WorldWideScience

Sample records for als beim menschen

  1. Hilfe oder Hindernis? Meinungen finnischer Sprachstudierender über Mehrsprachigkeit als Ressource beim Deutschlernen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Grasz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Der Fremdsprachenunterricht in Finnland befindet sich gerade in einer Umbruchphase, denn mit der Einführung neuer Lehrpläne im Jahr 2016 werden Verfahren der Mehrsprachigkeitsdidaktik in Zukunft eine zentrale Rolle spielen. In diesem Beitrag wird untersucht, ob und wie finnische Universitätsstudierende, die selbst von einer eher monolingual ausgerichteten Lerntradition geprägt sind, ihr mehrsprachiges Repertoire als Ressource beim Lernen weiterer Fremdsprachen sehen. Zu diesem Zweck wurde eine Befragung unter Lehramtsstudierenden der Fächer Anglistik und Skandinavistik, die Germanistik als Nebenfach studieren möchten, durchgeführt. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Studierenden zwar mehrheitlich positive Einstellungen gegenüber Mehrsprachigkeit aufweisen, dass es aber Entwicklungsbedarf im Hinblick auf Sprachbewusstheit, multilinguale Fähigkeiten und bei den Einstellungen gegenüber Sprachmischungen gibt. Foreign language education in Finland is currently undergoing a period of change, as the introduction of new curricula in 2016 will lead to a central role of multilingualism in teaching. This article examines whether and how Finnish university students, who themselves were influenced by a more monolingual learning tradition, consider their multilingual repertoire as a resource for learning other foreign languages. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among teacher students of English and Swedish, who would like to study German as a minor. The analysis shows that while the majority of students have positive attitudes towards multilingualism, there is a need for development in terms of language awareness, multilingual skills, and attitudes towards language mixes.

  2. Untersuchungen zur Involution der Vagina and Zervix beim Rind post partum unter Berücksichtigung der Zervix als Geburtshindernis

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrend, Axel

    2002-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es die physiologische Involution der Zervix im Vergleich zur Vagina beim Rind während der ersten zehn Tage post partum zu charakterisieren. Weiterhin sollte durch klinische Untersuchungen an Kühen nach Dystokie und einer retrospektiven Datenauswertung von Schwergeburten unterschiedlicher Tierarten der Anteil zervikal bedingter Geburtsstockungen im Interspeziesvergleich analysiert und Einflussfaktoren auf das Auftreten dieser Dystokieform sowie Störungen in der...

  3. Infektion beim Menschen und beim Hund mit der Milbe Cheyletiella yasguri Smiley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandrup, F; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Kristensen, S

    1979-01-01

    The infection with the mite Cheyletiella yasguri Smiley in 3 dogs and 5 out of 6 persons exposed to infestation is reported. Two of the dogs appeared to have been infected during a stay in a kennel. The dogs presented with moderate itching and slight to massive floury squamation on the back...

  4. Entwicklung motivationaler Orientierungen beim multiplen Erwerb von Französisch und Englisch als Fremdsprachen am Übergang von der Primar-stufe in die Sekundarstufe I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Brühwiler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht vor dem Hintergrund der Fremdsprachenreform in der Schweiz, welche motivationalen Orientierungen für das Lernen von Englisch und Französisch am Ende der Primarstufe vorliegen und wie sich die Spra-chenlernmotivation am Übergang in die Sekundarstufe I entwickelt. Die Ergebnisse aus der Längsschnittstudie (n = 314 zeigen, dass am Ende der Primarstufe ein deutlich günstigeres Motivationsmuster für das Lernen von Englisch als für Französisch vor-liegt. Am Stufenübergang sinkt in beiden untersuchten Sprachen die intrinsische Motivation, besonders stark beim Französisch-lernen. Die Umkehrung der Sprachenreihenfolge (Englisch- vor Französischunterricht hat keine signifikanten Effekte auf die Motivation, später Französisch zu lernen. This article presents an ongoing project which studies the motivational orientations at the end of primary school (after 6 years of schooling and the first year of secondary school. The two groups differ in terms of the order of acquisition relating to French and English as the L2 and the L3. The results of the longitudinal study (n = 314 show a much more favourable motivation pattern for English than for French at the end of primary school. At the transition from primary to secondary school, the intrinsic motivation of both languages decreases, especially in French. The reversal of language order has no significant effect on the motivation to learn French.

  5. ALS Ice Bucket Challenge: Warum die Kampagne über einen „Tsunami Effekt“ beim Spendenverhalten Eisberge versetzen kann

    OpenAIRE

    Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Im Sommer 2014 beherrschte eine Kampagne die sozialen Medien, welche auf originelle Art und Weise auf die Nervenkrankheit Amyotrophe Lateralsklerose (ALS) aufmerksam machen und dadurch Spendengelder für die Erforschung dieser Krankheit generieren wollte. Im Rahmen der sogenannten ALS-Ice-Bucket-Challenge-Kampagne gossen sich die Hauptdarsteller/innen von kleinen Internetclips eiskaltes Wasser über den Kopf und nominierten im Anschluss weitere Personen für die Challenge. Die Herausforderung bz...

  6. Der Entwurf einer Musterwohnung für ältere Menschen mit Demenz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost van Hoof

    2014-01-01

    Einführung Ältere Menschen mit Demenz brauchen Wohnungen, die sowohl altersgemäß ausgestattet sind als auch die erforderliche Pflege im Haus anbieten. Traditionelle Änderungen und entsprechende Technologien bieten in erster Linie Lösungen für Personen mit eingeschränkter Mobilität. Dies bedeutet,

  7. Prenatal, transplacental uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene in humans. Pt. 3.. Personal characteristics (gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, smoking habits of the parents) and geographic differences; Praenatale, transplazentare Uebertragung von polychlorierten Biphenylen und Hexachlorbenzol beim Menschen. T. 3. Personenbezogene Einflussfaktoren (Gestationsalter, Geburtsgewicht, muetterliches Alter, Tabakkonsum der Eltern) und geographische Unterschiede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackmann, G.M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Kinderheilkunde

    2001-07-01

    untersuchen. Methode: Es wurde von insgesamt 200 gesunden, reifen Neugeborenen, die 1998 entweder in Fulda oder in Duesseldorf geboren wurden, eine Nabelschnurprobe gewonnen. Die Eltern aller Kinder waren dabei zeitlebens in der betreffenden Stadt ansaessig und niemals beruflich oder akzidentell hohen PCB- oder HCB-Belastungen ausgesetzt. Das Serum wurde umgehend bei -20 C tiefgefroren; die Analysen wurden geschlossen und verblindet 1999 durchgefuehrt. Dabei wurden die sechs PCB-Kongenere 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 und 180 sowie HCB kapillar-gaschromatographisch mit ECD-Detektion bestimmt. Ergebnisse: Im Gesamtkollektiv (n = 199) - ein Kind wurde wegen ungewoehnlich hoher PCB-Konzentrationen von der Auswertung ausgeschlossen - fanden wir eine signifikante Korrelation zwischen der Schwangerschaftsdauer sowie dem muetterlichen Alter und der praenatalen Schadstoffakkumulation, wobei Kinder der 42. SSW um den Faktor 3,5 hoehere PCB-Konzentrationen aufwiesen, als Kinder der 38. SSW, und Neugeborene einer 50-jaehrigen Frau bis 500% hoehere PCB-Werte, als Kinder einer 20-jaehrigen Mutter (p < 0,0001). Ein Zusammenhang zum Geburtsgewicht bestand nicht. Ausserdem konnten wir zeigen, dass Neugeborene aktiv rauchender Muetter signifikant hoehere PCB- und HCB-Konzentrationen aufwiesen, als Kinder passiv oder nicht rauchender Muetter. Es bestand kein Unterschied in der praenatalen PCB-Akkumulation zwischen den Kindern aus Fulda und denen aus Duesseldorf, waehrend letztere um 62% hoehere HCB-Werte aufwiesen. (orig.)

  8. Infektion mit Epstein-Barr-Virus und Tumor-Entstehung beim Menschen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, H.

    1981-08-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is the only infectious agent for which a close association with human malignant tumors has been clearly demonstrated. These tumors are one type of nasopharyngeal carcinoma which is frequent in parts of East Asia and the Burkitt lymphoma which predominantly occurs in parts of Africa and New Guinea. Nonetheless, the EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a benign, self-limiting lymphoproliferative disease of adolescents. The major difference between the countries in which the EBV-induced tumors occur and those in which IM occurs is the late primary EBV infection in the latter, whereas primary infection with EBV occurs in the first year of life in the former. All theories of viral carcinogenesis have to explain the long latency period between primary infection and tumor growth and how an ubiquitous virus may be oncogenic. Thus, invariably, one has to assume a role of cofactors, which may be of cytogenetic nature or may be represented by additional infections or by chemical agents. Since most modern theories of carcinogenesis consider a multi-step development of tumors, the theory that infection with an ubiquitous virus at the right time of life represents one step to carcinogenesis seems to be tenable.

  9. Therapieoptionen beim Pyoderma gangraenosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Sven R; Kraas, Luise

    2017-01-01

    Das Pyoderma gangraenosum (PG) gehört zu den orphan diseases, deren Erforschung sich lediglich auf einzelne, randomisierte, multizentrische sowie retrospektive Studien stützen kann und überwiegend auf Fallserien an kleinen Patientenkollektiven beruht. Die Therapie basiert neben topischen und lokal intraläsionalen Therapieoptionen, bei initialem und leichtem Krankheitsverlauf, insbesondere auf der Gabe von Systemtherapeutika. Diese beinhaltet neben den systemischen Glukokortikosteroiden und Ciclosporin A (CsA) auch Biologika wie intravenöses Immunglobulin G (IVIG), die TNFα-Inhibitoren Infliximab, Adalimumab und Etanercept, den IL-12/23-Antikörper Ustekinumab, den Interleukin-1-Rezeptorantagonist Anakinra und den Interleukin-1β-Antikörper Canakinumab. Die besten evidenzbasierten Studienergebnisse liegen zu CsA, Prednisolon und Infliximab vor, letzteres insbesondere bei gleichzeitigem Vorliegen einer Colitis ulcerosa oder eines Morbus Crohn. Kleinere Fallserien liegen für ein Ansprechen auf IVIG und Canakinumab vor. Obwohl die Erstbeschreibung durch Brocq fast 100 Jahren zurückliegt und die Behandlungsnotwendigkeit des PG früh erkannt wurde, bleibt die Therapie des PG bis heute eine klinische Herausforderung. Weitere klinische Studien, insbesondere an dringend erforderlichen größeren Patientenkollektiven, ein besseres Verständnis der Ätiopathogenese, der Einsatz moderner zielgerichteter Therapien mit höherer Effektivität und geringerer Nebenwirkungsrate als die konventionellen Immunsuppressiva Prednisolon und CsA lassen trotz des seltenen aber schwerwiegenden Krankheitsbildes eine Verbesserung der Therapieoptionen in Zukunft erwarten. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Bildung in Deutschland 2014: ein indikatorengestützter Bericht mit einer Analyse zur Bildung von Menschen mit Behinderungen

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Schwerpunkt von "Bildung in Deutschland 2014" ist die Inklusion. In der 5. Auflage von "Bildung in Deutschland" analysieren die Autoren die Situation von Menschen mit Behinderungen im Bildungssystem. Der Bericht "Bildung in Deutschland" erscheint seit 2006 alle zwei Jahre als umfassende und empirisch fundierte Bestandsaufnahme des deutschen Bildungswesens: von der frühkindlichen Bildung, Betreuung und Erziehung über die allgemeinbildende Schule und die non-formalen Lernwelten im Schulalter...

  11. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  12. Die Eingliederungshilfe für behinderte Menschen – Wie lassen sich regionale Ausgabenunterschiede erklären?

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Franziska; Rösel, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Die Ausgaben für die Eingliederungshilfe für behinderte Menschen nach SGB XII variieren im regionalen Vergleich in Deutschland deutlich. In diesem Beitrag werden mit unterschiedlichen Verwaltungsstrukturen und der lokalen Wirtschaftskraft zwei mögliche Faktoren näher beleuchtet, die diese Unterschiede erklären könnten. Hierbei zeigt sich insbesondere eine Korrelation von Wirtschaftskraft und den Ausgaben je Leistungsempfänger. Dieser Zusammenhang lässt sich als ökonomische Partizipation am lo...

  13. Das biochemische Rezidiv beim Prostatakarzinom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauchenwald M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Als biochemisches Rezidiv (BCR wird der Wiederanstieg des nach kurativer Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms (PCa abgefallenen PSA-Werts bezeichnet. Der PSA-Verlauf nach kurativer Therapie ist von der primären Behandlungsmethode abhängig, weshalb auch unterschiedliche Definitionen dafür vorliegen. Der Verlauf selbst scheint prognostische Bedeutung zu haben. Ein Wiederanstieg des PSA-Werts geht der klinischen Progression voraus, wodurch frühzeitig eine Therapie eingeleitet werden kann. Der ideale Zeitpunkt für eine Sekundärbehandlung ist allerdings noch ungenügend definiert. Fast die Hälfte der BCR treten innerhalb der ersten 2 Jahre, ¾ innerhalb der ersten 5 Jahre nach Primärtherapie auf. Als Risikofaktoren für einen BCR werden ein primäres Tumorstadium ≥ T2c, PSA 15, Samenblaseninvasion, Lymphknotenbefall sowie Gleason-Score ≥ 8 angesehen. Von klinischer Bedeutung ist vor allem die Unterscheidung zwischen lokoregionärem und systemischem Rezidiv. Hierzu werden als Parameter neben dem primären Tumorstadium und Gleason-Score das posttherapeutische Intervall und die PSA-Dynamik empfohlen. Als diagnostische Maßnahmen erscheinen nur die Skelettszintigraphie und die Positronenemissionstomographie mit Acetat- oder Cholintracern und diese ebenfalls nur bei entsprechend hohen PSA-Werten sinnvoll. Therapeutisch kommt nach primärer Radikaloperation und Verdacht auf einen lokalen Progress in erster Linie die Salvagebestrahlung zur Anwendung, nach primärer Radiatio wird allerdings vorwiegend die hormonelle Manipulation einer Salvageoperation oder alter“nativen lokaltherapeutischen Maßnahmen vorgezogen.

  14. Wundmanagement beim diabetischen Fußsyndrom

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    Hanel W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In den vergangenen Jahren ist eine Vielzahl von Methoden für die Behandlung von chronischen Wunden auf den Markt gekommen, die von einer Masse an Wundauflagen bis zu einer Reihe von physikalischen Methoden, künstlichen Hautprodukten und gentechnisch hergestellten Wachstumsfaktoren reichen. Ohne möglichst optimale Behandlung der Ursache der Wundheilungsstörung werden allerdings auch diese Methoden nicht zum Erfolg führen. Bei der Wahl der Wundauflagen ist das Ziel, ein feuchtes Wundmanagement zu erreichen, um ein möglichst optimales Wundmilieu zu erzielen. Besonderheiten beim diabetischen Fuß müssen dabei Berücksichtigung finden. Silberhaltige Produkte sind nach Leitlinien nicht unbedingt nötig. Bei ausbleibender Heilung kann man dann über den Einsatz einer aktiven Wundtherapie, wie z. B. hyperbare Sauerstofftherapie, Vakuumtherapie oder künstliche Hautprodukte, nachdenken. Diese Methoden sind dann allerdings auch mit deutlich höheren Kosten verbunden.

  15. Die Internen Und Externen Interferenzfehler Beim Lernprozess Des Deutschen Als Zweitfremdsprache Für Türkische Muttersprachler Und Vorschläge Zur Fehlertherapie Internal And External Interference Errors In The Process Of Learning German As A Second Foreign Language And Methods To Prevent Mistakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan OFLAZ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Ziel dieser Untersuchung liegt darin, die verschiedenen Arten von Interferenzen, die beim Lernprozess der deutschen Sprache auftreten, zuerst theoretisch aufzuklären, dann systematisch mit der kontrastiven Methode durch eine Fehleranalyse zu bestimmen und danach auszuwerten. Die Beeinflussung der Sprache von einer anderen Sprache verursacht Überschneidungen. Interferenzfehler können wir in den Bereichen “Phonologie, Orthographie, Morphologie, Syntax, Semantik, Pragmatik oder auch Textlinguistik erkennen. Anschließend werden Vorschläge zur Fehlerkorrektur auf den grammatikalischen, ortographischen und lexikalischen Ebenen vorgenommen. Betrachtet man dies aus dem kognitiven Blickwinkel, kann jeder unschwer erkennen, dass die Vorkenntnisse retroaktive und proaktive Effekte haben. Das heißt, diese Kenntnisse können den Lernprozess entweder positiv oder negativ beeinträchtigen. Von diesem Ausgangspunkt aus werden in dieser Arbeit die Wechselwirkungen, die sowohl von der erstgelernten Fremdsprache als auch von der Muttersprache abhängig sind, der Reihe nach identifiziert, klassifiziert und abschliessend analysiert. Auf den Ergebnissen dieser Fehleranalyse basierend, machen Studenten unter dem Einfluss der interlingualen Interferenzen meist Fehler bei der Wortstellung, der Zeitform „Perfekt“, Pluralbildung, der Deklination der Adjektive, der Groß- bzw Kleinschreibung und bei dem Gebrauch der Konjunktionen sowie auf den lexikalischen Ebenen. Unter dem Einfluss der intralingualen Interferenzen machen sie Fehler bei der Bildung der Zeitformen „Perfekt und Präteritum“ und bei der Konjugation des Verbs. The primary aim of this study is to analyze the different types ofinterferences that may occur in the process of learning the Germanlanguage both theoretically and systematically by making use of thecontrastive method in order to detect and evaluate common errors. In asecond step, methods to correct these errors on a grammatical

  16. Beginn und Dosisanpassung einer intensivierten konventionellen Insulintherapie (ICT beim Erwachsenen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohr R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eine intensivierte Insulintherapie (ICT ist die Behandlung der Wahl bei Diabetes mellitus Typ 1 und auch bei vielen Menschen mit insulinpflichtigem Typ-2-Diabetes. Bei Therapiebeginn müssen individuell Insuline ausgewählt und die richtige Dosierung festgelegt werden. Im weiteren Verlauf ist dann die Anpassung der Insulintherapie an besondere Alltagssituationen wie Sport oder akute Erkrankungen vorrangig. Eine gute Patientenschulung und eine gute Zusammenarbeit zwischen Betroffenem und Behandlerteam sind entscheidend, um diese komplizierte Therapie erfolgreich umzusetzen.

  17. Handlungsmuster von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern beim Einsatz neuer Medien. Grundlagen eines Projekts zur empirischen Unterrichtsforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Blömeke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziel des vorzustellenden Projekts ist es in einem ersten Schritt, Handlungsmuster von Lehrpersonen beim Einsatz von neuen Medien im Unterricht der Fächer Deutsch, Mathematik und Informatik der Sekundarstufe II zu identifizieren. Zu diesem Zweck werden Videoaufnahmen von 30 Unterrichtsstunden im Hinblick auf zugrunde liegende ‚Unterrichtsscripts’ (i.e. didaktische Routinen analysiert und die subjektiven Theorien der Lehrkräfte zum Lehren und Lernen erhoben. Bei der Zusammensetzung der Stichprobe findet neben der Variation der Fachzugehörigkeit der Expertisegrad der Lehrpersonen bezogen auf den Einsatz neuer Medien Berücksichtigung, und zwar in zwei Abstufungen (hoch – niedrig. Auf diese Weise wird ermöglicht, in einem zweiten Schritt begründet Hypothesen zu Zusammenhängen zwischen Handlungsmustern sowie Fach und Expertise als Kontextfaktoren zu generieren und mögliche Geltungsbereiche zu beschreiben. Über diese Grundlagenforschung hinausgehend sollen in einem dritten Schritt anhand der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse Interventionen entwickelt werden, die eine Weiterentwicklung von Lehrerhandeln beim Einsatz neuer Medien im Unterricht ermöglichen. Hier stellt sich allerdings die Frage, wie sich Handeln grundsätzlich verändern lässt.

  18. Langzeitergebnisse organerhaltender Nierentumorchirurgie beim Nierenzellkarzinom: Überleben, Nierenfunktion und Bluthochdruckverhalten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humke U

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragestellung: Die organerhaltende Nierentumorchirurgie beim Nierenzellkarzinom ist insbesondere für die elektive Indikation (kleiner, peripherer, unilateraler Nierentumor bei kontralateral intakter Niere immer noch in der Diskussion. In dieser unizentrischen, retrospektiven Langzeitstudie werden Effektivität und Sicherheit der organerhaltenden Nierentumorchirurgie anhand von tumorspezifischem Überleben sowie insbesondere auch postoperativer Entwicklung von Blutdruck und Nierenfunktion untersucht. Patienten und Methode: 248 Patienten, die zwischen 1976 und 1995 organerhaltend wegen eines Nierenzellkarzinoms operiert worden waren (175 elektiv, 73 imperativ bei Einzelniere, bilateralen Tumoren oder Niereninsuffizienz, konnten mit einem Mindestabstand von 3 Jahren zur Operation nachuntersucht werden. Die mittlere Nachbeobachtungszeit betrug 75 Monate (3-23 Jahre. Ergebnisse: Das tumorspezifische Überleben betrug gemeinsam für elektive und imperative Indikation 88 % nach 5 Jahren. Die Nierengesamtfunktion unterschied sich selektionsbedingt bei beiden Indikationen. Innerhalb der beiden Gruppen zeigten die prä- und postoperativen Werte für alle untersuchten Parameter jedoch keine signifikanten Unterschiede. Insbesondere fand sich postoperativ keine erhöhte Hypertonieinzidenz. Eine postoperative Proteinurie war eng korreliert mit dem Vorliegen eines Hypertonus. Schlußfolgerung: Das Langzeitüberleben nach organerhaltender Nierentumorchirurgie entspricht dem nach radikaler Tumornephrektomie. Der fehlende Nachweis von Langzeitkomplikationen wie erhöhte postoperative Inzidenz von Hypertonie, Niereninsuffizienz oder Proteinurie (z. B. wegen Glomerulosklerose oder Hyperfiltration unterstützt das Konzept der Organerhaltung als Alternative zur Radikaloperation beim Nierenzellkarzinom auch unter elektiver Indikationsstellung.

  19. Doppelarbeit und Wiederholungen beim Versuch, Schulbibliotheksnetzwerke aufzubauen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schuldt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Text nimmt das aktuelle Ende des Schulbibliotheksprojektes der Hamburger Bücherhallen zum Anlass, um über ähnliche Projekte in der Vergangenheit zu berichten. Er argumentiert, dass das Scheitern des Hamburger Projektes nicht unerwartet war, sondern aufgrund ähnlicher Strukturen, Argumentationen und Herangehensweisen bei früheren Projekten als strukturelles Problem beschrieben werden kann. Der Text versucht, eine Reflexion zu den Annahmen über Schulbibliotheken im deutschen Bibliothekswesen, auf der Basis bereits gesammelter Erfahrungen, anzustoßen. Zudem versteht er sich als Plädoyer für eine problemzentrierte Bibliotheksgeschichte.

  20. La obra póstuma de Blumenberg: Beschreibung des Menschen

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    Rincón Núñez, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beschreibund des Menschen is one of the posthumous works of Blumenberg. Two thirds of the book give an account of Husserl’s phenomenology and its critique. What brings face to face Blumenberg with phenomenology is the search for a philosophical anthropology in Husserl’s phenomenology. This defeat is because of his defence of a pure conscience, that means, never corrupted by psychologism and historicism. The second part of Beschreibung des Menschen is about the analysis in depth of categories, which are well – known in Blumenberg’s philosophical anthropology. He addresses the concepts of horizon, Lebenswelt, corporality, visibility, distance, gaining time, etc. There is no relevant news regarding to his earlier work, but what he gets deals with an increase of rigor and precision on his philosophical anthropology.

    Beschreibund des Menschen es una obra postuma de Blumeberg. Dos tercios del libro están dedicados a la exposición y crítica de la fenomenología de Husserl. Lo que enfrenta a Blumenberg con la fenomenología es la búsqueda de una antropología filosófica en la fenomenología que Husserl, que éste nunca quiso aceptar por su defensa de una conciencia pura que nunca fuera contaminada por el psicologismo y el historicismo. La segunda parte de Beschreibung des Menschen se ocupa del análisis y profundización de categorías ya familiares a la antropología filosófica de Blumenberg. Analiza los conceptos de horizonte, mundo de la vida, corporeidad, visibilidad, distancia, ganar tiempo, etc. No hay ninguna novedad importante respecto a sus libros anteriores, pero sí consigue que su antropología filosófica alcance un rigor y una precisión aun mayores en algunos aspectos de su obra.

  1. Pyrrole and 2,5-heptanedione in the urine of rats and 2,5-heptanedione in the urine of man: analytical determination of excretion upon exposure to n-heptane; Pyrrole und 2,5-Heptandion im Urin der Ratte und 2,5-Heptandion im Urin des Menschen: Analytische Bestimmung der Ausscheidung nach Exposition gegn n-Heptan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoermer, A.G.C.

    1997-09-01

    A method for quantifying levels of the neurotoxic metabolite 2,5-heptanedione in rats and man after experimental exposure to n-heptane was developed. It consisted in determining the quantity of 2,5-heptanedione excreted in urine and the relevant excretion kinetics. Moreover, the excretion of pyrrole in the urine of rats was measured. In the urine of non-exposed rats and man, a basic excretion of 2,5-heptanedione was measured, with the rates of excretion being 0.11 and 4.5 nmol per hour, respectively. This basic excretion of 2,5-heptanedione is assumed to have an endogenous cause. The quantitive investigation of the dose dependence of the excretion of 2,5-heptanedione and pyrrole in the urine of rats and of 2,5-heptanedione in the urine of man is a prerequisite for assessing the risk posed by n-heptane with a view to peripheral neuropathies. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Entwicklung einer Methode zur Quantifizierung der Belastung von Ratte und Mensch mit dem neurotoxischen Metaboliten 2,5-Heptandion nach experimentellen Expositionen gegen n-Heptan. Dazu sollte jeweils die ausgeschiedene Menge und die zugehoerige Ausscheidungskinetik von 2,5-Heptandion im Urin bestimmt werden. Darueber hinaus sollte die Ausscheidung von Pyrrolen im Urin von Ratten gemessen werden. Im Urin von nicht exponierten Ratten und Menschen wurde eine Grundausscheidung von 2,5-Heptandion gefunden, wobei die Ausscheidungsraten jeweils 0,11 bzw. 4,5 nmol/h betrugen. Fuer die Grundausscheidung von 2,5-Heptandion wird ein endogener Ursprung angenommen. Die quantitativen Untersuchungen zur Dosisabhaengigkeit der Ausscheidung im Urin von 2,5-Heptandion und Pyrrolen bei der Ratte und von 2,5-Heptandion beim Menschen sind eine Grundvoraussetzung fuer eine Abschaetzung des Risikos von n-Heptan fuer periphere Neuropathien. (orig./MG)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of complex congenital heart disease in aduits; Magnetresonanztomographie komplexer kongenitaler Herzerkrankungen beim Erwachsenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremerich, J. [San Francisco Univ, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology]|[Universitaetsklinik Basel (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Medizinische Radiologie; Wyttenbach, R.; Higgins, C.B. [San Francisco Univ, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Buser, P. [Universitaetsklinik Basel (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Kardiologie; Steinbrich, W. [Universitaetsklinik Basel (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Medizinische Radiologie

    1999-04-01

    An increasing number of patients with complex congenital heart disease reaches adulthood, because treatment and patient outcome have improved considerably in recent years. Monitoring of these patients requires both definition of cardiac anatomy and assessment of function with good reproducibility. Complications after surgical repair such as restenoses of pulmonary arteries after surgical repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, ventricular hypertrophy, stenoses or leakage of baffles, or stenosis and aneurysms of anastomoses have to be detected at an early stage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an excellent tool to monitor these patients because of its noninvasive nature, its good interstudy and interobserver reproducibility, and because it allows assessment of both cardiac anatomy and function. This paper reviews the current applications of MRI in complex congenital heart disease in adults. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch Verbesserungen in der Diagnose und Therapie komplexer kongenitaler Herzerkrankungen kann eine zunehmende Anzahl von betroffenen Patienten das Erwachsenenalter erreichen. Diese Patienten benoetigen regelmaessige postoperative Verlaufskontrollen, um Komplikationen wie z.B. Restenosen der grossen Arterien, Stenosen, Lecks und Aneurysmata von Anastomosen, Ventrikelhypertrophie und -dilatation oder Klappendysfunktionen fruehzeitig zu erkennen und zu behandeln. Fuer nichtinvasive regelmaessige Verlaufskontrollen bietet sich die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) des Herzens an, da sie eine umfassende Untersuchung sowohl der Morphologie als auch der Funktion des Herzens mit guter Reproduzierbarkeit erlaubt. Die gegenwaertigen klinischen Anwendungen der MRT bei komplexen kongenitalen Herzerkrankungen beim Erwachsenen werden in dieser Uebersicht beschrieben. (orig.)

  3. Wird die Inzidenz von Lymphknotenmetastasen durch Sentinel-Lymphknoten-Dissektion beim Prostatakarzinom erhöht?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafhauser W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragestellung: Eine pelvine Lymphknotenmetastasierung ist von entscheidender Bedeutung für die Tumorprogression beim Prostatakarzinom. Unser Ziel war es festzustellen, ob die "Sentinel-Lymph-Node-Dissektion" (SLND im Rahmen der radikalen retropubischen Prostatektomie (RRP im klinischen Routinebetrieb machbar ist und ob durch sie ein höherer Prozentsatz an identifizierten und entfernten Lymphknotenmetastasen resultiert als bei der Standardlymphdissektion. Methode: Von September 2002 bis November 2004 wurde bei 162 Patienten (67 Jahre mit Prostatakarzinom ohne Hinweis auf Metastasierung am Vortag der RRP in jeden Prostatalappen 0,6 ml 99mTechnetium-Nanokolloid (max. 150 MBq transrektal ultraschallgesteuert appliziert. Anschließend wurde eine Lymphszintigraphie durchgeführt. Intraoperativ wurden neben der üblichen begrenzten pelvinen Lymphdissektion zusätzlich die szintigraphisch markierten Lymphknoten (SLN mittels Gammasonde (C-Trak aufgesucht und gezielt entfernt. Ergebnisse: Eine SLND war bei 161 Patienten möglich. 32 Patienten (19,8 % zeigten Lymphknotenmetastasen. 39 % der Lymphknotenmetastasen fanden sich außerhalb des Standarddissektionsgebietes von Vasa iliaca externa und Fossa obturatoria. Schlußfolgerung: Die SLND im Rahmen einer RRP läßt sich mit akzeptablem Aufwand in den Routinebetrieb einer urologischen Klinik bei enger Kooperation mit Nuklearmediziner und Pathologen integrieren. Die Rate an identifizierten Lymphknotenmetastasen wird im Vergleich zur üblichen begrenzten pelvinen Lymphdissektion ohne SLN-Markierung deutlich erhöht.

  4. Fluss als städtebauliches und architektonisches Element der Stadterneuerung

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jong-Ki

    2010-01-01

    Die meisten Menschen in der heutigen Zeit wohnen, arbeiten und leben in den Städten als gesellschaftlich zentraler Ort. Die Zukunft der Menschen kann als urbanes Leben gekennzeichnet werden. Sie verändern sich der Zeit entsprechend sehr schnell, und das Bild der Städte wandelt sich sehr vielfältig. Vor allem zeigen Städte in ihrer heutigen Struktur und Form einerseits den Wandel von Lebensräumen und gesellschaftlichen Standards. Anderseits treten in den Städten politische, gesellschaftliche, ...

  5. Neuartige Spannkonzepte mit aktiver Verzugskompensation beim Rührreibschweißen

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit trägt zur Erweiterung des Wissensstandes von geeigneten Spanntechnologien bei, um die Einführung des Rührreibschweißverfahrens in die Großkomponentenmontage der Luftfahrtindustrie zu erleichtern. Dabei werden die beim Rührreibschweißen auftretenden Kräfteverhältnisse mit Fokus auf dünnwandige Komponenten und das jeweils eingesetzte Spannsystem ermittelt und bewertet. Mit einer eigens programmierten thermo-mechanischen FEM-Simulation werden zudem Rückschlüsse auf das Ver...

  6. Aktuelle Technik der Bruststraffung beim Mann nach Gewichtsverlust [Modern technique in male breast contouring after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoff, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    bei Patienten nach starkem Gewichtsverlust oftmals als stark überdehnter, nicht retraktionsfähiger Hautmantel zurückbleibt, ist eine der am häufigsten zu korrigierenden Regionen beim männlichen Patienten. Hierbei steht uns als Plastischer Chirurg eine Auswahl von Verfahren zur Verfügung, die abhängig vom Lokalbefund alleine oder in Kombination mit Straffungsverfahren übergreifender Regionen angewendet werden können. Wir möchten unsere modifizierte Technik der männlichen Bruststraffung vorstellen, die der Technik nach Aly entspricht, allerdings eine MAK-Transposition mit zentralem Stiel beinhaltet. Der zentrale Stiel wird dabei nach vorausgegangener Lipoaspiration zur Volumenverminderung zirkulär umschnitten und im Resektat ausgespart. Diese gestielte MAK-Technik erlaubt eine sichere und unkomplizierte MAK-Transposition mit deutlichen Vorteilen zu freien MAK-Techniken im Hinblick auf Ästhetik und Funktionalität.

  7. Governance, Behavioral Science und das Bild des Menschen im Verfassungsrecht: Konzeptive Überlegungen zur Inkorporierung von Behavioral-Science-Erkenntnissen in die Rechtswissenschaften am Beispiel einer Dogmatik staatlichen Informationshandelns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Storr

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This paper discusses the connectivity of constitutional law doctrine on findings of governance research and behavioral science. Fundamental questions how to integrate "soft" instruments like "framing" and "nudging" in a constitutional law doctrine will be considered. The image of man in the constitutional order, as presupposed in the German and in the Austrian constitution, will be illuminated. For a doctrine of state communication accuracy, objectivity and due restraint are key postulates. DEUTSCH: Der Beitrag behandelt die Anschlussfähigkeit der Verfassungsrechtsdogmatik an Erkenntnisse der Governance-Forschung und Behavioral-Science. Es wird überlegt, welche grundlegenden Fragen sich für eine Integration „weicher“ Steuerungsformen wie „framing“ und „nudging“ in eine Verfassungsrechtsdogmatik stellen. Dabei dient das Bild des Menschen, wie es in der deutschen und in der österreichischen Verfassung vorausgesetzt wird, als Projektionsfläche. Daran ansetzend werden grundsätzliche Überlegungen an staatliches Kommunikationsverhalten angestellt. Richtigkeit, Sachlichkeit und angemessene Zurückhaltung sind zentrale Postulate.

  8. Radiotherapeutic concepts in cancer of unknown primary site; Strahlentherapeutische Konzepte beim CUP-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, D.; Debus, J.; Sterzing, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The term cancer of unknown primary (CUP) encompasses a group of entities which differ to a great extent regarding etiology, prognosis and therapeutic management. The aim of the study was an elaboration of the role of radiotherapy in CUP syndrome. Systematic literature search and specification of the available treatment options. Radiotherapy is an integral part of interdisciplinary management approaches for patients with CUP in both curative and palliative situations. Radio-oncological techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy increase the therapeutic window. Modern diagnostic modalities from radiology and nuclear medicine are the cornerstone of radiotherapeutic interventions, especially in terms of target volume definition and pretherapeutic staging. In the interdisciplinary setting radiation oncology offers the possibility of curative and often organ preserving approaches in patients with axillary and cervical CUP. In addition, improvement and preservation of quality of life can be achieved in patients with metastatic disease. Radiation oncology is a crucial component of the interdisciplinary management of patients with CUP. Therapeutic decisions in patients with CUP should be made in an interdisciplinary setting. (orig.) [German] Das Cancer-of-unknown-primary(CUP)-Syndrom fasst eine Gruppe von Erkrankungen zusammen, die durch eine ausgepraegte Heterogenitaet hinsichtlich Aetiologie, Therapie und Prognose gepraegt sind. Darstellung der Rolle der Strahlentherapie beim CUP-Syndrom. Systematische Literaturrecherche und Erlaeuterung der Behandlungsoptionen. Die Strahlentherapie ist beim CUP-Syndrom sowohl in adjuvanten und definitiven Therapiekonzepten wie auch in palliativer Intention etabliert. Technisch innovative Verfahren wie die intensitaetsmodulierte Radiotherapie und die stereotaktische Bestrahlung im Koerperstammbereich ermoeglichen eine Vergroesserung der therapeutischen Breite. Eine leistungsfaehige und moderne

  9. District heat, energy for fore-sighted people. Proceedings; Energie fuer Menschen mit Weitblick. Vortragsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The proceedings volume contains a great part of the papers presented, but some are represented only by copies of the overheads which accompanied the papers. The lecture meeting was devoted to the following major topics: Economical and safe supply of district heat, outlook on the future of the district heat supply industry in a liberalized market, customer relationship management taking into account contracting, information and communication via call centers, and other forms of guidance for decision making.(GL) [German] Vortraege vorliegend teils als Manuskript, teils als Folien mit folgenden Schwerpunkten: Die wirtschaftliche und sichere Versorgung durch Fernwaerme, die Zukunft der Fernwaerme im liberalisierten Markt, der Weg zum Kunden im Hinblick auf Contracting, Kommunikation, Betreuung sowie Beratung und Entscheidungsfindung.(GL)

  10. Zielstrukturen des serotonergen Systems in der laterobasalen Amygdala : Untersuchungen an Ratten und einem Mausmodell für emotionale Dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bonn, Maria Roswitha

    2012-01-01

    Die Amygdala ist ein Kernkomplex, der dicht von serotonergen Afferenzen innerviert wird. Sowohl bei Tieren als auch beim Menschen spielen Interaktionen zwischen dem serotonergen System und der Amygdala bei der Verarbeitung von Reizen, die mit Angst oder Stress assoziiert sind, eine zentrale Rolle. Genetische Variationen im serotonergen System und/oder dauerhafter Stress können dazu führen, dass diese Verarbeitungsprozesse fehlerhaft ablaufen, wodurch Verhaltensanormalitäten bzw. die Entstehun...

  11. Volumetry of metastases from renal cell carcinoma. Comparison with the RECIST criteria; Volumetrie von Metastasen beim Nierenzellkarzinom. Vergleich mit den RECIST-Kriterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graser, A.; Becker, C.R.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Stief, C.; Staehler, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Urologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    For patients with metastasized renal cell carcinoma (RCC), imaging techniques are of great importance. Currently, therapy widely relies on antiangiogenic factors, which frequently lead to relatively subtle changes in the size of lesions. From this aspect the commonly used RECIST criteria (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors) must be considered as imprecise for the evaluation of the response to therapy. This article gives a review on new software-based volumetric methods, which allow therapy-induced changes in the size of metastases from RCC to be detected with higher sensitivity and reproducibility. A comparison of RECIST and volumetry was carried out with data from patients with metastasized RCC to demonstrate the higher sensitivity of the 3D volumetric procedure. (orig.) [German] Bei Patienten mit metastasiertem Nierenzellkarzinom werden an die Bildgebung besondere Anforderungen gestellt. Die Therapie beruht heute in den meisten Faellen auf antiangiogenetischen Wirkstoffen, die im Verlauf teils zu relativ geringen Groessenaenderungen von Laesionen fuehren. Daher sind die oftmals verwendeten RECIST-Kriterien (''response evaluation criteria in solid tumors'') bei der Beurteilung des Therapieansprechens als ungenau anzusehen. In diesem Artikel wird ein Ueberblick ueber neue, softwarebasierte volumetrische Methoden gegeben, die es ermoeglichen, therapieinduzierte Groessenaenderungen von Metastasen beim Nierenzellkarzinom mit hoeherer Sensitivitaet und Reproduzierbarkeit zu detektieren. Anhand eigener Daten wird ein Vergleich von RECIST und Volumetrie bei Patienten mit metastasiertem Nierenzellkarzinom durchgefuehrt und die hoehere Sensitivitaet des automatisierten Verfahrens gezeigt. (orig.)

  12. Metabolismus des tabakspezifischen Nitrosamins N'-Nitrosonornicotin in Gewebeschnitten von Mäusen, Ratten und Menschen sowie Möglichkeiten der Hemmung durch Nicotin, Cotinin und Phenethylisothiocyanat

    OpenAIRE

    Lassnack, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, speziesspezifische Unterschiede in der Metabolisierung des tabakspezifischen Nitrosamins N'-Nitrosonornicotin (NNN) in den Organen Lunge und Leber von Mäusen, Ratten und Mensch zu untersuchen. Gewebeschnitte von Lunge und Leber der Maus, Ratte und des Menschen wurden unter identischen Versuchsbedingungen mit [5-3H]-NNN sechs Stunden inkubiert. Es kamen je 8 Konzentrationen von 0,001 bis 1,2 µM zum Einsatz. Bei Maus und Ratte wurden pro Konzentration die Schnitte...

  13. Modern imaging technology for childhood urinary tract infection; Moderne Bildgebung beim Harnweginfekt im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, M.; Fotter, R. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Graz (Germany). Abteilung Kinderradiologie

    2005-12-01

    Imaging in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) is still a matter of debate. There are established guidelines, however new knowledge and the changed medical environment have enhanced this ongoing discussion. These new insights have impacted therapy and consequently the imaging algorithm. Modern imaging methods - particularly MRI and modern ultrasound (US) - are less invasive with a lower radiation burden. Additionally, it has been shown that VUR is a poor predictor for renal scarring out, which affects long-term results. Furthermore, the majority of UT malformations is depicted by prenatal US. The most crucial aspect of improving long-term outcome appears to be the early and reliable depiction of UTI and effective treatment to prevent renal scarring. This review tries to present this new knowledge and to discuss the potential of modern imaging. Recent changes in imaging algorithms are highlighted and an outcome-oriented algorithm that addresses these recent developments is proposed, without lightly abandoning established standards. It consists of an orienting US and - for depiction of renal involvement - amplitude coded color Doppler sonography or renal static scintigraphy (considered the gold standard, particularly for evaluating scars); in future MRI may play a role. Based on this concept, only patients with renal damage as well as patients with complex urinary tract malformations or intractable recurrent UTI may have to undergo VCUG. (orig.) [German] Die bildgebende Diagnostik beim kindlichen Harnweginfekt (HWI) wird weiterhin heftig diskutiert. Zwar existieren etablierte Bildgebungsalgorithmen, insbesondere fuer das Kleinkindesalter; neue Erkenntnisse bzw. Aufgabenstellungen haben aber zu einer Aenderung des Therapiekonzepts mit Auswirkungen auf die Bildgebung gefuehrt. Zusaetzlich haben technische (Weiter)Entwicklungen das Potenzial der Bildgebung erweitert; v. a. MRT und moderne Ultraschallverfahren versprechen eine weniger invasive und strahlenfreie

  14. The core of the energy issue. The responsibility of human beings for the creation; Vom Kern der Energiefrage. Die Verantwortung des Menschen fuer die Schoepfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knizia, K.

    2001-07-01

    The responsibility of human beings for the creation in its ethical dimension can only be made clear against a scientific-technical and economic background since human beings have to act in their natural surroundings in view of the world that is becoming more and more complex and at the same time closer through technology, and in view of the fast growing world population and the possible hazards of the viability of the biotope Earth. After World War I, Max Weber differentiated in his famous essay 'Politics as a Vocation' between the ethics of believe and the ethics of responsibility. It can be discussed whether both streams are according to the opinion of Max Weber 'in abysmal contrast'. (orig.) [German] In dem Wort 'Verantwortung' steckt der Wortstamm 'antworten' -, und zwar zunaechst dem eigenen Gewissen zu antworten. Das aber basiert auf sittlichem Bewusstsein, aber auch auf Wissen und Urteilsfaehigkeit und damit auf der Moeglichkeit, zu werten. Werten zu koennen, das erfordert aber, den Wirkungszusammenhang des Geschehens und die Rolle des Menschen in ihm zu verstehen. Die Verantwortung des Menschen fuer die Schoepfung ist nur vor einem naturwissenschaftlich-technischen und einem volkswirtschaftlichen Hintergrund in ihrem ethischen Bezug zu verdeutlichen. (orig.)

  15. Importance of multiparametric magnetic resonance tomography for prostate cancer; Stellenwert der multiparametrischen Magnetresonanztomographie beim Prostatakarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fueger, B.J.; Helbich, T.H.; Schernthaner, M.; Linhart, H.G.; Stiglbauer, A.; Doan, A.; Pinker, K.; Heinz, G.; Brader, P. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Division fuer Molekulare und Gender-Bildgebung, Wien (Austria); Zbyn, S. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, MR-Zentrum, Hochfeld-MR, Wien (Austria); Padhani, A.R. [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Prostate cancer is biologically and clinically a heterogeneous disease which makes imaging evaluation challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has considerable potential to improve prostate cancer detection and characterization. Until recently morphologic MRI has not been routinely incorporated into clinical care because of its limitation to detect, localize and characterize prostate cancer. Performing prostate gland MRI using functional techniques has the potential to provide unique information regarding tumor behavior, including treatment response. In order for multiparametric MRI data to have an impact on patient management, the collected data need to be relayed to clinicians in a standardized way for image construction, analysis and interpretation. This will ensure that patients are treated effectively and in the most appropriate way. Scoring systems similar to those employed successfully for breast imaging need to be developed. (orig.) [German] Unter den durch Krebs verursachten Todesfaellen beim Mann liegt das Prostatakarzinom an zweiter Stelle. Aufgrund der Haeufigkeit dieses Karzinoms ist eine standardisierte Diagnostik unter Ausnutzung aller zur Verfuegung stehenden diagnostischen Methoden essenziell. Da die morphologische Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) gewisse Limitationen bzgl. Detektion, Lokalisation und Charakterisierung des Prostatakarzinoms aufweist, wird die MRT zur Abklaerung des Prostatakarzinoms nicht routinemaessig eingesetzt. Die neuen multiparametrischen Methoden scheinen viel versprechend diese Einschraenkungen zu ueberwinden, da zusaetzlich funktionelle und zellulaere Informationen erfasst werden koennen. Damit die multiparametrische MRT eine Rolle in der Diagnostik des Prostatakarzinoms spielt, muss eine Standardisierung der Bilderstellung, Analyse und Interpretation erfolgen. Es gibt Bestrebungen, ein Bewertungssystem fuer die Prostata in Anlehnung zur Brustdiagnostik zu entwickeln. Im Folgenden wird ein Ueberblick ueber den

  16. A state-of-the-art review of built environment information modelling (BeIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tah J.H.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elements that constitute the built environment are vast and so are the independent systems developed to model its various aspects. Many of these systems have been developed under various assumptions and approaches to execute functions that are distinct, complementary or sometimes similar. Furthermore, these systems are ever increasing in number and often assume similar nomenclatures and acronyms, thereby exacerbating the challenges of understanding their peculiar functions, definitions and differences. The current societal demand to improve sustainability per­formance through collaboration as well as whole-system and through-life thinking is driving the need to integrate independent systems associated with different aspects and scales of the built environment to deliver smart solutions and services that improve the well-being of citizens. The contemporary object-oriented digitization of real-world elements appears to provide a leeway for amalgamating the modelling systems of various domains in the built environment which we termed as built environment information modelling (BeIM. These domains include architecture, engineering, construction as well as urban planning and design. Applications such as building information modelling, geographic information systems and 3D city modelling systems are now being integrated for city modelling purposes. The various works directed at integrating these systems are examined, revealing that current research efforts on integration fall into three categories: (1 data/file conversion systems, (2 semantic mapping systems and (3 the hybrid of both. The review outcome suggests that good knowledge of these domains and how their respective systems operate is vital to pursuing holistic systems integration in the built environment.

