent detailed mapping and structural data collected along the southwestern margin of the iPSD is consistent with the suggestion of Culshaw et al. (in prep) that spaced outcrop-scale shear zones have coalesced and progressively reworked layered granulites into a transposed amphibolite-facies tectonite. The tectonites comprise the Twelve Mile Bay Shear Zone (TMBSZ), which separates the iPSD from para-autocthonous rocks to the south. This study investigates the grain- and outcrop-scale mechanisms involved in shear zone development and attempts to quantify the associated changes in rock rheology. Northwest of TMBSZ, samples collected across individual outcrop-scale shear zones (i.e., across large strain gradients) have distinct differences in mineralogy and microstructure. In mafic layers the original granulite texture and cpx + opx + pl + hbl +/- grt assemblage is commonly retained away from the shear zones within unsheared "panels". With proximity to the shear zones pyroxenes and garnet are progressively consumed in hydration reactions producing hornblende and biotite, which define a new planar foliation within the highly attenuated and deflected layering. Felsic layers generally have only minor mineralogical changes across the zones, but develop an increasingly intense and recrystallized structural fabric into the sheared margin. The shear zones are commonly cored by variably deformed pegmatite dikes that were emplaced prior to, or during the early stages of shearing. Evidence for incipient shear zone formation along mineralized fracture sets that cut

  7. Earthquake source characteristics along the arcuate Himalayan belt: Geodynamic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prosanta Kumar Khan; Md Afroz Ansari; S Mohanty


    The occurrences of moderate to large magnitude earthquakes and associated subsurface geological processes were critically examined in the backdrop of Indian plate obliquity, stress obliquity, topography, and the late Tertiary regional tectonics for understanding the evolving dynamics and kinematics in the central part of the Himalayas. The higher topographic areas are likely associated with the zones of depressions, and the lower topographic areas are found around the ridges located in the frontal part of the orogen. A positive correlation between plate and stress obliquities is established for this diffuse plate boundary. We propose that the zone of sharp bending of the descending Indian lithosphere is the nodal area of major stress accumulation which is released occasionally in form of earthquakes. The lateral geometry of the Himalayas shows clusters of seismicity at an angle of ∼20° from the centre part of the arc. Such spatial distribution is interpreted in terms of compression across the arc and extension parallel to the arc. This biaxial deformation results in the development of dilational shear fractures, observed along the orogenic belt, at an angle of ∼20° from the principal compressive stress axis.

  8. A new model for the granite-pegmatite genetic relationships in the Kaluan-Azubai-Qiongkuer pegmatite-related ore fields, the Chinese Altay (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Zhan-Long; Tang, Yong; Lv, Zheng-Hang; Zhao, Jing-Yu; Liu, Yun-Long


    Pegmatites commonly form in the waning stage of magma evolution by fractional crystallization of volatile-rich magmas and may be important host rocks of strategic metals (e.g., Li, Be, Cs, Ta, and Nb) and high-quality gem minerals. This study reports new zircon U-Pb dating results and Hf isotopic compositions of the KLA803 pegmatite, the AZB-01 pegmatite, the JMK-09 pegmatite (abbreviated as the K-A-J pegmatites) and the Halong granite from the Chinese Altay to determine the potential petrogenetic relationships between them. The geochronological data document that the K-A-J pegmatites were emplaced at 224.6 ± 2.3 Ma, 191.6 ± 2.0 Ma and 192.0 ± 2.3 Ma, respectively, and they are characterized by negative to low positive εHf(t) values (from -1.0 to +6.3) and old model ages (TDM) (with the TDM1 from 874 to 597 Ma and TDM2 from 1298 to 833 Ma). In contrast, the Halong granite has an emplacement age of 398.3 ± 2.4 Ma and is characterized by higher positive εHf(t) values (from +9.9 to +15.2) and younger model ages (TDM) (with the TDM1 from 626 to 414 Ma and TDM2 from 760 to 423 Ma). They all have intruded into the Kulumuti group stratum, which has negative initial εNd(t) values (from -4.3 to -0.2) and old TDM model ages (between 1.22 and 1.56 Ga). Based on the calculated results of the mixing ratios (f) of the initial magmas and the prevailing Paleozoic tectonic framework of the Chinese Altay, we establish two petrogenetic models for the K-A-J pegmatites: Model 1 refers to that these pegmatites originated from a mixed magma that was composed of 72-91 wt.% depleted mantle components and 9-28 wt.% lower crust components; and Model 2 refers to that they were derived from the partial melting of 38-83 wt.% Halong granite and 17-62 wt.% sedimentary rocks from the Kulumuti group. We also suggest that the initial magma of the Halong granite was significantly contributed by juvenile materials with a slight involvement of crustal materials. In Model 1, because LCT

  9. Mesozoic basin-fill records in south foot of the Dabie Mountains: Implication for Dabie Orogenic attributes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠; 李任伟; 孙枢; 张雯华


    Five evolutional phases are found from Mesozoic basin-fill sequences in the northern Jianghan basin, the south foot of the Dabie Mountains: (i) Early Triassic to the early period of Late Triassic showing continental shelf marine and paralic deposits; (ii) the middle-late period of Late Triassic indicating the uplift and erosion in compressional tectonic setting; (iii) the late period of Late Triassic to Early-Middle Jurassic showing peneplain terrestrial and fluvial clastic deposits interlayered with coal-seams; (iv) Late-Jurassic to Early-Cretaceous characterized by cycle fills of acidic volcanic rocks interstratified with pyroclastic rocks in intracontinental extension tectonic regime; (v) a lot of coarse clastic deposits similar to molasses occur in Late-Cretaceous mainly. Based on the compositions of detrital sandstones and conglomerates, combined with the analysis of sedimentary facies, it is indicated that most clasts sourced from the Yangtze continent from phase one to phase three, whose provenances are attributed to "recycled orogenic belt" types. On the other hand, detrital assemblages of the fifth phase deposits are mainly related with pre- Mesozoic metamorphic rocks of the Dabie Mountains, subjected to "arc orogenic belt" provenance types. In the Mesozoic basins of the south foot of the Dabie Mountains, it is proved that there are no direct depositional records corresponding to "Late Triassic syn-collisional orogenesis". Molasse depositional records of Upper Cretaceous distinctly reflect post-collisional orogenesis of the Dabie Mountains (intracontinental orogenesis) and intensive exhumation in extensional tectonic regime. This paper further discusses the inconsistent relations existing between basin-fill records at the south and north feet of the Dabie Mountains and the uplift models of the Dabie Mountains published, and indicates their key problems.

  10. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia (United States)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain


    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  11. Infrared Kuiper Belt Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the temperature and IR signal of particles of radius a and albedo α at heliocentric distance R, taking into account the emissivity effect, and give an interpolating formula for the result. We compare with analyses of COBE DIRBE data by others (including recent detection of the cosmic IR background) for various values of heliocentric distance R, particle radius a, and particle albedo α. We then apply these results to a recently developed picture of the Kuiper belt as a two-sector disk with a nearby, low-density sector (40< R<50 endash 90 AU) and a more distant sector with a higher density. We consider the case in which passage through a molecular cloud essentially cleans the solar system of dust. We apply a simple model of dust production by comet collisions and removal by the Poynting-Robertson effect to find limits on total and dust masses in the near and far sectors as a function of time since such a passage. Finally, we compare Kuiper belt IR spectra for various parameter values. Results of this work include: (1) numerical limits on Kuiper belt dust as a function of (R, a, α) on the basis of four alternative sets of constraints, including those following from recent discovery of the cosmic IR background by Hauser et al.; (2) application to the two-sector Kuiper belt model, finding mass limits and spectrum shape for different values of relevant parameters including dependence on time elapsed since last passage through a molecular cloud cleared the outer solar system of dust; and (3) potential use of spectral information to determine time since last passage of the Sun through a giant molecular cloud. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  12. Belt-up!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.


    Advanced control systems, improved materials and new dust control systems have turned the humble conveyor belt into a sophisticated method for transporting materials. RJB Mining has improved productivity at the Price of Wales colliery in Yorkshire, UK, with the installation of Alstom`s VDM drive system; Qualter Hall`s upgraded conveyor system at the Rugely Power Station in the UK is proving its ability to minimise coal spillage. The article highlights advances by several manufacturers in conveyor technology. 5 photos.

  13. Economic implications of plate tectonic models of the Damara orogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enviroment of the Damara orogen is typical for placer gold and uranium deposits. The alkaline extrusives may also have potential for subaqueous volcano-exhalative mineralisation. Deposits of carbonate, phibolites, ferruginous and pyritic quartzites, lead, zinc, copper and iron occur in this environment. There is also a possibility of tin and tungsten mineralization

  14. Juxtaposition of adakite, boninite, high-TiO 2 and low-TiO 2 basalts in the Devonian southern Altay, Xinjiang, NW China (United States)

    Niu, Hecai; Sato, Hiroaki; Zhang, Haixiang; Ito, Jun'ichi; Yu, Xueyuan; Nagao, Takashi; Terada, Kentaro; Zhang, Qi


    We present petrographic and geochemical data on representative samples of the Devonian adakite, boninite, low-TiO 2 and high-TiO 2 basalts and associated rocks in the southern Altay areas, Xinjiang, NW China. These volcanic rocks mostly occur as tectonic blocks within suture zones between the Siberian and Junggar plates. Adakite occurs in the Suoerkuduke area ca. 40 km south of Fuyun, and actually represents a poorly-sorted massive volcaniclastic deposit, mostly consisting of a suite of hornblende andesite to pyroxene andesite. The geochemical features of the adakite suggest its generation by melting of subducted oceanic crust. Boninite occurs in the Saerbulake area ca. 20 km southwest of Fuyun, as pillowed lava or pillowed breccia. It is associated with high-TiO 2 basalt/gabbro and low-TiO 2 basalt. The boninites are metamorphosed, but contain relict clinopyroxene with Mg# (=100*Mg/(Mg+Fe)) of 90-92, and Cr 2O 3 contents of 0.5-0.7 wt% and chromian spinel with Cr/(Cr+Al) ratio of 0.84. The bulk rock compositions of the boninites are characterized by low and U-shaped REE with variable La/Yb ratios. They are classified as high-Ca boninite. The Cr-rich cpx phenocryst and Chromian spinel suggests that the boninites were formed by melting of mildly refractory mantle peridotite fluxed by a slab-derived fluid component under normal mantle potential temperature conditions. Basaltic rocks occur as massive flows, pillowed lavas, tuff breccia, lapilli tuff and blocks in tectonic mélanges. Together with gabbros, the basaltic rocks are classified into high-TiO 2 (>1.7 wt%) and low-TiO 2 (<1.5 wt%) types. They show variable trace element compositions, from MORB-type through transitional back-arc basin basalt to arc tholeiite, or within plate alkalic basalt. A notable feature of the Devonian formations in the southern Altay is the juxtaposition of volcanic rocks of various origins even within a limited area; i.e. the adakite and the boninites are associated with high-TiO 2 and

  15. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: A lead isotope study of an Archaean gold prospect in the Attu region, Nagssugtoqidian orogen, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stendal, Henrik


    Full Text Available This paper presents a lead isotope investigation of a gold prospect south of the village Attu in the northern part of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in central West Greenland. The Attu gold prospect is a replacement gold occurrence, related to a shear/mylonite zone along a contact between orthogneissand amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian orogenic belt. The mineral occurrence is small, less than 0.5 m wide, and can be followed along strike for several hundred metres. The mineral assemblage is pyrite, chalcopyrite, magnetite and gold. The host rocks to the gold prospect are granulite facies ‘brown gneisses’ and amphibolites. Pb-isotopic data on magnetite from the host rocks yield an isochron in a 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram, giving a date of 3162 ± 43 Ma (MSWD = 0.5. This date is interpreted to represent the age of the rocks in question, and is older than dates obtained from rocks elsewhere within the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. Pb-isotopic data on cataclastic magnetite from the shear zone lie close to this isochron, indicating a similar origin. The Pb-isotopic compositions of the ore minerals are similar to those previously obtained from the close-by ~2650 Ma Rifkol granite, and suggest a genetic link between the emplacement of this granite and the formation of the ore minerals in the shear/mylonite zone. Consequently, the age of the gold mineralisation is interpreted tobe late Archaean.

  16. Triple junction orogeny: tectonic evolution of the Pan-African Northern Damara Belt, Namibia (United States)

    Lehmann, Jérémie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Milani, Lorenzo; Charlesworth, Eugene G.; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Frei, Dirk; Kramers, Jan D.; Zwingmann, Horst


    Trench-trench-trench triple junctions are generally geometrically and kinematically unstable and therefore can result at the latest stages in complicated collisional orogenic belts. In such geodynamic sites, mechanism and timescale of deformations that accommodate convergence and final assembly of the three colliding continental plates are poorly studied. In western Namibia, Pan-African convergence of three cratonic blocks led to pene-contemporaneous closure of two highly oblique oceanic domains and formation of the triple junction Damara Orogen where the NE-striking Damara Belt abuts to the west against the NNW-striking Kaoko-Gariep Belt. Detailed description of structures and microstructures associated with remote sensing analysis, and dating of individual deformation events by means of K-Ar, Ar-Ar (micas) and U-Pb (zircon) isotopic studies from the Northern Damara Belt provide robust constraints on the tectonic evolution of this palaeo-triple junction orogeny. There, passive margin sequences of the Neoproterozoic ocean were polydeformed and polymetamorphosed to the biotite zone of the greenschist facies to up to granulite facies and anatexis towards the southern migmatitic core of the Central Damara Belt. Subtle relict structures and fold pattern analyses reveal the existence of an early D1 N-S shortening event, tentatively dated between ~635 Ma and ~580 Ma using published data. D1 structures were almost obliterated by pervasive and major D2 E-W coaxial shortening, related to the closure of the Kaoko-Gariep oceanic domain and subsequent formation of the NNW-striking Kaoko-Gariep Belt to the west of the study area. Early, km-scale D1 E-W trending steep folds were refolded during this D2 event, producing either Type I or Type II fold interference patterns visible from space. The D2 E-W convergence could have lasted until ~533 Ma based on published and new U-Pb ages. The final D3 NW-SE convergence in the northernmost Damara Belt produced a NE-striking deformation

  17. New Findings in High-Pressure and Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphic Belt of Tongbaishan-Dabieshan Regions, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Tongbai-Dabieshan high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) belt is sandwiched between the Yangtze and the Sinokorean cratons. It connects the Qinling orogenic belt in the west and links toward the east to the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) belt. At present there is a consensus that the UHP metamorphic rocks are the products of the oblique collision between the Yangtze and Sinokorean cratons during the Triassic. However, there is still a lot of controversies about the formation and exhumation of the HP- and UHP-metamorphic belts. The present research work on the composition and the structural geometry and kinetics of the HP- and UHP- metamorphic belt has shown the following new results: (1) The overall structural geometry pattern of Dabieshan is similar to the metamorphic core complex developed in the western North America; (2) The discoveries of HP and UHP metamorphic rocks in the north of Dabieshan indicate that the significance of Shuihou-Wuhe fault should be re-evaluated; (3) A series of micro-structural evidence, including the newly-found retrograde granulite facies assemblages in the garnet pyroxenites, substantiate the extensional processes following the collision event; (4) The discovery of partial melting phenomena in the UHP-metamorphic belts illuminates the relationship between the HP- and UHP metamorphic rocks and their associated granite gneiss. All of these new findings will greatly improve our understanding of the formation and exhumation of the high-pressure and ultrahigh pressure metamorphic belts.

  18. Lateral constrictional flow of hot orogenic crust: Insights from the Neoarchean of south India, geological and geophysical implications for orogenic plateaux


    Chardon, Dominique; Jayananda, Mudlappa; Peucat, Jean-Jacques


    This study provides an in situ geological perspective on fabrics produced by synconvergence lateral crustal flow of hot orogens. It is based on the example of the Neoarchean orogen of the Dharwar craton (India) and combines structural analysis and ion microprobe U!Pb zircon geochronology. We document a pervasive, three!dimensional flow mode of the lower crust, called lateral constrictional flow (LCF), which combines orogen!normal shortening, lateral constrictional stretching, and transtension...

  19. Exhumation of an eclogite terrane as a hot migmatitic nappe, Sveconorwegian orogen (United States)

    Möller, Charlotte; Andersson, Jenny; Dyck, Brendan; Antal Lundin, Ildiko


    We demonstrate a case of eclogite exhumation in a partially molten, low-viscosity fold nappe within high-grade metamorphosed crust in the Eastern Segment of the Sveconorwegian orogen. The nappe formed during tectonic extrusion, melt-weakening assisted exhumation and foreland-directed translation of eclogitized crust, and stalled at 35-40 km depth within the collisional belt. The eclogites are structurally restricted to a regional recumbent fold in which stromatic orthogneiss with pods of amphibolitized eclogite make up the core. High-temperature mylonitic gneiss with remnants of kyanite eclogite (P > 15 kbar) composes a basal shear zone 50 km long and eclogite and stromatic orthogneiss constrain the time of eclogitization at 988 ± 6 Ma and 978 ± 7 Ma. Migmatization, concomitant deformation, and exhumation are dated at 976 ± 6 Ma, and crystallization of post-kinematic melt at 956 ± 7 Ma. Orthogneiss protoliths are dated at 1733 ± 11 and 1677 ± 10 Ma (stromatic gneiss) and 1388 ± 7 Ma (augen gneiss in footwall), demonstrating origins indigenous to the Eastern Segment. Eclogitization and exhumation were coeval with the Rigolet phase of the Grenvillian orogeny, reflecting the late stage of continental collision during construction of the supercontinent Rodinia.

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical constraints on contribution of magma mixing and fractional crystallization to high-Mg adakite-like diorites in eastern Dabie orogen, East China (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Ma, Changqian; Holtz, Francois; Koepke, Jürgen; Wolff, Paul Eric; Berndt, Jasper


    The Liujiawa pluton which is located near the eastern boundary of the Dabie orogen is composed of multiple lithologic units including mainly gabbronorites, diorites, granodiorites and hornblende gabbros. Gabbronorites and hornblende gabbros occur as enclaves in dioritic hosts which show gradual contact with granodiorites. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that gabbronorites and diorites formed coevally at ~ 128 Ma, but they have distinct zircon Hf isotopes with εHf(t) of - 26 to - 23 (gabbronorite) and of - 32 to - 27 (diorite) respectively. Petrographic observations and rock-forming mineral compositions clearly show mixing between mafic and felsic magma end-members, which might have formed the homogeneous whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes with εNd(t) of - 17 to - 25 and initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.707 to 0.709. As revealed by zircon Hf isotopes, F concentrations in amphibole and biotite and thermodynamic modeling of crystallization, the gabbronorites represent enriched lithospheric mantle-derived magmas which evolved by fractional crystallization of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, magnetite and/or amphibole, whereas the granodiorites may be derived from the Dabie Archean basement. Mineralogical and geochemical data as well as major and trace element modeling show that the origin of diorites, previously interpreted as high-Mg adakites, can be explained by magma mixing between the crust-derived granodioritic magmas and the differentiation products of mantle-derived gabbronoritic magmas. As a result, the high-Mg adakite-like geochemistry of the diorites is a consequence of magma differentiation at a crustal depth, involving fractional crystallization and magma mixing, rather than an intrinsic feature of primitive melts. The mantle upwelling in the adjacent central Middle-Lower Yangtze River metallogenic (MLYR) belt during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous belt might have acted as a precursor and triggered the partial melting of lithospheric mantle beneath the eastern Dabie orogen and the

  1. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  2. Belt conveyor for recycle aggregate


    Bezrodný, Roman


    This bachelor thesis deals with the belt conveyor for the transport of recycled aggregate in an oblique direction. The aim is to find constructional solutions to the belt conveyor for the assigned transport capacity of 95 000 kg per hour, and the assigned axial distance of 49 m and different height of 12 m. The thesis contains a brief description of the belt conveyor and a description of basic constructional components. It also contains a functional calculation of the capacity and forces acco...

  3. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  4. Growth of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt and Foreland Basin, Northern Iraq, Kurdistan (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas; Horton, Brian; Stockli, Daniel; Barber, Douglas; Ghalib, Hafidh; Dara, Rebwar


    The Zagros orogenic belt in the Middle Eastern segment of the Alpine-Himalayan system is among the youngest seismically active continental collision zones on Earth. However, due to diachronous and incremental collision, the precise ages and kinematics of shortening and deposition remain poorly understood. The Kurdistan region of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin contains well-preserved Neogene wedge-top and foredeep deposits that include clastic nonmarine fill of the Upper Fars, Lower Bakhtiari, and Upper Bakhtiari Formations. These deposits record significant information about orogenic growth, fold-thrust dynamics, and advance of the deformation front. Thermochronologic and geochronologic data from thrust sheets and stratigraphic archives combined with local earthquake data provide a unique opportunity to address the linkages between surface and subsurface geologic relationships. This research seeks to constrain the timing and geometry of exhumation and deformation by addressing two key questions: (1) Did the northwestern Zagros fold-thrust belt evolve from initial thin-skinned shortening to later thick-skinned deformation or vice-versa? (2) Did the fold-thrust belt advance steadily under critical/supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting or propagate intermittently under subcritical conditions with out-of-sequence deformation? From north to south, apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the Main Zagros Thrust, the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), and additional frontal thrusts suggest rapid exhumation by ~10 Ma, ~5 Ma, and ~8 Ma respectively. Field observations and seismic sections indicate progressive tilting and development of growth strata within the Lower Bakhtiari Formation adjacent to the frontal thrusts and within the Upper Bakhtiari Formation near the MFF. In the Kurdistan region of Iraq, a regional balanced cross section constrained by new thermochronometric results, proprietary seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake hypocenters

  5. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  6. The Cenozoic Tectonic History of the Calabrian Orogen, Southern Italy


    Shimabukuro, David Haruo


    The Cenozoic accretionary wedge of Calabria, Southern Italy, consists of several units of continental and oceanic affinity accreted beneath the former continental margin of the Sardinia-Corsica block. Each of these units bears the imprint of blueschist-facies metamorphism, indicating that it has been subducted to high-pressure/low-temperature conditions during the Alpine Orogeny. Structurally higher units, having been accreted first, record the early metamorphic history of the orogen; lower...

  7. Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance (United States)

    Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Robert, F.; Hart, C.J.R.


    Metamorphic belts are complex regions where accretion or collision has added to, or thickened, continental crust. Gold-rich deposits can be formed at all stages of orogen evolution, so that evolving metamorphic belts contain diverse gold deposit types that may be juxtaposed or overprint each other. This partly explains the high level of controversy on the origin of some deposit types, particularly those formed or overprinted/remobilized during the major compressional orogeny that shaped the final geometry of the hosting metamorphic belts. These include gold-dominated orogenic and intrusion-related deposits, but also particularly controversial gold deposits with atypical metal associations. There are a number of outstanding problems for all types of gold deposits in metamorphc belts. These include the following: (1) definitive classifications, (2) unequivocal recognition of fluid and metal sources, (3) understanding of fluid migration and focusing at all scales, (4) resolution of the precise role of granitoid magmatism, (5) precise gold-depositional mechanisms, particularly those producing high gold grades, and (6) understanding of the release of CO2-rich fluids from subducting slabs and subcreted oceanic crust and granitoid magmas at different crustal levels. Research needs to be better coordinated and more integrated, such that detailed fluid-inclusion, trace-element, and isotopic studies of both gold deposits and potential source rocks, using cutting-edge technology, are embedded in a firm geological framework at terrane to deposit scales. Ultimately, four-dimensional models need to be developed, involving high-quality, three-dimensional geological data combined with integrated chemical and fluid-flow modeling, to understand the total history of the hydrothermal systems involved. Such research, particularly that which can predict superior targets visible in data sets available to exploration companies before discovery, has obvious spin-offs for global- to deposit

  8. Large landslides lie low: Vertical domains of denudation processes in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram orogen (United States)

    Blöthe, Jan Henrik


    Large bedrock landslides (defined here as affecting >0.1 km2 in planform area) are thought to substantially contribute to denuding active mountain belts, and limiting the growth of topographic relief produced by concurrent tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. While most research on large landslides has focused on tectonically active, humid mountain belts with varying degrees of rainstorm and earthquake activity, lesser attention has been devoted to arid mountain belts. Especially in the Himalaya, where high denudation rates are commonly associated with high landslide activity, previous work has largely ignored landslide processes in the arid compartments of the orogen. This was motivation for us to compile a landslide inventory covering the arid Himalaya-Karakoram of NW India and N Pakistan within the Indus catchment. Our data set contains 493 rock-slope failures that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km3. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these volumetrically significant landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We find that large bedrock landslides in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram region preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This trend holds true for both the study area and parts thereof. The largest and highest-lying landslides occur in the Karakoram mountains, where local relief exceeds 6 km, and >90% of the landslide areas lie below the region's median elevation. Our analysis reveals a hitherto unrecognized vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport by

  9. Apatite fission-track thermochronological constraints on the pattern of late Mesozoic-Cenozoic uplift and exhumation of the Qinling Orogen, central China (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Jianmin; Wu, Guoli; Shi, Wei; Geng, Yingying; Qu, Hongjie


    The Qinling Orogen of central China was formed by intracontinental collision between the North and South China Blocks. The orogen comprises several micro-blocks bounded by sutures and faults, and has undergone long-term intracontinental deformation since the Late Triassic. The micro-blocks include the southern margin of the North China Block (S-NCB), the Northern Qinling Belt (NQB), the Southern Qinling Belt (SQB), and the northern margin of the South China Block (N-SCB). Under a uniform tectonic setting in late Mesozoic-Cenozoic, these micro-blocks have been subjected to a range of deformation styles, as demonstrated by their structural deformation, history of magmatism, and the development of sedimentary basins. To investigate the differences among the micro-blocks and to quantify their uplift and exhumation, we obtained 45 rock samples from eight Mesozoic granites in these micro-blocks, and conducted apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronological modeling. The results reveal that the Qinling Orogen underwent four distinct stages of rapid cooling histories during the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic, and showed variation in uplift and exhumation whereby the intracontinental deformation started in the south (the N-SCB) and propagated to the north (S-NCB). In the first stage, during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (ca. 160-120 Ma), rock cooling occurred mainly in the N-SCB, attributed to the clockwise rotation and northward subduction of the South China Block beneath the Qinling Orogen. In the second stage, compression- and extension-related uplift was initiated during the late Early Cretaceous-early Late Cretaceous (ca. 120-90 Ma) in the SQB, consistent with the southward subduction of the North China Block and broadly extensional deformation in the eastern China continent. In the third stage, a gentle regional-scale cooling event that occurred during the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene (ca. 90-50 Ma) started in the NQB and became widespread in the Qinling Orogen. This

  10. Chronology of neoproterozoic-cambrian granitic magmatism in the Aracuai Belt, Eastern Brazil, based on single zircon evaporating dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granitic magmatism related to the orogenic stages of the Aracuai Belt took place at 595-575 Ma, and are represented by two distinct suites. One is composed of I-type granitoids and includes the following plutons: Brasilandia (595±3 Ma), Sao Vitor (576±4 Ma) and Guarataia (574± 2 Ma). The other suite comprises S-type granites like the Ataleia (591±5 Ma) and Wolf (582±5 Ma) plutons. After a long period of magnetic quiescence, a batholith composed of the Caladao granite and Padre Paraiso charnockite intruded at 519±2 Ma. This magmatic episode is probably associated to the collapse of the orogen. (author)

  11. Palaeoproterozoic adakite- and TTG-like magmatism in the Svecofennian orogen, SW Finland


    Väisänen, M. (Maria); Johansson, Å; Andersson, U.B.; O. Eklund; Hölttä, P.


    The Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian orogen in the Fennoscandian shield is an arc accretionary orogen that was formed at c. 1.92-1.86Ga. Arc accretion, magmatism and the subsequent continent-continent collision thickened the crust up to c. 70km, forming one of the thickest Palaeoproterozic orogens. At the end stage of accretionary tectonics, voluminous synorogenic magmatism occurred in southwestern Finland leading to the intrusion of intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks. Ion microprobe single ...

  12. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A


    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit. PMID:19393812

  13. Thermo-kinematic evolution of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal: The Composite Orogenic System (United States)

    Parsons, A. J.; Law, R. D.; Lloyd, G. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Searle, M. P.


    The Himalayan orogen represents a "Composite Orogenic System" in which channel flow, wedge extrusion, and thrust stacking operate in separate "Orogenic Domains" with distinct rheologies and crustal positions. We analyze 104 samples from the metamorphic core (Greater Himalayan Sequence, GHS) and bounding units of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal. Optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses provide a record of deformation microstructures and an indication of active crystal slip systems, strain geometries, and deformation temperatures. These data, combined with existing thermobarometry and geochronology data are used to construct detailed deformation temperature profiles for the GHS. The profiles define a three-stage thermokinematic evolution from midcrustal channel flow (Stage 1, >700°C to 550-650°C), to rigid wedge extrusion (Stage 2, 400-600°C) and duplexing (Stage 3, <280-400°C). These tectonic processes are not mutually exclusive, but are confined to separate rheologically distinct Orogenic Domains that form the modular components of a Composite Orogenic System. These Orogenic Domains may be active at the same time at different depths/positions within the orogen. The thermokinematic evolution of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya describes the migration of the GHS through these Orogenic Domains and reflects the spatial and temporal variability in rheological boundary conditions that govern orogenic systems.

  14. Metallogenesis of the Ertix gold belt, Xinjiang and its rela-tionship to Central Asia-type orogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Ertix gold belt is located on the boundary of the Kalatongkearc and the Kelan back-arc basin of D-C1. Most scholars used to interpret the formation and distribution of the gold deposits in the Ertix tectonic belt in terms of the petrogenic and metallogenic models for active continental margins. However, enormous data of isotopic dating and geologic research show that the mineralization was obviously later than the oceanic subduction, whereas exactly simultaneous with the collisional orogenesis during C2-P, especially at the transition stage from collisional compression to extension. Based on study of metallogenic time, tectonic background, ore geology, ore fluid nature, ore material source, etc., we reveal that all the gold deposits possess the character of orogenic deposits formed in collisional orogenic system, and that their ore-forming materials mainly have derived from the stratigraphic terranes south to individual deposits. Accordingly, the theoretical tectonic model for collisional metallogenesis and petrogenesis is employed to explain the formation of the Ertix gold belt and to determine the gold exploration directions.

  15. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks, around five.

  16. Recognition of hyper-extended rifted margin remnants in the internal zone of the Alpine belt: A tribute to Marco Beltrando (United States)

    Mohn, Geoffroy; Manatschal, Gianreto


    Marco Beltrando was part of the young generation of Alpine geologists who challenged the interpretation of the Western Alps by combining a classical field approach and modern techniques (e.g. 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology). His work provides the foundation to re-interpret some of the classical sections through the Alpine belt and may impact the way of thinking about the nature and structure of internal parts of collisional orogens. This contribution will present the main outcomes of the work of Marco Beltrando and their implications for the understanding of Alpine type orogens. Since his PhD, Marco Beltrando focused most of his work on the study of the internal parts of the Western Alps. He investigated in great details the complex, multiphase structural and metamorphic evolution of the Penninic units in the Western Alps. He concluded that these units went through several cycles of shortening and extension during the Alpine orogeny, with major implications for the Alps but also other orogenic belts. After his PhD, he focused his research on the pre-orogenic evolution of the Alpine belt. He first worked on the Petit St. Bernard area, where he identified relics of the former hyper-extended Tethyan rifted margin. Thanks to his work and his amazing knowledge of the Western Alps, he understood the potential importance of rift-inheritance in controlling the architecture and evolution of the Alpine belt. In parallel to the study of the orogenic evolution, he developed a new methodology to recognize rift-related lithostratigraphic units in highly deformed and metamorphosed parts of the Alps. His innovative work allowed a re-assessment of several areas in the Western Alps and demonstrates the importance of rift inheritance. Recently, he started a new research project on the evolution of the Southern Alps highlighting the importance of heating and cooling cycles resulting from complex successions of rifting events. In spite of his young age, Marco Beltrando was at

  17. Occurrence and significance of blueschist in the southern Lachlan Orogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpentinite/talc-matrix melanges, bearing blocks of blueschist metavolcanics, occur within the Heathcote and Governor Fault Zones of the southern Lachlan Orogen. In the Heathcote Fault Zone, serpentinite-matrix melange consists of blocks or small pods of boninite, andesite, ultramafic rocks, chert and volcanogenic sandstone variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite, greenschist, or greenschist to blueschist facies. In the Governor Fault Zone, blueschist metavolcanics occur as blocks within serpentinite/talc matrix that is interleaved with prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies, intermediate pressure slate and phyllite. Ar/Ar dating of white mica from slaty mud-matrix (broken formation) indicates that the main fabric development occurred at 446 ± 2 Ma. U-Pb (SHRIMP) dating of titanite from blueschists in the Governor Fault Zone indicates that metamorphism occurred at approximately 450 Ma, close to the time of melange formation. Previously published, Ar/Ar dating of white mica from phyllite and biotite from metadiorite in the Heathcote Fault Zone suggest that blueschist metamorphism occurred at a similar time. These ages are supported by field relationships. Illite crystallinity and b0 data from white mica, and the preservation of blueschist blocks indicate that these fault zones maintained low temperatures both during and after intermediate- to high-pressure metamorphism. Occurrences of blueschists in the Arthur Lineament of the Tyennan (Delamerian) Orogen in Tasmania, and in the New England Orogen, have different ages, and in conjunction with the occurrences described here, suggest that subduction-accretion processes contributed significantly to the development of the Tasmanides from Cambrian through to Carboniferous times. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  18. Cambro-Ordovician magmatism in the Araçuaí Belt (SE Brazil): Snapshots from a post-collisional event (United States)

    De Campos, Cristina P.; de Medeiros, Silvia R.; Mendes, Julio C.; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio C.; Dussin, Ivo; Ludka, Isabel P.; Dantas, Elton L.


    The focus of the present work is the rebound of the magmatism at the late stages of orogenic collapse in the Araçuaí Belt, in Brazil. At the end of the orogen bimodal inversely zoned plutons were emplaced along a tectonic corridor following the Atlantic coast of Brazil. This event culminates around 500 Ma. We review geology, petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of these plutonic structures in the region of Espírito Santo. New geochemical modeling of trace element data together with new whole rock Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic data depict a gradual process of mantle contamination during different stages of the orogen. In the post-orogenic stage contamination reaches extreme values. Basic rocks reach εNd(0.5Ga) values below -10. Gabbros to peridotites are more enriched in Ba, Zr, LREE and Sr than the surrounding metasediments. Four new U-Pb data sets from determinations in zircon and monazite crystals, (central northern part of the belt) confirm peak magma production around 500 ± 15 Ma, ranging up to 525 ± 3 Ma in one of the structures. Based on the pictured data, we discuss the significance of this magmatism and present a possible model: a process of gradational delamination of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle and adjacent deep continental crust through underplating. As a consequence, an already enriched mantle was dramatically further contaminated. At the end of this event the intrusion of alkaline melts, with less negative εNd (-5) and further enrichment in incompatible elements, point towards a new input of deeper juvenile mantle magma. Our data suggest the possible onset of a hotspot due to the destabilization of the asthenospheric mantle after orogenic collapse.

