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Sample records for alriyadh region saudi

  1. The Role of People's Knowledge and Attitudes in Conservation of Wildlife in the Natural Reservations: A Case Study of the Ibex Reservation in ALRiyadh Region, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development (NCWCD) was established in 1406 (H), and enacted plans to control grazing, wood gathering and hunting in the protected areas of Saudi Arabia. However, its efforts have not been successful in putting an end to uncontrolled grazing, trees felling and hunting in the protected areas. This is mainly due to the non-enforcement of the ban on hunting which is considered a local tradition, the freedom of trade in allowed and non-allowed animals, and people low level of awareness about the rules and regulations of hunting, grazing and trees felling. The aim of this study is to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and people's behaviors towards the Ibex reserve, to recommend solutions that can put an end to illegal hunting, and to show the role of education programs in solving this problem. The study population consisted of all people residing around the Ibex reserve, in the towns of Haotat Bany Tammem , Al-Helwa and Al-Hareek. A simple random sample of 400 people was taken. The response rate was 86%. Furthermore, more than 25 focus group discussion sessions took place, in which the researcher met with 240 local people. Percentages, means, standard deviations and simple correlation were used to analyze the study data using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study indicated that the young generation's level of knowledge regarding the importance of wildlife is low. The main reason for this is the lack of educational programs that deals with the importance of wildlife conservation. The study also showed that the respondents have good information about the Ibex reserve location and the patrolling system used to protect it, while their information about the plants and animals' life in the reserve is limited. The respondents perceived that the enforcement of punishment is the only way to put an end to illegal hunting in the reserve. It is recommended to have television educational programs

  2. Regional Security Issues in Contemporary Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Jonas Nogel; Kababo, Anas Yoseph; Madsen, Signe Røskva; Petersen, Asger Bagge

    2014-01-01

    In this project we seek to analyse what security issues the country of Saudi Arabia is facing in the Middle East and the Gulf. These issues are analysed from the theoretical framework of Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, and their theory on Regional Security Complex. The analysis framework of securitization is divided into five sectors, our analysis being conducted only in the political, military, economic and societal sectors. This has allowed us to deconstruct and get an understandi...

  3. Regional variations in the growth of Saudi children and adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    P J Foster, A S Al Herbish, M I El Mouzan, A A Al Salloum, M M Al Qureshi, A A Al Omar, T Kecojevic.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: No previous study has provided a detailed description of regional variations of growth within the various regions of Saudi Arabia. Thus, we sought to demonstrate differences in growth of children and adolescents in different regions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The 2005 Saudi reference was based on a cross-sectional representative sample of the Saudi population of healthy children and adolescents from birth to 18 years of age. Body measurements of the length, stature, wei...

  4. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  5. Developmental oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, G; Holm, S A; Fattah, R; Basset, S; Nasser, C

    1987-06-01

    The present report gives prevalence values for some developmental oral anomalies in 1932 schoolchildren aged 6-12 yr in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. The developmental oral anomalies identified in this study were: torus palatinus (1.4%), fissured tongue (0.8%), geographic tongue (0.2%), and tongue tie (0.1%). None of the following developmental oral anomalies were observed: lip pits, cleft lip and/or palate, torus mandibularis, microglossia, macroglossia or median rhomboid glossitis. PMID:3474099

  6. The factors driving online shopping in Saudi Arabia: Regional and behavioral differences among women

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure regional differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Women in the eastern, western, and central region groups are equivalent. T...

  7. Causative relationship between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer in various regions of Saudi Arabia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Jamal M; Al-Saif, Ahmad M; Al-Karrawi, Mohammed A; Al-Sagair, Othman A

    2011-01-01

    The unwarranted connection between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer has gained new ground in recent years. Breast cancer in Saudi females accounts for approximately 21% of all cancers and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi females is also 21.5%. DM is diagnosed in the age group of 30+ years with possible exposure to predisposing factors like hyperinsulinemia and obesity at younger age. Further, 12% of the breast cancer cases are diagnosed in the young females aged 20-34 years. Despite the readily available access to healthcare facilities in the Kingdom, a large number of diabetics, approximately 27.9%, were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. This subpopulation is quite susceptible of developing breast cancer at later age. This review discusses common etiological and predisposing factors for breast cancer and diabetes, regional distribution and possible correlation of diabetes and cancer in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Measuring Job Satisfaction Patterns in Saudi ArabiaÕs Southern Regions Hospitals: Implications for Hospital Staff Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahrani Bander Sayaf

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....

  9. Measuring Job Satisfaction Patterns in Saudi Arabia’s Southern Regions Hospitals: Implications for Hospital Staff Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahrani Bander Sayaf

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....

  10. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

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    Adel M. Alhababy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazan province is an arid area, located at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea coast. Groundwater is the only resource of drinking water in this area; thus, its suitability for drinking and domestic uses is of public and scientific concern. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from 23 sites in Jazan area during fall 2014; measurements and analysis of water quality parameters including pH, total dissolved solids TDS, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, iron and fluoride were carried out with references to WHO and Gulf Standardization Organization GSO. TDS values exceeded the permissible limit of 600 mg/l in 30.4% of samples, total hardness values exceeded the permissible limits of 300 mg/l in 34.8% of samples, and nitrate concentration exceeded the permissible limit of 50 mg/l in only one sample. However, the concentrations of investigated parameters in the groundwater samples were within the permissible limits of WHO. Our results showed that the water quality of groundwater in Jazan area is acceptable and could be used safely for drinking and domestic purposes. However, a special attention should be paid to the concentration of TDS and nitrate in groundwater in future studies.

  11. Aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in Najran region, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Saeed Zayed AlAyed; Ahmed Morad Asaad; Abdulrab Ahmed Mahdi; Mohamed Ansar Qureshi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of bacterial, viral and parasitic aetiology of gastroenteritis in children aged < 5 years in the Najran region, south-western Saudi Arabia, to determine the contribution of these enteropathogens in childhood diarrhoeal diseases and to put forward effective preventive measures for controlling the disease in the future. Design and Setting: A d...

  12. PATTERN OF HBsAg POSITIVITY IN SELECTED GROUPS AT KING KHALID GENERAL HOSPITAL - HAIL REGION, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaba, Hisham M.; El-Tayeb, Abd El Kader A.; El-Sekibi, Dahl K; El Gofaei, Ali F.; El-Baz, Hisham S.; Ismail, Nanees A.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The acquisition of infection occurs early in life. The availability of safe and efficacious vaccines has led to the feasibility of an effective control of HBV infection. This study compares the pattern of HBsAg positivity among selected groups of patients with similar groups in other regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study is conducted to determine the prevalence of HBsAg positive subjects am...