  17. Sprachbewusstheit und ihr Einsatz von Jugendlichen, die Deutsch als Tertiärsprache in der Slowakei lernen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Juhásová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag erörtert die derzeit in der Fremdsprachenforschung stark betonte Bedeutung von bewusstem Lernen, insbesondere beim Erwerb der zweiten beziehungsweise der weiteren Fremdsprache. Im Zentrum der Aufmerksamkeit steht die Sprachbewusstheit beim Erwerb des Deutschen als Tertiärsprache sowie jene Rolle, die ihrem Einsatz von Schülern der neunten Klasse der neunjährigen Grundschule in der Slowakei zugeschrieben wird. Der empirische Teil thematisiert die aus der Befragung gewonnenen Daten zu lernindividuellen Faktoren beim L3-Lernen, zum Umgang jugendlicher Lernender mit ihrem (fremd-sprachlichen Vorwissen sowie mit ihren sprachlernbezogenen Erfahrungen beim Erwerb des Deutschen als zweiter Fremdsprache und erarbeitet daraus Herausforderungen für die Praxis des DaF-Lernens und -Lehrens. The submitted article deals with the notion of language awareness which is especially accentuated as the means of second language acquisition. Language awareness becomes the centre of attention in terms of mastering German language as the third language and its role on the 9th grade of primary school in Slovakia. Empirical part is based on data obtained by questionnaire method provided by students. Students are explaining their relation towards second language learning as well as their experiences with L3 followed by deductions for further learning and practice of German as a foreign language.

  18. Der Preis als Kaufbarriere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Die Preispolitik hat eine herausragende Stellung im Marketing. Der Preis eines Produktes ist für Verbraucher ein direkter Kostenfaktor und für Unternehmen die Stellgröße im Mar-ketingmix, die den Umsatz am stärksten beeinflusst (vgl. Nieschlag et al. 2002). Wenn die Akzeptanz und der regelmäßige...... Verzehr gesunder Lebensmittel erhöht werden soll, ist es sowohl für die Verbraucherpolitik als auch für Lebensmittelproduzenten wichtig, den Ein-fluss des Preises auf die Kaufentscheidung zu verstehen. Aus Verbrauchersicht ist der Preis neben dem Geschmack die wichtigste Produkteigen-schaft beim Kauf von...... Lebensmitteln (vgl. Brunsø/Grunert 1998) und stellt eine Kaufbarrie-re für Lebensmittel mit gesundheitsfördernden Eigenschaften dar. Studien in den USA (vgl. Cassady et al. 2007), Frankreich (vgl. Drewnowski et al. 2004; Andrieu et al. 2005) und Deutschland (vgl. Karg et al. 2008) kommen übereinstimmend zu dem...

  19. The value of radiotherapy in comparison with extracorporeal shockwave therapy for supraspinatus tendinitis; Die Wertigkeit der Strahlenbehandlung im Vergleich zur extrakorporalen Stosswellentherapie (ESWT) beim Supraspinatussehnensyndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.W.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie der Philipps-Univ. Marburg (Germany); Sattler, A.; Haake, M.; Schmitt, J.; Hildebrandt, R. [Orthopaedische Klinik der Philipps-Univ. Marburg (Germany); Mueller, H.H. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Philipps-Univ. Marburg (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Background and Aim: Supraspinatus tendinitis is usually treated by antiinflammatoric drugs, local injections, physiotherapy or low-dose irradiation. A novel approach is the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) if conservative therapies have failed. So far there has been no controlled study comparing the effectiveness of ESWT with an established conservative method of therapy such as X-ray stimulation radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: 30 patients with chronic supraspinatus tendinitis were admitted into the prospective randomized study. After randomization the patients were treated either with X-ray stimulation radiotherapy with 6 x 0.5 Gy on the ICRU reference point (1 fraction/day) with cobalt 60 gamma rays or three times with 2000 pulses (energy flux density ED+ 0.1 mJ/mm{sup 2}) in 1 week intervals using a Storz Minilith SL1. Primary endpoint was the age-corrected constant score 3 months after intervention. Results: Acute side effects caused by the irradiation were not observed, as expected. One patient described pain and one patient showed a moderate skin irritation after ESWT. In the radiotherapy group average the age-corrected constant score improved from 47.6 through 79.5 points to 87.4 points. In the ESWT group it rose from 50.1 points before ESWT to 91.4 points after 12 weeks and 97.8 after 52 weeks. Conclusion: No statistically significant differences were proven between ESWT and radiotherapy. ESWT appears to be equivalent but not superior to radiotherapy in treating chronic supraspinatus tendinitis syndrome. A comprehensive randomized study is, however, necessary to ensure the equivalence of ESWT. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund und Studienziel: Neben den medikamentoesen Therapieverfahren stehen beim Supraspinatussehnensyndrom die niedrig dosierte Strahlentherapie und, als neuere Methode, die extrakorporale Stosswellentherapie (ESWT) zur Verfuegung. Bislang fehlt jedoch eine kontrollierte Studie, die die Wirksamkeit der ESWT im Vergleich zur

  20. Cerebral MR imaging of malignant melanoma; Zerebrale MR-Bildgebung beim malignen Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckwoldt, M.; Bendszus, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-16

    Suszeptibilitaetssignale (ITSS), was sie von anderen Metastasen unterscheidet (Spezifitaet ca. 81-96 %). Die Diffusionsbildgebung spielt beim MM nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. Die suszeptibilitaetsgewichtete Bildgebung verbessert die Sensitivitaet der Metastasendetektion bei eingeschraenkter Spezifitaet. Eine Unterscheidung von Mikroblutungen oder Verkalkungen kann im Einzelfall unmoeglich sein. Kontrovers ist zudem, wie SWI-Signalausloeschungen zu werten sind, fuer die sich kein Korrelat in den anderen Sequenzen findet (Differenzialdiagnose: Metastase, Mikroblutung, Verkalkung). Der beim MM haeufig vorkommende ZNS-Befall ist ab Stadium IIc auch bei neurologisch asymptomatischen Patienten auszuschliessen. Ebenso sind im Stadium IV alle 3 Monate kraniale MRT-Untersuchungen indiziert. Die Unterscheidung von Metastasen und intrazerebralen Einblutungen ist nicht immer moeglich und muss im Einzelfall durch eine Verlaufsuntersuchung geklaert werden. Zusaetzliche diagnostische Sensitivitaet bei eingeschraenkter Spezifitaet bringt die SWI. (orig.)

  1. Variable valve timing complementing hybrid-EGR at diesel engines; Variable Ventilsteuerung als Ergaenzung zur Hybrid-Abgasrueckfuehrung beim Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Olaf [BorgWarner, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Joergl, Volker [BorgWarner, Kirchheimbolanden (Germany); Bullmer, Wolfgang; Wyatt, Steve [BorgWarner Morse Tec, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2009-04-15

    To understand the benefits of the Atkinson cycle added to a two-stage boosting system including Hybrid-EGR, engine simulations were carried out by BorgWarner. The possible valve curves were determined by a real variable valve timing device consisting of two concentric camshafts with an integrated cam phaser. The results promise a higher degree of freedom in tradeoffs between fuel economy, NO{sub x} emission and Particulate Matters (PM). (orig.)

  2. Numerical simulation of spatial whole-body vibration behaviour of sitting man taking into account individual anthropometry and position; Numerische Simulation des raeumlichen Ganzkoerperschwingungsverhaltens des sitzenden Menschen unter Beruecksichtigung der individuellen Anthropometrie und Haltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankoke, S.

    2003-07-01

    A dynamic FE model of the anatomy of humans in sitting position is presented for assessing the dynamic internal response of the human body to the effect of external vibrations. The model can be adapted to individual body measures, different positions and different spatial orientation. It was verified on the basis of extensive measured data. The problem of contact between the human body and the driver seat is solved by a simplified static description. The model comprises a sub-model of the lumbar vertebral column for assessing the spatial load distributions in this body region. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein dynamisches, an der menschlichen Anatomie orientiertes Finite-Elemente-Modell des sitzenden Menschen vorgestellt, das es gestaltet, dynamische innere Antworten des Koerpers auf von aussen auf den Menschen einwirkende Schwingungen zu ermitteln. Das Modell ist ueber eine Auswahl anthropometrischer Masse an das Schwingungsverhalten eines Individuums anpassbar und ermoeglicht zudem die Simulation von Schwingungseinwirkungen in unterschiedlichen Haltungen und in allen Raumrichtungen. Die Modellverifikation erfolgte an umfangreichen Messdatenbestaenden. Das Kontaktproblem des Menschen zum Fahrzeugsitz ist durch eine vereinfachte statische Beschreibung abgebildet. Ferner beinhaltet das Ganzkoerpermodell ein Submodell der Lendenwirbelsaeule, mit dessen Hilfe die aus den Ganzkoerperschwingungen folgenden raeumlichen Beanspruchungsverteilungen in der Lendenwirbelsaeule ermittelt werden koennen. (orig.)

  3. Thure von Uexkülls semiotisches Modell des Menschen als Grundlage für eine moderne Theorie der Homöopathie

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Josef M.

    2012-01-01

    Während die konventionelle moderne Medizin ihr Selbstverständnis und ihre Praxis weitgehend am Vorbild der konventionellen Naturwissenschaft orientiert, erhebt die Homöopathie den Anspruch, Patienten nicht reduktionistisch, sondern individuell und ganzheitlich zu erfassen und zu behandeln. Gemäss der Lehre Samuel Hahnemanns (1755–1843) ist dazu statt des materialistisch-mechanistischen ein semiotisch-phänomenologischer Ansatz anzuwenden. Während die Anweisungen Hahnemanns für die Praxis klar,...

  4. DIE KONTRASTIVE TEXTSORTENANALYSE ALS VORSTUFE ZUR ÜBERSETZUNG VON RECHTSTEXTEN: DEUTSCHE UND SPANISCHE SCHEIDUNGSURTEILE IM VERGLEICH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Holl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beim interlingualen und interkulturellen Vergleich juristischer Textsorten zeigen sich zum einen die unterschiedlichen Vertextungskonventionen, welche die jeweilige Rechtssprache prägen, und zum anderen die rechtskulturellen Besonderheiten, die auf die verschiedenen Rechtsordnungen, in denen die Texte verwurzelt sind, hinweisen. Aus diesem Grund kann die kontrastive Textsortenanalyse wertvolle Ergebnisse für die Übersetzung von Rechtstexten liefern. Dies soll in vorliegendem Beitrag exemplarisch anhand des Vergleichs deutscher und spanischer Scheidungsurteile gezeigt werden. Dabei erfolgt die Textanalyse anhand eines Mehrebenenmodells, das gleichzeitig die verschiedenen Dimensionen des Textes (funktional-pragmatische, semantische und grammatische Dimension sowie die Wechselwirkungen zwischen diesen erfasst. Beim Textvergleich funktionieren die einzelnen Ebenen des Modells außerdem als tertium comparationis.

  5. Werkzeugverschleißdetektion beim Fräsen mittels Infrarotmesstechnik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittner, Walter

    Heute ist es praxisüblich, bei der spanenden Bearbeitung mittels definierter Schneide die Werkzeuge aus Gründen der Qualitätssicherung vorzeitig, im Allgemeinen nach Ermessen des Maschinenbedieners, zu wechseln. Dadurch entstehen zwangsläufig höhere Werkzeugkosten als notwendig, die dann an den Verbraucher weitergegeben werden. Wird jedoch ein rechtzeitiger Werkzeugwechsel verpasst, so entstehen insbesondere bei Hochleistungsbearbeitungsprozessen hohe Ausschussraten. Daher sollte die Entscheidung zum Werkzeugwechsel nicht mehr dem Maschinenbediener allein überlassen werden [1, 2].

  6. Radiological interventional procedures for the acute abdomen; Radiologisch-interventionelle Massnahmen beim akuten Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumm, C.; Hoffmann, R.T.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    In patients with acute thrombo-embolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, catheter-assisted thrombolytic therapy represents a procedure of increasing importance in addition to surgery and intensive care treatment. The thrombolytic drugs utilized for this purpose are urokinase, streptokinase and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). Therapeutic embolization is predominantly used in the treatment of arterial bleeding from the gastro-intestinal tract, the liver, the intestines (due to an aneurysm or vascular malformation) and in bleeding from intestinal anastomoses. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, embospheres, gelfoam and microcoils can be utilized as embolic agents. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage and stent implantation are applied in patients with biliary obstructions caused by inoperable tumors of the gall bladder or bile ducts, of the pancreatic head or duodenum and by metastases located in the liver parenchyma or hepatic hilum. Image-guided percutaneous drainage is a valuable option in the management of abscesses in the peritoneal cavity; less common indications are lymphoceles, biliomas, urinomas, hematomas, necrosis and pseudocysts. (orig.) [German] Die kathetergestuetzte thrombolytische Therapie stellt im Kontext einer chirurgischen und intensivmedizinischen Versorgung von Patienten mit thrombembolisch bedingter mesenterialer Ischaemie ein unterstuetzendes Behandlungsverfahren von zunehmender Bedeutung dar. Als thrombolytische Agenzien werden Urokinase, Streptokinase und der rekombinante Gewebeplasminogenaktivator (rtPA) verwendet. Die therapeutische Embolisation kommt neben der endoskopischen und chirurgischen Blutungsstillung bei arteriellen Blutungen im Gastrointestinaltrakt, aus der Leber, im Darm (als Folge eines Aneurysmas oder einer vaskulaeren Malformation) sowie bei blutenden intestinalen Anastomosen zum Einsatz. Zur Embolisation koennen Polyvinylalkoholpartikel, Embosphaeren, Gelfoam oder Mikrocoils verwendet werden. Die

  7. Lernen, sich auf Menschen einzulassen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Sebastian; Lindner, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    and into ethnography’s implicit normative frameworks on the other. 34 years after the publication of this essay, in this interview Rolf Lindner talks about how the essay came about, how it connected to and intervened in dominant academic discourses at the time, and what the essay’s legacy is in regard to methodical...

  8. Knee and ankle injuries from playing football; Knie- und Sprunggelenkverletzungen beim Fussballspiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [German] Fussball ist die weltweit am meisten verbreitete Sportart. Der Zuwachs an Fussballspieler(innen) in den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten wird jedoch hauptsaechlich auf das verstaerkte Interesse an weiblichen Spielern zurueckgefuehrt. Das Fussballspiel gilt grundsaetzlich, insbesondere wenn man geringfuegige Verletzungen, die keine therapeutischen Massnahmen notwendig machen, sondern lediglich eine kurzfristige Trainings- oder Spielpause bedingen, als eine relativ sichere Sportart. Auf Grund der Vielzahl an SpielerInnen kommt es allerdings doch zu einer betraechtlichen Anzahl durchaus sehr schwerer Verletzungen. Diese Tatsache stellt ein Problem fuer Spieler und Team dar und mag moeglicherweise auch fuer das soziooekonomische System problematisch werden. Von Verletzungen sind v. a. auf Grund der Natur des Spieles die unteren Extremitaeten betroffen. Zur Durchfuehrung einer suffizienten radiologischen Diagnostik sind Kenntnisse der moeglichen Verletzungsmechanismen und eine Anamneseerhebung von nicht zu unterschaetzendem Wert. Um jedoch derartige Laesionen zu vermeiden bzw. gering zu halten, wurde ueber die Jahre

  9. Radiation therapy for Morbus Ledderhose - indication and clinical results; Strahlentherapie beim Morbus Ledderhose - Indikation und klinische Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Attassi, M. [Klinik fuer Radioonkologie, Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin, Alfried-Krupp-Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    were minimal: during and within 3 months of the RT course only a slight erythema (CTC 1 ) was seen in five treated lesions, while dry skin changes within the RT portal were observed in three cases (11%) in long term FU (> 12 months). Conclusions: radiotherapy is effective in treating ML and may prevent otherwise necessary surgical interventions. Nodules, cords and symptoms regress, but long-term outcome of at least 5 years has to be awaited. Prospective phase III studies should confirm these results. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Der morbus ledderhose (ML) ist eine hyperproliferative Erkrankung der Plantaraponeurose, die dem morbus dupuytren (MD) sehr aehnlich ist. Wir prueften, ob eine Bestrahlung die Symptome lindern und die Progression der Erkrankung aufhalten kann. Patienten und Methoden: Von Juni 1996 bis Dezember 2002 wurden zwoelf Frauen und 13 Maenner im Alter von 9-76 (median 56) Jahren mit symptomatischem ML bestrahlt und mindestens 1 Jahr kontrolliert. Insgesamt wurden 36 Fuesse (16 rechts, 20 links) bestrahlt, da elf Patienten beidseits einen Befall hatten. Zwoelf (48%) Patienten hatten auch einen MD. An 36 Fuessen lagen 63 Knoten (mit 0,5-6,5 cm Groesse) und an 13 (52%) Fuessen 20 Straenge (mit 1-4 cm Laenge) vor. Zusaetzlich bestanden 14-mai (56%) starke Fussschmerzen, achtmal (32%) Probleme beim Laufen, zwoelfmal (48%) andere Symptome (Druck, Schwellung, Spannung). Die Orthovolt-Radiotherapie erfasste alle tastbaren Knoten und Straenge. Es wurden zwei Serien zu je 5 x 3 Gy pro Woche (gesamt: 30 Gy) im Abstand von 8-12 Wochen gegeben. Die Auswertung erfolgte am Ende der RT, nach 3 und 12 Monaten und zuletzt im Dezember 2002. Primaerer Endpunkt war die Vermeidung einer Progression bzw. Operation; sekundaere Endpunkte waren mehrere objektive morphologisch-funktionelle sowie subjektive Parameter (visuelle analogskala (VAS)). Ergebnisse: Nach 38 (12-67) Monaten medianem FU war kein Fuss progredient oder musste operiert werden. Bei 11 von 36 (44%) Fuessen nahm

  10. Sinn als Thema im Coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Die Sinnfrage ist zentral für den Menschen. Warum sollte man deshalb Coaching auf Zielsetzungen und Performance reduzieren? Es erscheint wichtig, den aktuellen gesellschaftlichen Diskurs aufzuweichen, der den einzelnen zu Selbstdisziplinierung zwingt und zu Depression, Selbstzweifel, Burn-out und...

  11. The bypass solution as a capacity enhancing measure in connecting biogas plants to the grid; Die Bypass-Loesung als kapazitaetserhoehende Massnahme beim Netzanschluss von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassmann, Nils [PwC Legal AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bereich Energierecht in der Region Sued; Reinhardt, Anja [PwC Legal AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In spite of repeated amendments to the laws governing the connection of biogas plants to the grid there still remain unresolved disputes in practice. A significant issue in this regard concerns what is referred to as the bypass solution, where a connection to the general supply grid of the receiving grid operator is created and at the same time technical equipment is installed which provides a connection to an upstream grid to which biogas can be backfed in times of low grid load. The Upper Regional Court of Duesseldorf classifies constellations of this kind as a combined grid connection to two different grids. It argues that since the legislature has provided no regulations on this constellation there can be no legitimate right to obtaining a connection of this configuration. However, this line of argumentation does not appear compelling. The meaning and purpose of Articles 31 ff. of the Gas Network Access Ordinance and the wording of the relevant norms both speak in favour of considering bypass solutions as capacity-enhancing measures. The receiving (downstream) grid operator would then be obliged, under the general requirements, to create a grid connection and to draw the bypass solution into consideration as a special means of backfeeding. This would provide legal certainty for all involved and allow technically meaningful solutions to be implemented.

  12. Value of radiographic examination of the knee joint for the orthopedic surgeon; Wertigkeit der radiologischen Bildgebung beim Kniegelenk fuer den Orthopaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, M.; Hofmann, S. [Allgemeines und Orthopaedisches LKH Stolzalpe (Austria). Abteilung fuer Orthopaedie und orthopaedische Chirurgie

    2006-01-01

    Extended radiographic examinations offer excellent options for diagnosis and strategy for treatment of the knee joint. The whole-leg radiograph is indispensable in measuring alignment for osteotomy or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fluoroscopically assisted varus-valgus stress radiographs provide the possibility for verifying mechanical function of the implanted knee prosthesis. Ultrasound examinations have been widely replaced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is the golden standard to examine intra-articular structures of the knee (meniscus, ligaments, cartilage) and surrounding soft tissue. For evaluating femoral and tibial torsion and determining axial rotation of TKA, computed tomography (CT) is best qualified. Imaging of the patellofemoral joint (patella instability) is difficult; CT scans in combination with true lateral radiographs seem to be helpful. (orig.) [German] Die erweiterte Roentgendiagnostik bietet gute Moeglichkeiten der Diagnose und Therapieplanung beim Kniegelenk. Das Ganzbeinroentgen ist unabdingbar zur Achsvermessung bei der Planung einer Umstellungsosteotomie oder der Implantation einer Knietotalendoprothese (KTEP). Varus-/Valgusaufnahmen unter Bildwandler gestatten die Ueberpruefung der Mechanik einer liegenden KTEP. Sonographische Untersuchungen des Kniegelenks sind weitgehend durch die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ersetzt. Die MRT ist die Methode der Wahl zur Beurteilung der Kniebinnenstrukturen (Meniskus, Baender, Knorpel) und der umgebenden Weichteile. Zur Bestimmung der Torsion von Femur und Tibia sowie der Rotation der Komponenten einer KTEP ist die Computertomographie (CT) am besten geeignet. Die Beurteilung des Femorpatellargelenks (Patellainstabilitaet) ist schwierig, am vielversprechendsten erscheint die CT in Kombination mit streng seitlichen Roentgenbildern. (orig.)

  13. Substancinė Dievo formos kaita kaip meninė Visybės reprezentacija (pagal Thomo Manno romaną Juozapas ir jo broliai | Substanziales Werden der Form Gottes als künstleriche Repräsentation des Ganzen (nach der Tetralogie Joseph und seine Brüder von Thomas Mann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juldita Nagliuvienė

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anhand der Polemik zwischen der Totalitätsphänomenologie von Emmanuel Lévinas und der Selbstphänomenologie von Ernst Bloch werden in diesem Artikel die Erscheinungen Gottes, mit denen sich das patriarchalische Subjekt in die Beziehung eingetreten ist, analysiert. Vor allem aktualisiert man den substanziellen Inhalt der künstlerichen Gottesform, deren Wurzeln in der primitiven archaischen Ikonographie der Babylonier und der Ägypter liegen. Das Bild Gottes verwandelt sich in der Situation der Begegnung aus der Substanz des unförmigen Steines, die pfallische Intentionen des Helden akzentuiert, in die symbiotische Form eines Menschentieres (oder Gottes-Tieres, das als Fremde Gott auf der Ebene der Erzählung funktioniert und den Numenaspekt durch die künstliche Form der animalischen Gottheit in sich trägt. Durch die Maske des Tieres strebt der göttliche Begegnungspartner, der das Werden Gottes aktualisiert, nach der Verwandlung in die Gestalt eines sterbenden und wieder auferstehenden Menschen-Gottes, der den sündigen Menschen erlösen kann. In der Tetralogie von Thomas Mann existiert diese Ebene des Nochnicht-gewordenen-Gottes als utopische Stufe der vollkommenen Beziehungen zwischen Mensch und Gott. Die Begegnung zwischen dem tierischen Gott und dem Helden geschieht im Roman in der Traumsphäre, die den Dialog zwischen dem Kunstding und dem Menschen möglich macht. Auf der Traumebene wird der Prozess der Metamorphose einer Gottheit dargestellt, aber sie erscheint als ein schon verwandeltes Wesen, das die Antropomorphie des Erlösungsprinzips aufnimmt, und dem Helden erst im bewussten Zustand begegnet.

  14. Dimensioning of activation systems using submerged membranes at municipal sewage treatment plants; Bemessung von Membranbelebungsanlagen beim Einsatz zur Reinigung kommunaler Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohle, P.; Dorgeloh, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft (ISA)

    1999-07-01

    Dimensioning of conventional activation systems in Germany as a rule relies on instruction sheet A131 of the Abwassertechnische Vereinigung or follows the Hochschulgruppen approach (HSG). They contain recommendations as to the size of the nitrification and denitrification zones, the amount of oxygen supplied and sludge production, and the size of the final sedimentation tank. For the use of sludge activation techniques by means of submerged membranes at municipal sewage treatment plant there so far do not exist any clues to dimensioning that make allowance for the modified boundary conditions. The present paper analyses instruction sheet A131 for its suitability as a basis in the dimensioning of sludge activation systems with submerged membranes at municipal sewage treatment plant. Then the dimensioning instructions are modified to suit the changed boundary conditions, and recommendations for the dimensioning of activation systems with submerged membranes on the basis of extensive studies carried out at the Institut fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft ISA of Aachen Technical University RWTH are given. (orig.) [German] Die Bemessung konventioneller Belebungsverfahren erfolgt in Deutschland i.d.R. auf der Grundlage des Arbeitsblatts A 131 der Abwassertechnischen Vereinigung bzw. nach dem Hochschulgruppenansatz (HSG). Sie enthalten Empfehlungen bezueglich der Dimensionierung von Nitrifikations- und Denitrifikationszone, Sauerstoffversorgung, Schlammproduktion und Nachklaerbecken. Fuer den Einsatz von Membranbelebungsanlagen in kommunalen Klaeranlagen existieren bislang keine Bemessungshinweise, die den veraenderten Randbedingungen Rechnung tragen. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert das Arbeitsblatt A 131 in Hinsicht auf die Moeglichkeit zur Anwendung fuer die Bemessung von Membranbelebungsanlagen beim Einsatz zur kommunalen Abwasserreinigung. Im Weiteren erfolgt die Modifikation der Bemessungshinweise hinsichtlich der geaenderten Randbedingungen und die Angabe von

  15. Operating experience with natural-gas-fuelled buses and their economy; Betriebserfahrungen und Wirtschaftlichkeit beim Einsatz von Erdgas-Bussen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberwein, B. [Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), Berlin (Germany). Omnibustechnik

    1998-12-01

    The project aimed to test this technology under every-day conditions, collect data on the economy of the buses, their emissions and their long-term performance, especially in comparison with buses with conventional diesel engines. The study was carried out by the Senate of Berlin authority for transport and enterprises, the Berlin transport services (BVG) and the UITP Euro Team as project partner of the Commission of the European Union, with the participation of a number of engineering consultancies. The duration of the project was 39 months. During this period, the six articulated buses and four standard buses were comprehensively tested, energy consumption was monitored, and numerous measurements of emissions were taken and evaluated. A number of valuable results are available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Ziele des Vorhabens waren die technische Erprobung dieser Technologie unter Alltagsbedingungen, die Sammlung von Daten zur Wirtschaftlichkeit, Emission und zum Langzeitverhalten der Busse, insbesondere im Vergleich zur konventionellen Dieseltechnik. Das Projekt wurde von der Berliner Senatsverwaltung fuer Verkehr und Betriebe, den Berliner Verkehrsbetrieben (BVG) und des UITP-Euro Teams als Projektpartner der EU-Kommission unter Beteiligung von einer Reihe von Ingenieurbueros durchgefuehrt. Nach der 39-monatigen Projektlaufzeit und der umfassenden Erprobung der sechs Gelenk- und vier Standardbusse sowie der Erfassung des Energieverbrauchs und zahlreicher Messungen des Emissionsverhaltens und deren Auswertung liegen eine Reihe wertvoller Ergebnisse vor. (orig.)

  16. Investigations on avoidance of hot cracks during laser welding of austenitic Cr-Ni steels and nickel-based alloys using temperature field tailoring. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Vermeidung von Heissrissen beim Laserstrahlschweissen von austenitischen Cr-Ni-Staehlen und Nickelbasislegierungen mittels Temperaturfeld-Tailoring. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-08

    . Zweitens wird bei rotationssymmetrischen Bauteilen, die mittels einer Axial-Rundnaht zu verschweissen sind, mit einem relativ einfachen Temperaturfeld, das durch Erwaermung des innen liegenden Fuegepartners vor und waehrend des Schweissens aufgebaut wird, ein Spannungsfeld erzeugt, das die Bildung von Heissrissen verhindert. Schliesslich konnte drittens ein heissrissfreies Laserstrahlschweissen des Stahls 1.4305 und der Nickelbasislegierung Udimet 720 bereits ohne den Einsatz zusaetzlicher Temperaturfelder erreicht werden. Die Grenzen der Einsetzbarkeit des Verfahrens bei Cr-Ni-Staehlen werden dann erreicht, wenn Quer-Heissrisse oder parallel zur Blechoberflaeche liegende Heissrisse entstehen. Die zur Vermeidung dieser Risse noetigen Druckspannungen in den Richtungen parallel zur Schweissnaht bzw. senkrecht zur Blechoberflaeche koennen mittels induktiver Erwaermung von der Blechoberseite aus nicht in der erforderlichen Groesse erzeugt werden. Ebenso stoesst das Verfahren an seine Grenzen, wenn Wiederaufschmelzungsrisse auftreten, was beim hier verwendeten Stahl 1.4435 der Fall war. Die Spannungen, die zur Verhinderung einer Rissoeffnung an den Korngrenzen der Waermeeinflusszone erforderlich waeren, konnten durch Temperaturfeld-Tailoring nicht erreicht werden. Die Moeglichkeit des heissrissfreien Schweissens des Stahls 1.4305 auch ohne Temperaturfeld-Tailoring ergibt sich hauptsaechlich aus dem primaer ferritischen Erstarrungsmodus des Stahls in der vorliegenden Legierungszusammensetzung. Ein industrieller Einsatz des Laserstrahlschweissens fuer diesen oft als nicht schweissbar klassifizierten Stahl erscheint moeglich, wenn bei der Legierungszusammensetzung auf niedrige Anteile der Austenitbildner Nickel, Kohlenstoff und Stickstoff Wert gelegt wird und damit eine stabil primaer ferritische Erstarrung erreicht wird. Fuer diesen Fall kommt es nicht zur Schwefelanreicherung an den Korngrenzen, wodurch die Bildung niedrigschmelzender Phasen und damit die Heissrissentstehung

  17. MRI in definition of bleeding source, lesion pattern and therapy in haemarthros of the knee; Die MRT beim Haemarthros des Kniegelenks: Bestimmung von Blutungsursachen, Verletzungsmustern und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, G. [Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie, Klinikum der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Juergensen, I. [Orthopaedische Klinik, Klinikum der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Leier, S. [Orthopaedische Klinik, Klinikum der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Rauber, K. [Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie, Klinikum der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    . Plicarupturen in 13% gefunden. Rupturierte Kreuzbaender fuehrten in allen, bis auf drei, Faelle zu Blutungen. Einen Haemarthros verursachten Meniskusrisse, die sehr nahe an der Basis lokalisiert waren, und osteochondrale Laesionen, die in der MRT durch Zerstoerungen der subchondralen Grenzlamelle und des darueberliegenden Knorpels charakterisiert waren. Die Nachweisraten der MRT lagen fuer schwere Binnenschaeden zwischen 71 und 100% und fuer leichte Verletzungen zwischen 13 und 40%. Solitaere und kombinierte Verletzungen sowie Bagatellschaeden wurden exakt genug in der MRT beschrieben, um Patienten mit einem Vorhersagewert von 96 bzw. 80% einer chirurgischen oder konservativen Therapie zuzuordnen. Anhand morphologischer Kriterien koennen beim Haemarthros Blutungsquellen erkannt werden. Verschiedene Verletzungsmuster koennen fuer die weitere Therapieplanung abgegrenzt werden. (orig.)

  18. ALS Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  19. Familial ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Genes linked to ALS susceptibility are being identified at an increasing rate owing to advances in molecular genetic technology. Genetic mechanisms in ALS pathogenesis appear to exert major effects in ~10% of patients, but genetic factors at some level may be important components of disease risk in most ALS patients. Identification of gene variants associated with ALS has informed concepts of the pathogenesis of ALS, aided the identification of therapeutic targets, facilitated research to develop new ALS biomarkers, and supported the establishment of clinical diagnostic tests for ALS-linked genes. Translation of this knowledge to ALS therapy development is ongoing. PMID:26515623

  20. Eduardo Mieželaičio Žmogus kaip politinės religijos tekstas | Das Poem Der Mensch (Žmogus von Eduardas Mieželaitis als Text der Politischen Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Kmita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Im diesem Aufsatz wird versucht mit Hilfe des Begriffs der politischen Religion einen der kanonischen Texte in der sowjetlitauischen Literatur, Der Mensch (Žmogus von Leninpreisträger Eduardas Mieželaitis, zu interpretieren. Am Anfang wird der Begriff der politischen Religion basierend auf Theoretiker wie Eric Voegelin, Raymond Aron, Hans Otto Setschek, Hans Maiers, Manfred Hildermeier, Klaus-Georg Riegel u.a. präsentiert. Politische Religion ist ein Begriff, der das System des totalitären Staates bezeichnet. Politische Religion ist ein Versuch, die Ideologie als ein rationales Konstrukt, als Absolutes, einzig Mögliches und Rechtes vorzustellen. In den politischen Religionen nehmen die Führer und die Ideologen des Staates den Platz des Gottes oder sacrum ein und die Politik sowie Ideologie des Saates wird zum Plan der Erlösung.In der Analyse Des Menschen wird versucht die Frage zu beantworten, wodurch die Religion in der Sowjetzeit ersetzt wurde, welche Art neuer Metaphysik, die die Moral des Menschen begründet, geschaffen wurde, wie der ideologische Diskurs sakralisiert wurde.Das Poem Der Mensch von Mieželaitis wurde nach der Kritik des Personenkults geschaffen und erfüllte die Erwartungen des sowjetischen Systems. Personenkult wurde durch Kult des Menschen ersetzt, aber im Prinzip schreibt Mieželaitis die alten Texte der politischen Religion. Damit änderte er nicht die wesentlichen Prinzipien, er plädierte für die kommunistische Partei und den sozialistischen Humanismus in abstrakterer Art und Weise. Die komunistische Ideologie wurde als metaphysicher, absoluter Wert, die einzige Wahrheit dargestellt. Mieželaitis verwendet die griechischen Mythen, die Komposition der mythischen Erzählung, die sakrale Anthropologie, mit Hilfe der Technik gewinnt sein Held das Göttliche. Die Metapher der Sonne setzt im Poem die Semantik des Stalinismus und anderer totalitärer bzw. autoritarischer Staaten fort. Sowjetischer Romantismus und

  1. Die Gralssuche als Sauftour: mittelalterliche Erzählstrukturen in Bernard Leonettis parodistischem Fantasy-Thriller "La Quête brestoise" (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Isabell Wörsdörfer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel untersucht die narrativen Parallelen zwischen roman courtois und phantastischem Thriller anhand von Bernard Leonettis „polar arthurien“ La Quête brestoise. Dabei rückt das Hauptmotiv der (Grals-Queste in den Vordergrund, das im mittelalterlichen Roman als ritterliche aventure und im Kriminalroman als actiongeladene Suche jeweils den strukturgebenden Handlungsrahmen darstellt und aufgrund des Kontrasts zwischen der früheren Lebenswelt des Protagonisten Chevalier und dem modernen Brest zahlreiche parodistische Züge erhält. Eine wichtige Rolle in der Analyse spielt ferner die Raum-Zeit-Struktur, die mit Bachtin als wunderbare Welt, in der die Zeit des Abenteuers vorherrscht, beschrieben werden kann und demnach derjenigen des höfischen Romans ähnelt: Beim letzten Gefecht, welches auf einer Yacht ausgetragen wird, die im Inneren eine Steingrotte birgt, scheint die Zeit stillzustehen und eigenen – phantastischen – Gesetzen zu unterliegen.

  2. Die Virus-induzierten Lebererkrankungen des Menschen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenburg, J.

    1982-12-01

    Although many viral agents may be associated with inflammatory hepatic changes, the vast majority of clinically important viral hepatitis is caused by hepatitis A, hepatitis B and the non A, non B agents. Infection of the liver of man by these hepatotropic agents is still a major public health problem in all parts of the world and constitutes a major hazard of the transfusion of blood and plasma derivatives. The magnitude of this hepatitis problem is not only documented by the about 200 million carriers of the hepatitis-B virus throughout the world, many of them asymptomatic, but also by the fact, that hepatitis B and non A, non B may progress to chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and probably primary liver cancer. Potentially important pathogenetic determinants include viral factors such as subtype, dosage and mode of transmission and host factors such as age, sex, preexisting liver disease, coexisting non-liver disease (diabetes etc.), genetics and immune response to viral or autoantigens. As the virus itself seems not directly cytopathic, the diversity of lesions has been attributed to variation in the capacity of the host's response.

  3. "... dass sich Menschen wohlfühlen"

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Um ökologisch nachhaltig zu bauen, spielen nicht nur die Architektur und Gebäudetechnik eine wichtige Rolle. Auch durch die Innenarchitektur, insbesondere den effektiven Einsatz von Beleuchtung, lassen sich energiesparende Effekte erzielen. Der Artikel nennt Beispiele für energiesparende Lichtkonzepte in Buchhandel und Bibliothek, die neben nachhaltigen Effekten zugleich eine angenehme Atmosphäre für Kunden und Nutzer schaffen. The paper makes the point that it is not only architectur...

  4. Formation and significance of technical and atmospheric aerosols; Bildung und Bedeutung technischer und atmosphaerischer Aerosole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, K.G. [Duisburg Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (DE). Inst. fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA)

    1999-04-01

    Aerosols and ultrafine particles are of significance for environmental protection, e.g. in connection with protecting humans against injuries to their health or the protection of products. Due to their low mass, the mass concentration of particles of less than 1 {mu}m is generally low, even if their concentration in numbers is high. These particles are increasingly attaining significance as carriers, e.g. of pollutants which still trigger undesirable reactions in trace concentrations or even as single molecules. (orig.) [German] Aerosole und ultrafeine Partikel haben ihre Bedeutung in Bezug auf den Umweltschutz z.B. beim - Schutz des Menschen vor gesundheitlichen Schaeden und - den Schutz von Produkten. Die Massenkonzentrationen dieser Partikel unter 1 {mu}m sind wegen der geringen Partikelmasse trotz grosser Partikelanzahlkonzentrationen im allgemeinen ebenfalls gering. Zunehmend wichtig wird die Rolle dieser Partikel als Carrier fuer z.B. Schadstoffe, die schon im Bereich von Spurenkonzentrationen oder sogar molekular unerwuenschte Wirkungen ausloesen. (orig.)

  5. Hirnleistungsstörungen/Demenzen als Ursache der Inkontinenz - neurologische Aspekte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal-Bianco P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Inkontinenz ist ein häufiges Problem älterer dementer Patienten und gilt als einer der Hauptgründe für die Pflegeheimeinweisung. Mehr als die Hälfte der Pflegepatienten leidet an kognitiven Störungen, dessen Schweregrad direkt proportional mit dem Ausmaß der Inkontinenz korreliert [1]. Die Koinzidenz von Demenz und Inkontinenz soll nicht dazu verleiten, sofort auf einen neuropathologischen Zusammenhang zu schließen. Deshalb ist es ratsam, inkontinente Demenzpatienten zum Ausschluß neurologischer, urologischer und interner Ursachen begutachten zu lassen. Inkontinenz ist nicht nur eine Bürde für Betroffene und Betreuer, sondern auch mit erhöhter Mortalitätsrate bei älteren Menschen assoziiert [2]. Patienten mit Hirnleistungsstörungen können durch Toilettentraining profitieren, während Biofeedbackmethoden Erfolge bei Patienten mit geringeren kognitiven Einbußen zeigen. Evaluationsstudien könnten Patientengruppen definieren, die von speziellen "maßgeschneiderten" Inkontinenzmanagements optimal profitieren, um die jeweils kosteneffektivste Vorgangsweise für den klinischen Alltag auswählen zu können.

  6. Ti, Al

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, authors report on the effect that substrate bias voltage has on the microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti, Al)N hard coatings deposited with cathodic arc evaporation (CAE) technique. The coatings were deposited from a Ti0.5Al0.5 powder metallurgical target in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere at ...

  7. al junctions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Bruan and Heeger,. 1991), Schottky barrier devices (Gardner and Tan,. 1989; Bantikassegn Workalemahu and Inganas,. 1997; Granstrom et al., 1998), organic solar cells. (Abay Gadisa and ... the capacitance per unit area of the cell as well as.

  8. Physische Gewalt als Quelle positiver Selbstwahrnehmung bei jugendlichen Mädchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Heeg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gewaltausübung durch weibliche Jugendliche ist insbesondere im deutschsprachigen Raum vergleichsweise wenig untersucht. In diesem Artikel werden ausgewählte Ergebnisse einer Schweizer Studie vorgestellt. 21 weibliche Jugendliche, welche regelmäßig physische Gewalt ausüb(ten, wurden in problemzentrierten Interviews befragt. Die Erhebung und Auswertung der Interviews orientierte sich an der Grounded-Theory-Methodologie. Im Mittelpunkt des Forschungsinteresses stand die Frage, welche Bedeutung ihr eigenes Gewalthandeln für die befragten Mädchen hat. Dabei zeigte sich, dass dieses sich je nach der Beziehung der Mädchen zu ihren Eltern unterscheidet. Im Mittelpunkt des vorliegenden Beitrags stehen diejenigen weiblichen Jugendlichen, welche von einer engen und positiven Beziehung zu ihren Eltern erzählen. Es wird anhand zweier Fallbeispiele aufgezeigt, dass Gewaltausübung für diese Mädchen eine Quelle positiver Selbstwahrnehmung ist. In Gewaltsituationen fühlen sie sich stark und unabhängig. Sie setzen Gewalt aber nur gegen Menschen ein, welche für sie nicht wichtig sind. Gegenüber Personen, welche ihnen viel bedeuten, verhalten sich diese Mädchen hingegen sozial angepasst und setzen sich nicht durch. Man kann schlussfolgern, dass ihre Selbstwahrnehmung als stark und unabhängig auf Gewaltsituationen beschränkt bleibt. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1301226

  9. Rezension zu: Beate Hochholdinger-Reiterer: Kostümierung der Geschlechter. Schauspielkunst als Erfindung der Aufklärung. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daiber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Von geschlechtlichen Einlagerungen in Sprache und deren Funktionen beim Schreiben der Theatergeschichte der deutschsprachigen Aufklärung handelt die von Beate Hochholdinger-Reiterer vorgelegte Habilitationsschrift. Die von ihr aufgedeckten sprachlichen Codes, die als ‚heimliche Archive‘ fungieren, werden auf die durch sie vermittelte symbolische Ordnung der Geschlechter hin analysiert. Prozesse der Literarisierung, Institutionalisierung und Subventionierung führten in dieser Epoche zur Etablierung des ‚einen‘ Theaters. Diese Prozesse verhandelten jedoch gleichermaßen Fragen des Nationalstaates und der Geschlechterordnung mit und konstruierten hinsichtlich letzterer eine ‚patrilineare Genealogie‘, die ‚andere‘ Diskurse mit ‚anderen‘ Ordnungen, die es in den Umbrüchen nachweislich auch gab, stimmlos gelassen haben.

  10. Intertextuelle und intramediale Bezüge als Orientierungsangebot – systematische Überlegungen und exemplarische Untersuchungen zu Verweisen auf das Fernsehangebot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bachmair

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Auch wenn das Internet sich weder so schnell noch so nachhaltig im Alltag und als Bestandteil von Massenkommunikation etablierte, wie es Ende der neunziger Jahre den Anschein hatte, so zeigt sich am Internet doch, was sich mit der Vernetzungs- und Verfügbarkeitslogik verändern könnte, die dem Internet zu eigen ist. Manuel Castells (2001 mit seiner Analyse des „Informationszeitalters“ und der als instrumentellem Netzwerk organisierten Gesellschaft skizziert die Umrisse, wie sich unsere Gesellschaft mit welcher Dynamik entwickelt. Er spricht von einer „informationeilen Entwicklungsweise“ (ebd., S. 17, die anders als die „agrarische“ oder die „industrielle“ auf das gesellschaftliche Verhältnis der Menschen zur Natur („Produktion“, zu sich selber („Erfahrung“, „kulturelle Identität“ und zu anderen (.Macht“ einwirkt. Einen Aspekt dieser „informationellen Entwicklungsweise“ beschreibt Castells mit dem Hinweis auf „globale Netzwerke der Instrumentalität“, die eine „unüberschaubare Anzahl virtueller Gemeinschaften“ hervorbringt (ebd., S. 23. Dabei konstituiert sich auch eine Art von Subjektivität, die sich im Moment als „zunehmende Distanz zwischen Globalisierung und Identität, zwischen dem Netz und dem Ich“ beschreiben lässt (ebd., S. 24. In dieser Spannung bekommt .Multimedia“ die Funktion einer „symbolischen Umwelt“ (ebd., S. 415.

  11. Deutsch als "leicht zu erlernende Fremdsprache"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz, Gunde

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to encourage the search for accessible language features and teaching and learning facilitators which can ease the way into German as a Foreign Language (DaF.The paper begins with a terminological discussion, followed by a first model of the most important factors concerning the initial entry into FL territory. After a short review on previous work in this area, I consider methods for utilising knowledge of accessible language features and teaching and learning facilitators. Finally, suspected facilitating features - which have come to light through research as well as classroom observations – are exemplified. These, however, are to be understood as working hypotheses and thus still 'under construction'.Through this paper, I would like to invite other researchers to consider a new perspective on DaF with the intention of changing the status quo:"Applied linguistics is not simply a matter of matching up findings about language with pre-existing problems but of using findings to explore how the perception of problems might be changed. It may be that when problems are reformulated from a different point of view they become more amenable to solution. This changed perception may then, in turn, have implications for linguistics." (Cook : 2003: 10My goal will have been achieved when the focus of this paper becomes a motivation for improving DaF teaching ("problems [...] become more amenable to solution" - and, should it lead to "implications for linguistics", so much the better.Ziel dieses Beitrages ist, eine umfassende Suche nach leichten Stellen und Erleichterungen beim Zugang zum Deutschen als fremder Sprache anzuregen.Nach Begriffsklärung und einem ersten Vorschlag zu den für die Zugänglichkeit einer Sprache ausschlaggebenden Faktoren (1 sowie einem kurzen Überblick über Fundstücke zum Thema (2 steht die Rolle der praktischen Umsetzung von Erkenntnissen als Hauptinstrument für den Bereich der Erleichterungen und

  12. Experiences with the use of conservative tracers as an aid in transferring lysimeter results to the open field; Erfahrungen beim Einsatz von konservativen Tracern als Hilfsmittel zur Uebertragung von Lysimeterergebnissen auf Freilandflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, J.; Meissner, R.; Rupp, H. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Falkenberg (Germany). Lysimeterstation; Mueller, L.; Eulenstein, F. [Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung e.V. (ZALF), Muencheberg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Four lysimeter trials performed on an IS-type soil yielded an almost constant range of displacement of a tracer front (NO{sub 3} front) of 4.0 to 4.5 mm / l of seepage water (referred to a surface area of 1 m-2 and a depth of 1 m). This was experimental confirmation of a tentatively formulated simplified relationship between seepage water volume, vertical tracer displacement, and field capacity. The results were also in very good agreement with those of a control study in the open field carried out under similar hydrological, pedological, and agrotechnical conditions using lysimeters and Cl tracers for determining quantities of seepage water formation. As the present lysimeter trials mirror soil hydrological processes in the open field with sufficient accuracy, they appear well suited to take the place of the so often lacking territorial data as a means of validating mathematical models describing seepage-water-bound material export. [Deutsch] Auf der Basis von 4 Lysimeterversuchen konnte fuer die Bodenart IS ein nahezu konstanter Wertebereich fuer die Verlagerung einer Tracerfront (NO{sub 3}-Front) in Hoehe von 4,0 bis 4,5 mm/l Sickerwasser (bezogen auf eine Oberflaeche von 1 m{sup 2} und eine Tiefe von 1 m) ermittelt werden. Damit konnte die vereinfachte Beziehung zwischen Sickerwassermenge, Tracerverlagerungstiefe und Feldkapazitaet experimentell bestaetigt werden. Ein Vergleich zur Bestimmung der Sickerwassermengenbildung mit Hilfe von Lysimetern und durch Einsatz von Cl-Tracern unter aehnlich hydrologischen, pedologischen und agrotechnischen Bedingungen im Freiland wies eine hohe Uebereinstimmung auf. Da die hier durchgefuehrten Lysimeteruntersuchungen bodenhydrologische Prozesse von Freilandflaechen mit ausreichender Genauigkeit widerspieglen, erscheinen sie anstelle oft fehlender Gebietskenndaten zur Validierung von mathematischen Modellen zur Beschreibung sickerwassergebundener Stoffaustraege gut geeignet. (orig.)