  19. Syn- to post-orogenic exhumation of metamorphic nappes: Structure and thermobarometry of the western Attic-Cycladic metamorphic complex (Lavrion, Greece) (United States)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Lanari, Pierre; Tarantola, Alexandre; Ponthus, Léandre; Photiades, Adonis; France, Lydéric


    The Lavrion peninsula is located along the western boundary of the Attic-Cycladic metamorphic complex in the internal zone of the Hellenic orogenic belt. The nappe stack is well exposed and made, from top to bottom, of (i) a non-metamorphic upper unit composed of an ophiolitic melange, (ii) a middle unit mainly composed of the Lavrion schists in blueschist facies, (iii) and a basal unit mainly composed of the Kamariza schists affected by pervasive retrogression of the blueschist facies metamorphism in greenschist facies. The middle unit is characterized by a relatively steep-dipping foliation associated with isoclinal folds of weakly organized axial orientation. This foliation is transposed into a shallow-dipping foliation bearing a N-S trending lineation. The degree of transposition increases with structural depth and is particularly marked at the transition from the middle to the basal unit across a low-angle mylonitic to cataclastic detachment. The blueschist facies foliation of the Lavrion schists (middle unit) is underlined by high pressure phengite intergrown with chlorite. The Kamariza schists (basal unit) contains relics of the blueschist mineral paragenesis but is dominated by intermediate pressure phengite also intergrown with chlorite and locally with biotite. Electron probe micro-analyzer chemical mapping combined with inverse thermodynamic modeling (local multi-equilibrium) reveals distinct pressure-temperature conditions of crystallization of phengite and chlorite assemblages as a function of their structural, microstructural and microtextural positions. The middle unit is characterized by two metamorphic conditions grading from high pressure (M1, 9-13 kbar) to lower pressure (M2, 6-9 kbar) at a constant temperature of ca. 315 °C. The basal unit has preserved a first set of HP/LT conditions (M1-2, 8-11 kbar, 300 °C) partially to totally transposed-retrogressed into a lower pressure mineral assemblage (M3, 5-8.5 kbar) associated with a slight but

  20. The Central Metasedimentary Belt (Grenville Province) as a failed back-arc rift zone: Nd isotope evidence (United States)

    Dickin, A. P.; McNutt, R. H.


    Nd isotope data are presented for granitoid orthogneisses from the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) of the Grenville Province in order to map the extent of juvenile Grenvillian-age crust within this orogenic belt that is composed mostly of older crustal terranes. The data reveal a 150 km-wide belt of juvenile crust in Ontario, but this belt contains a block of pre-Grenvillian crust (containing the Elzevir pluton) which yields an estimated crustal formation age of 1.5 Ga. The recognition of an older block within the CMB has profound implications for its structure and tectonic evolution, because it implies that juvenile Grenvillian crust, apparently forming a wide NE-SW belt, is in fact distributed in two narrower segments with approximately N-S strike. We suggest that the CMB comprises an en echelon series of ensimatic rift segments, created by back-arc spreading behind a continental margin arc. These rift segments extend southwards (in the subsurface) into the northeastern Unites States. The rift segments contain abundant marble outcrops, consistent with marine incursion into the rift zone, and these deposits also continue northwards into a 'Marble domain' of the CMB in Quebec. However, crustal formation ages in the latter domain are largely pre-Grenvillian, implying that the Quebec rift segment was ensialic. Hence, we interpret the CMB in Ontario and Quebec as the northern termination of a failed back-arc rift zone.

  1. Structure of the Irian Jaya Mobile BElt, Irian Jaya, Indonesia (United States)

    Nash, C. R.; Artmont, G.; Gillan, M. L.; Lennie, D.; O'Connor, G.; Parris, K. R.


    Image interpretation and field investigation over the Central Ranges of Irian Jaya has provided a structural overview of the inaccessible and largely unmapped Irian Jaya Mobile Belt (IJMB) in the region bounded by longitudes 136°30'E and 141°00'E. Throughout much of the southern (para-autochthonous) part of the belt, structural facing directions are visible on imagery through selective illumination of hogbacks and cuestas formed on thick-bedded Mesozoic siliciclastics and extensive Late Cretaceous-Neogene platform carbonate sequences. North of the regional Derewo Fault Zone, the Derewo Metamorphics are regarded in part as correlatives of the "metamorphosed Om Beds" in western Papua New Guinea and display a regional structural grain parallel to the orogen. The limited extent of spectrally anomalous features associated with ultramafic rocks indicate that ophiolites are confined to the southern part of the "Irian Jaya Ophiolite Belt", which may be largely composed of metamorphic rocks. Interpreted macroscopic and megascopic structures suggest the presence of seven discrete structural domains in the IJMB. From north to south these are (1) North Coast Basin region, consisting of Paleogene-Neogene volcanics and sediments overlain by a Pliocene-Pleistocene successor basin sequence; (2) an allochthonous terrane composed of ophiolites and high-grade metamorphic rocks; (3) the Derewo metamorphic assemblage, displaying polyphase deformation; (4) a complex marginal zone within Mesozoic-Paleogene miogeoclinal sediments which includes steep duplex structures and remnant klippen; (5) a 40 to 50-km-wide partly inverted synclinorium composed of miogeoclinal sediments; (6) a regional south vergent overturned anticlinorium formed by incompetent Paleozoic sediments; and (7) a foreland thrust domain involving both Mesozoic-Cenozoic miogeoclinal cover and a deformed Neogene foreland molasse basin sequence. The regional disposition of interpreted structures in the Irian Jaya Mobile

  2. The Pyhäntaka formation, southern Finland: a sequence of metasandstones and metavolcanic rocks upon an intra-orogenic unconformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Nironen


    Full Text Available Detrital zircon studies suggest that the few quartzite occurrences in southern Finland are younger than 1.87 Ga and express sedimentation after 1.89–1.87 Ga accretional deformation and metamorphism in the Svecofennian orogenic belt. Detailed field work in the high-grade metamorphic Pyhäntaka area allowed to distinguish an overturnedformation within metagraywackes (cordierite paragneisses and psammites. The Pyhäntaka formation has a maximum thickness of 1000 meters and consists of quartzite overlain by meta-arkose, metatuff, and metabasalt on top. An uncorformity, expressed by aweathering surface, separates the quartzite from underlying metagraywacke. The metavolcanic rocks within, stratigraphically underlying and overlying the Pyhäntaka formation are mostly basalts and basaltic andesites, but a felsic volcanic rock and dacitic fragments in volcaniclastic rocks imply bimodal affinity. The quartzite was deposited during a stable intra-orogenic period probably after accretion but before 1.83–1.80 Ga collisionaldeformation and metamorphism in the Svecofennian orogen. Rifting during the intraorogenic period and accumulation of variable material in the rift from nearby sources by fluvial processes is a viable scenario for deposition and preservation of the Pyhäntakaformation. Geochemical diagrams of the metavolcanic rocks show a scatter that is best explained by source heterogeneity and crustal contamination. Despite their (likely postaccretion setting the basaltic rocks show arc-type characteristics due to subduction-modified lithospheric mantle sources. Because of recycling, also the paragneisses in the Pyhäntaka area are geochemically similar in spite that they represent different tectonic settings. The use of elemental geochemistry alone appears to be insufficient for discriminatingtectonic settings of basalts or graywackes in the Svecofennian of southern Finland where accretion and post-accretion settings were largely obliterated by late

  3. Geological and geochemical character and genesis of the Jinlongshan-Qiuling gold deposits in Qinling orogen: Metallogenic mechanism of the Qinling-pattern Carlin-type gold deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张复新,陈衍景,李超Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China; ,张静Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China; ,马建秦,李欣Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China


    The Qinling Carlin-type gold deposit belt is the second largest Carlin-type gold ore concentrated area in the world and occurs in Mesozoic intracontinental collisional orogen, contrasting to the Carlin-type gold deposits in the Basin and Range province in Cenozoic active continental margin of West America. With ore-forming ages focussed at the range of 197.45-129.45 Ma, its metallogenic geodynamic background was the decornpression-pyrogenation regime at the transition stage from collisional compression to extension, indicating that gold mineralization synchronized with the Mesozoic continental collision. Geochemical studies discover that ore fluids and materials mainly came from the Hercynian-lndosinian tectonic layer. Mesozoic intracontinental subduction of Hercynian-lndosinian association along the Shuanghe-Gongguan fault led to the formation of Jinlongshan-Qiuling gold deposits. Accordingly, the tectonic metallogenic model is established for Qinling-pattern Carlin-type gold deposits.

  4. Foreland-forearc collisional granitoid and mafic magmatism caused by lower-plate lithospheric slab breakoff: The Acadian of Maine, and other orogens (United States)

    Schoonmaker, A.; Kidd, W.S.F.; Bradley, D.C.


    During collisional convergence, failure in extension of the lithosphere of the lower plate due to slab pull will reduce the thickness or completely remove lower-plate lithosphere and cause decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle; magmas from this source may subsequently provide enough heat for substantial partial melting of crustal rocks under or beyond the toe of the collisional accretionary system. In central Maine, United States, this type of magmatism is first apparent in the Early Devonian West Branch Volcanics and equivalent mafic volcanics, in the slightly younger voluminous mafic/silicic magmatic event of the Moxie Gabbro-Katahdin batholith and related ignimbrite volcanism, and in other Early Devonian granitic plutons. Similar lower-plate collisional sequences with mafic and related silicic magmatism probably caused by slab breakoff are seen in the Miocene-Holocene Papuan orogen, and the Hercynian-Alleghenian belt. Magmatism of this type is significant because it gives evidence in those examples of whole-lithosphere extension. We infer that normal fault systems in outer trench slopes of collisional orogens in general, and possibly those of oceanic subduction zones, may not be primarily due to flexural bending, but are also driven by whole-lithosphere extension due to slab pull. The Maine Acadian example suggests that slab failure and this type of magmatism may be promoted by pre-existing large margin-parallel faults in the lower plate. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  5. The crustal structure of Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada—teleseismic mapping across a remote intraplate orogenic belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Oakey, Gordon;


    Bay and the consequent convergence of the Greenland plate. The details of this complex evolution and the present-day deep structure are poorly constrained in this remote area and deep geophysical data are sparse. Receiver function analysis of seven temporary broad-band seismometers of the Ellesmere...... Island Lithosphere Experiment complemented by two permanent stations provides important data on the crustal velocity structure of Ellesmere Island. The crustal expression of the northernmost tectonic block of Ellesmere Island (∼82°–83°N), Pearya, which was accreted during the Ellesmerian orogeny, is...

  6. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei


    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean the Jiamusi Block underwent a very rapid exhumation in the late Permian. In the early Mesozoic the area went into a basin developing stage and formed a large basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous the Jiamusi Block started uplifting and the basin was broken into isolate small basins. References: Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Heilongjiang Province. Regional geology of Heilongjiang Province. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993.578-581. Cao Chengrun, Zheng Qingdao. Structural evolution feature and its significance of hydrocarbon exploration in relict basin formation, Eastern Heilongjiang province. Journal of Jilin university (Earth Science Edition), 2003, 33(2):167-172. Lang Xiansheng. Biologic Assemblage features of Coal-bearing Strata in Shuangyashan-Jixian coal-field. Coal geology of China, 2002, 14(2):7-12. Piao Taiyuan , Cai Huawei , Jiang Baoyu. On the Cretaceous coal-bearing Strata in Eastern Heilongjiang. Journal Of Stratigraphy, 2005, 29:489-496. Wang Jie , He Zhonghua , Liu Zhaojun , Du Jiangfeng , Wang Weitao. Geochemical characteristics of Cretaceous detrital rocks and their constraint on provenance in Jixi Basin. Global Geology,2006, 25(4):341-348. DickinsonW R and Christopher A. Suczek. Plate Tectonics and Sandstone Composition. AAPG B. 1979,63(12 ):2164-2182. DickinsonW R, Beard L S, Brakenridge G R, et al. Provenance of North American Phanerozoic sandstones in relation to tectonic setting. Bull Geo-Soc Amer, 1983, 94: 222-235. Maruyama S, Seno T. Orogeny and relative plate motions: Example of the Japanese Islands. Tectonophysics, 1986,127(3-4):305-329. Maruyama S, Isozaki Y, Kimura Gand Terabayashi M C.Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: plate tectonic systhesis from 750 Ma to the present. Island Arc, 1997,6:121-142.

  7. High elevation of low-relief surfaces in mountain belts: does it equate to post-orogenic surface uplift?


    BABAULT, Julien; Bonnet, Stéphane; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Crave, Alain


    We present experiments of upraising and relaxing topographies showing that peneplanation can occur above the ultimate base level (sea level). After active uplift, the erosion of a topography bounded by a piedmont generates a final smooth and highly elevated topography. Smoothing at high elevation is even possible during active uplift if the evolution of topography is disrupted by the deposition of the products of erosion on its piedmont which is the case at the transition from underfilled to ...

  8. Spatio-temporal analysis of agricultural land-use intensity across the Western Siberian grain belt. (United States)

    Kühling, Insa; Broll, Gabriele; Trautz, Dieter


    The Western Siberian grain belt covers 1millionkm² in Asiatic Russia and is of global importance for agriculture. Massive land-use changes took place in that region after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the state farm system. Decreasing land-use intensity (LUI) in post-Soviet Western Siberia was observed on grassland due to declining livestock whilst on cropland trends of land abandonment reversed in the early 2000s. Recultivation of abandoned cropland as well as increasing fertilizer inputs and narrowing crop rotations led to increasing LUI on cropland during the last two decades. Beyond that general trend, no information is available about spatial distribution and magnitude but a crucial precondition for the development of strategies for sustainable land management. To quantify changes and patterns in LUI, we developed an intensity index that reflects the impacts of land-based agricultural production. Based on subnational yearly statistical data, we calculated two separate input-orientated indices for cropland and grassland, respectively. The indices were applied on two spatial scale: at seven provinces covering the Western Siberian grain belt (Altay Kray, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Sverdlovsk and Tyumen) and at all districts of the central province Tyumen. The spatio-temporal analysis clearly showed opposite trends for the two land-use types: decreasing intensity on grassland (-0.015 LUI units per year) and intensification on cropland (+0.014 LUI units per year). Furthermore, a spatial concentration towards intensity centres occurred during transition from a planned to a market economy. A principal component analysis enabled the individual calculations of both land-use types to be combined and revealed a strong link between biophysical conditions and LUI. The findings clearly showed the need for having a different strategy for future sustainable land management for grassland (predominantly used by livestock of households

  9. Launching jets from accretion belts

    CERN Document Server

    Schreier, Ron


    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications to a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  10. Kuiper Belts Around Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, R; Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Pilbratt, G L; Risacher, C; Rodmann, J; Augereau, J -C; Bergman, P; Eiroa, C; Fridlund, M; Thébault, P; White, G J


    In order to detect and characterise cold extended circumstellar dust originating from collisions of planetesimal bodies in disks, belts, or rings at Kuiper-Belt distances (30--50\\,AU or beyond) sensitive submillimetre observations are essential. Measurements of the flux densities at these wavelengths will extend existing IR photometry and permit more detailed modelling of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the disks spectral energy distribution (SED), effectively constraining dust properties and disk extensions. By observing stars spanning from a few up to several hundred Myr, the evolution of debris disks during crucial phases of planet formation can be studied. // We have performed 870\\,$\\mu$m observations of 22 exo-Kuiper-Belt candidates, as part of a Large Programme with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope. Dust masses (or upper limits) were calculated from integrated 870\\,$\\mu$m fluxes, and fits to the SED of detected sources revealed the fractional dust luminosities $f_{\\mathrm{dust}}$, dust temperatures...

  11. Deep Crustal Metamorphic Carbon Cycling in Collisional Orogens: What do we Really Know? (United States)

    Ague, J.


    fluxes. The key problem is whether or not this CO2 can reach the surface. CO2 can be stripped from cooling, decompressing fluids ascending toward the surface by a variety of mechanisms; retrograde carbonation reactions will be very important but direct deposition of carbonate minerals or graphite are also likely to be significant. We have modeled coupled flow and retrograde carbonation reaction using both "standard" Darcian fluid flow and "two-phase" flow incorporating matrix compaction and porosity waves (Tian and Ague, 2012). In either case, the CO2 sequestration potential is great, and depends on a variety of geologic factors including rock reactivity, buffer capacity, and layer thickness. High-grade metacarbonate rocks as well as ultramafic rocks/serpentinites are particularly reactive sinks for orogenic carbon. A fundamental problem, however, is whether or not retrograde reaction closes off porosity, thus limiting fluid flow and CO2 transfer. Petrologists have traditionally concentrated on prograde metamorphism, but renewed focus on retrogression at the regional scale is now warranted to better understand how much CO2 is trapped and how much can actually escape from mountain belts during orogensis.

  12. U-Pb zircon ages for the Luzhenguan Complex in northern part of the eastern Dabie orogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Laili; Wolfgang; Siebe; CHEN; Fukun; LIU; Yican


    The study presents U-Pb zircon ages for granitic gneiss and amphibolite from the Luzhenguan Complex (LZC) in northern part of the eastern Dabie Orogen and their geological significance. Two granitic gneisses and one amphibolite give protolith zircon U-Pb ages of 740 Ma and 725 Ma, respectively. The ages show that the LZC is composed mainly of Neoproterzoic acid and basic igneous rocks, suggesting that there is no Paleozoic active continental marginal rock association in the southern margin of the North China Block in northern part of the eastern Dabie Mountain. Based on the ages and combining the geological and geophysical analyses, the middle-low grade metamorphic rocks in the North Huiyang Belt (NHB) can be divided into three parts, which are the LZC composed mainly of the Neoproterzoic acid and basic igneous rocks, the Neoproterzoic Xianrechong Formation and Xiangyunzhai Formation and the Devonian Zhufoan Formation and Pangjialing Formation of the Foziling Group, and the suture zone between the Yongtze Block and the North China Block is inferred to be thrust under the NHB.

  13. An interpretation of the aeromagnetic data covering the western portion of the Damara orogen in South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the aeromagnetic data covering the western portion of the Damara Orogen was undertaken in order to determine whether any additional information relating to the occurrence of uraniferous granite in the area could be derived from these data. The study included palaeomagnetic surveys and an interpretation of the regional structure, coupled with computer modelling of a geomagnetic section across the belt. A number of features are evident from this study, viz: (i) All currently known uraniferous alaskitic granite occurrences of economic interest are hallmarked, on a semi-regional basis, by prominent negative geomagnetic anomalies. (ii) A number of structural lineaments and broader lineament zones are apart from the Okahandja Lineament, recognised and named for the first time. Computer modelling studies support the hypothesis that these geomagnetic lineament zones are in fact fault-controlled geanticlinal ridges bounded by relatively rapid monoclinal downfolding of the stratigraphy: (iii) A post-F3 (north-east) structural phase, F4, oriented north-north-east is concluded to be of particular significance to the emplacement of uraniferous granite since, firstly, the major fold axes of the domes and structures with which these occurrences are associated mostly have this orientation and, secondly, the currently known occurrences are exposed along the north-north-easterly trending Welwitschia lineament zone

  14. Study of thermal conditions at belt slippage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, R.; Pampel, W.; Pfleger, P.


    Conveyor belt slippage experiments are carried out on the Chrudim (Czechoslovakia) industrial sized test stand for belt widths up to 1 m and driving drum forces up to 400 kW. The stand is operated jointly by TAKRAF (GDR) and VITKOVICE VUTZ, Prague. From 1972 to 1981, 7 belt conveyor fires occurred in GDR brown coal surface mines due to belt slippage. One of these cases led to a belt fire after only 15 s at 100% belt slippage. Aim of the study was to determine accurate permissible slippage values. Design of the test stand is explained as well as test procedures with belt slippage at the driving drum varying between 10 and 100%. Belt driving parameters were measured along with temperature of the drum surface. The heat penetration parameter b (in kJ/m/sup 2/) was calculated. Maximum temperatures up to 150 C were measured on the drum during partial slippage and 370 C at 100% belt slippage. The ignition temperature of rubber abrasion fines was also analyzed and found to vary between 40 and 318 C, i.e. substantially lower than belt and drum layer ignition temperatures. Graphs and diagram of slippage measurement results are calculated. Values for permissible maximum slippage time for operating belt slippage monitoring devices are shown. These devices are required to be installed in the GDR at heavy mine belt conveyors with driving forces exceeding 500 kW. 8 refs.

  15. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.


    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  16. Nappe-Bounding Shear Zones Initiated On Syn-Tectonic, Pegmatite-Filled Extensional Shear Fractures During Deep-Crustal Nappe Flow In A Large Hot Orogen (United States)

    Culshaw, Nicholas; Gerbi, Christopher; Marsh, Jeffrey; Regan, Peter


    The Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) of the Proterozoic western Grenville Province is an extensive exposure of the mid-crustal levels (upper amphibolite facies, lesser granulites) of a large hot orogen. Numerical models give a credible prediction of structure and metamorphism accompanying CGB deep-crustal nappe flow and define a temporal framework based on four developmental phases: thickening, heating, nappe-flow and post convergence extensional spreading. These phases are diachronous in direction of orogen propagation and imply a spatial framework: externides (close to orogen-craton boundary) containing moderately inclined thickening and/or extensional structures, and internides containing thickening structures overprinted by sub-horizontal nappe flow structures, which may be locally overprinted by those due to extensional spreading. Although on average of granitoid composition, CGB nappes differ in rheology, varying from fertile and weak (unmetamorphosed before Grenville, meltable) to infertile and strong (metamorphosed at high grade before Grenville, unmeltable) or mixed fertile-infertile protoliths. Deformation style varies from diffuse in fertile nappes, weakened by pervasive melting, to localised in shear zones on boundaries or interiors of infertile nappes. Specifically, in terms of deformation phase and location within the orogen, shear zones occur as: thickening structures of externides, early thickening- and later overprinting nappe-flow structures of infertile internide nappes, and extension-related shear zones in externides and internides. Many of the nappe-flow shear zones of the internides are associated with pegmatites. One example has been recognized of a preserved progression from small-scale fracture arrays to regional shear zone. The sequence is present on a km-scale and initiates in the interior of a nappe of layered granulite with arrays of pegmatite filled extensional-shear fractures (mm to cm width) displaying amphibolized margins. The fracture

  17. Thermal modelling of orogenic mesothermal deposits : application to Ghana


    Harcouët, Virginie


    This thesis deals with thermal processes and fluid flow regimes leading to the genesis of mesothermal gold deposits.Two numerical modelling approaches have been used, a regional one, characterising the conductive thermal regime before mineralisation and a local one adding hydrothermal convection contemporaneous to mineralisation. Models are applied to the Palaeoproterozoic ore deposits of the Ashanti belt in Ghana which are representative of giant mesothermal gold deposits. From the results, ...

  18. Crust Structure across the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt from Seismic Refraction and Wide-angle Reflection Experiment of Sinoprobe02 (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Gao, R.; Keller, R. G.; Li, Q.; Guan, Y.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Lu, Z.; Wang, H.; Xiong, X.; Hou, H.; Dong, J.; Guo, X.; Ye, Z.; Xu, X.; Holloway, S. D.; Chang, J. C.; Kaip, G.; Ingate, S. F.


    In this study the seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection experiment has been carried out along a profile (~430 km) across the Songpan-Ganzê block of Eastern Tibet, the Longmen Shan orogenic belt to Sichuan block of the Yangtze craton. Combining with 5 wide-angle refraction seismic profiles of the Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project carried out in 1986, a velocity model based on traveltime tomography using only the first arrivals of phases Pg and Pn has been obtained and its relative tectonic interpretation has been presented. There are strong deformations of the crust structure in the model from southern part of Songpan-Ganzê block of Eastern Tibet to the northern part of Sichuan block of the Yangtze craton. The thickness of crust varies along the profile as follow: 61~62 km in the area of Songpan-Ganzê block due to the subduction of the Tibetan plateau, 44~47 km beneath Longmen Shan orogenic belt and ~43km in the north part of the Sichuan basin. The thickness of upper crust of the Songpan-Ganzê fold belt changes regularly from the ~20km in the northwest to ~10km in the southeast. However, it is very stable in the Sichuan basin and the thickness is 16~18 km. The total thicknesses of the middle and lower crust beneath the Songpan-Ganzê fold belt change from ~50km in the Eastern Tibetan plateau to ~40km in the Western Yangtze plateau. In the frontal of Sichuan basin the thickness of them decreases to ~30km and is very stable. From the northwest to southeast , the depth of Moho varies from ~62km in the Tibetan plateau, ~60km beneath the Songpan-Ganzê fold belt in the Yangtze plateau, ~45km beneath the Longmen Shan orogenic belt, to ~43km in the Sichuan basin. The discontinuous Moho and existence of double-Moho beneath the Longmen Shan orogenic belt indicate that parts of Moho have been detached from the other parts and escaped downward from their original locations, and it has caused the uplifting and intrusion of magma from the mantle. The velocity


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guangming; RUI Zongyao


    Recent examination and assessment about the porphyry copper deposits in Gangdise metallogenic belt in southern Tibet have revealed that these porphyry copper deposits are highly prospective. Several methods have been used for the isotopic dating of the Qulong, Tinggong and Chongjiang porphyry copper deposits, which gives out a petrogenetic age of 17.58±0.74Ma (single-zircon dating of SHRIMP), a metallogenetic age of 15.99±0.32Ma (Re-Os isochron dating) and an alteration age ranging between12.00Ma and 16.5Ma (K-Ar dating). The metallogenetic age is in general agreement with the alteration age.It can be seen that the petrogenetic and metallogenetic ages for the porphyry copper deposits in Gangdise metallogenic belt are noticeably later than the age for the collisional granitic intrusion in this belt. The authors contend that the porphyry copper deposits in the study area were formed in a post-collisional extensional tectonic setting, and are closely related to the delamination of the mountain roots of the orogenic belts and the uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  20. K-Ar geochronology of the Kulu-Mandi Belt, NW Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K-Ar dates of micas and whole rock amphibolites from the Kulu-Mandi Belt define two distinct groups, (1) 20 to 75 m. y., and (2) 277 to 366 m. y. Our data together with the other available K-Ar and Rb-Sr mineral and whole rock data, enable us to confirm three major events in the Himalaya, the Late Precambrian-Cambrian Assyntian (Cadomian) Orogenic cycle, the Late Palaeozoic Hercynian Magmatic-Epeirogenic cycle and the Late Cretaceous-Teritiary Himalayan Orogenic cycle. The mineral dating is significant for delineating different phases of the last i.e. the Himalayan Oregeny. The radiometric data, so far to hand, indicate that the main activity of the young, Himalayan metamorphism was probably around 50 to 70 m. y. (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) and this was followed by a major uplift during the 10 to 25 m. y. (Mid. Miocene) time, which was responsible for thrusting and formation of nappe structures in the Himalaya. (orig.)

  1. Deformation history during chain building deduced by outcrop structural analysis: The case of the Sicilian fold-and-thrust belt (Central Mediterranean) (United States)

    Napoli, G.; Nigro, F.; Favara, R.; Renda, P.; Salvaggio, G.


    The Sicilian fold-and-thrust belt is located in the central Mediterranean area, and it represents the south-eastern arcuate segment of the Apennine-Maghrebide orogen. The tectonic evolution of the Sicilian belt is documented after outcrop analysis of small-scale structural features carried out throughout the region. Results are consistent with the following four main deformation stages having affected the study area, from the oldest to the youngest: (i) multilayer weakening; (ii) folding-and-thrusting, (iii) extension, and (iv) renewed thrusting. The first deformation stage included three different substages (layer-parallel shortening, bed-parallel simple shear and fold nucleation), the second one by both thrusting and fold amplification and tightening. The third deformation stage involved re-activation of the pre-existing mechanical discontinuities and formation of low-to-high angle normal faults. Out-of-sequence thrusting postdated the aforementioned extensional stage, and formed the latest orogenic deformation stage that affected the Sicilian belt.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky


    Full Text Available The article presents a systematic review of the available tectonophysical data on the state of crustal uplifts and basins in intracontinental orogens. Based on results of the tectonophysical analysis of data on earthquake focal mechanisms for the Altai-Sayan and Northern Tien Shan regions, it is established that in many cases the crust in the basins and uplifts has antipodal structures, considering various types of the state of stresses. In the crust of the uplifts, maximum compression axes are usually sub-horizontal; in the crust of the basins, only the axis of the principal stress of minimum compression (i.e. maximum deviatoric extension is sub-horizontal. These observations correlate well with estimations of deformations on the surface of the crust on the basis of the GPS-geodesy data, as well as with stress measurements taken directly on mining sites. The antipodal structures and physical fields in the crust of the uplifts and basins are not a random phenomenon. This suggests a common mechanism of deformation at the stage of active formation of the uplifts and basins. However, results of a similar tectonophysical analysis performed for the crust of the Pamir plateau and Tibet show that minimum compression stresses are subhorizontal in these regions, and the geodynamic type of the state of stresses is determined as horizontal extension or horizontal shearing. This pattern contrasts sharply with the type of the state of stresses of horizontal compression in the crust of the mountain ranges around the plateau (the Himalayas, Kunlun, Tsilian Shan, Hindu Kush, as well as with the state of stresses of active orogenic structures of the Tien Shan and Altai-Sayan regions.Based on the stress values estimated for a range of geodynamic types of the state of stresses, it is estimated that additional compression stresses of the order of 5.4 kbar are required for the transition from horizontal extension to horizontal compression. If the regional strain

  3. Dyke Swarms in Southeastern British Columbia: Mineralogical and Geochemical Evidence for Emplacement of Multiple Magma Types During Orogenic Collapse (United States)

    Freeman, M.; Owen, J. P.; Hoskin, P. W.


    related through magma differentiation processes, and it is suggested that they originate from separate magma sources. This has important implications for magma generation and heat flow in an extensional stress regime in an orogenic belt, and the potential interaction of different reservoirs in the crust. The findings from this study suggest extension in an ENE-WSW oriented pull-apart direction during Eocene time in southeastern B.C., and the concurrent emplacement of several different magma types perpendicular to extension.

  4. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications (United States)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira


    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  5. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  6. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  7. Continental Growth and Recycling in Convergent Orogens with Large Turbidite Fans on Oceanic Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D. Goscombe


    Full Text Available Convergent plate margins where large turbidite fans with slivers of oceanic basement are accreted to continents represent important sites of continental crustal growth and recycling. Crust accreted in these settings is dominated by an upper layer of recycled crustal and arc detritus (turbidites underlain by a layer of tectonically imbricated upper oceanic crust and/or thinned continental crust. When oceanic crust is converted to lower continental crust it represents a juvenile addition to the continental growth budget. This two-tiered accreted crust is often the same thickness as average continental crustal and is isostatically balanced near sea level. The Paleozoic Lachlan Orogen of eastern Australia is the archetypical example of a tubidite-dominated accretionary orogeny. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Damaran Orogen of SW Africa is similar to the Lachlan Orogen except that it was incorporated into Gondwana via a continent-continent collision. The Mesozoic Rangitatan Orogen of New Zealand illustrates the transition of convergent margin from a Lachlan-type to more typical accretionary wedge type orogen. The spatial and temporal variations in deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism across these orogens illustrate how large volumes of turbidite and their relict oceanic basement eventually become stable continental crust. The timing of deformation and metamorphism recorded in these rocks reflects the crustal thickening phase, whereas post-tectonic magmatism constrains the timing of chemical maturation and cratonization. Cratonization of continental crust is fostered because turbidites represent fertile sources for felsic magmatism. Recognition of similar orogens in the Proterozoic and Archean is important for the evaluation of crustal growth models, particularly for those based on detrital zircon age patterns, because crustal growth by accretion of upper oceanic crust or mafic underplating does not readily result in the addition of voluminous zircon


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghui; Gao Qing; Jian Kailin; Yin Xuegang


    The nonlinear dynamic responses of viscoelastic axially transmission belts are investigated and the Kelvin viscoelastic differential constitutive model is employed to characterize the material property of belts. The generalized equation of motion is obtained for a viscoelatic axially transmission belts with geometric nonlinearity first, and then is reduced to be a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying Galerkin's method. Finally, the effects of viscosity parameter and elastic parameter and the moving velocity of the belts on the transient responses are investigated by the research of digital simulation.

  9. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  10. Petrogenesis of the Yaochong granite and Mo deposit, Western Dabie orogen, eastern-central China: Constraints from zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Zhaowen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Chao; Yu, Yang; Wang, Hao; Su, Yang


    The Dabie orogen is among the most famous continent-continent collisional orogenic belts in the world, and is characterized by intensive post-collisional extension, magmatism and Mo mineralization. However, the genetic links between the mineralization and the geodynamic evolution of the orogen remain unresolved. In this paper, the Yaochong Mo deposit and its associated granitic stocks were investigated to elucidate this issue. Our new zircon U-Pb ages yielded an Early Cretaceous age (133.3 ± 1.3 Ma) for the Yaochong granite, and our molybdenite Re-Os dating gave a similar age (135 ± 1 Ma) for the Mo deposit. The Yaochong stock is characterized by high silica and alkali but low Mg, Fe and Ca. It is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs: Rb, K, Th and U), but strongly depleted in heavy REEs, and high field strength elements (HFSEs: Nb, Ta, Ti and Y). The Yaochong granite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7087-0.7096, and Pb isotopic ratios of (206Pb/204Pb)i = 16.599-16.704, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.170-15.618 and (208Pb/204Pb)i = 36.376-38.248. The granite has εNd(t) of -18.0 to -16.3 and εHf(t) values of -26.5 to -20.0. All these data indicate that the Yaochong granite is a high-K calc-alkaline fractionated I-type granite, and may have originated from partial melting of the thickened Yangtze continental crust. The Mo ores also show low radiogenic Pb isotopes similar to the Yaochong stock. Medium Re content in molybdenite (21.8-74.8 ppm) also suggests that the ore-forming materials were derived from the thickened lower crust with possibly minor mixing with the mantle. Similar to the Eastern Dabie orogen, the thickened crust beneath the Western Dabie orogen may also have experienced tectonic collapse, which may have exerted fundamental geodynamic controls on the two-stage Mo mineralization in the region.

  11. Ground surface temperatures (GST) modeling in the Russian Altay Mountains by using MODIS Land Surface Temperatures (LST). Assessment of the impact of snow cover, topography, landcover and sub-pixel variability on the GST-LST relationship. (United States)

    van de Kerchove, Ruben; Goossens, Rudi


    The Russian Altay Mountains are a challenging area for large scale permafrost modeling. The lack of meteo-data, strong temperature-inversions, rapid changing snow cover patterns and complicated landcover demand an in-depth approach. As a solution, time and spatially covering MODIS land surface temperature (LST) might be used as a proxy replacing the interpolated air and ground surface temperatures (GST). Recent studies show the potential of this method on large continental areas (e.g. Canadian Arctic, Siberia), by using sinusoidal fits to eliminate the data-gaps both spatially as temporally out of the time-series. These studies use isotherms and analytical solutions for freezing and thawing to model permafrost distribution. However to use the LST-values as an upper boundary condition at heterogeneous mountain ranges as the Russian Altay, further research needs to be conducted. In detail the relation between this parameter and surface temperatures beneath areas covered with snow and vegetation requires more attention. In addition the effect of sub-pixel variability and topographic influence needs to be considered as the LST pixels come at 1km resolution. This study tries to answer these questions by showing results of 96 surface temperature time-series recorded in and around the valley of Dzhazator and on the Tarkhata plain (Kosh Agatch District) from July 2008 until July 2009, areas both characterized by discontinuous permafrost, together with spatial dynamics in LST, GST, snow cover and NDVI. iButtons and Onset dataloggers were installed in order to cover surface temperatures beneath a broad range of landcovers, different topographical positions and in grids to measure the sub-grid variability. LST time-series were interpolated by using the relationship with air temperatures. This enables to incorporate high frequency temperature variations in GST modeling. Correlations both for the summer as the winter season are presented between LST, GST, snow cover and NDVI

  12. Evaluation of structural and geological factors in orogenic gold type mineralisation in the Kervian area, north-west Iran, using airborne geophysical data (United States)

    Almasi, Alireza; Jafarirad, Alireza; Kheyrollahi, Hasan; Rahimi, Mana; Afzal, Peyman


    The Piranshahr-Sardasht-Saqqez Zone (PSSZ) in the north-west of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone (SSZ) hosts some major Iranian gold deposits. In the south-east of PSSZ, there is a north-east trending orogenic gold belt which contains three gold deposits/occurrences (Qolqoleh, Kervian and Ghabaghloujeh). In this research, studies are focused on processing and analysing airborne magnetic and radiometric data in order to find applicable indicators for prospecting gold in this area. Former studies on the gold deposits/occurrences in the study area suggest three essential factors in local orogenic gold mineralisation: (1) intersecting deep bending structures/shear zones, (2) Fe-rich mafic meta-volcanic lithologies (primary source and host rocks) and (3) altered mylonitic granites (secondary host rock). Geological structures and lithological contacts can be mapped based on locating edges in the magnetic field at different depths. In this study, we extracted the structure from aeromagnetic data by reduction to the pole, upward continuation and applying a tilt derivative filter to the horizontal derivative of the upward continued data. Upward continuation was to several levels from 500 to 4000 m. Afterwards, a 3D architecture was built based on extracted subsurface lineaments in different levels. This 3D model can assist in the visualisation of the underground shape of structures that may influence gold mineralisation. Moreover, mafic meta-volcanic rocks in the study area, which contain magnetic minerals such as magnetite, titanomagnetite and ilmenite, can be mapped using aeromagnetic data. Mylonitic granites, which are the other host rock in the deposits, were mapped using airborne radiometric data.