  13. Quality of hypertension care in the family practice center, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia

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    Yahia M Al-Khaldi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension (HTN is a common health problem in Saudi Arabia. Good control depends on the quality of care, which should be supervised and monitored regularly through clinical audit. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of HTN care at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Settings and Design: This study was conductedin 2009 at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Medical records of all hypertensive patients were extracted and reviewed using master sheets. Assessment of processes and outcomes of HTN care were based on the standards of quality assurance manual issuedby the Ministry of Health. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered and analyzed by SPPS, version 15. Relevant statistical tests were used accordingly and the P-value was considered significant when it was less than 0.05. Results: A total of 295 medical records were reviewed and assessed. Most patients were Saudi, married, and about 50% were educated. Two-hundred and thirty-one records were assessed for processes and outcomes of HTN care. Weight measurement and physical examination were carried out for 99% and 97% of the patients, respectively. For 53% of the patients, blood was checked for glucose and kidney function and a lipid profile was done. More than two-thirds of the patients were overweight and obese while 46% had diabetes. Less than one half of the patients had good control of HTN. Conclusions: By most standards, quality of HTN care in Al-Manhal Family Practice was unsatisfactory. Most of the patients had comorbidities and poor HTN control. Essential facilities should be provided to the practice to optimize HTN care and to improve the degree of control.

  14. E-Commerce Adoption in Saudi Arabia: an Assessment of International, Regional and Domestic Web Presence

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    Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce has a growing potential in Saudi Arabia, due to widespread use of the internet and the maturity of the Information Technology (IT infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of E-Commerce websites in Saudi Arabia, using a proposed evaluation instrument. To achieve this aim, six E-Commerce websites were selected for evaluation and then categorized into three categories: domestic, regional and international. Each category consisted of two E-Commerce websites, with the international website category considered as a benchmark. The six websites were evaluated by sixty participants (n=60 with good web design experience, following a set of guidelines offered by the evaluation instrument. The evaluation instrument described six key evaluation factors: appearance, content, organization, interaction, customer-focus and assurance. Each factor was evaluated by several indicators using a five-point scale ranging from not applicable (0 to very strong (4. To unify the views of all evaluators, a technique was introduced which would show the way in which each indicator was assessed based on several checklists (questions. The results therein revealed that international websites were of higher quality than regional and domestic websites with regard to all aspects of web evaluation. In addition, the quality of regional websites outweighed that of domestic websites with regard to appearance, content, organization, customer-focus and assurance, but not interaction.

  15. Hypernatraemic dehydration in the Hail region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehasi, A I; Murthy, K

    1990-01-01

    Infants presenting with hypernatraemic dehydration were studied prospectively in order to describe its incidence and the predisposing factors. Five hundred and twenty children with gastroenteritis were admitted to the Paediatric Unit of Hail General Hospital over a 1-year period from 1 June 1985 to 1 June 1986. Twenty-five children (4.8%) had hypernatraemia (Na+ greater than 150 mmol/l) and all 25 were under 1 year of age, 23 (92%) being under 6 months. Twenty (80%) came from families living in the villages and had a poor educational background. All the babies were bottle-fed. The majority of the mothers did not know how to prepare food hygienically and with the appropriate water/milk proportions. Most of the infants presented with high fever (+39 degrees C) and the majority were underweight for their age. Two babies died and one had evidence of neurological damage. This study indicates that the incidence of hypernatraemic dehydration is significant in this region and causes serious morbidity and mortality. It confirms the importance of breast-feeding and the need to educate the public in the proper preparation of bottle feeds when breast-feeding is not possible.

  16. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for CT trunk examinations in the western region of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important optimisation tool, which aid in identifying abnormally high dose levels. These are currently not available in Saudi Arabia, and this research aims to remedy this. CT dose data (DLP and CTDIvol) were collected for a minimum number of 10 adult patients of average size (60-80 kg) presenting for a range of CT examinations from public hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. These include routine chest, high-resolution chest (HRCT), pulmonary angiography (CTPA), abdomen and pelvis (AP) and the combined chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) CT examinations. Mean values for each site were calculated, and the 75. percentile of DLP and CTDIvol was used as a basis for DRLs. Data for 550 patients were collected from 14 hospitals over a 7-month period. The rounded third-quartile CTDIvol and DLP were 18 mGy and 630 mGy cm-1 for chest CT, 20 mGy and 600 mGy cm-1 for HRCT, 18 mGy and 480 mGy cm-1 for CTPA, 15 mGy and 800 mGy cm-1 for AP, and 16 mGy and 1040 mGy cm-1 for CAP, respectively. Regional DRLs have been proposed from this study. Dose variations across CT departments have identified an urgent need for optimisation to improve distribution of observed doses for CT examinations. (authors)

  17. Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

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    Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

    Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499

  18. Internal medicine residents' perspectives and practice about do not resuscitate orders: survey analysis in the western region of Saudi Arabia

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    Aljohaney A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Aljohaney, Yasser Bawazir Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions and practices of internal medicine residents in the western region of Saudi Arabia regarding the implementation of do not resuscitate (DNR orders to improve future training practices among physicians. Methods: Medical residents involved in training programs in the western region of Saudi Arabia, including Jeddah, Makah, Medinah, and Taif, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey regarding DNR orders. The 16-question survey was distributed to residents in all training programs in the region using surveymonkey.com, and the results were collected and tabulated. Results: Of 364 residents, 157 completed the questionnaire, resulting in a 43% response rate. The study showed that most (66% internal medicine residents in the western region of Saudi Arabia participate in DNR discussions with patients and family or surrogate decision-makers. In addition, 43% were observed by faculty members, and half of them (51.9% reported feeling comfortable during these discussions. Furthermore, most residents believed that additional educational programs would enhance their competence in addressing issues related to DNR discussions. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for a structured curriculum to teach skills relating to end-of-life issues such as DNR orders to residents in the Saudi Arabian medical system. The majority of residents surveyed believe they would benefit from additional training in DNR discussions. Therefore, an evidence-based curriculum providing instruction for improving discussions regarding DNR orders would improve physician confidence and effectiveness in caring for critically ill patients. Keywords: medical residents, do not resuscitate, internal medicine training program, Saudi Arabia

  19. Evaluation of hospital-learning environment for pediatric residency in eastern region of Saudi Arabia

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    Waleed H. BuAli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: No study had been conducted to assess the hospitals’ environment for learning purposes in multicenter sites in Saudi Arabia. It aims to evaluate the environment of hospitals for learning purposes of pediatric residents. Methods: We applied Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM to measure the learning environment at six teaching hospitals in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2013. Results: The number of respondents was 104 (86.7% out of 120 residents and 37 females and 67 male residents have responded. The residents’ response scored 100 out of 160 maximum score in rating of PHEEM that showed overall learning environment is favorable for training. There were some items in the social support domain suggesting improvements. There was no significant difference between male and female residents. There was a difference among the participant teaching hospitals (p<0.05. Conclusion: The result pointed an overall positive rating. Individual item scores suggested that their social life during residency could be uninspiring. They have the low satisfactory level and they feel racism, and sexual discrimination. Therefore, there is still a room for improvement.

  20. Khat Dependency and Psychophysical Symptoms among Chewers in Jazan Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Maged El-Setouhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Khat chewing is highly prevalent in Africa, Yemen and Jazan region, southwest of Saudi Arabia. Most of Jazani Khat chewers consider khat session as a social activity and do not consider khat dependency. The aim of this study was to explore khat dependency and its relationship with the psychophysical symptoms among chewers. Methods. Cross-sectional study on seventy Saudi male khat chewers living in Jazan area. Psychological dependence to khat chewing was evaluated using the Severity of Dependency Scale (SDS. The participants filled in a self-administrated assisted structured questionnaire designed to collect data about their medical history, neurological symptoms, and their chewing behavior. Results. Half (52.2% of khat chewers showed psychological dependency. Those having longer khat sessions (≥6 hours were more liable for dependency. Physical and psychological symptoms were more prevalent among khat dependent chewers. Conclusions. khat has a psychological dependence effect that can be measured by the SDS, even in low doses and with irregular use. SDS scale is a useful tool to expect the burden of either physical or psychological symptoms on khat chewers.