  13. Vergleich verschiedener Beurteilungsverfahren an Röntgenbildern des Ellbogengelenkes beim Deutschen Schäferhund und Rottweiler unter Berücksichtigung des Einflusses der Lagerung als Basis einer züchterischen Selektion gegen die Ellbogengelenksdysplasie

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, drei Bewertungsverfahren zur Beurteilung der Ellbogengelenksdysplasie bei Hunden der Rasse Deutscher Schäferhund und Rottweiler miteinander zu vergleichen. Hierbei sollte insbesondere ein Einfluss der Lagerung während der Röntgenaufnahme überprüft werden. Bewertet wurden Röntgenaufnahmen von 19.798 Deutschen Schäferhunden und 2.430 Rottweiler, von denen bereits ein offizieller ED – Befund vorlag. Es erfolgte eine Beurteilung entsprechend der zwei Punktesch...

  14. et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    experienced (Bath, 2006), while indications are that no new drenches are in the process of being developed. Existing strategies for the control of these pathogens are thus challenged (Bath, 2006), and alternative strategies need to be formulated (Vatta et al., 2000). A possible avenue for dealing with the challenge of ...

  15. Kino filmų titrai kaip kalbų mokymosi priemonė. Untertitel als Mittel zum Fremdsprachenerwerb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Baravykaitė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Das in den letzten Jahren spürbare Bestreben der litauischen Gesetzgeber, Untertitelung von Fernsehfilmen zwecks Fremdsprachenerwerb gesetzlich anzuordnen, löste eine Auseinandersetzung in der Öffentlichkeit aus, die sich in der Presse sowie im Internet widerspiegelt und als Anstoß zum vorliegenden Beitrag dient. Diese Arbeit stellt den Versuch dar, die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Untertitelung als eines Mittels zum Fremdsprachenerwerb zu untersuchen. Auf Grund der fehlenden wissenschaftlichen Forschungen in diesem Bereich sollen dabei empirische Betrachtungen und die vergleichende Textanalyse von Original und Übersetzung als Hilfe dienen. Auch wenn die Relevanz der Untertitelung für den Fremdsprachenerwerb nicht bestreitbar ist, ist sie aber zugleich nicht zu überschätzen: Durch die lediglich für diese Form der audiovisuellen Übersetzung charakteristischen Merkmale (kurze Einblendezeit, kondensierte Sprache und begrenzte Übertragungsmöglichkeiten von Realia-Begriffen, Phraseologismen, Intertextualismen, dem Wortspiel etc. bleiben dem Zuschauer oft sprachliche Stilmittel vorenthalten und der in allen Übersetzungsbereichen vorkommende unausweichliche Sinn- und Wirkungsverlust des Originals wird erheblich verstärkt. Anbetracht der erwähnten Aspekte und der häufigen fehlerhaften Übersetzungen sollen Untertitel nur als Hilfsmittel beim Fremdsprachenerwerb angewendet werden, wobei herkömmliche Lehr- und Lernstrategien von Fremdsprachen in den Vordergrund treten müssen.

  16. Akkumulation der Zeitstandschädigung der Hochtemperaturlegierung X10NiCrAITi3220 (Alloy 800 H) beim Wechsel von Spannung oder Temperatur

    OpenAIRE

    Buchmann, E.; Ennis, J. P.; Schuster, H.; Nickel, Hubertus

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of damage accumulation rules and of a constitutive equation derived by Cords to the description of the creep behaviour of X10NiCrAlTi 32 20 (Alloy 800 H) in creep tests with stress or temperture changes has been investigated. The tests were carried out at 800 °C and 900 °C and in order to ensure that the creep damage in the tests was the same as that obtained during actual service, creep tests for durations of up to 10 000 h were carried out. Metallographic examination of te...

  17. AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  18. Studien zur Messung von Rekonstruktionseffizienz und Untergrund der $\\tau$-Lepton-Identifikation im Zerfall $Z\\to \\tau \\tau$ beim ATLAS-Experiment aus Daten

    CERN Document Server

    Johnert, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    In dieser Diplomarbeit werden zwei Methoden vorgestellt, mit denen τ -Leptonen in den zuk ̈nf- u tigen Daten des ATLAS-Experiments untersucht werden sollen. Den ersten Teil bildet die Be- stimmung von Missidentifikationsraten von Jets aus QCD-2-Jet-Ereignissen als τ -Leptonen. Der zweite Teil ist die Entwicklung einer Methode zur Bestimmung der τ -Rekonstruktions- und -Identifikationseffizienz relativ zur μ-Effizienz. In diesem Zusammenhang werden invariante Massen aus Z → ll-Ereignissen bestimmt, die Massen aus Z → τ τ -Ereignissen mit denen aus Z → ee und Z → μμ verglichen, τ -Effizienzen gemittelt uber alle Bereiche und in verschiedenen ̈ o η-Bereichen berechnet sowie eine M ̈glichkeit zur Bestimmung von τ -Effizienzen in unterschied- lichen Transversalimpulsbereichen vorgestellt. Des Weiteren wird eine verbesserte Absch ̈tzung a des QCD-Untergrunds vorgenommen und das Verhalten der τ -Effizienz unter Ber ̈cksichtigung u des Triggers untersucht.

  19. [Kombinierte Anwendung von Strahlentherapie und adjuvanter Therapie mit einem Mistelextrakt (Viscum album L.) zur Behandlung des oralen malignen Melanoms beim Hund: Eine retrospektive Studie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bodungen, Uta; Ruess, Katja; Reif, Marcus; Biegel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: Orale maligne Melanome (OMM) des Hundes zeichnen sich durch schnelles Wachstum, lokale Invasion und hohe Metastasierungsraten aus. Extrakte auf Basis von Viscum album L. (VAE) werden zunehmend in der Krebstherapie sowohl in der Human- als auch in der Veterinärmedizin eingesetzt. Ziel unserer Studie war es zu untersuchen, inwieweit die adjuvante Therapie mit VAE eine therapeutische Option zur Behandlung von OMM ist. Besonderes Augenmerk galt dabei der Überlebenszeit und möglichen Nebenwirkungen. Tiere und Methoden: 26 Hunde mit OMM, die in einem der größten veterinäronkologischen Zentren der Schweiz allesamt eine Strahlentherapie erhielten (teilweise nach operativer Tumorresektion) wurden in die retrospektive Studie eingeschlossen: 18 Hunde wurden mit VAE behandelt (1 ml VAE (Iscador®) in ansteigenden Konzentrationen von 0,1 bis 20 mg/ml subkutan 3-mal pro Woche (VAE-Gruppe), 8 erhielten keine adjuvante Behandlung (Vergleichsgruppe). Wir verglichen die Größenentwicklung der OMM sowie die Überlebenszeit. Ergebnisse: Patienten mit Bestrahlung und adjuvanter VAE-Therapie zeigten mit 236 Tagen eine signifikant längere mediane Überlebenszeit im Vergleich zu Patienten mit Bestrahlung, aber ohne adjuvante VAE-Therapie (49 Tage; Log-Rank-Test: p = 0,0047). Die VAE-Therapie verlängerte die Überlebenszeit um mehr als zwei Drittel (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0,30, 95%-Konfidenzintervall (KI) 0,11-0,86; p = 0,024), während ein höheres Tumorstadium gemäß UICC (Union internationale contre le cancer) einen statistischen Trend zur Verdopplung des Sterberisikos zeigte (UICC-Stadium III/IV vs. I/II: HR = 2,12, 95%-KI 0,88-5,12; p = 0,095). Zwei Patienten zeigten milde Nebenwirkungen während der VAE-Behandlung. Einer der beiden zeigte 1 Tag lang ein selbstlimitiertes Fieber, bei dem anderen Patienten reduzierten wir die Dosis von einem konzentrierteren zu einem weniger konzentrierten VAE (Serie 0) aufgrund von Müdigkeit, die daraufhin verschwand

  20. Queer worldings in the urban age. Die sub\\urban Journal Lecture beim Deutschen Kongress für Geographie im Oktober 2015 in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Oswin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag stellt die Frage, in welchem Bezug die vieldiskutierte globale Urbanisierung, die sich in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten besonders im Globalen Süden weiter beschleunigt hat, mit einer ebenfalls zu beobachtenden verstärkten Thematisierung sexueller und geschlechtlicher Identitäten weltweit steht. Denn Kämpfe um Sichtbarkeit, Anerkennung und nicht-normative Lebensweisen artikulieren sich gerade in städtischen Kontexten mit besonderer Virulenz. Ein bislang weitgehend vernachlässigtes Potenzial wird dabei in Überschneidungen von Kritiken tradierter eurozentrischer Stadtkonzepte in den Urban Studies einerseits und der Infragestellung sexueller und geschlechtlicher – und ebenfalls oft an westlichen Standards orientierter – Normen in den Queer Studies andererseits gesehen. Sowohl Urban Studies als auch Queer Studies treiben ein worlding, eine Verweltlichung der untersuchten Probleme voran. Die Fragestellungen, die aus einer Zusammenführung von urban worlding und queer worlding entstehen, ermöglichen neue Blicke auf die Rolle, die gerade marginalisierte Subjekte in Prozessen von Urbanisierung und Globalisierung spielen.

  1. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) KidsHealth / For Kids / Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) What's ... with ALS in the 1930s. What Happens in ALS? ALS damages motor neurons in the brain and ...

  2. Kinematografische Propaganda und Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn von 1914–1918 als gescheitertes kybernetisches Modell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Winkler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Medien-Pädagogik, verstanden als Medienverbund zur programmierten "Unterrichtung" einer breiten Masse wurde bereits vor 1914 erfahren. Zweifelsohne kam es jedoch während dem Ersten Weltkrieg zu einer intensiven Orchestrierung der zur Verfügung stehenden Medien. Die angestrebte Volkserziehung kann dabei als kybernetisches Regelkreismodell betrachtet werden. Als ganz spezielles systemimmanentes Instrument, stellte sich dabei das Kino heraus. Anfangs etwas zögerlich, verstand man es mit Verlauf des Krieges auch in der Donaumonarchie, die Möglichkeiten der bewegten Bilder immer umfassender auszunützen. Das Kino sollte als Regler, dem Publikum Führungsgrößen vor Augen führen und das einzelne Individuum gleichzeitig zu einer Art Selbstregulation auffordern. Vorstellungs- und Wertewelten der Menschen sollten homogenisiert werden und das System in dieser Weise stabilisieren. Offenes Feedback war unerwünscht; Grundstimmungen und Diskurse innerhalb der Bevölkerung blieben jedoch nicht unbemerkt und wurden auf der Leinwand bearbeitet, wobei begründete Befürchtungen, Zweifel und Ängste, zu entkräften versucht wurden. Mit fortschreitender Kriegsdauer taten sich Zensur und Propaganda immer schwerer, ein geschöntes Bild der Situation glaubhaft darzustellen. Schließlich vermochte das Flimmern der Leinwände, die Botschaften des Systems nicht mehr zu vermitteln. Das kybernetische Modell der Volkserziehung über Kamera und Leinwand, welches die Gesellschaft militärisch überprägte, Überlegenheit predigte, Gewalt normalisierte und das kriegsbedingte Sterben humanisierte, musste letztlich scheitern. Der vorliegende Artikel soll einen kurzen Einblick in den Aufbau dieses – letztlich gescheiterten – regulativen Werkes der kinematografischen Propaganda und Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn geben, wobei der Fokus auf der dokumentarischen Berichterstattung vom Krieg liegt, die eine vermeintliche Realität repräsentieren sollte.

  3. Influence of antithyroid medication on effective half-life and uptake of {sup 131}I following radioiodine therapy; Einfluss thyreostatischer Medikation beim Morbus Basedow auf die Kinetik von 131-Iod waehrend einer Radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moka, D.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-12-01

    Aim of this study was to assess the influence of antithyroid drugs (ADT) on the kinetics of {sup 131}I. Therefore, 56 patients with Graves` disease and with shortened effective half-life of {sup 131}I were examined under stationary conditionary conditions. In 38 patients ATD was stopped three days after radioiodine therapy (RIT). The progress of the first RIT and of a second RIT, which still was necessary in 12 patients, was compared to 18 patients receiving ATD continuously. Values of effective half-life for {sup 131}I rose significantly from 3.4 to 5.7 days 2-3 days after stopping ATD. There was an increase of the {sup 131}I-uptake of a second RIT after stopping ATD from 29.0 to 38.4%. In contrast, {sup 131}I-uptake of a second RIT decreased significantly in patients receiving ATD continuously. Effective half-life and uptake of {sup 131}I were affected significantly by ATD. Interrupting ATD after RIT is useful to improve an apparantly insufficient RIT in thyrotoxic patients receiving ATD. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Studie war es, beim M. Basedow die Kinetik von {sup 131}I unter dem Einfluss thyreostatischer Medikation (tM) zu untersuchen. Dazu wurden die 56 Patienten mit immunogener Hyperthyreose M. Basedow (MB) und mit einem erhoehten `turn over` von {sup 131}I unter tM untersucht. Bei 38 Patienten wurde die tM am 3. Tag nach RITh abgesetzt. Der Verlauf der 1. RITh bzw. einer Nachtherapie wurde mit 18 Patienten unter fortlaufender tM verglichen. 2-3 Tage nach Absetzen der tM stieg die effektive Halbwertzeit (HWZ{sub eff.}) von {sup 131}I signifikant von 3,4 auf 5,7 Tage und der {sup 131}I-Uptake bei der Nachtherapie von 29,0 auf 38,4% an, waehrend er unter fortlaufender tM signifikant abfiel. Beide Effekte zeigen, dass tM die {sup 131}I-Kinetik der Schilddruese sehr schnell beeinflussen kann. Gezieltes Absetzen der tM eignet sich deshalb, um bei ausgewaehlten Patienten eine primaer unzureichende RITh noch waehrend des stationaeren Aufenthaltes zu steuern und

  4. Blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) as an indicator of radioactive pollution of a forest ecosystem; Heidelbeere (Vaccinium myrtillus) als Indikator fuer die radioaktive Belastung eines Waldoekosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzl, K.; Hiesel, E.; Henrich, E.

    1992-12-31

    It was the aim of this project to find indicators within the forest ecosystem for pollution with artificial radionuclides. In the first line, the reference nuclide Cs-137 was examined. These biological indicators could be used quickly and comprehensively for analysis in the case of a possible repeated large-area contamination. In addition to mosses, lichens, ferns, various grasses, spruce needles, bark and wood, in particular bilberrry shrubs (Vaccinium myrtillus) were sampled repeatedly. The bilberry offers itself as a possible indicator plant (high incidence in the entire Austrian federal territory, simple sampling, deer feeding plant) and is also important as forest fruit for humans. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Projektes war es u.a., innerhalb des Waldoekosystems Indikatoren fuer die Belastung mit kuenstlichen Radionukliden (in erster Linie wurde das Leitnuklid Cs-137 untersucht) zu finden. Diese Bioindikatoren koennten bei einer etwaigen neuerlichen grossraeumigen Kontamination flaechendeckend rasch zur Analyse herangezogen werden. Neben Moosen, Flechten, Farnen, diversen Graesern, Fichtennadeln, Rinde und Holz wurden insbesondere Heidelbeerstauden (Vaccinium myrtillus) sehr zahlreich beprobt, da sich die Heidelbeeren als moegliche Indikatorpflanzen anbieten (hoher Verbreitungsgrad im gesamten oesterreichischen Bundesbebiet, einfache Probenahme, Aesungspflanzen) und auch als Waldfruechte fuer den Menschen von Bedeutung sind. (orig./EF)

  5. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    opponents were the stringent militants in the Khaldan camp and its Institute of the Faith Brigades (Ma`had Kata`ib al-Iman), where the virulent ...local fighter remembered that al-Libi used to live together with Hamza al- Rabi `a, the former head of al-Qa`ida’s external operations, and Abu Khabbab

  6. Grundbildung Medien als Teil erwachsenenpädagogischer Professionalitätsentwicklung. Überlegungen zur medienpädagogischen Professionalisierung angehender Erwachsenenbildnerinnen und Erwachsenenbildner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Bellinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag nimmt den Umstand zum Ausgangspunkt, dass die Erwachsenenbildung sich sowohl mit der Herausforderung konfrontiert sieht Erwachsenenbildnerinnen und Erwachsenenbildner bei der Aneignung von medienpädagogisch kompetentem Handeln zu unterstützen, als auch zur Vermittlung medienbezogener Kompetenzen zu befähigen (Schmidt-Hertha et al. 2017, 36. Die Ubiquität von (digitalen Medien in menschlichen Lebenswelten bedarf dabei keiner besonderen Betonung mehr. Medien sind Teil der Lebenswelt von Erwachsenen und in der Folge zu einem Verantwortungsbereich der Erwachsenenbildung avanciert. Die Befähigung erwachsener Menschen zur Teilhabe an der digitalen Welt kann als Kernaufgabe unter den Bedingungen von Digitalisierung gesehen werden, was voraussetzt, dass professionell tätige Erwachsenenbildnerinnen und Erwachsenenbildner Veränderungsprozesse, die mit dem Phänomen einhergehen, in den Tätigkeits- und Handlungsfeldern aktiv mitgestalten. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird der professionstheoretische Diskurs in der Erwachsenenbildung als Hintergrundfolie aufgegriffen, um Herausforderungen und Chancen für die medienpädagogische Professionalitätsentwicklung für die Erwachsenenbildung zu skizzieren. Professionalitätsentwicklung wird dabei als lebenslanger Prozess verstanden, der in einem akademischen Studium mit entsprechendem Schwerpunkt angestossen und in der späteren Berufspraxis weiter geformt wird. Es wird ferner ein Vorschlag unterbreitet, der inhaltliche und thematische Dimensionen einer medienpädagogischen Grundbildung für die Erwachsenenbildung skizziert. Deren Integration in Studiengängen der erziehungswissenschaftlichen Teildisziplin erscheint lohnenswert im Hinblick auf die Professionalisierung angehender Erwachsenenbildnerinnen und Erwachsenenbildner.

  7. Scintigraphy in thyroid carcinoma; Szintigraphie beim Schilddruesenkarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pink, R.; Bockisch, A. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Pink, V. [Gemeinschaftspraxis Radiologie/Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Primary thyroid exploration is to find the rare malignant nodule (in Germany 1/1000 in all nodular thyroids), which is capable to decrease significantly life quality and survival rate. Cervical sonography as basic examination determines the following steps with scintigraphy in nodules > 10 mm, aspiration fine needle biopsy in ''cold'' nodules and thyroidectomy in case of finding malignant cells. After surgical resection of organoid thyroid tumors and ablation of residual tissue by radioiodine follow-up is possible by sonography and serum thyreoglobulin. In case of relapse high dose radioiodine offers highly effective curative therapy of tumor and/or metastases, when the malignant tissue is avid for radioiodine. Compared to {sup 131}I-scintigraphy is PET-CT with {sup 124}I clearly superior because of better spatial resolution, precise localisation even of small metastases und new technical approaches for individual dosimetry. In case of increasing serum thyroglobuline levels and radioiodine negative metastases as well as in case of increasing serum calcitonin levels after medullary carcinoma, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET or -PET-CT is well suited as an alternate diagnostic approach. Radiolabelled somatostatin analogues may serve as diagnostic as well as therapeutic agents. (orig.)

  8. Effekte von Hyperoxie und Stickstoffmonoxid beim Neugeborenen

    OpenAIRE

    Höhn, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit sind Untersuchungen vorgestellt, die sich mit Wirkungen und Interaktionen von zwei ubiquitär im menschlichen Körper vorkommenden Gasen befassen, i.e. Sauerstoff und Stickstoffmonoxid. Im Falle beider Substanzen ermöglicht die geringe Größe der Moleküle eine freie Diffusion über Membranen hinweg, eine Eigenschaft, die für die Funktion der Signaltransduktion geradezu prädestiniert. Aus den vorgelegten Untersuchungen lassen sich die folgenden Folgerungen ableiten: * S...

  9. Kognitive Prozesse der Adressatenantizipation beim Schreiben

    OpenAIRE

    Linnemann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Im Fokus dieser Untersuchung stand die Textproduktion aus kognitiver Sicht. Diese umfasst im Wesentlichen vier Wissensbereiche. Neben dem thematischen und linguistischen Wissen, widmete sich die Arbeit vor allem dem pragmatischen, insbesondere dem Adressatenwissen und den dazugehörenden Prozessen. Es wurde dargestellt, dass der Adressat aufgrund seiner räumlichen und zeitlichen Distanz vom Schreiber antizipiert werden muss, wenn er erfolgreich kommunizieren will. Adressatenantizipation wurde ...

  10. Fractures in childhood; Frakturen beim Kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, Joerg D. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Paediatrische Radiologie und Sonografie

    2014-09-15

    Clinical diagnosis of fractures in childhood can be very difficult. Therefore imaging, not only x-rays but also ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are of special importance. There are typical pediatric types of fractures due to epiphyseal plates and high flexibility of the bone. Fractures heal faster and dislocations can be spontaneously corrected better but also growth disturbance can occur. The second part of the article describes the special types of fractures with special attention to the characteristics in childhood.

  11. Wundmanagement beim diabetischen Fußsyndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Hanel W; Lobmann R

    2013-01-01

    In den vergangenen Jahren ist eine Vielzahl von Methoden für die Behandlung von chronischen Wunden auf den Markt gekommen, die von einer Masse an Wundauflagen bis zu einer Reihe von physikalischen Methoden, künstlichen Hautprodukten und gentechnisch hergestellten Wachstumsfaktoren reichen. Ohne möglichst optimale Behandlung der Ursache der Wundheilungsstörung werden allerdings auch diese Methoden nicht zum Erfolg führen. Bei der Wahl der Wundauflagen ist das Ziel, ein feuchtes Wundm...

  12. Pussy Riot als Trickstar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lipovetsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In seinem Artikel analysiert Mark Lipovetsky das Punk-Gebet der Band Pussy Riot in der Christus-Erlöser-Kathedrale in Moskau, die Reaktionen auf das Ereignis sowie den Gerichtsprozess gegen die Bandmitglieder. Pussy Riots Performance ruft den Kontext sowjetischer Trickster oder besser “Trickstar” - einem Begriff von Marilyn Jurich folgend - auf, die eine entscheidende Rolle beim Durchbrechen autoritärer Diskurse gespielt haben. In der post-sowjetischen ÄEra war die Bedeutung dieser Kulturtradition zurückgegangen. Umso bezeichnender ist die Renaissance dieser Form von politischemen Aktivismus in der Punk-Gebetsperformance. Pussy Riot verkörpert den in der russischen Kultur seltenen Tropus eines weiblichen Trickstaers, oder besser “Trickstar” - einem Begriff von Marilyn Jurich folgend dDie sprengt nicht nur autoritäre soziokulturelle Kodes sprengt, sondern macht außerdem die Unterdrückung von Gender sichtbar macht. Gerade dieser Effekt tritt in den Reaktionen der russischen Liberalen auf den Auftritt von Pussy Riot in den Vordergrund. Die Diskussionen um Pussy Riot legenhaben patriarchale Stereotypen bloß,bloßgelegt, von denen der russische liberale Diskurs geprägt ist; sie sprechen der Frau jegliches Agens ab und verbinden sich mit essentialistischen Vorstellungen von Kultur und moralischen Werten. Während sie sich in der politischen Einschätzung des Punk-Gebets von ihren konservativen Opponenten unterscheiden, legen viele Liberale doch eine Solidarität mit ihnen an den Tag, was kulturelle und Genderfragen anbelangt. Lipovetsky zeigt zeichnet nach, dass eine Offenlegung der Widersprüche des russischen liberalen Diskurses, der sich – wie derjenige der Konservativen  – auf die Idee einer “Renaissance unseres verlorenen Russland” gründet, zu den wichtigsten Effekten des Punk-Gebets gehört. Die Bedeutung dieses Effekts wächst im gegenwärtigen politischen Kontext, in dem ein großer Teil der Intellektuellen den

  13. All About ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe August 2015 Print this issue All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder En español Send us ... Sports Concussions Wise Choices How Can I Help ALS Research? If you have ALS, join the National ...

  14. Multiculturalismo e direitos humanos. São necessários direitos especiais para minorias nacionais?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Araujo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n2p247 Die Idee, der zufolge Menschen, die aufgrund von spezifischen Eigenschaften ungleich sind, der Gerechtigkeit halber auf eine ungleiche Art und Weise behandelt werden sollten, scheint nicht problematisch zu sein. Älteren Menschen werden zum Beispiel in öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln gewisse Sonderrechte („special rights“ zugestanden; im Strafrecht werden Minderjährige anders behandelt als Erwachsene; und Menschen mit einer körperlichen Behinderung dürfen öffentliche Ressourcen beanspruchen, auf die andere Menschen keinen Anspruch haben.

  15. Des Menschens Genitive Normabweichende Genitiv-Varianten bei schwachen Maskulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Krischke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genitive singular of the weak masculine nouns appears in three non-standard variations in addition to the standard suffix -(en: one variation is case augmenting (des Bär-en-s, one is stem affixing (des Polizist-s and one lacks a case suffix (des Patient-Ø. Linguists as well as language critics have focussed mainly on the stem affixing genitive while more or less ignor­ing the two other non-standard variations. This paper presents a corpus-based investigation regarding frequency and contexts of all three variations, also considering the diachronic back­ground and the implications the results might have for predicting the further development of the declension class of the weak masculine nouns.

  16. Förderung der Gesundheitskompetenz älterer Menschen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohde, Theresia; Kolpatzik, K.; de Winter, Andrea

    Health literacy has been defined as the degree to which people are able to access, understand, appraise, and communicate information to make informed decisions about their health. It is therefore essential to be able to engage with the demands of different health contexts and to stay healthy. The

  17. Augmented Reality als Vergleichswerkzeug am Beispiel der Automobilindustrie

    OpenAIRE

    Nölle, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In der Automobilindustrie lässt sich am Markt ein starker Wettbewerb beobachten. Um Produktentwicklungskosten zu senken, kommen besonders Computer Aided Design Techniken zum Einsatz. Im Verlauf des Produktentstehungsprozess ergibt sich beim Prototypenbau ein Übergang von virtuellen zu realen Bauteilen. In dieser Phase sind wesentliche Arbeiten die Ver- und Abgleiche realer Bauteile mit ihren computergenerierten Konstruktionsvorgaben. Dieser so genannte Soll-/ Ist-Vergleich zwischen virtuellen...

  18. /Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  19. Aussprache als motorische Fertigkeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonner, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Authentische Aussprache gilt im Fremdsprachenunterricht als schwer erreichbares Ziel, fremdsprachlicher Akzent wird als nahezu unvermeidbar gesehen. Weder die Hypothese einer kritischen Periode für den Erwerb einer authentischen Aussprache noch das Konzept der Fossilierung im Sprachlernprozess...

  20. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) and Genetic Testing By Deborah Hartzfeld, MS, CGC, Certified Genetic Counselor Familial ALS Most of the time ALS is not inherited. ...

  1. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive problems involving word fluency, decision-making, and memory. Most cases of ALS happen ... and edaravone have approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat ALS. Riluzole ...

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou Gehrig disease; ALS; Upper and lower motor neuron disease; Motor neuron disease ... One out of 10 cases of ALS is due to a genetic defect. The cause is unknown in most other cases. In ALS, motor nerve cells (neurons) waste away ...

  4. Abiodun et al (19)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... carboxymethylation) and enzymatic technique. (Abbas et al., 2010; Jyothi et al., 2013). Modification of other starches from corn, cassava, potato and some yam ..... release of water from the polymeric network. (syneresis). The water thus released leaves the starch gel with a sponge-like texture. Abiodun et al.

  5. 143 - 148_Makeri et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Yuan et al., 2003), antimicrobial activity (Sundarrao et al., 1993; Betancur-Galvis et al., 1999; Takashi et al., 2006), anti-parasitic, anti-malarial activities (Alali et al., 1998; Jaramillo et al., 2000; Luna et al.,. 2005). This study evaluates the antibacterial activity of extract of stem –bark and leaf extracts of Annona.

  6. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  7. Alles is al uitgevonden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractDe voordelen van vrijhandel zijn zeer beperkt, al-thans als we de empirische schattingen van vooraanstaande economen en internationale organisaties mogen geloven. Zo worden de voordelen van liberalisatie voor de Europese Unie geraamd op ongeveer 0,5% van het bnp 1. De door het IMF

  8. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Who ... Where can I get more information? What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a group of ...

  9. Lukman et al. (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    1 Civil Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife- Nigeria and Corresponding author. 2Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria- Nigeria s Department of Civil Engineering, University of Hafr Al-Batin, Hafr Al-Batin, Saudi Arabia.

  10. Taiwo et al (8)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    gender equity (Waddington et al., 2009). These benefits act as barriers to transmission of diseases from the environment to the human body (Kosek et al., 2003). The disease burden that results from poor access to improved source of drinking water is significant; the WHO estimated that more than. 9% of the disease burden ...

  11. Adekola et al (7)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Orange Basin as part of oil exploration protocols. (van Der Spuy, 2003; Hirsch et al., 2009; Hirsch et al., 2010). ... in the determination of both oil and gas reservoirs and potential source rocks (Franca and Potter,. 1988). ...... opening. Geophysical Journal International. 168, 353-361. Franca, A.B., and Potter, P.E. 1988.

  12. Lukman et al. (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Keywords: Access to Safe Water Supply Technologies, Piped Water, Borehole, Millennium Development. Goals ... treated water to consumers (Ishaku et al., 2011). .... visited to ascertain access to safe water supply technologies. Lukman et al.: Effect of Selected Factors on Water Supply and Access to Safe Water in Nigeria ...

  13. Oloyede et al (19)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timade VENTURE

    field grasshopper) and Lirnicolaria oleira (small snails) feed on the leaflets of N. furcans.Herbivores feeding on some species of pteridophytes have been reported (Babayemi et al., 2006; Biplap and. Subir, 2007; Oloyede et al., 2008, 2010, 2012) as further evidence of nutritious value of some pteridophytes. The lethal dose ...

  14. Alimba et al (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    other countries. Numerous genotoxic and. c a r c i n o g e n i c c o m p o u n d s ; alkenylbenzenesestragole, methyleugenol, safrole, β-asarone, unsaturated pyrrolizidine, aromatic steroids, cytochalasin, concentricolide, are increasingly being reported in many of these medicinal botanicals(Qin et al., 2006; Rietjens et al.,.

  15. Interview als Text vs. Interview als Interaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Deppermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131

  16. Fast Expansion oder doch 4-Gate-Push? - Kompetenzerwerb und Transfer beim Spielen von Echtzeit-Strategiespielen im Mehrspielermodus am Beispiel von StarCraft II – Wings of Liberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Steininger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Derzeit ist unklar, inwiefern in Computerspielen erworbene Kompetenzen in andere Kontexte transferiert werden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der subjektiv wahrgenommene Wissenstransfer von 444 SpielerInnen und eines Online-Echtzeitstrategiespieles untersucht. Etwas weniger als die Hälfte der Befragten sehen einen Wissenstransfer im Bereich der sozialen Kompetenz, der Medienkompetenz, der persönlichkeitsorientierten Kompetenz und der kognitiven Kompetenz. Mehr als 50% der Befragten nehmen subjektiv einen Wissenstransfer im Bereich der sensomotorischen Kompetenzen und der Fremdsprachkenntnisse wahr.The transfer of competencies acquired in video games into other contexts is hardly researched yet. For this paper, the transfer of competencies is researched from players point of view. 444 players of a real time strategy game have been interviewed. Slightly less than 50% perceived a knowledge transfer for media competencies, personality, social competences and cognitive competencies. More than 50% perceived a transfer for sensomotor skills and foreign language competence.

  17. Gruppenleistungen beim Review von Multiple-Choice-Fragen - Ein Vergleich von face-to-face und virtuellen Gruppen mit und ohne Moderation [Review of multiple-choice-questions and group performance - A comparison of face-to-face and virtual groups with and without facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs are often used in exams of medical education and need careful quality management for example by the application of review committees. This study investigates whether groups communicating virtually by email are similar to face-to-face groups concerning their review process performance and whether a facilitator has positive effects.Methods: 16 small groups of students were examined, which had to evaluate and correct MCQs under four different conditions. In the second part of the investigation the changed questions were given to a new random sample for the judgement of the item quality.Results: There was no significant influence of the variables “form of review committee” and “facilitation”. However, face-to-face and virtual groups clearly differed in the required treatment times. The test condition “face to face without facilitation” was generally valued most positively concerning taking over responsibility, approach to work, sense of well-being, motivation and concentration on the task.Discussion: Face-to-face and virtual groups are equally effective in the review of MCQs but differ concerning their efficiency. The application of electronic review seems to be possible but is hardly recommendable because of the long process time and technical problems.[german] Einleitung: Multiple-Choice-Fragen (MCF werden in vielen Prüfungen der medizinischen Ausbildung verwendet und bedürfen aus diesem Grund einer sorgfältigen Qualitätssicherung, beispielsweise durch den Einsatz von Review-Komitees. Anhand der vorliegenden empirischen Studie soll erforscht werden, ob virtuell per E-Mail kommunizierende Review-Komitees vergleichbar sind mit face-to-face Review-Komitees hinsichtlich ihrer Leistung beim Review-Prozess und ob sich Moderation positiv auswirkt.Methodik: 16 Kleingruppen von Psychologie-Studenten hatten die Aufgabe unter vier verschiedenen Versuchsbedingungen MCF zu bewerten und zu

  18. August Reichensperger als Rechtspolitiker

    OpenAIRE

    Strauch, Dieter Prof. Dr.

    2006-01-01

    August Reichensperger, dessen Tätigkeit als Kölner Appellationsgerichtsrat, als Förderer der Fertigstellung des Kölner Domes und als Parlamentarier des Zentrums heute durch die Namensgebung für den Platz vor dem Kölner Oberlandesgericht geehrt wird, wurde 1808 in Koblenz geboren und wuchs bei seiner juristischen Ausbildung in das französisch/rheinische Recht hinein, das er zeitlebens gegen preußische Versuche, es durch altpreußisches Recht zu ersetzen, verteidigte. Er wurde Mitglied der ...

  19. Universitat popular al Cabanyal

    OpenAIRE

    Ribés Granell, Juan Miguel

    2012-01-01

    La intención es dotar al barrio de un gran espacio verde y de un edificio de interés para los vecinos que enriquezca al Cabanyal, ya que actualmente se encuentra en proceso de degradación. Se pretende desarrollar un proyecto que signifique una mejora en la predisposición del visitante, cubriendo sus necesidades. Al mismo tiempo, se busca crear un espacio arquitectónico que mejore la relación entre las actividades que incluye y su entorno. El proyecto está condicionado por cuatro aspectos fund...

  20. Cartas al editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Medicina Revista

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Con respecto al ensayo "Evaluación del aprendizaje en la educación superior" de la Dra. Análida Pinilla / Ciencia y conciencia en la medicina colombiana / Farmacovigilancia: Una necesidad urgente

  1. Platt et al. 1988

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    dependent values of chlorophyll concentration (Sathyendranath et al. 1995). This sub- surface chlorophyll structure needs to be extrapolated spatially and temporally for the estimation of integrated pigment content and primary production (Sathyen-.

  2. Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a world leader in soft x-ray science, generates light in the wavelengths needed for examining the atomic and electronic structure of...

  3. Kulturmorphologie als Zivilisationskritik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2010-01-01

    Der Untergang des Abendlandes wird oft als dasjenige Werk betrachtet, das am tiefsten die national gefärbte Gegenüberstellung von Kultur und Zivilisation in der Zwischenkriegszeit geprägt und propagiert hat. Wie auch bei anderen Autoren der Konservativen Revolution, vor allem bei Thomas Mann und...... Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, tritt der Begriff ‚Kultur’ bei Spengler als normativer Wertbegriff auf, der im Kontrast zu einer degenerierten und seelenlosen Zivilisation steht....

  4. Falaiye et al (19)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (5.8%), goethite [Fe O .H O] (4.6%), halloysite [Al Si O (OH) ·8H O] (3.9%) and kaolinite [Al Si O (OH) ]. 2. 3. 2. 4. 4. 10. 8. 2. 4. 4. 10. 8 ..... Journ of Theor and App. Clim.,40(3), 161-169. Balogun, E.E. 1974. The Phenomenology of the. Atmosphere over West African. Proceedings of Ghana Scope's. Conference on Environment ...

  5. Accident or maltreatment? Radiographic X-ray patterns in non-accidental trauma. The concept of sentinel injuries; Unfall oder Misshandlung? Radiologische Befunde beim nichtakzidentiellen Trauma. Das Konzept der ''sentinel injuries''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, F.W.; Sorge, I.; Roth, C. [Uniklinikum Leipzig AoeR, Abteilung fuer Kinderradiologie, Leipzig (Germany); Gosemann, J.H. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig, Uniklinikum Leipzig AoeR, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kinderchirurgie, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The focus of this review article is on child abuse and the radiographic pattern of X-ray findings. The radiologist should be able to recognize typical injuries resulting from child abuse. In some cases the findings are highly specific for abuse and these include metaphyseal corner fractures of the long bones in children aged up to 24 months. In other cases the fractures are not specific but highly indicative of child abuse: rib fractures, for example can be associated with child abuse in more than 50 % of the cases; however, maltreatment is difficult to diagnose without taking the entire pattern of skeletal findings into consideration so that a radiological screening of the entire skeleton is often necessary. The concept of sentinel injuries might be helpful for deciding in which cases a complete skeletal screening should be performed. In the age group up to 24 months old a complete skeletal status (with some exceptions) is recommended if one of the three sentinel injuries of rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and abdominal trauma is present. (orig.) [German] Die Kindesmisshandlung und ihre radiologischen Befundmuster sind Gegenstand dieser Uebersicht. Der Radiologe sollte in der Lage sein, typische Verletzungen als Misshandlungsfolge zu erkennen. In Einzelfaellen ist der Befund hochspezifisch fuer eine Misshandlung. Hierzu zaehlen z. B. metaphysaere Kantenabsprengungen an den langen Roehrenknochen bei bis 24 Monate alten Kindern. In anderen Faellen sind die Frakturen nicht spezifisch, aber hochsensitiv fuer das Vorliegen einer Misshandlung, z. B. bei Rippenfrakturen, die in ueber 50 % der Faelle mit einer Misshandlung assoziiert sein koennen. Die Misshandlung kann allerdings oft nur aus der Zusammenschau der unterschiedlichen Befunde, also nach Beurteilung des gesamten Skelettstatus, diagnostiziert werden. Fuer die Entscheidung, in welchen Faellen ein kompletter Skelettstatus angefertigt werden sollte, stellt sich das Konzept der ''sentinel injuries

  6. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the aluminum hydride anions: AlH2(-), AlH3(-), Al2H6(-), Al3H9(-), and Al4H12(-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Wang, Haopeng; Collins, Evan; Lim, Alane; Ganteför, Gerd; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan; Bowen, Kit

    2013-03-28

    We report measurements of the negative ion photoelectron spectra of the simple aluminum hydride anions: AlH2(-), AlH3(-), Al2H6(-), Al3H9(-), and Al4H12(-). From these spectra, we measured the vertical detachment energies of the anions, and we estimated the electron affinities of their neutral counterparts. Our results for AlH2(-), AlH3(-), and Al2H6(-) were also compared with previous predictions by theory.

  8. Coupled growth of Al-Al2Cu eutectics in Al-Cu-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, U; Witusiewicz, V; Drevermann, A

    2012-01-01

    Coupled eutectic growth of Al and Al 2 Cu was investigated in univariant Al-Cu-Ag alloys during solidification with planar and cellular morphology. Experiments reveal the dynamic selection of small spacings, below the minimum undercooling spacing and show that distinct morphological features pertain to nearly isotropic or anisotropic Al-Al 2 Cu interfaces.

  9. Selbstkritik als wissenschaftliches Projekt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Scholand

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Wallner kritisiert die aktuelle feministische Darstellung der rund 30jährigen Geschichte der Mädchenarbeit als „Legendenbildung“ (S. 9: Sie verkürze und verschweige im Interesse einer Selbst-Heroisierung und sei daher ideologisch. Als eine derjenigen, die seit zwanzig Jahren feministische Mädchenarbeit und -politik betreibt, arbeitet die Autorin damit auch ihre eigenen (Nicht-Bezugnahmen kritisch auf. Ihr grundlegendes Interesse ist es, eine aus ihrer Sicht erforderliche Neupositionierung der Mädchenarbeit in der Jugendhilfe im Zeitalter von Gender Mainstreaming zu befördern.

  10. ALS superbend magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R and D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing

  11. Dichtung als Erfahrungsmetaphysik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Gisli

    Rilkeforskning. Fordi Rilke ikke – uden at gøre vold mod hans værk – kan fortolkes ud fra et traditionelt religiøst verdensbillede, har man fortolket ham som en antimetafysisk mo­dernist. Afhandlingen Dichtung als Erfahrungsmetaphysik. Esoterische und okkultistische Modernität bei R. M. Rilke argumenterer for...

  12. Okusanya et al (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    subcontinent and it is distributed in various tropical and sub-tropical regions including Asia,. Central and South America, Australia, West. Indies, Africa, (Orwa et al., 2009) and in Florida and Texas in the United States of America. (Brown, 2001). It has recently been spotted in. Brick Township, New Jersey, U. S. A. and in Israel.

  13. Adjei et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Glass products appear in varied types based on the material composition. It is an amorphous. (non-crystalline) solid material which is often transparent with widespread practical, techno- logical, and decorative applications. Examples are windowpanes, beverage containers, table wares, and optoelectronics (Babcock et al,.

  14. Adeleye et al (20)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2018-03-03

    Mar 3, 2018 ... terrestrial and aquatic settings and the proxies are mostly drawn from sedimentary deposits such as lakes, marine deposits, peatlands and other wetlands such as marshes and swamps (Jeglum and Rydin, 2006; Smol et al., 2001). It is commonly stated that the present condition of the biosphere is the result ...

  15. Onojeghuo et al (16)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    one under community-based forest management and the other a protected area were compared to evaluate the efficiency of community forest management. The results showed ... Onojeghuo et al.: Community Participation in Forest Management Across Protected Areas .... using the unsupervised Iterative Self Organising.

  16. Oke et al. (12)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the enforcement of good quality control measures. Keywords: Hand Sanitizer, Hand Hygiene, Bactericidal, Bacteriostatic, MIC, MBC. ABSTRACT. INTRODUCTION. Hospital and community-acquired infections constitute a serious public health problem all over the world (Hassan et al., 2012). Hospital acquired. (nosocomial) ...

  17. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  18. Ojo et al. (15)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    This work presents analyses of data on cancers diagnosed and recorded at the Ife-Ijesa Cancer Registry located ... physical inactivity, as well as changing dietary and lifestyle patterns. [Sylla and Wild, 2011, Jedy-Agba et al., 2012]. It is generally accepted that a large number of cancers .... for Appendix, Bowel and Duodenal.

  19. Akpen et al.2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    reduction of pollution in the stream. Sharma et al. (2003) monitored the water quality of Hathli. Akpen et ... dium roughness and the degree of sinusoidality is low to moderate with some few sharp bends. The temperature ... U, is the velocity in m/sec and H, is the depth in meters. The dispersion coefficient (Ex) was calculated ...

  20. Ipeaiyeda et al (15)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    arousing public interest. Previous studies published so far on air pollution in Nigeria are on heavy metals in atmosphere using tree bark as indicator and airborne cement dust (Odukoya et al., 2000; Onianwa, 2001; Gbadebo and Bankole,. 2007). Estimation of air pollution arising from vehicular exhaust emission on Nigeria ...

  1. Adjaotor et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    A mathematical model was developed using multiple regression analysis to predict MRR during hard turning of AISI 304L ... regression line fits well for both results data at 95% confidence interval. INTRODUCTION. In order to respond ... replacement and regrinding times, ordering time etc. Tonshoff et al. (1995) stated that ...

  2. Joda et al (16)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    treating gonorrhea, gonococcal urethritis and the vaginal/urethral discharge syndrome in developing countries like Nigeria (Abebe et al.,. 2001; WHO, 2007). In addition to being effective against Neiseria gonorrhoea, ciprofloxacin is indicated for bacterial infections like urinary tract infections (UTIs), acute uncomplicated ...

  3. Nucleosynthesis of 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.

    1986-07-01

    A burst of interest has followed the discovery in the galactic plane of the 1.8 MeV gamma line attached to the decay of 26 Al. We discuss the relative merits of supernovae, novae, massive and supermassive mass-losing stars as potential sources of this expressive isotope

  4. Adeyemi et al (10)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acevedo-Rodríguez et al.(2011). The vegetative and reproductive morphology of. Sapindaceae shows similarities and differences among the various genera constituting the family. Pair-wise analysis of qualitative data generated a dendogram. A common feature in the dendogram is the clear separation of the family into two ...

  5. Ekun et al (6)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    It must be noted that a significantly low total testosterone value as was observed among the hypertensive group may be an indicator to suggesting a subclinical hypogonadism. Furthermore, it was observed that the mean LH value in test group though marginally higher than. Ekun et al.: Levels of Reproductive Hormones ...

  6. Odukoya et al (25)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Human exposure to toxic metals has increased dramatically in the last 50 years as a result of an exponential increase in the use of heavy metals in industrial processes and products (Sekabira et al.,. 2010). Solid and liquid wastes from these industries eventually get discharged into dumps or rivers from where they enter the ...

  7. Taiwo et al (15)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Extracted lipids were then analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the composition and relative abundance of the fatty acids present. .... allow for phase separation. The bottom chloroform layer was then collected after ..... in membranes than DHA (Subhadra et al., 2006). This could be the reason for the lower levels of.

  8. aboagye et al.2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    14 Aboagye et al. wide variety of birds, including chickens, by piercing the quills of feathers and gnawing the epidermis. In doing so, they can spread disease and lower .... evolution. Oikos, 97: 223-228. Nordenfors, H. and Chirico, J. (2001). Evalua- tion of a sampling trap for Dermanyssus gal- linae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

  9. Iraq and Al Qaeda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... The Administration assertions were derived from U.S. intelligence showing a pattern of contacts with Al Qaeda when its key founder, Osama bin Laden, was based in Sudan in the early to mid-1990s and continuing after he relocated to Afghanistan in 1996...

  10. Iraq and Al Qaeda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... The Administration's assertions were derived from U.S. intelligence showing a pattern of contacts with Al Qaeda when its founder, Osama bin Laden, was based in Sudan in the early to mid-1990s and continuing after he relocated to Afghanistan in 1996...

  11. Ismail et al (6)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Analysis and design of pipes in water distribution networks generally create a relatively complex problem, particularly when the network consists of large number of pipes as frequently occurs in water distribution systems of large metropolitan areas and cities. (Saminu et al., 2013). There are various types of loops in pipeline ...

  12. Adeoti et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Hence, for groundwater exploration, integration of techniques is most essential for success to be achieved economically (Rosli et al., 2012). The application of geophysics for the successful exploration of groundwater in sedimentary ter- rain requires a proper understanding of its hy- dro-geological characteristics. Evidence ...

  13. Ajibola et al (7)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ponds and streams (Mohneke et al., 2010). The larval stage of the African tiger frog. (Hoplobatrachus occipitalis) is carnivorous and feeds on small aquatic animals like tadpoles and mosquito larvae, making them an important part of the food chain. A drop in population of H. occipitalis as a predator, due to overexploitation of.

  14. Comentarios al Salto Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. El Plan considera que la política social es un componente central de la estrategia macroeconómica. A diferencia de la administración Gaviria, lo social ha dejado de ser un asunto marginal, es consustancial al desarrollo y, por tanto, se le confiere una dimensión cualitativamente diferente.

  15. Taiwo et al (10)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    duration of marriage, birth interval, birth order and breast feeding practice. Uddin et al. (2009) in their study, investigated child mortality in. Bangladesh also using the logistic regression. Results of analysis showed that father's education, occupation of father, occupation of mother, standard of living index, breastfeeding status ...

  16. Olonisakin et al (15)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    of a small probe were considered death (Su, 1976). Filter paper test. Bioassay on the toxicity of T. orientalis and E. camaldulensis essential oils against adult C. maculates was similar to the method described in Ukeh et al.,. 2012) in Pyrex glass Petri dishes (10 cm diameter). Different doses of each essential oil (0.01, 0.02,.