  13. The tectonic transition from oceanic subduction to continental subduction: Zirconological constraints from two types of eclogites in the North Qaidam orogen, northern Tibet (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Chen, Ren-Xu; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Li, Wan-Cai; Hu, Zhaochu; Yang, Yueheng; Tang, Haolan


    In the plate tectonics theory, continental subduction is pulled by subduction of dense oceanic crust. In practice, however, it is not easy to demonstrate that preceding oceanic crust exposes as oceanic-type eclogite together with continental-type eclogite in collisional orogens. The North Qaidam orogen in northern Tibet is an ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt that contains the two types of eclogites, providing us with an excellent opportunity to study the tectonic transition from oceanic subduction to continental subduction. In order to constrain the protolith nature and metamorphic evolution of eclogites, we performed a combined study of zircon U-Pb ages, trace elements, mineral inclusions and O-Hf isotopes for various eclogites from the orogen. We discriminate the two types of eclogites by their differences in zircon U-Pb ages and O-Hf isotopes. CL-dark zircon domains exhibit high Th/U ratios, steep HREE patterns and significantly negative Eu anomalies, indicating that they are protolith zircons of magmatic origin with different extents of metamorphic recrystallization. Relict magmatic zircon domains in Type I eclogites yield Neoproterozoic protolith ages of > 830 Ma and Hf model ages of 850-1100 Ma, whereas those in Type II eclogites yield Cambrian protolith U-Pb ages of > 489 Ma and Hf model ages of 500-650 Ma. Most of the CL-bright zircon domains show low Th/U ratios, flat HREE patterns and no negative Eu anomalies, and contain mineral inclusions of garnet, omphacite and rutile, indicating their growth under eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. These metamorphic domains have consistent eclogite-facies metamorphic ages of 433-440 Ma throughout the North Qaidam orogen, regardless of the eclogite types and locations. The metamorphic zircon domains in Type I eclogites mostly exhibit δ18O values higher than normal mantle values, whereas Type II eclogites mostly have δ18O values lower than the normal mantle values. The difference in the δ18O values

  14. Highly refractory peridotites in Songshugou, Qinling orogen: Insights into partial melting and melt/fluid-rock reactions in forearc mantle (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Song, Shuguang; Su, Li; Jung, Haemyeong; Niu, Yaoling


    The Songshugou ultramafic massif is located in the eastern segment of the Qinling orogenic belt, central China. It is a large spinel peridotite body dominated by coarse-grained, porphyroclastic, and fine-grained dunite with minor harzburgite, olivine clinopyroxenite, and banded/podiform chromitite. The compositions of the bulk-rock dunite and harzburgite, and the constituent olivine and spinel, together with the textures and chemical characteristics of multiphase mineral inclusions, point to the highly refractory nature of these rocks with complex histories of high-temperature boninite melt generation and boninitic melt-rock reaction, probably in a young, warm, and volatile-rich forearc lithospheric mantle setting. Additionally, a subsequent low-temperature fluid-rock reaction is also recorded by TiO2-rich spinel with Ti solubility/mobility enhanced by chloride- or fluoride-rich subduction-zone fluids as advocated by Rapp et al. (2010). The olivine clinopyroxenite, on the other hand, was likely crystallized from a residual boninitic melt that had reacted with harzburgitic residues. The ubiquitous occurrences of hydrous minerals, such as anthophyllite, tremolite, Cr-chlorite, and serpentine (stable at lower P-T crustal conditions) in the matrix, suggest that further low-temperature fluid-rock reaction (or retrograde metamorphism) has affected the original volatile-poor peridotites either in a mature and cool subduction zone, or in a continental crust during their exhumation into the Qinling collisional orogeny at early Paleozoic era, or both. The prolonged and intense ductile/brittle deformation can decrease the mineral grain size through dynamic recrystallization and fracturing, and thus aid the fluid-rock reaction or retrograde metamorphism and mineral chemical re-equilibration processes. Therefore, the Songshugou peridotites present a good example for understanding the petrogenesis and evolution of the mantle wedge, with the emphasis on the complex partial

  15. The Caucasian-Arabian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan collisional belt:Geology, volcanism and neotectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Sharkov; V. Lebedev; A. Chugaev; L. Zabarinskaya; A. Rodnikov; N. Sergeeva; I. Safonova


    The Caucasian-Arabian belt is part of the huge late Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt formed by collision of continental plates. The belt consists of two domains:the Caucasian-Arabian Syntaxis (CAS) in the south and the EW-striking Greater Caucasus in the north. The CAS marks a zone of the indentation of the Arabian plate into the southern East European Craton. The Greater Caucasus Range is located in the south of the Eurasian plate;it was tectonically uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (MCF), which is, in turn, a part of a megafault extended over a great distance from the Kopetdag Mts. to the Tornquist-Teisseyre Trans-European Suture Zone. The Caucasus Mts. are bounded by the Black Sea from the west and by the Caspian Sea from the east. The SN-striking CAS is characterized by a large geophysical isostatic anomaly suggesting presence of mantle plume head. A 500 km long belt of late Cenozoic volcanism in the CAS extends from the eastern Anatolia to the Lesser and Greater Caucasus ranges. This belt hosts two different types of volcanic rocks: (1) plume-type intraplate basaltic plateaus and (2) suprasubduction-type calc-alkaline and shoshonite-latite volcanic rocks. As the CAS lacks signatures of subduction zones and is characterized by relatively shallow earthquakes (50e60 km), we suggest that the “supra-subduction-type”magmas were derived by interaction between mantle plume head and crustal material. Those hybrid melts were originated under conditions of collision-related deformation. During the late Cenozoic, the width of the CAS reduced to ca. 400 km due to tectonic “diffluence” of crustal material provided by the continuing Arabia-Eurasia collision.

  16. Incipient Crustal Stretching across AN Active Collision Belt: the Case of the Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (central Mediterranean) (United States)

    Catalano, S.; Tortorici, G.; Romagnoli, G.; Pavano, F.


    In the Central Mediterranean, the differential roll-back of the subducting Nubia Plate caused the Neogene-Quaternary extrusion of the Calabrian arc onto the oceanic Ionian slab, and the opening of the oceanic Tyrrhenian Basin, in the overriding Eurasia Plate. The differential motion at the edges of the arc was largely accommodated along transform faults that propagated across the orogenic belt. Since the Late Quaternary, the southern edge of the arc has been replaced by the roughly N-S oriented Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (SCRZ) that formed as the NNW-directed normal faults of NE Sicily, crossing the orogenic belt, have linked the NNE-oriented Tyrrhenian margin of southern Calabria with the NNW-trending Africa-Ionian boundary of southeastern Sicily. Our study focused on the Sicily shoulder of the SCRZ, where the transition zone between the extensional belt and the still active Nubia-Eurasia convergent margin is characterized by two distinct mobile crustal wedges, both lying on an upwarped Mantle, where a re-orientations of the σ1 is combined with volcanism (e.g. Etna, Aeolian islands) and a huge tectonic uplift. In southeastern Sicily, the Hyblean-Etnean region evolved, since about 0.85 Ma, as an indipendent crustal wedge, moving towards the NNW and pointing to the active Mt. Etna volcano. A local ENE crustal stretching accompanied the traslation of the block and pre-dated the ESE-oriented extension governing the propagation of the southernmost branch of the SCR, which started at about 330 ka B.P.. Similarly, the Peloritani-Aeolian region, flanked by the 125 ka-old NE-Sicily branch of the rift zone, represents a mostly submerged crustal wedge that migrates towards the NE, diverging from the rest of the Sicily collision zone and pointing to the Stromboli volcano. The Peloritani-Aeolian block is characterized by the occurrence of a wide central NE-oriented collapsed basin contoured by an actively uplifting region, whose tectonic boundaries are evidenced by a sharp

  17. Tectonic Map of the Ellesmerian and Eurekan deformation belts on Svalbard, North Greenland and the Queen Elizabeth Islands (Canadian Arctic) (United States)

    Piepjohn, Karsten; von Gosen, Werner; Tessensohn, Franz; Reinhardt, Lutz; McClelland, William C.; Dallmann, Winfried; Gaedicke, Christoph; Harrison, Christopher


    The tectonic map presented here shows the distribution of the major post-Ellesmerian and pre-Eurekan sedimentary basins, parts of the Caledonian Orogen, the Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt, structures of the Cenozoic Eurekan deformation, and areas affected by the Eurekan overprint. The present continental margin of North America towards the Arctic Ocean between the Queen Elizabeth Islands and Northeast Greenland and the present west margin of the Barents Shelf are characterized by the Paleozoic Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt, the Cenozoic Eurekan deformation, and, in parts, the Caledonian Orogen. In many areas, the structural trends of the Ellesmerian and Eurekan deformations are more or less parallel, and often, structures of the Ellesmerian Orogeny are affected or reactivated by the Eurekan deformation. While the Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt is dominated by orthogonal compression and the formation of wide fold-and-thrust zones on Ellesmere Island, North Greenland and Spitsbergen, the Eurekan deformation is characterized by a complex network of regional fold-and-thrust belts (Spitsbergen, central Ellesmere Island), large distinct thrust zones (Ellesmere Island, North Greenland) and a great number of strike-slip faults (Spitsbergen, Ellesmere Island). The Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt was most probably related to the approach and docking of the Pearya Terrane (northernmost part of Ellesmere Island) and Spitsbergen against the north margin of Laurasia (Ellesmere Island/North Greenland) in the earliest Carboniferous. The Eurekan deformation was related to plate tectonic movements during the final break-up of Laurasia and the opening of Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay west, the Eurasian Basin north, and the Norwegian/Greenland seas east of Greenland. The tectonic map presented here shows the German contribution to the Tectonic Map of the Arctic 1:5,000,000 (TeMAr) as part of the international project "Atlas of geological maps of Circumpolar Arctic at 1

  18. Apparatus for heat treating plastic belts (United States)

    Topits, A., Jr.


    Apparatus performs programed rotating, stretching/shrinking and heat treatment necessary to fabrication of high-performance plastic belts. Belts can be treated in lengths varying from 7 to 48 in., in widths up to 1 in., and in thicknesses up to approximately 0.003 in.

  19. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G


    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  20. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick (United States)

    Staley, Mark


    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  1. Situational characteristics of safety belt use. (United States)

    Fockler, S K; Cooper, P J


    Past research concerning the use and nonuse of safety belts has tended to stereotype users and nonusers as distinct entities on the basis of a single observed situation. The thought processes underlying the reasons given by drivers for using or not using seat belts have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to observe belt use by a group of drivers and describe factors contributing to their use or nonuse as defined by the drivers themselves. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 239 drivers whose safety belt wearing behavior was observed in specific city or highway driving locations. Vehicle license numbers, gender, and age group of selected drivers were used to retrieve driver records and insurance policy data. Open-ended questions were asked concerning their reasons for use or nonuse and their attitudes towards safety belts and other types of traffic safety countermeasures. Driver attitudes, characteristics, and records were compared between observed safety belt user and nonuser groups to validate variables predicting use or nonuse. Respondents' descriptions of the social and personal context of their choice to use or not use safety belts provide a broader view of seat belt wearing that suggests implications for planning future enforcement and education programs. PMID:2331287

  2. Confirmation of pelitic granulite in the Altai orogen and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WEI ChunJing; WANG Tao; LOU YuXing; CHU Hang


    The existence of pelitic granulite in the Altai orogen was confirmed for the first time by detailed petro-graphic research and P-T pseudosection modeling. The pelitic granulite has the assemblage of garnet + cordierite + K-feldspar + biotite + sillimanite + plagioclase + quartz with some samples containing the paragenesis of cordierite + spinel. Peak conditions of the pelitic granulite determined from the P-T pseudosection involved P= 0.5-0.6 GPa, T= 780-800?*, belonging to medium-to low-pressure type. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon presented a metamorphic age of 292.8 ± 2.3 Ma. The discovery of pelitic granulite reflects an extensional environment with high heat flow in the southern margin of the Altai orogen during the Early Permian, which provides an important petrological constraint on the evolution of the Altai orogen.

  3. Neogene coupling between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China. (United States)

    He, Guang-Yu; Chen, Han-Lin


    Based on the sedimentary and subsiding features of Kuqa foreland basin, this paper presents the following characteristics of Neogene coupling relationship between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China: (1) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen underwent Neogene uplifting of 4 km in height and the Kuqa Basin underwent Neogene subsidence of 4-6 km in depth accordingly beginning in 25 Ma; (2) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen moved continuously toward the Kuqa Basin, with largest structural shortening rate of greater than 53.7%, and the north boundary of the Kuqa Basin retreated continuously southward accordingly since the Miocene; (3) There are two subsidence centers with high subsiding rates and large subsiding extent, located in the eastern and western Kuqa Basin respectively, with the subsiding maximizing in the deposition period of Kuqa Formation. PMID:15236483

  4. Neogene coupling between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光玉; 陈汉林


    Based on the sedimentary and subsiding features of Kuqa foreland basin, this paper presents the following characteristics of Neogene coupling relationship between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China:(l) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen underwent Neogene uplifting of 4 km in height and the Kuqa Basin underwent Neogene subsidence of 4-6 km in depth accordingly beginning in 25 Ma; (2) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen moved continuously toward the Kuqa Basin, with largest structural shortening rate of greater than 53.7%, and the north boundary of the Kuqa Basin retreated continuously southward accordingly since the Miocene; (3) There are two subsidence centers with high subsiding rates and large subsiding extent, located in the eastern and western Kuqa Basin respectively, with the subsiding maximizing in the deposition period of Kuqa Formation.

  5. Orogenic plateau magmatism of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone (United States)

    Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Kheirkhah, M.; van Hunen, J.; Davidson, J. P.; Meliksetian, Kh.; Emami, M. H.


    generally applicable as melt triggers. Enigmatic lavas are erupted over the thick lithosphere of Kurdistan Province, Iran. These alkali basalts and basanites have the chemical characteristics of small degree (<1%) melts in the garnet stability field. Most possess supra-subduction zone chemistry (La/Nb = 1-3), but this signature is highly variable. Similar La/Nb variability occurs in the basic lavas of Damavand volcano in the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. Modelling suggests the depletion of residual amphibole during the progression of partial melting can explain the observed La/Nb range. This melting may occur as the result of lithospheric thickening. At depths of ~90 km, amphibole-bearing peridotite crosses an experimentally-determined "backbend" in its solidus. Melting can continue while the source remains hydrated. Such "compression" melting may apply to parts of other orogenic plateaux, including Tibet.

  6. Reconciling competing models for the tectono-stratigraphic zonation of the Variscan orogen in Western Europe (United States)

    Murphy, J. Brendan; Quesada, Cecilio; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Johnston, Stephen T.; Weil, Arlo


    The Late Paleozoic Variscan orogen in Europe is the result of convergence and collision between Laurussia and Gondwana during closure of the Rheic Ocean. The orogen is divided into tectonostratigraphic zones that have a distinct curvature (Ibero-Armorican Arc, IAA) and record the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician opening of the Rheic Ocean, the migration of terranes from the Gondwanan margin towards Laurussia, as well as the closure of that ocean and development of the IAA. Three models have emerged to explain the distribution of tectonostratigraphic zones:

  7. The Gould's Belt distance survey

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, L; Torres, R M; Dzib, S; Rodriguez, L F; Boden, A F


    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations can provide the position of compact radio sources with an accuracy of order 50 micro-arcseconds. This is sufficient to measure the trigonometric parallax and proper motions of any object within 500 pc of the Sun to better than a few percent. Because they are magnetically active, young stars are often associated with compact radio emission detectable using VLBI techniques. Here we will show how VLBI observations have already constrained the distance to the most often studied nearby regions of star-formation (Taurus, Ophiuchus, Orion, etc.) and have started to provide information on their internal structure and kinematics. We will then briefly describe a large project (called The Gould's Belt Distance Survey) designed to provide a detailed view of star-formation in the Solar neighborhood using VLBI observations.

  8. Strategy for replacing conveyor belts in complex haulage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysiewicz, L.; Jurdziak, L.; Masella, J.


    Discusses service life and reliability of conveyor belts used for mine haulage in brown coal surface mining and a method for optimizing belt service life. Based on analysis of operation of 900-1,200 m long belt conveyors in the Konin surface mine, failure rates and factors that influence belt reliability were determined. Effects of joints, length of belt sections and service life of each belt section were analyzed. Formulae for determining the optimum time interval for replacing belt sections on a long belt conveyor were derived. The formulae consider cost of new belt sections, replacement cost and haulage losses associated with possible belt failure caused by excessive belt service life. The optimization procedure has been successfully tested at the Turow surface mine and power plant. 4 refs.

  9. Emplacement age of the post- orogenic A-type granites in Northwestern Lesser Xing'an Ranges, and its relationship to the eastward extension of Suolushan-Hegenshan-Zhalaite collisional suture zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A great amount of alkali-feldspar and alkaline granites have been found around Nenjiang, Northwest Lesser Xing'an Ranges, but their forming ages have been a controversial subject due to the lack of reliable geological and isotopic geochronological evidence. The zircon U-Pb isotopic dating results conducted in this note indicate that these granites emplaced at 260-290 Ma, coeval with the late stage of Late Paleozoic. Studies of mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry show that they are post-orogenic A-type granites, and consist of the northeastern extension of huge belt of Late Paleozoic A-type granite along North Xinjiang-Southeast Mongolia-Central Inner Mongolia. Therefore, we can determine that the Suolunshan-Hegenshan-Zhalaite collisional suture zone extends northeastward to Heihe with the collision age of Carboniferous.

  10. Potassic/ultrapotassic magmatism pos a tardi-orogenic (associated to subduction) in the western of Bahia: batolite monzo-syenitic from Guanambi-Urandi and the syenites from Correntina, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The western portion of Bahia State is characterized by polimetamorfic rocks (granulites and gneissic-migmatitics) intruded by great volume of undeformated monzonitic and syenitic rocks. Tectonically, this region is interpreted as an Early Proterozoic mobile belt. Clynopiroxene-syenitic rocks are more conspicuous in the western side of the Sao Francisco river (Correntina Syenites), while amphibole-mica monzonitic and syenitic rocks (Guanambi-Urandi Batholith) occur southeastward. The Guanambi-Urandi, a 6000 km2 batholith, shows a slight sigmoidal shape whereas the Correntina Syenites outcrop along the valleys where the Phanerozoic cover difficults the mapping. The existing geochronological data reveal a contemporaneity between these set of rocks, about 2 Ga. Our geochemical data point to potassic plutonism, with high Ba, Sr, REE and moderate Ti, Zr, Nb and Y. The above characteristics suggest an orogenic environment, probably linked a subduction zone. (author)

  11. Geophysical profiling across the Sulu ultra-high-pressure metamorphic belt, eastern China (United States)

    Yang, Wencai


    The largest ultra-high pressure metamorphic (UHPM) belt in the world is located along the Dabie-Sulu region, which tectonically belongs to the east part of the central orogenic belt of China. Integrated geophysical investigations of using deep seismic reflection, MT, and geothermal observations have been carried out in the Sulu area since 1997. The results of integrated interpretation suggest the existence of three features: (1) a rift beneath the Lianshui basin by the Jiashan-Xionshui fault; (2) a special crustal pattern, called the magmatic multi-arch structure occurs beneath the northern Sulu UHPM zone; and (3) a northwest-dipping regional thrust crosses the Sulu crust, representing the intracontinental subduction of the Yangtze craton beneath the Sulu metamorphic belts after collision between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. A magmatic multi-arch structure consists of some arched reflectors that occur in both the lower and the upper crust where arched reflectors coincide with granitoid plutons. The multi-arch structures are common in eastern China where many Mesozoic granitoid plutons of different scales occur. The crustal structures in the Sulu metamorphic belts resulted from intensive dynamic processes following the Triassic collision between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. The formation and exhumation of UHPM rocks followed the collision, and then intracontinental subduction of the Yangtze craton beneath the Dabie-Sulu terranes took place in the early and middle Jurassic. In the late Jurassic, the Sulu lithosphere turned to an extensional regime, large-scale granitic intrusions occurred in eastern China; these likely resulted from lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric uplifting. The granitic intrusions came to a climax during the Cretaceous and were followed by rifting along existing faults in the early Eogene, resulting in many petroleum basins. The granitoid emplacement that generated the magmatic multi-arch structure and the rift were

  12. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映辉; 高庆; 蹇开林; 殷学纲


    Based on the Kelvin viscoelastic differential constitutive law and the motion equation of the axially moving belt, the nonlinear dynamic model of the viscoelastic axial moving belt was established. And then it was reduced to be a linear differential system which the analytical solutions with a constant transport velocity and with a harmonically varying transport velocity were obtained by applying Lie group transformations. According to the nonlinear dynamic model, the effects of material parameters and the steady-state velocity and the perturbed axial velocity of the belt on the dynamic responses of the belts were investigated by the research of digital simulation. The result shows: 1 ) The nonlinear vibration frequency of the belt will become small when the relocity of the belt increases. 2 ) Increasing the value of viscosity or decreasing the value of elasticity leads to a deceasing in vibration frequencies. 3 ) The most effects of the transverse amplitudes come from the frequency of the perturbed velocity when the belt moves with harmonic velocity.

  14. From transmission error measurement to Pulley-Belt slip determination in serpentine belt drives: influence of tensioner and belt characteristics


    Manin, Lionel; Michon, Guilhem; Rémond, Didier; Dufour, Regis


    Serpentine belt drives are often used in front end accessory drive of automotive engine. The accessories resistant torques are getting higher within new technological innovations as stater-alternator, and belt transmissions are always asked for higher capacity. Two kind of tensioners are used to maintain minimum tension that insure power transmission and minimize slip: dry friction or hydraulic tensioners. An experimental device and a specific transmission error measurement method have been u...

  15. Relating orogen width to shortening, erosion, and exhumation during Alpine collision (United States)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Berger, A.; Bellahsen, N.; Bousquet, R.


    We investigate along-strike width changes of the thickened, accreted lower plate (TALP) in the Central and in the Eastern Alps. We set the width of the TALP in relation to the inferred amount of collisional shortening and exhumation along six orogen-scale cross sections. Taking the present-day, along-strike gradients in the amount of collisional shortening to represent the temporal evolution of the collisional wedge, it may be concluded that the cross-sectional area of the TALP diminishes during ongoing shortening, indicating that the erosional flux outpaced the accretionary flux. Higher amounts of collisional shortening systematically coincide with smaller widths of the TALP and dramatic increases of the reconstructed eroded rock column. Higher amounts of shortening also coincide with larger amplitudes of orogen-scale, upright folds, with higher exhumation and with higher exhumation rates. Hence, erosion did play a major role in reducing by >30 km the vertical crustal thickness in order to accommodate and allow shortening by folding. Long-term climate differences cannot explain alternating changes of width by a factor of almost 2 along straight segments of the orogen on length scales less than 200 km, as observed from the western Central Alps to the easternmost Eastern Alps. Sedimentary or paleontological evidences supporting such paleo-climatic differences are lacking, suggesting that erosional processes did not directly control the width of the orogen.

  16. Mineral potential tracts for orogenic, Carlin-like, and epithermal gold deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, (phase V, deliverable 69): Chapter H in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II) (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric D.; Horton, John D.; Finn, Carol A.; Beaudoin, Georges


    The gold resources of Mauritania presently include two important deposits and a series of poorly studied prospects. The Tasiast belt of deposits, which came into production in 2007, is located in the southwestern corner of the Rgueïbat Shield and defines a world-class Paleoproterozoic(?) orogenic gold ore system. The producing Guelb Moghrein deposit occurs along a shear zone in Middle Archean rocks at the bend in the Northern Mauritanides and is most commonly stated to be an iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) type of deposit, although it also has some important characteristics of orogenic gold and skarn deposits. Both major deposits are surrounded by numerous prospects that show similar mineralization styles. The Guelb Moghrein deposit, and IOCG deposit types in general are discussed in greater detail in a companion report by Fernette (2015). In addition, many small gold prospects, which are probably orogenic gold occurrences and are suggested to be early Paleozoic in age, occur along the length of Southern Mauritanides. Existing data indicate the gold deposits and prospects in Mauritania have a sulfide assemblage most commonly dominated by pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite, and have ore-related fluids with apparently high salinities.

  17. Tectonothermal evolution in the core of an arcuate fold and thrust belt: the south-eastern sector of the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt, north-western Spain) (United States)

    Valín, María Luz; García-López, Susana; Brime, Covadonga; Bastida, Fernando; Aller, Jesús


    The tectonothermal evolution of an area located in the core of the Ibero-Armorican Arc (Variscan belt) has been determined by using the conodont colour alteration index (CAI), Kübler index of illite (KI), the Árkai index of chlorite (AI) and the analysis of clay minerals and rock cleavage. The area is part of the Cantabrian Zone (CZ), which represents the foreland fold and thrust belt of the orogen. It has been thrust by several large units of the CZ, what resulted in the generation of a large number of synorogenic Carboniferous sediments. CAI, KI and AI values show an irregular distribution of metamorphic grade, independent of stratigraphic position. Two tectonothermal events have been distinguished in the area. The first one, poorly defined, is mainly located in the northern part. It gave rise to very-low-grade metamorphism in some areas and it was associated with a deformation event that resulted in the emplacement of the last large thrust unit and development of upright folds and associated cleavage (S1). The second tectonothermal event gave rise to low-grade metamorphism and cleavage (S2) crosscutting earlier upright folds in the central, western and southern parts of the study area. The event continued with the intrusion of small igneous rock bodies, which gave rise to contact metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration. This event was linked to an extensional episode due to a gravitational instability at the end of the Variscan deformation. This tectonothermal evolution occurred during the Gzhelian-Sakmarian. Subsequently, several hydrothermal episodes took place and local crenulation cleavage developed during the Alpine deformation.

  18. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  19. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    DeMeo, Francesca E; Walsh, Kevin J; Chapman, Clark R; Binzel, Richard P


    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization with over half a million known asteroids and over 100,000 with some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the Main Asteroid Belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of Solar System evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the Asteroid Belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire Solar System?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after Solar System formation. This article reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of...

  20. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  1. Dynamics of the outer asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the issue of modeling the dynamics of the outer asteroid belt. The hypotheses and assumptions of an asteroid-belt model are discussed together with their problems, of which gaps at some mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and the depletion of the outer belt are the most outstanding ones. Particular attention is given to the theory of the 2:1 gap, the depletion problem, and the mechanisms of dynamical protection against strong perturbations by Jupiter. It is suggested that the observed asteroids must have gone through a process of natural selection as a result of which all objects in unprotected orbits have been ejected from the system. Spectral observations show a reddening in spectral slope with increasing heliocentric distance; it is proposed that this is an evidence that outer-belt asteroids might be primordial objects. 41 refs

  2. Visualizing the sedimentary response through the orogenic cycle using multi-dimensional scaling (United States)

    Spencer, C. J.; Kirkland, C.


    Changing patterns in detrital provenance through time have the ability to resolve salient features of an orogenic cycle. Such changes in the age spectrum of detrital minerals can be attributed to fluctuations in the geodynamic regime (e.g. opening of seaways, initiation of subduction and arc magmatism, and transition from subduction to collisional tectonics with arrival of exotic crustal material). These processes manifest themselves through a variety of sedimentary responses due to basin formation, transition from rift to drift sedimentation, or inversion and basement unroofing. This generally is charted by the presence of older detrital zircon populations during basement unroofing events and is followed by a successive younging in the detrital zircon age signature either through arrival of young island arc terranes or the progression of subduction magmatism along a continental margin. The sedimentary response to the aforementioned geodynamic environment can be visualized using a multi-dimensional scaling approach to detrital zircon age spectra. This statistical tool characterizes the "dissimilarity" of age spectra of the various sedimentary successions, but importantly also charts this measure through time. We present three case studies in which multi-dimensional scaling reveals additional useful information on the style of basin evolution within the orogenic cycle. The Albany-Fraser Orogeny in Western Australia and Grenville Orogeny (sensu stricto) in Laurentia demonstrate clear patterns in which detrital zircon age spectra become more dissimilar with time. In stark contrast, sedimentary successions from the Meso- to Neoproterozoic North Atlantic Region reveal no consistent pattern. Rather, the North Atlantic Region reflects a signature consistent with significant zircon age communication due to a distal position from an orogenic front, oblique translation of terranes, and complexity of the continental margin. This statistical approach provides a mechanism to

  3. Alkali-calcic and alkaline post-orogenic (PO) granite magmatism: petrologic constraints and geodynamic settings (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard; Azzouni-Sekkal, Abla; Bussy, François; Ferrag, Sandrine


    The end of an orogenic Wilson cycle corresponds to amalgamation of terranes into a Pangaea and is marked by widespread magmatism dominated by granitoids. The post-collision event starts with magmatic processes still influenced by subducted crustal materials. The dominantly calc-alkaline suites show a shift from normal to high-K to very high-K associations. Source regions are composed of depleted and later enriched orogenic subcontinental lithospheric mantle, affected by dehydration melting and generating more and more K- and LILE-rich magmas. In the vicinity of intra-crustal magma chambers, anatexis by incongruent melting of hydrous minerals may generate peraluminous granitoids bearing mafic enclaves. The post-collision event ends with emplacement of bimodal post-orogenic (PO) suites along transcurrent fault zones. Two suites are defined, (i) the alkali-calcic monzonite-monzogranite-syenogranite-alkali feldspar granite association characterised by [biotite+plagioclase] fractionation and moderate [LILE+HFSE] enrichments and (ii) the alkaline monzonite-syenite-alkali feldspar granite association characterised by [amphibole+alkali feldspar] fractionation and displaying two evolutionary trends, one peralkaline with sodic mafic mineralogy and higher enrichments in HFSE than in LILE, and the other aluminous biotite-bearing marked by HFSE depletion relative to LILE due to accessory mineral precipitation. Alkali-calcic and alkaline suites differ essentially in the amounts of water present within intra-crustal magma chambers, promoting crystallisation of various mineral assemblages. The ultimate enriched and not depleted mantle source is identical for the two PO suites. The more primitive LILE and HFSE-rich source rapidly replaces the older orogenic mantle source during lithosphere delamination and becomes progressively the thermal boundary layer of the new lithosphere. Present rock compositions are a mixture of major mantle contribution and various crustal components

  4. Tectonic controls of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc mineralization in orogenic forelands (United States)

    Bradley, D.C.; Leach, D.L.


    Most of the world's Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) zinc-lead deposits occur in orogenic forelands. We examine tectonic aspects of foreland evolution as part of a broader study of why some forelands are rich in MVT deposits, whereas others are barren. The type of orogenic foreland (collisional versus Andean-type versus inversion-type) is not a first-order control, because each has MVT deposits (e.g., Northern Arkansas, Pine Point, and Cevennes, respectively). In some MVT districts (e.g., Tri-State and Central Tennessee), mineralization took place atop an orogenic forebulge, a low-amplitude (a few hundred meters), long-wavelength (100-200 km) swell formed by vertical loading of the foreland plate. In the foreland of the active Banda Arc collision zone, a discontinuous forebulge reveals some of the physiographic and geologic complexities of the forebulge environment, and the importance of sea level in determining whether or not a forebulge will emerge and thus be subject to erosion. In addition to those on extant forebulges, some MVT deposits occur immediately below unconformities that originated at a forebulge, only to be subsequently carried toward the orogen by the plate-tectonic conveyor (e.g., Daniel's Harbour and East Tennessee). Likewise, some deposits are located along syn-collisional, flexure-induced normal and strike-slip faults in collisional forelands (e.g., Northern Arkansas, Daniel's Harbour, and Tri-State districts). These findings reveal the importance of lithospheric flexure, and suggest a conceptual tectonic model that accounts for an important subset of MVT deposits-those in the forelands of collisional orogens. The MVT deposits occur both in flat-lying and in thrust-faulted strata; in the latter group, mineralization postdated thrusting in some instances (e.g., Picos de Europa) but may have predated thrusting in other cases (e.g., East Tennessee).

  5. SVM-based base-metal prospectivity modeling of the Aravalli Orogen, Northwestern India (United States)

    Porwal, Alok; Yu, Le; Gessner, Klaus


    The Proterozoic Aravalli orogen in the state of Rajasthan, northwestern India, constitutes the most important metallogenic province for base-metal deposits in India and hosts the entire economically viable lead-zinc resource-base of the country. The orogen evolved through near-orderly Wilson cycles of repeated extensional and compressional tectonics resulting in sequential opening and closing of intracratonic rifts and amalgamation of crustal domains during a circa 1.0-Ga geological history from 2.2 Ga to 1.0 Ga. This study develops a conceptual tectonostratigraphic model of the orogen based on a synthesis of the available geological, geophysical and geochronological data followed by deep-seismic-reflectivity-constrained 2-D forward gravity modeling, and links it to the Proterozoic base-metal metallogeny in the orogen in order to identify key geological controls on the base-metal mineralization. These controls are translated into exploration criteria for base-metal deposits, validated using empirical spatial analysis, and used to derive input spatial variables for model-based base-metal prospectivity mapping of the orogen. A support vector machine (SVM) algorithm augmented by incorporating a feature selection procedure is used in a GIS environment to implement the prospectivity mapping. A comparison of the SVM-derived prospectivity map with the ones derived using other established models such as neural-networks, logistic regression, and Bayesian weights-of-evidence indicates that the SVM outperforms other models, which is attributed to the capability of the SVM to return robust classification based on small training datasets.