  1. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  2. Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

  3. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in...

  4. Injection Safety among Primary Health Care Workers in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

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    AA Ismail

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to percutaneous injuries is a substantial source of infections with blood-borne pathogens among health-care workers. Few studies evaluated injection safety practices in Saudi Arabia.Objective: To examine the structure and process of injection safety at primary health care level in Jazan health district, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary health care physicians and nurses towards injection safety, and to determine the incidence of needle stick injuries among health care workers in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jazan primary health care centers (PHCCs, Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to March 2012. Data were collected using an observational checklist and data collection sheet. Jazan city health district was chosen at random from the 14 health sectors in Jazan region. All the 33 (10 urban, and 23 rural PHCCs of Jazan city were included in this study to get the predetermined sample size of health care workers. 200 health care workers (HCWs were recruited (29% physicians, and 71% nurses.Results: Syringes in the PHCCs were disposable (100%, individually packed (92%, and available at all volumes (98%. Methods of safe disposal of needles and sharps were also operated through contracting with professional companies in 84.8% of instances. Urban PHCCs had more posts for injection safety promotion than rural centers (p=0.02. Continuous Medical Education (CME programs on infection control were present in only 60% of PHCCs. At least 95% of HCWs in Jazan believed that sharp objects should be kept in a puncture-proof container, kept in a closed container, or disposed by a professional company. More than 80% of HCWs washed their hands by soap and water and cleaned them by alcohol before giving injection, and also got the three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.The rate of needle stick injury in the past year was 14%, without a significant difference between

  5. The prevalence of obesity among saudi males in the Riyadh region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, S A; Khoja, T A; Al-Maatouq, M A

    1996-05-01

    Attendees of 15 health centers in urban and rural areas in the Riyadh region were screened for obesity during May and June 1994. Systemic selection yielded 1580 Saudi males for analysis. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 13.5 years and body mass index (BMI) was 26.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m(2). Only 36.6% of subjects were their ideal weight (BMI 40 kg/m(2)). Middle age, lower education and joblessness predicted a higher risk for obesity. Patients living in a rural areas had greater BMIs than those living in urban areas (P diabetis mellitus, hypertension, stroke, heart disease, sleep apnea syndrome and osteoarthritis of the knees. Young parents who are at risk of developing obesity and who play a central role in perpetuating it in their offspring should be the target of obesity-prevention programs.

  6. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Khan, A Sattar; Al Otaibi, F Huzam

    2013-12-01

    This retrospective study aimed to collect data related to the clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia, in one of the tertiary-care centers, King Fahd Hospital Al-Hasa, and to compare it with other regions of Saudi Arabia. Forty-six patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology 1997 criteria (ACR) were collected over a period from January 2004 to December 2008. The results showed an average age of onset of 26.17 (±9.17). The most common clinical features were nonspecific constitutional symptoms (fever, fatigue and malaise) seen in 44 patients (95.7%). Musculoskeletal features seen were mostly arthralgias (91.3%) and arthritis (76.1%). Nephritis was seen in 58.7% and hypertension in 52.2%. Mucocutaneous involvement included oral ulcers (71.7%), hair loss (65.2%), butterfly rashes (67.4%), photosensitivity (47.8%) and discoid lupus (13%). Neurologic manifestations showed psychosis in 17.4%, depression in 15.2% and headache in 28.3%. The most common hematologic presentation was leukopenia (58.7%) followed by hemolytic anemia and anemia of chronic disease (47.8%). Antinuclear antibodies were positive in 44 (95.7%), anti-dsDNA in 38 (42.6%), anti-Ro SSA and La SSB in 38 (82.6%). Anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant were positive in eight (17.4%). Low complement levels (C3 and C4) were seen in 41 (89.1%) of the patients with active disease. The drugs used in treatment were NSAIDs (100%), antimalarials (97.8%), steroids (100%), intermittent cyclophosphamide and other immunosuppressive drugs (71.7%). We found that the age of onset and sex distributions were different from other areas of Saudi Arabia, while clinical manifestations were the same as in other areas. The prognosis of lupus was good overall despite the multi-organ involvement. However, further studies based on larger number of patients are needed.

  7. Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

  8. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

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    Marwa Awad

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems of R. epapposum growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia are considered as a rich source of monoterpenes which have biological activities.

  9. Public awareness of colon cancer screening among the general population: A study from the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khayyat, Yasir Mohammed; Ibrahim, Ezzeldin Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening for colon cancer aims at early detection and prompt treatment of the disease. Prior knowledge of the disease will contribute to increased participation. However, barriers to performing screening are not known. Methods: A survey using a questionnaire was presented to patients attending the Outpatient Department of a tertiary hospital in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, to evaluate the background knowledge of colon cancer screening, the diagnostic methods used for that ...

  10. Sensitive, resistant and multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumanii at Saudi Arabia hospital eastern region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mughis Uddin; Farooq, Reshma; Al-Hawashim, Nadia; Ahmed, Motasim; Yiannakou, Nearchos; Sayeed, Fatima; Sayed, Ali Rifat; Lutfullah, Sualiha

    2015-05-01

    Since the Physicians start use of antibiotics long ago with un-notice drug resistance. However actual problem was recognized about 85 years ago. Antibiotic resistant and Multi-drug resistant bacterial strains are at rise throughout the world. It is physicians and researchers to take scientific research based appropriate action to overcome this ever-spreading problem. This study is designed to find out sensitive (S), resistant (R) and multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumanii strain along with other isolates in the resident patients of Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is excluded from other gram-negative organisms isolated from different sites as it will be dealt separately. This study is based in was retrospective observations designed to collect data of different stains of Acinetobacter baumanii with reference to their Sensitivity (S), Resistance (R), Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) along with other Gram negative isolated from different sites (from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2011) at King Abdulaziz Hospital located Eastern Region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). All necessary techniques were used to culture and perform sensitivity of these isolates. There were 4532 isolates out of which 3018 (67%) were from patients. Out of Acinetobacter baumanii infected were 906 (20%) while other 3626 (80%) isolates were miscellaneous. Numbers of patients or cases were 480 (53%) out of 906 isolates and numbers of patients or cases in other organisms were 2538 (70%) out of 3626 isolates. Acinetobacter baumanii infected patients 221 (46%) were male and 259 (54%) were female and the male and female ratio of 1:1.2. In other organisms this male female ratio was almost same. There was steady rise in number of patients and the hence the isolates from 2004 to 2011. Majority of the bacterial strains were isolated as single organism but some were isolated as double or triple or quadruple or more organisms from different sites. Sensitive, Resistant and

  11. Epidemiological aspects of prematurity in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qurashi, Faisal O.; Abdullah A Yousef; Awary, Bassam H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological characteristics of prematurity and survival rate in preterm infants diagnosed at a university hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out of 476 preterm infants who were admitted with the diagnosis of prematurity to King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between June 2008 and 2013. Demographics, birth weight, and neonatal survival rate were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and...