  17. Agwu et al (6)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Enterobacteriaceae, the bacteria Escherichia coli is regarded as non-halophilic, and cannot tolerate high salt concentrations (Abdulkarim et al., 2009). Nevertheless, some strains of E. coli are halo- tolerant and survive in high salt concentrations. The ability to demonstrate such high osmotic pressure is possibly due to the ...

  18. Alabi et al (19)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has high solar absorbency and a low thermal emittance. (Johan et al.,2011). The p-type semiconductor of copper oxide (CuO) is an important functional material used for gas sensors, magnetic storage media, solar energy transformation, electronics, semiconductors, varistors ...

  19. Omeike et al. (13)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was used for sorption of Al ions at low concentrations of 10-50 mg/L. Effect of contact time and pH on biosorption of aluminium ions from solution was also evaluated. The result showed that highest aluminium sorption was obtained at pH 6 after 24 hours. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm constants described a feasible.

  20. Samuel et al (13)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    detrimental to the health of the users especially those with wounds on their skin. Keywords: Microbial contaminant, shea butter, local ... natural plant extract is almost magical in its healing effects on burns, skin rashes, ulcerated skin, ... aging and troubled skin to rejuvenate (Esiegbuya et al.,2014). Recently, there have been ...

  1. Esuuman et al (17)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    ether (Sathe et al., 2002). Various extraction conditions such as pH, solvent types (NaOH, NaCl or Ethanol), solvent concentration, extraction time, solvent/flour ratio, may affect the final properties of the extracted protein. When many factors and interactions affect desired responses in a certain process design, Response.

  2. Quagraine et al.2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    ties, as discussed by Moore et al (2003) include education, retail, employment and other social services. These opportunities serve as both ru- ral or suburban push and urban pull factors for migration into major cities in Ghana (Ghana. Statistical Service, (GSS) 2005). Thus, about. 75% of migrants into the major cities in ...

  3. Hamid et al (24)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    acne, and eye problems (Diaz-Bolio, 1975). Cnidoscolus aconitifolius roots and leaves have been taken as a laxative, diuretic, circulation stimulant, to increase digestion, stimulant for lactation, and to harden the fingernails (Rowe, 1994; Kuti, and. Torres, 1996). Oyagbemi et al., (2011) reported the proximate analysis and ...

  4. Phase transformation and local mechanical properties of TRIP steel in a simulated and real resistance spot weld process; Phasenumwandlung und lokale mechanische Eigenschaften von TRIP Stahl beim simulierten und realen Widerstandspunktschweissprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauser, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    area of spot welded TRIP steels. The established mechanical characteristics were used as input data for numerical simulation of the spot weld ductility and strength performance. Here, the attention was focused on the necessity of implementing mechanical characteristics of the heat-affected zone for realistic tensile shear test modelling. [German] TRIP Staehle realisieren durch eine unter mechanischer Beanspruchung hervorgerufene Phasenumwandlung von metastabilen Austenit in Martensit (TRIP-Effekt) hohe Festigkeiten bei gleichzeitig guten Verformungseigenschaften. Waehrend der Verarbeitung dieser Werkstoffe mittels Widerstandspunktschweissen koennen unter den prozessspezifischen extremen Aufheiz- und Abkuehlraten Modifikationen des Austenitanteils hervorgerufen werden die als Folge lokal zu einer Aenderung der mechanisch-technologischen Eigenschaften fuehren. Wesentliche Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Arbeit war daher die Analyse der Gefuegestruktur im Bereich einer Punktschweissverbindung hinsichtlich der Aenderung des Austenitanteils und den daraus resultierenden Aenderungen der lokalen mechanischen Eigenschaften unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des TRIP-Effekts. Durch in-situ Beugungsuntersuchungen mittels hochenergetischer Synchrotronstrahlung erfolgte zunaechst die Quantifizierung des metastabilen Austenitanteils im unbehandelten Grundwerkstoff. Darauf aufbauend wurden unter definierten Temperaturprofilen in Ofenversuchen die grundlegenden Aspekte der thermisch bedingten Austenitumwandlung im Aufheiz- und Abkuehlprozess untersucht. Durch Gleeble-Versuche und Ofenexperimente wurden weiterfuehrend verschiedene Temperaturprofile mit unterschiedlichen im Punktschweissprozess lokal vorliegende Spitzentemperaturen genutzt um eine systematische Bewertung des Einflusses der Temperatur und der Aufheiz- sowie der Abkuehlbedingungen auf den Austenitgehalt unter realen Bedingungen zu ermoeglichen. Durch Korrelationsuntersuchungen zwischen den mechanischen Kennwerten thermisch

  5. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina J Peraza Roque

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidadLow birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin

  6. ALS Project Management Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, Jim; Harkins, Joe

    2000-05-01

    This manual has been prepared to help establish a consistent baseline of management practices across all ALS projects. It describes the initial process of planning a project, with a specific focus on the production of a formal project plan. We feel that the primary weakness in ALS project management efforts to date stems from a failure to appreciate the importance of ''up-front'' project planning. In this document, we present a guide (with examples) to preparing the documents necessary to properly plan, monitor, and control a project's activities. While following the manual will certainly not guarantee good project management, failure to address the issues we raise will dramatically reduce the chance of success. Here we define success as meeting the technical goals on schedule and within the prescribed budget.

  7. Pemikiran Filsafat Al-kindi

    OpenAIRE

    Madani, Abu Bakar

    2015-01-01

    Al-Kindi is the first Muslim philosopher to construct Islamic philosophical thoughts in a systematic and clear way. Philosophical thoughts of Al-Kindi are reflection of doctrines that he received from classic Greece sources and the legacy of Neo-Platonic thoughts combined with Islamic faith. Al-Kindi opens the room of dialogue to combine philosophical doctrines and religion. Knowledge about God, according to Al-Kindi, is early philosophy or the first philosophy; philosophy that states al-Haqq...

  8. Derecho al desarrollo y globalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Vita, Juan

    2014-01-01

    La presente disertación, que he intitulado Derecho al Desarrollo y Globalidad, consta de cuatropuntos principales:I. El derecho al desarrollo en el contexto de los derechos humanosII. La noción del derecho al desarrolloIII. El derecho al desarrollo en el marco de las llamadas generaciones de derechos humanosIV. El derecho al desarrollo y la aldea globalPalabras clave: derechos humanos, Derecho Natural, Derecho Positivo, sociedad global.

  9. Regulatorisch-toxikologische Maßnahmen zur Minimierung von Verbraucherrisiken in Deutschland und Europa am Beispiel von Lungenschäden durch dünnflüssige Lampenöle auf Petroleumdestillat- und Paraffinbasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Vergiftungen mit flüssigen Kohlenwasserstoffen beim Menschen sind seit Anfang des letzten Jahrhunderts bekannt. In den 1950er Jahren waren diese Vergiftungen die Hauptursache für Klinikaufnahmen bei Vergiftungen mit Haushaltschemikalien im Kindesalter in den USA. Erste Hinweise auf eine Gefährdung durch dünnflüssige Lampenöle auf Petroleumdestillat- und Paraffinbasis, die Brennstoffe in Öl- oder Zierlampen waren, kamen aus Skandinavien. Hinweise auf ein besonderes Risiko für Kleinkinder ergab...

  10. Religion als soziale Deutungspraxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lingen-Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: During the last decades, the topos religion transformed into a powerful category of difference, which is also relevant for educationsystems and settings. Religion as a tool to differentiate between subjects is linked with power and dominance and, thus,with ideas about the constructed identities of “the other”. With this respects, religion functions as a code to define in- andexclusions and mark “the other”, e.g. “the Muslim” in predominantly Christian societies in Europe. Critical theories on racismenable to recognize, describe and define these practices and their effects. They can provide a useful tool to question and challengeintercultural and interreligious educational approaches which potentially reproduce and, thus, strengthen cultural/religiousdifferentiations. DEUTSCH: Die Differenz- und Heterogenitätskategorie Religion hat sich in den letzten Jahren im europäischen und auch deutschsprachigenDiskursraum zu einer medial, wissenschaftlich und politisch wirkmächtigen Kategorie entwickelt. Dabei zeigt sich Religion sowohlals soziale Unterscheidungspraxis (auch in pädagogischen Arrangements, als auch als Mittel zur Identifikation und Charakterisierungbestimmter Gruppen und Individuen als religiöse Subjekte. Religion stellt in diesem Zusammenhang einen Zugehörigkeitscodedar, mit dem Personen als natio-ethno-kulturell Andere markiert werden, wie die Markierung von MuslimInnen durchAngehörige der mehrheitlich christlichen Dominanzgesellschaft zeigt. Rassismuskritische Ansätze ermöglichen es zumeist eherimplizit an Rassekonstruktionen anschließende Unterscheidungen zu erkennen und zu beschreiben, den Bedingungen ihres Wirksamwerdensnachzugehen sowie ihre Konsequenzen zu bestimmen. Eine rassismuskritische und migrationspädagogisch informierteReligionspädagogik ermöglicht AkteurInnen, weniger auf gewaltvolle Unterscheidungspraxen angewiesen zu sein undalternative Veränderungs- und Handlungsmöglichkeiten zu

  11. DEUTSCHLAND ALS EINWANDERUNGSLAND

    OpenAIRE

    IVANDA, Katica

    2010-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht einen kurzen sozialhistorischen Überblick über das Migrationsgeschehen in Deutschland zu geben. Aus dem Auswanderungsland des 19. Jahrhunderts wurde ein Einwanderungsland neuen Typs. Die Anwerbephase der 60er-Jahre erweist sich retrospektiv als zeitliches Bindeglied zum „Einwanderungsland wider Willen“. Obgleich alle Beteiligten auf deutscher wie ausländischer Seite noch lange am Gastarbeitermythos der baldigen Rückkehr in die jeweiligen...

  12. Ausbildung als zentrale Aufgabe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Walter; Schmerbach, Sibylle

    Anders als Lesen und Schreiben zählen Grundkenntnisse in Statistik heute noch nicht zu den Voraussetzungen einer sinnvollen Teilhabe am Sozialgeschehen. Und auch in der akademischen Statistik-Ausbildung gibt es noch einiges zu tun. Das vorliegende Kapitel zeichnet die Geschichte dieser akademischen Ausbildung an deutschen Universitäten nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg nach, stellt aktuelle Defizite vor und weist auf mögliche Verbesserungen hin.

  13. Der heilige Stanislaus, Bischof und Märtyrer, in der Philatelie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Józef Janicki

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Briefmarke trotz der alternativen Lösungen (elektronische Post, mechanische Frankatur stellt in der ganzen Welt seit vielen Jahrzehnten ein ganz besonderes Phänomen im Leben von Menschen und Gesellschaften dar und spielt eine wichtige Rolle auch beim gegenseitigen Erfahrungs- und Meinungsaustausch. Millionen von Menschen benutzen jeden Tag die Dienste der Post. Mit den Postsendungen bringt dabei auch die Briefmarke vieles nahe, was anderswo geschieht und lenkt die Aufmerksamkeit auf Persönlichkeiten der Zeitgeschichte und bedeutungsvolle Ereignisse. Person und Tat des heiligen Stanislaus, Bischofs und Märtyrer (1030-1079, der hier als Motiv von Briefmarken unter anderem der polnischen Post vorgestellt wird, rufen die Bewunderung hervor für alles, was in seinem Leben herausragend war im Bereich seiner pastoral-Seelsorge und seiner Liebe zu Polen. Der Bischof Stanislaus wurde im Jahre 1253 heiliggesprochen und zum Patron von ganz Polen ernannt; im Jahre 2003 feiert also die Kirche in Polen das 750-jährige Jubiläum seiner Kanonisation. Der Verfasser stellt in diesem Artikel alle bisher erschienenen Briefmarken vor, die den hl. Stanislaus Bischof und Märtyrer als Motiv zeigen und analysiert sie. Marken mit diesem Thema brachte zuerst die Vatikan-Post (Poste Vaticane zweimal: im Jahr 1966 und 1979 heraus; die Polnische Post hat nur eine einzige Briefmarke zu Ehren des hl. Stanislaus, im Jahr 2002, herausgebracht. Im Jahr 1966 setzte die Vatikanische Post anläßlich des „Sacrum Poloniae Millennium” eine Briefmarkenserie mit sechs Vorzugsstücken in Umlauf, die die wichtigsten persönlichkeiten der Kirche Polens zeigt. Auf dem Wert 40 Lire ist Bischof hl. Stanislaus dargestellt neben der Wawel - Kathedrale und der Kirche „Auf dem Felsen” („Na Skałce”, wo der Bischof Stanislaus 1079 von dem König Bolesław Śmiały ermordet wurde. Zum 900-jährigen Jubiläum seines Märtyrertodes im Jahre 1979 brachte die Vatikan - Post im

  14. Proximity effect Nb/Al,AlOxide, Al/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwman, Evert Pieter; Gijsbertsen, J.G.; Gijsbertsen, Hans; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst; Le grand, J.B.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    1993-01-01

    Regions with reduced energy gap induced by the proximity effect give rise to quasi-particle loss in Josephson-junction X-ray detectors, but may also be used advantageously for quasi-particle collection. The influence of the thickness of the Al proximity layers in Nb/Al1 , AlOx, Al2/Nb Josephson

  15. Male gonadal dose an adjuvant 3-D-pelvic irradiation after anterior resection of rectal cancer. Influence to fertility; Radiogene Hodenbelastung durch Streustrahlung bei adjuvanter 3-D-Beckenbestrahlung nach anteriorer Resektion beim Rektumkarzinom. Einfluss auf die Fertilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piroth, M.D.; Hensley, F.; Wannenmacher, M.; Zierhut, D. [Radiologische Klinik der Univ. Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2003-11-01

    Maenner erkranken. Wir untersuchten die radiogene Hodenbelastung durch Streustrahlung bei adjuvanter Beckenbestrahlung nach Operation eines Rektumkarzinoms. Die gemessenen Strahlendosen am Hoden wurden zu den Daten der Literatur in Beziehung gesetzt. Patienten und Methode: Wir fuehrten bei 18 Patienten mit thermolumineszenzdetektoren (TLD) In-vivo-Messungen zur Bestimmung der streustrahlenbedingten Gonadendosis durch. Die TLDs wurden an vier definierten Punkten des Skrotums fixiert. Die Bestrahlung erfolgte 3-D-geplant in Drei-Felder-Technik in Bauchlage im Lochbrett. Die Gesamtdosis betrug 50,4 Gy, die Einzeldosis 1,8 Gy taeglich. Nach 45 Gy erfolgte eine Modifikation der Bestrahlungstechnik auf opponierende und kranial verkuerzte Gegenfelder zur kompletten Duenndarmschonung. Ergebnisse: Die mittlere Gonadendosis aller 18 Patienten pro Bestrahlungsfraktion betrug 0,057 Gy (median 0,05 Gy), wobei die Mittelwerte der einzelnen Patienten zwischen 0,035 und 0,114 Gy lagen. Die Standardabweichung betrug 0,02 Gy. Nach 28 Fraktionen, 50,4 Gy entsprechend, errechnete sich kumulativ eine Gesamtdosis am Hoden von 1,60 Gy (0,98-3,19 Gy). Schlussfolgerungen: Das maennliche Keimepithel reagiert auf Bestrahlung ausserordentlich sensibel im Sinne eines negativen Fraktionierungseffektes. Bei Gesamtdosen > 1,5 Gy, fraktioniert appliziert, gilt die Azoospermie als meist irreversibel. Die von uns ermittelte Gonadendosis fuehrt nach den Daten der Literatur sehr wahrscheinlich zu einer dauerhaften Sterilitaet. Wegen der geringen Patientenanzahl sind die Daten vorsichtig zu interpretieren, dennoch muss der Patient ueber die hohe Wahrscheinlichkeit einer bleibenden Infertilitaet aufgeklaert werden. Eine moegliche praetherapeutische Spermakryokonservierung sollte mit dem Patienten besprochen werden. (orig.)

  16. Englisch als Weltsprache

    OpenAIRE

    Locher, Miriam A.

    2011-01-01

    In den Medien wird Englisch oft als die Weltsprache schlechthin dargestellt. So titelte zum Beispiel Newsweek am 7. März 2005: «Who owns English? Non-native speakers are transforming the Global Language», und im Internet gibt es eine beachtliche Anzahl kommerzieller Unternehmen, die «Global English» anbieten. Was aber ist «Global English» und wie kam es überhaupt zu einer derart weiten Verbreitung und der überaus großen Bedeutung des Englischen in der heutigen Zeit? Der vorliegende Aufsatz wi...

  17. Del Pasadismo al Futurismo

    OpenAIRE

    Agudo-Martínez, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Uno de los habituales prejuicios a la hora de abordar el análisis del movimiento futurista, al igual que sucede con el constructivismo, es la consideración del contexto político en el que se desarrollaron ambas vanguardias. Sin embargo, y dejando a un lado un enfoque del arte con finalidad política de signo diverso, habría que insistir en el hecho de que posiblemente sean tanto el futurismo italiano como el constructivismo ruso, los movimientos que con mayor entusiasmo se manifestaron, en un ...

  18. Programa Padres al Colegio

    OpenAIRE

    Viñeglas Fernández, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo, es un proyecto orientado a la promoción de la salud, en referencia al virus del papiloma humano (VPH), ya que este virus es el causante de una de las infecciones de transmisión sexual más frecuentes en el mundo, el objetivo de este trabajo, es diseñar una serie de intervenciones que contribuyan a sensibilizar e informar a la ciudadanía, para lograr mejorar la prevención del virus del papiloma humano y el cáncer de cérvix. Como ya es sabido, cualquier intervención sobre...

  19. Reduction of vaporous emissions during transport of petrol and mineral oil products by river tank ships (20. BImSchV); Verminderung gasfoermiger Emissionen beim Transport von Ottokraftstoffen und Mineraloelprodukten mit Binnenschiffen (20. BImSchV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Emeis, S.; Jahn, C.; Sedlmaier, A.; Wilhelm, H.; Dormuth, I.

    2001-11-01

    the consequences the further development of the need for ventilation of tank atmosphere of river tank ships must be followed. The use of mobile vapour recovery units can be a possible solution of the problem of the availability of vapour recovery units also. (orig.) [German] Die Gasfreimachung der Tanks von Binnenschiffen durch die bisher praktizierte Entgasung ins Freie ist eine grosse Emissionsquelle von VOC und eine erhebliche Beeintraechtigung der Luftqualitaet. Es wurde in mehreren Messkampagnen gezeigt, dass die Entgasung der Tanks von Binnentankschiffen in die VRU ueber die Loesch-/Ladeleitung eine technische Loesung darstellt. Die gemessenen Emissionsquellstaerken waehrend dieser Form der Gasfreimachung sind von gleicher Groesse wie die gemessenen Emissionsquellstaerken waehrend der Be- und Entladung und werden nur durch das Anschliessen und Loesen von Uebergabe- und Uebernahmeleitungen verursacht. Weiterhin wurden durch die PTB in den Tanks die Ottokraftstoffkonzentrationen gemessen. Im Ergebnis der Untersuchungen wurde ein Merkblatt als Handlungsanweisung fuer die Binnenschiffer und Tankanlagen-Betreiber zur Gasfreimachung der Tanks von Binnenschiffen erstellt. Auf der Grundlage einer Erhebung der vorhandenen VRU's wurde der Kapazitaetsbedarf fuer landseitige VRU's bei Abloesung aller Entgasungen ins Freie durch Entgasungen in VRU's ermittelt. Die Kapazitaeten der vorhandenen VRU's sind fuer eine moeglichst schnelle Entgasung zu klein. Bei der Loesung dieses Problems ist aber nicht nur die Kapazitaetserweiterung der vorhandenen VRU's auf 2.200 m{sup 3}/h sondern auch deren Verfuegbarkeit an den Be- und Entladeanlagen fuer Ottokraftstoffe in Verbindung mit den notwendigen Liegeplaetzen zu betrachten. Die notwendigen Kapazitaetserweiterungen und die Anzahl der eventuellen Neu-Installationen von VRU's kann derzeit noch nicht abgeschaetzt werden, da am 25. August 2001 eine neue Aenderungsverordnung der 20. BImSchV in Kraft getreten

  20. Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Valle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc y Gliricidia sepium (Gs para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/Ha, la altura (A en cm, la proteína cruda (PC%, las fracciones de fibra (FDN% y FDA% y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS%. El T3 tuvo una mejor producción de biomasa (P0.05. La asociación de 14,285 plantas ha-1 de G. sepium con pasto Cenchrus ciliaris mejoró la producción de biomasa y la disponibilidad total de nutrientes por superficie cultivada al establecimiento

  1. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  2. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot project...

  3. Njan et al (9).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    induced pain through analgesiometer, tail immersion test, hot-plate, and acetic acid-induced analgesic test methods. HME, significantly and dose-dependently produced analgesic effects ... intensive work has been done in this area of ethnopharmacology (Iwalewa et al., 2003,. Omisore et al., 2004, Fadeyi et al., 2004, ...

  4. Salvar al planeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sancton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El desastre de Exxon Valdez en Canadá (1989en que derramaron 262 mil barriles de petróleo en las aguas de Alaska cambió la conciencia de los norteamericanos para bien. Comienzan a preocuparse, les gusta ser ecologistas. Se espera que no sea moda o novelería y que asuman el liderazgo para salvar al planeta, pues la deforestación, el incremento de la población, la quema de combustibles fósiles, el calentamiento global, el agujero de ozono sobre la Antártida dejan intuir que la Tierra está en grave peligro. Se recomienda entonces optar por un desarrollo sustentable.

  5. COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Contreras Clunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

  6. Kundenfokus: Startpunkt für die digitale Transformation bei Stadtwerken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, Perry; Küller, Philipp

    Big Data, Internet der Dinge, Mobile Computing und soziale Medien - die modernen Informationstechnologien durchdringen den Alltag der meisten Menschen und lösen hierdurch eine digitale Transformation aus. Im Unternehmenskontext manifestiert sich die Digitalisierung durch eine neue Qualität der wissensbasierten Entscheidungsunterstützung und der Automatisierung bzw. Autonomisierung der Geschäftsprozesse. Für Stadtwerke gilt es nun, die Chancen der Digitalisierung zu ihren Gunsten zu nutzen. Ein Startpunkt könnte hierbei sein, wie Stadtwerke zukünftig mit ihren Kunden interagieren. Ausgelöst durch die Liberalisierung der Märkte rückt der Kunde heute stärker in den Mittelpunkt - die Energiewirtschaft steht nun vor der Herausforderung, dem Wettbewerb einen Schritt voraus zu sein und dem Kunden ein absolut positives Kundenerlebnis (Customer Experience) sowohl als Maßnahme zur Kundenbindung als auch zum Kundenaufbau zu bieten. Das vorliegende Kapitel zeigt hierfür die Erfolgskriterien für die gelungene Etablierung des Kundenfokus im eigenen Unternehmen auf. Mit dem Customer-Focus-Cycle-Modell von Fujitsu, angelehnt an den Deming-Kreislauf, wird ein allgemeingültiger Ansatz für ein mögliches Vorgehen beim Aufbau des Kundenfokus vorgestellt. Die sechs Phasen werden dabei anhand praktischer Beispiele erläutert und geben zudem Hinweise zu Methoden und Tools. Aus dem vorgestellten "Werkzeugkasten" wird ferner die Customer-Journey-Methode im Detail erläutert. Weiter soll das präsentierte Reifegradmodell Unternehmen dabei unterstützen, den eigenen Status quo festzustellen und die persönlichen Ziele auf dem Weg zur kundenzentrierten Organisation festzulegen.

  7. Carta al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Maldonado Romero

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Bogotá, 01 de Agosto de 1990
    Señores
    Miembros del Consejo Editorial
    Academia Nacional de Medicina
    E.S.D.

    Señores doctores:

    Con toda consideración y respeto me permito agregar algunas anotaciones al escrito del Académico Alberto Cárdenas Escobar, aparecido en el No. 22 de Medicina, para destacar algunos aspectos de la personalidad del doctor Alberto Schweitzer galardonado con el Premio Nobel de la Paz.

    A los 30 años de edad tomó una decisión dramática: Estudiar Medicina para trabajaren el África Ecuatorial. Cuando terminó sus investigaciones sobre enfermedades tropicales y sus prácticas hospitaLarias, partió para el Gabon al pequeño pueblo de Lambarené. La tarea era desconsoladora; La atención médica había que prestarla al aire libre; iba con su esposa, como enfermera y amanuense, y no se encontraba ni un intérprete, ni un ayudante. Cuando le llegaron la medicina y el equipaje hubo que acomodarlos en un viejo gallinero abandonado; el calor era insoportable y le venían enfermos de varias millas a la redonda, a pie o en Canoas.

    Las enfermedades más difundidas eran Malaria, Disentería, estreptococias y la más mortífera, la Tripanosomiasis Gambiense, para la que empezaban a llegar medicinas nuevas eficaces y las medidas preventivas como el suministro de agua potable y enmallado de ventanas impedían muchas contaminaciones.

    Pero la que causaba mayores dificultades y trabajo era la Mycobacteriasis Anestesiante, incurable, de difícil diagnóstico, afectando a varios miembros de la misma familia, de aspecto horripilante, con complicaciones neuríticas muy dolorosas, frecuente ceguera, e invalideces y procesos erisepelatososacrotéricos, que exigían acompañante para el cambio y lavado de vendas y suministro de alimentos.

    A menos de un año de

  8. Cd-Sb-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotskij, D.P.; Dundich, M.S.; Kotsyumakha, M.P.; Makhova, M.K.; Lesina, N.V.; Noval'kovskij, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    The methods of differential-thermal, microstructural analyses and measuring microhardness are used to investigate the phase diagrams of polythermal sections CdSb-AlSb, CdSb-Al, Cd-AlSb, Cdsub(0.5)Alsub(0.5)-Sb, CdSb-Alsub(0.2)Cdsub(0.8) of the ternary system Cd-Sb-Al. The liquidus projection of the Cd-Sb-Al system is plotted; it has been found that the surface of aluminium antimonide formation occupies a large part of the phase diagram in the field of which the lamination region is located

  9. Idaaratu al Wahdah al Namthiyah li at Tathwiri al Tarbiyah al Islamiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danusiri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Islam, through the Quran, proclaims that its mission includes the teachings to the whole universe, Everything in the universe is maintained by Islam, and none of the symptoms are ignored. The revelations also include the traditions of the Prophet that are authentic (shahih and good (hasan in quality. Both the Quran and maqbulah hadiths are accepted by Muslims on the basis of faith. When some experts of UIN Walisongo from various disciplines try to understand the sacred words of these two resources, their understanding continues, reaching the paradigm of the unity of science which essentially unites the normative, social, and natural sciences. The effect of this paradigm has brought up an issue for the author. Is there any hadiths or Prophetic traditions that can be used as a grand theory in the management disciplines of Islamic education.To address this issue, the authors conducted a literature research with the title Development of Islamic Education Management Module. Sources of data were focused on nine books of Hadiths : Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan at-Turmudzi, Sunan an-Nasai, Sunan Ibn Majah, Sunan ad-Darimi, Muwatta Malik, and Musnad Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal in the form of digital data Lidwa Reader Software Book 9 Imam Hadith. The findings of the study stated that the meaning of the word Rabb includes: creating, nurturing, maintaining, teaching, educating, and organizing. Thus, in an academic term, the word Rabb implies a manager or leader. Meanwhile, in the concept of comprehensive manager it contains at least 14 nomenclature denotations: planning, responsibility, organization, coordination, system of employee payroll, learning, resources, humanity, principle of making it easier for the manager to the employee, motivated to achieve optimal performance, preventing unproductivity, education participation, institutional costs, monitoring, and evaluation system. Each nomenclature has numerous hadiths that could serve

  10. Alternativen als Programm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Dobroć

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel soll einen Beitrag zu theoretischen Überlegungen einer Technikfolgenabschätzung (TA der Alternativen leisten. Ausgehend von der Annahme, dass TA seit ihrer Entstehung den Anspruch auf die Entwicklung von (technischen Alternativen erhoben hat, wird hier der Versuch unternommen, die Rolle der TA im Rahmen aktueller Innovationsprozesse zu reflektieren und (neu zu definieren. Dies scheint vor allem im Hinblick auf aktuelle gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen notwendig. Zu diesem Zweck wird eine Grundannahme Lothar Hacks über das Verhältnis von Gesellschaft und Technik herangezogen. Seine Annahme besagt, dass die kontinuierliche Überführung von sozialen Problemen und Leitbildern in enge technische Lösungsansätze in hochindustrialisierten Ländern dominant und Teil der aktuellen gesellschaftlichen Probleme ist. Diese These wird im vorliegenden Artikel im Hinblick auf einen Perspektivenwechsel als Ausgangspunkt eines zukünftigen Forschungsprogramms der TA fruchtbar gemacht. Hierbei bildet das Denken in Alternativen von gesellschaftlichen Zukünften den zentralen Fokus.

  11. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  12. Imaging of appendicitis in adults; Bildgebung der Appendizitis beim Erwachsenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karul, M.; Berliner, C.; Keller, S.; Yamamura, J. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Tsui, T.Y. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of General, Visceral- and Thoracic Surgery

    2014-06-15

    Three imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Transabdominal ultrasound should be the first-line imaging test. Abdominal CT is superior to US and is required immediately in patients with atypical clinical presentation of appendicitis and suspected perforation. However, low-dose unenhanced CT is equal to standard-dose CT with intravenous contrast agents in the detection of five signs of acute appendicitis (thickened appendiceal wall more than 2 mm, cross-sectional diameter greater than 6 mm, periappendicitis, abscess, and appendicolith). MRI is necessary in pregnant women and young adults. This review illustrates the principles of state-of-the-art imaging techniques and their clinical relevance. (orig.)

  13. Radiotherapy for shoulder impingement; Bestrahlung beim Impingementsyndrom des Schultergelenks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamietz, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Sauer, R.; Keilholz, L. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen (Germany). Strahlentherapeutische Klinik

    2008-05-15

    Background and Purpose: Up to now, degenerative shoulder diseases were summarized by the term 'periarthritis humeroscapularis'. Actual shoulder diseases can be differentiated etiopathologically according to a primary and secondary impingement syndrome. Narrowing of the subacromial space, which is caused by an osseous shape variant, leads to primary impingement. Secondary impingement develops, when the subacromial space is reduced by swelling tissue below the osseous shoulder roof. This study aimed for the exact diagnosis to indicate therapy and to classify the results according to the Constant score. Patients and Methods: From August 1999 to September 2002, 102 patients with 115 shoulder joint conditions underwent radiation therapy (RT). All joints received two RT series (6 x 0.5 Gy/series) applied in two to three weekly fractions, totaling a dosage of 6.0 Gy (250 kV, 15 mAs, 1-mm Cu filter). The second RT course started 6 weeks after the end of the first. 115 shoulders were examined before RT, 6 weeks after the second RT course and, finally, during the follow-up from January to May 2003. Results: Pain relief was achieved in 94/115 shoulder joints (82%) after 18-month follow-up (median). A significant difference existed between secondary impingement and primary/non-impingement according to response. Tendinosis calcarea, bursitis subdeltoidea, tendovaginitis of the long biceps tendon, and capsulitis adhaesiva responded well to therapy. Conclusion: Shoulder diseases of secondary impingement demonstrate a good response to RT. Less or no benefit was found in primary impingement syndrome or complete rotator cuff disruption and acute shoulder injuries, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Numerische und experimentelle Erweiterung der Verfahrensgrenzen beim Halbhohlstanznieten hochfester Bleche

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Im Fokus der vorliegenden Arbeit steht die mechanische Fügetechnologie Halbhohlstanznieten. Der Halbhohlstanznietprozess stellt einen komplexen Vorgang der Massivumformung dar. Das Hilfsfügeteil Niet stanzt während des Prozesses ein oder mehrere Fügeteile durch und bildet im untersten Fügeteil den festigkeitsrelevanten Hinterschnitt aus. Durch die Weiterentwicklung der Simulation dieses Prozesses soll ein Werkzeug geschaffen werden, mit dessen Hilfe der Aufwand im Labor reduziert, die Verfahr...

  15. Stress-Inkontinenz beim Mann: Anatomische und funktionelle Besonderheiten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombo O

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomische, physiologische, pathophysiologische und urodynamische Befunde zum Harnblasenverschluß werden in ihrer Bedeutung für die männliche Stressinkontinenz dargestellt. Da es sich bei der männlichen Stressinkontinenz um eine Läsion des proximalen Harnröhrenverschlusses handelt, sind Beckenbodenübungen nach Kegel, wie sie zur Therapie der weiblichen Stressinkontinenz bei Beckenbodenrelaxation entwickelt wurden, inadäquat. Die Notwendigkeit eines speziellen Kontinenztrainings für die Post-Prostatektomie-Inkontinenz wird abgeleitet.

  16. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  17. Online-Qualitätssicherung beim Laserstrahlbeschichten und -umschmelzen

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Oberflächenveredelungen in Form von laserbeschichteten und umgeschmolzenen Randschichten werden meist in thermisch und mechanisch stark beanspruchten Bereichen eingesetzt. Da kleinste lokale Beschädigungen der Oberfläche verheerende Auswirkungen auf das gesamte Bauteil haben können ist die Kontrolle der Fertigungsqualität unerlässlich. Für die Überwachung von Qualitätsmerkmalen unterhalb der bearbeiteten Oberfläche wie die Spurtiefe und Spuranhaftung sind Sensoren zur Detektion der Prozessstr...

  18. Auswirkungen oraler Carnitingaben auf den Plasmacarnitingehalt beim Warmblutpferd

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitger, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    L-Carnitin, ein körpereigenes Aminosäurederivat, ist für den zellulären Energiestoffwechsel aufgrund seiner Carrierfunktion für die freien Fettsäuren von essenzieller Bedeutung. Über eine positive Beeinflussung des Energiestoffwechsels durch die Zulage von Carnitin bestehen bislang widersprüchliche Ergebnisse. Der gesunde Organismus kann seinen Bedarf durch Eigensynthese und über die Aufnahme aus der Nahrung decken. Während der Carnitingehalt im Blut durch die Zulage von Carnitin stark erhöht...

  19. Mehrwert des Chateinsatzes beim studienvorbereitenden Online-Deutschlernen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Jiang

    2016-04-01

    This article deals with the added value of chats and its obtaining for learning German online while preparing for study in Germany. The chat transcripts and results of the questionnaires are quantitatively and qualitatively assessed with the assistance of learners and tutors in the Deutsch-Uni Online (DUO. The program ChatLineshows new possibilities for the study of chats by analyzing the chat transcripts. The results of this study show on the one hand that the intensification of interaction among the chatters is the basic added value of chats, which makes improvement of language skills, collaborative learning and development of intercultural competence of the learner possible. On the other hand, the technical, organizational and didactical conditions constitute the necessary basis for the intensification of the interaction in learning-chats.

  20. Trichinella britovi beim Rotfuchs (Vulpes vulpes) in Österreich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krois, E.; Nöckler, K.; Duscher, G.

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary Laboratory in Moedling for rabies testing, were examined for Trichinella with the compression technique. Positive samples were evaluated quantitatively by digestion and differentiated by PCR. Results: 24 foxes (1.55%) were positive (Carinthia: 1.52%, Salzburg: 2.77%, Styria: 1.62%, the Tyrols: 1......). Molecular differentiation identified all samples as T. britovi. Conclusion: Detection of larvae is more sensitive in tongue samples than in masseter muscle and can conveniently be done alongside with the rabies testing. Samples should be examined from single animals, not pooled, since this can decrease...

  1. Undulators at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Chin, J.

    1994-07-01

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10 -11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10 -10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  2. Bilder machen - Fotografie als Praxis

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, Jens; Kaschek, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    In der Ausstellung „Bilder machen – Fotografie als Praxis“ stellt die Deutsche Fotothek der SLUB Dresden in Kooperation mit der Universitätssammlung Kunst+Technik die Fotografie als vielgestaltige kulturelle Praxis vor. Fast alle Exponate stammen von der Deutschen Fotothek, deren Bestand mehr als drei Mio. Aufnahmen umfasst. Die Ausstellung wird von einer öffentlichen Ringvorlesung begleitet, in der weitere Gebrauchsweisen der Fotografie in den Blick genommen werden. Außerdem ist ein Katalog ...

  3. Air conditioning of museum buildings. 'Tempering' - not an efficient solution; Museen als Opfer? Kaum Argumente fuer die 'Temperierung' als Heizungsloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trogisch, A.

    2002-02-01

    The contribution shows why the recently favoured concept of 'tempering' of museum buildings is wrong and presents arguments to this effect. [German] In den letzten Jahren werden Heizungsplaner durch eine gezielte Argumentation des Propagandisten der 'Temperierung' bei Bauherren, insbesondere im musealen Bereich und beim Denkmalschutz, mit dieser Loesung zur Beheizung konfrontiert. Es ist fuer den Heizungsplaner im Allgemeinen schwer, plausibel und allgemein verstaendlich fuer den Nutzer und Bauherrn dieser Argumentation zu entgegnen. Die folgenden Gesichtspunkte sollten deshalb bei der Diskussion Beruecksichtigung finden. (orig.)

  4. Half life of 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, T.L.; Gancarz, A.J.; Rokop, D.J.; Thomas, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    The half-life of 26 Al has been redetermined because of suggestions of an error in the accepted value based on its use in calculating 21 Ne production rates from cosmic rays in meteorites. Two solutions of 26 Al were analyzed for the specific radioactivity and mass spectrometric determination of the 26 Al concentration. The half-life obtained for 26 Al was 7.05 x 10 5 years +- 3.7% at the two sigma level. This is identical to the accepted value of 7.16 x 10 5 years and indicates that problems with the 21 Ne production rate is not due to an erroneous half-life

  5. Novel hysteresis effects in Nb/AlOx/Al/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blamire, M.G.; Kirk, E.C.G.; Somekh, R.E.; Evetts, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements on current-biased Nb/AlO x /Al/AlO x /Nb double tunnel junction devices with very thin central Al layers show a novel double hysteretic structure in the subgap region. Similar junction structures have previously exhibited very large nonequilibrium effects; the effects reported here appear close to and above the equilibrium critical temperature of Al. A model is presented in which the hysteresis is shown to arise from a transition from finite to zero voltage across one barrier on increasing current, due to the nucleation of an inhomogeneous state in the ultrathin central Al layer in which normal and superconducting states coexist. This reverse switching effect is shown to arise from the self-shunting effect of low-gap regions. Predictions of this model are shown to agree with the experimental data

  6. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  7. On the phenomenon of electromagnetic hypersensitivity; Das Phaenomen der Elektrosensibilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, E.; Reissenweber, J.; Wojtysiak, A.; Pfotenhauer, M. [Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Normale und Pathologische Physiologie; Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Zentrum fuer Elektropathologie

    2002-07-01

    auch beim Multiple-Chemical-Sensitivity-Syndrom auftreten koennen. Unser Wittener Forschungsansatz beinhaltet unter anderem auch die Untersuchung der psychischen Befindlichkeit von betroffenen Menschen sowie die Analyse der Anfragen an unser Zentrum fuer Elektropathologie. In der vorliegenden Arbeit soll das Phaenomen der Elektrosensibilitaet unter verschiedenen Blickwinkeln beleuchtet werden, darunter auch unter dem Aspekt der Melatoninhypothese. (orig.)

  8. Asowata et al (10).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    (Nyarko et al., 2006; Ajmone-Marsan et al., 2008). Sediment contamination and subsequent pollution resulting ..... leachate, such as alloys for corrosion resistant equipment and batteries. The third group consists of U .... Abimbola, A.F., Asaah, V.A. and Suh, C.E, 2006. Heavy Metal Concentrations and. Distribution in Surface ...

  9. 123 - 128 Sadau et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    neutrophil count in response to WRS for 3.5 hours. Some of the haematological values (PCV, RBC,. WBC, Hb, neutrophils ... homeostasis (Anil et al., 2010). Stress induces organ injury causing diseases, including, gastric ulcers ... immune systems (Ebulunlomoet al., 2012). Cytokines and cortisol play an important role in the.

  10. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  11. El miedo al rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François FORONDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de

  12. SANANDO AL SANADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Acuña, Dr.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La dependencia o adicción a sustancias de uso profesional es un problema que puede afectar gravemente a médicos de diferentes especialidades. En la anestesiología hay mayor riesgo de dependencia a opioides e hipnóticos que en otras especialidades y puede llegar a afectar al 1% de los médicos anestesiólogos.La fisiopatología del trastorno por uso de sustancias tiene hechos comunes para diferentes drogas. Interactúan la vulnerabilidad genética y factores psicosociales como predisponentes y los efectos psicobiológicos de la sustancia como factor gatillante. En el caso de los anestesiólogos, la sustancia se encuentra en el lugar de trabajo y por lo tanto, el individuo está constantemente expuesto.Una disfunción previa del sistema de recompensa en el circuito mesocorticolímbico o causada por la exposición a la sustancia adictiva es la piedra central de la neurobiología de las adicciones. Los opioides, anfetaminas, canabinoides, alcohol y nicotina, son algunas de las sustancias exógenas que activan el circuito y causan inicialmente un efecto hedónico que reforzará la conducta por repetir la experiencia. Con el tiempo la interacción con la droga será para evitar los síntomas de abstinencia.Dada la exposición laboral de los anestesiólogos, es necesario prevenir, detectar y tratar precozmente a quienes están abusando de sustancias durante su ejercicio profesional.Por las características de estos fármacos, aspectos psicológicos especiales de los médicos y el contexto laboral se hace necesario un tratamiento especializado y en anestesiólogos la reinserción laboral debe ser un proceso controlado, gradual y con un seguimiento prolongado. SUMMARY: Prescription drugs dependence seriously impairs doctors from differents fields of medicine. Anesthesiology has greater risk than other specialties to opioids and hypnotics dependence, with prevalence up to 1%.Substances use disorder has common mechanisms of disease regardless

  13. Characteristics of CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Nb and CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevirkovets, I.P.; Chernyashevskyy, O.; Petrovic, C.; Hu Rongwei; Ketterson, J.B.; Sarma, Bimal K.

    2009-01-01

    We report characteristics of CeCoIn 5 /Al/AlO x /Nb and CeCoIn 5 /Al/AlO x /Al tunnel junctions fabricated on the (0 0 1) surface of CeCoIn 5 crystal platelets. The main result of this work is the observation of a low Josephson current (as compared with that expected from the Ambegaokar-Baratoff formula), which is consistent with idea that the order parameter in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn 5 has unconventional pairing symmetry.

  14. AL SAHLI, AA; OKOLI, JU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    bioline.org.br/ja. The Use of Soil Palynomorphs in Forensics. *. 1. ABDULRAHAMAN, AA;. 2. AL SAHLI, AA;. 1. OKOLI, JU. 1Applied Plant Anatomy and Wood Technology Laboratory, Department of Plant Biology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

  15. Verlauf des lokoregionären Prostatakarzinoms unter Diätveränderung und Nahrungsmittelergänzung: Longitudinale Beobachtung über mehr als 3 Jahre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlarp OM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Auftreten und Verlauf des lokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinoms wird durch Diätveränderungen beeinflußt. Wir haben untersucht, ob durch Veränderung der Diätgewohnheiten und Substitution von Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Active Surveillance der klinische Verlauf des Karzinoms beeinflußt oder eine radikale Behandlung aufgeschoben oder gar vermieden werden kann. Material und Methode: Wir verfolgten den klinischen Verlauf und die PSA-Werte von 13 Patienten mit einem stanzbioptisch verifizierten organbegrenzten Prostatakarzinom. Allen Patienten mit einem T-Stadium 3 mit einem PSA 10 ng/ml und einem Gleasonscore 7 wurde eine Active Surveillance-Strategie mit zusätzlichen Diätempfehlungen und Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln anstelle einer radikalen Prostatektomie offeriert. Alle Patienten erhielten hierfür täglich als Nahrungsmittelergänzung eine Mischung an Radikalfängern (Karotinoide, Selen, Flavonoide, Vit. A, E und Phytoöstrogene. Alle Patienten wurden routinemäßig einmal pro Jahr mindestens 8-fach biopsiert. PSA-Werte und eine rektale Untersuchung wurde alle drei Monate durchgeführt. Eine radikale Prostatektomie wurde im Falle eines zweimaligen konsekutiven PSA-Anstieges und/oder eines suspekten Tastbefundes und/oder einer Ausdehnung der Anzahl positiver Stanzen bei wiederholten Biopsien durchgeführt. Resultate: Wir überschauen nun median 21 Monate (5–90 einer Active Surveillance-Strategie bei 13 Männern (medianes Alter: 65. Bei 3 Männern führte ein konsekutiver PSA-Anstieg zur Planung einer radikalen Prostatektomie (1 Patient verstarb vor der Operation an einer intrazerebralen Blutung, einer verweigerte den Eingriff. Beim verbliebenen Patienten führten wir 14 Monaten nach Diagnosestellung eine Schnittrand-negative Prostatektomie eines pT2c-Gleason-6-Tumors durch (PSA 0 ng/ml frei nach 11 Monaten Follow-up. Von allen Patienten, die initial maximal bis zu 2 positive Gewebsproben hatten, konnte bei 38 % in den

  16. Radiation detection with Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Atsuki; Takahashi, Toru; Kurakado, Masahiko

    1992-01-01

    Superconductor radiation detectors have the possibility of 20-30 times better energy resolution than that of a high resolution Si detector. We fabricated Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions with low leakage current. X rays were detected with large area junctions of 178x178 μm 2 . High energy resolution of 160 eV for 5.9 keV was obtained. We also fabricated series connected junctions which covers a rather large area of 4x4 mm 2 . α particles injected into the rear substrate were detected using nonthermal phonons induced by the radiations in the substrate. (author)

  17. Tafsir al-Tahrir wa al Tanwir Karya Muhammad Al-Thahrir ibn Asyur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Arni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibn ‘Âsyûr merupakan salah seorang mufasir di zaman modern yang menghasilkan sebuah kitab tafsir yang diberi nama “al-Tahrîr wa al-Tanwîr”. Kitab tafsir ini menggunakan corak ilmiah dalam menjelaskan makna ayat al-Quran, meskipun corak tersebut masih kontroversi tentang kebolehannya. Namun, ternyata penafsiran yang dilakukan oleh Ibn ‘Âsyûr tidak mendapatkan kritikan dari ulama lainnya dalam hal penggunaan ilmu pengetahuan modern. Karena, Ibn ‘Âsyûr menggunakan corak tersebut diawali dengan pengkajian kebahasaan, selanjutnya baru dijelaskan teori-teori ilmu pengetahuan yang berkaitan dengan ayat, sehingga tidak memberi kesan pemaksaan teori ilmu pengetahuan terhadap makna ayat al-Quran.

  18. Bound and resonant surface states at the (110) surfaces of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, R.P.; Allen, R.E.; Buisson, J.P.; Bowen, M.A.; Blackwell, G.F.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Dow, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dispersion curves E(k-bar) have been calculated for bound and resonant (110) surface states of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP. AlSb is predicted to have no surface states within the bulk fundamental band gap, but AlAs and AlP are predicted to have surface state band minima which are very near the conduction band edge, and could lie either within the gap or immediately above the edge

  19. Al clamor de les vuvuzeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El Mundial de Futbol de Sud-àfrica ha situat l’Àfrica al mapa mundial i ha mostrat al món el triomf de l’estil de futbol d’Espanya basat en la col·lectivitat, l’esperit d’equip, la humilitat, la cohesió interna i el joc bonic. L’organització africana, seriosa i eficaç, ha sabut mobilitzar i il·lusionar la població del país que ha participat en el mundial des de l’orgull de ser africà, amb l’esperit alegre, festiu i també reivindicatiu de la gent de l’Àfrica. Aquest esdeveniment suposa el llançament de la marca “Sud-àfrica” al món amb un avís clar d’optar a l’organització d’uns primers Jocs Olímpics a Àfrica (potser els de 2020. S’obre una finestra d’esperança al segle xxi per al continent perdut de la mà de l’esport espectacle tan universal, massiu, emocional i mercantil que també es juga a la canxa de la política i de l’economia.