  6. Three evolutionary stages of the collision orogenic deformation in the Middle Yangtze Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Yan


    13]Sun Yan Sbu Liangshu, Faure, M. et al., Tectonic development of the metamorphic core complex of Wugongshan in the Northern Jiangxi Province, Jour. of Nanjing University, 1997, 33: 447-449.[14]Faure. M., Sun Yah, Shu Liangshu et al., Extensional tectonics within a subduction-type orogen, the case study of the Wugongshan dome, Tectonophysics, 1996, 263: 77- 106.[15]Shu Liangshu, Shi Yangshen, Guo Lingzhi et al., Plate Tectonic Evolution and the Kinematics of Collisional Orogeny in the Middle Jiangnan, Eastern China, Nanjing: Publishing House of Nanjing University, 1995, 14-149.[16]Sun Yan, Shi Zejin Study on mechanical parameters of rocks and regional layerslip system in Hunan-Jiangxi area, Science in China, Ser. B. 1993, 36(8): 962-975.[17]Xu Zhiqin, Chui Junwen, Tectonic Dynamics of the Continental China, Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Publishing House, 1996, 89-178.[18]Sun Yan, Tectonics and mineralization of Lachlan Fold Belt, Canberra, Geol. Soc. of Australia, 1991, 29: 52-53.[19]Faure, M., The geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Eurasian margin in Mesozoic times, Tectonophysics, 1992, 208: 97-411.[20]Herwegh, M., Handy, M. R., Heilbronner, R., Evolution of mylonitic microfabric (EMM), a computer application for educational purposes, Tectonophysics, 1999, 303: 141-146.21.Wiens, D. A., Sliding skis and slipping faults, Nature, 1998, 279: 824-825.[21]Sun Yan, Suzuki, T., Study on the ductile deformation domain of the simple shear in rocks, Science in China, Ser. B, 1992,35(12): 1512-1520.[22]Molnar, P., Tapponnier, P., Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: effects of a continental collision, Science, 1975, 189: 419-426.[23]Buke, K.. Sengor, A. B. C., Tectonic escape in evolution of the continenental crust, in Reflection Seismology, The Continental Crust, Geodynamics Series (14). (eds. Barazangi, M., Brown, L.), Washington D.C.: American Geophysical Union,1986. 41 -53.[24]Shan Yanjun, Xia Bangdong, A preliminary discussion on

  7. Associations between sulfides, carbonaceous material, gold and other trace elements in polyframboids: Implications for the source of orogenic gold deposits, Otago Schist, New Zealand (United States)

    Hu, Si-Yu; Evans, Katy; Fisher, Louise; Rempel, Kirsten; Craw, Dave; Evans, Noreen J.; Cumberland, Susan; Robert, Aileen; Grice, Kliti


    Intimately intergrown micron-scale framboidal pyrite, carbonaceous material (CM), chalcopyrite, sphalerite and cobaltite form polyframboids in prehnite-pumpellyite facies rocks of the Otago Schist, New Zealand. This study quantifies the metal contents of these polyframboids using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Trace elements Au, Zn, As, Mo, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag and Pb are significantly enriched in the polyframboids. The distribution of Zn most closely follows that of CM, and was probably absorbed into the structure of the polyframboids during biogenic processes. The concentrations of Au and Ag are positively corrected with the Zn concentration in the polyframboids (R2 of Au-Zn and Ag-Zn are 0.81 and 0.89, respectively.). The concentration of other trace elements, such as As, Co and Cu, which occur adjacent to Zn on elemental maps, show a weak relationship with Zn and may have been incorporated into the polyframboids during later processes. These polyframboids are a probable source for gold and other elements in the orogenic gold mineralization system of the Otago Schist. Metamorphic transformation of the polyframboids may have released the metallic elements into the mineralizing fluid during prograde metamorphism of the schist belt.

  8. Oroclines - a century of discourse about curved mountain belts (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture) (United States)

    Van der Voo, Rob


    Exactly a century ago, in early 2014, a discussion appeared in the Journal of Geology by William H. Hobbs entitled "Mechanics of formation of arcuate mountains". In it, he notes how the concept of nappes "has now overcome all opposition in Switzerland" and, presumably in other countries just as much. With horizontal transport so central to the nappe concept, this must have paved the way for the idea that emplacement of trust sheets may have involved rotations. Where such rotations form a coherent regional pattern, a curved mountain belt may be the result. While the paper by Hobbs does not mention the word orocline, and while the dynamics of the situation is not yet illuminated, one must give credit to him for his foresights. The term "orocline" was introduced by S. Warren Carey of Tasmania in 1955, as part of a kinematic analysis of rhomb- and triangle-shaped basins and curved mountain belts. When the displacements involved in the analysis are undone, as he did, for instance, in the western Mediterranean, a grand scheme of simple convergent and divergent patterns emerges. Noteworthy is, of course, the fact that this mobilistic analysis preceded plate tectonics by more than a decade. From Carey (although not exactly in his words) we have inherited the definition of orocline, as "a thrust belt or orogen that is curved in map-view due to it having been bent or buckled about a vertical axis of rotation". Because oroclinal bending involves rotations, the declinations of paleomagnetic studies can be utilized to support and quantify them, and early efforts were already made in the 1960's and early 1970's to do so (e.g., Krs in the Carpathians; Ries & Shackleton in Cantabria; Roy, Opdyke & Irving in the Central Appalachians; Packer & Stone in Alaska). Curved mountain belts everywhere were subsequently investigated, and typically shown by paleomagnetists to be of the oroclinal variety. Few curved belts turned out to be curved from the start. Because these studies were

  9. From hyper-extended rifts to orogens: the example of the Mauléon rift basin in the Western Pyrenees (SW France) (United States)

    Masini, E.; Manatschal, G.; Tugend, J.


    An integral part of plate tectonic theory is that the fate of rifted margins is to be accreted into mountain belts. Thus, rift-related inheritance is an essential parameter controlling the evolution and architecture of collisional orogens. Although this link is well accepted, rift inheritance is often ignored. The Pyrenees, located along the Iberian and European plate boundary, can be considered as one of the best places to study the reactivation of former rift structures. In this orogen the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary convergence overprints a Late Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous complex intracontinental rift system related to the opening of the North Atlantic. During the rifting, several strongly subsiding basins developed in the axis of the Pyrenees showing evidence of extreme crustal extension and even locale mantle exhumation to the seafloor. Although the exact age and kinematics of rifting is still debated, these structures have an important impact in the subsequent orogenic overprint. In our presentation we discuss the example of the Mauléon basin, which escaped from the most pervasive deformations because of its specific location at the interface between the western termination of the chain and the Bay of Biscay oceanic realm. Detailed mapping combined with seismic reflection, gravity data and industry wells enabled to determine the 3D rift architecture of the Mauléon basin. Two major diachronous detachment systems can be mapped and followed through space. The Southern Mauléon Detachment (SMD) develops first, starts to thin the crust and floors the Southern Mauléon sub-Basin (SMB). The second, the Northern Mauléon Detachment (SMD) is younger and controls the final crustal thinning and mantle exhumation to the north. Both constitute the whole Mauléon basin. Like at the scale of the overall Pyrenees, the reactivation of the Mauléon Basin increases progressively from west to east, which enables to document the progressive reactivation of an aborted hyper


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Loinard


    Full Text Available Observaciones que utilizan la interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI por sus siglas en ingl´es pueden proveer la posición de radiofuentes compactas con una precisión del orden de 50 micro-segundos de arco. Esto es suficiente para medir la paralaje trigonométrica y los movimientos propios de cualquier objeto localizado hasta 500 pc del Sol con una precisión mejor que unos porcientos. Por ser magnéticamente activas, las estrellas jóvenes a menudo emiten emisión radio compacta detectable usando técnicas VLBI. Aquí, mostraremos cómo observaciones VLBI ya han restringido la distancia a las regiones de formación estelar cercanas más frecuentemente estudiadas (Tauro, Ofiuco, Orión, etc. y han empezado a revelar su estructura y su cinemática interna. Luego, describiremos un gran proyecto (llamado The Gould's Belt Distance Survey diseñado para proveer una vista detallada de la formación estelar en la vecindad Solar, usando observaciones VLBI.

  11. Orogenic development of the Adrar des Iforas (Tuareg Shield, NE Mali): New geochemical and geochronological data and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Bosch, Delphine; Bruguier, Olivier; Caby, Renaud; Buscail, François; Hammor, Dalila


    Laser-ablation U-Th-Pb analyses of zircon and allanite from magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Adrar des Iforas in Northern Mali allow re-examining the relationships between the different crustal units constituting the western part of the Tuareg Shield, as well as the timing of magmatic and metamorphic events in the West Gondwana Orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism in the Iforas Granulitic Unit (IGU) and at In Bezzeg occurred at 1986 ± 7 Ma and 1988 ± 5 Ma respectively. This age is slightly younger, but consistent with that of the HT granulite facies event characterizing the In Ouzzal granulitic unit (IOGU), thereby substantiating the view that these units once formed a single granulitic belt of c. 800 km long. High-grade metamorphic basement units of the Kidal terrane surrounding the IGU contain Paleoproterozoic magmatic rocks crystallized between 1982 ± 8 Ma and 1966 ± 9 Ma. Inherited components in these rocks (2.1 Ga and 2.3-2.5 Ga) have ages similar to that of detrital zircons at In Bezzeg and to that of basement rocks from the IGU. This is taken as evidence that the Kidal terrane and the IGU formed a single crustal block at least until 1.9 Ga. East of the Adrar fault, the Tin Essako orthogneiss is dated at 2020 ± 5 Ma, but escaped granulite facies metamorphism. During the Neoproterozoic, the Kidal terrane underwent a long-lived continental margin magmatism. To the west, this terrane is bounded by the Tilemsi intra-oceanic island arc, for which a gneissic sub-alkali granite was dated at 716 ± 6 Ma. A synkinematic diorite extends the magmatic activity of the arc down to 643 ± 4 Ma, and, along with literature data, indicates that the Tilemsi arc has a life span of about 90 Ma. Backward docking to the western margin of the Kidal terrane is documented by migmatites dated at 628 ± 6 Ma. Subduction related processes and the development of the Kidal active margin was responsible for the development of a back-arc basin in the Tafeliant area, with

  12. Characteristics of Tree-Ring Width Chronologies in Altay and Their Response to Climate Change%阿尔泰山区两种树轮宽度年表气候响应特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛军强; 袁玉江; 张同文; 尚华明; 张瑞波; 喻树龙; 陈峰; 姜盛夏


    The Altay Mountains are the optimum region for dendroclimatological research. In the region, few researches were conducted on the climate response difference of Larix Sibirica and Picea ob ov ata Ledeb at different elevations in the Altay Mountains. In the paper, we established the tree-ring width chronologies of Larix Sibirica and Picea obovata Ledeb for the different elevations and analyzed their response to climate. The results showed that, ①the limited climatic factor of tree ring radial growth is different at different elevations. In June temperature is the dominant factor of tree ring width of Larix Sibirica at the upper treeline and annual precipitation (from last July to current June)or spring precipitation (April to June)is the dominant factor to tree ring width of Picea ob ov ata Ledeb from the middle to lower treeline. ②From the middle to lower treeline, the response of Picea obovata Ledeb to precipitation is better than Larix Sibrica. ③The responses of tree ring width to climate of Larix Sibrica at different elevations are different. There is significant positive correlation (P<0.001)between June temperature and tree ring width of Larix Sibrica at the upper treeline. From the lower to middle treeline, there is no evidently limited factor of the tree ring width of Larix Sibrica.%阿尔泰山是树轮气候研究的理想区域,但此前关于阿尔泰山不同海拔高度西伯利亚落叶松和西伯利亚云杉树轮宽度气候响应差异的对比研究较少。本文利用阿尔泰山上树线西伯利亚落叶松以及森林中下部西伯利亚云杉和西伯利亚落叶松树轮宽度资料,在建立宽度年表的基础上,分析阿尔泰山南坡不同海拔高度不同树种对气候响应的差异。研究结果表明:①上树线与森林中下部区域树轮宽度生长的气候限制因子不同,上树线落叶松树轮宽度生长的气候限制因子为6月平均温度,森林中下部云杉树轮生长的气候

  13. On malignant tumor of Kazahk and Han in Altay%新疆阿勒泰地区2055例哈萨克族、汉族恶性肿瘤构成特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏依木拉提·夏依马尔旦; 夏力哈尔·阿勒塔依; 阿依恒·曲库尔汗


    Objective To discuss the characteristics of Kazak and Han malignant tumor in Xinjiang Altay region.Methods A statistical analysis of 2055 cases of Kazak and Han nationality with malignant tumor confirmed by clinical pathology biopsy from the Altay region are collected to compare gender,nationality , tumor type,age and the top five malignant tumor.Results (1)According to nationality and gender:Ka-zak patients accounts for 877 (42.68%),Han 1178 (57.32%);male 1242 (60.44%),and female 813 (39.56%).(2)The average age of malignant tumor patients is 56.7,among which the male is 58.1 and the female 55.1.(3)The top five malignant tumor in the order is:lung cancer,liver cancer,gastric cancer,e-sophageal cancer,breast cancer,Men′s top five malignant tumor for lung cancer,liver cancer,gastric cancer,esophagus cancer,colon cancer ,Women in the top five malignant tumor for breast cancer,lung cancer,cervical cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer.(4 ) Kazak top five malignant tumor are esophageal cancer,gastric cancer,liver cancer,lung cancer and breast cancer;while Han lung cancer, liver cancer,gastric cancer,colon cancer and breast cancer.(5)The digestive system malignant tumor for 924 cases,accounting of 44.96%.Conclusion The order of primary malignant tumor is different in Kazakh and Han nationality in Altay region;and the different construction components of digestive tumor in dif-ferent gender have statistic significant.%目的:探讨新疆阿勒泰地区哈萨克族(哈族)、汉族恶性肿瘤构成特点。方法选择经临床病理活检证实的阿勒泰地区哈萨克族、汉族恶性肿瘤2055例患者,对其性别、族别、年龄、肿瘤类型、前5位肿瘤位次等项目进行对比分析。结果(1)2055例恶性肿瘤患者中男性1242例(60.44%);女性813例(39.56%),哈萨克族877例(42.68%),汉族1178例(57.32%)。(2)恶性肿瘤患者的平均年龄为56.7岁,男性58.1岁,女性55.1

  14. Structure,change and its tendency of glacier systems in Altay Mountains%阿尔泰山冰川系统结构、近期变化及趋势预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑红; 谢自楚; 戴亚南; 刘时银; 王欣


    地跨中、俄、哈、蒙四国的阿尔泰山共有冰川面积约1 700 km2,其中中国约280 km2,俄罗斯及哈萨克斯坦约880 km2,可作为统一的冰川系统进行研究.本文首先应用中国及前苏联冰川编目数据分析了本系统冰川的结构特征.表明本区冰川平衡线约为2 983 m,为中国的小型冰川(平均面积0.8 km2)作用区.应用最新的遥感影像与冰川编目数据对比,计算出近40~50 a来,已有208条冰川消失,总面积退缩12%,其中南侧中国为31%,北侧俄、哈两国为7%,这个差别与阿尔泰山南、北两地区近数10 a来气温上升幅度不同有关.应用冰川系统模型计算,阿尔泰山南、北两侧冰川径流在20世纪70-80年代达到最大,然后均逐渐减少,在增温为0.05℃/a的情景下,到本世纪末,阿尔泰山冰川将趋近完全消失,其中中国只剩下3%,俄、哈两国也还只有9%.%There are 1 700 km2 glaciers survived in the glacier system of Altay region which locates in the interface of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia and China, with the area of 880 km2 in Russia and Kazakhstan and 280 km2 in China respectively. The characteristics of Altay glacier system were analyzed on the basis of Chinese and Former Soviet Union glacier inventories data. The glacier system's average area is 0. 8 km2 while the median size of Smed(N) ,Smed (S) ,Smed(V) are 0.3 km2,2 km2 and 3.4 km2 respectively. The ELA increases both from west to east and from outside mountains to the central mountains with the average elevation of 2 983 m under the effects of precipitation.The maximum area altitude (Hm=(s)) is 3 100 m,and HSR (i. e. the ratio of glacier area near the maximum area altitude ( Hm= (S) ) against the whole glacier system's area) is about 0.5 which is the medium level among the glacier systems in China. Two phases of glacier data from the newly remote sensing data ( TM/ETM ) and the glacier inventories data were obtained. When compared the two phases glacier data, the

  15. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  16. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y.; Tomono, K.; Takahashi, H.; Uchida, T. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Non-cylindrical fold growth in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE-Iraq) (United States)

    Bartl, Nikolaus; Bretis, Bernhard; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan


    The Zagros mountains extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains started to form as a result of the collision between the Eurasian and Arabian Plates, whose convergence began in the Late Cretaceous as part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Geodetic and seismological data document that both plates are still converging and that the fold and thrust belt of the Zagros is actively growing. Extensive hydrocarbon exploration mainly focuses on the antiforms of this fold and thrust belt and therefore the growth history of the folds is of great importance. This work investigates by means of structural field work and quantitative geomorphological techniques the progressive fold growth of the Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines located in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Northern Iraq. This part of the Zagros fold and thrust belt belongs to the so-called Simply Folded Belt, which is dominated by gentle to open folding. Faults or fault related folds have only minor importance. The mechanical anisotropy of the formations consisting of a succession of relatively competent (massive dolomite and limestone) and incompetent (claystone and siltstone) sediments essentially controls the deformation pattern with open to gentle parallel folding of the competent layers and flexural flow folding of the incompetent layers. The characteristic wavelength of the fold trains is around 10 km. Due to faster erosion of the softer rock layers in the folded sequence, the more competent lithologies form sharp ridges with steeply sloping sides along the eroded flanks of the anticlines. Using an ASTER digital elevation model in combination with geological field data we quantified 250 drainage basins along the different limbs of the subcylindrical Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines. Geomorphological indices of the drainage

  18. Re-Os molybdenite ages and zircon Hf isotopes of the Gangjiang porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in the Tibetan Orogen (United States)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Zhong, Hong; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Zhou, Wei-De; Li, Chao


    The Miocene porphyry Cu-(Mo) deposits in the Gangdese orogenic belt in southern Tibet were formed in a post-subduction collisional setting. They are closely related to the Miocene adakite-like porphyries which were probably derived from a thickened basaltic lower crust. Furthermore, mantle components have been considered to have played a crucial role in formation of these porphyry deposits (Hou et al. Ore Geol Rev 36: 25-51, 2009; Miner Deposita doi:10.1007/s00126-012-0415-6, 2012). In this study, we present zircon Hf isotopes and molybdenite Re-Os ages on the newly discovered Gangjiang porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in southern Tibet to constrain the magma source of the intrusions and the timing of mineralization. The Gangjiang porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is located in the Nimu ore field in the central Gangdese porphyry deposits belt, southern Tibet. The copper and molybdenum mineralization occur mainly as disseminations and veins in the overlapped part of the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in the quartz monzonite stock and in contact with the rhyodacite porphyry stock. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating of the pre-mineral quartz monzonite stock and late intra-mineral rhyodacite porphyry yielded ages of 14.73 ± 0.13 Ma (2 σ) and 12.01 ± 0.29 Ma (2 σ), respectively. These results indicate that the magmatism could have lasted as long as about 2.7 Ma for the Gangjiang deposit. The newly obtained Re-Os model ages vary from 12.51 ± 0.19 Ma (2 σ) to 12.85 ± 0.18 Ma (2 σ) for four molybdenite samples. These Re-Os ages are roughly coincident with the rhyodacite porphyry U-Pb zircon age, and indicate a relatively short-lived episode of ore deposition (ca. 0.3 Ma). In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons by using LA-MC-ICP-MS indicate that the ɛ Hf( t) values of zircons from a quartz monzonite sample vary from +2.25 to +4.57 with an average of +3.33, while zircons from a rhyodacite porphyry sample vary from +5.53 to +7.81 with an average of +6.64. The

  19. The Pan-African Prydz Belt in East Antarctica: a Collisional Orogen or an Intraplate Orogen%东南极泛非普里兹带:碰撞造山带还是板内造山带

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淼; 刘晓春


    东南极普里兹带是近几年在南极大陆上识别出的一条重要的泛非期构造带,因其成因涉及到冈瓦纳超大陆在寒武纪时的形成与演化问题,因此一直是国际地学界关注的焦点.但到目前为止,对于该造山带的构造属性还存在着不同的认识,有些人认为它是板内造山带,而另一些人认为它是两个大陆板块之间的碰撞带.其基本特征是:普里兹带两侧为前泛非期不同性质的岩石圈单元,整个区域经历了早期中-下地壳挤压逆冲和晚期中-上地壳伸展垮塌的构造演化历史,区域麻粒岩相变质作用表现为近等热减压的顺时针p-t轨迹.此外,东南极克拉通与冈瓦纳其他块体在500 Ma前的古地磁极移曲线并不一致.所以,尽管目前尚未发现蛇绿岩套、岛弧增生杂岩或高压变质岩等直接指相标志,但这些特征均反映了普里兹带是板间碰撞拼合的缝合带,而不是板内造山带,东南极地盾本身则是由不同块体在泛非期拼合而成的.

  20. History of tectono-magmatic evolution in the Western Kunlun Orogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕华; 王中刚; 王元龙; 朱笑青


    Based on the statistical and analytical data on more than 170 isotopic ages published since the 1980s of magmatic rocks, metamorphic rocks, tectonites and ores from the Western Kunlun Orogen, and the characteristics of sedimentation, magmatism, metamorphism and tectonic activities in the region studied in conjunction with geological field investigations and necessary supplementary isotope data, five stages of tectono-magmatic evolution, i.e. Ar3-Pt21 tectono-magmatic active stage (Ⅰ) , Pt22 stable stage (Ⅱ), Pt31-P2 active stage (Ⅲ), T1-T2 stable stage (Ⅳ) , and T3-Q active stage (Ⅴ) can be distinguished in the Western Kunlun Orogen. Moreover, the tectono-magmatic active style and general trend, the characteristics of tectonic settings, etc. of each stage and substage in the region studied are also discussed .

  1. 青藏高原蛇绿岩体系和西藏西部的蛇绿岩成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Several ophiolite belts and an opbiolite assemblage have been discovered in the Ali region and the Upper Valley of Yarlung Zangbo River. As is shown by alkalisilicon and titanium.zirconium diagrams of volcanic rocks from these ophiolite belts, most of the volcanic rocks in these regions may not have been produced from ocean floor. Cretaceous volcanism in western Tibet bears strong resemblance to that of the present day Pacific Are. Based upon a review of opbiolite distribution on a worldwide scale, the authors suggest classifying the four major orogenic regions into four “ophiolite series”,i.e. the Qinghai-Tibet, the Altay, the Alpine and the Cireum-Pacific opbiolite series.Among other things, all the blocks, large and small, in the crust seems to be forced to converge respectively to the four places as a result of continental drift during the last one thousand million years.

  2. A turning-point in the evolution of the Variscan orogen: the ca. 325 Ma regional partial-melting event of the coastal South Armorican domain (South Brittany and Vendee, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By drastically reducing the bulk strength of crustal materials, partial-melting is one of the main parameter controlling the rheological behaviour of the continental crust. With more than ca. 50% of the outcropping surface characterised by migmatites and granites, the coastal South Armorican domain, offers an opportunity to study deep-orogenic processes and more particularly, to understand the role of partial-melting for the late-evolution of the Variscan belt. To date, time-constraints are scarce hindering the understanding of this crucial stage in the Variscan belt evolution. This paper provides 29 new U-Th/Pb chemical ages on monazite collected over five sampling areas consisting in migmatite domes and late regional classic plutons. Based on structural, textural and chemical criteria, three main U-Th/Pb age-groups are distinguished. The first group, settled at ca. 335-330 Ma concerns samples of restites and core-domains of the monazite crystals for most of the granite massifs. Its significance is ascribed to inherited crystallisation ages probably recording the crossing of prograde monazite forming reactions (i.e. metamorphic iso-grads) during increasing P-T conditions in an overall nappe-stacking context. The second group that clusters at ca. 325-320 Ma corresponds to newly formed monazite grains that crystallised from juvenile silicate melts. Ages of this group are interpreted as crystallisation ages of leucosomes after a major partial-melting event that affected the whole domain. The last ca. 320 Ma group corresponds to rim-domains of monazite crystals. It is interpreted as the emplacement age of most of the large-scale granite massifs and therefore fixes the end of the partial-melting event. The inception and drastic generalisation of partial-melting at peak-P conditions therefore coincides with a major change in the tectonic regime recorded at regional-scale. In the lights of these results, this implies that (1) either continuous stacking of continental

  3. Tectonic configuration of the Apuseni-Banat—Timok-Srednogorie belt, Balkans-South Carpathians, constrained by high precision R e-O s molybdenite ages (United States)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Koželj, Dejan; Bogdanov, Kamen; Berza, Tudor


    and mineral dehydration fluids, which facilitate partial melting and metal leaching of SCML and asthenosphere. Cu-Au-Mo-(PGE) porphyry deposits may develop where melts are trapped at shallow crustal levels, often with associated volcanism and epithermal-style deposits (South Banat, Timok, and Panagyurishte). Mo-Fe-Pb-Zn skarn deposits may develop where felsic melts are trapped adjacent to Mesozoic limestones at moderate crustal levels (North Banat and Apuseni). Systematic spatial variations in deposit style, commodity enrichment, Re-Os ages, and Re concentrations support specific tectonic processes that led to ore formation. In a post-collisional setting, subduction of Vardar oceanic crust may have stalled, causing slab steepening and rollback. The slab rollback relaxes compression, facilitating and enhancing orogenic collapse of previously thickened Balkan-South Carpathian crust. The progression of coupled rollback-orogenic collapse is evidenced by the width of Late Cretaceous extensional basins and northward younging of Re-Os ages, from Panagyurishte (~60 km; 92-87 Ma) to Timok (~20 km; 88-81 Ma) to Apuseni-Banat (~5 km; 83-72 Ma). Generation of a well-endowed mineral belt, such as the ABTS, requires a temporally and spatially restricted window of magmatic-hydrothermal activity. This window is quickly opened as upper plate compression relaxes, thereby inducing melt generation and ingress of melt to higher crustal levels. The window is just as quickly closed as upper plate compression is reinstated. The transient tectonic state responsible for economic mineralization in the ABTS belt may be a paleo-analogue to transient intervals in the present subduction tectonics of SE Asia where much mineral wealth has been created in the last few million years.

  4. Seismic Studies of Paleozoic Orogens in SW Iberia and the Middle Urals


    Kashubin, Artem


    Controlled source seismic methods were employed in this study to investigate the reflectivity and velocity structure of two Hercynian orogens – the Uralides and Variscides. Conventional common depth point (CDP) sections from five reflection seismic campaigns and a velocity model obtained from tomographic inversion of wide-angle observations were the main datasets studied from the Middle Urals. These were complemented with the near-vertical seismic sections and velocity models from the Souther...

  5. The Compositions of Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael E


    Objects in the Kuiper belt are small and far away thus difficult to study in detail even with the best telescopes available at earth. For much of the early history of the Kuiper belt, studies of the compositions of these objects were relegated to collections of moderate quality spectral and photometric data that remained difficult to interpret. Much early effort was put into simple correlations of surface colors and identifications of spectral features, but it was difficult to connect the observations to a larger understanding of the region. The last decade, however, has seen a blossoming in our understanding of the compositions of objects in the Kuiper belt. This blossoming is a product of the discoveries of larger -- and thus easier to study -- objects, continued dedication to the collection of a now quite large collection of high quality photometric and spectroscopic observations, and continued work at the laboratory and theoretical level. Today we now know of many processes which affect the surface compos...

  6. Lubricants for Metal Belt Continuously Variable Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Narita


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the effects of lubricant additives and base stock used in metal belt continuously variable transmissions (CVT fluids on the CVT transmission torque capacity. Additive formulation composed of phosphorus anti-wear agent, calcium detergent, and dispersant improved the friction coefficient between the metals. The analysis on the post-test surface suggests that the friction behavior strongly depends on the local morphology of the tribofilms derived from lubricant additives. Examining the effect of base stock on the torque capacity in actual belt CVTs revealed that SN (synthetic naphthene exhibited 10% higher torque capacity than that of PAO (polyalphaolefin. It is believed that the difference in the torque capacity is due to the difference in the oil-film shearing force generated by the relative sliding between the belt and pulley.

  7. The syncollisional granitoid magmatism and continental crust growth in the West Kunlun Orogen, China - Evidence from geochronology and geochemistry of the Arkarz pluton (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Niu, Yaoling; Hu, Yan; Liu, Jinju; Ye, Lei; Kong, Juanjuan; Duan, Meng


    The West Kunlun orogenic belt (WKOB) at the northwest margin of the Greater Tibetan Plateau records seafloor subduction, ocean basin closing and continental collision with abundant syncollisional granitoids in response to the evolution of the Proto- and Paleo-Tethys Oceans from the early-Paleozoic to the Triassic. Here we present a combined study of detailed zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic geochemistry on the syncollisional Arkarz (AKAZ) pluton with mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) exposed north of the Mazha-Kangxiwa suture (MKS) zone. The granitoid host rocks and MMEs of the AKAZ pluton give the same late Triassic age of ~ 225 Ma. The granitoid host rocks are metaluminous granodiorite and monzogranite. They have initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70818 to 0.70930, εNd(225 Ma) = - 4.61 to - 3.91 and εHf(225 Ma) = - 3.01 to 0.74. The MMEs are more mafic than the host with varying SiO2 (51.00-63.24 wt.%) and relatively low K2O (1.24-3.02 wt.%), but have similar Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions to the host ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70830-0.70955, εNd(225 Ma) = - 4.88 to - 4.29, εHf(225 Ma) = - 2.57 to 0.25). Both the host and MMEs have rare earth element (REE) and trace element patterns resembling those of bulk continental crust (BCC). The MMEs most likely represent cumulate formed from common magmas parental to the granitoid host. The granitoid magmatism is best explained as resulting from melting of amphibolite of MORB protolith during continental collision, which produces andesitic melts with a remarkable compositional similarity to the BCC and the inherited mantle-like isotopic compositions. Simple isotopic mixing calculations suggest that ~ 80% ocean crust and ~ 20% continental materials contribute to the source of the AKAZ pluton. Thus, the hypothesis "continental collision zones as primary sites for net continental crust growth" is applicable in the WKOB as shown by studies in southern Tibet, East Kunlun and Qilian orogens. In

  8. Tomographic images of subducted oceans matched to the accretionary records of orogens - Case study of North America and relevance to Central Asia (United States)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.; Hosseini, Kasra


    Accretionary orogens are the surface record of subduction on the 100-million-year timescale; they aggregate buoyant crustal welts that resisted subduction. The other record of subduction is found in the deep subsurface: oceanic lithosphere preserved in the mantle that records ocean basin closure between successive generations of arcs. Seismic tomography maps out these crumpled paleo-oceans down to the core-mantle boundary, where slab accumulates. One such accumulation of enormous scale is under Eastern Asia, recording the assembly of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Deep CAOB slab has hardly been explored because tomographic image resolution in the lowermost mantle is limited, but this is rapidly improving. We present new images of the CAOB slabs from our P-wave tomography that includes core-diffracted waves as a technical novelty. The previous slab blur sharpens into the type of elongated geometries expected to trace paleo-trench lines. Since the North American Cordillera is younger than the CAOB (mostly 10,000 km long. North America converged on the two microcontinents by westward subduction of two intervening basins (which we name Mezcalera and Angayucham oceans), culminating in diachronous suturing between ~150 Ma and ~50 Ma. Hence geophysical subsurface evidence negates the widely accepted "Andean-style" model of Farallon-beneath-continent subduction since at least 180 Ma, and supports a Jura-Cretaceous paleogeography closer to today's Southwestern Pacific, or to the Paleozoic CAOB. Though advocated since the 1970's by a minority of geologists, this scenario had not gained wide acceptance due to a record obscured by overprinting, margin-parallel translation, and oroclinal bending. The new subsurface evidence provides specific indications where to seek the decisive Mezcalera-Angayucham suture. The suture is evident in a trail of collapsed Jura-Cretaceous basin relics that run the length of the Cordillera. Reference: Sigloch, K., & Mihalynuk, M. G. (2013

  9. A shell model for tyre belt vibrations (United States)

    Lecomte, C.; Graham, W. R.; Dale, M.


    We present a new formulation for the prediction of tyre belt vibrations in the frequency range 0-500 Hz. Our representation includes the effects of belt width, curvature and anisotropy, and also explicitly models the tyre sidewalls. Many of the associated numerical parameters are fixed by physical considerations; the remainder require empirical input. A systematic and general approach to this problem is developed, and illustrated for the specific example of a Goodyear Wrangler tyre. The resulting predictions for the radial response to radial forcing show good correspondence with experiment up to 300 Hz, and satisfactory agreement up to 1 kHz.

  10. Structure and SHRIMP U/Pb zircon ages of granites adjacent to the Chitradurga Schist belt: implications for neoarchaean convergence in the Dharwar Craton, Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoarchaean granites adjacent to the Chitradurga schist belt were emplaced in thc inner margin of the foreland in the context of the Neoarchaean oblique convergent setting of the Dharwar craton. Two previously unreported granites, one 50 km and the other 80 km NW of Chitradurga town, and a mylonitised granite in the hanging wall of a duplex in the NW of the schist belt yielded SHRIMP U/Pb zircon emplacement ages of 2648±40 Ma, 2598± 19 Ma, and ca. 2600 Ma, respectively, the large errors being due to radiogenic Pb loss during an unidentified Neoproterozoic event. Some discrete zircon grains and xenocrystic cores yielded ≥3000 Ma ages that were derived from older rocks during anatexis or emplacement. The granites NW of Chitradurga town were emplaced as steep sheets trending NW-SE. The Chitradurga granite has a similar form, bifurcating N of Chitradurga town into two separate, steeply dipping, NW-SE sheets. Magmatic- and solid-state fabrics in these granites show that emplacement took place during, but was outlasted by, sinistral and dextral strike-parallel shear. Emplacement of the granite above the hanging wall of the duplex in the NW of the schist belt was outlasted by top-SW displacement. The shapes of the granites and their emplacement in relation to the structure of the Ranibennur and Chitradurga schist belts in the west of the craton are modelled as a mid-crustal part of a craton-wide imbricate fold-thrust belt. The relationships show that whereas some Neoarchaean granites in the craton were emplaced prior to, or during, SW -vergent thrust thickening, most granites and related plutonic suites in the foreland and accretionary complex were emplaced later as multipulse injections in steep NW-SE sheets or wedges during orogen-parallel, sinistral and dextral shear. Steep high- strain zones in the foreland and accretionary complex are interpreted as listric structures that root into an attachment at a depth of ca. 18-20 km in accord with the depth of the boundary

  11. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Anapolis-Itaucu complex, Araxa group and associated granites: Neoproterozoic high grade metamorphism and magmatism in the Central part of the Brasilia Belt, Goias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tocantins Province (Almeida et al. 1981) in central Brazil is a Neoproterozoic orogenic zone developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons and possibly a third continental block, known as Parapanema Block, hidden below the sedimentary rocks of the Parana Basin. The Tocantins Province comprises the eastward vergent Brasilia Belt, adjacent to the Sao Francisco Craton (Marini et al. 1984), and the westward vergent Paraguay and Araguaia belts, developed on the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. According to Trompette (1997), the Brasilia and Araguaia belts had sedimentation starting at around 1.1-1.0 Ga and final closure at 0.6 Ga. In the northern part of the Brasilia Belt occur the Barro Alto, Canabrava and Niquelandia maficultramafic layered complexes. Inconclusive U-Pb isotopic data indicate ages between ca. 1600 and 2000 Ma for these intrusions that were affected by highgrade metamorphism ca. 740-790 Ma ago, during the Neoproterozoic (Ferreira Filho et al. 1994; Suita et al. 1994; Correia et al. 1997). In the southern part of the Brasilia Belt, in central Goias , is the Anapolis-Itaucu granulite complex. It consists of a large complex of high-grade rocks, volcano-sedimentary sequences and granites, exposed in between metasediments of the Araxa Group, the main constituent of the internal zone of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994). These granulites have traditionally been interpreted as the exposure of Archean sialic basement to the sediments of the Brasilia Belt (Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984; Lacerda Filho and Oliveira 1995). This work reports the results of a regional Sm- Nd isotopic investigation and U-Pb SHRIMP data in order to assess (i) the nature of the protoliths of the Araxa Group in this area; (ii) the nature and the high grade metamorphism of rocks from Anapolis-Itaucu Complex; (iii) the crystallization and metamorphism of aluminous granites (au)

  12. Molybdenite Re Os dating constrains gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen, SW Scandinavia (United States)

    Bingen, Bernard; Stein, Holly J.; Bogaerts, Michel; Bolle, Olivier; Mansfeld, Joakim


    Re-Os dating of molybdenite from small deposits is used to define crustal domains exhibiting ductile versus brittle behaviour during gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen in SW Scandinavia. A 1019 ± 3 Ma planar quartz vein defines a minimum age for brittle behaviour in central Telemark. In Rogaland-Vest Agder, molybdenite associated with deformed quartz and pegmatite veins formed between 982 ± 3 and 947 ± 3 Ma in the amphibolite-facies domain (three deposits) and between 953 ± 3 and 931 ± 3 Ma west of the clinopyroxene-in isograd (two deposits) in the vicinity of the 0.93-0.92 Ga Rogaland anorthosite complex. The data constrain the last increment of ductile deformation to be younger than 0.95 and 0.93 Ga in these two metamorphic zones, respectively. Molybdenite is the product of an equilibrium between biotite, oxide and sulfide minerals and a fluid or hydrated melt phase, after the peak of 1.03-0.97 Ga regional metamorphism. Molybdenite precipitation is locally episodic. A model for gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen controlled by lithospheric extension after 0.97 Ga is proposed. In the west of the orogen, the Rogaland-Vest Agder sector is interpreted as a large shallow gneiss dome, formed slowly in two stages in a warm and structurally weak crust. The first stage at 0.96-0.93 Ga was associated with intrusion of the post-collisional hornblende-biotite granite suite. The second stage at 0.93-0.92 Ga, restricted to the southwesternmost area, was associated with intrusion of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite suite. Most of the central part of the orogen was already situated in the brittle upper crust well before 0.97 Ga, and did not undergo significant exhumation during collapse. In the east of the orogen, situated against the colder cratonic foreland, exhumation of high-grade rocks of the Eastern Segment occurred between 0.97 and 0.95 Ga, and included preservation of high-pressure rocks but no plutonism.