  12. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

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    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  13. First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Gewik, Mohamed M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25473359

  14. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  15. School Absenteeism due to Toothache among Secondary School Students Aged 16–18 Years in the Ha’il Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Shaikh; Ammar Ahmed Siddiqui; Mohammad Aljanakh

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed the impact of toothache on school attendance among secondary school students in the Ha'il Region, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A cross-sectional, paper based survey was conducted among 16–18-year-old students of public sector secondary schools in the Ha'il Region, Saudi Arabia. Results. Of the 510 students selected from the participating schools, 480 were analyzed (94.1%). Of the sample, 50.4% were boys. Among the participants in the study, 86 students reported school...

  16. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsibiani, Sharifa A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortio...

  17. The Impact of Implementation of Total quality Management on Plants' Productivity: Evidence from Poultry Processing Plants- Saudi Arabia- Central Region

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    ELHAJ ABDELMOULA.ELSIDDIG MUSA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Productivity index as an important business determinant factor for profitability and business performance has been studied in this research versus TQM varibles. The study highlighted out the impacts ofimplementation of TQM on productivity in poultry processing plants in Saudi Arabia – Central Region. The significance of this research represented in exploring the impact of TQM practices on Poultry Processing Plants' productivity. Seven determinants of TQM practices and their impacts were measured against productivity. The determinants included top management commitment, customer focus, rewards & training, continual improvement, cooperation & teamwork, prevention focus and measurement system. Data was collected by using Questionnaire tool. The Questionnaire is of closed ended questions. It consists of three parts, the first part is demographic information about the study sample, the second part about implementation of the total quality management and the third part is to measure productivity. A sample of three poultry processing plants that effectively implemented total quality management were purposively chosen out of eight plants in Saudi Arabia Central Region. The study respondents are purposively chosen which consists quality team, production supervisors, Total quality management and production managers. 73 respondents out 75 participated in the survey. The finding indicated that the TQM practices have positive impact on poultry processing plants' productivity.

  18. Levels of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead in fruits and vegetables grown and consumed in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteef, Mohammed D Y; Fawy, Khaled F; Abd-Rabboh, Hisham S M; Idris, Abubakr M

    2015-11-01

    The levels of four metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) were evaluated in two fruit types (apricot and fig), a fruity vegetable (tomato), and three leafy vegetables (arugula, spinach, and lettuce) that are commonly grown and consumed in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed for quantification. The quality of results was checked by a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1570a). Good recovery values in the range of 87-104% were achieved. Metals were quantified in washed and unwashed samples to evaluate the effect of washing. Statistically, no significant difference was noticed (p>0.05), except for Zn in arugula and Cu in apricot and spinach. The levels of metals found in the analyzed fruits and vegetables were in their normal ranges in crops and not posing any serious risks to the consumers in Aseer Region. The toxic elements Pb and Cd were well below the maximum levels set in the Saudi and international food standards. Zn and Cu levels were comparable to the ranges reported in worldwide previous studies.

  19. Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in a cohortcommunity--based study in Riyadh and hail regions of Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Faleh Faleh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia used to be hyperendemic for HBV infection. Most of infection occurs in early life. HBV vaccine was, therefore, introduced in 1989 as the seventh primary immunogen of the EPI Program. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this program in Riyadh and Hail Regions. Method and Patients: A cohort follow-up study of children from Riyadh and Hail, who had been vaccinated in 1989, evaluated in 1991 and tested for HBV markers six years later. Results: The files of 303 children from Riyadh and Hail, who were investigated in 1991 retrieved and only 119, were available for testing. Fifty percent of the children have still a protective anti-HBs tittre. One vaccinated child was found to be positive for HBsAg. According to this study, the efficacy rate against HBsAg carriage is 88%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the tremendous effect of HB vaccine on the HBV infection of Saudi children in these two regions

  20. Flood Hazard Assessment along the Western Regions of Saudi Arabia using GIS-based Morphometry and Remote Sensing Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Qianwen

    2014-12-01

    Flash flooding, as a result of excessive rainfall in a short period, is considered as one of the worst environmental hazards in arid regions. Areas located in the western provinces of Saudi Arabia have experienced catastrophic floods. Geomorphologic evaluation of hydrographic basins provides necessary information to define basins with flood hazard potential in arid regions, especially where long-term field observations are scarce and limited. Six large basins (from North to South: Yanbu, Rabigh, Khulais, El-Qunfza, Baish and Jizan) were selected for this study because they have large surface areas and they encompass high capacity dams at their downstream areas. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques were applied to conduct detailed morphometric analysis of these basins. The six basins were further divided into 203 sub-basins based on their drainage density. The morphometric parameters of the six basins and their associated 203 sub-basins were calculated to estimate the degree of flood hazard by combining normalized values of these parameters. Thus, potential flood hazard maps were produced from the estimated hazard degree. Furthermore, peak runoff discharge of the six basins and sub-basins were estimated using the Snyder Unit Hydrograph and three empirical models (Nouh’s model, Farquharson’s model and Al-Subai’s model) developed for Saudi Arabia. Additionally, recommendations for flood mitigation plans and water management schemes along these basins were further discussed.

  1. Serologic markers of gluten sensitivity in a healthy population from the western region of Saudi Arabia

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    Yasir M Khayyat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: To identify the prevalence of gluten sensitivity in a healthy adult Saudi population within a low endemic area of celiac disease using IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody. The study was conducted as a prospective pilot study for Saudi attendees of a blood donation centre at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: Individuals were invited to participate in the study and screened for gluten sensitivity using immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA TTG along with serum IgA level. Descriptive data was presented and expressed as mean value; correlation between variables was estimated using Pearson correlation, and nonparametric data using Pearson rho correlation (level of P value <0.05 is considered to be statistically significant. Results: Two hundred and four individuals (122 males and 82 females, mean age 35 years attending the blood donation centre were screened. Three individuals tested positive for IgA TTG showing normal IgA level (1 female and 2 males with a 1.5% prevalence in the cohort. Conclusions: Positive celiac screening is present at a low prevalence rate in our adult population, in which the individuals′ age and their serum IgA levels are not associated with the positivity level. A study on a larger scale with the application of histologic confirmation of positive cases is needed.

  2. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa A. Alsibiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM, rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6% were immune (IgG positive; the remaining 866 (8.4% were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years and the oldest age group (40–49 years (P=0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7. Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6% but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection.

  3. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation. PMID:21637994

  4. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

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    Almalki Mohammed J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of work life (QWL is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585 was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Results Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area. Other essential factors include the community’s view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging

  5. Ecological studies on the diversity of terrestrial poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous” of Jazan region Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Reptilia: Ophidia

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    Mostafa F. Masood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in Jazan region. The region of Jazan in being in the South-Western part of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 420 and 43.80 and latitudes 5, 16o and 17o, and is bounded on the south and east of the Republic of Yemen, Asir area in the north and the Red Sea in the west. The results showed that there are four families of poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous" living in Jazan region. They are: Family Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Hydrophiidae . This work aimed to unveil ecological problems and throw light on diversity of poisonous snakes in Jazan region and the danger of these species to human life. Despite the fact that these snakes may be harmful to human life in some cases, it may also be useful to him in many aspects of life. Since there are no enough studies on the animal species in the region, this study came to identify the diversity of this animal group. There is no doubt that the study of these species and identifying them will provide some solutions that could make this group as an endless source of biodiversity and at the same time, this study provides information on the feasibility of protection of this species in this region. Discussion of ecological and geographical affinities of this taxa and taxonomic keys of different types in order to facilitate the process of identification will be provided

  6. Ulcerative colitis amongst the Saudis: Six-year experience from Al-Madinah region

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    Khan Hamid

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative Colitis is now being recognized amongst the Arabs. After consideration of the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological data, 80 Saudi patients out of 1,182, were diagnosed as ulcerative colitis. There were 47 males and 33 females. The age ranged between two and 90 years (mean 36.5 years. Endoscopically, the disease was limited to the rectum in 22.5%, rectum and sigmoid in 30%, extended up to the splenic flexure in 27.5% and beyond the splenic flexure in 20% of the patients. Our data supports the recent observation that ulcerative colitis is not uncommon in this part of the world. There are differences in the extent of disease and the presence of local complications, between our patients and those in the high incidence areas.