  20. AL ITTIJAHAT AL MUNHARIFAH FI AT TAFSIR LI BADLI ASHAB AL MADZAHIB AL NAHWIYYAH WA BADL MAN YAJHALUNA QAWAID AL LUGHAH AL ARABIYYAH FI NADHAR MUHAMMAD HUSAIN AL DZAHABIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbakhudin Misbakhudin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most precious achievement in qur’anic studies was the book of Al-Ittijâhât al-Munharifah fî al-Tafsîr: Dawâfi’uha wa Daf’uha written by A great Islamic scholar, Muhammad Husein al-Dzahabî. He was succeeded in discussing several issues of corruptions of the exegesis of the holy Qur’an. This article is aimed to explain and to describe his analysis toward several corrupted linguist interpretations in their originations and such corrupted linguistic interpretations of the holy Qur’an which are ignoring Arabic structures and grammers

  1. Fenomenologi Niat : Antara al-Ghazali dan al-Sayuthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiburrahman Mujiburrahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolusionist and functionalist approaches to religion are generally considered less sympathetic if not antipathy to religious phenomena. This is why, some western scholars propose another approach to study religion called ‘phenomenological’ approach. There have been a number of phenomenological studies of religion, but mostly not of  Islam. This article tries to fill in the gap by describing and analyzing the Islamic conception of intention (niyyah developed by al-Sayuthi and al-Ghazali. As a jurist, al-Sayuthi explores different formal rules on niyyah in Islamic jurisprudence, while al-Ghazali as a Sufi, tries to deepen the meaning of niyyah in relation to one’s sincerity to God. Apart from this difference, both conceptions of niyya indicate that as believers, Muslims always attempt to live in the sacred space and time, and make their speech and deed sacred based on the niyyah. Thus, niyya is the very basis of Muslim religious life.

  2. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xiaoguang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn; Ding Haimin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-03-05

    Because flake-like TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of {alpha}-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption.

  3. La neuroplasticidad aplicada al deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Me decidí a realizar la siguiente ponencia, para analizar y reconocer la importancia que implica el trabajo cognitivo en el entrenamiento deportivo. El abordaje que efectuaré, está enfocado en el desarrollo del entrenamiento cognitivo, su fundamento y el desarrollo de la neuroplasticidad. Analizaré el concepto de neuroplasticidad y neurogénesis como base al sustento teórico de la neurociencia aplicada al deporte. También remarcaré diversas metodologías prácticas, con su fundamento teóri...

  4. estigma tolerable al estigma intolerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2006-01-01

    cristalización pasa por dos referentes de interacción y relación social al interior del espacio escolar. El primero está constituido por parámetros de normalidad y anormalidad a partir de la localización de estigmas. El segundo se encuentra, a contrapelo de la tendencia anterior, tratando de diluir los efectos de los estigmas al señalarlos como una práctica de tipificación social intolerable o inaceptable.

  5. Al-Biruni's mechanical calendar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. R.

    This paper is concerned with a mechanical calendar described by the great scientist al-Biruni, who died in 440/1048. The description occurs in a book devoted to the construction of various types of astrolabe and related instruments. The Arabic text presented in this paper was prepared from three manuscripts. This is preceded by a brief introduction which gives a sketch of the life and works of al-Biruni together with information about the provenance and contents of the three manuscripts. The text is followed by an English translation and the paper concludes with a technical commentary.

  6. De la contingencia al destino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller, Agnes

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    La modernidad no ha podido dar respuesta al problema de la contingencia histórica, El texto muestra, por medio de metáforas, que el abandono necesario de esta cuestión no significa que estemos abocados al relativismo respecto a la contingencia existencial. La contingencia existencial, individual, sigue presente en la vida de todo individuo. Se sostiene que podemos dar un destino a nuestras vidas, y ésta es la tarea principal del filósofo.

  7. Unterbringung geflüchteter Menschen in Essen - Eine Frage der Verteilungsgerechtigkeit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Michael; Raspel, Julia; Weingarten, Jörg; Wohlert, Jale

    2018-03-01

    Inside a city like Essen regional disparity and socio spatial segregation result from path-dependent regional-economic and sociocultural developments. The accommodation of refugees in a city with inner urban distortions and very different socio-economic urban spatial structures leads to the question if there is such a thing as just distribution of refugees within a city.

  8. Menschen am CERN Europaïsche Organisation für Kernforschung

    CERN Document Server

    Pol, Andri; Heuer, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Orte, die von besonderer Bedeutung sind für den Fortschritt in Wissenschaft und Technik, bleiben dem gewöhnlichen Auge oft verborgen. So auch CERN, die Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung nahe der Stadt Genf, in dem Forschende physikalische Grundlagenforschung betreiben, auf der Suche nach Erkenntnissen, die eines Tages vielleicht unser Verständnis vom Universum revolutionieren werden. Der Schweizer Fotograf Andri Pol hat sich unter die multikulturelle Forschergemeinschaft gemischt und sie bei der Arbeit begleitet. Dabei ist ein einmaliges Porträt dieser faszinierenden «Unterwelt» entstanden. Die Spitzenforschung erlangt ein menschliches Gesicht. Der Band wird durch einen Essay von Peter Stamm komplettiert.

  9. Fachkräftesicherung im ländlichen Raum. Wirtschaft erleben - Menschen binden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräußlich, Bernhard; Schwanz, Susanne

    2017-09-01

    The demand for skilled labor is subject to regional disparities. In Baden-Wuerttemberg staffing shortages are intensified in rural areas. The economic development agency in the county of Sigmaringen has tried to solve the problems of out-migration by developing projects that make technology and business come alive for young people and many other target groups.

  10. Verantwortung für die Fraglichkeit des Menschen? Zum Status der Philosophischen Anthropologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Krüger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Responsibility means not just to give the right response to a question. It should not necessarily succeed to ask and respond about acts, and to submit them to some discursive rules. In fact, responsibility is related to an indefinite questioning: How could some question-answer-rules, which consequences exceed a situation, be adequately applied to this situation? To give an answer to this questionability, it would be necessary to move in a self-relating language as well as in a distancing intuition. Thus, the author argues that it would be irresponsible if the philosophic-anthropological question about the human being could be answered by the application of some discursive rules.

  11. Alle Menschen werden Brüder : Lidmaatschap van sportverenigingen, vriendschappen, kennissenkringen, en interetnisch vertrouwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, Ruud van der

    2007-01-01

    Summary All people will be brothers: Sports club membership, friendships, acquaintanceships, and interethnic trust This article examines the influence of sports club membership on ethnic distance from majority to minority members. Cross-sectional survey data on individuals, aged 18-70 years are used

  12. Dead-end eco-state. No room for people. Sackgasse Oekostaat. Kein Platz fuer Menschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauerhammer, R.

    1990-01-01

    The author comes to the conclusion that, in its present form, the ecology movement is creating a conflict which is alienating man from nature. He investigates the validity of theories about the ozone hole, the greenhouse effect and general pollution. The author also shows that the arguments for environmental conservation favour nuclear technology. The political development of the Green Movement is depicted up to the eco-dictatorship. (DG).

  13. "Krokodile hoffen nicht. Menschen hoffen.". Bedeutung und Wert des Hoffens in der menschlichen Lebensform

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Hope is a neglected topic in philosophy. This article tries to show that hope belongs to the human form of life. We start with Wittgenstein's remark that human beings hope, while crocodiles cannot and explore the nature of hoping via three different routes: Firstly, we discuss the question whether hope is an emotion or a more or less rational attitude. Secondly, we put forward five characteristics of hope: the possibility of that which is hoped for, the temporality of the object of hope, the ...

  14. Tailoring ultrafine grained and dispersion-strengthened Ti2AlC/TiAl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In situ Ti2AlC/TiAl composite was fabricated by hot-pressing method via the reaction system of Ti3AlC2 and Ti-Al pre-alloyed powders at low temperature of 1150◦C. The composite mainly consisted of TiAl, Ti3Al and. Ti2AlC phases. Fine Ti2AlC particles were homogeneously distributed and dispersed in the matrix.

  15. Tailoring ultrafine grained and dispersion-strengthened Ti 2 AlC/TiAl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In situ Ti 2 AlC/TiAl composite was fabricated by hot-pressing method via the reaction system of Ti 3 AlC 2 and Ti-Al pre-alloyed powders at low temperature of 1150 ∘ C. The composite mainly consisted of TiAl, Ti 3 Al and Ti 2 AlC phases. Fine Ti 2 AlC particles were homogeneously distributed and dispersed in the matrix.

  16. ¿COLOMBIA DEBE APOSTARLE AL SOFTWARE LIBRE, AL DE FUENTE ABIERTA O AL PROPIETARIO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Girón Murillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es complejo para gestores y administradores conocer las implicaciones que la adopción de modelos de desarrollo de software tendría para una región. Este artículo ofrece una evaluación de las implicaciones dinámicas que para el desarrollo de software de una región tendría el apostar de forma excluyente al software libre, al software de fuente abierta y al software propietario. Se desarrolló un modelo de simulación en Vensim de la dinámica de sistemas en donde se evaluaron 3 escenarios: uno en donde se adopta de forma excluyente el software libre, uno en donde se adopta el software propietario y uno en donde se adopta el software de fuente abierta. Se ofrecen descripciones y explicaciones de los resultados que sugieren las potencialidades de cada uno de los modelos de desarrollo evaluados.

  17. Universal Server - Informix al CILEA

    OpenAIRE

    Camnasio, Maurizio; Trombetta, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Viene presentato il nuovo prodotto Universal Server di INFORMIX installato al CILEA su macchina SUN Server ultra-2. Si tratta di un database relazionale ad oggetti capace di memorizzare e gestire in modo efficace dati alfanumerici, immagini, video, pagine Web e dati diversi definiti dall'utente, all'interno di un'unico repository.

  18. Ajikah et al (11).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Faculty of Science, Senate Building and New Hall respectively. A total of 3,495 palynomorphs belonging to ... dust mites, insect debris and organic dust present in the air (Hyde, 1972). Another point of ..... Table 2: Percentage Composition of Total Pollen Counts from Senate Building. Ajikah et al.: Palynological Survey of ...

  19. Das "Al-Capone"-Prinzip

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtz, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Das "Al-Capone"-Prinzip : Risiken u. Chancen e. "Gewinnabschöpfung durch Besteuerung" nach d. Steuerverkürzungsbekämpfungsgesetz. - Baden-Baden : Nomos-Verl.-Ges., 2006. - 300 S. - (Schriftenreihe zum deutschen, europäischen und internationalen Wirtschaftsstrafrecht ; 3). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2005

  20. 76 - 81_Hayatu et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    flowering plants that belong to the family. Scrophulariaceae that affect cowpea productions in dry savana (Omoigui et al., 2007). The productivity of cowpea in dry region is hampered by low yield due to constraints , which include insects pest, disease, drought, low soil fertility and temperature extremes. But among the most ...

  1. Falebita et al (4).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    These indicate that they have above minimum TOC to generate hydrocarbon .... exploration. At the deep-water toe of the delta, a series of large fold and thrust belts composed of thrust faults and fault-related folds have been reported (Wu and Bally, 2000; Corredor et al., ..... continental margins: American Geophysical.

  2. 180 - 184_ Farouk et al.,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    tals in environmental samples in reported,(Georgina et al., 2013; ... Sample collection. The animal products were purchased directly and randomly from four different markets(Samaru, Sabon. Gari, Tudun Wada and Zaria city markets) of Zaria and its environing. Sample preparation and analysis. The samples were prepared ...

  3. 81 - 87 Iwuala et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Okujagu et al., 2006). The root of the plant is used for the treatment of chest disease and skin ..... Openshaw K (1986). Concepts and Methods for collecting and compiling statistics in Biomass used as Energy. UN statistical office New York. USA.

  4. Al Zubarah - eine vergessene Legende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Jahre später auf einem Sechstel der ursprünglichen Siedlungsfläche wiedererrichtet und dann im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert / beginnenden 20. Jahrhundert endgültig aufgeben. Die Stadt lebt als Legende im Bewusstsein der katarischen Bevölkerung, doch der Name wird heute nicht mit der Stadtanlage sondern...

  5. Oke et al (5).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    means they are perfectly positively correlated; while its correlation with Krishna Rao Formula is. (+0.999), which means they are highly positively correlated. Oke et al.: Comparative Analysis of Groundwater Recharge Estimation Value. Table 7: Inter-Item Correlation Matrix of Annual Areal Recharge. Modified. Chaturvedi ...

  6. Jacob et al (21).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. 2Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, PMB 117, Abuja, Nigeria ... pesticides, use of polluted water for irrigation, waste disposal, industrial and mining activities. (Ashish et al., 2013). Massive and regular chemical analysis of farmland soil ...

  7. Oyebola et al (23).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    3+ described elsewhere (Oyebola et al., 2010). Ho absorption peaks were obtained from transmission studies carried out with a Cary 5000. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer and corresponding absorption coefficients deduced using the Beer-Lambert law. Spectral emission measurements were carried out using the schematic ...

  8. Elueze et al (6).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Appraisal of the functional potential of the marble based on mineralogical, chemical, physical and mechanical characteristics indicate that Obajana marble ... varying stages of geological, engineering and economic appraisals. It is noteworthy ... N-S structural trends of the basement rocks. (Grants, et al.,1972; Turner, 1983).

  9. Dankwah et al (12).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    breakfast cereals (Tareke et al., 2002). Coultate. (2009), has reported that prolonged heating of legumes .... (2005). A mass of 1.0 g portion of defatted treated. Cajanus cajan sample was measured into a 50 mL ... added and the mixture was vortex briefly to disperse test portion in 30 mL of 70 % acetonitrile. A volume of 500 ...

  10. Idowu et al (19).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    lakes, rivers and canals) and lateral or vertical inter- aquifer flow (MacDonald et al., 2005). Typically, it travels vertically ... been used for the evaluation of Opeki drainage. Basin, also in southwestern Nigeria, by Idowu and ... Nigeria in which the drainage basins of the study area are located. The daily discharge values were.

  11. Kringloop als basis van bedrijfsvoering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, van der A.

    2007-01-01

    Gerard Keurentjes bekijkt zijn bedrijf als kringloop waarin grond en koeien de spil zijn. Het gebruik van microbiotica in plaats van antibiotica past daarin perfect. Een microbioticum bestaat uit een mengsel van acht kruiden opgelost in alcohol. Onderzoek toont aan dat het de productie van witte

  12. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  13. 185 -190 _ Iwuala et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    in plants. Keywords: Catalase, drought, oxidative stress, seedlings, Zea mays. INTRODUCTION. Water is an important requirement for biochemical processes in all forms of life. Drought stress (also referred to as water or osmotic stress) limits the amount of water available for use in metabolic processes (Xiong et al., 2002).

  14. Laniyan et al (16).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    they are hazard-resistant construction materials. (Hodgson et al., 2000) These geo-materials which are also known as geotechnical materials can be found between the ground surface and the rock and influences the structural damage examples of such are marble, clay, soil, activated charcoal/carbon, this materials can ...

  15. Derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: derechos estrechamente vinculados al derecho a la vida

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Aller, Maria Celia; Luis Romero, Elena de; Guzmán Acha, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están íntimamente relacionados con otros derechos esenciales para la vida, como la alimentación o la salud. Su reconocimiento como derechos humanos en 2010 marca un hito importante en el respeto, protección y realización de estos derechos, que se encuentran seriamente vulnerados para una mayoría de población más vulnerable y empobrecida, sobre todo en el ámbito rural. Mucho camino queda aún para conseguir no sólo la disponibilidad de agua y saneam...

  16. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

  17. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jinlong; Mao Shoudong; Sun Kefei [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Li Xiaomin [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Song Zhenlun [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)], E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn

    2009-11-15

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  18. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinlong; Mao Shoudong; Sun Kefei; Li Xiaomin; Song Zhenlun

    2009-01-01

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  19. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-21

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  20. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-tao; Tian, Yu-feng; Yan, Shi-shen; Lin, Zhao-jun; Kang, Shi-shou; Chen, Yan-xue; Liu, Guo-lei; Mei, and Liang-mo

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current volt...

  1. Die Welt als Wille und System oder eine Schopenhauerische Kritik der Systemtheorie Luhmanns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Dieser Aufsatz wirft die oft gestellte kritische Frage nach der Stellung des Menschen in Luhmanns Systemtheorie auf. Indem die Frage im Rahmen von Schopenhauers Philosophie und insbesondere seines Begriffs des Willens formuliert wird, umgeht sie die geläufige Antwort der Systemtheorie, dass der....... Anhand von Schopenhauers Kritik des Satzes vom Grund wird gezeigt, wie unzulänglich und problematisch die systemtheoretische Erklärung gesellschaftlicher Phänomene ist. Diese Unzulänglichkeit besteht u.a. darin, dass die Theorie Probleme hat, Situationen „institutioneller Abdifferenzierung“, in denen......) in Luhmann's systems theory. By formulating the question within the framework of Schopenhauer's philosophy and his concept of will the critique avoids Luhmann's standard reply that human beings are only environmental correlates of system observations. It is argued that in its very form of explanation...

  2. AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    Researchers studied the InAs/AlSb system recently, obtaining 12nm wide quantum wells with room temperature mobilities up to 28,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S and low-temperature mobilities up to 325,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S, both at high electron sheet concentrations in the 10(exp 12)/cm(exp 2) range (corresponding to volume concentrations in the 10(exp 18)/cm(exp 2) range). These wells were not intentionally doped; the combination of high carrier concentrations and high mobilities suggest that the electrons are due to not-intentional modulation doping by an unknown donor in the AlSb barriers, presumably a stoichiometric defect, like an antisite donor. Inasmuch as not intentionally doped bulk AlSb is semi-insulating, the donor must be a deep one, being ionized only by draining into the even deeper InAs quantum well. The excellent transport properties are confirmed by other observations, like excellent quantum Hall effect data, and the successful use of the quantum wells as superconductive weak links between Nb electrodes, with unprecendentedly high critical current densities. The system is promising for future field effect transistors (FETs), but many processing problems must first be solved. Although the researchers have achieved FETs, the results so far have not been competitive with GaAs FETs.

  3. Anthropogenic humin materials as sorbents and reagents for immobilisation of organic pollutants in groundwater; Anthropogene Huminstoffe als Sorbenzien und Reagenzien zur Immobilisierung von organischen Schadstoffen in Grundwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcke, G.U.

    2000-07-01

    der Literatur vielfach lineare Beziehungen zwischen der Hydrophobie eines Schadstoffs (Octanol-Wasser-Koeffizient, reziproke Wasserloeslichkeit) und dem Ausmass der Assoziation mit der sorbierten organischen Substanz (SOM, engl. sorbed organic matter) beschrieben [Karickhoff 1979], [Chiou 1979]. Als Triebkraft fuer diesen reversiblen Verteilungsprozess wird die Unvertraeglichkeit der HOC mit Wasser verantwortlich gemacht. Gebundene Reste (engl. bound residues) sind Ausdruck irreversibler Wechselwirkungen. Sie werden v.a. beim Kontakt von HS mit Aminen und Phenolen beobachtet, treten aber auch bei mikrobiologisch metabolisierten PAK auf [Kaestner 1995], [Lenke 1999], [Bollag 1999]. HS spielen eine derzeit noch unzulaenglich verstandene Rolle im Elektronentransport zwischen den Redoxpartnern in Redoxreaktionen. (orig.)

  4. Alexander von Humboldt und Carlos Montúfar als Reisegefährten: ein Vergleich ihrer Tagebücher zum Chimborazo-Aufstieg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Andress

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ZusammenfassungAls Alexander von Humboldt im Juni 1802 von Quito aus zum Rest seiner lateinamerikanischen Forschungsreise aufbrach, begleitete ihn, abgesehen von Aimé Bonpland, Carlos Montúfar bis nach Europa zurück begleitet, u.a. auch auf beim Versuch, den Chimborazo zu ersteigen. Bis kurz vor der Stadt Cajamarca im heutigen Peru schrieb Montúfar ein relativ unbekanntes Tagebuch zur Reise. Nach einem kurzen Ausflug in das Leben von Humboldts Begleiter steht im Zentrum der weiteren Ausführungen die Frage, ob sein Tagebuch ein anderes Licht auf Humboldt und speziell auf den Aufstiegsversuch wirft. Das läuft auf einen Vergleich der Tagebücher der beiden Reisegefährten hinaus und auf den Versuch, die scheinbaren Widersprüche aufzulösen.AbstractWhen Alexander von Humboldt left Quito in June 1802 in order to undertake the rest of his Latin-American trip of exploration, he was accompanied, aside from Aimé Bonpland, by Carlos Montúfar all the way back to Europe, including the attempt to scale the Chimborazo. Up to shortly before the city of Cajamarca in today’s Peru, Montúfar wrote an relatively unknown diary account of their travels. After a brief excursion into the life of Humboldt’s companion, the question is considered whether his diary sheds a different light on Humboldt and specifically on the mountain climb. That amounts to a comparison of the diaries of the two travel companions and to an attempt to explain the apparent contradictions.ResumenCuando Alexander von Humboldt salió de Quito en junio de 1802 para continuar con el resto de su viaje de exploración por la América Latina, fue acompañado por Carlos Montúfar además de Aimé Bonpland hasta que volvieron a Europa. Este trayecto incluía la tentativa de llegar a la cima del Chimborazo. Hasta un poco antes de la cuidad de Cajamarca que está en el Perú de hoy día, Montúfar mantenía un diario relativamente no conocido del viaje. Después de una breve excursión por

  5. Leistungsmodellierung als Voraussetzung für Produktionsplanung und -steuerung (PPS) für die Bereitstellung von IT-Services

    OpenAIRE

    Vogedes, Alexander; Brocke, Henrik Finn; Uebernickel, Falk; Ebert, Nico; Brenner, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Steigender Kostendruck und zunehmende Dienstleistungsorientierung erfordern ein Umdenken beim Einsatz von Methoden zum Management der Bereitstellung von IT-Services. Wurden in der Vergangenheit primär Projektmanagementmethoden genutzt, rücken mit zunehmender IT-Service-Standardisierung Methoden aus der Sachgüterfertigung in den Mittelpunkt. In diesem Beitrag wird dargestellt, welche Möglichkeiten und Grenzen industrielle Produktionsplanungs- und -steuerungssysteme für die Bereitstellung von I...

  6. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Metz

    2012-03-01

    met wetenschappelijke experimentele kennis als norm, is dat zij niet altijd goed aansluiten bij de complexiteit en flexibiliteit van de uitvoeringspraktijk. Vraag is: wat dan wel? In Amsterdam richten opleidingen en werkveld in 2008 Youth Spot op, het onderzoek- en praktijkcentrum voor jongerenwerk, met als doel om gezamenlijk te werken aan de profilering, professionalisering en praktijkontwikkeling van het jongerenwerk. Dit artikel belicht de aanleiding voor het ontstaan van Youth Spot, de structuur van de samenwerking, de ervaringen met de wijze van samen werken en de meerwaarde voor de professionalisering van het grootstedelijk jongerenwerk. Daarmee biedt dit artikel enerzijds een kijkje in de keuken van het (grootstedelijke jongerenwerk en anderzijds biedt zij inzicht in ervaringen met alternatieve professionalisering strategieën.

  7. Wear behaviour of Al 261

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mathan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Al 2618 matrix material was mixed with the Silicon Nitride (Si3N4, Aluminium Nitride (AlN and Zirconium Boride (ZrB2 reinforced particles. AMC was synthesized successfully by the stir casting method with the various X-wt.% of reinforcements (X = 0,2,4,6,8. Tribological behaviour was studied in this composite with various temperature conditions. The working conditions were Temperature (°C, Load (N, Velocity (m/s and Sliding Distances (m. Before wear testing the mechanical behaviour has been analysed. EDAX was confirmed by the matrix material composition. The Al 2618 alloy and the reinforcement mixers were confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction analysis. Wear rate (mm3/m, Wear resistance (m/mm3, Specific Wear rate (m/Nm and Co-efficient of friction (μ were analysed with various conditions. The worn surfaces were analysed before and after wear testing by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Influence of process parameters and Percentage of contribution were analysed by Taguchi and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA methods. Genetic Algorithm (GA was adopted for optimizing the best and mean of the wear rate and to identify the exact influence of input parameters.

  8. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  9. Al Margen de las Cooperativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Estrada Julio

    1941-04-01

    Full Text Available El sistema Cooperativista, propiamente hablando, no viene a constituir una doctrina económica, es más bien una práctica, un modo de proceder en provecho de determinada agrupación de individuos que se asocian para defenderse de la usura del comercio y del intermediarismo parasitario. "El movimiento cooperativo es tan viejo como la revolución industrial, y ha crecido paralelamente a ella, podría decirse como una protesta en contra del sistema capitalista industrial. Generalmente se considera que tres principios fundamentales determinan su carácter distintivo. 1-Se esfuerza por dar "servido al costo" a sus miembros antes que beneficiarse del negocio con el público en general. El servicio de un grupo organizado se considera como un medio para obtener el máximum de eficacia con mínimo de desperdicio. 2-Insiste en que los beneficios pecuniarios se distribuyan al miembro como productor, después de deducir solamente el interés del capital al tipo que compite, y los salarios y jornales de los trabajadores. 3-Mantiene el control democrático del negocio por todos los participantes en él".

  10. Stem cells therapy for ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Letizia; Vescovi, Angelo; Cantello, Roberto; Gelati, Maurizio; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowledge on the molecular basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) having quickly progressed over the last few years, such discoveries have not yet translated into new therapeutics. With the advancement of stem cell technologies there is hope for stem cell therapeutics as novel treatments for ALS. We discuss in detail the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells in preclinical and clinical works. Moreover, we address many open questions in clinical translation. SC therapy is a potentially promising new treatment for ALS and the need to better understand how to develop cell-based experimental treatments, and how to implement them in clinical trials, becomes more pressing. Mesenchymal stem cells and neural fetal stem cells have emerged as safe and potentially effective cell types, but there is a need to carry out appropriately designed experimental studies to verify their long-term safety and possibly efficacy. Moreover, the cost-benefit analysis of the results must take into account the quality of life of the patients as a major end point. It is our opinion that a multicenter international clinical program aime d at fine-tuning and coordinating transplantation procedures and protocols is mandatory.

  11. Transient oxidation of Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The oxide phases formed on an Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil and an Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil of the same levels of Al and (La+Ce) contents, and their oxidation kinetics have been studied in air at 1173 and 1373 K using TGA, XRD and SEM. Al deposition promotes the growth of metastable aluminas (θ-Al 2 O 3 , γ-Al 2 O 3 ). Scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and a small amount of α-Al 2 O 3 develop on the Al-deposited foil at 1173 K and exhibit the whisker-type morphology. In the early stage of oxidation at 1373 K, thick scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and α-Al 2 O 3 grow rapidly on the Al-deposited foil. The transformation from θ-Al 2 O 3 to α-Al 2 O 3 is very fast, and the scales result in only α-Al 2 O 3 . In contrast, α-Al 2 O 3 scales containing a minor amount of FeAl 2 O 4 develop on the alloy foil. The growth rate of α-Al 2 O 3 scales on the Al-deposited foil is smaller than that on the alloy foil and very close to that on NiAl at 1373 K. (orig.)

  12. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  13. Comparison of one and two-neutron transfer near the Coulomb barrier for the 27Al(18O, 16O)29Al, 27Al(18O, 17O)28Al and 27Al(13C, 12C)28Al reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, S.A.; Eck, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Total reaction cross sections for the transfer reactions 27 Al( 18 O, 16 O) 29 Al, 27 Al( 18 O, 17 O) 28 Al and 27 Al( 13 C, 12 C) 28 Al are reported for center-of-mass energies between 13 and 20 MeV for 18 O projectiles and between 11 and 17.5 MeV for 13 C projectiles. The reaction products, 29 Al, and 28 Al, beta decay to 29 Si and 28 Si, respectively, and the subsequent γ decays of 29 Si and 28 Si were measured. Due to the relatively long beta decay half lives, data were taken in a beam-off mode, resulting in very clean spectra. Total cross sections were calculated and compared with a theoretical model for barrier penetration proposed by C.Y. Wong. Differences between 18 O induced one and two-neutron total transfer reaction cross sections are discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Memahami Tasawuf Ibnuu Arabi dan Ibnuu al Farid: Konsep al Hubb Illahi, Wahdat al Wujud, Wahdah al Syuhud dan Wahdat al Adyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Robith Fuadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaum sufi menapaki jalan yang berbeda untuk menuju hakikat, mereka tidak menggunakan akal dan rasio untuk sampai pada hakikat. Akan tetapi, akal bukan satu-satunya jalan untuk menuju hakikat. Karena kita sering melihat sesuatu yang di luar jangkauan akal dalam hidup ini. Jalan yang ditempuh kaum sufi untuk menuju hakikat seperti kasyf, dzauq, 'iyan, musyahadah dan sebagainya dinilai sebagai sesuatu yang samar, tidak mempunyai batasan dan kaidah pasti, bahkan sering kali bercampur dengan igauan, mimpi, khayalan dan angan-angan. Tapi yang perlu kita ingat adalah bahwa media-media tersebut telah mampu menuntun manusia untuk memecahkan sesuatu yang tidak bisa dipecahkan oleh akal dan hukum-hukum fisika. Tulisan ini akan mengkaji gagasan-gagasan dua tokoh tasawuf besar yaitu Ibnu Arabi dan Ibnu al-Farid yang hidup  pada abad keenam dan ketujuh Hijriah. Tulisan ini secara spesifik akan mengkaji tiga gagasan penting ke dua tokoh tersebut. Yaitu al hubb al Ilahi, wahdat al Wujud dan wahdat al adyan.

  15. Investigations of Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismelseed, A. M., E-mail: abbasher@squ.edu.om [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science (Oman); Abdallah, S. B. [University of Khartoum, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science (Sudan); Al-Rawas, A. D.; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Widatallah, H. M.; Elzain, M. E.; Yousif, A. A. [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science (Oman); Ericsson, T. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Material Sciences (Sweden); Annersten, H. [Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) have been performed on two meteorites named Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat after identifying their falling sites in the Western region of Sudan. These two meteorites are ordinary chondrites with similar mineralogy. XRD and EMPA show that the two specimens consist of primary olivine, ortho-pyroxene and later crystallising clino-pyroxene as reaction rims against plagioclase. Fe-metal phases are dominated by kamacite (≈6 wt.% Ni) and minor amounts of tetrataenite (≈52 wt.% Ni). Troilite (FeS) and alabandite (MnS) are optically observed as sulphide phases. The Mössbauer measurements at 295 and 78 K are in agreement with the above characterizations, showing at least two paramagnetic doublets which are assigned to olivine and pyroxene and magnetic sextets assigned to kamacite (hyperfine field ≈33.5 T) and troilite FeS (hyperfine field ≈31 T).

  16. Gettysburg: Monumento al mundo libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available En el verano del año 1958 fui invitado, por las autoridades de la Universidad de Arizona, en Tucson, a la colocación de la primera piedra de su futuro taller, construido para favorecer el desarrollo técnico del Estado. Varios alcaldes y ministros presenciaron la ceremonia, que fue muy interesante, y uno de los periodistas presentes, John Riddick, del "Tucson Daily Citizen", invitó cordialmente, a mi esposa y a mí, a atravesar, al día siguiente, la frontera mejicana, que cruzaba un vasto desierto.

  17. Dialog als Kunst des Verweilens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    Wann helfen Gespräche der ratsuchenden Person? Wenn folgendes beachtet wird: Der soziale Rahmen, der organisatorische/systemische Kontext, der Hintergrund, die Geschichte hinter der Situation, „Transformative Dialoge“ geben Orientierung und emotionalen Halt, führen zu Lösun-gen, verankern in der ....... Das Buch wendet sich an Professionelle, die ihre Fähigkeiten als kooperativ orientierter Ge-sprächspartner zu stärken wünschen, an Coaches, Mentoren, Psychologen, Führungskräfte, Pädagogen, Gesundheitspersonal, Seelsorger oder an den guten Freund....

  18. A melancolia em Al Berto

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Emanuele Martins de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho objetiva estudar, sob a perspectiva da melancolia, os livros Salsugem (1984) e Horto de Incêndio (1997), de Al Berto. O autor português produz escritos em que a temática da melancolia atravessa a palavra, o que justifica o debruçar-se sobre as construções textuais da poética albertiana, a fim de traçar-lhe novas possibilidades de leitura por esse ângulo. Para isso, com o intuito de compreender o discurso melancólico segue-se o embasamento teórico: de Klibansky, Panosfsky e Saxl ...

  19. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    OpenAIRE

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO; SUSANA COLLADO; NIEVES ROJO

    2005-01-01

    Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975), NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988) y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984), con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test), según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998) en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y ...

  20. The ALS Gun Electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1993-05-01

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  1. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan

  2. X-ray detection with Nb/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al/Nb tunneling junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.; Finkbeiner, F.; Weber, K.J.; Lerch, P.; Zehnder, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ott, H.R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-10-01

    A whole wafer fabrication procedure using selective etching of refractory materials to produce Nb- or Ta/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al/Nb tunneling detectors is discussed. Fabrication aspects and preliminary results are presented. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  3. KONSEP AKHLAK IMAM AL GHAZALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Aji Isnaini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Surely I was sent to perfect morals, Rasulullahn hadith illustrates how important it is morality that must-have for the survival of God on earth, the definition of morality according to al-Ghazali was "The phrase about living conditions in the soul, where all behavior stems from it with great ease without requires a process of thought and contemplation. Described good character if his mental condition into the source of good deeds, both in mind and the Shari'a. So conversely the bad deeds as well as violate the Shari'a is the moral condition of the poor. There are four elements that a good moral standards when these four elements are balanced so well that moral science, emotions, lust and fair. The theory of the method to educate the moral, as the expression of al-Ghazali. Normality on the moral health of the soul, and a tendency to stay away from normality is a disease or disorder.Thus, the antidote is Mujâhadah and Riyâdhatun Nafs as a way to treat it is to educate morality, by doing good deeds-deeds required by morality by improving life is to eliminate the various evil and bad morals, and won a moral virtue, good character, as how to treat limb pain is to eliminate the disease and seek recovery.

  4. con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mora Antó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación dio cuenta de la relación entre el estilo de funcionamiento familiar, los patrones de crianza y las edades de desarrollo evolutivo en niños, nacidos con bajo peso. El estudio descriptivo correlacional se realizó con 41 niños y sus madres, aplicándose cuestionarios sobre funcionamiento familiar, prácticas de crianza y desarrollo infantil. Los resultados señalaron la existencia de un funcionamiento familiar caracterizado por una cohesión amalgamada y una adaptabilidad caótica, una disciplina complaciente, falta de control y de límites claros en la díada madre-hijo. Se trataba de familias monoparentales, donde la temprana edad de concepción, el madresolterismo y el apoyo de la familia extensa eran constantes. Las edades evolutivas registradas indicaron un desarrollo inferior a la edad cronológica, en la mayor parte de los casos; sin embargo, éstas tendieron a ser superiores al compararlas con la edades reales de los infantes. No se encontró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de desarrollo y los diferentes factores del funcionamiento familiar para algunos de los rangos de edad considerados; sin embargo, no se lo descartó por completo, especialmente en lo referente al optimismo familiar

  5. Resistance switching of thin AlOx and Cu-doped-AlOx films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ya-Ting; Jou, Shyankay; Yang, Ping-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Thin copper-doped aluminum oxide (Cu-doped-AlO x ) and AlO x films of about 5 nm thick were generated by oxidizing the surfaces of Al and Al-5 wt.% Cu (Al-Cu) films in an oxygen plasma. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, these two oxide films were found to be deficient in oxygen and had gradient concentrations of Al and O. The oxide films were employed as resistor layers sandwiched between an Al top electrode and an Al or Al-Cu bottom electrode to form resistive memory devices. The devices demonstrated unipolar resistance switching between high resistance state and low resistance state (LRS), and their resistance ratios measured at + 0.2 V were around 10 5 . Furthermore, their current–voltage characteristics showed ohmic conduction with the resistance increasing with temperature, in LRS. Conductive filaments were thought to form inside the AlO x film and the Cu-doped AlO x film, causing resistive switching. The resistive memory device using the AlO x film had unstable switching behaviors during cyclic testing, whereas the device using the Cu-doped AlO x film demonstrated stable resistance switching during 100 cycles of testing. The presence of the Cu ingredient in the AlO x film is likely to facilitate the formation and rupture of conductive filaments and induced stable resistance switching. - Highlights: • AlO x layers are formed by plasma oxidation for resistance memory device (RRAM). • Al/AlO x /Al and Al/AlO x -CuO x /Al-Cu exhibit unipolar resistance switching. • Cu doping assists formation of the filaments of mixed Al and Cu in AlO x . • Cu doping improves endurance and retention of the AlO x -based RRAM

  6. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  7. Das Wörterbuch als Grammatik?

    OpenAIRE

    Wellmann, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Das Wörterbuch als Grammatik? - In: Das Lernerwörterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache in der Diskussion / hrsg. von Irmhild Barz ... - Heidelberg : Winter, 1996. - S. 219-241. - (Sprache - Literatur und Geschichte ; 12)

  8. Rekonstruksi Konsep Ijtihad: Studi Pemikiran Ben’umar tentang al-Ijtihad fi al-Waqi’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duski Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research that evaluating the reconstruction the concept of ijtihad, by discuss the idea of al-Ijtihad Ben'umar fi al-waqi’. This paper concludes that Al-Ijtihad fi al-waqi’ is actually a form of collective ijtihad (al ijtihad al-jama'i, by gathering the experts of shari'ah law (fuqaha` ash-shar'i and experts Researchers and scientists (khubara` al-'ashr. Because experts know the nash purposes, while researchers and scientists (al-khubara` know the reality (al-waqi’, the effects in the future (ma'alat = future effect and challenges (tahaddiyat. The idea of formulating the concept of al-ijtihad fi al-waqi’ emerged based on a premise that ijtihad is a creation of experts to implement Islamic law in society. Therefore, the concept of ijtihad experienced a significant development, start from using the nash from the language aspects, continue to the using of logic. At the moment when the situation people are increasingly develop, then the creation of ijtihad become a necessary to developed, for example in the form of al-ijtihad fi al-waqi’ . About the source of the formation of the concept of al -ijtihad fi al-waqi’ comes from theory about the functions of nash, al-manath theory in Islamic law, and supported by the theory of al-mashlalah al-mursalah.

  9. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  10. Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Enchao; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan; Hou, Xun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG

  11. Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama (QTVR) This panoramic image, dubbed 'Rub al Khali,' was acquired by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the plains of Meridiani during the period from the rover's 456th to 464th sols on Mars (May 6 to May 14, 2005). Opportunity was about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater' at a place known informally as 'Purgatory Dune.' The rover was stuck in the dune's deep fine sand for more than a month. 'Rub al Khali' (Arabic translation: 'the empty quarter') was chosen as the name for this panorama because it is the name of a similarly barren, desolate part of the Saudi Arabian desert on Earth. The view spans 360 degrees. It consists of images obtained in 97 individual pointings of the panoramic camera. The camera took images with five camera filters at each pointing. This 22,780-by-6,000-pixel mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters admitting light wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers. Lighting varied during the nine sols it took to acquire this panorama, resulting in some small image seams within the mosaic. These seams have been smoothed in sky parts of the mosaic to better simulate the vista that a person would see if able to view it all at the same time on Mars. Opportunity's tracks leading back to the north (center of the panorama) are a reminder of the rover's long trek from Endurance Crater. The deep ruts dug by Opportunity's wheels as it became stuck in the sand appear in the foreground. The crest and trough of the last ripple the rover crossed before getting stuck is visible in the center. These wind-formed sand features are only about 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) tall. The crest of the actual ripple where the rover got stuck can be seen just to the right of center. The tracks and a few other places on and near ripple crests can be seen in this color image to

  12. A study of the Al-rich part of the Al-Re alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balanetskyy, S.; Grushko, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Al-rich part of the Al-Re phase diagram was reinvestigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The earlier reported Al 12 Re, Al 6 Re, and Al 11 Re 4 phases were confirmed. Close to the Al 4 Re composition a high-temperature h-Al 4 Re and a low-temperature l-Al 4 Re phase were found to be formed at slightly different compositions. Both exhibited compositional ranges. A new phase was revealed close to the Al 3 Re composition. The Al 11 Re 4 phase is formed congruently at 1650 deg. C, Al 3 Re peritectically at 1610 deg. C, h-Al 4 Re peritectically at 1410 deg. C, l-Al 4 Re peritectically at ∼1000 deg. C, Al 6 Re peritectically at 813 deg. C and Al 12 Re peritectically at 746 deg. C. Finally, the Al 12 Re-(Al) eutectic is formed at 658 deg. C. The Al 3 Re and h-Al 4 Re are decomposed by eutectoid reactions at ∼946 and 833 deg., respectively. The structure of the h-Al 4 Re phase has not yet been clarified, but it is distinctly different from the Al 4 W phase suggested earlier. The structure of l-Al 4 Re was confirmed. The Al 3 Re phase was found to have a monoclinic structure with a = 0.5180(4) nm, b = 3.97641(9) nm, c = 0.4955(3) nm and β = 99.55(7) o

  13. Instandhaltungsmanagement als Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo

    Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.

  14. Entscheidung als Häresie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Sooväli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Man könnte sagen, dass Aristoteles so etwas wie eine traditionelle und dominierende Auffassung der Entscheidung in der westlichen Philosophie gründet. Das Ziel dieses Aufsatzes ist es, diese Auffassung von Aristoteles zu entwerfen, einige ihrer wichtigsten Probleme anzusprechen, und sie damit zu kontrastieren, was ich Jacques Derridas häretische „Konzeptualisierung“ der Entscheidung nennen würde. Es wird gezeigt, dass diese häretische Thematisierung von Derrida nicht nur und einfach mit dem traditionellen aristotelischen Begriff bricht, sondern vielmehr auch zu Recht einige seiner wichtigsten Züge auf solcher Weise schärft, dass von diesem radikalisierten Standpunkt die Behandlung von Aristoteles als die Annullierung der Entscheidung zum Vorschein kommt. Es wird zudem impliziert, wie Derridas häretische Auffassung die Erneuerung der Ethik und Politik mit sich bringt.

  15. Vom Dämonischen. Zur politischen Medientheorie des Daniel Suarez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barberi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Romane des Programmierers Daniel Suarez sind weit mehr als reine Fiktionen. Seine terminatorischen Inszenierungen des Endkampfs zwischen Maschinen und Menschen basieren auf äußerst realen Studien zu derzeitigen (Kriegs-Technologien, die als politische Steuerungsmedien eingesetzt werden.This is a review of Daniel Suarez's books Daemon (2009, Darknet (2011 and Kill Decision (2013.

  16. Jihadism and Suicide Attacks : al-Qaeda, al-Sahab and the Meanings of Martyrdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift onderzoekt waarom zelfmoordaanslagen zo’n belangrijke rol spelen binnen de jihadistische beweging, en in het bijzonder binnen het al-Qaeda van Osama bin Laden en Ayman al-Zawahiri. Dit doet het op basis van de martelarenvideo’s van al-Qaeda’s mediagroep al-Sahab: vrij professionele

  17. Magnetism of Al-substituted magnetite reduced from Al-hematite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.; Heslop, David; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum-substituted magnetite (Al-magnetite) reduced from Al-substituted hematite or goethite (Al-hematite or Al-goethite) is an environmentally important constituent of magnetically enhanced soils. In order to characterize the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite, two series of Al-magnetite samples were synthesized through reduction of Al-hematite by a mixed gas (80% CO2 and 20% CO) at 395°C for 72 h in a quartz tube furnace. Al-magnetite samples inherited the morphology of their parent Al-hematite samples, but only those transformed from Al-hematite synthesized at low temperature possessed surficial micropores, which originated from the release of structural water during heating. Surface micropores could thus serve as a practical fingerprint of fire or other high-temperature mineralogical alteration processes in natural environments, e.g., shear friction in seismic zones. In addition, Al substitution greatly affects the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite. For example, coercivity (Bc) increases with increasing Al content and then decreases slightly, while the saturation magnetization (Ms), Curie temperature (Tc), and Verwey transition temperature (Tv) all decrease with increasing Al content due to crystal defect formation and dilution of magnetic ions caused by Al incorporation. Moreover, different trends in the correlation between Tc and Bc can be used to discriminate titanomagnetite from Al-magnetite, which is likely to be important in environmental and paleomagnetic studies, particularly in soil.

  18. Eutectic microstructures of Al-ThA13 and Al-UA14 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, R.R.; Ambrozio Filho, F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals on the microstructures of systems Al-ThAl3 and Al-UAL4, which are composed by a non faceted phase (aluminium) and an intermetallic phase (ThAl3 or UAL4) which is normally faceted phase. (C.M.)

  19. Mechanochemically synthesized Fe{sub 3}Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodaei, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Enayati, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ena78@cc.iut.ac.ir; Karimzadeh, F. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-07

    Fe{sub 3}Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite powder was successfully synthesized by mechanochemical route starting from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al powder mixture. The resulting nanocomposite powder was consolidated at 1400 deg. C for 1 h. The phase transformation and microstructural characterization during mechanochemical reaction and sintering were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that during ball milling the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al combustion reaction directly produces the Fe{sub 3}Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite. The consolidated Fe{sub 3}Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} part had an ultrafine uniform structure without 'core-rim' feature consisting of an interconnected network of Fe{sub 3}Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases.

  20. Impact of Al content on InAs/AlSb/Al(xGa(1−xSb tunnelling diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Zeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to engineer the peak-to-valley ratio (PVR by design of the epitaxial layers is presented. The impact of Al content on PVR of InAs/AlSb/Al(xGa(1−xSb tunnelling diode is studied. A simplified analytical model is used to explain the PVRs dependence on Al content. It was found that PVR reaches its maximum when Al content x is zero with a quantised InAs layer. The peak positions appeared in the negative differential region are effectively controlled by the applied gate bias. A PVR ratio as high as 7.1 was achieved, which is beneficial for a wide range of circuit applications. Adjusting Al content provides a new way to engineer the PVR as opposed to the conventional way of being optimised by varying barrier thicknesses or doping levels.

  1. Al-Qurû’ fi Al-Qur’an ‘Inda Al-Anbary fi Al-Adhdâd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raushani Azza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines about the term al-Qurû in the Qur’an. Al-Qurû is one of the most popular discussions among muslim scholars and mufasir, both in terms of language and fiqh. However, there is a bate among muslim scholar and mufasir about the meaning of al-Qurû. It’s because al-Qurû is one of the sentence of al-Adhdâd wich has two meaning, especially in the Qur’an, namely haid (menstruation and thahr. One of the most popular muslim scholar who concern in Qur’an and Arabic is al-Anbari with his book al-Adhdâd. Al-Anbari explains that Qurû has two meanings, First, al-Qurû in etymology is the form of Jama’ from aqra and qurû. Second, al-Qurû has a meaning of menstruation, thahr, or the period of iddah as a sign of being allowed to remarry after certain period of time.

  2. Aproximaciones cientificas al mestizo mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lopez-Beltran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La categoría colonial del mestizo fue un recurso ideológico, formador de la identidad nacional en la posrevolución mexicana. El eje indio-mestizo sirvió para organizar las interacciones étnicas y las políticas del estado. Médicos y antropólogos reforzaron esta taxonomía dual en estudios de poblaciones humanas, produciendo con marcadores biomédicos y descripciones diferenciadas del indio y del mestizo. Las descripciones genómicas han contribuido tanto a la construcción de una noción cientificista del mestizo arraigada en porcentajes de ancestría india, europea y africana, como al surgimiento de dos objetos tecnocientíficos que llamamos el mestizo molecular y el mestizo bioinformático. Aquí describimos las interacciones entre las encarnaciones ideológicas y científicas del mestizo.