  13. Timing belts - development, milestones and innovations; Zahnriemen Entwicklungsmeilensteine und Innovationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, H. [Contitech Power Transmission Group (Germany)


    Contitech has much contributed to improve the characteristics of timing belts until today. In this article Contitech introduces some current developments and shows the advantages of belts compared to chain drives. (orig.)

  14. Regional elevation history from Ribeira belt based in K-Ar dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ribeira orogenic belt, Brazilian cycle in metamorphism, has biotite K-Ar ages becoming young from the border (600 Ma) to the central axis (450 Ma), these ages are not related to rock type nor intrusive phase, but to occurrence area. The fact suggests that this wide-ranging age distribution is not due to later thermal events, e.g. post tectonic intrusion, but to slow cooling on the axis zone. The climax metamorphic condition have been estimated as 675 sup(0)C and 4 to 5 kb (18 km's depth). This temperature is much higher than that of biotite argon retention (310 sup(0)C). These data indicate that the biotite K-Ar clock have been set fairly after the climax during regional uplift at a depth much shallower that the metamorphism. Biotite clock setting depth (310 sup(0)C) is calculated as 7.5 km, using geothermal gradient of 30 sup(0)C/km. In this connection, uplift of 11.5 km from 600 Ma to 450 Ma (rate of 77 m/m.y.) is estimated. Fission track datings in apatite (110 Ma), combined with a present geothermal gradient (25 sup(0)C/km) indicate uplift of 3.5 km from 450 Ma to 110 Ma (16 m/m.y.) and 4 km from 110 Ma to the present (35 m/m.y.). (author)

  15. Rock relationships in the Mogok metamorphic belt, Tatkon to Mandalay, central Myanmar (United States)

    Mitchell, A. H. G.; Htay, Myint Thein; Htun, Kyaw Min; Win, Myint Naing; Oo, Thura; Hlaing, Tin


    The Mogok metamorphic belt (MMB), over 1450 km long and up to 40 km wide, consists of regionally metamorphosed rocks including kyanite and sillimanite schists and granites lying along the Western margin of the Shan Plateau in central Myanmar and continuing northwards to the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Exposures in quarries allow correlation of Palaeozoic meta-sedimentary, early Mesozoic meta-igneous and late Mesozoic intrusive rocks within a 230 km long northerly-trending segment of the MMB, from Tatkon to Kyanigan north of Mandalay, and with the Mogok gemstone district 100 km to the northeast. Relationships among the metamorphic and intrusive rocks, with sparse published radiometric age controls, indicate at least two metamorphic events, one before and one after the intrusion of Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous calc-alkaline rocks. These relationships can be explained by either of two possible tectonic histories. One, constrained by correlation of mid-Permian limestones across Myanmar, requires early Permian and early Jurassic regional metamorphic events, prior to an early Tertiary metamorphism, in the western part of but within a Shan-Thai - western Myanmar block. The second, not compatible with a single laterally continuous Permian limestone, requires pre-Upper Jurassic regional metamorphism and orogenic gold mineralization in the Mergui Group and western Myanmar, early Cretaceous collision of an east-facing Mergui-western Myanmar island arc with the Shan Plateau, and early Tertiary metamorphism in the MMB related to reversal in tectonic polarity following the arc-Plateau collision.

  16. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir


    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles, the...

  17. Tectonomorphic evolution of the Eastern Cordillera fold-thrust belt, Colombia: New insights based on apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometers (United States)

    Ghorbal, B.; Stockli, D. F.; Mora, A.; Horton, B. K.; Blanco, V.; Sanchez, N.


    The Eastern Cordillera (EC) of Colombia marks the eastern boundary of Cenozoic fold-thrust deformation in the northern Andes. It is a classic example of an inversion belt formed in the retro-arc region, in this case superimposed on a Triassic/Jurassic to Cretaceous intracontinental rift system of northern South America. Ongoing thrust reactivation (inversion) in this contractional orogen provides an excellent opportunity to study the patterns of deformation and influence of preexisting anisotropies (Mora et al., 2006). The objective of this detailed (U-Th)/He study is to unravel the tectonic and thermal evolution of the EC from the Magdalena Valley basin in the west to the Llanos foreland basin in the east and reconstruct the temporal and spatial progression of deformation in the EC fold-thrust belt. Furthermore, the Subandean or foothills zone of Colombia is key for understanding the petroleum systems in the complex frontal zone of the inverted fold-thrust belt. We present detailed apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data from surface samples along a ~220 km WNW-ESE transect across the EC from the frontal fold-thrust belt at the edge of the Llanos basin to the western edge of the EC, the Magdalena basin. Surface and borehole zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He data, integrated with structural data, show that the EC fold-thrust belt propagated foreland-ward from the axial zone to the modern edges of the fold-thrust belt from at least the early Oligocene to the early Miocene. Detailed apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He data from surface samples and borehole samples in the foothills-Llanos transition zone and the Middle Magdalena Valley basin, between the large-displacement Guaicaramo and Pajarito-Chámeza thrusts in the east and the La Salina fault system in the west show a temporally complex evolution. The frontal fold-thrust belt was characterized by continued progressive foreland-ward migration of deformation and an apparent phase of major out-of-sequence motion

  18. High-pressure metamorphism in the southern New England Orogen: Implications for long-lived accretionary orogenesis in eastern Australia (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Offler, R.; Rubatto, D.; Phillips, D.


    New geochemical, metamorphic, and isotopic data are presented from high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the southern New England Orogen (eastern Australia). Conventional and optimal thermobarometry are augmented by U-Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar phengite dating to define pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) histories for the rocks. The P-T-t histories are compared with competing geodynamic models for the Tasmanides, which can be summarized as (i) a retreating orogen model, the Tasmanides formed above a continuous, west dipping, and eastward retreating subduction zone, and (ii) a punctuated orogen model, the Tasmanides formed by several arc accretion, subduction flip, and/or transference events. Whereas both scenarios are potentially supported by the new data, an overlap between the timing of metamorphic recrystallization and key stages of Tasmanides evolution favors a relationship between a single, long-lived subduction zone and the formation, exhumation, and exposure of the high-pressure rocks. By comparison with the retreating orogen model, the following links with the P-T-t histories emerge: (i) exhumation and underplating of oceanic eclogite during the Delamerian Orogeny, (ii) recrystallization of underplated and exhuming high-pressure rocks at amphibolite facies conditions coeval with a period of rollback, and (iii) selective recrystallization of high-pressure rocks at blueschist facies conditions, reflecting metamorphism in a cooled subduction zone. The retreating orogen model can also account for the anomalous location of the Cambrian-Ordovician high-pressure rocks in the Devonian-Carboniferous New England Orogen, where sequential rollback cycles detached and translated parts of the leading edge of the overriding plate to the next, younger orogenic cycle.

  19. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies (United States)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar


    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  20. Ongoing compression triggered exhumation of the orogenic crust in the Variscan Maures-Tanneron Massif, France - Geological arguments and thermo-mechanical tests (United States)

    Gerbault, Muriel; Schneider, Julie; Reverso-Peila, Alexandre; Corsini, Michel


    The Maures-Tanneron Massif (MTM), together with Corsica and Sardinia, hosted the South-Eastern Variscan belt and record a continuous evolution from continental collision to exhumation. We present a synthesis of the available geological and geochronogical data that explores the transition from convergence to perpendicular Permean extension in the MTM (at ~ 325 Ma ± 25 My). The migmatitic Internal Zone that composes the Western MTM displays structural clues such as backthrusting and magmatic foliations, and metamorphic data indicating exhumation of deep seated partially molten rocks at an apparent heating rate of 1-2 °C/km/My from ca. 345 Ma to 320 Ma. This suggests vertical advective heat transport during continued N140° convergence (D2 phase). In contrast at the same time, the low grade External zone composing the Eastern part of the MTM recorded exhumation of more conductive patterns at an apparent rate of 0.3-0.6 °C/km/My. It is only from ca. 320 Ma that transcurrent motion dominates in the Internal zone and progressively leaves way to N-S strecthing (D3 phase), indicative of orogenic collapse and extension and in asociation with emplacement of larger volumes of magmatism in the crust. Thermo-mechanical modeling complements this synthesis in order to highlight the conditions under which deep seated HP units could melt and massively start to exhume during maintained convergence (phase D2). Accounting for temperature dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheologies, our models explore the dynamics of an orogenic prism starting from a dis-equilibrated state just after slab break-off or delamination, at ca. 350 Ma. We simulate the development of gravitational instabilities in partially melting crust, a process that is already well known to depend on strain-rate, heat sources and strength layering. In order to reproduce the exhumation patterns of rocks from ~50 km depth over the appropriate time-scale (>20 My) and spatial extent (>100 km), a best fit was obtained with a

  1. Detecting Extrasolar Asteroid Belts Through Their Microlensing Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Ethan; Dong, Subo


    We propose that extrasolar asteroid belts can be detected through their gravitational microlensing signatures. Asteroid belt + star lens systems create so-called "pseudo-caustics", regions in the source plane where the magnification exhibits a finite but discontinuous jump. These features allow such systems to generate distinctive microlensing light curves across a wide region of belt parameter space and possess remarkably large lensing cross-sections. Sample light curves for a range of asteroid belt parameters are presented. In the near future, space-based microlensing surveys (e.g., WFIRST) may be able to discover extrasolar asteroid belts with masses of the order of $0.1 M_{\\oplus}$.

  2. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age and significance of Early Paleozoic volcanic rocks in East Kunlun orogenic belt, Qinghai Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Early Paleozoic volcanic rocks in Nuomuhong area occurred as basalt slice and meta-volcanic slice. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of the basalt slice and the meta-volcanic slice show that the age of the basalt slice is 419±5 Ma, and that of the meta-volcanic slice is 401± 6 Ma. These ages directly testify that there existed Early Paleozoic ocean-continent transform in East Kunlun, the basalt slice was formed in an extensional mid-ocean ridge setting and the meta-volcanic rock slice was formed in an extrusion subduction and collision setting. The inherited zircon age of 1734 Ma in volcanic rocks reflects that the base of East Kunlun may be Middle Proterozoic.

  3. Tracing metamorphism, exhumation and topographic evolution in orogenic belts by multiple thermochronology: a case study from the Nízke Tatry Mts., Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danišík, M.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Glotzbach, Ch.; Weisheit, A.; Dunkl, I.; Kohút, M.; Evans, N. J.; Orvošová, M.; McDonald, B. J.


    Roč. 104, č. 2 (2011), s. 285-298. ISSN 1661-8726 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : (U–Th–[Sm])/He dating * fission track dating * thermal modelling * exhumation * zircon * apatite * Nízké Tatry Mts. * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2011

  4. Suprasubduction volcanic rocks of the Char ophiolite belt, East Kazakhstan: new geochemical and first geochronological data (United States)

    Safonova, Inna; Simonov, Vladimir; Seltmann, Reimar; Yamamoto, Shinji; Xiao, Wenjiao


    The Char ophiolite belt is located in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a world largest accretionary orogen, which has evolved during more than 800 Ma. The Char belt formed during Kazakhstan - Siberia collision. It has been known for hosting fragments of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust, MORB, OPB and OIB, of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Safonova et al., 2012). The Char is surrounded by two Paleozoic island-arc terranes: Zharma-Saur in the west and Rudny Altai in the east, however, until recent times, no island-arc units have been found within it. We were the first to find island-arc units as tectonic sheets occurring adjacent to those consisting of oceanic rocks. In places, island-arc andesites cut oceanic basalts. The Char volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of a probable suprasubduction origin are basalt, microgabbro, dolerite, andesite, tonalite and dacite. The mafic to andesitic volcanics possessing low TiO2 (0.85 wt.%av.) and show MgO vs. major elements crystallization trends suggesting two magma series: tholeiitic and calc-alkaline. The tholeiitic varieties are less enriched in incompatible elements then the calc-alkaline ones. Two samples are high-Mg and low-Ti andesibasalts similar to boninites. The rocks possess moderately LREE enriched rare-earth element patterns and are characterized by negative Nb anomalies present on the multi-element spectra (Nb/Lapm = 0.14-0.47; Nb/Thpm = 0.7-1.6).The distribution of rare-earth elements (La/Smn = 0.8-2.3, Gd/Ybn = 0.7-1.9) and the results of geochemical modeling in the Nb-Yb system suggest high degrees of melting of a depleted harzburgite-bearing mantle source at spinel facies depths. Fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and opaque minerals also affected the final composition of the volcanic rocks. Clinopyroxene monomineral thermometry indicates crystallization of melts at 1020-1180°C. Melt inclusion composition based numerical calculations show that primary melts were derived at 1350

  5. Timing and genesis of the adakitic and shoshonitic intrusions in the Laoniushan complex, southern margin of the North China Craton: Implications for post-collisional magmatism associated with the Qinling Orogen (United States)

    Ding, Li-Xue; Ma, Chang-Qian; Li, Jian-Wei; Robinson, Paul T.; Deng, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Wang-Chun


    The NWW-striking Qinling Orogen formed in the Triassic by collision between the North China and Yangtze Cratons. Triassic granitoid intrusions, mostly middle- to high-K, calc-alkaline, are widespread in this orogen, but contemporaneous intrusions are rare in the southern margin of the North China Craton, an area commonly considered as the hinterland belt of the orogen. In this paper, we report zircon U-Pb ages, elemental geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data for the Laoniushan granitoid complex that was emplaced in the southern margin of the North China Craton. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the complex was emplaced in the late Triassic (228 ± 1 to 215 ± 4 Ma), indicating that it is part of the post-collisional magmatism in the Qinling Orogen. The complex consists of, from early to late, biotite monzogranite, quartz diorite, quartz monzonite, and hornblende monzonite, which span a wide compositional range, e.g., SiO 2 = 55.9-70.6 wt.%, K 2O + Na 2O = 6.6-10.2 wt.%, and Mg # of 24 to 54. The biotite monzogranite has high Al 2O 3 (15.5-17.4 wt.%), Sr (396-1398 ppm) and Ba (1284-3993 ppm) contents and relatively high La/Yb (mostly 14-30) and Sr/Y (mostly 40-97) ratios, but low Yb (mostly 1.3-1.6 ppm) and Y (mostly14-19 ppm) contents, features typical of adakitic rocks. The quartz monzonite, hornblende monzonite and quartz diorite have a shoshonitic affinity, with K 2O up to 5.58 wt.% and K 2O/Na 2O ratios averaging 1.4. The rocks are characterized by strong LREE/HREE fractionation in chondrite-normalized REE pattern, without obvious Eu anomalies, and show enrichment in large ion lithophile elements but depletion in high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Ti). The biotite monzogranite (228 Ma) has initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of 0.7061 to 0.7067, ɛNd(t) values of - 9.2 to - 12.6, and ɛ Hf(t) values of - 9.0 to - 15.1; whereas the shoshonitic granitoids (mainly 217-215 Ma) have similar initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.7065 to 0.7075) but more radiogenic ɛNd(t) (- 12.4 to

  6. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013. (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L


    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use. PMID:27309488

  7. New U-Pb ages and lithochemical attributes of the Ediacaran Rio Doce magmatic arc, Araçuaí confined orogen, southeastern Brazil (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leonardo; Farina, Federico; Lana, Cristiano; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio C.; Alkmim, Fernando; Nalini, Hermínio A.


    The Araçuaí orogen of southeastern Brazil, together with its counterpart located in Africa, the West Congo belt, formed through closure of a gulf connected to the Adamastor Ocean by the end of the Ediacaran and beginning of the Cambrian. Convergence of the margins of the gulf led to the development of the Rio Doce magmatic arc between 630 Ma and 580 Ma on a continental basement mostly composed of Rhyacian orthogneisses. The Rio Doce arc mainly consists of tonalite-granodiorite batholiths, generally crowded with mafic to dioritic enclaves, and minor gabbronorite-enderbite-charnockite plutons, suggesting mixing processes involving crustal and mantle sources. We investigate the basement, magma sources and emplacement ages of the Rio Doce arc. Our data suggest the arc comprises three main granitic rock groups: i) Opx-bearing rocks mostly of enderbite to charnockite composition; ii) enclave-rich tonalite-granodiorite (ETG); and iii) enclave-poor granite-granodiorite with minor tonalite (GT). The Opx-bearing rocks are magnesian, calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic and metaluminous. Together, the ETG and GT rock groups range in composition from tonalite to granite, are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, show a predominantly medium- to high-K, expanded calc-alkaline signature, and other geochemical and isotopic attributes typical of a pre-collisional volcanic arc formed on a continental margin setting. Mineralogical, chemical, and geochronological data suggest the involvement of HT-melting of granulitic (H2O-depleted) sources of Rhyacian age for the generation of Opx-bearing granitic rocks, additionally to magma mixing and fractional crystallization processes. In conclusion, the studied rock groups of the Rio Doce arc were likely formed by interactions of mantle and crustal processes, in an active continental margin setting. These processes involved ascent of mantle magmas that induced partial melting on the continental basement represented by the Rhyacian gneisses.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛河; 苏清祖; 马胜利


    The double drum drive is widely used on the mine belt conveyor, which are divided the rigid connected double drums and separately driving double drums according to connected method of two drums. Because of the change of real work condition, the load distribution is changed on the two drive drums, which may produce a slippage between a drum and belt. Slippage may intensify the wear of the drum, and sometimes causing the fire of the belt. This restricts the development toward narrow belt, high velocity and large power of belt conveyor. In this paper, the factors affecting the load distribution of two drums of double drum belt conveyor are'systematically analyzed and some computing formulas derived, by these formulas, the actual load distribution onthe two drums of rigid connected or separately driving belt conveyor can be separately calculated. These formulas also can be as the theory base for adjusting the driving force of two drums.

  9. Constraints from rocks in the Taiwan orogen on crustal stress levels and rheology


    Kidder, Steven B.; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Chan, Yu-Chang


    Taiwan's Hsüehshan range experienced penetrative coaxial deformation within and near the brittle-plastic transition between ∼6.5 and 3 Ma. This recent and short-lasting deformation in an active, well-studied orogen makes it an ideal natural laboratory for studying crustal rheology. Recrystallized grain size piezometry in quartz and Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry yield peak differential stresses of ∼200 MPa at 250–300°C that taper off to ∼80 MPa at ∼350°C and ∼14 MPa at ∼400–500°C. Stress result...

  10. Three evolutionary stages of the collision orogenic deformation in the Middle Yangtze Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A discussion of collision orogenic deformation has been made for the Middle Yangtze Region. Based on its deformation assemblage orders, three developing stages are classified successively as compression thrust uplift, strike-slip escape rheology and tension extension inversion. The collision orogenesis of the studied region has been divided into three developing periods of initial, chief and late orogeny. Based on the data from Wugong Mts., Jiuling Mts. and Xuefeng Mts.,for each stage, its variation of stress and strain axes, the conversion of joint fractures and their relative tectonic evolution are described, models are plotted and corresponding explanations are made for the rock chronology dating value in the same tectonic period.

  11. The Tectonic interaction between the Paramirim Aulacogen and the Araçuaí Belt, São Francisco craton region, Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Simone C.P.


    Full Text Available The Paramirim aulacogen, hosted in the northern part of the São Francisco craton, corresponds to two superimposed and partially inverted rifts of Paleo and Neoproterozoic ages. The Rio Pardo salient of the Araçuaí belt defines the local limit of the craton and interferes with the aulacogen structures. In order to understand the mechanism and timing of the tectonic interaction between these tectonic features during the inversion processes, a structural analysis was undertaken in the southern Paramirim aulacogen and along the Rio Pardo salient. The results obtained indicate that the Rio Pardo salient formed during an early stage of closure of the Neoproterozoic Macaúbas rift system and consequent initiation of the Araçuaí orogen. The orogenic front propagated further northwards into the craton, causing a first stage of inversion in the southern terminus of the aulacogen trough. Subsequently, the Paramirim aulacogen experienced the main stage of inversion, which led to the development of a NNW-oriented basement involved fold-thrust system. These fabric elements overprint the Rio Pardo salient, and the structures of both the first and second stages of inversion affect the Salitre Formation, the youngestNeoproterozoic unit of the area, clearly indicating a Late Neoproterozoic maximum age for all the inversion stages of the Paramirim aulacogen.

  12. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.


    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  13. A belted kingfisher flies above KSC (United States)


    A belted kingfisher soars over the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The pigeon-sized, blue-gray male is identified by the blue-gray breast band; females show a chestnut belly band. The belted kingfisher ranges throughout the United States and Canada, wintering south to Panama and the West Indies. They dive into the water for fish and may also take crabs, crayfish, salamanders, lizards, mice and insects. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  14. Genesis of Daba arcuate structural belt related to adjacent basement upheavals:Constraints from Fission-track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUILLOT; Franois


    Fission-track, (U-Th)/He thermochronology, and cooling properties indicate that the southern Daba arcuate zone (SDBAZ) underwent a distinctive phase of rapid cooling in 153-100 Ma at a rate of 1.44-1.90°C/Ma. This rapid uplifting strongly contrasts with (1) the previous, rapid foreland subsidence during Early to Middle Jurassic in response to late-orogenic compression from the Qinling belt, (2) the succeeding long, slow cooling phase and relative thermal stability that occurred during the 100-45 Ma period. This rapid cooling event in the SDBAZ parallels those experienced by two adjacent upheavals of Huangling (HLUZ) and Hannan-Micang (HMUZ), with cooling rates of 2.22-3.17°C/Ma for the HLUZ in 160-126 Ma, 4.91°C/Ma for the southern HMUZ in 150-125 Ma, as well as 2.11°C/Ma for the northern HMUZ in 150-105 Ma. Comparing thermal histories among the SDBAZ, the HLUZ, the HMUZ, and the Wudang metamorphic zone (WDMZ), we infer that the Daba arcuate structural belt formed in 153-100 Ma. The combined dating data support a correlation with a low-angle arcuate south-thrusting of the Qinling orogen triggered by northward convergence of the Yangtze Craton, contemporaneously encountering rigid basement obstructions from the HLUZ and the HMUZ, respectively. Both the SDBAZ and neighboring domains additionally underwent a comparatively fast cooling and uplift since about 45 Ma.

  15. Gold Mineral Prospecting Using Phased Array Type L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (palsar) Satellite Remote Sensing Data, Central Gold Belt, Malaysia (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan


    The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest and intense weathering makes it impossible to map geological structures over long distances. Advances in remote sensing technology allow the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data in geological structural analysis for tropical environments. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implication for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The major geological structure directions of the BRSZ are N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE, which derived from directional filtering analysis to PALSAR data. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Lineament analysis on PALSAR satellite remote sensing data is a useful tool for detecting the boundary between the Gondwana-derived terranes and major geological features associated with suture zone especially for large inaccessible regions in tropical environments.

  16. Geology and geochemistry of the Bingdaban ophiolitic mélange in the boundary fault zone on the northern Central Tianshan Belt, and its tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG YunPeng; ZHANG GuoWei; ZHOU DingWu; LUO JinHai; ZHANG ChengLi; XIA LinQi; XU XueYi; LI XiangMin


    The properties and tectonic significance of the fault bound zone on the northern margin of the Central Tianshan belt are key issues to understand the tectonic framework and evolutionary history of the Tianshan Orogenic Belt. Based on the geological and geochemical studies in the Tianshan orogenic belt, it is suggested that the ophiolitic slices found in the Bingdaban area represent the remaining oceanic crust of the Early Paleozoic ocean between the Hazakstan and Zhungaer blocks. Mainly composed of basalts, gabbros and diabases, the ophiolites were overthrust onto the boundary fault between the Northern Tianshan and Central Tianshan belts. The major element geochemistry is characterized by high TiO2 (1.50%-2.25%) and MgO (6.64%-9.35%), low K2O (0.06%-0.41%) and P2O5 (0.1%-0.2%), and Na2O>K2O as well. Low ∑REE and depletion in LREE indicate that the original magma was derived from a depleted mantle source. Compared with a primitive mantle, the geochemistry of the basalts from the Bingdaban area is featureded by depletion in Th, U, Nb, La, Ce and Pr, and unfractionated in HFS elements. The ratios of Zr/Nb, Nb/La, Hf/Ta, Th/Yb and Hf/Th are similar to those of the typical N-MORB. It can be interpreted that the basalts in the Bingdaban area were derived from a depleted mantle source, and formed in a matured mid-oceanic ridge setting during the matured evolutionary stage of the Northern Tianshan ocean. In comparison with the basalts, the diabases from the Bingdaban area show higher contents of Al2O3, (REE and HFS elements as well as unfractionated incompatible elements except Cs, Rb and Ba, and about 10 times the values of the primitive mantle. Thus, the diabases are thought to be derived from a primitive mantle and similar to the typical E-MORB. The diabases also have slight Nb depletion accompanying no apparent Th enrichment compared with N-MORB. From studies of the regional geology and all above evidence, it can be suggested that the diabases from the Bingdaban

  17. Geology and geochemistry of the Bingdaban ophiolitic mélange in the boundary fault zone on the northern Central Tianshan Belt,and its tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The properties and tectonic significance of the fault bound zone on the northern margin of the Central Tianshan belt are key issues to understand the tectonic framework and evolutionary history of the Tianshan Orogenic Belt. Based on the geological and geochemical studies in the Tianshan orogenic belt, it is suggested that the ophiolitic slices found in the Bingdaban area represent the remaining oceanic crust of the Early Paleozoic ocean between the Hazakstan and Zhungaer blocks. Mainly com-posed of basalts, gabbros and diabases, the ophiolites were overthrust onto the boundary fault be-tween the Northern Tianshan and Central Tianshan belts. The major element geochemistry is charac-terized by high TiO2 (1.50%-2.25%) and MgO (6.64%-9.35%), low K2O (0.06%-0.41%) and P2O5 (0.1%-0.2%), and Na2O>K2O as well. Low ΣREE and depletion in LREE indicate that the original magma was derived from a depleted mantle source. Compared with a primitive mantle, the geochemistry of the basalts from the Bingdaban area is featureded by depletion in Th, U, Nb, La, Ce and Pr, and unfrac-tionated in HFS elements. The ratios of Zr/Nb, Nb/La, Hf/Ta, Th/Yb and Hf/Th are similar to those of the typical N-MORB. It can be interpreted that the basalts in the Bingdaban area were derived from a de-pleted mantle source, and formed in a matured mid-oceanic ridge setting during the matured evolu-tionary stage of the Northern Tianshan ocean. In comparison with the basalts, the diabases from the Bingdaban area show higher contents of Al2O3, ∑REE and HFS elements as well as unfractionated incompatible elements except Cs, Rb and Ba, and about 10 times the values of the primitive mantle. Thus, the diabases are thought to be derived from a primitive mantle and similar to the typical E-MORB. The diabases also have slight Nb depletion accompanying no apparent Th enrichment compared with N-MORB. From studies of the regional geology and all above evidence, it can be suggested that the diabases from the

  18. The contorted New England Orogen (eastern Australia): New evidence from U-Pb geochronology of early Permian granitoids (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Gideon; Li, Pengfei; Rubatto, Daniela


    A series of sharp bends (oroclines) are recognized in the Paleozoic to early Mesozoic New England Orogen of eastern Australia. The exact geometry and origin of these bends is obscured by voluminous magmatism and is still debated. Here we present zircon U-Pb ages that confirm the lateral continuation of early Permian (296-288 Ma) granitoids and shed new light on the oroclinal structure. Orogenic curvature is defined by the alignment of early Permian granitoids parallel to the structural grain of the orogen, as well as the curved geometry of sub-vertical deformation fabrics, forearc basin terranes, and serpentinite outcrops. Alternative geometrical interpretations may involve two bends (Texas and Coffs Harbour Oroclines), three bends (+Manning Orocline), or even four bends (+Nambucca Orocline). We argue that the model involving four bends is most consistent with available data, although further kinematic constraints are required to confirm the existence of the Manning and Nambucca Oroclines. A subsequent phase of younger magmatism (Bowen orogeny.

  19. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  20. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  1. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  2. Substyles of belting: phonatory and resonatory characteristics. (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Thalén, Margareta; Popeil, Lisa


    Belting has been described as speechlike, yell-like, or shouting voice production commonly used in contemporary commercial music genres and substantially differing from the esthetic of the Western classical voice tradition. This investigation attempts to describe phonation and resonance characteristics of different substyles of belting (heavy, brassy, ringy, nasal, and speechlike) and the classical style. A professional singer and voice teacher, skilled in these genres, served as the single subject. The recorded material was found representative according to a classification test performed by an expert panel. Subglottal pressure was measured as the oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. The voice source and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering the audio signal. The subglottal pressure and measured flow glottogram parameters differed clearly between the styles heavy and classical assuming opposite extremes in most parameters. The formant frequencies, by contrast, showed fewer less systematic differences between the substyles but were clearly separated from the classical style with regard to the first formant. Thus, the differences between the belting substyles mainly concerned the voice source. PMID:21439776

  3. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  4. Seat belt use during pregnancy in Iran: attitudes and practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojgan Karbakhsh; Zahra Ershadi; Ali Khaji; Fatemeh Rahimi-Sharbaf


    Objective: Seat belt use during pregnancy reduces injury to the mother and her fetus. During recent years, the use of seat belts has been mandated by law in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of pregnant women regarding seat belt use.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we asked 335 pregnant women at a hospital-based prenatal care clinic on the use of safety belt before and during pregnancy. SPSS version 13.0 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean age of study subjects was 27.3 years±5.3 years with the median of 27 years. Compared with the seat belt use before pregnancy, no change was detected in 48.7% of the women; seat belt use had increased in 17.5 %of them and decreased in 33.8 %. Eighty-one percent of women knew the correct placing of both lap belt and shoulder belt. Only 4% of women had received education on proper restraint use during pregnancy.Conclusions: The prevalence of seat belt use during pregnancy is lower than reports which are mostly from developed nations. The fact that about one-third of women have decreased their seat belt usage during pregnancy highlights the importance of education of mothers on this topic.

  5. Modelling the thermal evolution of orogens: where’s the heat? (United States)

    Healy, D.; Clark, C.


    Our understanding of heat transfer during orogenesis has largely been shaped by the seminal work of England & Thompson (1984). These authors explored P-T-t paths in thickened crust as a function of radiogenic heat production, mantle heat flow, thermal conductivity and rates of erosion. In this contribution we incorporate recent experimental data on the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and field observations of heat producing elements in exposed orogenic roots into 1D thermal models of regional metamorphism. We identify distinct tectonic processes responsible for heat flow perturbations in thickened crust and compare the temporal evolution of temperature with depth (pressure) for each case. Several recent papers have presented ad hoc combinations of these processes and we seek to clarify the contribution of each process to the total heat orogenic heat budget. We present sensitivity analyses to key model parameters for each case and discuss the scope for separating the relative contribution of each process from field data such as metamorphic field gradients and pressure-temperature-time paths.

  6. The southern Araçuaí belt and the Dom Silvério Group: geologic architecture and tectonic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Peres


    Full Text Available The Araçuaí belt corresponds to the external portion of the western half of the Araçuaí-West Congo Neopro-terozoic orogen. TheAraçuaí belt fringes the São Francisco craton to east and is separated from the crystalline core of the orogen by the Abre Campo geophysical discontinuity. The southern Araçuaí belt involves four major lithologic units: the Archean and Paleoproterozoic gneisses of the Mantiqueira Complex, the Pedra Dourada Charnockite, the Paleoproterozoic Borrachudos Granitoid, and the metavolcanosedimentary rocks of the Dom Silvério Group. The Dom Silvério Group occurs in a NNE-SSW striking belt and consists of a thick package of metapelitic rocks with intercalations of quartzites, amphibolites, meta-ultramafics, banded iron formations, gondites and marbles. All units of the southern Araçuaí belt underwent four syn-metamorphic phases of deformation in the course of the Brasiliano event. The first phase, synchronous to a regional amphibolite facies metamorphism, was associated to a general tectonic transport towards north along the left-lateral Dom Silvério shear zone and its low angle segment. The second and third phases represent progressive stages of a west directed shortening, which led to the development of local thrusts and pervasive folds in several scales. The fourth phase is extensional and reflects the collapse of the orogen.A Faixa Araçuaí corresponde à porção ocidental externa do orógeno neoproterozóico Araçuaí-Congo Ocidental. Margeia a borda leste do Cráton do São Francisco e é separada do núcleo cristalino do orógeno pela descontinuidade geofísica de Abre Campo. A porção meridional da Faixa Araçuaí envolve quatro unidades litológicas principais: os ortognaisses arqueanos e paleoproterozóicos do Complexo Mantiqueira, os charnoquitos Pedra Dourada, os granitóides paleoproterozóicos da Suíte Borrachudos e as rochas metavulcanossedimentares do Grupo Dom Silvério. O Grupo Dom Silv

  7. Petrogenesis of Tarom high-potassic granitoids in the Alborz-Azarbaijan belt, Iran: Geochemical, U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic constraints (United States)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Ghaderi, Majid; Neubauer, Franz; Honarmand, Maryam; Liu, Xiaoming; Dong, Yunpeng; Jiang, Shao-Yong; von Quadt, Albrecht; Bernroider, Manfred


    Large-scale Upper Eocene plutons in the Western Alborz-Azarbaijan orogenic belt mostly show calc-alkaline and I-type geochemical features contrasted by the Tarom complex with its high-potassic to shoshonitic affinity. The pluton was emplaced in the Tarom subzone of the orogenic belt and its laser ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 41 Ma is interpreted as the age of magma crystallization. The Tarom complex is composed of quartz monzodiorite, quartz-monzonite and monzogranite, the SiO2 contents range from 57 to 70 wt.%, the K2O + Na2O content is high (5.0-8.9 wt.%) and K2O/Na2O ratio ranges from 0.4 to 1.9. All the investigated rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs), large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs), and bear a weak Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.46 to 1.38) in chondrite-normalized trace element patterns. The samples display some variety in initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions, marked with low ISr = 0.704-0.705 and ɛNd (40 Ma) = - 4.2 to + 3.4 (- 5.7 for an enclave) values. The Pb isotopic ratios are (206Pb/204Pb) = 18.52-18.86, (207Pb/204Pb) = 15.57-15.72 and (208Pb/204Pb) = 38.47-39.08. Comparison with experimental studies, together with mantle-like isotopic ratios and comparisons of REE patterns, points to an origin of chemically enriched lithospheric mantle source for the Tarom plutonic complex. Partial melting process involving different partial melting degrees affecting heterogeneously metasomatized mantle is a process that seems likely to have occurred in the studied complex as the major differentiation process. The Tarom monzonitic plutons are considered to be post-orogenic intrusions that were emplaced in an environment of lithospheric extension, causing asthenospheric upwelling. Asthenospheric upwelling induced a thermal anomaly which caused partial melting of metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the Tarom area.