  7. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater irrigated fields can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, thus pose a threat to human beings . The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with the consumption of okra vegetable crop contaminated with toxic heavy metals. The crop was grown on a soil irrigated with treated wastewater in the western region of Saudi Arabia during 2010 and 2011. The monitored heavy metals included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn fo...

  8. Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors

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    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2 to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% . Lifetime Khat chewer students were 24.8% for males at 40.5%, significantly higher compared with females at 3.7% . Univariate analysis revealed that the gender of student, smoking status of student, a friend’s smoking, and Khat chewing were associated with a significant high risk of Khat chewing (   for all. Conclusions. The use of Khat trend is increasing among higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities’ interventions and services.

  9. PREVALENCE OF SOMATIZATION AND MINOR PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN PRIMARY HEALTHCARE IN SAUDI ARABIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY IN ASIR REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M.; Peter Salmon

    2008-01-01

    Objective : To determine the prevalence of psychological disorders and somatization among primary care patients from a semi-urban area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design : Screening of consecutive patients with the 12-item and 28-item versions of the General Health Questionnaires and assessments of physical symptoms associated with somatization, using the HSCL-12. Eight primary care health centres in Assir, Saudi Arabia. Results : About half of the sample had one or more psycholo...

  10. The association of human leukocyte antigen B27 with anterior uveitis in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia: a retrospective study

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    Bawazeer AM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Bawazeer,1,2 Heba Ismail Joharjy1 1Uveitis Services, Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz University, 2Magrabi Eye and Ear Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: The association of human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27 with anterior uveitis is well known. The prevalence of HLA-B27 and its relation to anterior uveitis is related to race and geographic location. The association is strongest in Western countries and weakest in Eastern countries. Data regarding this association from Middle Eastern countries are limited. Thus, we undertook the study reported here to evaluate the association of HLA-B27 with anterior uveitis in patients in a tertiary center in the western region of the Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study involved a retrospective analysis of the records of patients with anterior uveitis, referred to the uveitis clinic in Magrabi Eye and Ear Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from 1999 to 2010. The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B27 testing was analyzed. Results: Among the 587 cases of uveitis, 335 (57.1%; mean age 37.56±12.82 years; 203 male and 132 female cases were of anterior uveitis. All patients with anterior uveitis were investigated for HLA-B27 positivity. Idiopathic anterior uveitis was the most common (80%, followed by Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis (7.45% and ankylosing spondylitis (3.8%. Only two patients were HLA-B27 positive. The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B27 testing was found to be 165,000 Saudi riyals (44,594 US dollars per positive case. Conclusion: HLA-B27-related uveitis appears to be very rare in our part of the world. Idiopathic uveitis is the most common type of anterior uveitis. The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B27 testing is low for patients with anterior uveitis in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: HLA-B27, Saudi population, cost-effectiveness, idiopathic anterior uveitis, Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis, ankylosing spondylitis

  11. Implications of climate change on crop water requirements in arid region: An example of Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia

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    Shakhawat Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible implications of climate change on crop water requirements (CWRs from 2011 to 2050 in Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia. CWR were predicted for four scenarios: (i current temperature and rainfall (S1; (ii temperature in 2050 and current state of rainfall (S2; (iii rainfall in 2050 and current state of temperature (S3 and (iv temperature and rainfall in 2050 (S4. Assuming no change in the regulations relating to agriculture and irrigation in future, CWR were predicted to be 873 and 931 million cubic meters (MCM per year for the S1 and S4 scenarios, respectively, indicating an increase of 58 MCM from 2011 to 2050. On an average, 1 °C increase in temperature may increase the overall CWR by 2.9% in this region. Following linear pattern of increase, slope of CWR was determined as 1.5 MCM/year from 2011, which is equivalent to the CWR of producing approximately 600 tons of wheat/year. The increase of CWR was due to the increase in temperature mainly, while the effect of rainfall changes was minimal. Sensitivity analysis on crop growing seasons showed that the shift of wheat growing season might conserve significant amount of groundwater. This study might be useful in explaining the negative effects of climate change on CWR in Al-Jouf and better planning for water resources management.

  12. Dominant Environmental Kids Diseases In Western Region, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study was conducted to figure out the relationship between the social structure and the most predominant environmental kids diseases (1-12 years old) in the community of Jihad city through year 1423.A.H. The results revealed that the dominant husband and wives age-groups were 30-40 Y, couples had Bachelor education level and governmental employees. Residences were distributed between down town and its periphery toward north , apart of red sea coast. They had 2-4 child/family of equal gender ratio. Most of couples were non relative. Wives education level was positively correlated with kids skin, respiratory and ocular diseases but negatively correlated with presence of servant and her health certificate. Private hospitals and health care centers were permanently accessed and located far of industrial collections. Majority of teachers and students were Saudis. Schools subjected their students for regular vaccination programs offered by Health Ministry. School services and facilities (regular vaccination, healthy foods and water) significantly affected incidence and kinds of kids diseases. Mixing nationalities may represent risk health for coming exotic infection unless restricted hygienic measures offered by Health Ministry. Husband job was negatively correlated with respiratory diseases. Husband job sector and their work places indoor air quality, their smoking behavior may affect directly or indirectly child diseases. The kids medicinal diseases were within husband age group 20-30 Y. Dominant kids diseases were within age-group 2-4 years mainly respiratory (dyspnea were highest respiratory affection within 1-12 Y children), skin and ocular affections. The dominance of respiratory diseases within infants in winter and the skin diseases in summer Most of kids diseases (skin, respiratory, ocular, medicinal, psychic and non recognized diseases agents were significantly correlated with their homes address. Conclusively, Jeddah community was characterized by

  13. A Comparative Study of the Perceptions of End Users in the Eastern, Western, Central, Southern and Northern Regions of Saudi Arabia About Email Spam and Dealing with it

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    Hasan Alkahtani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey of email users in different regions of Saudi Arabia about email SPAM. The survey investigated the nature of email SPAM, how email users in the eastern, western, central, southern and northern dealt with it, and the efforts made to combat it. It also investigated the effectiveness of existing Anti-SPAM filters in detecting Arabic and English email SPAM. 1,500 participants located in the eastern, western, central, southern and northern regions of Saudi Arabia were surveyed and completed surveys were collected from 1,020 of the participants. The results showed that there were different definitions for email SPAM based on different users’ opinions in Saudi Arabia. The results showed that the participants in the central and western regions were more aware of SPAM than the participants in other regions. The results revealed that the volume of email SPAM was different from region to another and the volume of SPAM received by the participants in the northern and central regions was larger than that received in other regions. The results indicated that the majority of email SPAM received by the participants in different regions was written in English. The results showed that the most common type of email SPAM received in Arabic was emails related to forums and in English was phishing and fraud, and business advertisements. The results also showed that a few participants in all regions responded to SPAM and the average of the participants who responded to SPAM was larger in the southern region than other regions. The results showed that most of the participants were not aware of Anti-SPAM programs and the participants in the central region were more aware of Anti-SPAM programs than the participants in other regions. The results showed that the participants in all regions estimated that the existing Anti-SPAM programs were more effective in detecting English SPAM than Arabic SPAM. The results showed that most

  14. Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.)