  3. Comentario al libro: ACADEMIA MUTISIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraím Otero Ruiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Por tercera vez en un quinquenio ocupo este podio para ocuparme de uno de los libros del grupo de inmunogenética (o de anti-inmunohistoria, diría yo de la Universidad Javeriana, esta vez enriquecido con la presencia del P. Ortiz Valdivieso, orquídeologo y mutisiólogo y del Dr. Uribe Angel notable historiador educativo, y presentado admirablemente por el P. Durán Casas, Vicerrector Académico de la Universidad Javeriana. En el prólogo, citando desde Sarton y Ziman en los 70s. hasta Mauro Torres en el 2011 afirmo que, aunque suene extraño, parece como si las Academias florecieran entre las guerras. Tal sucedió con la de Platón, “la máxima institución de enseñanza superior surgida en el mundo”, -al decir de Sartonenmarcada desde las guerras del Peloponeso, hasta el final de la dominación espartana de Atenas en el siglo IV antes de Cristo. Según dichos autores, las Academias han simbolizado una manera de continuar la vida espiritual entre uno y otro conflicto.

  4. The new law on radiation protection as a consequence of the EU safety standard of 2013; Das neue Strahlenschutzgesetz als Auswirkung der EU-Grundnormen von 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layer, G. [Klinikum Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    europaeischen Richtlinie (2013/59/Euratom) aus dem Jahr 2013 in nationales Recht erfordert die Anpassung nationaler gesetzlicher Regularien. Alle Bereiche des Schutzes vor ionisierender Strahlung werden dieses Jahr systematisch mit dem neuen Strahlenschutzgesetz StrlSchG erfasst. Dadurch werden Roentgenverordnung und Strahlenschutzverordnung auf hoeherem Autoritaetsniveau zusammengefuehrt. Die Hauptteile des StrlSchG bekommen eine neue Systematik und gliedern nach Expositionssituation: Strahlenschutz bei geplanten Expositionssituationen, Strahlenschutz bei Notfallexpositionssituationen, Strahlenschutz bei bestehenden Expositionssituationen und expositionssituationsuebergreifende Vorschriften. Die fuer die Radiologie wichtigsten erstmals oder modifiziert geregelten Punkte betreffen die Frueherkennung, wo die Anwendung von Roentgen- oder radioaktiver Strahlung unter bestimmten Bedingungen prinzipiell erlaubt wird, das Hinzuziehen des Medizinphysikexperten bei allen strahlendiagnostischen Untersuchungsverfahren und interventionsradiologischen Anwendungen, die mit hohen Dosen der untersuchten Person verbunden sind, die Teleradiologie als weiterhin genehmigungsbeduerftiger Sonderfall der Anwendung von Roentgenstrahlung am Menschen, jetzt mit der erforderlichen Fachkunde im Strahlenschutz, vormals mit der Gesamtfachkunde sowie die Forschung mit Ersatz des vereinfachten Genehmigungsverfahrens durch ein Anzeigeverfahren. Weiterhin kann sich der Strahlenschutzbeauftragte im Konfliktfall im Gegensatz zu bisherigen Regelungen direkt an die Aufsichtsbehoerde wenden, was eine deutliche Staerkung seiner Autoritaet bedeutet. Der einzige Dosisgrenzwert, bei dem es zu einer deutlichen Absenkung kommen wird, ist die Organaequivalenzdosis der Augenlinse, deren Hoechstwert bei beruflich Strahlenexponierten von 150 auf 20 mSv pro Jahr herabgesetzt wird. (orig.)

  5. Plastic deformation of Al13Fe4 particles in Al-Al13Fe4 by high-speed compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, N.; Mizoguchi, K.; Kumai, S.; Sato, A.; Kiritani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Spray-formed Al-Fe alloys having undergone high-speed deformation were examined under a high-voltage electron microscope. Two types of specimens were examined; one containing fine Al 13 Fe 4 particles, and the other containing large particles. In the former specimen, deformation is found to proceed in three patterns, depending on specimen thickness and strain rate: (1) without deformation of the Al 13 Fe 4 ; (2) breaking of the Al 13 Fe 4 ; or (3) melting of the Al 13 Fe 4 . Local melting is found to alter some of the Al 13 Fe 4 particles, to impart five-fold symmetry in diffraction or an amorphous structure. In the latter specimen, introduction of glide dislocations enabled us to determine a shear system in the mc102 monoclinic c2/m crystal of Al 13 Fe 4 . On the bases of these observations, the mechanism of high-speed deformation is discussed while taking into account the highly stressed and/or heated states of Al 13 Fe 4 embedded in Al matrix

  6. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  7. Interfacial phenomena in the reactions of Al-B, Al-Ti-B, and Al-Zr-B alloys with KF-AlF3 and NaF-AlF3 melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.S.; Terry, B.S.; Grieveson, P.

    1993-01-01

    The interfacial phenomena occurring during the contacting of liquid Al-B, Al-Ti-B, and Al-Zr-B melts with KF-AlF 3 liquid fluxes have been investigated by optical examination of quenched metal drops previously immersed in the liquid fluxes. Reactions in the Al-B/KF-AlF 3 system involve the formation of metastable AlB 12 at the metal/flux interface. At high KBF 4 levels in the flux, the AlB 12 is dispersed in the flux and also at low KBF 4 levels in the metal. Reactions in the Al-Ti-B/KF-AlF 3 system involve the formation of TiB 2 , which may be dispersed in either the metal or the flux depending upon the composition of the flux. The results obtained for the Al-Ti-B/NaF-AlF 3 and Al-Zr-B/KF-AlF 3 systems were similar to those observed for the Al-Ti-B/KF-AlF 3 system

  8. Influence of modifier on base Al and Si on structure and elongation Al-7%Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A homogenous modifier with Al and Si obtained by the rapid solidification at a cooling rate equal to v=200 K/s was applied to the modification of the Al-7%Si alloy. The different modifiers were obtained by means of the Al-Si alloys. The components Al, Al-7%Si and Al-12%Si were put into crucible containing the liquid Al-7%Si alloy and kept for one minute to obtain a new homogenous alloy which after break-up was homogenous modifier. Both, effect of cooling rate applied to obtain modifier and weight in weight modifier concentration in the melt on structure and elongations of Al-7%Si alloy are determined. A structural, and elongations resulting from the Al-7%Si alloy treatment by modifiers are studied in details.

  9. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-27

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  10. Decoding ALS: From Genes to Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Paul; Brown, Robert H.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2017-01-01

    Preface Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and uniformly fatal neurodegenerative disease. A plethora of genetic factors underlying ALS have now been identified that drive motor neuron degeneration, increase susceptibility to the disease, or influence the rate of progression. Emerging themes include dysfunction in RNA metabolism and protein homeostasis, with specific defects in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and impaired dynamics of ribonucleoprotein bodies such as RNA granules that assemble through the process of liquid-liquid phase separation. Extraordinary recent progress in understanding the biology of ALS provides new grounds for optimism that meaningful therapies for ALS will be identified. PMID:27830784

  11. Referral bias in ALS epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Piccininni, Marco; Arcuti, Simona; Chiò, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Rooney, James; Zoccolella, Stefano; Couratier, Philippe; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2018-01-01

    Despite concerns about the representativeness of patients from ALS tertiary centers as compared to the ALS general population, the extent of referral bias in clinical studies remains largely unknown. Using data from EURALS consortium we aimed to assess nature, extent and impact of referral bias. Four European ALS population-based registries located in Ireland, Piedmont, Puglia, Italy, and Limousin, France, covering 50 million person-years, participated. Demographic and clinic characteristics of ALS patients diagnosed in tertiary referral centers were contrasted with the whole ALS populations enrolled in registries in the same geographical areas. Patients referred to ALS centers were younger (with difference ranging from 1.1 years to 2.4 years), less likely to present a bulbar onset, with a higher proportion of familial antecedents and a longer survival (ranging from 11% to 15%) when compared to the entire ALS population in the same geographic area. A trend for referral bias is present in cohorts drawn from ALS referral centers. The magnitude of the possible referral bias in a particular tertiary center can be estimated through a comparison with ALS patients drawn from registry in the same geographic area. Studies based on clinical cohorts should be cautiously interpreted. The presence of a registry in the same area may improve the complete ascertainment in the referral center.

  12. PEMAHAMAN HADITS TARBAWI BURHAN AL ISLAM AL ZARNUJI DALAM KITAB TA’LIM AL MUTA’ALLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Afwadzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the understanding of tarbawi (education hadith from one of the major influential clerics in the Islamic educational system, especially in pesantren. He is Burhan al Islam al Zarnuji with his landmark book Ta’lim al Muta’allim. The conclusion that can be drawn is that al Zarnuji has shades of sufistical view in understanding tarbawi hadith. This can be seen in his understanding of hadith on obligation to seek knowledge (thalab al ilmi faridhatun ‘ala kulli muslimin wa muslimatin, which is interpreted as ilm al hal, the science concerning the condition of the human religious or simplistically said as the religious sciences; and the hadith of intention of studying (innama al a’malu bi al niyyat with the intention for the sake of the hereafter and religion, not mundane. Such an understanding is not something taken for granted, but it can be reinterpreted and perfected in accordance with the spirit of the times of context.

  13. Tadris Al Mufradat Li Tathbiq Maharah Al Kalam Fi Madrasah Al Muallimin Al Islamiyyah Li Mahad Bait Al Arqam Balong Jember

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ardy Zaini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are four  skills in teaching Arabic. Ie listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Among these four, speaking considered one of the most important objectives of learning foreign language. In order to speak properly, one must know the vocabulary and apply it in a sentence. The aims of this research is to describe the teaching of vocabulary to apply the speaking skill in the school of Islamic teachers in the Institute of Bait al Arqom Balong Jember. This study used qualitative approach. The data collection was taken trough observation, personal interview, history and documentation. The teaching of vocabulary to apply the speaking skill at the Islamic Teachers' School at the Institute of Bait Al Arqam Balong Jember has gone well in terms of planning (general objectives and specific objectives, implementation (materials, use of the teaching method and teaching aids, and evaluation (assessment and evaluation. This teaching is to apply the speaking skill in terms of conversation or dialogue and lecture.

  14. Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and β-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. Cerium addition influenced on the morphology of the α-AlFeSi phase solidification.

  15. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified NiAl/NiAlTa Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Promising creep strengths were found for a directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloy when compared to other NiAl based intermetallics. The directionally solidified alloy had an off-eutectic composition that resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The room temperature toughness of the two phase alloy was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa. Alloying additions that may improve the room temperature toughness by producing multiphase alloys are discussed.

  16. Respuesta inmune adaptativa al rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Franco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El rotavirus (RV es un importante patógeno humano y el estudio de la respuesta inmune específica de éste en humanos, es un buen modelo para caracterizar la respuesta inmune de la mucosa intestinal (1. Nuestros estudios han tenido como objetivo la caracterización fenotípica y funcional de las células T y B específicas de RV con énfasis importante en la expresión de marcadores de migración intestinal. Estas células son estudiadas en muestras de sangre periférica de niños y adultos recientemente infectados con RV. Los análisis se hicieron por citometría de flujo y ELISPOT. Estudio de células T: los adultos sanos presentan bajas frecuencias circulantes tanto de LT CD4+, como de LT CD8+ específicos de RV que secretan INF_ .

    Significativamente mayores porcentajes de éstas células se detectaron en adultos sintomáticos infectados por RV. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de LT específicos de RV en todos los grupos de estudio fueron muy bajas comparadas con las observadas para otros patógenos.

    Sorprendentemente, en niños sintomáticos infectados por RV se detectaron bajas frecuencias de LT CD8+ circulantes específicos de RV secretando INF-g y muy pocos o ningún LT CD4+ secretando INF-g o LT CD4+ y CD8+ al secretar IL-13 o IL4 (2,3. Esto sugiere que el RV es un inductor relativamente pobre de células T de memoria secretando estas citoquinas. Los LT circulantes CD4+ , INF-g.+ específicos de RV presentes en adultos

  17. Kritik al-Ghazali terhadap Kekekalan Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahidi Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the creation of universe offered by Neo-Platonism philosopher such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Ibnu Sina are philosophical concept existed and came as an early moment of development of Islamic philosophy interrelated to God, ultimately about his Existence and Characteristics. One of the topics is how God created the universe. According to al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina, God created this universe by way of emanation in order to prevent Himself from the new attitudes. Consequently, universe has eternal feature (qadim as God as well, in the case of everything overflowed from qadim is also qadim. Al-Ghazali refuted this theory because it contradicted with al Qur’an’s thought which clearly explained that God created the entire universe. The universe should not qadim and it means that God existed in the first, and then created universe later as we know today. On the contrary, in the view of Muslim philosopher, the universe should be qadim because God created it from all eternity. For them, it is impossible that God existed by Himself without any creation before. God, according to them is impossible to be changed, so that is impossible as well if God changed from did not create yet before and then creates. Al-Ghazali persistently opposed the concept of eternity. Al Ghazali saw if this universe is qadim so it is impossible that universe created by God. The concept of qadim will led to the conclusion that universe born by itself, it was not created by God. This critique has been written by al-Ghazali in Tahafut al-Falasifah. This paper will present the concept of eternity which was discussed by al-Farabi and Ibn Sina and al Ghazali’s critique toward it as well.

  18. Optical phonon scattering on electronic mobility in Al2O3/AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. J.; Qu, Y.; Ban, S. L.; Wang, Z. P.

    2017-12-01

    Considering the built-in electric fields and the two-mode property of transverse optical phonons in AlGaN material, the electronic eigen-energies and wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger equation with the finite difference method. The dispersion relations and potentials of the optical phonons are given by the transfer matrix method. The mobility of the two dimensional electron gas influenced by the optical phonons in Al2O3/AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures is investigated based on the theory of Lei-Ting force balance equation. It is found that the scattering from the half-space phonons is the main factor affecting the electronic mobility, and the influence of the other phonons can be ignored. The results show that the mobility decreases with increasing the thicknesses of Al2O3 and AlN layers, but there is no definite relationship between the mobility and the thickness of AlGaN barrier. The mobility is obviously reduced by increasing Al component in AlGaN crystal to show that the effect of ternary mixed crystals is important. It is also found that the mobility increases first and then decreases as the increment of the fixed charges, but decreases always with increasing temperature. The heterostructures constructed here can be good candidates as metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility-transistors since they have higher electronic mobility due to the influence from interface phonons weakened by the AlN interlayer.

  19. [Prewarming. Yesterday's luxury, today's minimum requirement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, A; Brandes, I F; Perl, T; Wetz, A J; Bauer, M

    2014-05-01

    Prewarming is a useful and effective measure to reduce perioperative hypothermia. Due to §23(3) of the German Infektionsschutzgesetz (Gesetz zur Verhütung und Bekämpfung von Infektionskrankheiten beim Menschen, Infection Act, act on protection and prevention of infectious diseases in man) and the recommendations of the Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention Committee of the Robert Koch Institute, implementation of prewarming is clearly recommended. There are several technically satisfactory and practicable devices available allowing prewarming on the normal hospital ward, in the preoperative holding area or in the induction room of the operating theater (OR) The implementation of prewarming requires additional equipment and training of staff. Using a locally adapted concept for the implementation of prewarming does not lead to inefficiency in the perioperative process. In contrast, the implementation can help to achieve stable arrival times for patients in the OR.

  20. Coaching im Zeitalter der Hyperkomplexität

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    müssen wir damit leben, dass es immer schwieriger wird, einen Zustand von Klarheit, Sicherheit und Gewissheit zu erreichen. Dieses Defizit ist oft Ausgangspunkt für Coaching und coachinginspirierte Dialoge. Ein auf enge Ziele gerichtetes Coaching ist da oftmals fehl am Platz. Es gilt Nachhaltigkeit auch...... im Coaching anzustreben, eine Nachhaltigkeit, die auf Sinnhaftigkeit, Lebenswerte, Selbstidentität und transformatives Lernen gerichtet ist. Coach und Coachee treffen sich auf einer Meta-Position, und hier erfährt ein Coaching der dritten Generation, das Third-Generation Coaching (Stelter, 2014......), seine Brauchbarkeit. Beim Third Generation Coaching treffen sich Coach und Coachee in einer zeitweise symmetrischen Beziehung, sind füreinander Mit-Menschen, die sich über für sie bedeutungsvolle Werte und Sinngebungen austauschen. Coach und Coachee formen Sinn und Wirklichkeit in ihrer Dialog...

  1. THE MEANING OF AL-QALB AND DISCLOSURE IN AL-QUR’AN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustiar Agustiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human being equipped by God Almighty with a variety of gifts which enable them to carry a burden of duties. The gifts are power of the body, vitality and power al-qalb. Islam has made clear necessity of a proper functioning of al-qalb to think in order to develop knowledge. It will help people to carry caliphate duties on earth properly, under the guidance of al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah. One way to enhance thinking of al-qalb required by Islam is dzikir, therefore, someone will find peace of mind and feel close to God. Feeling close to God, a person’s soul will be controlled. Conversely, if a person is not functioning qalb for dzikir, so he will experience drought soul. In al-Qur’an, al-qalb may have some meanings; it refers to the context of verse that contains in it. Moreover, to present the meaning of al-qalb is not always disclosure with the word of al-qalb, but also often disclosure by using the word of al-fuad, al-lub, al-nafs and al-sadr

  2. Simulations of the premelting of Al(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoltze, Per

    1990-01-01

    The premelting of Al(110) is studied by molecular dynamics simulations using the potential for Al derived from effective medium theory. We find a progressive disordering of the surface region as the bulk melting point is approached. This disorder is mediated by the formation of adatom–vacancy pairs...

  3. Miércoles al cine

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado Franco, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Se analiza un caso concreto de demanda ante una iniciativa empresarial: los miércoles al cine. Se analiza un caso concreto de demanda ante una iniciativa empresarial: los miércoles al cine. Fundamentos del Análisis Económico

  4. Harnanti et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-10-23

    Oct 23, 2017 ... 86 cases (5.4%), chancroid in 2 cases (1.4%), while bacterial vaginosis, gonorrhea urethritis, molluscum contagiosum and. Bartholin's cyst each was 1 case (0.7%).The results were different from a previous study done by Tzeng et al. in 2013which showed that the highest STI was Chlamydia (Tzeng et al., ...

  5. AMARI LDGE et al..xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    elongated necrotic lesions surrounded by chlorosis, suggests a possible involvement of the pathogen phytotoxic-compound (Molina et al., 1989, Upadhyay et al., 1990). Some of these toxins, already identified, could constitute an alternative technique for a rapid screening of resistant genotypes in banana allowing an early.

  6. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  7. Presymptomatic ALS genetic counseling and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislaw, Christine; Reyes, Eliana; Hussain, Sumaira; Cooley, Anne; Fernandez, Maria Catalina; Dauphin, Danielle D.; Michon, Sara-Claude; Andersen, Peter M.; Wuu, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable advances in our understanding of the genetic contributions to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have sparked discussion and debate about whether clinical genetic testing should routinely be offered to patients with ALS. A related, but distinct, question is whether presymptomatic genetic testing should be offered to family members who may be at risk for developing ALS. Existing guidelines for presymptomatic counseling and testing are mostly based on small number of individuals, clinical judgment, and experience from other neurodegenerative disorders. Over the course of the last 8 years, we have provided testing and 317 genetic counseling sessions (including predecision, pretest, posttest, and ad hoc counseling) to 161 first-degree family members participating in the Pre-Symptomatic Familial ALS Study (Pre-fALS), as well as testing and 75 posttest counseling sessions to 63 individuals with familial ALS. Based on this experience, and the real-world challenges we have had to overcome in the process, we recommend an updated set of guidelines for providing presymptomatic genetic counseling and testing to people at high genetic risk for developing ALS. These recommendations are especially timely and relevant given the growing interest in studying presymptomatic ALS. PMID:27194384

  8. Kus on al-Zarqawi? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia nädalalehe Sunday Times andmetel on Iraagi tagaotsituim mässaja, terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda liitlane Abu-Musab al-Zarqawi pärast USA raketirünnakus haavatasaamist riigist põgenenud

  9. Al-Farabi dan Filsafat Kenabian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qosim Nursheha Dzulhadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini mengulas pemikiran al-Farabi tentang konsep kenabian dalam Islam. Masalah berawal dari adanya pemikiran yang menolak konsep kenabian pada umumnya dan kenabian Nabi Muhammad SAW khususnya. Sebagaimana yang dilontarkan oleh Muhammad Ahmad ibn al-Ruwandi. Ia mengatakan bahwa nabi sebenarnya tidak diperlukan manusia karena Tuhan telah mengaruniakan akal kepada manusia tanpa terkecuali. Dengan akal ini, manusia dapat mengetahui Tuhan beserta segala nikmat Nya dan dapat pula mengetahui perbuatan baik dan buruk, menerima suruhan dan larangan-Nya. Dengan demikian, nabi dengan segala fungsinya tidak diperlukan lagi. Bahkan, kitab suci pun tidak berguna untuk dibaca. Lebih berguna membaca buku filsafat Epicurus, Plato, Aristoteles, dan buku astronomi, logika, serta obat-obatan. Hal ini tentunya bertolak belakang dengan yang diajarkan dalam Islam. Beriman kepada nabi nabi merupakan hal inti dalam ajaran agama ini. Atas dasar itu al-Farabi bereaksi keras. Baginya, pandangan Ibn al-Ruwandi di atas tidak dapat dibenarkan, khususnya dari sisi akidah Islam. Sebagai al-Mu‘allim al-Tsani (Guru Kedua, karena prestasinya dalam menjelaskan dan mengulas-ulang filsafat Aristoteles, al-Farabi mengkritik secara sistematik pandangan menyimpang al-Ruwandi di atas.

  10. 76 FR 35938 - The Designation of Othman al-Ghamdi Also Known as Al Umairah al-Ghamdi, Also Known as Uthman al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... the Order who might have a constitutional presence in the United States would render ineffectual the... determination who might have a constitutional presence in the United States, because to do so would render... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7505] The Designation of Othman al-Ghamdi Also Known as Al...

  11. Geluk als onderwerp van wetenschappelijk onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1970-01-01

    textabstractAbstract in Dutch: Geluk wordt gedefinieerd als overwegende tevredenheid met het leven als geheel. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van het onderzoek naar dat verschijnsel. Geluk blijkt deels afhankelijk van persoonlijke eigenschappen. Zo blijkt ondermeer dat gelukkige mensen over het

  12. The Y-Cu-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krachan, T.; Stel'makhovych, B.; Kuz'ma, Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of the Y-Cu-Al system at 820 K has been constructed using X-ray powder diffraction. The existence of earlier known ternary aluminides has been confirmed and their homogeneity regions and atomic distributions in the structures have been determined: YCu 4.6-4.0 Al 7.4-8.0 (ThMn 12 -type R I =0.049), Y 2 Cu 12.0-10.5 Al 5.0-6.5 (Th 2 Zn 17 -type R I =0.092), YCu 1.0-1.1 Al 1.0-0.9 (Fe 2 P-type R I =0.068). It has been shown that the structure of Y(Cu,Al) 3 is characterized by an ordered distribution of the Cu and Al atoms and it should be referred as Ca 3 Cu 2 Al 7 structure type (R I =0.060) besides the PuNi 3 structure type with statistical occupancies of the smaller atoms. At the investigated temperature the compound YCu 1.0-0.25 Al 3.0-3.75 (BaAl 4 -type) was not observed. However, we found the ternary aluminide with composition Y 3 Cu 2.7-2.0 Al 8.3-9.0 and related La 3 Al 11 -type (space group Immm, a=0.4192-0.4228, b=1.2423-1.2557, c=0.9812-0.9895 nm, R I =0.069). The compounds YCu 6.8 Al 4.2 (space group Fddd, Tb(Cu 0.58 Al 0.42 ) 11 -type, a=1.42755, b=1.48587, c=0.65654 nm, R I =0.062) and YCu 6.5 Al 4.5 (space group I4 1 /amd, BaCd 11 -type, a=1.02774, c=0.65838 nm, R I =0.071) have been found and structurally refined for the first time

  13. Characterization of Nb/AlOx-Al/Nb Josephson junctions by anodization profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, T.; Hasuo, S.

    1989-01-01

    The thin tunneling barrier in a Nb/AlO x -Al/Nb Josephson junction was characterized by anodization profiles. Our studies focused on Nb/AlO x and Al/Nb interfaces in Nb/AlO x -Al/Nb junctions made by varying certain process parameters. The interface quality was checked by the anodization profiles and was greatly affected by film thickness, layer sequence, annealing treatment, and the existence of a thin oxide. By comparing the profiles with the junction characteristics measured at 4.2 K, we confirmed that the interface sharpness in the profiles is related to the junction quality. The anodization profile is a useful tool to diagnose the tunneling barrier interfaces in Nb/AlO x -Al/Nb Josephson junctions, especially at room temperature during fabrication

  14. Cross-sectional TEM observation of Nb/AlOx-Al/Nb junction structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, T.; Hasuo, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of microstructure of Nb/AlO x ---Al/Nb Josephson junctions by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which yielded much information regarding the unction barrier region. Both thick Nb and several-nm Al form polycrystalline films with columnar structures. Nb is oriented to the (110) plane, and Al is (111). The 200-nm lower Nb has a wavy surface with ∼5 nm smoothness, but its surface is planarized by several-nm Al deposited on it. Thus AlO x with a smoothness under 1 nm can be formed on Al. The upper Nb has a good crystalline structure even just above the AlO x barrier

  15. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observation of Nb/AlOx-Al/Nb Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, T.; Hasuo, S.

    1991-01-01

    A study of microstructure of Nb/AlO x -Al/Nb Josephson junctions by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy yielded much information regarding the junction barrier region. Both thick Nb and several-nanometer Al form polycrystalline films with columnar structures. Nb is oriented to the (110) plane, and Al is (111). The 200 nm lower Nb has a wavy surface with ∼5 nm smoothness, but its surface is planarized by several nanometers Al deposited on it. Thus AlO x with a smoothness under 1 nm can be formed on Al. The upper Nb has a good crystalline structure even just above the AlO x barrier

  16. Data supporting Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data files representing each of the Figures and Tables published in Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016, 3, 593. The data file names identify the Figure or...

  17. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...... curve, emission spectrum, dose response, energy dependence, influence of heating rate and fading rate. The measured TL characteristics were compared with those of well-known, widely used TLDs, i.e. LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Al2O3:C. It is concluded that AlN:Y2O3 ceramics showing a radiation sensitivity...

  18. HOMENAJE AL DOCTOR JORGE CAVELIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rueda Montaña

    1979-06-01

    ósitos. Jamás concibió nada pequeño, ni en lo material, ni en lo espiritual. Su propio mundo de acción y movimiento, tallado a su imagen y semejanza, no le permitía detenerse en pequeñeces. Cabalgaba
    contra el tiempo, y este no le era suficiente para sus designios. Por eso no podía detenerse en minucias, jamás fue mediocre, ni toleró la mediocridad.

    JORGE CAVELIER pasa al Panteón de los grandes de Colombia, su excepcional condición humana así lo impone, sus valiosos servicios a la Patria así lo demandan, y el profundo rastro que deja de su paso por la vida, así lo decide.

    La CRUZ ROJA COLOMBIANA, que le debe casi todo, ya no será la misma. Será imposible ocupar el inmenso vacío que deja la desaparición del titán. Ocuparemos su sitio, mas no lo reemplazaremos.
    Como las criaturas del bosque milenario, permaneceremos silenciosos y cavilantes ante el majestuoso y doloroso espectáculo de su caída.

    Descanse en Paz.

  19. KONSEP AL-NAFS DALAM KAJIAN TASAWUF AL-GHAZᾹLĪ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paisol Burlian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article will elaborate on al-nafs (soul which is an essential part of human nature. The Sufis divide understanding al-nafs in three senses. First, al-nafs is a substance that distinguishes human qualities with other creatures. Second, al-nafs is the cause of man to be creative and dynamic, through the process of inspiration and contemplation. Therefore, the level of quality of the nafs is different. In the literature of Sufism, the nafs can be transformed from a trend that is closest to the bad action to the level of closeness to the divine tenderness. Third, the nafs is the impulse of anger and lust, and urge all reprehensible nature, and immoral in mind. Sufi Sunni, al-Ghazālī calls nafs as the center of the potential upset, and the base of the despicable nature. Therefore, al-nafs need to be purified so that the properties of self perverted man disappeared. Road purification al-nafs is riyāḍah and mujahadah who constantly so al-nafs is ultimately up to the level of the nafs al-muṭmainnah. Abstrak: Artikel ini akan mengelaborasi tentang al-nafs (jiwa yang merupakan bagian yang penting dari hakikat manusia. Para sufi membagi pengertian al-nafs ini dalam tiga pengertian. Pertama, al-nafs merupakan substansi yang membedakan kualitas manusia dengan makhluk yang lain. Kedua, al-nafs merupakan penyebab manusia menjadi kreatif dan dinamik, melalui proses inspirasi dan tafakur. Karena itu, tingkatan kualitas nafs orang berbeda-beda. Dalam literatur tasawuf, nafs ini dapat ditransformasikan dari kecenderungan yang paling dekat pada tindakan buruk sampai ke tingkat kedekatan pada kelembutan ilahi. Ketiga, nafs ialah dorongan amarah dan syahwat, serta dorongan segala sifat tercela, dan maksiat dalam batin. Seorang sufi Sunni, al-Ghazālī menyebut nafs sebagai pusat potensi marah, dan pangkal dari sifat tercela. Karena itu, al-nafs ini perlu disucikan agar sifat-sifat tercela itu lenyap dari diri manusia. Jalan penyucian al

  20. KONSEP PEMBELAJARAN MENURUT AL-QUR’AN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syukri Syukri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: All verses Quran are opened to be interpreted in various science contexts, including education. This article focuses on study at reconstructing the instructional concept of Quran. Results of this study indicate that instructional concepts own sturdy bases in al-Qur’an. A lot of verses of Quran give indication of people to learn more about thinking than memorizing. The past occurrence mirrors the instructional dynamics of human learning. The instructors are not only Allah, but also people, bird, and nature. Al-Qur’an always learns human being based on concrete media support even if the items are eschatology and theology. The instructional conception of Quran must not only use term ‘allama-yu‘allimu, but also yuwâri, yatafakkaru containing instructional elements. This reality shows that instructional concepts of Quran put more nuances of concrete-media than abstract-verbal ones.Abstrak:  Semua ayat al-Qur’an terbuka untuk ditafsirkan dalam berbagai konteks keilmuan, termasuk pendidikan. Tulisan ini memfokuskan rekonstruksi konsep pembelajaran al-Qur’an. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan konsep pembelajaran memiliki dasar kokoh dalam al-Qur’an. Banyak ayat al-Qur’an memberikan indikasi manusia belajar lebih banyak berpikir daripada menghafal. Kejadian masa lalu mencerminkan pembelajaran manusia secara dinamis. Pelaku proses pembelajaran bukan saja Allah, tetapi juga manusia, burung, dan alam. Al-Qur’an membelajarkan manusia berbasis dukungan media konkrit al-Qur’an sekalipun materi eskatologis dan teologis. Konsep pembelajaran al-Qur’an tidak mesti menggunakan istilah ‘allama-yu‘allimu, tetapi juga  yuwâri, yatafakkaru mengandung unsur pembelajaran. Realitas ini menunjukkan, konsep pembelajaran al-Qur’an lebih bernuansa media konkrit daripada abstrak-verbal.

  1. Microstructure and oxidation behaviour of TiAl(Nb)/Ti2AlC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ti2AlC phases that showed the carbon that originates from hexane, participated in the reaction to form Ti2AlC during heating. Consolidation of ... Only the presence of γ-TiAl and Ti2AlC was detected and no secondary phases were observed on the base of Nb. ..... [32] Cullity B D 1969 Elements of X-ray diffraction (Reading,.

  2. Dynamic recrystallization in TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salishchev, G.A.; Imayev, R.M.; Imayev, V.M.; Gabdullin, N.K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour and microstructure evolution during hot deformation were investigated in TiAl and Ti 3 Al intermetallic compounds. The features of development of dynamic recrystallization in the both titanium aluminides were established. It is shown that we can use the dynamic recrystallization to obtain the micro- ( anti d∼1 μm) and submicrocrystalline ( anti d∼0,1 μm) structures in the TiAl and Ti 3 Al intermetallic compounds. (orig.)

  3. Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI): An Al-Qaeda Affiliate Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    driving out the infidel invaders; extending what al- Ayman al-Zawahiri, the deputy head of Al-Qaeda (AQ) called the “jihad wave” into Iraq’s...declared in 2009, that large, courageous, and targeted operations are necessary to break the bones of the infidels .”35 After 2010, ISI renewed its...received funding from dedicated Al-Qaeda channels.43 As of 2009, AQI was essentially self- financing , supporting itself through crimes such as extortion

  4. SYAIKH MOHAMED IDRIS AL-MARBAWI: Kontribusinya dalam Fiqh al-Hadîs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal bin Ahmad Shah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh Mohamed Idris al-Marbawi: His Contribution in Fiqh al-Hadîth. Syaikh Mohamed Idris bin Abdul Raof al-Marbawi’s Bahr al-Madhi is a very popular work within the Malaysian community. This work comprizes a translation of 2781 prophetic traditions adapted from Imâm al-Tirmidhî’s al-Jâmi‘, and still continuously reprented and used by large audience in mosques. This study focuses on studying the method of exegesis (syarh of fiqh al-hadîs found in Bahr al-Madhi. As such, the writer analyzes document and makes interviews related to issues relevant to the study. The test for methods used by al-Marbawy in Fiqh al-hadîs is conducted by analyzing the findings through varius interpretaion of al-Hadis. In addition, comparative approach is also used by referring to the works of expert in hadith and identifying how far al-Marbawi’s method is similar or diferent to the former views. This study reveals that al-Marbawi’s commentary on Fiqh al- Hadîs is mainly dominated by issues pertaining to ‘aqîdah (Islamic creed, tafsîr (Qur’anic exegesis, hadîs (Islamic traditions, usûl al-fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence, and history and language. Finally, the writer asserts that due to its divergence scope of discussion, authentivcity andreliability, the Bahr al-Madhi remains the main reference in hadith studies applicable for different disciplines of knowledge.

  5. Assessing behavioural changes in ALS: cross-validation of ALS-specific measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Grau, Marta; Costello, Emmet; O'Connor, Sarah; Elamin, Marwa; Burke, Tom; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-07-01

    The Beaumont Behavioural Inventory (BBI) is a behavioural proxy report for the assessment of behavioural changes in ALS. This tool has been validated against the FrSBe, a non-ALS-specific behavioural assessment, and further comparison of the BBI against a disease-specific tool was considered. This study cross-validates the BBI against the ALS-FTD-Q. Sixty ALS patients, 8% also meeting criteria for FTD, were recruited. All patients were evaluated using the BBI and the ALS-FTD-Q, completed by a carer. Correlational analysis was performed to assess construct validity. Precision, sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the BBI when compared to the ALS-FTD-Q, were obtained. The mean score of the whole sample on the BBI was 11.45 ± 13.06. ALS-FTD patients scored significantly higher than non-demented ALS patients (31.6 ± 14.64, 9.62 ± 11.38; p ALS-FTD-Q was observed (r = 0.807, p ALS-FTD-Q. Good construct validity has been further confirmed when the BBI is compared to an ALS-specific tool. Furthermore, the BBI is a more comprehensive behavioural assessment for ALS, as it measures the whole behavioural spectrum in this condition.

  6. Surface modified Al2O3 in fluorinated polyimide/Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the mechanical and thermal properties of polymers (Li et al. 2010). Herein, we wish to report the synthesis and characte- rization of fluorinated PI–Al2O3 nanocomposite films via in situ polymerization using different contents of surface modified Al2O3 nanoparticles as filler and fluorinated PI as the matrix. PI which was used ...

  7. Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential ...

  8. Computer aided cooling curve analysis for Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of grain refiner, modifier, and combination of grain refiner cum modifier was studied on Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys using computer aided cooling curve analysis. For combined grain refinement and modification effect, Al-Ti-B-Sr single master alloy was developed that acted as both grain refiner and modifier.

  9. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alanes formation on the Al(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Sylvie; Veyan, Jean-Francois; Chabal, Yves J.; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Muckerman, James T.

    2008-03-01

    Alane clusters (AlxHy) are believed to be the ubiquitous intermediates in hydrogen storage reactions for a wide variety of alanates (LiAlH4, NaAlH4) currently considered for hydrogen storage. The formation and behavior of alanes at surfaces appear to control and limit the efficiency of hydrogen storage. In particular, hydrogen adsorption on the Al(111) surface leads to the coexistence of several adsorbed species, the concentration of which is affected by the step density, the surface coverage and the temperature. We combine density functional theory (DFT) and surface infra-red (IR) absorption spectroscopy to uncover the mechanisms for alane formation on Al(111) surfaces. At low coverage, DFT predicts a two-fold bridge site adsorption for atomic hydrogen, consistent with previous Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy measurements. At higher coverage, the formation of small chemisorbed AlH3 occurs at the step edges. With increasing coverage AlH3 is extracted from the step edge and becomes highly mobile on the terraces in a weakly bound state. This mobility is the key factor leading to the growth of larger alanes through AlH3 oligomerization. For these large alanes, previous Thermal Programmed Desorption studies are discussed and compared to the thermal stability observed in IR.

  11. MENIMBANG TEOLOGI KAUM SUFI MENURUT AL-QUSYAIRI DALAM KITAB AL-RISĀLAH AL-QUSYAIRIYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Listiana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teologi adalah disiplin yang menyangkut Tuhan (atau Realitas Ilahi dan hubungan Tuhan dengan dunia. Dunia dan Allah adalah realitas yang berbeda. Dunia merupakan ciptaan sedangkan Allah adalah sang pencipta. Tulisan ini membahas tentang konsep teologi dalam ajaran tasawwuf Imam al-Qusyairi. Tasawuf yang dianut dan diajarkan oleh al-Qusyairi adalah tasawuf yang sejalan dengan ajaran syariat. Dari tulisan-tulisannya terlihat bahwa ia berupaya menyadarkan orang bahwa tasawuf yang benar adalah tasawuf yang bersandarkan pada akidah yang benar dan tidak menyalahi ketentuan syariat, seperti yang dianut oleh para salaf atau Ahl al-Sunnah,. Dalam perspektif al-Qusyairi, pemurnian tauhid sangatlah prinsip dan urgen, karena Islam dibangun di atas kekuatan tauhid, bahkan kekuatan Islam justru terletak pada fondasi tauhid. Apabila tauhid yang dimiliki oleh umat Islam kuat, maka agama Islam menjadi kuat dan tangguh. Tauhid adalah kekayaan yang terbesar yang dimiliki oleh umat Islam, sekaligus sebagai senjata yang ampuh dalam menghadapi berbagai rongrongan hawa nafsu.

  12. Extended Al(Mn) solution in a rapidly solidified Al-Li-Mn-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhr, M.; Baram, J.C.; Lavernia, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of coolingrate on the extension of Mn solid solubility in Al and on the relative amount of MnAl (MnAl 6 and MnAl 4 ) secondary phases during gas atomization and spray deposition critically examined. An alloy of composition Al-6.5Mn-2.3Li-0.65Zr (wt pct) currently being investigated for applications requiring high strength and low density at high temperatures was selected for this study. The material was exposed to various solidification histories by altering gas pressure and powder size during solidification

  13. Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP): An Al Qaeda Affiliate Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    importance within the Al-Qaeda network. Around July 2013, al-Wuhayshi was named deputy leader for all of Al-Qaeda.30 When al-Wuhayshi was killed in 2015...since 2011. Yemen is also the poorest country in the Arab Gulf region, with 17.5% of the population living below the poverty line in 2011.104...between 2002 and 2006. As in Yemen, U.S. support was important to the Saudi counter-Al-Qaeda effort. Since the 2006 jailbreak that resuscitated the

  14. The Ni-Al-Hf Multiphase Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Darken method was applied to simulate the diffusion between γ-Ni| γ’-Ni3Al and γ’-Ni3Al|β-NiAl interfaces. The results of calculations were compared with the experimental concentration’s profiles of nickel, aluminum and hafnium in aluminide and hafnium doped aluminide coatings deposited by the CVD and PVD methods on pure nickel. The method deals with the Wagner’s integral diffusion coefficients and thermodynamic data - activities of components. The experimental results agree with the simulated ones.

  15. Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    to disproportionation with the formation of magnesium hydride and metallic aluminum as the final product. Experimental evidence renders this process reversible. It is observed that the enthalpy of hydride formation of magnesium is lowered upon alloying with Al due to a slightly endothermic disproportionation reaction......In this paper the properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage are reviewed. The main topics of this paper are materials preparation, hydrogen capacity, thermodynamics of hydride formation, and the kinetics of hydride formation and decomposition. Hydrogenation of Mg-Al leads...

  16. Fabrication of Nb and Ta/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al/Nb tunneling junction X-ray detectors: a list of problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T. [Paul-Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Solid State Div.; Finkbeiner, F. [Paul-Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Solid State Div.; Lerch, P. [Paul-Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Solid State Div.; Zehnder, A. [Paul-Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Solid State Div.; Ott, H.R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik

    1996-02-11

    A whole wafer fabrication procedure using selective etching of refractory materials to produce Nb- or Ta/Al/AlO{sub x}Al/Nb tunneling X-ray detectors is discussed. Fabrication aspects and preliminary results are presented. (orig.).

  17. About LTCC materials in the substance system of CaO-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Ueber LTCC-Werkstoffe aus dem Stoffsystem CaO-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemeinert, Marion

    2009-09-01

    Glass ceramic composites made of glassy and crystalline powders offer numerous possibilities for modifying materials properties e.g. sintering behaviour, thermal expansion coefficient, mechanical behaviour, chemical durability, dielectric properties and surface quality for special use. Glass ceramic composite powders can be used for the production of ceramic green tapes which are processed by LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics)- technology to form ceramic multilayers for electronic packaging in microsystems. During free sintering of LTCC-multilayers a lateral shrinkage occurs which is connected with a comparatively high shrinkage tolerance. Different sintering technologies are used to avoid the lateral shrinkage. A new possibility to achieve a zero lateral shrinkage is given by use of a self-constrained laminate. Therefore a multilayer is produced of two different materials for inner and outer layers, showing different sintering temperatures ({delta}T>50 K). Object of this dissertation was the development of LTCC-materials, which can be used for inner layers of a self-constrained laminate to reduce the lateral shrinkage nearly to zero. Therefore LTCC-materials in the field of CaO-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which can be sintered below 800 C, were investigated. Starting from the development of adapted glasses based on calcium lanthanium borate- and calcium lanthanium alumoborate glasses glass ceramic composites were produced by the addition of corundum powder. The composites crystallize during the sintering process almost completely. Lanthanum borate crystallizes from the glassy phase and calcium alumoborate and calcium alumoborate oxide respectively is formed by a chemical solid state reaction of the residual glassy phase, which is enriched by calcium borate, and the corundum. The proportional relation of the new crystalline phases determines the thermal and dielectric properties of the material. The most important formed new

  18. Al-Âyah al-Mutasyâbihât al-Lafzhiyyah fi Sûrah al-An’âm ‘Inda al-Kirmâny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatiar Pasya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about the verses of mutasyâbihât in the Quran. The debate of this verses caused various opinions. The meaning of the mutasyâbihât in this paper is the similarity and difference of the words in the Qur'an. Mufasir have different opinion about the meaning of the verse of mutasyâbihât al-lafdzi. In addition, many Hufadz of the Quran who are confused from one verse to another, or one chapter to another. It’s because similarity of verses in the Qur'an with other verses. So the writer wants to explain the verses mutasyâbihât al-lafdzi in the perspective of Hamzh al-Karmani in Surah al-An'âm. In this discussion the author discovers some passages in mutasyâbihât al-lafdzi, namely Asrâru al-balaghah fi mutasyabih al-lafdzi, Asrar al-balaghah fi mutasyabih al-hurf, and murâ'ah al-ikhtilâfmurâd bi al-lafdzi al-mukarrar.

  19. Arsenate uptake by Al nanoclusters and other Al-based sorbents during water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jasmin; Rose, Jérôme; Wehrli, Bernhard; Furrer, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the world, arsenic from geogenic and anthropogenic sources deteriorates the quality of drinking water resources. Effective methods of arsenic removal include adsorption and coagulation with iron- and aluminum-based materials, of which polyaluminum chloride is widely employed as coagulant in water treatment due to its low cost and high efficiency. We compared the arsenic uptake capacity and the arsenic bonding sites of different Al-based sorbents, including Al nanoclusters, polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum granulate, and gibbsite. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed that As(V) forms bidentate-binuclear complexes in interaction with all Al-based removal agents. The octahedral configuration of nanoclusters and the distribution of sorption sites remain the same in all types of removal agents consisting of nano-scale Al oxyhydroxide particles. The obtained distances for As(V)-O and As(V)-Al agreed with previously published data and were found to be 1.69 ± 0.02 Å and 3.17-3.21 Å, respectively. Our study suggests that As(V) binds to Al nanoclusters as strongly as to Al oxide surfaces. The As sorption capacity of Al nanoclusters was found to be very similar to that of Al clusters in a polyaluminum chloride. The most efficient Al-based sorbents for arsenic removal were Al nanoclusters, followed by polyaluminum granulate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tracing Al Shabaab’s Decision to Cooperate with Al Qaeda in Somalia (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '

  1. Effect of Al on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Pb-Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LU, Zhicheng; LIU, Zhenlin; LI, Yongliang; WU, Dan; WANG, Fuming

    2017-05-01

    A set of binary Pb-Al alloys with different Al contents were designed in this work. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Pb-Al alloys were investigated with help of tensile test, Charpy V-notch impact test and salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). And the microstructure was observed by optical microscopy. The results showed that microstructure of all alloys were twin structure, and the twin structure was gradually refined with the increase of Al content. Al dissolved in matrix could significantly improve the tensile strength, impact energy and corrosion resistance. However, a higher content of Al would harm the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. It may be due to the heterogeneous precipitation of Al rich phase.

  2. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgobba, S. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kuenzi, H.U. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Ilschner, B. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1993-11-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.).

  3. Analisis Kecenderungan Manhaj Akidah Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera’i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD HAIDHAR KAMARZAMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera'i is a very great and respected scholar during 16th and 17th century of Acheh. His knowledge in various fields recognized by local and international scholars. He had been a Qadi Malik al-’Adil, a religious leader, who became a referred by communities and country during the reign of the three Sultans of Aceh. He has authored nearly 40 pieces of books related to the theology and sufism. This study focuses on the methods used by Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera'i in his theological writings. This study found that Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera'i had used six methods in the such writings.