  8. Variscan crustal thickening in the Maures-Tanneron massif (South Variscan belt, France): new in situ monazite U-Th-Pb chemical dating of high-grade rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    massifs like the Argentera massif in the southwestern Alps or the French Massif Central remain more hypothetic. The Internal Zone of the Maures-Tanneron massif, and more widely the Internal Zone of the Maures-Tanneron-Corsica-Sardinia segment, is part of the southern orogenic root system of the Variscan belt. (authors)

  9. A reappraisal of polymetamorphism in the Eastern Ghats belt - A view from north of the Godavari rift

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Bhattacharya; S Gupta


    Evidence collated from different parts of the Eastern Ghats belt north of the Godavari rift (barring the ``Western Charnockite Zone") indicates that this sector evolved through a series of compressive structures (1 to 3), with prolific migmatization in quartzofeldspathic and metapelitic gneisses synchronous with 1 shortening, as was the syn- 1 emplacement of profuse megacrystic K-feldspar-bearing granitoid bodies. Thereafter, melt productivity of the rocks (synchronous with 2 - 3 folding) sharply decreased. Mineral parageneses stable in the 1, 2 and 3 fabrics indicate persistence of granulite facies conditions. P-T estimates on orthopyroxene + garnet + plagioclase + quartz assemblages anchored to recrystallized mosaic that overgrow all penetrative fabric elements in mafic granulites, granitoids and quartzofeldspathic gneisses are in the range of 900°-950°C and P ≅ 8-9 kbar. This estimate is comparable to those retrieved from sapphirine-bearing paragenesis in Mg-Al metapelites that appear to be diachronous in relation to the fabric elements, and arguably disrupt the granoblastic mosaic. These facets in the northern sector of the orogenic belt are compatible with either a single cycle of tectonic events (i.e., 1, 2 and 3 in continuum), or temporally-separate thermo-tectonic events, with the peak of earlier metamorphism (pre- to syn-1) at lower temperature (in the granulite facies) in comparison to the record of high post-3-max values. It is suggested on the basis of the above evidence that the late Proterozoic/Pan-African granulites in the Eastern Ghats belt north of the Godavari rift, are unlikely to be reworked equivalents of any older granulitic crust, such as the ∼1.6 Ga granulites south of the rift. Instead, the temporally disparate sectors may represent different crustal segments with unconnected pre-amalgamation tectonic history. However, if the ∼1.6 Ga granulites of the Western Charnockite Zone continue northwards across the rift, as suggested by

  10. Isotopic geochronological evidence for the Paleoproterozoic age of gold mineralization in Archean greenstone belts of Karelia, the Baltic Shield (United States)

    Larionova, Yu. O.; Samsonov, A. V.; Shatagin, K. N.; Nosova, A. A.


    The Rb-Sr age of metasomatic rocks from four gold deposits and occurrences localized in Archean granite-greenstone belts of the western, central, and southern Karelian Craton of the Baltic Shield has been determined. At the Pedrolampi deposit in central Karelia, the dated Au-bearing beresite and quartz-carbonate veins are located in the shear zone and replace Mesoarchean (˜2.9 Ga) mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Koikar-Kobozero greenstone belt. At the Taloveis ore occurrence in the Kostomuksha greenstone belt of western Karelia, the dated beresite replaces Neoarchean (˜2.7 Ga) granitoids and is conjugated with quartz veins in the shear zone. At the Faddeinkelja occurrence of southern Karelia, Aubearing beresite in the large tectonic zone, which transects Archean granite and Paleoproterozoic mafic dikes, has been studied. At the Hatunoja occurrence in the Jalonvaara greenstone belt of southwestern Karelia, the studied quartz veins and related gold mineralization are localized in Archean granitoids. The Rb-Sr isochrons based on whole-rock samples and minerals from ore-bearing and metasomatic wall rocks and veins yielded ˜1.7 Ga for all studied objects. This age is interpreted as the time of development of ore-bearing tectonic zones and ore-forming hydrothermal metasomatic alteration. New isotopic data in combination with the results obtained by our precursors allow us to recognize the Paleoproterozoic stage of gold mineralization in the Karelian Craton. This stage was unrelated to the Archean crust formation in the Karelian Block and is a repercussion of the Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.7 Ga) crust-forming tectonic cycle, which gave rise to the formation of the Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola foldbelts in the framework of the Karelain Craton. The oreforming capability of Paleoproterozoic tectonics in the Archean complexes of the Karelian Craton was probably not great, and its main role consisted in reworking of the Archean gold mineralization of various

  11. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System


    Yimei Mao; Zuoying Huang; Guiyun Tian; Hui Zhao; Huaming Lei


    This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of ...

  12. Device for continuous tare measurement at belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The described device can be used for belt weighers connected with a computing unit. Its development has been aimed at measuring the weight of the belt without standstill. This could be achieved by arranging radiation sources and detectors over the whole width of the belt and transforming the radiation attenuation into weight equivalents with the aid of an evaluation unit connected to the computing unit

  13. Car safety belts: a study of two models adapted for people with arthritis. (United States)

    Arie, E


    People with arthritis find car seat belts difficult to use. Sixteen arthritic patients and 19 healthy volunteers completed a comparative study of one standard inertia-reel belt and two adapted inertia-reel belts with reduced retraction forces. Those with arthritis were strong enough to use the standard belt but both adapted belts had features making them easier to use. PMID:3708235

  14. Rirang Uranium Ore Processing System Design Horizontal Belt Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horizontal belt filter one of the solid-liquid separation process equipment. The design of Horizontal Belt Filter have been conducted for capacity of 250 g/minute. The result obtained was filtering velocity of 0,4 g/cm2 minute. The linear belt speeds 100 cm/minute. The length and width of the belt 125 cm also the filtering cycle of 1,25 minute. The operation of that equipment give result about 77,9 - 79,1% of product cake

  15. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  16. Predicting Facies Patterns within Fluvial Channel Belts (United States)

    Willis, B. J.; Sech, R.; Sun, T.; Pyrcz, M.


    Reservoirs (aquifers) in fluvial channel belt sandstones can have very different subsurface flow behavior depending on the degree and distribution of internal heterogeneities. Fluvial channel belts are composed of multiple "storeys" formed as individual channel segments increase in sinuosity and then are cut off and abandoned. Heterogeneities are defined by depositional variations across storeys and inter-story connectivity patterns along the channel belt. Although commonly inferred to reflect the formative river pattern (sinuosity & braiding), the spatial arrangement of facies depend most directly on the relative preservation of deposits formed within different areas of the migrating channels and the lateral stacking arrangement of storeys due to style of bend cutoff. Grains are poorly sorted across the inner bank along upstream parts of channel bends and become better sorted laterally in downstream areas adjacent to a deeper thalweg scour. If deposition occurs evenly along the entire inner bank (bar), this grain size pattern leads to an elliptical body in planview with weak vertical grain size trends upstream and more fining-upward trend downstream. As channel bend segments migrate to a greater extent downstream, preserved inner-bank-bar deposits are increasingly dominated by upward-fining deposits and more outer-bank-deposits are preserved ("concave bank" deposits). Although concave bank deposits have highly variable character in different systems, vertical-grainsize trends tend to be weaker in straighter systems dominated by downstream-accretion, and more strongly upward-fining in higher sinuosity systems where these deposits form by eddy accretion or low flow aggradation. River cutoffs of straighter channel segments abandon slowly, leading to more gradual vertical fining. Subsurface heterogeneity prediction requires documentation of shape and character of deposits preserved in different zones within the channel (upstream and downstream inner bank, concave bank

  17. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the paleoproterozoic Silvania magmatic arc in the neoproproterozoic Brasilia Belt, Goias, Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brasilia Belt is a large Neoproterozoic orogen formed along the western margin of the Sao Francisco/Congo Craton in central Brazil. It comprises: (i) a thick Meso-Neoproterozoic metasedimentary/sedimentary pile with eastward tectonic vergence; (ii) a large Neoproterozoic juvenile arc in the west (Goias Magmatic Arc); and (iii) a micro-continent (or exotic sialic terrain) formed by Archean rock units (the Crixas -Goias granitegreenstones) and associated Proterozoic formations (Almeida et al. 1981, Fuck et al. 1993,1994, Pimentel et al. 2000a, b). The sialic basement on which the Brasilia Belt sediments were deposited is poorly understood, despite being well exposed in some areas of Goias and Tocantins. Gneiss and volcano-sedimentary units form most of this basement. Early studies have suggested that these rock units are dominantly Archean ( Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984). However, recent Sm- Nd isotopic studies have indicated that most of them are Paleoproterozoic (Sato 1998, Pimentel et al. 1999a, 2000b). Granite gneiss to the south and east of the Barro Alto mafic-ultramafic layered complex has been dated at 2128+/- 15 Ma (Correia et al. 1997). Calc-alkaline granite gneiss from Almas-Dianopolis is dated at ca. 2.2-2.45 Ga old (U-Pb SHRIMP on zircon and titanite, Cruz et al. 2000). The latter is probably the western extension of Paleoproterozoic rocks which underlie the San Francisco Craton to the east of the northern part of the Brasilia Belt. In central Goias, a large part of the Brasilia Belt is underlain by high-grade metamorphic rocks known as the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex, together with surrounding greenschist to amphibolite facies Mesoto Neoproterozoic cover metasediments of the Araxa group. These rocks represent the main constituent of the internal zone of the Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994, Pimentel et al. 2000b). Between the Araxa Group, and the easternmost part of the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex a volcano-sedimentary association known as Silvania

  18. Energy in corn belt crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockeretz, W.; Klepper, R.; Gertler, M.; Fast, S.; O' Leary, D.


    The study presents data on the quantity and cost of the energy used to produce corn, soybeans, and wheat in the western part of the Corn Belt in 1974. The analysis covers fuel for field equipment, energy required to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides, and energy for drying corn. Corn is the most energy-intensive of the three crops studied, with soybeans the lowest. The cost of energy for crop production amounts to 11%, 8%, and 6% of the overall direct production costs for corn, wheat, and soybeans, respectively. These energy costs come to less than 3% of the value of the crop in all three cases. (GRA)

  19. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt



    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent ...

  20. Parametric resonances of convection belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-an YANG; Gao-feng LI


    Based on the Coriolis acceleration and the Lagrangian strain formula,a generalized equation for the transverse vibration system of convection belts is derived using Newton's second law.The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations,and an approximate solution of the primary parameter resonance of the system is obtained.The detuning parameter,cross-section area,elastic and viscoelastic parameters,and axial moving speed have a significant influences on the amplitudes of steady-state response and their existence boundaries.Some new dynamical phenomena are revealed.

  1. Preservation and Recycling of Crust during Accretionary and Collisional Phases of Proterozoic Orogens: A Bumpy Road from Nuna to Rodinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent C. Condie


    Full Text Available Zircon age peaks at 2100–1650 and 1200–1000 Ma correlate with craton collisions in the growth of supercontinents Nuna and Rodinia, respectively, with a time interval between collisions mostly <50 Myr (range 0–250 Myr. Collisional orogens are two types: those with subduction durations <500 Myr and those ≥500 Myr. The latter group comprises orogens with long-lived accretionary stages between Nuna and Rodinia assemblies. Neither orogen age nor duration of either subduction or collision correlates with the volume of orogen preserved. Most rocks preserved date to the pre-collisional, subduction (ocean-basin closing stage and not to the collisional stage. The most widely preserved tectonic setting in Proterozoic orogens is the continental arc (10%–90%, mean 60%, with oceanic tectonic settings (oceanic crust, arcs, islands and plateaus, serpentinites, pelagic sediments comprising <20% and mostly <10%. Reworked components comprise 20%–80% (mean 32% and microcratons comprise a minor but poorly known fraction. Nd and Hf isotopic data indicate that Proterozoic orogens contain from 10% to 60% of juvenile crust (mean 36% and 40%–75% reworked crust (mean 64%. Neither the fraction nor the rate of preservation of juvenile crust is related to the collision age nor to the duration of subduction. Regardless of the duration of subduction, the amount of juvenile crust preserved reaches a maximum of about 60%, and 37% of the volume of juvenile continental crust preserved between 2000 and 1000 Ma was produced in the Great Proterozoic Accretionary Orogen (GPAO. Pronounced minima occur in frequency of zircon ages of rocks preserved in the GPAO; with minima at 1600–1500 Ma in Laurentia; 1700–1600 Ma in Amazonia; and 1750–1700 Ma in Baltica. If these minima are due to subduction erosion and delamination as in the Andes in the last 250 Myr; approximately one third of the volume of the Laurentian part of the GPAO could have been recycled into the mantle

  2. Paleomagnetic study on the Neoproterozoic mafic dikes and Early Permian volcanic-sedimentary rocks from NW Yili Block (NW China): Implications for post-orogenic kinematic evolution of the SW CAOB (United States)

    Zhu, Xin; Wang, Bo; Chen, Yan; Liu, Hongsheng; Shu, Liangshu; Faure, Michel


    As one of the largest accretionary orogens of the world, the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) has been the focus of geological studies in the last decades. However, several key points are still in hot debate, such as the formation process of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, the intracontinental movements among constituent blocks of the CAOB. In order to better understand these questions, we conducted a paleomagnetic study on the Neoproterozoic (ca. 780 Ma) mafic dikes and Early Permian (ca. 268 Ma) volcanic and sedimentary rocks from NW of the Yili Block (NW China). Ten sites have been sampled from three mafic dikes. The thickness of dikes varies from 10 to 40 meters. At about 15 km west of the mafic dikes, 4 sites were drilled in the Lower Permian basalts and limestones that unconformably overlay the Neoproterozoic mafic dikes. Mineralogical investigations show the titanium-poor magnetite as the major magnetic remanence carrier. Stepwise alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetizations reveal two-component magnetizations. The low temperature (coercivity) component shows a viscous and unstable magnetic remanence, whereas the high temperature (coercivity) component stably decays toward to the origin and is considered as the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). All ChRMs isolated from both the mafic dikes and volcanic-sedimentary samples exclusively show a reversed magnetic polarity. Based on the following 3 arguments, we suggest that the Neoprotozoic mafic dikes have been remagnetized in the Early Permian. 1. International reference of magnetostratigraphic polarity shows a dominance of the normal polarity for the Neoproterozoic period and a superchron of the reversed polarity for the late Carboniferous-Permian; 2. Two groups of sampling show coherent paleomagnetic poles with an undistinguishable angular difference; and 3. The widespread Early Permian magmatism in the sampling area could be the cause of the remagnetization. Consequently, an Early Permian

  3. Active Tectonics in crossroads of an evolving orogen and morphological consequences: Anatolia (United States)

    Koral, Hayrettin


    Anatolia lies in a curved setting of the active Alpine Mountain Range and is located in crossroads of the European and Asian terrains. It is one of the fastest deforming land in the world, manifested by seismicity, characteristic landforms and GPS measurements. Active tectonics in Anatolia provides not only a comparable geological model for the past orogens, but also a laboratory case for morphological consequences of an orogenic processes. Anatolia comprise different tectonic subsettings with its own characteristics. Northern part is influenced by tectonic characteristics of the Black Sea Basin, the Pontides and the Caucasian Range; northwestern part by the Balkanides; eastern-southeastern part by the Bitlis-Zagros suture; and south-southwestern part by the eastern Mediterranean subduction setting. Much of its present tectonic complexity was inherited from the convergence dominant plate tectonic setting of the platelets prior to the Middle-Neogene. Beginning about 11 Ma ago, the deformed and uplifted landmass unable to accommodate further deformation in Anatolia and ongoing tectonic activity gave rise to rearrangement of tectonic forces and westerly translational movements. Formation of major strike-slip faults in Anatolia including the North and East Anatolian Faults and a new platelet called the Anatolian Plate are the consequences of this episode. Such change in the tectonic regime has led to modification of previously-formed landscape, modification and sometimes termination of previously-formed basins. Evidence is present in the Plio-Quaternary stratigraphy, tectonic characteristics and morphology of the well-studied areas. This presentation will discuss active tectonic features of the northwestern, southwestern and eastern Anatolian subsettings and their influence on morphology that is closely related to sites of pre-historical human settlement.

  4. Fluid flow and polymetallic sulfide mineralization in the Kettara shear zone (Jebilet Massif, Variscan Belt, Morocco) (United States)

    N'diaye, I.; Essaifi, A.; Dubois, M.; Lacroix, B.; Goodenough, K. M.; Maacha, L.


    The Kettara shear zone is a regional wrench shear zone within the Jebilet massif of Western Morocco, part of the Variscan orogenic belt. This massif is characterized by bimodal magmatism, largely intrusive, and by a number of polymetallic massive sulfide deposits. A syntectonic mafic-ultramafic intrusion and an adjacent, deformed pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide deposit are located within a 'compressional jog' of the shear zone. Hydrothermal alteration in both the intrusion and the wall rocks adjacent to the deposit is characterized by syntectonic replacement processes leading to formation of chlorite-schists and quartz ± calcite veins. Fluid inclusions in mineralized (pyrrhotite-bearing) quartz veins from the wall rocks adjacent to the deposit and in veins associated with chlorite-schists within the intrusion indicate a prevalence of H2O-CO2-CH4-N2 and H2O-salt fluid systems. In the mineralized veins the fluid shows reducing conditions, with gas dominated by CH4 and N2 and salinities around 7.5 wt% NaCl, whereas in the chlorite shear zones fluid is CO2 dominated and salinities are higher than 23 wt% NaCl. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of chlorite and quartz are similar and demonstrate involvement of metamorphic water in both the deposit and the intrusion. The data are consistent with a regional metamorphic fluid flow through the Kettara shear zone. The migrating metamorphic fluids were reduced in the organic matter-rich host rocks leading to deposition of sulfides in the mineralized veins. There are two possible hypotheses for the origin of these mineralized veins: either they were formed during deformation and remobilization of a syn-sedimentary massive sulfide deposit, or they were formed synchronously with the sulfide deposit during development of the Kettara shear zone.

  5. Ordovician magmatic belt upon pre-Variscan basement in the internal Sardinian Variscides (United States)

    Helbing, H.; Frisch, W.; Tiepolo, M.


    A middle Ordovician angular unconformity overlain by conglomerates is exposed in the foreland of the Sardinian Variscides and marks the Sardic phase. Towards the orogen, the foreland is bordered by the nappe zone, in which calc-alkaline suite-derived porphyroids occur in the stratigraphic position of middle Ordovician, but such an unconformity as documented in the foreland is not exposed. The nappe zone records increasing metamorphism from low- to medium-grade towards internal parts and is juxtaposed against the high-grade axial zone along a late Variscan fault. Towards the internal parts, the stratigraphy and the porphyroid occurrence become increasingly uncertain. The Ordovician orthogneisses from Lodè and Tanaunella appear respectively in the medium-grade nappe zone and high-grade axial zone as plutonic equivalents to the porphyroids and rise the question whether these orthogneisses intruded in a sedimentary sequence or in an older basement. In order to solve this classical basement problem, we obtained the following results at the transition between nappe zone and axial zone in NE Sardinia. We discovered porphyroids in the low-grade nappe zone south of the village Lula. Furthermore, the earliest foliation S1 is restricted to the medium-grade nappe zone and high-grade axial zone, but is not developed neither in the orthogneisses nor in the porphyroid-interlayered low-grade nappe zone. In-situ U-Pb isotopic data obtained by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) on zircon yield 485 +/- 11 Ma for the low-grade Lula porphyroid, 493 +/- 11 Ma for the medium-grade Lodè orthogneiss, and 453 +/- 8 Ma for the high-grade Tanaunella orthogneiss. Besides these Ordovician ages, Neoproterozoic ages are inherited from a Pan-African episode. According to these results we can draw the following conclusions. The internal Sardinian Variscides are made up by an Ordovician magmatic belt upon a pre-Variscan basement. The displacement at the late

  6. Lateral variations in tectonic style across cross-strike discontinuities: an example from the Central Apennines belt (Italy) (United States)

    Satolli, Sara; Pace, Paolo; Viandante, Mauro Gabriele; Calamita, Fernando


    In foreland thrust belts, abrupt lateral changes in tectonic style, structural-stratigraphic features, and topography usually occur across cross-strike faults. The Central Apennines of Italy offer an exceptional scenario of lateral variations in tectonic setting. Here, the Sangro Volturno oblique thrust ramp (SVOTR) represents the outer thrust front of the Pliocene-Quaternary foreland thrust system, confining southward the axial culmination of the orogen that occurs in the Central Apennines. We present an interpretation of the Pliocene-Quaternary evolution of this cross-strike fault through an integrated dataset including structural-geological mapping and subsurface onshore seismic reflection profiles. The interpretation of the structural framework is augmented by the analysis of low-temperature thermochronometers from 32 new sites extending across the subsurface transverse structure. As evidenced by seismic line interpretation, the localization and development of the SVOTR have been influenced by inherited extensional faults within a positive inversion tectonics context. The regional distribution of the maximum paleotemperature values across the SVOTR constrains the original extent of the allochthonous thrust sheet over all its hanging-wall and footwall blocks. The Pliocene-Quaternary thrusting and inversion of SVOTR caused the strong hanging-wall uplift, which brought to the complete erosion of the allochthonous units and the exhumation of the Adria units. The integrated analysis of low-temperature thermochronometers and structural evidence as applied in the study case can define the role of major cross-strike discontinuities in foreland thrust belts, by constraining and verifying their tectonics inversion significance and the amount of related exhumation.

  7. Seismic tomography and anisotropy of the Helan-Liupan tectonic belt: Insight into lower crustal flow and seismotectonics (United States)

    Cheng, Bin; Zhao, Dapeng; Cheng, Shunyou; Ding, Ziteng; Zhang, Guowei


    We determined detailed 3-D P and S wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and Poisson's ratio (σ) images as well as P wave azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Helan-Liupan tectonic belt (HLTB) and adjacent regions. The data set used in this study consists of 38,880 P wave and 35,117 S wave arrival times from 5028 local earthquakes recorded by 66 seismic stations in the study area during 1980 to 2014. Obvious low-Vp and low-σ anomalies are revealed in the lower crust beneath the Qilian Orogenic Belt and Western Qinling, which we interpret as a weakened zone mainly caused by water and capable of ductile flow on a geological timescale. Our P wave anisotropy results suggest that the flow direction in the lower crust is nearly parallel to the direction of the geodetic crustal motion and that of the upper mantle flow beneath the study region. Most of the 26 large historical earthquakes (1125-1954) in the study region occurred in the boundary zones where Vp, Vs, and σ change drastically over a short distance. Beneath the source areas of the large historical earthquakes, fluid-related low-velocity zones exist widely in the lower crust. The fluids result from dehydration of hydrous minerals in the deeper crust and uppermost mantle beneath the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. When the fluids migrate upward to the active faults, the fault zone friction is reduced and so large crustal earthquakes can be triggered. Our present results shed new light on the seismogenesis and geodynamics of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas.

  8. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma


    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  9. The Dynamical Evolution of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; O'Brien, David P; Minton, David A; Bottke, William F


    The asteroid belt is the leftover of the original planetesimal population in the inner solar system. However, currently the asteroids have orbits with all possible values of eccentricities and inclinations compatible with long-term dynamical stability, whereas the initial planetesimal orbits should have been quasi-circular and almost co-planar. The total mass in the asteroid population is a small fraction of that existing primordially. Also, asteroids with different chemical/mineralogical properties are not ranked in an orderly manner with mean heliocentric distance as one could expect from the existence of a radial gradient of the temperature in the proto-planetary disk, but they are partially mixed. These properties show that the asteroid belt has been severely sculpted by one or a series of processes during its lifetime. This paper reviews the processes that have been proposed so far, discussing the properties that they explain and the problems that they are confronted with. Emphasis is paid to the interpl...

  10. Stabilization of electrostatic accelerator charging belt current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of improving reliability and quality of electrostatic accelerator basic parameters the stabilizer of charging belt current is developed. The stabilizer consists of two units: high-voltage unit and control unit. The charging rectifier assures voltage up to 60 kV at total current load of 750 μA. For the EG- 2.5 and the EGP-10 M accelerators supply circuits of charging device with an earth screen and posAitive voltage supply the needles. t the EGP-10-1 accelerator negative charging voltage is supplied to the screens of the charging device. ''Plus'' of the rectifier is earthed. Charging and recharging are performed by means of brushes slipping over the internal belt side. At all accelerators the stability of charging current mean value is not worse 0.1%. The highest response of the system are obtained at the EG-2.5 accelerator for account of rectifier load by charging current and instrument resistor from 140 to 400 MOhm

  11. Post-collisional multistage magmatism in the Ribeira mobile belt: geochemical and isotopic study of the Varzea Alegre intrusive complex, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Varzea Alegre Intrusive Complex (VAIC) corresponds to a post-collisional (late orogenic) pluton, related to the Brasiliano cycle, situated in the central part of the Espirito Santo State. It intrudes amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic rocks of the Ribeira Belt. Two distinct domains were recognised in this zoned pluton: an inner domain with opx-gabbro, monzogabbro, diorite, quartz-diorite and megaporphyritic granite, and an outer one comprising an irregular and large ring of charnockitic rocks. Geochemical data from the former reveal medium to high-K calc-alkalic rocks, enriched in incompatible elements, mainly Ba, Sr, La, Ce and Pb and partially depleted in HFS elements. The charnockitic rocks show a high-K alkali-calcic signature; they are rich in Ba, K and some HFS elements, such a Zr, P and Nb. The incompatible element enrichment detected in the rocks of the VAIC has been reported for several intrusions from this part of the Ribeira Belt. A Rb-Sr isochronic age of 508± 12 Ma was determined for the megaporphyritic granite. The TDM model age varies from 1.3 Ga (opx-gabbro) to ca. 1.67 Ga (charnockitic rocks), which can be related to an important Mesoproterozoic crustal event. The calculated TCHUR model ages of the cogenetic opx-gabbros and intermediary rocks is ca. 1.0 Ga, interpreted as the time when the basic magma was extracted from the source. (author)

  12. Age, tectonic evolution and origin of the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda: Activation of an oblique ramp during convergence in the East African Orogen (United States)

    Saalmann, K.; Mänttäri, I.; Nyakecho, C.; Isabirye, E.


    . Early Aswa Shear Zone activation is linked to underthrusting of the Congo Craton and coeval high-grade metamorphism and intense deformation in the orogen interior. During E-W convergence between ca. 690 and 650 Ma, the NE-dipping ASZ was activated as an oblique ramp leading to deflection of the transport direction and concentration of non-coaxial strain and sinistral shear along the shear zone system. During progressive convergence, between ca. 645 and 620 Ma, sinistral shearing along ASZ changed to ductile-brittle deformation mechanisms, while thrusting took place in Pan-African belts in eastern and western Uganda. Late-orogenic brittle sinistral reactivation of the ASZ can be regarded as the result of continent collision and closure of the Mozambique ocean further to the east, that potentially caused lateral escape manifested in NW-SE striking sinistral shear zones in Kenya and the southern Arabina-Nubian Shield between 620 and 570 Ma.

  13. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall...

  14. Safety belt usage in Finland and in other Nordic countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtonen, J.


    Legislation has played a significant role in increasing safety belt usage in Finland and in the other Nordic countries. Publicity and enforcement have, however, been required to support the legislation. The development of safety belt regulations has been nearly similar in all these countries, both i

  15. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.


    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada wh

  16. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep


    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  17. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  18. Timing and evolution of Jurassic-Cretaceous granitoid magmatisms in the Mongol-Okhotsk belt and adjacent areas, NE Asia: Implications for transition from contractional crustal thickening to extensional thinning and geodynamic settings (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Qidi; Zhang, Jianjun; Tong, Ying; Ye, Ke


    The Mongol-Okhotsk belt and adjacent areas are key areas to study the relationship between the Okhotsk and Paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes and their superposition on the older Paleo-Asian regimes during late Mesozoic times. This paper summarizes the spatial-temporal evolution of Late Mesozoic (Jurassic-Cretaceous) granitoids and related intrusions in these areas, and interprets the magmatic evolution in terms of a transition from contractional crustal thickening to extensional thinning. According to 407 published zircon ages, these granitoids were mainly emplaced during the intervals 200-180 Ma, 180-165 Ma, 165-145 Ma, 145-135 Ma and 135-100 Ma. Jurassic granitoids (200-145 Ma) predominately occur in the Baikal-NE Mongolia (BNEM) and Great Xing'an Range. Early Cretaceous (145-100 Ma) granitoids are mainly occur in the Great Xing'an Range, and display a southward-younging migration. Significantly, Early Cretaceous granitoids also extend into the Trans-Baikal area across the Mongol-Okhotsk suture, far away from the Paleo-Pacific plate margin (in NE China); thus they were more plausibly related to post-orogenic collapse of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogen. From the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, the granitoids evolved compositionally from calc-alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline, I-type, with some adakite-like features, to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic, highly fractionated I-, transitional I-A or, A-type, characterized by a significant decrease in their Sr/Y ratios. This evolution coincided with a tectonic transition from contractional crustal thickening to extensional thinning. Combined with regional geology, we speculate that the Jurassic granitoids were likely derived from melting of the deep-seated, thickened lower continental crustal (LCC) sources, whereas the Cretaceous granitoids produced through crustal melting from an extensional thinning setting. Our results provide a case study demonstrating that the petrogenesis of granitic magmatism was closely

  19. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  20. Traffic restrictions due to wind on the Fehmarn Belt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, Jakob; Rosenhagen, G.


    same as used in this report and here the comparison is satisfactory. We estimate that the prospective Fehmarn Belt bridge will be closed roughly 2% of the timefor light roadway vehicles (unloaded trucks and caravans), corresponding to 7 days per year. This is slightly less than for the Fehmarnsund...... Bridge. For the Great Belt bridge the corresponding actual fraction is 1.5%, despite the fact that this bridge usesstricter criteria. The most important difference between the bridges in this connection is their orientation with respect to the prevailing wind direction. If all the large bridges (Øresund......, Great Belt and Fehmarn Belt) used the same criteria the FehmarnBelt bridge would be closed approximately twice as much as the two others. The majority of these restrictions are likely to take place in the winter time and can be significantly reduced with wind screens....

  1. A Study on the Vibration of the Charging Belt in an Electrostatic Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The vibration of the charging belt in an electrostatic accelerator has intense influences on the accelerator operation. A calculating model was set up in this paper to study the belt vibration. The results show that the belt tension, belt velocity and belt current all contribute to the belt vibration. There is an optimal relationship among the three factors by which the belt would run most smoothly. There exists a minimum value of optimal tension for various belt velocities. The vibrating frequency of the is generally around several Hz.

  2. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding


    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  3. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research (United States)

    Ludwig, G. H.


    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  4. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  5. Timing of Deformation in the Central Metasedimentary Belt Boundary Thrust Zone (CMBbtz), southern Ontario, Canada, from Electron Microprobe Dating of Monazite (United States)

    Markley, M. J.; Dunn, S. R.; Peck, W. H.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Williams, M. L.


    In the Grenville Province of Southern Ontario, the Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary thrust zone (CMBbtz) is a crustal-scale tectonic boundary between the older, granulite-facies Central Gneiss Belt to the NW and the younger, amphibolite-facies Central Metasedimentary Belt to the SE. Although there are a range of tectonic models for the CMBbtz, most workers agree it is a major tectonic boundary that accommodated ductile thrusting and crustal shortening during the Ottawan phase of the Grenville Orogeny (~1080-1020 Ma). Some studies suggest that ductile thrusting in the CMBbtz was roughly synchronous with synorogenic extensional collapse below an orogenic lid. Previous geochronological studies also provide evidence of earlier deformation and/or metamorphic events in the CMBbtz, although the relation between deformation in the CMBbtz to the Elzeviran (~1230 Ma) and Shawinigan (~1180 Ma) orogenies is unclear. Our study is the first to report in situ electron microprobe monazite (mnz) dates from amphibolite-grade ortho- and para-gneisses of the CMBbtz. Our results are broadly consistent with other chronometers. We present dates from 132 age-domains within 83 mnz grains in 14 samples. Although our data provide strong evidence for deformation and metamorphism along the length of the CMBbtz during the Ottawan (1080-1020 Ma), we also report two other clusters of ages: 1140-1110 Ma and 1230-1170 Ma. The latter cluster falls between the widely accepted ranges for the Elzeviran and Shawinigan orogenies. In addition, some individual outcrops, particularly those in Killaloe and Minden, show mnz ages spanning over 200 m.y., and the setting and compositions of individual monazite domains allow us to link mnz growth to episodes of garnet growth during multiple events. Together these data indicate an unexpectedly continuous and long-lived period of deformation and metamorphism in the CMBbtz.

  6. Muscovite-Dehydration Melting: A Textural Study of a Key Reaction in Transforming Continental Margin Strata Into a Migmatitic Orogenic Core (United States)

    Dyck, B. J.; St Onge, M. R.; Waters, D. J.; Searle, M. P.


    Metamorphosed continental margin sedimentary sequences, which comprise the dominant tectonostratigraphic assemblage exposed in orogenic hinterlands, are crucial to understanding the architecture and evolution of collisional mountain belts. This study explores the textural effect of anatexis in amphibolite-grade conditions and documents the mineral growth mechanisms that control nucleation and growth of K-feldspar, sillimanite and silicate melt. The constrained textural evolution follows four stages: 1) Nucleation - K-feldspar is documented to nucleate epitaxially on isomorphic plagioclase in quartzofeldspathic (psammitic) domains, whereas sillimanite nucleates in the Al-rich (pelitic) domain, initially on [001] mica planes. The first melt forms at the site of muscovite breakdown. 2) Chemically driven growth - In the quartzofeldspathic domain, K-feldspar progressively replaces plagioclase by a K+ - Na+ cation transfer reaction, driven by the freeing of muscovite-bound K+ during breakdown of the mica. Sillimanite forms intergrowths with the remaining hydrous melt components, contained initially in ovoid clots. 3) Merge and coarsening - With an increase in pressure, melt and sillimanite migrate away from clots along grain boundaries. A melt threshold is reached once the grain-boundary network is wetted by melt, increasing the length-scale of diffusion, resulting in grain boundary migration and grain-size coarsening. The melt threshold denotes the transition to an open-system on the lithology scale, where melt is a transient phase. 4) Residual melt crystallization - Residual melt crystallizes preferentially on existing peritectic grains as anatectic quartz, plagioclase, and K-feldspar. As the system cools and closes, grain growth forces melt into the intersections of grain-boundaries, recognized as irregular shaped melt films, or as intergrowths of the volatile-rich phases (i.e. Tur-Ms-Ap). In the Himalayan metamorphic core these processes result in the formation of

  7. North Qinling Paleozoic granite associations and their variation in space and time: Implications for orogenic processes in the orogens of central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Integrated zircon U-Pb dating and whole rock geochemical analyses have been carried out for two typical S-and I-type granitoids in the north Qinling. Zircon dating by SIMS of the Piaochi S-type grani- toids yields an emplacement age of 495±6 Ma. The granitoids show whole-rock εNd(t)=-8.2--8.8, zircon εHf(t)=-6―-39. The Huichizi I-type granitoids have emplacement ages of 421±27 Ma and 434±7 Ma es- tablished by LA-ICP-MS and SIMS methods, respectively. Their whole-rock εNd(t)=-0.9-0.9 and zircon εHf(t)=-11-8.4. Combined with statistical analyses of 28 zircon ages of granitoid plutons collected from the literature, Paleozoic magmatism in the north Qinling can be divided into three stages. The first-stage magmatism (~505-470 Ma) mainly occurred in the east part of the north Qinling and has features of an I-type arc, associated with which are S-type granitoids such as Piaochi pluton. The early granitoids (~505-490 Ma) have close spatio-temporal relations to ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks, and thus are interpreted as an oceanic subduction system along a continental margin. The second-stage magmatism (~450-422 Ma) occured through the whole north Qinling, and is characterized by I-type granitoids represented by the Huichizi pluton. The magma is interpreted as partial melting of lower crust mixed by mantle-derived magma in a collisional setting with the uplift of terranes. The third-stage magmatism (~415-400 Ma) is dominated by I-type granitoids and only took place in the middle part of the north Qinling, and is regarded as a late-stage collision. The spatial and temporal variations of the Qinling Paleozoic magmatism reveal protracted subduction/collision. The subduction was initiated from the east part of the north Qinling, earlier than that in the Qilian-northern Qaidam, Kunlun, and northern Dabie regions. This demonstrates variations in time of subduction, accretion and collision of separate blocks or terranes in the orogenic systems in central China.