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF THE GERMANDER ( TEUCRIUM POLIUM L. AERIAL PARTS FROM THE NORTHE RN REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA

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    Arbi Guetat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Teucrium poliumL. collected during the flowering period from, northern region of SaudiArabia, (Aljuf, kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been studied by GC and GC/MS. 114 compounds were identified amounted to 88.51% of the total oils. The presence of sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons (34.62% characterizesthe oil of Saudi Arabian germander. While, T. polium oil is also rich with hydrocarbons monoterpenes (26.08%, oxygenated monoterpenes (11.14% and oxygenated sesquiterpenoids (11.79%. The dominant constituents (52.17% wereγ-muurolene (8.72%, α-cadinol (5.93%, δ-cadinene (5.08%, β-pinene (4.58 %, β-gurjurene (4.43 %, α-limonene (4.29 %, α-Pinene (3.79 %,α-Thujene (3.69%, Spathulenol (3.42 %, p-cymene (2.95% γ-cadinene (2.81%and Sabinene (2.47 %.

  16. The pattern of skin diseases in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia: What the primary care physician should know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies to determine the burden of skin diseases are important for proper health care planning. The purpose of this study was to find the pattern of skin diseases in our patients attending university-affiliated dermatologic clinics in the Qassim region.We conducted a prospective study of all Saudi patients attending the Qassim University Medical College-affiliated dermatology clinics of the Ministry of Health for a period of 12 months from 1 March 2008 to 28 February 2009.The study included 3051 patients comprising 1786 (58.5%) males and 1265 (41.5%) females. Males outnumbered females (P<.05) (male-to-female ratio, 1.4:1). The mean age (standard error of the mean) of the patients was 25.3 (0.27) years. About 71% of the patients were between 5 and 34 years of age. The top five skin diseases were eczema/ dermatitis (19.5%), viral infections (16.6%), pilosebaceous disorders (14.4%), pigmentary lesions (11.2%) and hair disorders (7.6%). The major disorder in males was viral skin infections (20.0%), while eczema/dermatitis (20.7%) constituted the most prevalent skin disease in females. Seasonal variations were recorded in cases of pigmentary lesions, papulosquamous disorders and protozoal infections.Infectious skin diseases, eczema/dermatitis, pilosebaceous disorders, pigmentary lesions and hair disorders ranked as the top five skin diseases. Appropriate training programs for diagnosing and managing common skin diseases should be initiated for primary health care physicians and other general practitioners so as to decrease referrals to dermatology clinics (Author).

  17. Khat chewing habit among school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different educational sectors of the region. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence, associations and predictors of Khat chewing. RESULT: The overall Khat chewing prevalence among students was 20.5% (95% C.I.: 19.27-21.79. The prevalence was significantly higher among males, at 33.1% (95% CI: 31.16-35.08, than among females 4.3% (95% C.I.: 3.39-5.31 ( P <0.001. Univariate analysis revealed that gender, age, academic performance, friends' smoking and Khat chewing, and students' smoking status were associated with a significantly high risk of Khat chewing ( P <0.001 for all. The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the most important independent predictors of Khat chewing among the students in our sample were students' smoking status (OR = 13.02, P <0.001, friends' use of Khat (OR = 5.65, P <0.001, gender (OR = 4.62, P <0.001, and friend's use of tobacco (OR = 1.43, P <0.001. CONCLUSION: A significant percentage of students chew Khat. The abuse of Khat is significantly associated with gender, peer influence, and cigarette smoking. Intervention programs are needed to create awareness among school students and to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its unfavorable consequences.

  18. Factors Affecting Agricultural Sustainability–A Case Study of Hail Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. Asiry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Availability of data on agricultural activities and production are essential for an appropriate socio-economic planning and sustainability. This study was conducted using a questionnaire that was randomly distributed to farmers to identify some features of the agricultural activities in Hail region and to serve as baseline data on agricultural practices. The questionnaire was divided into main topics including socio-economic status of farms, farm area, main crops, production systems, agricultural practices, financial support, and use of wind breaks, water conservation, animal husbandry and marketing. Some of the results showed that date palms and alfalfa fodder were found to be the main grown crops in addition to citrus, grapes, vegetables, wheat and Rye. In most cases, all these crops were cultivated in open fields, compared to only 18% grown in green houses. About half of the farmers adopted the monoculture system and only 44.9% of them applied the crop rotation. More than 70% of farmers raise animals and the most commonly reared animal are sheep (53.6% followed by goats (23%, camels (18% and poultry (4.5%. The study revealed that Hail region is an important agricultural area in KSA and some agricultural practices need to be revised and directed towards sustainability through extension programmes.

  19. Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138

  20. Effect of the Relationship between Agricultural Extension Agents and Wheat Farmers in Medina Region, Saudi Arabia, on the Adoption of Appropriate Wheat Production Practices. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 91-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Mohammad Saleh

    The relationship between agricultural extension agents and wheat farmers in the Medina region, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed, based on each group's perception of the relationship. Participants were 73 randomly selected wheat farmers and 31 of 34 agricultural extension agents working in the region during spring 1990. Farmers were interviewed, and…

  1. Quality of diabetes care at Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S Al-Arfaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the current status of care provided by the Diabetes Center at Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region. Materials and Methods : A total of 260 patients were randomly selected from the diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Center. Study tools comprised patients′ data sheets and patients′ interview questionnaire. Results : Two-thirds of the patients were aged 50 years or more. Half of patients had had the disease for less than 10 years. Diet therapy alone was followed by 2.3% of diabetic patients. More than half of patients (56.5% were on insulin. Most of the diabetic patients were tested for HbA1c at least once per year (88.1%, and 71.5% had their lipid profile done at least once within two years. Low indicators included having a dilated eye examination (35.4%, assessment for nephropathy (28.8%, and having a well-documented foot examination (12.7%. Highest risk HbA1c level (>9.5% was reached by 38.8% of patients, 48.8% had a low-density lipoprotein level of <130 mg/dl, and 36.5% of patients had controlled blood pressure (≤130/80 mmHg. Most patients were satisfied with their interaction with the treating doctor, 41.5% were satisfied with access to treatment. Hypertension was found to be the most frequent comorbidity (38.5%. Conclusion : The quality of services as regard to process and outcome are low at the Diabetes Center. The overall diabetic patients′ satisfaction was high, whereas their satisfaction was low as regards to access to treatment or health professionals.