  4. ALS-Plus Syndrome: Non-Pyramidal Features in a Large ALS Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Leo; Vandriel, Shannon; Elman, Lauren; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Powers, John; Boller, Ashley; Wood, Elisabeth McCarty; Woo, John; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autopsy studies show widespread pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but clinical surveys of multisystem disease in ALS are rare. We investigated ALS-Plus syndrome, an understudied group of patients with clinical features extending beyond pyramidal and neuromuscular systems with or without cognitive/behavioral deficits. Methods In a large, consecutively-ascertained cohort of 550 patients with ALS, we documented atypical clinical manifestations. Genetic screening for C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansions was performed in 343 patients, and SOD1, TARDBP, and VCP were tested in the subgroup of patients with a family history of ALS. Gray matter and white matter imaging was available in a subgroup of 30 patients. Results Seventy-five (13.6%) patients were identified with ALS-Plus syndrome. We found disorders of ocular motility, cerebellar, extrapyramidal and autonomic functioning. Relative to those without ALS-Plus, cognitive impairment (8.0% vs 2.9%, p=0.029), bulbar-onset (49.3% vs 23.2%, pALS-Plus. Survival was significantly shorter in ALS-Plus (29.66 months vs 42.50 months, p=0.02), regardless of bulbar-onset or mutation status. Imaging revealed significantly greater cerebellar and cerebral disease in ALS-Plus compared to those without ALS-Plus. Conclusions ALS-Plus syndrome is not uncommon, and the presence of these atypical features is consistent with neuropathological observations that ALS is a multisystem disorder. ALS-Plus syndrome is associated with increased risk for poor survival and the presence of a pathogenic mutation. PMID:25086858

  5. Studies for reconstruction efficiency and background measurements of {tau} lepton identification in Z {yields} {tau}{tau} decays in data of the ATLAS experiment; Studien zur Messung von Rekonstruktionseffizienz und Untergrund der {tau}-Lepton-Identifikation im Zerfall Z {yields} {tau}{tau} beim ATLAS-Experiment aus Daten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnert, Sebastian

    2008-11-15

    In this diploma thesis two methods are presented, by which {tau} leptons shall be studied in the future data of the ATLAS experiment. The first part is formed by the determination of misidentification rates of jets from QCD 2-jet events as {tau} particles. The second part is the development of a method for the determination of the {tau} reconstruction and identification efficiency relatively to the {mu} efficiency. In this connection invariant masses from Z{yields}ll events are determined, the masses from Z{yields}{tau}{tau} events compared with those from Z{yields}ee and Z{yields}{mu}{mu}, {tau} efficiencies averaged over all ranges and in different {eta} ranges calculated as well as a mehtod for the determination of {tau} efficiencies in different transverse-momentum ranges presented. Furthermore an improved estimation of the QCD background is performed and the behaviour of the {tau} efficiency under regardment of the trigger studied. [German] In dieser Diplomarbeit werden zwei Methoden vorgestellt, mit denen {tau}-Leptonen in den zukuenftigen Daten des ATLAS-Experiments untersucht werden sollen. Den ersten Teil bildet die Bestimmung von Missidentifikationsraten von Jets aus QCD-2-Jet-Ereignissen als {tau}-Leptonen. Der zweite Teil ist die Entwicklung einer Methode zur Bestimmung der {tau}-Rekonstruktions und -Identifikationseffizienz relativ zur {mu}-Effizienz. In diesem Zusammenhang werden invariante Massen aus Z {yields} ll-Ereignissen bestimmt, die Massen aus Z {yields} {tau}{tau}-Ereignissen mit denen aus Z {yields} ee und Z {yields} {mu}{mu} verglichen, {tau}-Effizienzen gemittelt ueber alle Bereiche und in verschiedenen {eta}-Bereichen berechnet sowie eine Moeglichkeit zur Bestimmung von {tau}-Effizienzen in unterschiedlichen Transversalimpulsbereichen vorgestellt. Des Weiteren wird eine verbesserte Abschaetzung des QCD-Untergrunds vorgenommen und das Verhalten der {tau}-Effizienz unter Beruecksichtigung des Triggers untersucht. (orig.)

  6. AL Amyloidosis Complicated by Persistent Oral Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Liarte Marconcini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of amyloid light chain (AL amyloidosis is presented here with uncontrolled bleeding after a nonsurgical dental procedure, most likely multifactorial in nature, and consequently treated with a multidisciplinary approach.

  7. Grain boundaries in Ni3Al. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface

  8. 12th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1999-01-01

    Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future

  9. 20__148 - 152_Ibrahim et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-06-01

    TNT) a toxic, mutagenic and persistent explosive soil and ground water pollutant can be transformed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by nitro-group removal (Lewis et al., 1997). TNT can also be transformed by Veinella.

  10. High Temperature AL-Nanocrystal Alloy Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perepezko, J

    2001-01-01

    Aluminum-rich metallic glasses containing transition metals and rare earth elements have been found to yield finely mixed microstructures of Al nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix and exhibit...

  11. Landbouwprotectie als middel tot politieke integratie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van den P.C.

    1988-01-01

    In acht hoofdstukken is dit beleid uiteengezet. 1. Landbouwprotectie als middel tot politieke integratie. 2. Eigenbelang van een meer marktgericht landbouwbeleid. 3. uitdagingen voor landbouwcooperaties. 4. Het westers landbouwbeleid en het wereldvoedselprobleem. 5. Landbouw heeft nu een eigen

  12. Pike International, LLC et al. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike International LLC, et al. (the Company) is located in New Haven, Connecticut. The Complaint involves the lease of, and renovation activities conducted at, property constructed prior to 1978, located in New Haven, Connecticut.

  13. Annear et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dale Annear

    Queenan and Bush, 2007; Baumgart et al,. 2010). Carbapenem-resistance may be ..... carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Port Elizabeth. Masters dissertation, Faculty of Science, ...

  14. The evolving genetic risk for sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Summer B; Downie, Jonathan M; Tsetsou, Spyridoula; Feusier, Julie E; Figueroa, Karla P; Bromberg, Mark B; Jorde, Lynn B; Pulst, Stefan M

    2017-07-18

    To estimate the genetic risk conferred by known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated genes to the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (SALS) using variant allele frequencies combined with predicted variant pathogenicity. Whole exome sequencing and repeat expansion PCR of C9orf72 and ATXN2 were performed on 87 patients of European ancestry with SALS seen at the University of Utah. DNA variants that change the protein coding sequence of 31 ALS-associated genes were annotated to determine which were rare and deleterious as predicted by MetaSVM. The percentage of patients with SALS with a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene was calculated. An odds ratio analysis was performed comparing the burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS vs 324 normal controls. Nineteen rare nonsynonymous variants in an ALS-associated gene, 2 of which were found in 2 different individuals, were identified in 21 patients with SALS. Further, 5 deleterious C9orf72 and 2 ATXN2 repeat expansions were identified. A total of 17.2% of patients with SALS had a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene. The genetic burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS as predicted by MetaSVM was significantly higher than in normal controls. Previous analyses have identified SALS-predisposing variants only in terms of their rarity in normal control populations. By incorporating variant pathogenicity as well as variant frequency, we demonstrated that the genetic risk contributed by these genes for SALS is substantially lower than previous estimates. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Ayinmode et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayinmode, Adekunle

    Species-specific conjugate (rabbit anti-cattle IgG (H + L)-POD; Dianova,. Hamburg, Germany) was diluted 1:4000 in PBST supplemented .... Western Romania (27.7%, Imre et al., 2012) and Senegal (17.9%, Kamga-Waladjo et al., 2010), it is, however, worth noting that the detection of N. caninum in 23.5% of the herds in the ...

  16. The fecal microbiome of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, David; Hiergeist, Andreas; Adis, Carolin; Mayer, Benjamin; Gessner, André; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative motor neuron disease accompanied by both systemic and central nervous system-specific inflammation as well as deregulated energy metabolism. These potential pathogenetic factors have recently been found to mutually interact with the gut microbiota, raising the hypothesis of a link between microbiome alterations and ALS pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to assess whether ALS is associated with an altered composition of the fecal microbiota. We compared the fecal microbiota of 25 ALS patients with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy persons using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Confounding factors and secondary disease effects on the microbiome were minimized by selection of patients without dysphagia, gastrostomy, noninvasive ventilation, or reduced body mass index. Comparing the 2 carefully matched groups, the diversity and the abundance of the bacterial taxa on the different taxonomic levels as well as PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes were almost indistinguishable. Significant differences between ALS patients and healthy controls were only observed with regard to the overall number of microbial species (operational taxonomic units) and in the abundance of uncultured Ruminococcaceae. Conclusively, ALS patients do not exhibit a substantial alteration of the gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical properties of Al-R melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, V.; Gornov, O.; Bykov, V.; Son, L.; Ryltsev, R.; Uporov, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Kononenko, V.; Shunyaev, K.; Ilynykh, N.; Moiseev, G.; Kulikova, T.; Sordelet, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present experimental data of physical properties (viscosity, surface tension, magnetic susceptibility and electroresistivity) studies for Al-R (R = Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb and Y) alloys and first intermetallic compounds from aluminum side, Al 11 R 3 (Al 3 R). All properties were measured during heating up to 2000 K and the following cooling down under helium atmosphere. The main results are: (1) the electronic characteristics of the objects are in good correlation with R positions in the periodic table, but rather lower than for pure elements. The conclusion is that through all investigated temperature range, the rare-earth elements have partly covalent but not only metallic states; (2) all the melts remain strongly microheterogeneous even at high overheatings above liquidus. The existence of associations with Al 2 R type is highly probable here. Some destruction of these associations takes place with increasing temperature above melting point at the composition of Al 2 R compound. However, the transformation into true solution state is somewhere above 1900 K. To check the idea, the thermodynamic modeling of the melts was performed. It was shown that associates with Al 2 R type are stable up to 2000 K

  18. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-Al

  19. PEMBARUAN MASLAḤAH DALAM MAQĀṢID AL- SHARĪ‘AH: TELAAH HUMANISTIS TENTANG AL-KULLIYYĀT AL-KHAMSAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuddin Mansyur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   In order to answer a variety of issues faced by human being in the current era, such as human rights abuses, social disintegration, and terrorism, the renewal of Islamic law in the level of theoretical and practical aspects is very urgent. This paper aims to examine one of the Islamic legal reform efforts, namely to build a more technical understanding of the concept of maṣlaḥah contained in the maqāṣīd sharī‘ah, called the al-kulliyat al-khamsah. Therefore, the concept of maṣlaḥah in ḥifẓ al-dīn is technically defined as al-ḥurriyah al-i‘tiqād (freedom of religion and schools; in ḥifẓ al-nafs as al-karamat al-insān (human being breeding; in ḥifẓ al-nasl as ḥifẓ al-usrah (wholeness and harmony of the family; in ḥifẓ al-māl as al-taḍammun al-insān (social solidarity , and in ḥifẓ al-‘aql as al-ḥuqūq as al-tarbiyāt (increasing human resources quality.Abstrak: Demi menjawab aneka persoalan zaman yang dihadapi manusia era sekarang, seperti penyelewengan terhadap HAM, disintegrasi sosial, dan terorisme, maka pembaharuan hukum Islam dalam tataran teoretis dan praktis urgen dilakukan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji salah satu upaya pembaruan hukum Islam, yaitu membangun pemahaman yang lebih teknis terhadap konsep maṣlaḥah yang terkandung dalam maqāṣīd sharī‘ah, yang disebut dengan al-kulliyāt al-khamsah. Oleh karena itu, konsep maṣlaḥah dalam ḥifẓu al-dīn secara teknis dimaknai sebagai ḥurriyah al-i‘tiqād (kebebasan untuk beragama dan beraliran; dalam ḥifẓu al-nafs sebagai al-karāmāt al-insān (pemuliaan kemanusiaan; dalam ḥifẓu al-nasl sebagai ḥifẓu al-usrah (keutuhan dan keharmonisan keluarga; dalam ḥifẓu al-māl sebagai al-taḍammun al-insān (solidaritas sosial; dan dalam ḥifẓu al-‘aql sebagai al-ḥuqūq al-tarbiyāt (peningkatan sumber daya manusia.

  20. Know-Why and Design: Key differences between craft and profession, Illustrated at orthopaedic shoemaking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ing., M.Sc F.C. Holtkamp; A. Dehing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1 Im Laufe der Jahre haben die Orthopädieschuhmacher ihr Handwerk als eine Spezialisierung der traditionellen Schuhmacherei entwickelt. Im Gegensatz zu regulären Schuhmachern, die Schuhe für gesunde Füße machen, helfen Orthopädieschuhmacher Menschen mit Fußproblemen, welche ihre Mobilität

  1. Epistemik in der Hörgeräteberatung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In Deutschland verwenden weniger als 20% der Menschen mit Hörbehinderung ein Hörgerät, obwohl es für die meisten die einzige medizinisch-technologische Hilfe darstellt. Die Zahl der Patient/innen, die zwar eine/n HNO-Arzt/Ärztin oder eine/n Hörgeräteakustiker/in kontaktieren, jedoch die Versorgung...

  2. The use of ozone as microbiocide in cooling water treatment - experiences with an ''All-Organic'' program; Ozon als Mikrobizid bei der Kuehlwasserbehandlung - Praxiserfahrungen mit einem ''All-Organic'' Programm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noks, E.; Olkis, A. [Deutsche Nalco Chemie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kleinstueck, R. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany); Johnson, D.A. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Kuehlwasserbehandlung. Als ein entscheidendes Kriterium zur Beurteilung der mikrobiologischen Aktivitaet und zur Steuerung des Ozoneintrags dienen regelmaessige Messungen von ATP-Werten und Gesamtkeimzahlen im System. Eine auf den Bedarf begrenzte Ozonkonzentration hilft die Abbauraten der organischen Inhibitoren gut unter Kontrolle zu halten und - mit einem Minimum an Behandlungsmitteln - entsprechend umweltfreundlich und wirtschaftlich zu arbeiten. Wiederfindungsraten von etwa 80% wurden fuer das Phosphonat PBTC und die Stabilisatoren und Dispergatoren gemessen. Die Korrosionsraten bei Stahl und Kupfer sind in Anbetracht der Zusatzwasserqualitaet niedrig. Die Ablagerungstendenz wird durch die Inhibitorkombination sicher kontrolliert. Vorangegangene Untersuchungen in Labor und Technikum hatten gezeigt, dass die haeufig als Basiskomponenten in Kuehlwasserformulierungen eingesetzten Phosphonate beim Kontakt mit Ozon eine sehr unterschiedliche und in der Reihenfolge PBTC>HEDP>ATMP sinkende Ozonstabilitaet aufweisen. Mit einem PBTC-haltigen stabilisierten Phosphatprogramm wurde in einem Kuehlkreislauf bei der Bayer AG in Dormagen ein 6-monatiger Praxisversuch durchgefuehrt. Trotz der hohen Halbwertszeiten des Kuehlwassers im System erwies sich PBTC mit Wiederfindungsraten von ca. 50 bis 80% als hinreichend stabil. (orig.)

  3. Removal of metallic Al and Al/Zn alloys in MSWI bottom ash by alkaline treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Dongxing; Poon, Chi Sun

    2018-02-15

    In order to reduce the leaching of pollutants and remove the Al and Zn/Al alloy from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA), an optimized alkaline pre-treatment procedure was developed in this study. The influences of alkaline conditions on the removal rate of Al and Zn/Al alloy were investigated, including [OH] - concentration, temperature, particle size, liquid/solid ratio and treatment duration. The experimental results showed that the optimized alkaline pre-treatment conditions to efficiently remove the Al and Zn/Al alloy was by using a minimum of 1.0mol/l [OH] - , at 55°C and with a minimal liquid/solid ratio of 5. The removal rate of Al and Zn/Al alloy followed an S-shape curve, in which the slow beginning stage was attributed to the protection of the oxidation layer and the quenched product around the Al and Al/Zn alloy. After 3h of the optimized alkaline pre-treatment, the leaching of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn of the treated MSWIBA was reduced by more than 90% of that of the original MSWIBA. The alkali-silica reaction test further indicated that the expansion of concrete prepared with the pre-treated MSWIBA was significantly reduced and there was no macro-crack or spalling damage on the surface of the tested specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng

    2010-10-27

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  5. Root protein profile changes induced by Al exposure in two rice cultivars differing in Al tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang Yi; Shen, Ren Fang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-14

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a primary limitation to crop growth in acidic soils. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings exposed to Al show significantly inhibited root growth. To understand the precise mechanisms underlying Al toxicity, a comparative protein profile analysis of roots from two rice cultivars was conducted using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. A total of 79 Al-regulated proteins were identified, from which 54 and 45 proteins were differentially regulated in Kasalath (Al-sensitive) and Koshihikari (Al-resistant) cultivars, respectively. Gene Ontology and clustering analysis revealed an increase in relative abundance in vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, whereas structural proteins were decreased in both cultivars. Under Al toxicity, proteins involved in the antioxidative system, carbohydrate and nucleotide anabolism were increased in Koshihikari, whereas proteins participating in pathogenesis and carbohydrate catabolism were increased in Kasalath. Furthermore, the abundance of proteins involved in signal transduction, translation and transcription were different between the two cultivars. Our results suggest that destruction of the molecular structure is a major cause of cellular damage, and vacuolar sequestration of Al ions is an important Al resistant mechanism in rice. Both active oxygen scavenging systems and carbohydrate metabolism could play important roles in determining the Al tolerance among rice cultivars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting glass-forming compositions in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargarella, P.; de Oliveira, M.F.; Kiminami, C.S.; Pauly, S.; Kuehn, U.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Eckert, J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The glass-forming ability of the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems was studied using the λ* and the λ.Δe criteria. → Both criteria predicted with just 1% at. of error the best glass-former verified so far in the Al-La system. → Four new glass-former compositions could be predicted in the Al-La-Ni system using the λ.Δe criterion. → The best glass-former reported so far in the Al-La-Ni system was found. - Abstract: In this work, a criterion considering the topological instability (λ) and the differences in the electronegativity of the constituent elements (Δe) was applied to the Al-La and Al-Ni-La systems in order to predict the best glass-forming compositions. The results were compared with literature data and with our own experimental data for the Al-La-Ni system. The alloy described in the literature as the best glass former in the Al-La system is located near the point with local maximum for the λ.Δe criterion. A good agreement was found between the predictions of the λ.Δe criterion and literature data in the Al-La-Ni system, with the region of the best glass-forming ability (GFA) and largest supercooled liquid region (ΔT x ) coinciding with the best compositional region for amorphization indicated by the λ.Δe criterion. Four new glassy compositions were found in the Al-La-Ni system, with the best predicted composition presenting the best glass-forming ability observed so far for this system. Although the λ.Δe criterion needs further refinements for completely describe the glass-forming ability in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems, the results demonstrated that this criterion is a good tool to predict new glass-forming compositions.

  7. Liquidus projection of the Nb-Cr-Al system near the Al3(Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.A.; Ferrandini, P.L.; Nunes, C.A.; Coelho, A.A.; Caram, R.

    2006-01-01

    The system Nb-Cr-Al was investigated in the region near the Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic and the liquidus projection of that region was determined based on the microstructural characterization of arc melted alloys. The characterization utilized scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results allowed one to determine three primary solidification liquidus surfaces ((Cr,Al) 2 Nb, Cr(Al,Nb) and Al 3 (Nb,Cr)), that are originated from the binary systems Cr-Nb, Cr-Al and Al-Nb. It is proposed the occurrence of the invariant reaction L + (Cr,Al) 2 Nb ↔ Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) and of a point of minimum, which involves a three phase reaction, L ↔ Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb). All alloys studied showed formation of the Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic as the last solidification step with Al(Nb)Cr 2 precipitating from Cr(Al,Nb)

  8. Effect of elevated Al and pH on the growth and root morphology of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive wheat seedlings in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Toufiq Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium ion (Al3+ toxicity and hydrogen ion (H+ activity are the major constraints for plant growth in acid soil. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH and Al on the growth response and changes in root morphology of Al-tolerant (ET8 and Al-sensitive (ES8 wheat seedlings. Different levels of AlCl3 and CaCO3 were added to the soils to manipulate soil pH and extractable Al. The results showed that the bulk soil pH remained constant at pH 4.1 with further applications of AlCl3, and that the seedlings died at the 200 mg AlCl3/kg treatments. The ET8 seedlings responded better than the ES8 seedlings in both low and high Al and pH. The ET8 seedlings had higher root surface areas and root tip numbers than the ES8 seedlings in the Al treatment. In contrast, the ES8 had higher root diameters than the ET8 seedlings due to the elevated Al supply. Apoplast Al increased with the increase of soil available extractable Al, and declined with the decrease of soil extractable Al. The ET8 seedlings accumulated more Al in their apoplast than the ES8 seedlings. This study concluded that accumulation of Al in the apoplast is also involved in Al tolerance mechanism with the addition of organic acid exudation.

  9. Disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON, Al10O3N8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, Hiroki; Funahashi, Shiro; Asaka, Toru; Hirosaki, Naoto; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    The disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON (Al 10 O 3 N 8 ) was determined by combined use of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The title compound is hexagonal with space group P6 3 /mmc (Z=2) and the unit-cell dimensions are a=0.307082(5) nm, c=5.29447(8) nm and V=0.432376(12) nm 3 . The structural model showed the positional disordering of three of the six Al sites in the unit cell. The reliability indices calculated from the Rietveld method were R wp =6.97%, S (=R wp /R e )=1.68, R p =5.45%, R B =5.13% and R F =4.56%. We interpreted the disordered structure of 20H-AlON as a statistical average of six different types of ordered structural configurations, which are composed of an octahedral [Al(O, N) 6 ] layer and tetrahedral [Al(O, N) 4 ] layers. We demonstrated the high correlations between the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions and the octahedral layer concentrations for AlON and SiAlON polytypoids. - Graphical abstract: Variations of a and c/(n O +n T ) with n O /(n O +n T ). The a and c are the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions of AlON, SiAlON and AlN. The n O and n T are, respectively, the numbers of octahedral and tetrahedral layers in the unit cells. The unit-cell dimensions in literature are plotted in black plus for AlON and black cross for SiAlON. The unit-cell dimensions of AlN are a=0.3110 nm and c=0.4980 nm. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al10O3N8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • Six types of ordered atom arrangements are derived from the disordered structure. • Hexagonal unit-cell dimensions changed systematically for AlON and SiAlON compounds

  10. Prinsip Pendidikan Karakter dalam Islam: Studi Komparasi Pemikiran Al-Ghazali dan Burhanuddin Al-Zarnuji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impelemtantion of character education that is done by the Indonesian government recently has been provoked by al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji long ago. It was proven by some written thoughts of al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They were very famous scientists in their era and widely welknown as educational experts who produced some phenomenal thoughts many people use today. Al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji lived in the era of Bani Abbasiyah monarchy, but Both of them lived in different era. Al-Ghazali was born first, then Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They had different mazhab, al-Ghazali went to the traditional principle of mazhab Syafi’I and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji went to the modern principle of mazhab Hanafi. The differences, of course, would create a different thought. Still, they might have a similar principle of Islamic character education. The thoughts of character education of al-Ghazali have been poured in the “Ayyuha Walad” focusing to the students’ character building characterized by religiously obedient, skillfull of general and religious knowledge, socially helpful, affectionate, generous, good citizen, and coloring the society. Some applicable thoughts of character education of Ayyuha al-Walad of al-Gazhali to the contemporary education are: the balance of the happiness purposes of the recent life and the life after death, qana’ah and tawakal, affectionate, caring other, patience, honesty, philanthrophy, social works, generousity, democratic, peace makers, and patriotic. Those characters are also directed in the islamic character education nowdays. So that, the thoughts of al-Ghazali positively and responsively are absorbed by the Indonesian government to build the national character widely implementing in the national curriculum based on the local wisdom and the Islamic values. In the end, the students are able to live happily based on the Islamic rules by implementing the good behavior. Similar to the al

  11. Microstructural characterization of a rapidly solidified Al-5 Sb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonghua; Bian Xiufang; Wang Yan

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the microstructure of a melt-spun Al-5 Sb alloy has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The phases present in the melt-spun Al-5 Sb alloy were determined to be the equilibrium α-Al and AlSb, identical to those in the ingot-cast alloy. The microstructure of the melt-spun Al-5 Sb alloy is composed of primary AlSb phase embedded in the matrix comprising α-Al cells with intercellular nanoscale AlSb particles, different from that of the ingot-cast alloy composed of the primary AlSb phase within an α-Al/AlSb eutectic matrix. Rapid solidification has a marked effect on the morphology, size and distribution of the primary AlSb phase in the melt-spun Al-5 Sb alloy. Furthermore, some orientation relationships were determined in the melt-spun alloy

  12. Potential skin involvement in ALS: revisiting Charcot's observation - a review of skin abnormalities in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Bastien; Gros-Louis, François

    2017-07-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed. Thus, the skin could be of interest in the study of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes skin changes reported in the literature over the years and discusses about a novel in vitro ALS tissue-engineered skin model, derived from patients, for the study of ALS.

  13. Influence of Al fraction on photoemission performance of AlGaN photocathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guanghui; Chang, Benkang; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Junju; Zhang, Yijun; Chen, Xinlong; Jin, Muchun

    2014-06-10

    To research the photoemission performance of a transmission-mode Al(1-x)Ga(x)N photocathode, Al0.24Ga0.76N and GaN photocathodes with the same structure were activated, their spectral responses were measured using a multi-information measurement system at room temperature, and the photocathode parameters were obtained by fitting quantum efficiency curves. The results showed that both the reflective-mode and transmission-mode spectral responses of the AlGaN photocathode were lower than those of the GaN photocathode. Compared with the GaN photocathode, the short-wavelength spectral response of the Al0.24Ga0.76N photocathode was less seriously affected by lattice defects between the buffer and emission layers. The Al atom at the AlGaN photocathode surface could affect the optimal Cs adsorption position, which mainly affects the surface electron escape probability of the photocathode.

  14. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  15. KONSEPSI AL-QURAN DAN AL-HADITS TENTANG OPERASIONAL BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ardy Zaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Islam hadir dengan beberapa tujuan, diantaranya adalah terciptanya khoirul ummah dan rahmatan lil’alamin dengan al-Qur’an dan al-Hadits sebagai penuntun umat Islam demi tercapainya tujuan tersebut. Sebagai pedoman hidup, al-Qur’an dan al-Hadits memberikan berbagai petunjuk tentang keteraturan dan permasalahan hidup, termasuk didalamnya mengenai perbankan yang telah memenuhi hampir separuh sisi-sisi kehidupan manusia. Untuk memaksimal ajaran syariah secara kaffah, maka nilai-nilai yang terdapat dalam al-Quran harus mampu diturunkan pada tataran praktis. Salah satu usaha dan langkah dalam rangka menemukan formula perbankan masa depan, al-Quran dan Hadits memiliki konsepsi dalam kegiatan operasional Bank Syariah. Hal ini dilakukan untuk membentuk sikap mental atau watak yang terjabarkan dalam pola berpikir, cara berbicara, dan etika bertingkah laku, sebagai ekspresi jiwa dari manusia yang beriman dan bertakwa kepada Allah Swt. Agar umat Islam mampu menjadi umat yang unggul (khayr ummah.

  16. Crystal structures of isotypic aluminides CeRuAl and CeRhAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribanov, A.V.; Tursina, A.I.; Grytsiv, A.V.; Murashova, E.V.; Bukhan'ko, N.G.; Rogl, P.; Seropegin, Y.D.; Giester, G.

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structures of the compounds CeRuAl and CeRhAl were studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic LaNiAl type with space group Pnma (No. 62) and are related to the structure types of hexagonal ZrNiAl and orthorhombic TiNiSi. Parameters for CeRuAl and CeRhAl are: a = 7.2057(2) A, b = 4.0589(1) A, c = 15.8728(5) A; R F = 0.023; a = 7.107(2) A, b = 4.2237(10) A, c = 15.965(3) A; R F 0.032, respectively

  17. 27Al NMR studies of NpPd5Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudo, H.; Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y.; Haga, Y.; Ikeda, S.; Matsuda, T.D.; Onuki, Y.; Yasuoka, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present 27 Al NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd 5 Al 2 (T c =4.9K). We have observed a five-line 27 Al NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below T c . The temperature dependence of the 27 Al nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below T c , indicating that NpPd 5 Al 2 is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd 5 Al 2 .

  18. Genetic architecture of ALS in Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghero, Giuseppe; Pugliatti, Maura; Marrosu, Francesco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Murru, Maria Rita; Floris, Gianluca; Cannas, Antonino; Parish, Leslie D; Occhineri, Patrizia; Cau, Tea B.; Loi, Daniela; Ticca, Anna; Traccis, Sebastiano; Manera, Umberto; Canosa, Antonio; Moglia, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Barberis, Marco; Brunetti, Maura; Pliner, Hannah A; Renton, Alan E; Nalls, Mike A; Traynor, Bryan J; Restagno, Gabriella; Chiò, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Conserved populations, such as Sardinians, displaying elevated rates of familial or sporadic ALS provide unique information on the genetics of the disease. Our aim was to describe the genetic profile of a consecutive series of ALS patients of Sardinian ancestry. All ALS patients of Sardinian ancestry, identified between 2008 and 2013 through the ITALSGEN consortium, were eligible to be included in the study. Patients and controls underwent the analysis of TARDBP, C9ORF72, SOD1, and FUS genes. Genetic mutations were identified in 155 out of 375 Sardinian ALS cases (41.3%), more commonly the p.A382T and p.G295S mutations of TARDBP, and the GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion of C9ORF72. One patient had both p.G295S and p.A382T mutation of TARDBP and eight carried both the heterozygous p.A382T mutation of TARDBP and a repeat expansion of C9ORF72. Patients carrying the p.A382T and the p.G295S mutations of TARDBP and the C9ORF72 repeat expansion shared distinct haplotypes across these loci. Patients with co-occurrence of C9ORF72 and TARDBP p.A382T missense mutation had a significantly lower age at onset and shorter survival. More than 40% of all cases on the island of Sardinia carry a mutation of an ALS-related gene, representing the highest percentage of ALS cases genetically explained outside of Scandinavia. Clinical phenotypes associated with different genetic mutations show some distinctive characteristics, but the heterogeneity between and among families carrying the same mutations implies that ALS manifestation is influenced by other genetic and non-genetic factors. PMID:25123918

  19. Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godefroid, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Current-Transport Mechanisms in the AlInN/AlN/GaN single-channel and AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN double-channel heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Engin, E-mail: engina@bilkent.edu.tr [Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Turan, Sevil; Gökden, Sibel; Teke, Ali [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Letters, Balıkesir University, Çağış Kampüsü, 10145 Balıkesir (Turkey); Özbay, Ekmel [Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-12-02

    Current-transport mechanisms were investigated in Schottky contacts on AlInN/AlN/GaN single channel (SC) and AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN double channel (DC) heterostructures. A simple model was adapted to the current-transport mechanisms in DC heterostructure. In this model, two Schottky diodes are in series: one is a metal–semiconductor barrier layer (AIInN) Schottky diode and the other is an equivalent Schottky diode, which is due to the heterojunction between the AlN and GaN layer. Capacitance–voltage studies show the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the AlN/GaN interface in the SC and the first AlN/GaN interface from the substrate direction in the DC. In order to determine the current mechanisms for SC and DC heterostructures, we fit the analytical expressions given for the tunneling current to the experimental current–voltage data over a wide range of applied biases as well as at different temperatures. We observed a weak temperature dependence of the saturation current and a fairly small dependence on the temperature of the tunneling parameters in this temperature range. At both a low and medium forward-bias voltage values for Schottky contacts on AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN DC and AlInN/AlN/GaN SC heterostructures, the data are consistent with electron tunneling to deep levels in the vicinity of mixed/screw dislocations in the temperature range of 80–420 K. - Highlights: • Current mechanisms were investigated on single and double channel heterostructures. • A model was adapted to the current mechanisms in double channel heterostructures. • We observed a weak temperature dependence of the saturation current. • And a small dependence of the tunneling parameters in this temperature range.

  1. Current-Transport Mechanisms in the AlInN/AlN/GaN single-channel and AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN double-channel heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Engin; Turan, Sevil; Gökden, Sibel; Teke, Ali; Özbay, Ekmel

    2013-01-01

    Current-transport mechanisms were investigated in Schottky contacts on AlInN/AlN/GaN single channel (SC) and AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN double channel (DC) heterostructures. A simple model was adapted to the current-transport mechanisms in DC heterostructure. In this model, two Schottky diodes are in series: one is a metal–semiconductor barrier layer (AIInN) Schottky diode and the other is an equivalent Schottky diode, which is due to the heterojunction between the AlN and GaN layer. Capacitance–voltage studies show the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the AlN/GaN interface in the SC and the first AlN/GaN interface from the substrate direction in the DC. In order to determine the current mechanisms for SC and DC heterostructures, we fit the analytical expressions given for the tunneling current to the experimental current–voltage data over a wide range of applied biases as well as at different temperatures. We observed a weak temperature dependence of the saturation current and a fairly small dependence on the temperature of the tunneling parameters in this temperature range. At both a low and medium forward-bias voltage values for Schottky contacts on AlInN/AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN DC and AlInN/AlN/GaN SC heterostructures, the data are consistent with electron tunneling to deep levels in the vicinity of mixed/screw dislocations in the temperature range of 80–420 K. - Highlights: • Current mechanisms were investigated on single and double channel heterostructures. • A model was adapted to the current mechanisms in double channel heterostructures. • We observed a weak temperature dependence of the saturation current. • And a small dependence of the tunneling parameters in this temperature range

  2. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka al-Qaida in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka al-Qaida of the Jihad in the... Organization Base of Jihad/Mesopotamia, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in the Land of...

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic studies of ALS cases in ALS-SMA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcia, Philippe; Vourc'h, Patrick; Blasco, Helene; Couratier, Philippe; Dangoumau, Audrey; Bellance, Remi; Desnuelle, Claude; Viader, Fausto; Pautot, Vivien; Millecamps, Stephanie; Bakkouche, Salah; Salachas, FranÇois; Andres, Christian R; Meininger, Vincent; Camu, William

    2018-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are the most frequent motor neuron disorders in adulthood and infancy, respectively. There is a growing literature supporting common pathophysiological patterns between those disorders. One important clinical issue for that is the co-occurrence of both diseases within a family. To collect families in which ALS and SMA patients co-exist and describe the phenotype and the genotype of ALS patients. Nine families with co-occurrence of SMA and ALS have been gathered over the last 15 years. Epidemiological, phenotype and genetic status were collected. Out of the nine families, six corresponded to the criteria of familial ALS (FALS). Clinical data were available for 11 patients out of the 15 ALS cases. Mean age of onset was 58.5 years, site of onset was lower limbs in nine cases (81.8%), median duration was 22 months. Four ALS patients carried a mutation: three mutations in SOD1 gene (G147N in two cases and one with E121G) and one repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene. Three patients had abnormal SMN1 copy numbers. While the high proportion of familial history of ALS cases in these ALS-SMA pedigrees could have suggested that these familial clusters of the two most frequent MND rely on a genetic background, we failed to exclude that this occurred by chance.

  4. Tensile behavior of directionally solidified Ni3Al intermetallics with different Al contents and solidification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Gu, Jiho; Kim, Sangshik; Hong, Hyunuk; Choi, Heekyu; Lee, Jehyun

    2014-03-01

    Despite the excellent high temperature mechanical properties of the Ni3Al intermetallic compound, its application is still limited due to its inherently weak grain boundary. Recent research advances have demonstrated that the tensile ductility can be enhanced by controlling the grain morphology using a directional solidification. In this study, a series of directional solidification experiments were carried out to increase both the tensile ductility and the strength of Ni3Al alloys by arraying either the ductile phase of γ-Ni-rich dendrite fibers or the hard phase of β-NiAl dendrite fibers in the γ'-Ni3Al matrix. The dendrite arm spacing could be controlled by the solidification rate, and the volume fraction of the γ or β phase could be altered by the Al content, ranging from 23 at.% to 27 at.%. With an increasing Al content, the γ dendritic microstructure was transformed into the β dendrite in the γ' matrix, thereby reducing the tensile ductility by increasing the volume fraction of brittle β dendrites in the γ' matrix. With an increasing solidification rate, the dendrite arm spacing decreased and the tensile properties of Ni3Al varied in a complex manner. The microstructural evolution affecting the tensile behavior of directionally solidified Ni3Al alloy specimens with different solidification rates and Al contents is discussed.

  5. Al-matrix composite materials reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville, J; Laplanche, G; Joulain, A; Gauthier-Brunet, V; Dubois, S

    2010-01-01

    Al-matrix material composites were produced using hot isostatic pressing technique, starting with pure Al and icosahedral (i) Al-Cu-Fe powders. Depending on the processing temperature, the final reinforcement particles are either still of the initial i-phase or transformed into the tetragonal ω-Al0 0.70 Cu 0.20 Fe 0.10 crystalline phase. Compression tests performed in the temperature range 293K - 823K on the two types of composite, i.e. Al/i and Al/ω, indicate that the flow stress of both composites is strongly temperature dependent and exhibit distinct regimes with increasing temperature. Differences exist between the two composites, in particular in yield stress values. In the low temperature regime (T ≤ 570K), the yield stress of the Al/ω composite is nearly 75% higher than that of the Al/i composite, while for T > 570K both composites exhibit similar yield stress values. The results are interpreted in terms of load transfer contribution between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and elementary dislocation mechanisms in the Al matrix.

  6. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  7. The effectiveness of ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses for the retention of ALS knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Henrik; Strunk, Guido; Neuhold, Stephanie; Kiblböck, Daniel; Trimmel, Helmut; Baubin, Michael; Domanovits, Hans; Maurer, Claudia; Greif, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Out-of-hospital emergency physicians in Austria need mandatory emergency physician training, followed by biennial refresher courses. Currently, both standardized ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses and conventional refresher courses are offered. This study aimed to compare the retention of ALS-knowledge of out-of-hospital emergency physicians depending on whether they had or had not participated in an ERC-ALS provider course since 2005. Participants (n=807) from 19 refresher courses for out-of-hospital emergency physicians answered eight multiple-choice questions (MCQ) about ALS based on the 2005 ERC guidelines. The pass score was 75% correct answers. A multivariate logistic regression analyzed differences in passing scores between those who had previously participated in an ERC-ALS provider course and those who had not. Age, gender, regularity of working as an out-of-hospital emergency physician and the self-reported number of real resuscitation efforts within the last 6months were entered as control variables. Out-of-hospital emergency physicians who had previously attended an ERC-ALS provider course had a significantly higher chance of passing the MCQ test (OR=1.60, p=0.015). Younger age (OR=0.95, pERC-ALS provider course since 2005 had a higher retention of ALS knowledge compared to non-ERC-ALS course participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth of CdTe: Al films; Crecimiento de peliculas de CdTe: Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, M.; Zapata T, M. [CICATA-IPN, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Melendez L, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  9. Synthesis of core-shell AlOOH hollow nanospheres by reacting Al nanoparticles with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Bakina, O. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled AlOOH nanosheets by oxidizing Al nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of Al transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow AlOOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the Al oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic Al accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of Al from the particle interior and the deposition of AlOOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized AlOOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers.

  10. Genealogi Kajian Hadis Ulama al-Banjari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafi Hanafi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 16th century, Middle East became a scientific destination for the scholars of Nusantara. The network of Middle Eastern scholars has contributed greatly to the development of various Islamic intellectual traditions in the archipelago, even the case happened in Banjar society. In the process of transmitting scholars, the scholars of al-Banjari (scholars from Banjar, South Kalimantan are heavily influenced by Islamic ideas derived therein, including kalam, jurisprudence, tasawwuf, and hadith studies. This article will prove to what extend the influence of Middle Eastern scholars on the development of intellectual traditions of al-Banjari scholars in the study of hadith is. The research method in this paper is by reading the primary sources, in the form of Hadith texts by al-Banjari scholars, and then the genealogy of the sanad and their Hadith diplomas connected with the scholars of hadith study in the Middle East. The reading of the sanad and the certificate will prove that their scholarship is connected to authoritative scholars of hadith. Al-Banjari scholars who became the research object is a scholar from the tribe of Banjar which has a script in the field of hadith or hadith study using Arabic or Malay Arabic. From the standardization used, seven scholars became the object of the research, namely Muhammad Arsyad al-Banjari, Muhammad Kasyful Anwar, Muhammad Anang Sya’rani Arif, Abdul Wahid, Muhammad Syukeri Unus, Fahmi Zamzam, and Muhammad Nurdin Marbu.

  11. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung

  12. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, XIAOMIN; OH, SOON-HWAN; HOYER, LOIS L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  13. TEM observations of a rapidly solidified Al-20 Sb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Zhang Zhonghua; Zheng Shaohua; Bian Xiufang

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, the microstructural characterization of a melt-spun Al-20 Sb alloy has been carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The phases present in the melt-spun Al-20 Sb alloy were determined to be α-Al and AlSb, identical to those in the ingot-cast alloy. The microstructure of the melt-spun Al-20 Sb alloy is dominantly composed of primary AlSb dendrites embedded in the α-Al matrix, different from that of the ingot-cast alloy composed of primary AlSb plates within an α-Al/AlSb eutectic matrix. In addition, some areas comprise primary AlSb particles within the α-Al matrix in the melt-spun alloy

  14. Politische Bildung im Kontext von Regierung, Unterricht und Zucht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rucker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841 gilt als der Begründer der wissenschaftlichen Pädagogik. In diesem Beitrag wird zu zeigen versucht, dass Herbart die Unterstützung politischer Bildung als eine Aufgabe von Regierung, Unterricht und Zucht bestimmt und in seinem Werk wichtige „Bausteine“ für eine Theorie der politischen Bildung unter den Bedingungen von Erziehung vorlegt hat. Nach Herbart ist das politische Selbst- und Weltverhältnis auf Sachverhalte bezogen, die nicht nur die Lebensführung einzelner Menschen, sondern die Lebensführung einer Mehrzahl von Menschen betreffen. Nicht das Zusammenleben von Menschen generell ist jedoch Orientierungsgesichtspunkt des politischen Selbst- und Weltverhältnisses, sondern nur das problematisch gewordene Zusammenleben. Politik ergibt sich nach Herbart aus einem Konflikt hinsichtlich der Frage, wie das Zusammenleben von Menschen geregelt sein sollte. Während die Regierung lediglich mittelbar einen Beitrag zur politischen Bildung leistet, indem sie die Voraussetzungen für Unterricht und Zucht bereitstellt, fungieren die beiden zuletzt genannten Formen von Erziehung als die eigentlichen Medien, in denen die politische Bildung im Sinne Herbarts ihren Ort hat.

  15. Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AL amyloidosis is caused by clonal plasma cells that produce immunoglobulin light chains which misfold and get deposited as amyloid fibrils. Therapy directed against the plasma cell clone leads to clinical benefit. Melphalan and corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for a number of years and the recent availability of other effective agents (IMiDs and proteasome inhibitors has increased treatment options. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT has been used in the treatment of AL amyloidosis for many years. It is associated with high rates of hematologic response and improvement in organ function. However, transplant carries considerable risks. Careful patient selection is important to minimize transplant related morbidity and mortality and ensure optimal patient outcomes. As newer more affective therapies become available the role and timing of ASCT in the overall treatment strategy of AL amyloidosis will need to be continually reassessed.

  16. Evaluation of Functional Disability in ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Soltan-Zadeh

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a progressive degenerative fatal disorder of motor neuron. In this research course of functional disability and possible underlying factors affecting disability were studied. Materials & Methods: First 59 patients with definite ALS were selected and for each patient ALSFRS (ALS Functional Rating Scale was determined at Initial and the end of a six month period. Results: During this period 9 patients expired. Bulbar onset localization showed a more rapid course than non-bulbar onset group. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the age group or gender with progression of disability. In expired group, mean survival in bulbar onset and older patients were significantly less than those with non-bulbar onset and younger ones. There was no significant relationship between survival and gender.

  17. Grain refinement of Al wrought alloys with newly developed AlTiC master alloys; Kornfeinung von Al-Knetlegierungen mit neu entwickelten AlTiC-Vorlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W. [Vereinigte Aluminium-Werke AG, Bonn (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung

    2000-10-01

    AlTiC master alloys are a new grain refiner type to produce an equiaxed grain structure of cast extrusion and rolling ingots. These master alloys contain Ti carbides which act as nucleants of the {alpha} solid solution during solidification. The TiC content is lower than the TiB{sub 2} content of the industrial proved AlTiB master alloys. Benefits of the AlTiC master alloys are the low agglomeration tendency of the Ti carbides in the melt and that no Zr poisoning takes place. Despite of the low Ti carbide content the grain refinement performance can be very efficient, if low melt temperatures during casting will be used and as result of this a sufficient constitutional supercooling at the solidification front is achieved. (orig.)

  18. Ultrasonic spot welding of Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macwan, A.; Patel, V.K.; Jiang, X.Q.; Li, C.; Bhole, S.D.; Chen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal welding condition is achieved at 100 J and 0.1 s. • Failure load first increases and then decreases with increasing welding energy. • The highest failure load after welding is close to that of the clad sheets. • At low energy levels failure occurs in the mode of interfacial failure. • At high energy levels failure takes place at the edge of nugget region. - Abstract: Solid-state ultrasonic spot welding (USW) was used to join Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets, aiming at exploring weldability and identifying failure mode in relation to the welding energy. It was observed that the application of a low welding energy of 100 J was able to achieve the optimal welding condition during USW at a very short welding time of 0.1 s for the tri-layered clad sheets. The optimal lap shear failure load obtained was equivalent to that of the as-received Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets. With increasing welding energy, the lap shear failure load initially increased and then decreased after reaching a maximum value. At a welding energy of 25 J, failure occurred in the mode of interfacial failure along the center Al/Al weld interface due to insufficient bonding. At a welding energy of 50 J, 75 J and 100 J, failure was also characterized by the interfacial failure mode, but it occurred along the Al/Mg clad interface rather than the center Al/Al weld interface, suggesting stronger bonding of the Al/Al weld interface than that of the Al/Mg clad interface. The overall weld strength of the Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets was thus governed by the Al/Mg clad interface strength. At a welding energy of 125 J and 150 J, thinning of weld nugget and extensive deformation at the edge of welding tip caused failure at the edge of nugget region, leading to a lower lap shear failure load

  19. ‘Uluww al-Isnad dalam Periwayatan Hadis Abu Muhammad al-Husain bin Mas‘ud al-Baghawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romlah Abubakar Askar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abu Muhammad al-Husayn Ibnu Mas’ud al-Baghawi (450-516H was one of the leading scholars in Tafsir (Quran exegesis, hadith (prophetic tradition, and fiqh (Islamic legal jurisprudence in his era. He was categorized as muta’akhirūn (scholars who came later on and was instrumental in the development of these three disciplines. In the field of exegesis, he was among the scholars who used al-Ma’tsūr, (commentary stylist, relying on the verses of the Qur’an, hadith, and the statements from the followers of the tabi’īn (the followers of the followers. This can be found in his recorded work Ma’ālim al Tanzīl. In the field of hadith, he preserved the narration method and presenting a new approach by merging some patterns of hadith narration from several books of hadith in his work known as ṭarīqah al-Jam’u (combination [amalgamation] method. This pattern will not occur unless there is the existence of other transmission lines as a second chain of narration used to produce ‘uluww al-Isnād (the noble sanad or nuzūl al-Isnād (descent sanad. It is recorded in his works: al-Jam’u baina al-Ṣaḥīḥain, Sharḥ al-Sunnah and Maṣābiḥ al-Sunnah. In the field of Jurisprudence, he was amongst those mujtahidin from the Shafiee school of thought, recorded in his Majmū’ ‘al-Fatāwā, al-Kifāyah fī al-Furū’ and Kitāb al-Tahdzīb. This paper aims to examine one of al-Baghawi’s skills in sanad collection which is the uluww al-isnād and nuzūl al-isnād, recorded from his two works Ma’ālim al-Tanzīl and Syarḥ al-Sunnah. The quantitative, qualitative and comparative approach has been used in this study to give an authentic description of the terms ‘uluww al-isnād, nuzūl al-isnād from al-Baghawi. Studies have found there are many examples of uluww al-Isnād and nuzūl al-isnāds contained in the patterns of al-Baghawi’s chain of narration towards the Ṣaḥīḥayn of al-Bukhari and Muslim as the mustakhrij

  20. Direct Laser Cooling Al{}^{+} Ion Optical Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Deng, Ke; Luo, Jun; Lu, Ze-Huang

    2017-05-01

    The Al{}+ ion optical clock is a very promising optical frequency standard candidate due to its extremely small black-body radiation shift. It has been successfully demonstrated with the indirect cooled, quantum-logic-based spectroscopy technique. Its accuracy is limited by second-order Doppler shift, and its stability is limited by the number of ions that can be probed in quantum logic processing. We propose a direct laser cooling scheme of Al{}+ ion optical clocks where both the stability and accuracy of the clocks are greatly improved. In the proposed scheme, two Al{}+ traps are utilized. The first trap is used to trap a large number of Al{}+ ions to improve the stability of the clock laser, while the second trap is used to trap a single Al{}+ ion to provide the ultimate accuracy. Both traps are cooled with a continuous wave 167 nm laser. The expected clock laser stability can reach 9.0× {10}-17/\\sqrt{τ }. For the second trap, in addition to 167 nm laser Doppler cooling, a second stage pulsed 234 nm two-photon cooling laser is utilized to further improve the accuracy of the clock laser. The total systematic uncertainty can be reduced to about 1× {10}-18. The proposed Al{}+ ion optical clock has the potential to become the most accurate and stable optical clock. Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No 2012CB821300, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 91336213, 11304109, 91536116 and 11174095, and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents by the Ministry of Education under Grant No NCET-11-0176.

  1. [Al-Biruni--a universal scientist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujundzić, E; Masić, I

    1999-01-01

    Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others.