  8. Sediment budgets by detrital geochronology and new perspectives in understanding orogenic erosion (solicited) (United States)

    Malusà, Marco Giovanni


    Low-temperature thermochronological data provide an estimate of the average exhumation rate from the partial retention zone to the surface. The timescale the rate is referred to largely depends on the distribution of thermochronological ages in the study area, which may be inadequate to constrain fast orogenic processes. New perspectives to investigate orogenic erosion and its linkage with climate and tectonics are provided by quantitative sediment budgets based on detrital geochronological analyses, which allows a much greater time resolution chiefly depending on available biostratigraphic constraints. Detrital samples derived from the mixing of geochronologically distinguishable detrital sources are expected to yield polymodal grain-age distributions that include different grain-age populations. The relative size between populations depends on (i) the relative size of the catchment areas, (ii) the mineral fertility of the parent bedrock, and (iii) the erosion rate in each catchment. If we know two of these factors, then we can calculate the third (Resentini & Malusà, 2012). A reliable approach to mineral fertility quantification thus represents a fundamental prerequisite for any sediment budget based on single-mineral data. In a temperate/cold climate where chemical weathering is minor, mineral fertility in the source rocks can be effectively determined by measuring the mineral concentration in the sediment they produce, provided that a range of potential sources of bias are properly accounted for and minimized (Malusà et al., 2013). Specifically, this approach requires that no significant modification has been induced by hydrodynamic processes in the natural environment (as tested by basic principles of hydraulic sorting), and that no bias is later introduced during mineral separation. Orogen-scale fertility maps are thus easily produced for different minerals thanks to the analysis of a reasonably low number of modern sand samples. Potentials and pitfalls of

  9. Late orogenic mafic magmatism in the North Cascades, Washington: Petrology and tectonic setting of the Skymo layered intrusion (United States)

    Whitney, D.L.; Tepper, J.H.; Hirschmann, M.M.; Hurlow, H.A.


    The Skymo Complex in the North Cascades, Washington, is a layered mafic intrusion within the Ross Lake fault zone, a major orogen-parallel structure at the eastern margin of the Cascades crystalline core. The complex is composed dominantly of troctolite and gabbro, both with inclusions of primitive olivine gabbro. Low-pressure minerals in the metasedimentary contact aureole and early crystallization of olivine + plagioclase in the mafic rocks indicate the intrusion was emplaced at shallow depths (magmatism. The Skymo mafic complex and the Golden Horn granite were emplaced during regional extension and collapse of the North Cascades orogen and represent the end of large-scale magmatism in the North Cascades continental arc. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  10. Relief distribution versus seismicity along the Sub-Himalayan belt, NW India: inferences for the seismic hazard of the region (United States)

    Singh, Tejpal; Awasthi, A. K.; Caputo, Riccardo


    The frontal Himalayan region, India, represents a classical example of relief developed in a compressional tectonic setting. The major relief development processes are mainly related to dip-slip reverse faulting along major thrusts and the consequent uplift of the hanging-wall block(s). The southernmost of these major fault planes, i.e. the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT), also marks the tectonic and topographic boundary between the Himalayan orogen and the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain representing its foredeep basin. The hanging-wall block of the HFT comprises the so-called Sub-Himalayan mountain belt characterized by low-relief hills variably dissected by the ongoing erosion. This major tectonic unit is in turn delimited to the north by the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). The relatively young age of the Sub-Himalayan hills provides an opportunity to investigate the thrust-related evolution of the relief, especially in the early stages of nucleation and propagation of a thrust as well as the relationships between large-scale topography and local seismicity. The new data presented in this paper mainly pertains to the first order topography of the uplifted hanging-wall block of the HFT. These data reveal a marked lateral variation along the strike of the Sub-Himalayan belt, in terms of both topographic features and mean topographic gradient. The main controlling factor seems to be the distance between the two major bounding thrust faults, i.e. the MBT and the HFT. In areas where thise distance is larger, the mean topographic gradient is generally lower, whereas it increases with decreasing distance between the two major thrusts. The relief distribution and associated topographic features characterizing the northwestern sector of the Sub-Himalayan belt also show a good correspondence with the peculiar macroseismic field of the M=8.4, 1905 Kangra earthquake, where the two distinct intensity maxima, separated by a distance of about 100 km, clearly overlap the two major

  11. Polyphase deformation of a Paleozoic metamorphosed subduction-accretionary complex in Beishan Orogen, southern Altaids (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao


    The Lebaquan Complex in central Beishan plays a significant role in understanding the subduction-accretion-collision processes of the Beishan orogenic collage, southern Altaids. This complex is a polyphase deformed upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies metamorphic rock assemblages composed of metasedimentary sequence, gneissic plutons, metacherts, amphibolites and marbles, with multiple generations of syn-tectonic leucogranite-pegmatite and post-tectonic mafic dykes. Lithologic and geochemical characteristics show the Lebaquan Complex is a forearc-arc complex. Four stages of deformation can be recognized for the Lebaquan Complex. The D1 deformation is defined by pervasively developed foliations (S1) defined by alternative metamorphic layering and intrafolia isoclinal folds of quartz veins (F1). The D2 deformation is indicated by crenulation cleavage (S2) mainly developed in the schists, extensively-developed tight to open folds and asymmetric folds (F2) and pinch and swell structures. The D3 deformation is characterized by high-strain ductile shearing, which modified earlier structures. Small-scale asymmetric folds, σ-type porphyroclasts and S-C fabrics indicate dextral sense of shearing in east-west direction. The D4 deformation is represented by ductile to brittle structures including open/gentle folds, kink folds and small scale thrust faults which overprint earlier deformations. The overall deformation of this complex indicates a geodynamic setting change from initial north-south directed strong compression to later east-west directed transpression and finally extension. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating was performed on key lithologies. Youngest age peak of detrital zircons from a garnet-mica-quartz schist is ~424 Ma, constraining the depositional age for the protolith of the metasedimentary sequence. A syn-deformation leucogranitic dyke that underwent D2 but did not experience D1 and a post-deformation mafic dyke that intrudes all the lithologies were

  12. Magnetic signatures of the orogenic crust of the Patagonian Andes with implication for planetary exploration (United States)

    Díaz Michelena, Marina; Kilian, Rolf


    The Patagonian Andes represent a good scenario of study because they have outcrops of diverse plutonic rocks representative of an orogenic crust on Earth and other planets. Furthermore, metamorphic surface rocks provide a window into deeper crustal lithologies. In such remote areas, satellite and aerial magnetic surveys could provide important geological information concerning exposed and not exposed rocks, but they integrate the magnetic anomalies in areas of kilometres. For the southernmost Andes long wavelength satellite data show clear positive magnetic anomalies (>+100 nT) for the Patagonian Batholith (PB), similar as parts of the older martian crust. This integrated signal covers regions with different ages and cooling histories during magnetic reversals apart from the variability of the rocks. To investigate the complex interplay of distinct magnetic signatures at short scale, we have analysed local magnetic anomalies across this orogen at representative sites by decimeter-scale magnetic ground surveys. As expected, the investigated sites have positive and negative local anomalies. They are related to surface and subsurface rocks, and their different formation and alternation processes including geomagnetic inversions, distinct Curie depths of the magnetic carriers, intracrustal deformation among other factors. Whole rock chemistry (ranging from 45 to >80 wt.% SiO2 and from 1 to 18 wt.% FeOtot.), magnetic characteristics (susceptibilities, magnetic remanence and Königsberger ratios) as well as the composition and texture of the magnetic carriers have been investigated for representative rocks. Rocks of an ultramafic to granodioritic intrusive suite of the western and central PB contain titanomagnetite as major magnetic carrier. Individual magnetic signatures of these plutonic rocks reflect their single versus multidomain status, complex exolution processes with ilmenite lamella formations and the stoichiometric proportions of Cr, Fe and Ti in the oxides. At

  13. The optimization of steelcord belt splices; Optimierung von Stahlseilgurtverbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, M. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Keller, M. [ContiTech Transportbandsysteme GmbH, Northeim (Germany)


    Belt-conveyors have proven themselves for the continuous bulk conveying under technical and economic points of view for a long time. For long belt conveyors and big mass flows, steelcord conveyor belts technologically represent the state of the art. In a steelcord belt splice, the tensile force between the spliced belt ends is transmitted almost completely by locally differing shear forces in the rubber of the elastomer composite construction. Under the dynamically swelling load, to which the belt is exposed in operation, the splices represent the weakest part of a conveyor belt. In experimental examinations of this paper it was found, that the characteristic behavior of the material of the elastomer and the constructive design influences distortion behavior under force of steelcord belt test samples. As most important parameter of the compound design, the filler proves itself as the strongest influence on the dynamic shear modulus, which characterizes the non linear dynamic stiffness of the elastomer. The filling degree and the filler composition influence the degree of non linearity of the dynamic shear modulus and its complex components. On the basis of the results of the experimental examinations, an approximation model of the non linear dynamic shear modulus was employed, with which it is possible, to characterize the non linear, amplitude dependent material behavior of the examined elastomer. In the scope of this paper, a program system was developed on basis of the finite element method, that allows the arithmetical simulation of the force flow in steelcord belt splices and in highly stressed areas of the splices. (orig.)

  14. Detection of Small Kuiper Belt Objects by Stellar Occultations


    Stevenson, R


    Knowledge of the Kuiper Belt is currently limited to those objects that can be detected directly. Objects with diameters less than $\\sim$10km reflect too little light to be detected. These smaller bodies could contain most of the mass in the Kuiper Belt while the abundance of these bodies may constrain the distribution of mass. The overall size distribution of bodies within the Kuiper Belt can also be inferred from the relative abundances of sub-km and larger bodies. Stellar occultations are ...

  15. Into the Kuiper Belt: New Horizons Post-Pluto (United States)

    Harrison Parker, Alex; Spencer, John; Benecchi, Susan; Binzel, Richard; Borncamp, David; Buie, Marc; Fuentes, Cesar; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, JJ; Noll, Keith; Petit, Jean-Marc; Porter, Simon; Showalter, Mark; Stern, S. Alan; Sterner, Ray; Tholen, David; Verbiscer, Anne; Weaver, Hal; Zangari, Amanda


    New Horizons is now beyond Pluto and flying deeper into the Kuiper Belt. In the summer of 2014, a Hubble Space Telescope Large Program identified two candidate Cold Classical Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that were within reach of New Horizons' remaining fuel budget. Here we present the selection of the Kuiper Belt flyby target for New Horizons' post-Pluto mission, our state of knowledge regarding this target and the potential 2019 flyby, the status of New Horizons' targeting maneuver, and prospects for near-future long-range observations of other KBOs.

  16. Fracture patterns in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt (Fars) : New constrains on early collisional tectonic history (United States)

    Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Mouthereau, Frederic


    E joint set (both pre-folding), suggesting a clockwise rotation of the compression. Such rotations can be explained by the fact that the compressional trend starts to rotate once significant shortening is accommodated around the transfer zone, before retrieving the regional (and current) 020°E trend. Fault slip data indicate an opposite rotation, the second step being post-folding, highlighting a three-step evolution. Above the basement thrusts, the chronology might be the opposite: 045°E followed by 020°E (both pre-folding). This might suggest that the first fractures are influenced by basement heterogeneities (trending effectively 135°E, i.e. perpendicular to the first joint set) that re-oriented the stress field. In such case, we can infer that the basement and cover were coupled. In a second step, with decoupling of the cover, the strike of local compression rotates to parallel the far-field shortening. In the median part, early joint strikes seem more systematically N-S to 020°E, which tends to suggest that the compression trend was here not disturbed by stress perturbations. It is noteworthy that, in this area, no significant oblique basement faults are reported. In conclusion, we suggest that the far-field direction of compression might have remained around 020°E during both the early stress build-up in the Arabian plate and the subsequent orogenic deformation of the Zagros belt. Deviations from this regional trend are likely due to stress perturbations around different structures often linked to pre-existing basement faults whose early reactivation likely predated cover folding. The alternative interpretation of these various stress trends as due to block rotations related to the right-lateral strike-slip fault zones is also discussed.

  17. Late Palaeozoic retreating and advancing subduction boundary in the New England Fold Belt, New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , coincident with an increase in the proportion and thickness of conglomeratic units in the Late Permian foreland deposits, is considered to represent the westward translation of the orogenic front and magmatic arc back toward the old Carboniferous continental margin, reflecting an advancing subduction boundary. Voluminous post-tectonic, high-K calc-alkaline plutonism in the New England Batholith indicates establishment of the main magmatic arc in the New England Fold Belt, during the latest Permian - Early Triassic. It completes the cycle of subduction boundary retreat and advancement in the Late Palaeozoic. Previous isotopic studies indicate that rhyolites from the Upper Carboniferous Currabubula Formation have initial 87Sr/86Sr (Sri) of 0.7039-0.7055, and the Lower Permian Warrigundi Volcanic Centre (Werrie Volcanics) has lower Sri of 0.703-0.704 (Flood et al. 1988). Basalts from the Alum Mountain Volcanics have even lower Sri of 0.703 (Nott 1991; Caprarelli and Leitch 1998). The data indicate a shift towards more depleted mantle values with time, which has important consequences for the tectonic model developed. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  18. Relict landscapes in active mountain belts: their age, interpretation and geodynamic significance (United States)

    van der Beek, Peter


    Planar topographic markers have been widely used to infer the topographic and erosional history of mountain belts. During the last two decades, attention has focused on high-elevation low-relief surfaces in orogenic belts, the interpretation of which has generated considerable controversy regarding their age, mechanism of formation and tectonic or climatic significance. I will review three case studies to illustrate these issues. In the Pyrenees, high-elevation, low-relief surfaces have been mapped throughout the mountain belt and were suggested to have developed at high elevations due to significant base-level rise as a result of backfilling of the southern foreland basin, which developed under endorheic conditions between Late Eocene and Late Miocene times. Isolation of these surface remnants has been suggested to result from a more erosive climate since the Pliocene. However, an alternative study suggests that such relict landscape elements are restricted to the Eastern Pyrenees, developed at low elevations during the Miocene and were subsequently tectonically uplifted. This second hypothesis appears to be comforted by a suite of thermochronological, stratigraphic and geophysical data from the Eastern Pyrenees. We have used a thermo-kinematic model integrating the existing thermochronometry data from the central Pyrenees to constrain the amount and timing of base-level change in that area and find that, while significant filling and re-excavation of the southern flank must have occurred, the timing of exhumation is Late Miocene rather than Pliocene-Quaternary and the relationship with hypothetical relict landscape elements in the high chain remains unclear. In the western European Alps, widespread high-elevation low-relief surfaces develop close to the interface between crystalline basement and sedimentary cover in the "external crystalline massifs" (e.g., Pelvoux-Ecrins, Belledonne, Aar). These surfaces clearly appear to be lithologically controlled and to have

  19. Syn- and post-orogenic exhumation of metamorphic rocks in North Aegean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lacassin


    Full Text Available The Olympos-Ossa-Pelion (OOP ranges, in NW Aegean, encompass Greece highest summit and are located near the extremity of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF. Structural and thermochronological data gathered in the OOP ranges show that the main exhumation of metamorphic nappes occurred in the Eocene, at ca. 43–39 Ma. This early exhumation, associated with ductile, then brittle-ductile normal faulting with northeastward transport, is coeval with orogenic shortening in the close area. Cooling rates, and likely exhumation, have been low between ~40 Ma and ~20 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar crystallization ages (between 20 and 15 Ma appears related to brittle-ductile normal faulting and likely associated with Neogene Aegean back-arc extension. The dating of a diabase dyke, and the geometry of associated brittle jointing, of onshore and offshore active normal faults suggest a shift in extension direction after 4Ma, possibly in relation with the propagation of the NAF in northern Aegean.

  20. New isotopic ages and the timing of orogenic events in the Cordillera Darwin, southernmost Chilean Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A well-constrained Rb-Sr isochron age of 157 +- 8 m.y. and an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7087 obtained from a pre-tectonic granitic suite suggest a genetic relation between this suite and Upper Jurassic silicic volcanic rocks in the cover sequence (Tobifera Formation), and also suggest involvement of continental crust in formation of these magmas. A poorly constrained Rb-Sr isochron age of 240 +- 40 m.y. obtained from supposed basement schists is consistent with field relations in the area which suggest a late Paleozoic/early Mesozoic metamorphism for these pre-Late Jurassic rocks. However, because of scatter in the data and the uncertainties involved in dating metasedimentary rocks, the significance of the isotopic age is dubious. Compilation of previously published ages in the area [9] with new mineral ages reported here indicate that early Andean orogenic events occurred between 100 and 84 m.y. ago, and that subduction-related magmatism has contributed, probably discontinuously, to the crustal evolution of the region throughout the Mesozoic. (orig.)

  1. Contrasting Metamorphic Record of Heat Production Anomalies in the Penokean Orogen of Northern Michigan. (United States)



    It is proposed that the contrasting metamorphic mineral assemblages of the isolated amphibolite facies metamorphic highs in the Penokean orogen of northern Michigan may be caused by different heat production rates in the Archean basement. This hypothesis is based on concentrations of K, U, and Th in the Archean basement gneisses and Paleoproterozoic metasediments that indicate significant contribution of radiogenic heating during Penokean metamorphism. Heat production was anomalously high ( approximately 10.6 µWm-3) where andalusite-bearing mineral assemblages indicate that high temperatures were attained at shallow crustal levels ( approximately 550 degrees -600 degrees C at approximately 3 kbar). In contrast, where exposed metamorphic rocks indicate peak temperatures of 600 degrees -650 degrees C at 6-7 kbar, heat production in the Archean basement was lower ( approximately 3.7 µWm-3). The effect of heat production rates on the metamorphic pressure-temperature paths was tested with numerical thermal models. The calculations show (1) that if the heat production rate, where andalusite-bearing assemblages formed, was significantly sillimanite or kyanite stability fields; and (2) differences between PTmax estimates for the metamorphic highs based on thermobarometry can be reproduced if thermal history involved significant crustal thickening as well as moderate unroofing rates. PMID:10769161

  2. A tear fault boundary between the Taiwan orogen and the Ryukyu subduction zone (United States)

    Lallemand, Serge E.; Liu, Char-Shine; Font, Yvonne


    More than twenty seismic lines were analysed across the intersection of the Taiwan orogen and the Ryukyu arc-forearc system. The main results of this study concern the recognition of two superposed sedimentary basins that were previously unknown. We have named the recent one the Hoping Basin and the older, tectonized one the Suao Basin. The Suao Basin, containing sediments more than 3 km thick, records subsidence of about 3 km on its southwestern portion after being shortened in the direction of plate convergence. On the basis of seismicity, gravity, present-day plate kinematics as well as seismic reflection data, we relate the dramatic subsidence of the Suao Basin to the initiation of a WNW-trending tear fault within the Philippine Sea plate. This tear fault decouples the subducting Philippine Sea plate to the northeast and the apparent overthrusting Philippine Sea plate in the Coastal Range to the southwest. Back-arc rifting may thus occur in the westernmost section of the Okinawa trough above the sinking Philippine Sea slab while lithospheric shortening prevails south of Hualien. As a consequence, the triangular area located southwest of the tear fault, between the Taiwan coastline and the toe of the Yaeyama ridge, no longer belongs to the Ryukyu forearc. It is now passively transported with the non-subducting portion of the Philippine Sea plate. We propose an evolutionary model for the relative chronology of tectono-sedimentary events in this region over the last 5 m.y.

  3. Geological and geochemical implications of the genesis of the Qolqoleh orogenic gold mineralisation, Kurdistan Province (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Batoul


    Full Text Available The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ, within the NE-SW trending Qolqoleh shear zone. Oligocene granitoids, Cretaceous meta-limestones, schists and metavolcanics are the main lithological units. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns of the ore-hosting metavolcanics indicate REE enrichment relative to hanging wall (chlorite-sericite schist and footwall (meta-limestone rocks. The pattern also reflects an enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. It seems that the LREE enrichment is related to the circulation of SO42- and CO2-bearing fluids and regional metamorphism in the Qolqoleh shear zone. Both positive and negative Eu anomalies are observed in shear-zone metavolcanics. These anomalies are related to the degree of plagioclase alteration during gold mineralisation and hydrothermal alteration. In progressing from a metavolcanic protomylonite to an ultramylonite, significant changes occurred in the major/trace element and REE concentration. Utilising an Al-Fe-Ti isocon for the ore-hosting metavolcanics shows that Sc, Y, K, U, P, and M-HREE (except Eu are relatively unchanged; S, As, Ag, Au, Ca, LOI, Rb and LREE are enriched, and Sr, Ba, Eu, Cr, Co and Ni decrease with an increasing degree of deformation. Based on geochemical features and comparison with other well-known shear zones in the world, the study area is best classified as an Isovolume-Gain (IVG type shear zone and orogenic type gold mineralisation.

  4. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite from the Sulu orogen in China. (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Kusky, Timothy M; Polat, Ali; Wang, Songjie; Jiang, Xingfu; Zong, Keqing; Wang, Junpeng; Deng, Hao; Fu, Jianmin


    We report partial melting of an ultrahigh pressure eclogite in the Mesozoic Sulu orogen, China. Eclogitic migmatite shows successive stages of initial intragranular and grain boundary melt droplets, which grow into a three-dimensional interconnected intergranular network, then segregate and accumulate in pressure shadow areas and then merge to form melt channels and dikes that transport magma to higher in the lithosphere. Here we show, using zircon U-Pb dating and petrological analyses, that partial melting occurred at 228-219 Myr ago, shortly after peak metamorphism at 230 Myr ago. The melts and residues are complimentarily enriched and depleted in light rare earth element (LREE) compared with the original rock. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite is an important process in determining the rheological structure and mechanical behaviour of subducted lithosphere and its rapid exhumation, controlling the flow of deep lithospheric material, and for generation of melts from the upper mantle, potentially contributing to arc magmatism and growth of continental crust. PMID:25517619

  5. Finding of Neoproterozoic low-18O igneous rocks in the northern margin of the Dabie orogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongfei; WU Yuanbao; ZHAO Zifu; GONG Bing


    @@ It has been one of the most intriguing questions in the earth sciences whether the snowball Earth event is genetically associated with mantle superwelling, supercontinent assemblage and breakup, and rift magmatism during the Neoproterozoic[1-4]. In order to demonstrate the occurrence of significant interaction in energy and matter between the earth's interior and exterior in this period, it is critical to find coeval igneous rocks that contain the signature of surface water and thus form low-18O magma.Several investigations of U-Pb dating and O isotope analysis were carried out for zircons from ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogen,east-central China[5-8]. The results indicate that low δ18O zircons have U-Pb ages of 700-800 Ma as dated by either TIMS discordia upper-intercept or SIMS in-situ magmatic core, and the origin of low δ18O water is related to cold paleoclimate during the Sturtian ice age.

  6. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite from the Sulu orogen in China (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Kusky, Timothy M.; Polat, Ali; Wang, Songjie; Jiang, Xingfu; Zong, Keqing; Wang, Junpeng; Deng, Hao; Fu, Jianmin


    We report partial melting of an ultrahigh pressure eclogite in the Mesozoic Sulu orogen, China. Eclogitic migmatite shows successive stages of initial intragranular and grain boundary melt droplets, which grow into a three-dimensional interconnected intergranular network, then segregate and accumulate in pressure shadow areas and then merge to form melt channels and dikes that transport magma to higher in the lithosphere. Here we show, using zircon U–Pb dating and petrological analyses, that partial melting occurred at 228–219 Myr ago, shortly after peak metamorphism at 230 Myr ago. The melts and residues are complimentarily enriched and depleted in light rare earth element (LREE) compared with the original rock. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite is an important process in determining the rheological structure and mechanical behaviour of subducted lithosphere and its rapid exhumation, controlling the flow of deep lithospheric material, and for generation of melts from the upper mantle, potentially contributing to arc magmatism and growth of continental crust. PMID:25517619

  7. Tip to midpoint observations on syntectonic veins, Ouachita orogen, Arkansas: Trading space for time (United States)

    Cervantes, Pablo; Wiltschko, David V.


    By examining a vein from its tip to center, we have established the transition from a single filled fracture at the vein tip to typical 'crack-seal' textures observed in fibered, laminated veins. The vein is contained in the boudin neck of a sandstone layer within the Lower Ordovician Mazarn Formation, Benton Uplift, Ouachita orogen. The tip of the vein is composed of one or more isolated veinlets, defined as quartz-filled narrow (5-25 μm) fractures parallel to the larger vein's long dimension. Scanned SEM-based cathodoluminescence shows that quartz laminae of the same orientation and thickness are found throughout the vein. Wall-normal fibers first appear in the vein where detrital grains are cut by multiple veinlets, each veinlet mimicking the crystallographic orientation of the detrital grain, whereas later veinlets reflect the established crystallographic orientation of the fiber. Fibers throughout the vein retain evidence of having been formed by repeated fracturing and filling of a pre-existing grain (at the vein walls) or fiber. However, recrystallization later modified the fibers by obliterating some evidence of the veinlets and moving fiber walls. Boudin formation provided the extension site that localized fracturing and vein filling. The vein grows by the repeated addition of veinlets in the neck region. Recrystallization altered the shape of previously formed fibers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ


    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  9. Geochronologic studies in the Grants mineral belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic observation coupled with radiometric age dating can be used to assess ages of ore formation and, in some cases, ages of sedimentation in the Grants mineral belt. Rb-Sr studies indicate the earliest mineralization is trend ore at Ambrosia Lake and Smith Lake, dated at 139 +- 9.5 m.y. This date is similar to that for barren-rock montmorillonite from the Jackpile sandstone (Late Jurassic): 142 +- 14 m.y.; it may be used, with caution, to indicate the minimum age of sedimentation for the Morrison Formation. Geologic evidence indicates epigenetic rather than syngenetic ore formation. Barren-rock montmorillonites from Ambrosia Lake yield a poorly defined isochron of 132 +- 26 m.y. Early formed ore at the Jackpile-Paguate mine, Laguna district, was remobilized and reprecipitated at 113 +- 7 m.y. This date is older than the range of dates for the Dakota Formation (Cretaceous) and Mancos Shale. The 113 +- 7 m.y. mid-Cretaceous date for the Jackpile-Paguate ore is consistent with geologic evidence; geologic control suggests that other ore deposits are post-Late Jurassic but pre-Dakota Formation. Based on geologic evidence, mineralization in the Dakota Formation is thought to be very young. Laramide mineralization (60 to 70 m.y.) is evidenced by the presence of some stack ore. At least one uranium deposit, located partly in oxidized ground at the main redox front of the Grants mineral belt, may represent Tertiary mineralization; the clay-mineral Rb-Sr systematics of this deposit have been severely perturbed. Younger mineralization is indicated by U-Pb dates on uranophane (9 to 10 m.y.), and Pleistocene mineralization is noted for some ore. U-Pb dates of U4+ -rich ore minerals cluster between 80 and 100 m.y., although some are as old as 140 to 150 m.y. K-Ar dates on clay minerals range from 49 to 138 m.y. The reasons for this scatter are not known, although loss of radiogenic 40Ar due to burial is probable

  10. Tectonic insight based on anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and compaction studies in the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt (southwest Gondwana boundary, Argentina) (United States)

    Arzadún, Guadalupe; Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Cesaretti, Nora N.


    The Sierras Australes fold and thrust belt (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) was in the southwestern Gondwanaland margin during the Paleozoic. The Tunas Formation (Permian) is exposed along the eastern part of it and continues eastward beneath the Claromecó Basin. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and compaction studies are described and compared with previous paleomagnetic studies with the aim of determining direction and magnitude of the main stresses acting during the sedimentation of the Tunas Formation. The anisotropy ellipsoids are triaxial with oblate or prolate shapes, reflecting different stages of layer parallel shortening during the evolution of the basin. Kmax axes trend NW-SE, parallel to the fold axes, while Kmin move from a horizontal (base) to a vertical orientation at the top of the succession, showing a change from a tectonic to almost a sedimentary fabric. The magnitude of anisotropy and compaction degree decreases toward the top of the succession. The AMS results are consistent with the outcrop structural observations and the compaction and paleomagnetic data. Regional pattern indicates a compression from the SW along this part of Gondwana, with a migration of the orogenic front and attenuation toward the NE in the foreland basin during the Upper Paleozoic. This deformation, locally assigned to the San Rafael noncollisional orogenic phase, is the result of the latitudinal movements toward the Equator of Gondwana (southern plates) and Laurentia (northern plates) during the Permian. This movement is the result of a rearrangement of the microplates that collided with Gondwana during the Late Devonian, to configure Pangea during the Triassic.

  11. Technology of Rainwater Utilization in Expressway Interchange Area in Arid Regions:A Case Study of Karamay-Tacheng Expressway and Urho-Altay Expressway%干旱区公路互通区雨水利用技术研究--以克拉玛依-塔城和乌尔禾-阿勒泰高速公路为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹广华; 任伟; 李元; 张峻峰


    选取新疆地区克拉玛依-塔城和乌尔禾-阿勒泰两条高速公路部分互通区为试验区,根据干旱区公路沿线降水量小、蒸发量大的特点,设计出互通区雨水收集边沟和雨水集流工程措施,配置乡土植物物种,探索适合干旱区高速公路互通区雨水利用的新思路、新方案。%Taking the interchange area of Karamay-Tacheng Expressway and Urho-Altay Expressway in Xinjiang as test area, according to the characteristics of highway in arid region such as little precipitation and high evaporation, the rainwater connection gutter and rainwater catchment measures in interchange ar-eas are designed, the indigenous plant are configured, in order to explore a new idea and scheme of rain-water utilization in interchange area of expressway in arid region.

  12. Low-temperature thermochronology of the northern Thomson Orogen: Implications for exhumation of basement rocks in NE Australia (United States)

    Verdel, Charles; Stockli, Daniel; Purdy, David


    The Tasmanides of eastern Australia record much of the Phanerozoic tectonic development of the retreating Pacific-Australia plate boundary and are an oft-cited example of an orogen that has undergone "tectonic mode switching." To begin to constrain the timing of exhumation of basement rocks that are now exposed in portions of the NE Tasmanides, we measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 180 Ma (Early Jurassic) to 375 Ma (Late Devonian). (U-Th)/He zircon ages from several individual samples are negatively correlated with effective uranium (eU), a pattern that is also true of the dataset as a whole, suggesting that variations in U and Th zoning and radiation damage are partially responsible for the age variability. The oldest zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages coincide with the formation of regionally extensive Late Devonian-early Carboniferous back-arc basins, suggesting that Late Devonian extension played a significant role in exhumation of parts of the northern Thomson Orogen. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages from a basement sample and a late Permian sandstone in the overlying Bowen Basin, which are also marked by intra-sample variability and age-eU correlations, span from the Early Cretaceous through Oligocene, in general agreement with previous apatite fission track data. In conjunction with observations of key geologic relationships and prior K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar data, our results suggest four overall phases in the thermal history of the northern Thomson Orogen: (1) Cambrian-early Silurian metamorphism during the Delamerian and Benambran Orogenies; (2) protracted cooling during the Late Devonian through mid-Permian that likely resulted from extensional

  13. Microstructural analysis of the Greater Himalayan Sequence, Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal: Channel Flow and Orogen-parallel deformation. (United States)

    Parsons, A. J.; Phillips, R. J.; Lloyd, G. E.; Searle, M. P.; Law, R. D.


    Knowledge of deformation processes that occur in the lithosphere during orogenesis can be gained from microstructural analysis of exhumed terranes and shear zones. Here, we use Crystallographic Preferred Orientation (CPO) and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) data to reveal the kinematic evolution of the metamorphic core of the Himalayan orogen, the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS). The Himalayan orogen is commonly explained with models of channel flow, which describe the GHS as a partially molten, rheologically weak mid crustal channel. Extrusion of the channel was facilitated by coeval reverse- and normal-sense shear zones, at the lower and upper channel margins respectively. Whilst many thermobarometric studies support the occurrence of channel flow, the spatial and temporal distribution of strain within the GHS is one aspect of the model that is yet to be fully resolved. We present a quantified strain proxy profile for the GHS in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region of central Nepal and compare our results with the kinematic predictions of the channel flow model. Samples were collected along a NS transect through the Kali Gandaki valley of central Nepal for CPO and AMS analysis. Variations in CPO strength are used as a proxy for relative strain magnitude, whilst AMS data provide a proxy for strain ellipsoid shape. Combining this information with field and microstructural observations and thermobarometric constraints reveals the kinematic evolution of the GHS in this region. Low volumes of leucogranite and sillimanite bearing rocks and evidence of reverse-sense overprinting normal-sense shearing at the top of the GHS suggest that channel flow was not as intense as model predictions. Additionally, observed EW mineral lineations and oblate strain ellipsoid proxies in the Upper GHS, indicative of three dimensional flattening and orogen parallel stretching, cannot be explained by current channel flow models. Whilst the results do not refute the occurrence of

  14. Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags (United States)

    ... page: Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags Using ... 11 percent) suffered facial fractures -- nasal and mid-face fractures most often. Those most likely to suffer ...

  15. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Laysan 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the...

  16. Back belts in occupational setting: what are the evidences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Bernardes


    Full Text Available Although, widely used the mechanisms of action and the effectiveness of back belts in the prevention of occupational low back disorders remains uncertain, generating controversy about its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to do a critical literature review about back belts use in the prevention of occupational low back pain in the occupational setting. In order to do that, a bibliographic research in the following data basis: Medline, SciELO and LILACS was conducted. There is evidence that back belts use reduces spine range of motion, however the studies about intra-abdominal pressure and muscle activity presented contradictory results, as the epidemiologic studies, not allowing the recommendation of its use in the prevention of occupational low back pain. Based on this literature review it is suggested therefore, the implementation of new studies, to confirm or not the effectiveness of back belts as personal protective equipment, in the prevention of occupational low back disorders.

  17. A Physical Model of Electron Radiation Belts of Saturn (United States)

    Lorenzato, L.; Sicard-Piet, A.; Bourdarie, S.


    Enrolling on the Cassini age, a physical Salammbô model for the radiation belts of Saturn have been developed including several physical processes governing the kronian magnetosphere. Results have been compared with Cassini MIMI LEMMS data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz


    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  19. Promoting automobile safety belt use by young children.


    Sowers-Hoag, K M; Thyer, B A; Bailey, J S


    A program using behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was developed to establish and maintain automobile safety belt use by young children. Sixteen children (ages 4.8 to 7 years) who never used their safety belts during a 5-day preexperimental observation period were randomly assigned to two groups of eight each. A multiple baseline design across groups was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program. During the 8-day baseline period ...

  20. Back belts in occupational setting: what are the evidences?


    João Marcos Bernardes; Antonio Renato Pereira Moro


    Although, widely used the mechanisms of action and the effectiveness of back belts in the prevention of occupational low back disorders remains uncertain, generating controversy about its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to do a critical literature review about back belts use in the prevention of occupational low back pain in the occupational setting. In order to do that, a bibliographic research in the following data basis: Medline, SciELO and LILACS was conducted. There is evid...