  2. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage after bipolar diathermy vs. cold dissection surgical techniques in Alahsa region, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim K. Aljabr; Fathelrahman M. Hassan; Khalid A. Alyahya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tonsillectomy is a common surgical procedure done by otolaryngologists. Tonsillectomy is a relatively simple procedure. The concept of implementing it as a day case operation has become increasingly popular. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study done in Alahsa city, eastern province, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2014 to March 2015,This study reported the postoperative hemorrhage after Bipolar diathermy and Cold dissection surgical techniques to ...

  3. DISCRIMINATION OF GRANITOIDS AND MINERALIZED GRANITOIDS IN THE MIDYAN REGION, NORTHWESTERN ARABIAN SHIELD, SAUDI ARABIA, BY LANDSAT MSS DATA-ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Grolier, Maurice J.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) band and band-ratio databases of two scenes covering the Midyan region of northwestern Saudi Arabia were examined quantitatively and qualitatively to determine which databases best discriminate the geologic units of this semi-arid and arid region. Unsupervised, linear-discriminant cluster-analysis was performed on these two band-ratio combinations and on the MSS bands for both scenes. The results for granitoid-rock discrimination indicated that the classification images using the MSS bands are superior to the band-ratio classification images for two reasons, discussed in the paper. Yet, the effects of topography and material type (including desert varnish) on the MSS-band data produced ambiguities in the MSS-band classification results. However, these ambiguities were clarified by using a simulated natural-color image in conjunction with the MSS-band classification image.

  4. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  5. Evaluation of resistance of commonly used antibiotics on clinical case of Staphylococcus capitis from Assir region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar M Abdalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus capitis is a coagulase-negative species (CoNS of Staphylococcus. It causes antimicrobial resistance for nosocomial infections as well as for community-acquired infections. This case report involves a 51-year-old, married Saudi patient. He got admitted to the male medical ward of Aseer Central Hospital, with severe chest infection. Clinical examination, X-ray, and laboratory investigations were performed which involved bactech, culture media, antibiotic sensitivity test using disk diffusion [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC] and molecular [polymerase chain reaction (PCR] for detection of CoNS of Staphylococcus species and detection of the mecA gene. Laboratory data were recorded in special formats and analyzed by statistical computer program (SPSS. Results showed the resistance of isolated S. capitis to many commonly used antibiotics.

  6. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhair, Khaled S; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigated fields can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, thus pose a threat to human beings . The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with the consumption of okra vegetable crop contaminated with toxic heavy metals. The crop was grown on a soil irrigated with treated wastewater in the western region of Saudi Arabia during 2010 and 2011. The monitored heavy metals included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn for their bioaccumulation factors to provide baseline data regarding environmental safety and the suitability of sewage irrigation in the future. The pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load index of the studied soils indicated their level of metal contamination. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr in the edible portions were above the safe limit in 90%, 28%, 83% and 63% of the samples, respectively. The heavy metals in the edible portions were as follows: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 indicating a potential health risk. The EF values designated an enhanced bio-contamination compared to other reports from Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world. The results indicated a potential pathway of human exposure to slow poisoning by heavy metals due to the indirect utilization of vegetables grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil that was irrigated by contaminated water sources. The okra tested was not safe for human use, especially for direct consumption by human beings. The irrigation source was identified as the source of the soil pollution in this study.

  7. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhair, Khaled S; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigated fields can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, thus pose a threat to human beings . The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with the consumption of okra vegetable crop contaminated with toxic heavy metals. The crop was grown on a soil irrigated with treated wastewater in the western region of Saudi Arabia during 2010 and 2011. The monitored heavy metals included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn for their bioaccumulation factors to provide baseline data regarding environmental safety and the suitability of sewage irrigation in the future. The pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load index of the studied soils indicated their level of metal contamination. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr in the edible portions were above the safe limit in 90%, 28%, 83% and 63% of the samples, respectively. The heavy metals in the edible portions were as follows: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 indicating a potential health risk. The EF values designated an enhanced bio-contamination compared to other reports from Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world. The results indicated a potential pathway of human exposure to slow poisoning by heavy metals due to the indirect utilization of vegetables grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil that was irrigated by contaminated water sources. The okra tested was not safe for human use, especially for direct consumption by human beings. The irrigation source was identified as the source of the soil pollution in this study. PMID:26858563

  8. Retrospective analysis of keratoconus at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alabdelmoneam M

    2012-01-01

    Mussaed AlabdelmoneamFaculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Shaqra University, Saudi ArabiaBackground: This work was a retrospective study undertaken in a tertiary eye care hospital to evaluate the putative prevalence and referral patterns for keratoconus by gender, age, and region of Saudi Arabia.Methods: Files from 1638 keratoconus patients from different regions of Saudi Arabia referred to King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 1999 and ...

  9. A coupled remote sensing and the Surface Energy Balance based algorithms to estimate actual evapotranspiration over the western and southern regions of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Shereif H.; Alazba, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    In countries with absolute water scarcity such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), large-scale actual evapotranspiration estimation is of great concern in water use practices. Herein, spatial and temporal distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) in the western and southern regions of KSA during 1992-2014 was estimated using the SEBAL model with field observations. Zonal statistics for each land use-cover type were also identified, in order to understand their effects on water consumption. In addition, daily and seasonal water consumption for major crops was computed. Results revealed a gradual increase in monthly AET values from January to April and subsequent decline from May to December. The maximum monthly AET values were observed for irrigated cropland in southwestern, central, and southeastern regions of Asir Province, central and southwestern regions of Al-Baha Province, central and the plains region of Jazan Province, southern portion of Makkah Province, and limited areas in the northern regions of Madinah Province. The annual AET ranged from 418.8 to 3442.3 mm yr-1. The normal distribution of mean annual AET values ranged from 717 to 1020 mm yr-1. Forty-two percent of the study area had an annual AET that ranged from 717 to 1020 mm yr-1. The second highest range of frequencies was concentrated around 1020-1322 mm yr-1, representing the majority of agricultural land. The consumptive water use of the different land cover types in study area indicated that irrigated cropland which occupied 14.6% of the study area had AET rates much higher than other land uses. Water bodies are the next highest, with forest and shrubland and sparse vegetation slightly lower, and very low AET rates from bare soil. Daily and seasonal water consumption of major cropping systems varied spatially depending on cropping practices and climatic conditions.