  2. Overdamped Josephson junctions with Nb/AlOx/Al/AlOx/Nb structure for integrated circuit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, M.; Shoji, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present characteristics of overdamped Josephson junctions consisting of Nb/AlO x /Al/ AlO x /Nb structures. The junctions were fabricated using a well-developed Nb/AlO x /Nb-junction technology and showed well-defined Josephson characteristics at 4.2 K. The characteristic voltage V c [the product of the critical current I c and the effective normal resistance R n(eff) ] of junctions, which determines high-frequency performance of the junction, was in the range of 0.1 endash 0.5 mV, and the critical current density J c in the range of 10 2 endash 10 4 A/cm 2 . Maximum-to-minimum variations in I c over a wafer were ±4% for junctions with V c =0.15mV and ±13% for junctions with V c =0.5mV. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Can the 'Assessment Drives Learning' effect be detected in clinical skills training? - Implications for curriculum design and resource planning [Der “Assessment Drives Learning”-Effekt beim Training klinisch-praktischer Fertigkeiten - Implikationen für die Curriculumsgestaltung und die Planung von Ressourcen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buss, Beate

    2012-11-01

    utilisation of voluntary skills-lab training in order to reach a sufficient concordance between students’ requirements and faculty offers, as well as resource management.[german] Zielsetzung: Die Vermittlung klinisch-praktischer Fertigkeiten ist von entscheidender Bedeutung für die Berufsfähigkeit angehender Ärzte. Prozedurale Fertigkeiten werden dabei häufig zu allererst in sogenannten Skills-Labs trainiert, die eine geschützte Lernumgebung gewährleisten. Die Implementierung und auch Pflege von Skills-Labs stellt allerdings eine nicht geringfügige finanzielle Herausforderung dar. Aus diesem Grund hat sich die vorliegende Arbeit zum Ziel gesetzt, die Besuchsfrequenzen und –muster im Rahmen freiwilliger Skills-Lab-Unterrichtseinheiten zu untersuchen, um folgende Frage zu beantworten: Kann der in der Literatur beschriebene, motivationspsychologische Effekt des “Assessment drives learning” festgestellt werden und spiegelt sich dieser in dem Besuchsverhalten von Studierenden in freiwilligen Skills-Lab-Unterrichtseinheiten wider? Ausgehend von den Studienergebnissen sollen Empfehlungen für die Curriculumsplanung und das Ressourcenmanagement abgeleitet werden.Methode:. Eine retrospektive, deskriptive Analyse studentischen Inanspruchnahmeverhaltens sowohl von freiwilligen „Basic“- als auch „Advanced“ Skills-Lab-Unterrichtseinheiten wurde durchgeführt. Hierzu wurden Teilnahmemuster von 340 Medizinstudierenden des dritten Studienjahres verschiedener Jahrgänge an der Medizinischen Fakultät Heidelberg näher untersucht.Ergebnisse: Die Studierenden zeigten besonders zu Beginn und am Ende des Semesters eine Präferenz für die Teilnahme an freiwilligen “Basic“ Skills-Lab-Unterrichtseinheiten, die für die klinisch-praktische Prüfung relevant sind. Freiwillige “Advanced“ Skills-Lab”-Unterrichtseinheiten ohne Bezug zur klinisch-praktischen Prüfung wurden vor allem zu Beginn des Semesters genutzt, mit einem Rückgang der Besuche gegen Ende des Semesters

  4. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  5. Pyroelectric properties of AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuflyigin, V.; Salley, E.; Osinsky, A.; Norris, P.

    2000-11-01

    Pyroelectric properties of high-quality (0001)AlN films grown on (111) Si were studied. The pyroelectric coefficient p was measured using the dynamic method. The value was in the range of 6-8 μC/(m2 K), yielding a p/ɛ figure-of-merit of 0.8-0.95. The pyroelectric coefficient was independent of temperature and applied bias. Leakage current as low as 1-2×10-9 A/cm2 was measured at 5 V on large area devices. The obtained results indicate that AlN films can be used in pyroelectric thin-film devices.

  6. Introducción al derecho

    OpenAIRE

    Collado Luis, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Manual de la asignatura introducción al derecho. Nivel educativo: Grado El origen de este texto –materiales docentes- que lleva por título “Introducción al Derecho” ha sido escrito respondiendo a una estricta necesidad docente y por tanto necesariamente pedagógica. En efecto, era totalmente necesario que los alumnos, del Grado de Administración y Dirección de Empresas y otras titulaciones no jurídicas, contasen con un texto para facilitar el estudio de las principales categorías conceptual...

  7. Homenaje al Profesor Ernesto Andrade Valderrama

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Osorio Fonseca

    1999-01-01

    La Sociedad Colombiana de Historia de la Medicina, a través de su Junta Directiva, ha encargado al doctor Efraim Otero Ruiz y a quien les habla para rendir homenaje al Profesor Ernesto Andrade Valderrama. Honorífico pero difícil encargo, que he tomado con el mayor de los gustos y con el temor de no poder siquiera dibujar la bella parábola trazada por su vida hasta el presente. Aunque debo referirme fundamentalmente a su vida profesional, no puedo dejar de articular lo científico con ...

  8. Trastornos temporomandibulares en adictos al qat

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Guerra Cobián; Raúl J Pupo Triguero; Humberto Sarracent Pérez; Kirenia M Rabilero Salgado

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: los trastornos temporomandibulares se asocian frecuentemente al hábito de masticar qat, pero se carece de estudios que detallan sus particularidades, por lo que se realiza este trabajo, con los objetivos de determinar la prevalencia de trastornos temporomandibulares en pacientes adictos al qat, identificar los hallazgos clínicos- radiográficos asociados y clasificar los trastornos temporomandibulares presentes en la población estudiada. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo...

  9. Magnetic Properties of NdAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, P.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using...... the crystal-field parameters derived from the magnetic exciton spectrum measured by Houmann et al. by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The combined lambda -Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity is explained. No additional parameters are introduced....

  10. DESPROTECCIÓN AL ACOSO LABORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Vega, Angela Patricia; Toro Castaño, Damaris Yulieth

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de esta investigación se centra en dar a conocer la ineficacia existente en la aplicación actual de la ley 1010 de 2006 y normas relativas al acoso laboral por parte de nuestro operador jurídico así como por los empleadores Colombianos y encontrar una alternativa de solución para lograr una seguridad jurídica para los trabajadores. Para el logro de esta meta fue necesario realizar un estudio de la normatividad referente al acoso laboral; además de realizar el trabajo de campo en ...

  11. The Genyornis Egg: Response to Miller et al.'s commentary on Grellet-Tinner et al., 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Spooner, Nigel A.; Handley, Warren D.; Worthy, Trevor H.

    2017-04-01

    Williams (1981) and Williams and Rich (1991) attributed Australian Quaternary fossil eggshell that differed from that of emu Dromaius novaehollandiae to the extinct bird Genyornis newtoni without any osteological or embryonic support. Such association by proximity or abundance mirrors the case of the mistaken association of oviraptor eggs to Protoceratops in the 1920's by Andrews (Grellet-Tinner and Makovicky, 2006). No other candidate species was considered, and this attribution has been unchallenged and followed by everyone thereafter. Much research has been done on this Australian eggshell, with one result being that the extinction of the parent of this eggshell is the most well documented for a taxon in Australia (e.g., Miller et al., 1999, 2005). Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016) raised several problems with the identity of the eggshell Williams (1981) attributed to Genyornis newtoni and suggested that extinct megapodes of the genus Progura were the more likely layer of this eggshell type, therein referred to as ;putative Genyornis oological material; (PGOM). Miller et al. (2017) challenged our hypothesis stating that ;Based on the dimensions of the reconstructed Spooner Egg,Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016)argue that PGOM is too small for a bird with the body mass estimated for Genyornis (168-275 kg) … …[and] …. None of the additional PGOM observations reported byGrellet-Tinner et al. (2016)are inconsistent with a Genyornis parent;. Here we take the opportunity to respond to their critique, the basis of which resolves into a few points, which we address in turn.

  12. NEK1 genetic variability in a Belgian cohort of ALS and ALS-FTD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Phuoc; Van Mossevelde, Sara; Dillen, Lubina; De Bleecker, Jan L; Moisse, Matthieu; Van Damme, Philip; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic impact of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk gene never in mitosis gene a-related kinase 1 (NEK1) in a Belgian cohort of 278 patients with ALS (n = 245) or ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD, n = 33) and 609 control individuals. We identified 2 ALS patients carrying a loss-of-function (LOF) mutation, p.Leu854Tyrfs*2 and p.Tyr871Valfs*17, that was absent in the control group. A third LOF variant p.Ser1036* was present in 2 sibs with familial ALS but also in an unrelated control person. Missense variants were common in both patients (3.6%) and controls (3.0%). The missense variant, p.Arg261His, which was previously associated with ALS risk, was detected with a minor allele frequency of 0.90% in patients compared to 0.33% in controls. Taken together, NEK1 LOF variants accounted for 1.1% of patients, although interpretation of pathogenicity and penetrance is complicated by the observation of occasional LOF variants in unaffected individuals (0.16%). Furthermore, enrichment of additional ALS gene mutations was observed in NEK1 carriers, suggestive of a "second hit" model were NEK1 variants may modify disease presentation of driving mutations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Burden of rare variants in ALS genes influences survival in familial and sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shirley Yin-Yu; Hsu, Jacob Shujui; Teo, Kay-Cheong; Li, Yan; Kung, Michelle H W; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Chan, Danny; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Li, Miaoxin; Sham, Pak-Chung; Ho, Shu-Leong

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variants are implicated in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it is unclear whether the burden of rare variants in ALS genes has an effect on survival. We performed whole genome sequencing on 8 familial ALS (FALS) patients with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation and whole exome sequencing on 46 sporadic ALS (SALS) patients living in Hong Kong and found that 67% had at least 1 rare variant in the exons of 40 ALS genes; 22% had 2 or more. Patients with 2 or more rare variants had lower probability of survival than patients with 0 or 1 variant (p = 0.001). After adjusting for other factors, each additional rare variant increased the risk of respiratory failure or death by 60% (p = 0.0098). The presence of the rare variant was associated with the risk of ALS (Odds ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.61, p = 0.03), and ALS patients had higher rare variant burden than controls (MB, p = 0.004). Our findings support an oligogenic basis with the burden of rare variants affecting the development and survival of ALS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...

  15. Characterization of microstructure and properties of Al–Al3Zr–Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Characterization of microstructure and properties of Al–Al 3 Zr–Al 2 O 3 composite ... ANUP MANDAL1 KARABI DAS1 SIDDHARTHA DAS1. Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India ...

  16. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  17. Al-muammar et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF ADEWUNMI

    Al-muammar et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(1):17- .... Feed and water were provided ad libitum for one week before the start of experiment for adaptation. The basal .... The mean value of feed intake (g/day/rat) for all treated groups was slightly reduced as compared to the negative control group. On the.

  18. Sintering Behavior of CNT Reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouari Saheb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling and spark plasma sintering were successfully used to produce carbon nanotube reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 nanocomposites which have potential applications in the fields of aerospace, automotive, electronics, and high precision instrumentation. Al2124 and Al6061 nanocomposite powders containing 0.5 to 2 wt.% CNTs prepared through sonication and wet ball milling were spark plasma sintered at 400, 450, and 500°C for 20 minutes under a pressure of 35 MPa. CNTs were better dispersed, and less agglomerated and had good adhesion to the matrix in composites containing 1 wt.% CNTs. The increase of CNT content to 2 wt.% led to the formation of CNT clusters which resulted in less uniform and homogenous composite powders. Almost full densification of Al6061 reinforced with CNTs was achieved at 500°C. Also, CNTs reinforced Al2124 nanocomposites reached very high densities at 500°C. Composites reinforced with 1 wt.% CNTs displayed better densification compared to composites containing 2 wt.% CNTs. The increase of CNTs content from 0.5 to 1 wt.% increased the hardness of the Al6061 and Al2124 alloys to maximum values. Further increase of CNTs content to 2 wt.% decreased the hardness to values lower than that of the monolithic alloys.

  19. Characterization of microstructure and properties of Al–Al3Zr–Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    corrosion resistance, high thermal and electrical conductivity and high damping capacity. However, Al alloys possess poor wear and seizure resistance. To improve the above proper- ties, researchers successfully dispersed various hard and soft reinforcements such as SiC [2], Al2O3 [3,4], TiC [5], silicon particle [6], carbon ...

  20. Computer aided cooling curve analysis for Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1. Introduction. Aluminium-Silicon (Al-Si) alloys are considered as the most important cast alloys due to their excellent casting characteristics, good corrosion resistance, and good weldability. The fluidity of the Al-Si alloy increases up to eutectic composition (12.5% Si), further, presence of Si reduces hot cracking tendencies ...

  1. Al-Numair et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    By protecting myocardial membranes and inhibiting the oxidation of lipoproteins, vitamin E inhibits membrane peroxidative damage and atherogenesis (Upston et al., 1999). Ceruloplasmin inhibits ferritin-dependent lipid peroxidation by catalyzing the oxidative reincorporation of released irons into ferritin (Sreedharan et al., ...

  2. Diffusivity of Al and Fe near the diffusion bonding interface of Fe3Al ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Diffusivity of Al and Fe near the diffusion bonding interface of Fe3Al with low carbon steel. LI YAJIANG*†, WANG JUAN†, YIN YANSHENG† and MA HAIJUN†. *Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China. †National Key Lab of Advanced Welding ...

  3. Microstructure and oxidation behaviour of TiAl(Nb)/Ti2AlC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    was found that after milling for 25 h, a Ti(Al) solid solution was formed; also with increase in the milling time to. 50 h, an ... solid solution after milling for 75 h, implying that the Al and Nb elements were dissolved in the Ti lattice in a non- equilibrium state. Annealing .... croscopy (SEM, VEGA Tescan machine) equipped with an.

  4. The ALS-FTD-Q: A new screening tool for behavioral disturbances in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Beeldman, E.; Schmand, B.; Berkhout, J.; Linssen, W.H.J.P.; Van den Berg, L.H.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Grupstra, H.F.; Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Papma, J.M.; van Swieten, J.C.; de Visser, M.; de Haan, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The assessment of behavioral disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because of the overlap with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (ALS-bvFTD). Motor symptoms and dysarthria are not taken into account in currently used behavioral questionnaires. We

  5. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany; Natuerliche und zivilisatorische Strahlenexposition des Menschen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-15

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  6. Narrative Expositionstherapie (NET) für Menschen nach Gewalt und Flucht : Ein Einblick in das Verfahren

    OpenAIRE

    Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Die Narrative Expositionstherapie (NET) ist ein effizientes Kernelement der Behandlung von Kindern und Erwachsenen, die unter den Folgen von Mehrfach- und Komplextraumatisierung nach Gewalt und Flucht leiden. Die chronologische Erarbeitung einer Narration, der individuellen Lebensgeschichte in der NET ermöglicht Traumaüberlebenden eine Gesamtschau ihres Lebens und so die Integration der Lebenserfahrungen in den biografischen Zusammenhang. Sie aktiviert Ressourcen und erlaubt korrigierende Bez...

  7. Deadly progress. Der toedliche Fortschritt. Von der Zerstoerung der Erde und des Menschen im Erbe des Christentums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewermann, E.

    1981-01-01

    The extent to which man of modern times destroys nature has reached a breathtaking speed nowadays. The language of facts is clear. The author of the present study considers a radical change of the present conception of the world and the human being as the only salvation from a total catastrophe. 'Crisis of the environment' is, however, no technical but a religious and an intellectual problem. This open-minded and explosive book does just as little stop at false moving forces of Christianity with regard to its anthropocentric philosophy as it stops at the modern type of man being atheistic in his basic nature.

  8. Consequences of nuclear accidents for human beings and the environment; Auswirkungen nuklearer Unfaelle auf den Menschen und die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Felix; Jung, Jennifer Jana; Schultmann, Frank

    2017-03-15

    In the 1950s and 1960s many countries believed that they could become energy self-efficient with the help of nuclear power plants. For this reason, nuclear energy experienced internationally an enormous upswing during these years. In the following decades, many nuclear power plants were planned and built. Despite a few critics, who drew attention to the dangers of nuclear power use, an end to the upturn was not foreseeable. But in 1979, the nuclear accident in Three Mile Island in Harrisburg (USA) caused international attention and the critics of the nuclear power became stronger. However, many Europeans only were aware of the danger by nuclear power plants when in 1986 the nuclear disaster occurred in the Ukrainian nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. The effects of this nuclear disaster were also felt in Central Europe. Recently, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant has prompted a nuclear phase-out in Germany and the rest of the world. This work focuses not on the political implications of these nuclear accidents, but rather on the impacts of nuclear accidents on human beings, animals and the environment. In particular, reports on the incidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima as well as studies on their effects are analysed and summarised.

  9. 'De ongelukkigsten onder de menschen'. De verbeelding van zenuwzwakte in advertenties voor Pink Pillen, 1900-1920

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, G.; Spijkerman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1880 and 1920 Pink Pills, a medication for blood and nerve strengthening, were heavily advertised in Dutch newspapers. The advertisements consisted of the personal stories of patients who had been amazingly healed. This article argues that the Pink Pill advertisements contributed to the

  10. Fluctuations of charge variance and interaction time for dissipative processes in 27 Al + 27 Al collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berceanu, I.; Andronic, A.; Duma, M.

    1999-01-01

    The systematic studies of dissipative processes in light systems were completed with experiments dedicated to the measurement of the excitation functions in 19 F + 27 Al and 27 Al + 27 Al systems in order to obtain deeper insight on DNS configuration and its time evolution. The excitation function for 19 F + 27 Al system evidenced fluctuations larger than the statistical errors. Large Z and angular cross correlation coefficients supported their non-statistical nature. The energy dependence of second order observables, namely the second moment of the charge distribution and the product ω·τ (ω - the angular velocity of the DNS and τ its mean lifetime) extracted from the angular distributions were studied for 19 F + 27 Al case. In this contribution we are reporting the preliminary results of similar studies performed for 27 Al + 27 Al case. The variance of the charge distribution were obtained fitting the experimental charge distribution with a Gaussian centered on Z = 13 and the product ω·τ was extracted from the angular distributions. The results for 19 F + 27 Al case are confirmed by a preliminary analysis of the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system. The charge variance and ω·τ excitation functions for Z = 11 fragment are represented together with the excitation function of the cross section. One has to mention that the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system were not corrected for particle evaporation processes. The effect of the evaporation corrections on the excitation function was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. The α particle evaporation was also included and the evaluation of the particle separation energies was made using experimental masses of the fragments. The excitation functions for 27 Al + 27 Al system for primary and secondary fragments were simulated. No structure due to particle evaporation was observed. The correlated fluctuations in σ Z and ω·τ excitation functions support a stochastic exchange of nucleons as the main mechanism for

  11. Surface study and thickness control of thin Al2O3 film on Cu-9%Al(111) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Yoshitake, Michiko; Song Weijie

    2004-01-01

    We were successful in growing a uniform flat Al 2 O 3 film on the Cu-9%Al(111) surface using the improved cleaning process, low ion energy and short time sputtering. The growth of ultra-thin film of Al 2 O 3 on Cu-9%Al was investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The Al 2 O 3 film whose maximum thickness was about 4.0 nm grew uniformly on the Cu-9%Al surface. The Al and O KLL Auger peaks of Al 2 O 3 film shifted toward low kinetic energy, and the shifts were related to Schottky barrier formation and band bending at the Al 2 O 3 /Cu-9%Al interface. The thickness of Al 2 O 3 film on the Cu-9%Al surface was controlled by the oxygen exposure

  12. Isothermal cross-sections of Sr-Al-Ge and Ba-Al-Ge systems at 673 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsenok, N.L.; Yanson, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray and microstructural analyses are used to study phase equilibria in Sr-Al-Ge and Ba-Al-Ge systems. Existence of SrAl 2 Ge 2 , Sr(Al, Ge) 2 Ba(Al, Ge) 2 , Sr 3 Al 2 Ge 2 , Ba 3 Al 2 Ge 2 ternary compounds is confirmed, a new BaGe 4 binary compound and also new ternary compounds of approximate composition Sr 57 Al 30 Ge 13 and Ba 20 Al 40 Ge 40 , which crystal structure is unknown, are detected. Aluminium solubility in SrAl 4 and BaAl 4 binary compounds (0.05 atomic fraction) is determined. Ba(Al, Ge) 2 compound homogeneity region is defined more exactly (aluminium content varies from 0.27 to 0.51 at. fractions)

  13. A study on preparation and hydriding of β-Mg2Al3 and γ-Mg17Al12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi Suwarno

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of the synthetic formation of β-Mg 2 Al 3 and γ-Mg 17 Al 12 has been studied. Mechanical alloying of Mg and Al powders with the atomic ratio of Mg:Al = 2:3 in toluene solution yields β-Mg 2 Al 3 compound after milling for 30 h. The γ-Mg 17 Al 12 can be formed by heating the β-Mg 2 Al 3 at 430°C under high vacuum. The measured hydrogen capacities of β-Mg 2 Al 3 and γ-Mg 17 Al 12 as hydride at 300°C are 3.2 and 4.9 wt%, respectively. Microstructure of the Mg-Al specimen shows that on hydriding at 300°C the polygonal shape of the γ-Mg 17 Al 12 changes into irregular shapes which are composed of γ-MgH 2 and Al. (author)

  14. In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO3 thermites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Kyle T.; Zachariah, Michael R.; Chiou, Wen-An; Fiore, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 10 6 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO 3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-Al/WO 3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.

  15. MgAl2 O4–γ-Al2 O3 solid solution interaction: mathematical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ration from MgAl2O4 has been observed in the Mg–Al spinel powders (n > 1) when the 1000°C heat treated materials are calcined at 1200°C. In the mathematical framework, unit cell of MgAl2O4 (Mg8Al16O32) has been considered for the solid solution interactions (substitution of Mg. 2+ ions by Al. 3+ ions) with γ-Al2O3.

  16. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  17. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  18. (13) Alebiosu et al ms corrected(1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    to sunlight, irrigation and soil type in which mulberry is grown (Bahar et al., 2011). Similarly, food consumption and ... therefore, a very important management practice in larval rearing and subsequent cocoon production. ... mulberry plant variety S30 accessioned in. FRIN was used for the feeding of the silkworm species.

  19. L’impegno al tempo della globalizzazione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchini, Leonardo

    al dibattito sui rapporti (di reciproca esclusione? complementarità?) tra postmoderno e impegno e sul carattere di quest’ultimo oggi (politico? sociale? etico? ecologico? altro?). Prendendo le mosse dalle discussioni suscitate dalla presa di posizione teorica dei Wu Ming, nel mio intervento vorrei...

  20. Colombia frente al manejo del Presupuesto Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Enrique Reyes Forero

    2009-07-01

    Colombia pasa de 38 puntos en el 2007 a 46 puntos en el 2009, mejoría que no se corresponde con los múltiples escándalos de corrupción; ésta mejoría responde al manejo de tecnicismos como se intentará aclarar en el presente articulo.

  1. Iraq and Al Qaeda: Allies or Not?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... The Administration's assertions were derived from U.S. intelligence showing a pattern of contacts with Al Qaeda when its founder, Osama bin Laden, was based in Sudan in the early to mid-1990s and continuing after he relocated to Afghanistan in 1996...

  2. Lawal-Are et al (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    marine animals is of great scientific interest as far as the knowledge of heavy metal is concerned. (Kumar and Hema, 2007). Anthropogenic pollutants are sources of persistent toxic metal contaminants in the ocean (Lakshmanan et al.,. 2009). Increasing industrial activities in recent decades have regularly introduced heavy ...

  3. Olawumi et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... Consequently pathogen reduction using riboflavin and UV light, which is a method by which infectious pathogens, including plasmodium in blood for transfusion are inactivated by adding riboflavin and irradiating with UV light , is another effort in transfusion medicine to ensure blood safety. (Hardwick et al,.

  4. The Future of Al Qa’ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    evidence suggests that al Qa’ida leaders retain an 7 Najwa bin Laden, Omar bin Laden, and Jean Sasson ...based David Coleman Headley (aka Daood Sayed Gilani) was arrested for involvement in terrorist activity. He is a Pakistani-American who had

  5. Al Qaeda: Profile and Threat Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    .... interests abroad, and against Western countries. But many believe that the Al Qaeda organization and its leadership are no longer as relevant to assessing the global Islamic terrorist threat as they were on September 11, 2001. Some believe U.S...

  6. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...

  7. Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ball, Laura J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech…

  8. Uses of a Myth: al-Andalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Fanjul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the Spanish press treatment of the Muslim world reflects a change of tone from unsympathetic to enthusiastic, although the information is still marred by confusion and ignorance. This change of attitude has occurred in other Western countries as well, and it is due in part to immigration trends, control over oil resources, and the relativism of official discourses towards the Third World. In the case of Spain, however, there is an additional internal element at play: the mass-media reinvention of a mythical al-Andalus as a tolerant and pluralistic society. This idealized interpretation of seven centuries of Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is fraught with ignorance and distortion of the historical record but is not new. The mystification of al-Andalus has its precedent in romantic accounts that saw in “Muslim Spain” a differential fact that reinforced the exotic image of the country. It can be attributed also to the strategy to “hispanicize” al-Andalus employed by Arabists and historians to make the subject matter appealing to unsympathetic Spanish audiences conditioned by the myth of the Reconquest. Intended or not, the manipulation of the myth of al-Andalus as a historical fact has ideological and political implications that demand an objective and balanced consideration.

  9. Thermoluminescence of LaAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales H, A.; Zarate M, J.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the thermoluminescent properties of doped lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO 3 ) with dysprosium ion (Dy) were studied. The thermoluminescence characteristics in the samples were obtained using an ultraviolet radiation of 220 nm. The LaAlO 3 :Dy samples were prepared by the modified Pechini method (Spray Dryer). The structural and morphological characterization was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem) techniques respectively. The size particle composing the agglomerate was determined by Sem, agglomerated particles composed size of 2μm were observed. The thermoluminescence response of LaAlO 3 :Dy was compared with that obtained with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence brightness curves of LaAlO 3 :Dy showed a peak centered at 185 grades C. Sensitivity of doped sample was greater, about 100 times compared with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence response in function of the wavelength showed a maximum at 220 nm. Also the fading in thermoluminescence response was studied. (Author)

  10. 1 ITALIAN COLONISATION & LIBYAN RESISTANCE THE AL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    did not return, believed to have been killed (Al-Barbar 236). The situation could not be sustained. British-Sanusi War (1915). In 1914 Italy entered the war on the side of the Entente, the. Ottoman Empire and its German allies saw the Ottoman troops in Libya to spark a revolt against the British, French and. Italian, thereby the ...

  11. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păun ANTONESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare se prezintă o metodă analitică pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu două roţi dinţate centrale. Se consideră mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu douăroţi dinţate solidare tip satelit, în două variante practice (multiplicator şi reductor de turaţie. Este menţionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singură roată satelit cu angrenare dublă (exterioară şiinterioară. Pe baza modelului de analiză cinetostatică a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu două roţi dinţatecentrale, în finalul lucrării se abordează o problemă practică de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea roţilor dinţate cilindrice cu dinţi curbi înhipocicloidă.

  12. Correction to Rothermund et al. (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk; De Houwer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports an error in the article "Retrieval of Incidental Stimulus-Response Associations as a Source of Negative Priming" by Rothermund et al. ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," Vol 31(3) May 2005, 482-495). Table 1 (p. 484) was incorrectly typeset. The correct layout is provided. (The following…

  13. Hughes et al.: Science or Promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, L. Anthony; Siegel, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The Hughes et al. paper is critiqued generally and in specific areas. The weak nature of the authors' empirical work is discussed along with their enigmatic writing and vague and incorrect use of references, and their simultaneous use of sweeping statements of opinion and narrow analytical focus. This review examines the authors' errors…

  14. Metamagnetism in Ce(Ga,Al)2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metamagnetism in Ce(Ga,Al)2. K G SURESH1,∗. , S RADHA2 and A K NIGAM3. 1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India. 2Department of Physics, Mithibai College, Mumbai 400 056, India. 3Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. ∗.

  15. El derecho de los refugiados al trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold-Fernández, Emily E.; Pollock, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Las economías de las comunidades de acogida se benefician cuando los refugiados trabajan. Las naciones que deseen ver crecer su economía y su estabilidad política deberían permitir a los refugiados el acceso al empleo y a los derechos laborales.

  16. Nasronudin et al, Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zulfayandi Pawanis

    2017-11-15

    Nov 15, 2017 ... Dengue serological diagnostic confirmation was based on non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and/or immunoglobulin M (IgM) detection. Zika virus ... Zika virus was first identified in rhesus monkeys during a yellow fever serosurveillance at Zika forest near. Lake Victoria of Uganda in 1947 (Dick et al., 1952).

  17. U-ALS: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…

  18. Achondou et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    the use of an intrauterine contraceptive device, douching, wearing of tight fitting underwear and personal hygiene are reported as risk factors for BV (Chiaffarino et al., 2004; Klebanoff, 2010). Infection seems to be most common around the time of menstruation. There is a high occurrence of BV and concordance of flora in ...

  19. 74491-180405-Omuvwie et al + DOI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confo

    fishing pressure due to human exploitation of. C. amnicola in Okpoka Creek and opines that this is not sustainable. ..... life compared to females. Ololade et al [25] opined that male crabs are more resident, .... in the Antarctic Peninsula and interactions with the environment. Environmental. Geochemistry and Health 25: ...

  20. Studentopinie als onderdeel van Cursuskwaliteit : Quickscan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, Hanny; Groenewoud, Jan; Ike, Paul; Loth, Betram; Reitsma, Sieuwke; Schotanus, Janke; Schuurman, Mieke; Steur, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    In het kader van dit onderzoek is een quickscan (15 vragen) opgesteld met als doel die informatie te verzamelen die nodig is om een eerste indicatie te krijgen van de kwaliteit van een cursus (vak). De quickscan is gebaseerd op literatuuronderzoek en best practices van de faculteiten van de

  1. Niedermolekulare Verbindungen aus Spinnen als chemische Sensoren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Kristensen, Anders S.; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    sie als Leitstrukturen für die Entwicklung, Synthese und biologische Untersuchung synthetischer Analoga verwendet. Weit weniger erforscht sind hingegen Verbindungen, die der Kommunikation von Spinnen dienen. Vor kurzem wurden jedoch auf dem Gebiet der Pheromone und Allomone aus Spinnen neue...

  2. Ayolabi et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    The major viruses known to cause gastroenteritis in humans are Astroviruses, Adenoviruses,. Caliciviruses, and Rotaviruses (Estes and Ramig, 2001; Glass et al., 2006). The name astrovirus was derived from the greek word astron and was used to describe small round viruses detected by electron microscopy in the stool of ...

  3. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, Maria I.; Fernandez, Julian R.; Monti, Ana M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo 3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, Al Mo and Mo Al , as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair Al Mo +Mo Al , in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al 5 Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author) [es

  4. Una ventana al mundo de Kafka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sánchez Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available

    COMENTARIO AL LIBRO " EL MUNDO PSICOLÓGICO DE KAFKA" POR EL ACADÉMICO ADOLFO DE FRANCISCO ZEA.

     

    Fui invitado en forma comedida, por el doctor Adolfo De Francisco, para comentar su obra: "El Mundo Psicológico de Kafka". Respondí que no era literato y menos crítico de Kafka. Sin embargo, acepté
    hacerlo siendo consciente de las limitaciones que me acompañan y para las que pido de todos ustedes su consideración. Tenía sí el deseo al reto de lo incógnito.
    Además sus argumentos fueron contundentes, pues se referían al compromiso con la Academia y, sin decírmelo, era también con él en nuestra historia compartida. Mis motivaciones y expectativas personales conscientes eran múltiples para sumergirme en sus ideas que mueven el espíritu desde la piel a lo trascendente, de lo interno a lo externo y viceversa, y en que cada palabra puede ser objeto de análisis profundo, pues esa es su esencia. Por ejemplo cuando el doctor De Francisco se refiere a la sublimación y a la estética, a la política, a la religiosidad, a la burguesía, al campesinado, a la nobleza, al absolutismo, al arte o a la historia, a la cosmovisión sociológica y literaria, al psicoanálisis para afrontar la realidad interna y externa, entonces el autor penetra en el mundo de la fantasía y del psiquismo, para entender el simbolismo implícito de Kafka.
    Las motivaciones personales inconscientes, pertenecen a las tendencias irracionales de hundirme en espacios complejos para luego intentar'ordenarlos; en medio está
    la contratransferencia que me une con el autor Adolfo De Francisco y otra la que se refiere a la temática kafkiana...

  5. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S.; Zupanic, F.

    2001-01-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (α Al , β Si , Al 3 Sm, Al 2 Si 2 Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → α Al + β Si + Al 2 Si 2 Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al 3 Sm → α Al + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → α Al + Al 2 Si 2 Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  6. Preparation of Ti3 AlC2 by mechanically activated sintering of 3Ti/Al ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fine powders containing Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC and TiC were obtained. The granules composed of Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC and TiC. Adding Sn may remove Ti2AlC and enhance the synthesis of Ti3AlC2. After Sn was added, the products only contained Ti3AlC2 and TiC. The Ti3AlC2 content of the powders and granules were 75 wt% ...

  7. Microstructural characterization of a rapidly solidified Al-10 Sb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Zhang Zhonghua; Geng Haoran; Wang Weimin; Bian Xiufang

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the microstructure of a melt-spun Al-10 Sb alloy has been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that rapid solidification has no influence on the phase constitution of the Al-10 Sb alloy. Moreover, the phase constitution does not change with increasing quenching rate (wheel speed). However, rapid solidification has a significant effect on the microstructure of the Al-10 Sb alloy. The microstructure of the melt-spun Al-10 Sb alloy dominantly comprises equiaxed primary AlSb dendrites and nanoscale α-Al/AlSb eutectic, different from that of the ingot-cast alloy consisting of coarse primary AlSb plates within the α-Al/AlSb eutectic matrix. Some epitaxial orientation relationships were found between AlSb particles and α-Al matrix in the melt-spun Al-10 Sb alloy as follows: α-Al [310] parallel AlSb [110] and α-Al (002) parallel AlSb (22-bar 0)

  8. Study of the 27Al(n,2,)26Al reaction via accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.

    2000-06-01

    The excitation function for the 27 Al(n,2n) 26 Al reaction is expected to show a strongly non-linear behavior in the neutron-energy region around 14 MeV, the neutron energy in D-T plasmas; thus the production rate of 26 Al (t 1/2 =7.2*10 5 a) in D-T fusion environments can in principle be used to measure the temperature of such plasmas. Existing measurements, however, are strongly discordant. Therefore, a new accurate measurement of the 27 Al(n,2n) 26 Al cross sections in the near threshold region (E n =13.5-14.8 MeV) was performed with the goal to achieve relative cross sections with the highest accuracy possible. In addition, the measurements were also designed to provide good absolute cross-section values, as absolute cross sections are important for radioactive waste predictions. Samples of Al metal were irradiated with neutrons in the energy range near threshold (E th =13.55 MeV) at the Radiuminstitutes of both Vienna and St. Petersburg, and in Tokai-mura, Japan. In Tuebingen irradiations with neutrons of higher energies (17 and 19 MeV) were performed. The amount of 26 Al produced during the irradiations was measured via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). This work represents the first 26 Al measurements for this new facility. With this system, a background as low as 3*10 -15 for 26 Al/ 27 Al isotope ratios was obtained, corresponding to a (n,2n) cross section of 0.04 mb. Utilizing AMS, cross sections with much higher precision and considerably closer to the threshold than in previous investigations could be measured. The prerequisite for its application as a temperature monitor, namely a very well known shape of the excitation function was met. A quantitative prediction of the sensitivity of this method for monitoring the temperature in a D-T fusion plasma was therefore possible. For thermal plasmas temperature changes in the order of 5 to 15 % should be detectable. An even higher sensitivity was found

  9. [Mercury in hair of patients with ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Y; Takayanagi, T; Ishitani, A; Hirota, T

    1989-07-01

    In middle of Kii peninsula, one of the biggest mercury mine in Japan had been present until about 10 years ago. The mercury contents in water and fish are reported to be higher in this district. So we investigated the mercury in hair of patients and normal controls. In this study the subjects are 23 cases of ALS including 15 cases in Nara and Mie and 8 cases in other prefectures except in Kii peninsula, 14 cases with ataxia, 11 cases with other degenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, 25 cases of cerebrovascular disease as compared to 26 normal controls. The hair are taken from 3 areas on head of patients and normal controls. They are washed in 2% sodium lauryl sulfate and stirred in distilled water several times, and they are soaked in acetone and dried in filter paper. They are inserted in fire and vaporized mercury are measured (Zeeman Effect Mercury Analyzer) in ppm. The hair mercury concentration is 2.81 ppm in ALS in total, 3.62 ppm in ALS in Nara and Mie and 1.39 ppm in outside of Kii Peninsula, 2.34 ppm in ataxia, 1.83 ppm in other degenerative diseases, 1.66 ppm in cerebrovascular disease and 1.44 ppm in normal controls. Statistically it is significant (p less than 0.05) between that in ALS in Nara and Mie and that in normal controls. 6 cases (40%) with ALS in Nara and Mie have the value above the mean +2 standard deviation of controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  11. Konsep Fikih Ikhtilaf Yusuf al-Qaradhawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hanief Sirajulhuda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the jurisprudence concept of Yusuf al-Qaradawi. The author tries to solve the problems related to the division of the ummah due to the misunderstanding of the various ikhtilâf of fqh that occurred among Moslem scholars. A full and correct understanding will not cause this people divided. On the contrary, Moslems will maintain tolerance and unity in diversity. Therefore, Yusuf al-Qaradawi offers his concept of jurisprudence which is described in detail by the authors in this article. Yusuf al-Qaradawi offers the implementation of the concept of Jurisprudence in ten ways. First, accepting the difference in furu’ as necessity, grace, and discretion. Second, working on the great problems that people face todays. Yusuf al-Qaradawi reveals, the great problems facing Muslims today include the backwardness of science, technology and civilization, socio-economic imbalances, dictatorship and arbitrariness of politics, westernization and ghazw al-fkr, hostility and occupation of Zionism, disunity and dispute in the Arab and Islamic world, as well as moral decadence. Third, examine the opinions of the Moslem scholars. Fourth, following the middle manhaj and leaving the attitude excessive in religion. Fifth, prioritizing muh}kamât, not mutasyâbihât. Sixth, not confrming and refusing ijtihâdiyyah matters. Seventh, defning the terms and meanings. Eighth, cooperating on an agreed issue. Ninth, having tolerance in disputed matters. And tenth, refraining from those who admit lâ ilâha illallâh.

  12. Mechanochemical synthesis of Cu-Al and methyl orange intercalated Cu-Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun, E-mail: forsjun@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); He, Xiaoman; Chen, Min; Hu, Huimin [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Zhang, Qiwu, E-mail: zhangqw@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Liu, Xinzhong [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 China (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, a mechanochemical route to synthesize a Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) and a methyl orange (MO) intercalated one (MO-LDH) was introduced, in which basic cupric carbonate (Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH){sub 3}) with Cu/Al molar ratio at 2/1 was first dry ground for 2 h and then agitated in water or methyl orange solution for another 4 h to obtain the LDH and MO-LDH products without any heating operation. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products showed high crystallinity phase of Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH with no evident impurities, proving that the craft introduced here was facile and effective. The new idea can be applied in other fields to produce organic-inorganic composites. - Highlights: • A facile mechanochemical route to synthesize Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH. • The products possesses high crystalline of LDH phase with no impure phases. • The dry milling process induces the element substitution between the raw materials. • The agitation operation helps the grain growth of LDH.

  13. High-performance nonvolatile Al/AlOx/CdTe:Sb nanowire memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chao; Wu Yucheng; Nie Biao; Zhu Long; Zeng Longhui; Yu Yongqiang; Wang Xianhe; Luo Linbao; Fang Qunling

    2013-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a room temperature processed nonvolatile memory device based on an Al/AlO x /CdTe:Sb nanowire (NW) heterojunction. Electrical analysis shows an echelon hysteresis composed of a high-resistance state (HRS) and a low-resistance state (LRS), which can allow it to write and erase data from the device. The conductance ratio is as high as 10 6 , with a retention time of 3 × 10 4 s. Moreover, the SET voltages ranged from +6 to +8 V, whilst the RESET voltage ∼0 V. In addition, flexible memory nano-devices on PET substrate with comparable switching performance at bending condition were fabricated. XPS analysis of the Al/AlO x /CdTe:Sb NW heterojunction after controlled Ar + bombardment reveals that this memory behavior is associated with the presence of ultra-thin AlO x film. This Al/AlO x /CdTe:Sb NW heterojunction will open up opportunities for new memory devices with different configurations. (paper)

  14. Stagnation of the exploitation of Al ores and the depression of world prices of Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovský Jozef

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution, data on Al – a metal of the 20th century are compiled together with the problems of genesis of the Al mineral raw ma-terials as well as types of bauxite and Al-laterite deposits. Furthermore, an overview of the world exploitation of bauxite during 1935-1980 is given along with the prognoses to 2000 and present situation (1992-1996. Overviews of the production of Al follows, providing its rela-tion to the bauxite exploitation. Contrary to the prognoses, a stabilization or stagnation has been observed in the exploitation of bauxite and production of Al during nineties, which a tendency is directly reflected in the world price of this commodity. When analyzing the Al prices for a longer period, some serious deviations can be noticed, that however presently represent a long-term minimum. We hope the stagnation of the production and the price decline are only temporary and new possibilities of the utilization of Al will be found soon.

  15. Ti doped amorphous carbon (Al/Ti-a:C/p-Si/Al) photodiodes for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Naim; Koç, Mümin Mehmet; Dere, Ayşegül; Arif, Bilal; Erkovan, Mustafa; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin

    2018-03-01

    Electrochemical deposition technique was used to fabricate titanium doped amorphous carbon (Ti doped a:C) Al/Ti-a:C/p-Si/Al photodiode. The effects of illumination on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the Al/a:C/p-Si/Al doped Ti diode for optoelectronic applications were investigated. The reverse current of the diode increased with the increasing illumination intensities when the bias voltage was applied. By using the forward bias I-V characteristics, the ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φb) of Al/Ti-a:C/p-Si photodiode structure was found as 1,84 and 0,50 eV, respectively. In addition, the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements of the diode were studied in the frequency range of 100 kHz-600 kHz. The measured values of the capacitance decreased with the increasing frequency. The photoelectrical properties of Al/Ti-a:C/p-Si/Al device indicates that the photodiode investigated in this paper has great potential to be used in optoelectronic device applications and in industry.

  16. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Neutron Irradiated Cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munitz, A.; Cotler, A; Talianker, M.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of neutron irradiation on the internal microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture morphology of cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 alloys was studied, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and tensile measurements. Specimens consisting of 50 mm long and 6 mm wide gauge sections, were punched out from Al-1050 and Al-6063 23% cold-worked tubes. They were exposed to prolonged neutron irradiation of up to 4.5x10 25 and 8x10 25 thermal neutrons/m 2 (E -3 s -1 . In general, the uniform and total elongation, the yield stress, and the ultimate tensile strength increase as functions of fluence. However, for Al-1050 a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and yield stress was observed up to a fluence of 1x10 25 thermal neutrons/m 2 which then increase with thermal neutrons fluence. Metallographic examination and fractography for Al-6063 revealed a decrease in the local area reduction of the final fracture necking. This reduction is accompanied by a morphology transition from ductile transgranular shear rupture to a combination of transgranular shear with intergranular dimpled rupture. The intergranular rupture area increases with fluence. In contrast, for Al-1050, fracture morphology remains ductile transgranular shear rupture and the final local area reduction remains almost constant No voids could be observed in either alloy up to the maximum fluence. The dislocation density of cold-worked Al was found to decrease with the thermal neutron fluence. Prolonged annealing of unirradiated cold-worked Al-6063 at 52 degree led to similar results. Thus, it appears that, under our irradiation conditions, whereby the temperature encompassing the samples increases the exposure to this thermal field is the major factor influencing the mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum alloys

  17. Pemikiran Politik al-Shawkânî dalam Fath al-Qadîr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hanafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad b. ‘Alî Muhammad b. ‘Abd Allâh al-Shawkânî al-San‘ânî. He was born in the Hijrah in Shawkân village, Yemen on Monday 28 Dhû al-Qa‘dah 1172 H and died on Tuesday, 27 Jumâd al-Akhîr 1250 H at the age about 78 years. Al-Shawkânî grew up in the San‘a city, it is the capital of the republic of Yemen now. He study first time about religion from his father, then from renowed scholars in San‘a and its surrounding, he was known as a scolar who mastered the various branches of religious sciences. Such as tafsîr, h}adîth, fiqh, us}ûl al-fiqh, history, science of kalâm, philosophy, balâghah, mant}iq etc. the main issue in this article is how political thought in the book of tafsir Fath al-Qadîr is the work of Shawkânî. At the end of article, the authors found that the intended political thinking in the study of Fath al-Qadîr is about constitutional ideas. These ideas about the constitution is limited to the concept of leadership and deliberation, the concept of the right of citizen to obtain justice, and the concept pf the right of citizens to live association and assembly

  18. Aberrant distributions of nuclear pore complex proteins in ALS mice and ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jingwei; Yamashita, Toru; Nakano, Yumiko; Morihara, Ryuta; Li, Xianghong; Feng, Tian; Liu, Xia; Huang, Yong; Fukui, Yusuke; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Abe, Koji

    2017-05-14

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) play important roles in traffic of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, aberrant distributions of components of NPCs were demonstrated in C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9-ALS) patients, but it is elusive whether such abnormities are also the case with other cause of ALS disease. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal distributions of RanGAP1 and 4 representative nucleoporins (GP210, NUP205, NUP107 and NUP50) of NPCs in human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1 mutation transgenic (SOD1-Tg) mice and sporadic ALS patients. Compared with wild type (WT), these proteins displayed age-dependent and progressive nuclear precipitations, and cytoplasmic aberrant expressions in motor neurons of lumbar cord in SOD1-Tg mice from 10 to 18weeks (W). Double immunofluorescent analysis showed abnormal nuclear retention and apparent co-localizations of RanGAPl with NUP205 and NUP205 with NUPl07, meanwhile, GP210 with NUP205 mainly co-localized in the nuclear envelope (NE) of motor neurons. Furthermore, RanGAP1, GP210 and NUP50 showed similarly abnormal nuclear precipitations and cytoplasmic upregulations in SOD1-Tg mice and ALS patients, moreover, aberrant co-localizations of RanGAP1 with TDP-43 and NUP205 with TDP-43 were also observed in motor neurons. The present study indicated that the mislocalization of these proteins of NPCs may underlie the pathogenesis of ALS both in SOD1-Tg mice and human sporadic ALS patients, and these dysfunctions may be a fundamental pathway for ALS that is not specific only in C9-ALS but also in SOD1-ALS, which may be amenable to pharmacotherapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ITIJAHAT KAUN AL-NABI WA AL-RASUL FI SYAKHSIYAH MUHAMMAD FI NATSR MAULID AL-BARZANJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmah Istomah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of human personalities is humanist. Based on the understanding of Maslow’s theory of motivation, researcher seeks to uncover kinds of motivational needs of Muhammad Saw contained in Maulid Al-Barzanjiy (the work of Ja 'far bin Hasan al-Barzanji (d. 1763 M. The goal is realized through a descriptive qualitative approach with  text analysis  about Psycholiterature of Endraswara. The results of this study indicate that in Maulid Al-Barzanji there are Muhammad Saw’s five needs and how their satisfying perfectly,  namely: physiological needs, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. Thus, it can be interpreted that Muhammad SAW as an ordinary human having motivational needs. His prophetic and apostleship honor is not a direct blessing from Allah, but he had been through some complicated processes in life. This can be applied by his followers, so they can complete their motivational needs to reach the satiation as a caliph and to be useful person in this world.

  20. Excited states of 26Al studied via the reaction 27Al(d,t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction 27Al(d,t at 25 MeV was utilized to study the excited states of 26Al. The angular distributions of the observed excited states of 26Al were analyzed with zero range distorted wave Born approximation as well as by incorporating finite range correction parameters to extract spectroscopic factors. The two sets of extracted spectroscopic factors were compared with each other to see the effect of using finite range correction in the transfer form factor.