  1. Tribological Properties of Metal V-Belt Type CVT Lubricant


    Keiichi Narita


    The priority for lubricant performance for metal V-belt-type CVT (B-CVTFs) should be the improvement of transmittable torque capacity between the belt and pulley plus excellent antishudder properties for lockup clutch used in B-CVTs. This study intends to investigate the effect of lubricant additives for improving these performances of B-CVTs. In addition, surface analysis techniques were utilized to gain a novel insight into the chemical composites and morphology of the tribofilms. As a resu...

  2. Design of MGA trajectories for main belt asteroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔祜涛; 乔栋; 崔平远; 栾恩杰


    Asteroid exploration is one of the most sophisticated missions currently being investigated. Gravityassist trajectories have proven valuable in interplanetary missions such as the Pioneer, Voyager and Galileo. In this paper, we design interplanetary trajectory for main belt asteroid exploration mission with the Mars gravityassist (MGA) using "pork chop" plots and patched-conic theory and give some initial valuable trajectory parameters on main belt asteroid exploration mission with MGA.

  3. Late-Cainozoic climate change, erosion, and relief of mountain belts: 20 years of chickens and eggs (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture) (United States)

    van der Beek, Peter


    , suggests locally decreasing erosion rates during that time, while detrital thermochronology from the basins surrounding the Alps suggests little change in erosion rates on the orogen scale. Thus, the imprint of Pliocene climatic variations on mountain-belt erosion and tectonic development may have been overstated and the sediment-flux data that suggested a strong link may require re-examination. In contrast, the new data imply a significant increase in relief through focussed valley incision since mid-Pleistocene times (~1 Ma), which can be related to efficient but highly localised glacial erosion, due to extensive glaciation of the Alps triggered by the mid-Pleistocene climate transition. The isostatic response to a significant increase in Alpine relief due to glacial valley carving may explain part of the surprisingly high geodetic uplift rates measured in the western Alps and may also contribute to the current extensional deformation regime observed within the core of the mountain belt. Thus, it appears that this recent climatic change had a significant impact on mountain belts by enabling more focussed and efficient glacial erosion of topography. Confirmation of this hypothesis awaits more detailed analyses of the recent erosion, relief and tectonic history of glaciated mountain belts worldwide.

  4. New assemly model of Jiangnan Orogen: insight from detrital zircon geochronology of pre-Cretaceous strata, South China (United States)

    Su, J.; Dong, S.


    The Jiangnan Orogen separates the Yangtze and Cathaysian Blocks in South China and provokes a longstanding debate on the amalgamation history between the two Blocks. The assembly of the two Blocks is termed Sibao orogeny marked by undeformed Late Neoproterozoic strata (Banxi Group) overlying on the deformed Early Neoproterozoic strata (Lengjiaxi Group) in China. Detrital zircons can provide critical links in recognizing the source history of a deposit, sedimentary dispersal systems and tectonic reconstructions. Therefore, fifteen sandstone samples taken from pre-Cretaceous strata of Yangtze Block are analyzed to constrain the evolution of the South China Block (SCB), especially the assembly between Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks. The results show that the detrital zircons from the Neoproterozoic Lengjiaxi Group (ca. 830 Ma) near the boundary of large detachment fault of Hengshan have similar age populations with that in the other sites of the Jiangnan Orogen, different from that of the Kunyang and Dahongshan Groups (>960 Ma) in the southwestern margin of the Yangtze Block. The detrital zircons from Paleozoic samples have similar age populations with that in the Cathaysia Block. We infer that they originate from the Cathaysia Block, together with paleogeography, paleocurrent and former research. The detrital zircons of middle-late Jurassic sandstones in southwestern and central Yangtze yield dominant populations at 2.0-1.7 Ga and subordinate Groups of 2.6-2.4Ga, 0.7-0.8Ga and 0.6-0.4Ga. The provenance of late Triassic strata may be derived from southern Yangtze and North China Block due to the collisions among the Indosina, South China and North China Blocks, whereas the Jurassic sediments may be partly derived from uplift erosion of Jiangnan Orogen due to intra-continental orogeny induced by pacific subduction towards Eurasia Plate. The tectothermal event occurred at ca. 1.1-0.8 Ga has long been attributed to the assembly or breakup of Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks

  5. Linking orogen and peripheral foreland basin: conceptual model and application to the Southalpine-Dinaric (Friuli) orocline (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz


    Surface uplift and rock exhumation within an orogen are generally a consequence of convergence, and can often be linked with subsidence in a peripheral foreland. Since vertical loads act on the entire lithosphere, these processes can, therefore, be considered as plate-scale processes. Here, we propose a conceptual model for this linkage for the Friuli orocline and its surrounding units. The Friuli orocline stretches from the ENE-trending Southern Alps to the SE-trending Dinarides. There, two Neogene stages of convergence and associated deformation can be differentiated: (1) a Mid-Late Miocene phase of increased surface uplift and intra-orogenic subsidence of sedimentary basins reflecting intra-orogenic crustal-scale folding. Depocentres are e.g. the flexural Belluno, Ljubljana and Klagenfurt basins. (2) A second stage of convergence during Late Pliocene-Pleistocene times led to overall surface uplift in the orogen and contemporaneous pronounced subsidence in the peripheral foreland basin (Venetian platform and the northern Adriatic Sea). We propose, that the spatially variable extent of subsidence originates in variably strong orogen-basin coupling, i.e. weak coupling during stage 1 vs. strong coupling during stage 2. This interpretation is based on the apatite fission track age pattern, the distribution of intra-orogenic Neogene sediment basins and subsidence analyses in the foreland basin (Barbieri et al., 2007). Available low-temperature thermochronological data for the Southern Alps and the NW Dinarides are sparse, in contrast to a dense network of primarily apatite fission track ages north of the Periadriatic lineament (e.g. summarized by Luth & Willingshofer, 2008). AFT ages adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic Lineament mainly range from 15 to 25 Ma (Hejl, 1997; Fodor et al., 2008). Detrital studies on Oligocene to Miocene sediments from the Venetian foreland basin yielded dominant age groups clustering roughly around 20 and 30 Ma (Stefani et al., 2008

  6. Occultation Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, A R; Cooray, Asantha; Farmer, Alison J.


    The occultation of background stellar sources by foreground Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) can be used to survey physical properties of the KBO population. We discuss statistics related to a KBO occultation survey, such as the event duration distribution, and suggest that occultation searches can be effectively used to probe the KBO size distribution below 10 km. In particular, we suggest that occultation surveys may be best suited to search for a turnover radius in the KBO size distribution due to collisions between small-size objects. For occultation surveys that monitor stellar sources near the ecliptic over a few square degrees, with time sampling intervals of order 0.1 sec and sensitivity to flux variations of a few percent or more, a turnover radius between 0.1 and 1.0 km can be probed. While occultation surveys will probe the low-radius limit and imaging surveys will detect KBOs of size 100 km or more, statistics of objects with sizes in the intermediate range of around 1 km to 100 km will likely remain un...

  7. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids (United States)

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori


    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  8. Radiation belts study in RESONANCE project (United States)

    Mogilevsky, Mikhail; Demekhov, Andrei; Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Shklyar, David

    The Earth’s inner magnetosphere is an important part of space weather framework. Outer radiation belt is a home for numerous communication and navigation satellites. But besides this practical problem, this region is a theoretical nugget. Hot magnetospheric, cold plas¬mospheric, and, in contrast, high energy plasma coexist here. Such non-equilibrium state of plasma is glued by various plasma oscillations actively interacting with particles and resulting, in particular, in spatial and velocity diffusion. Diffusion influences acceleration and precipitation of particles and defines their life¬time in the Earth’s magnetosphere. The project RESONANCE is aimed to study the whole complex of these issues, both practical (space weather), and fundamental (nonlinear plasma dynamics). The project RESONANCE is a part of the Russian Federal State Program. Lavochkin Association is responsi¬ble for preparation and testing of the satellites. Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a leading scientific organization. Besides Russian scientists, specialists from Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Re¬public, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA take part.

  9. Late Proterozoic Colisional Orogen and Geosuture in Southeastern China:Petrological Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新民; 朱云鹤


    The Jiangshan-Shaoxing fracture belt(JSFB)is a Late Proterozoic geosuture due to island arc-continent collision in South China,The Cathaysian Block(CT),lying on the southeast side of JSFB,is composed of green schist-amphibolite complexes in the form of a series of tectonic flakes. On the northwest side of JSFB,which is located in the border area of Zheijiang,Jiangxi and Ahhhi provinces(abbreviated as ZJP-JXP-AHP),are distrbuted and ophiolite suite and other rocks,constituting the Jiangnan ancient island arc(JN)on the southeast margin of the Yangtze Block(YZ).The collision between JN and CT at-0.9Ga ago led to the folding of JN.followed by the intrusion(-0.9-0.8Ga ago)of many dioritic and ultramafic stitching plutons along the fracture belt.As a result,the basic Precambrian tectonic framework of southeastern China was shaped.

  10. The nature and location of the suture zone in the Rokelide orogen, Sierra Leone: Geochemical evidence (United States)

    Lytwyn, Jennifer; Burke, Kevin; Culver, Stephen


    The boundaries of the West African Craton mark the location of a continuous suture zone that records Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian oceanic closure. The western part of the circum-West African suture zone extends through the line of outcrop of the Mauritanide, Bassaride and Rokelide mountain belts. Our geochemical analyses are consistent with the idea that igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Rokelide and Southern Mauritanide mountain belts of West Africa occupy a suture zone that records the closing of a Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian ocean basin during the Pan-African orogeny and final assembly of Gondwana. The closing of that basin was marked by the collision between Archean rocks of the Leo massif of the West African Craton and reactivated Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks that now outcrop nearer to the coast of Africa in Sierra Leone and Liberia. Within the Rokelides, the geochemistry of the Kasewe Hills volcanic rocks and Marampa amphibolite indicate that remnants of an arc system are caught up in the suture zone. The geochemistry of Guingan schists that outcrop along strike of the Rokelides is compatible with the idea that the metamorphosed equivalents of the Marampa and Kasewe Hills arc volcanic rocks extend through the Bassarides and into the Southern Mauritanides.

  11. Scheelite distribution a long of amphibolitic belt from greenstone belt Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the middle southern portion of the Minas Gerais state a 60 Km long and 12 Km wide tungsten belt was discovered, and related to the amphibolitic rocks of the Barbacena Greenstone. Tungsten, present as scheelite, is associated with amphibolites, amphibole schists and amphibole gneisses, with chemical characteristics indicating an igneous origin. Chemical analyses on pan concentrates by I.C.P. showed high values on lead, tin, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium and zirconium, and average values for zinc and copper. The scheelite mineralization is probably strata bound and has a possible submarine exhalative origin. (author)

  12. Pre-1.91 Ga deformation and metamorphism in the Palaeoproterozoic Vammala Migmatite Belt, southern Finland, and implications for Svecofennian tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Roye Rutland


    Full Text Available A metamorphic event in the Vammala Migmatite Belt (VMB at ~1.92 Ga, revealed by SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of both zircon overgrowths and monazite, is interpreted as post-depositional and is correlated with the development of the early high-grade schistosity. Neither this Early Svecofennian deformation and metamorphism, nor the associatedcomplex folding, is present in the overlying Tampere Schist Belt (TSB sequence, consistent with the VMB being part of a pre-1.91 Ga basement complex. The ~1.92 Ga event provides a maximum deposition age for the TSB, confirming earlier age estimates. Earlier stratigraphic correlations between parts of the VMB and TSB, and associated tectonic interpretations, can no longer be sustained. The crustal thickening seen in the VMB, and previously attributed to arc accretion at ~1.89 Ga, is now attributed to accretion of a large Svionian marginal basin during the ‘Early Svecofennian’ orogenicphase at ~1.92 Ga. This is of similar age to the deformation and metamorphism associated with collision in the Lapland-Kola Orogen to the north of the Karelian Province. The well-known post-TSB orogenic phase was also identified in the VMB by a monazite age of 1881±6 Ma. A granitoid intrusion gave an emplacement age of 1888±5 Ma,comparable to the age of granitoid clasts in the upper part of the TSB succession. The detrital zircon data are interpreted to suggest that deposition of the precursor VMB sediments probably took place soon after an earlier pre-depositional metamorphism at ~1.98 Ga, which affected igneous source complexes dated at ~1.99 Ga and ~2.01 Ga. Mafic rocks in the southern part of the VMB, and probably also the Haveri basalts, represent a renewed episode of extensional magmatism, which might correlate with the 1.96–1.95 Ga Jormua and Outokumpu ophiolites. A pre-1.96 Ga older stage basin has an expression in Sweden and complexes of similar age occur in theconcealed Palaeoproterozoic basement south of the Gulf of

  13. On-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma-ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal without the need for sample by-lines. Such an analysis system could deliver the combined advantages of a direct on-conveyor configuration with new and accurate analysis techniques. An industry survey of 18 coal companies carried out in early 1996 indicated that accurate on-belt ash analysis is of the highest priority. Subsequent laboratory work has focussed on the investigation of methods with the potential for improving the accuracy of ash content measurement relative to existing on-belt ash analysers, the most widely-used of which are based on dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET), which is sensitive to variations in ash composition. The current work indicates that on-belt neutron/gamma-ray techniques combined with advanced spectral analysis techniques show promise for development into an on-belt ash analysis system which is significantly less sensitive to composition changes than DUET and which analyses a much larger proportion of coal on the belt, thus eliminating some key sources of analysis error

  14. Forming the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt in a light Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, Andrew; Lithwick, Yoram


    Large Kuiper Belt Objects are conventionally thought to have formed out of a massive planetesimal belt that is a few thousand times its current mass. Such a picture, however, is incompatible with multiple lines of evidence. Here, we present a new model for the conglomeration of Cold Classical Kuiper belt objects, out of a solid belt only a few times its current mass, or a few percent of the solid density in a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. This is made possible by depositing most of the primordial mass in grains of size centimetre or smaller. These grains collide frequently and maintain a dynamically cold belt out of which large bodies grow efficiently: an order-unity fraction of the solid mass can be converted into large bodies, in contrast to the ~0.1% efficiency in conventional models. Such a light belt may represent the true outer edge of the Solar system, and it may have effectively halted the outward migration of Neptune. In addition to the high efficiency, our model can also produce a mass spectrum that pe...

  15. Geochemical Characteristics and Metallogenesis of Volcanic Rocks as Exemplified by Volcanic Rocks in Ertix,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁庚; 叶霖


    Volcanic rocks in Ertix,Xinjiang,occurring in the collision zone between the Siberia Plate and the Junggar Plate,are distributed along the Eritix River Valley in northern Xinjiang.The volcanic rocks were dated at Late Paleozoic and can be divided into the spilite-keratophyre series and the basalt-andesite series.The spilite-keratophyre series volcanic rocks occur in the Altay orogenic belt at the southwest margin of the Siberia Plate.In addition to sodic volcanic rocks.There are also associated potassic-sodic volcanic rocks and potassic volcanic rocks.The potassic-sodic volcanic rocks occur at the bottom of the eruption cycle and control the distribution of Pb and Zn deposits.The potassic volcanic rocks occur at the top of the eruption cycle and are associated with Au and Cu mineralizations.The sodic volcanic rocks occur in the middle stage of eruption cycle and control the occurrence of Cu(Zn) deposits.The basalt-andesite series volcanic rocks distributed in the North Junggar orogenic belt at the north margin of the Junggar-Kazakstan Plate belong to the potassic sodic volcain rocks.The volcanic rocks distributed along the Ulungur fault are relatively rich in sodium and poor in potassium and are predominated by Cu mineralization and associated with Au mineralization.Those volcanic rocks distributed along the Ertix fault are relatively rich in K and poor in Na,with Au mineralization being dominant.

  16. Patterns of glaciation and topographic hypsometry across semi-arid western Himalayan-Tibetan orogen (Invited) (United States)

    Dortch, J.; Hughes, P.; Owen, L. A.; Murari, M. K.; Caffee, M. W.


    It has been hypothesized that the reduction of mountain glacier extent throughout late Quaternary glacial cycles may reflect adjustment of topographic hypsometry and lowering of accumulation area via glacial erosion. The Himalayan-Tibetan orogen represents a good test case due to high relief, fast rates of erosion, and recently developed regional glacial chronologies. In particular, analysis of all terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide ages of moraines in the drylands of the western Himalayan-Tibetan orogen show 16 regional glacial stages extending back >300 ka; stages older than the global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM) broadly correlate with strong monsoons, while younger stages correlate with northern hemisphere climatic events. These patterns suggest that frequent glacial advances are driven by mid-latitude westerlies within each glacial cycle, but that each cycle is punctuated by more extensive advances driven by the monsoon. This raises the question of which style of glaciation has the greatest effect on the shaping and incision of topography: frequent, less-extensive variations in glaciation, or infrequent more-extensive advances (the latter being akin to punctuated equilibrium)? To investigate this question, changes in glacier position based on moraines and climatic proxies are used to model changes in equilibrium line altitude (ELA), which is then compared to topographic hypsometry in catchments were the glacial buzzsaw hypothesis has been previously invoked. The loss in resolution due to the decrease in moraine preservation through time must be accounted for. Thus, the MIS curve and monsoon index are combined to fit to the regional chronology with the view that ages represents the minimum age of deglaciation. A best fit curve is used as a proxy for glacial extent to estimate higher-frequency fluctuations for the pre-gLGM portion of the regional chronology. ELAs are then calculated for selected glaciers at various extents to enable the determination of the average

  17. Arsenic mobility in mildly alkaline drainage from an orogenic lode gold deposit, Bralorne mine, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • As concentrations in flooded anoxic mine workings in range of 6000 μg/L. • Sorbed As released in workings by reductive dissolution of accumulated HFO. • As concentrations in portal effluent in range of 3000 μg/L. • Limited natural attenuation of As due to high pH and the lack of Fe sorbent. • Partitioning of As in effluent described by a field-scale distribution coefficient. - Abstract: The historical (1932–1971) Bralorne mine produced over 87 million grams of Au from an archetypal orogenic lode gold deposit in southwest British Columbia. High concentrations of As in mine drainage, however, represent an on-going environmental concern prompting a detailed study of effluent chemistry. The discharge rate at the mine portal was monitored continuously over a fourteen-month period during which effluent samples were collected on a quasi-weekly basis. Water samples were also collected on synoptic surveys of the adit between the portal and the main source of flow in the flooded workings. Total concentrations of As in the mildly alkaline (pH = 8.7) portal drainage average 3034 μg/L whereas at the source they average 5898 μg/L. As emergent waters from the flooded workings flow toward the portal, their dissolved oxygen content and pH increase from 0 to 10 mg/L and from 7.7 to 9, respectively. Near the emergence point, dissolved Fe precipitates rapidly, sorbing both As(III) and As(V). With increasing distance from the emergence point, dissolved As(III) concentrations drop to detection limits through sorption on hydrous ferric oxide and through oxidation to As(V). Concentrations of dissolved As(V), on the other hand, increase and stabilize, reflecting lower sorption at higher pH and the lack of available sorbent. Nonetheless, based on synoptic surveys, approximately 35% of the source As load is sequestered in the adit resulting in As sediment concentrations averaging 8.5 wt%. The remaining average As load of 1.34 kg/d is discharged from the portal

  18. Post-collisional lithosphere delamination of the Dabie-Sulu orogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    two sides of the orogen.

  19. Post-orogenic exhumation history of a Variscan mid-crustal basement in Galicia (NW Spain) (United States)

    Grobe, Rene; Alvarez-Marrón, Joaquina; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Stuart, Finlay; Castañeda-Zarauz, A.


    The present study aims to quantify the complex post-orogenic history of cooling, denudation, and long-term landscape evolution of a mid-crustal section of Variscan basement in Galicia (NW Spain). We use apatite fission-track and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological techniques combined with time-temperature (t-T) path modelling using the software code HeFTy©. The topography is characterized by an extensive, low relief area at ~500 m elevation in central Galicia, and a WNW-ESE ridge that reaches up to 1000 m to the North. The area experienced two major tectonic events since the end of the Variscan orogeny in the Late Palaeozoic: 1) continental break-up and Mesozoic rifting leading to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay, and 2) limited convergence between Iberia and Eurasia since Middle Eocene times. Apatite fission-track ages range from 68.1 ± 5.0 Ma to 174.5 ± 7.7 Ma and apatite (U-Th)/He ages range from 73.6 ± 5.4 to 147.1 ± 16.6 Ma. Age-elevation plots and t-T path modelling suggest a tectonothermal evolution with faster exhumation associated to faulting during Mesozoic rifting. In particular, two major fault systems trending WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW, the As Pontes and the Lugo faults respectively separate areas with the fastest exhumation around 115 Ma from areas with overall slow exhumation since 200-150 Ma. A landscape of subdued topography in central Galicia was acquired prior to Eocene convergence. The higher elevation areas along the northern ridge formed since Middle Eocene times due to fault reactivation and minor exhumation occurred along the fault escarpment.

  20. From orogenic collapse to rifting ; structures of the South China Sea (United States)

    Pubellier, M.; Chan, L. S.; Chamot Rooke, N.; Shen, W.; Ringenbach, J. C.


    The opening of the South China Sea has been a matter of debate for many years because of its internal structure, the differences between the conjugate margins and the variations of rifting and spreading directions. Although it is considered as being a back-arc basin, it is not sitting directly above a subduction zone, and the rifting process lasted for an unusually long duration. Among the specific characteristics is the early phase of rifting which took place early in place of the former Yanshanian andean-type mountain range. This stage is marked by narrow basins filled with deformed conglomerate, and initiated around 70My ago within a framework where the oblique subduction marked by igneous activity and ductile wrench faults, was replaced by orogenic collapse. The rifting stage is marked by Eocene syntectonic normal faults and occasional volcanics centres and has proceeded from NW-SE to NS extension. The NW stretching created at least two aborted basins which remained at rift stage. Extension was followed by spreading from 33 to ~20 Ma in the South China Sea. The ocean floor spreading also changed direction to NW-SE with a propagator inside the Sunda shelf from 20 to 17My ago. However the propagator opening implies that deformation is also taken by rifting around a southern wedge which in turn created strain inside the thinned crust. Another extension parallel to the margin is also observed althought the spreading was in process. The southward motion of the southern conjugate margin was later accommodated by its subduction beneath the NW Borneo wedge until completion of the Proto South China Sea subduction. Variations of rifting spreading through time and variations of structural styles are discussed in terms of boundary forces acting to the SE.

  1. Tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Late Cretaceous arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen (United States)

    Gallhofer, Daniela; Quadt, Albrecht von; Peytcheva, Irena; Schmid, Stefan M.; Heinrich, Christoph A.


    The Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Late Cretaceous magmatic arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen formed on the European margin during closure of the Neotethys Ocean. It was subsequently deformed into a complex orocline by continental collisions. The Cu-Au mineralized arc consists of geologically distinct segments: the Apuseni, Banat, Timok, Panagyurishte, and Eastern Srednogorie segments. New U-Pb zircon ages and geochemical whole rock data for the Banat and Apuseni segments are combined with previously published data to reconstruct the original arc geometry and better constrain its tectonic evolution. Trace element and isotopic signatures of the arc magmas indicate a subduction-enriched source in all segments and variable contamination by continental crust. The magmatic arc was active for 25 Myr (~92-67 Ma). Across-arc age trends of progressively younger ages toward the inferred paleo-trench indicate gradual steepening of the subducting slab away from the upper plate European margin. This leads to asthenospheric corner flow in the overriding plate, which is recorded by decreasing 87Sr/86Sr (0.70577 to 0.70373) and increasing 143Nd/144Nd (0.51234 to 0.51264) ratios over time in some segments. The close spatial relationship between arc magmatism, large-scale shear zones, and related strike-slip sedimentary basins in the Timok and Pangyurishte segments indicates mild transtension in these central segments of the restored arc. In contrast, the Eastern Srednogorie segment underwent strong orthogonal intraarc extension. Segmental distribution of tectonic stress may account for the concentration of rich porphyry Cu deposits in the transtensional segments, where lower crustal magma storage and fractionation favored the evolution of volatile-rich magmas.

  2. The Ust-Belaya ophiolite terrane, West Koryak Orogen: Isotopic dating and paleotectonic interpretation (United States)

    Palandzhyan, S. A.


    The Ust-Belaya ophiolite terrane in the West Koryak Orogen, which is the largest in northeastern Asia, consists of three nappe complexes. The upper Ust-Belaya Nappe is composed of a thick (>5 km) sheet of fertile peridotites and mafic rocks (remnants of the proto-Pacific lithosphere); its upper age boundary is marked by Late Neoproterozoic plagiogranites. In the middle Tolovka-Otrozhny Nappe, the Late Precambrian lherzolite-type ophiolites are supplemented by fragments of tectonically delaminated harzburgite-type ophiolites, which make up the Tolovka rock association. The isotopic age of metadacite (K-Ar method, whole-rock sample) and zircons from plagiogranite porphyry (U-Pb method, SHRIMP) determines the upper chronological limit of the Tolovka ophiolites as 262-265 Ma ago. It is suggested that igneous rocks of these ophiolites were generated in a backarc basin during the Early Carboniferous and then incorporated into the fold-nappe structure in the Mid-Permian. This was the future basement of the Koni-Taigonos arc, where the Early Carboniferous ophiolites together with Late Neoproterozoic precursors were subject to low-temperature metamorphism and intruded by plagiogranite porphyry dikes in Permian-Triassic. The polymicte serpentinite mélange, which was formed in the accretionary complex of the Koni-Taigonos arc comprises rock blocks of the upper units of Late Precambrian ophiolites (in particular, plagiogranite), the overlying Middle to Upper Devonian and Early Carboniferous deposits, as well as Early Carboniferous (?) Tolovka ophiolites and meta-ophiolites. Mélange of this type with inclusions of Late Precambrian "oceanic" granitoids also developed in the lower Utyosiki Nappe composed of Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic sequences, the formation of which was related to the next Uda-Murgal island-arc systems.

  3. Delivery of meteorites from the asteroid belt (United States)

    Nolan, Michael Craig

    The process of the delivery of meteorites to the surface of the Earth from plausible source regions such as the asteroid belt is currently understood in general terms, but important uncertainties and conflicts remain to be resolved. Stochastic effects of the rare disruptions of large asteroids on the population of meteorite-sized Earth-crossing asteroids can change the flux and the proportions of compositional types in the infalling meteorite population. These changes can be significant in magnitude over timescales of 108 years. Changes of the order of 1 percent can be expected on timescales of 105-106 y, consistent with small differences between the Antarctic meteorites and modern falls. The magnitude of changes depends strongly on poorly-understood details of collisions. Asteroids 961 Gaspra and 243 Ida were recently imaged by the Galileo spacecraft. I use a numerical hydrocode model to examine the outcomes of various sire impacts into targets the sizes of these asteroids. A shock wave fractures the asteroid in advance of crater excavation flow; thus, for impactors larger than 100 m, impacting at 5.3 km s-1, tensile strength is unimportant in these bodies, whether they are initially intact or are 'rubble piles'. Because of the shock-induced fracture, impact results are controlled by gravity. Therefore these asteroids are much more resistant to catastrophic disruption than predicted by previous estimates, which had assumed that strength was controlling these processes for rock targets. Fracture of km-size asteroids is different from fracture in terrestrial experiments using few-cm targets. The composition distribution of delivered meteorites depends on the outcomes of such asteroid impacts.

  4. Super-Comet or Big Asteroid Belt? (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spectrograph of HD 69830 This graph of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope demonstrates that the dust around a nearby star called HD 69830 (upper line) has a very similar composition to that of Comet Hale-Bopp. Spitzer spotted large amounts of this dust in the inner portion of the HD 69830 system. The bumps and dips seen in these data, or spectra, represent the 'fingerprints' of various minerals. Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. These particular spectra reveal the presence of the silicate mineral called olivine, and more specifically, a type of olivine called forsterite, which is pictured in the inset box. Forsterite is a bright-green gem found on Earth, on the 'Green Sand Beach' of Hawaii among other places; and in space, in comets and asteroids. Because the dust around HD 69830 has a very similar make-up to that of Comet Hale-Bopp, astronomers speculate that it might be coming from a giant comet nearly the size of Pluto. Such a comet may have been knocked into the inner solar system of HD 69830, where it is now leaving in its wake a trail of evaporated dust. Nonetheless, astronomers say the odds that Spitzer has caught a 'super-comet' spiraling in toward its star - an unusual and relatively short-lived event - are slim. Instead, they favor the theory that the observed dust is actually the result of asteroids banging together in a massive asteroid belt. The data of HD 69830's dust were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph. The data of Comet Hale-Bopp were taken by the European Space Agency's Infrared Observatory Satellite. The picture of forsterite comes courtesy of Dr. George Rossman, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  5. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt (United States)


    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  6. Electrospun nanofiber belts made from high performance copolyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrospun nanofibers based on copolyimides were made, aiming at finding a promising method for improving the mechanical properties of electrospun polyimide nanofibers. The copolyimide had a backbone consisting of 3,3',4,4'-biphenyl-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), biphenylamide (BPA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) residues. The structure and composition of the copolyimide was controlled by the ratio of rigid BPA and flexible ODA moieties. The electrospun copolyimide nanofibers were collected in the form of a belt using a rotating disc with a rim of 8 mm width. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, x-ray scattering and tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the nanofiber belts. The nanofibers had a diameter range from 80 to 300 nm and were well aligned in the belts. The thermal stability of the nanofiber belts was over 460 deg. C. The tensile test showed that the copolyimide nanofiber belts had much better mechanical properties than either of the flexible and rigid homo-polyimide (homo-PI) nanofiber belts. The tensile strength, modulus and elongation to break of the copolyimide nanofiber belt with BPA/ODA ratio of 40/60 are respectively 1.1 ± 0.1 GPa, 6.2 ± 0.7 GPa and 20.8 ± 1.2%, compared to 459 ± 36 MPa, 2.1 ± 0.3 GPa and 41.3 ± 2.2% for BPDA/ODA homo-PI as well as 384 ± 18 MPa, 11.5 ± 0.6 GPa and 3.9 ± 0.1% for BPDA/BPA homo-PI. The important feature is that the electrospun polymer nanofibers can be made very strong by using copolyimides as spinning materials

  7. Geological characteristics of dike-structural belt in Taoshan orefield and its relationship to uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taoshan uranium field is occurred in the Taoshan composite batholith in the central Jiangxi Province. The main body of the batholith was formed in Triassic-Early Cretaceous. In Late Cretaceous-Eogene, NE strike fault structure and dike belt were developed in the batholith. From the north to the south, there are successive Xiaobu-Matian dike-structural belt, Wangnitian dike- structural belt, Huangtan-Yueyuan dike-structural belt, Xibei-Shangluo dike-structural belt, Jipoling dike-structural belt, Wangce dike-structural belt and Shiyuanling dike-structural belt. These belts are controlled by the main fault, share the same space and similar time with the uranium mineralization, which is one of the important factors in positioning the uranium ore as well as the prospecting direction of exploration. (authors)

  8. Metamorphism and gold mineralization of the Kenticha Katawicha area: Adola belt, southern Ethiopia (United States)

    Tsige, Lulu


    I present geological and mineral chemistry results aiming at understanding the relationship between metamorphism and gold mineralization in the N-trending Neoproterozoic Kenticha-Katawicha area in the Adola belt of southern Ethiopia. The Kenticha-Katawicha area comprises low-grade metamorphic rocks including pelitic schists, marble, graphite schists and Fe-Mn quartzites (Kenticha marine metasedimentary rocks) and serpentinites and talc-tremolite-chlorite schists with podiform chromites (Kenticha ophiolite). Lenses of high-grade amphibolite schist are also locally present within the Kenticha-Katawicha area. These rocks are sandwiched between high-grade para- and ortho-gneisses, migmatites, schists and amphibolites. Post-orogenic granites intrude the metamorphic sequences. Mineral assemblages and textural data obtained from the high-grade rocks indicate that the dominant metamorphic condition is of upper amphibolite facies. Garnet-biotite (garnet-core-matrix-biotite) and amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry gave estimates for peak metamorphic temperatures of 630-650 °C and pressure of 7 kbar for the high-grade rocks. On the other hand, the low-grade rocks recrystallized in the greenschist facies conditions. The estimated peak T- P values for the high-grade rocks suggest a burial to ˜25 km depth and a clockwise P- T path is deduced from mineral thermometry and the textural and paragenetic relations. This combined with the geochemistry of the magmatic rocks and clockwise P- T is consistent with a collision setting in which rocks of the calc-alkaline, volcanic-arc, and oceanic fragments are assembled. In the study area, gold occurs in quartz veins and veinlets in lenses of biotite schists within ultramafic rocks that are confined to shear zones. Fluid inclusion studies of gold quartz veins and veinlets indicate a H 2O- and CO 2-rich fluid with low salinity (<5 wt% NaCl equivalent). The gold mineralization in the area is post-peak regional metamorphism and is

  9. Late Permian high-Mg andesite and basalt association from northern Liaoning, North China: Insights into the final closure of the Paleo-Asian ocean and the orogen-craton boundary (United States)

    Yuan, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xue, Fuhong; Lu, Yinghuai; Zong, Keqing


    High-Mg andesites (HMAs) and related basalts constitute a volumetrically minor, but genetically important occurrence along most convergent plate margins of various ages on Earth. The details of their petrogenesis can contain critical information for resolving essential geodynamic and crustal evolutionary issues. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents the late Permian metamorphosed high-Mg basaltic to andesitic suite from Kaiyuan of northern Liaoning, North China. These rocks feature SiO2 contents ranging from 48.7 to 63.2 wt.%, high Mg# values of 63-75, an enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). They possess whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70417-0.70457, εNd(t) values from - 0.4 to 5.0, and εHf(t) values from 5.1 to 11, as well as zircon εHf(t) values from - 9.4 to 0.4. These features indicate that their petrogenesis most likely involved precursory metasomatism of mantle peridotites by melts from subduction-related sediments, and subsequent partial melting. With a depleted mantle source and possible tectonic link to post-subduction slab break-off, the Kaiyuan suite could present a spatial reference not only for defining the demarcation line between the North China craton (NCC) and the Central Asian Orogenic belt (CAOB) in the region, but also for tracing the final location of the cryptic suturing zone of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Synthesizing the suite with coeval igneous episodes as well as concomitant metamorphic events along the Solonker-Xra Moron-Changchun zone leads to the characterization of the eventual closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean within a double-sided subduction system during late Permian-Early Triassic.

  10. Partial melting of the South Qinling orogenic crust, China: Evidence from Triassic migmatites and diorites of the Foping dome (United States)

    Zhang, He; Ye, Ri-Sheng; Liu, Bing-Xiang; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Shuo; Siebel, Wolfgang; Chen, Fukun


    The Qinling orogen was ultimately formed by suturing of the South Qinling and Yangtze blocks, but the exact timing of the final amalgamation of the two blocks has not been well established so far. Partial melting of the Qinling orogenic continental crust resulted in the generation of migmatites, and such rocks may help to decipher the chronology of such event. In this paper, we report U-Pb ages, trace element, and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from migmatites and diorite gneisses of the Foping dome, South Qinling. Zircons from migmatites form anhedral grains of variable sizes that are characterized by complex trace element compositions. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, the migmatites can be subdivided into two groups: Group 1 migmatites mainly retain Triassic zircons with U-Pb ages of 214-211 Ma and Hf model ages of ~ 1.46 Ga in core and rim domains; zircons from Group 2 migmatites record both Triassic (~ 210 Ma) and Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages, analogous to igneous rocks of the Wudang and Yaolinghe Groups exposed in South Qinling. Zircons from the diorite gneisses yield U-Pb ages of 216-210 Ma with Hf isotopic composition (TDM2 ages of ~ 1.46 Ga) similar to the migmatites. Evidence from whole-rock N