  10. Common Diseases and Some Demographic Characteristics among Saudi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haramlah, Ahmed Abdulrahman; Al-Bakr, Fawziah; Merza, Haniah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the common diseases among Saudi women and their relationship with the level of physical activity and some variables. This study was applied to 1233 Saudi woman in different regions of the Kingdom, and adopted to explore the common diseases: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol and asthma. The study results showed…

  11. Chemistry of groundwater of Al-Ahsa Oasis eastern region Saudi Arabia and its predictive effects on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zarah, Abdullah I

    2008-02-01

    Saudi Arabia is an arid and the largest country in the middle east with a total land area of 2.253 x 10(6) km2. Recent urban and rural expansion has shown manifold increases in water use in various sectors. Water resources are limited and non-renewable coupled with unpredicted scanty rainfall. In order to meet the rising water needs, evaluation of water quality is important for allocation to various uses. A total of 101 well water samples were collected from Al-Ahsa Oasis. Water samples were analyzed for total salt concentration, pH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, F and B contents. Soil Salinity Development (SSD), adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (adj.SAR), adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (adj. R(Na)) and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) were calculated. The EC of groundwater ranged between 1.23 and 5.05 dS m(-1). Sodium was the most abundant cation followed by Ca, Mg and K in descending order. Chloride was the most abundant anion followed by SO4 and HCO3 in groundwater of Al-Ahsa Oasis. A significant correlation was found between Na and Cl (R2 = 0.936). Thermodynamics calculation revealed that an appreciable amount of Ca and Mg is associated with Cl and SO4 ions. The SAR and ESP values are within the permissible limits according to Ayers and Westcot, 1985. The NO3 concentration is within safe limits for drinking purpose according to WHO (1998) standards. The Saturation Indices (SI) indicated that groundwater is under-saturated (negative SI) with respect to certain minerals (for example: calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite, fluorite and aragonite) and oversaturated (positive SI) with respect to some other minerals (For example: Goethite, Siderite and hematite). The negative saturation index (SI) reveals that most of minerals are in un-saturated state and will dissolve more Ca and Mg into the soil solution after irrigation. A good relationship exists between Cl and other ions (Na, Ca and Mg) as well as between SO4 and Ca and Mg ion of

  12. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: a national reference and comparison with international standards

    OpenAIRE

    P J Foster, A S Al Herbish, M I El Mouzan, A A Al Salloum, M M Al Qureshi, A A Al Omar, T Kecojevic.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish ...

  13. Hyperlipidaemia in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)

  14. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  15. From barriers to bridges: An investigation on Saudi student mobility (2006-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

    2011-08-01

    Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.

  16. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Moujahid A. Kao; Radadi, Raja M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of J...

  17. Economic Efficiency Modelling of Water Resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam Hamdar; Hussin Hejase; Tamar Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources in the world generally and in Saudi Arabia specially. Situated in the tropical and sub-tropical desert region with arid climate, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is exposed to dry winds and limited water resources .Therefore, the scarcity of fresh water resources poses a major challenge and affects the Saudi development plans since they realized that their supply of freshwater cannot be taken for granted. Moreover, the demand for fresh...

  18. Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitudes of Saudi Mothers towards Newborn Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Al-Sulaiman; Kondkar, Altaf A.; Saeedi, Mohammad Y.; Amal Saadallah; Ali Al-Odaib; Khaled K. Abu-Amero

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the attitude and knowledge of the Saudi mothers toward newborn screening (NBS) program. Methods. A total of 425 Saudi women (only mothers who have at least one pregnancy) participated in the study from different regions in Saudi Arabia and completed the structured questionnaire which sought their views on the NBS services. Results. A majority of the participating women (91.1%) supported the NBS program and felt it was very important and useful. However, knowledge of NBS w...

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of abnormal Papanicolaou smear in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M.; Kamal, Mehak; Bamuhair, Samira S.; Omair, Aamir A.; Bamefleh, Hana S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of abnormal pap smear in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this retrospective case control study conducted in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Histopathology at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, all pap smears screened for Saudi women between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed. Approximately 5000 pap smears are screened annually at King Abdulaziz Medical City utilizing the Bethesda III...

  20. Puitsillad Saudi Araabiasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto

  1. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  2. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  3. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  4. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  5. Surface gene variants of hepatitis B Virus in Saudi Patients

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    Ahmed Y Al-Qudari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV continues to be one of the most important viral pathogens in humans. Surface (S protein is the major HBV antigen that mediates virus attachment and entry and determines the virus subtype. Mutations in S gene, particularly in the “a” determinant, can influence virus detection by ELISA and may generate escape mutants. Since no records have documented the S gene mutations in HBV strains circulating in Saudi Arabia, the current study was designed to study sequence variation of S gene in strains circulating in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with clinical and risk factors. Patients and Methods: A total of 123 HBV-infected patients were recruited for this study. Clinical and biochemical parameters, serological markers, and viral load were determined in all patients. The entire S gene sequence of samples with viral load exceeding 2000 IU/mL was retrieved and exploited in sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Results: A total of 48 mutations (21 unique were recorded in viral strains in Saudi Arabia, among which 24 (11 unique changed their respective amino acids. Two amino acid changes were recorded in “a” determinant, including F130L and S135F with no evidence of the vaccine escape mutant G145R in any of the samples. No specific relationship was recognized between the mutation/amino acid change record of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia and clinical or laboratory data. Phylogenetic analysis categorized HBV viral strains in Saudi Arabia as members of subgenotypes D1 and D3. Conclusion: The present report is the first that describes mutation analysis of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia on both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Different substitutions, particularly in major hydrophilic region, may have a potential influence on disease diagnosis, vaccination strategy, and antiviral chemotherapy.

  6. Development of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mahmoud Abdullah

    1986-01-01

    The history of higher education in Saudi Arabia is outlined, especially as it relates to Islamic religion and educational philosophy, and its rapid growth is chronicled. These aspects are examined: Saudi students studying abroad, foreign students in Saudi Arabia, women's education, the Ministry of Higher Education's role, and financing. (MSE)

  7. Impact of software and hardware technologies on occupational health and safety policies in Saudi Arabian oil refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idreis, Hany M; Siqueira, Carlos E; Levenstein, Charles C

    2006-01-01

    proposed by the Ministry of Labor. American and Saudi workers are concerned about the quality and sufficiency of health and safety training, employment promotion, work pressure, and job uncertainty due to continuous downsizing. This article recommends that Saudi social actors increase safety and health awareness in the work environment by providing intensive occupational safety training to the employees (as demanded by Saudi and American workers), improve labor-management relations through establishing strong cooperative contacts with regional and international trade unions, and establish uniform and standard occupational health and safety regulations for Saudi Aramco and its subsidiaries in order to provide an equal level of protection for Saudi workers. PMID:16943139

  8. Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

  9. Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population

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    Bosley Thomas M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV1 (R0a was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%, similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%. In addition, a small Indian influence (3% was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85% have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.

  10. PATTERN OF KHAT ABUSE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS IN JAZAN REGION, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA (KSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sanosy, Rashad M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Khat is a widely-abused psychoactive substance in East African countries, Yemen and Southwestern areas of the Kingdom of Saudia Arabia (KSA), especially in Jazan region. However, patterns of Khat consumption as well as its adverse consequences on academic work are not well studied. Objective : The study was conducted to assess the pattern of Khat abuse and its associated academic effect on Secondary School and College students in Jazan region, KSA. Methods: A cross-sectio...

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rayed AlGhamdi; Jeremy Nguyen; Ann Nguyen; Steve Drew

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influe...

  12. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

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    Alghamdi IG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah

  13. Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitudes of Saudi Mothers towards Newborn Screening

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    Ayman Al-Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the attitude and knowledge of the Saudi mothers toward newborn screening (NBS program. Methods. A total of 425 Saudi women (only mothers who have at least one pregnancy participated in the study from different regions in Saudi Arabia and completed the structured questionnaire which sought their views on the NBS services. Results. A majority of the participating women (91.1% supported the NBS program and felt it was very important and useful. However, knowledge of NBS was found to be very limited and only 34.6% knew that NBS was a test to detect genetic disorders. A lack of communication and counseling to NBS clients by health authorities offering screening is implied. Conclusion. In general, there is a positive attitude towards the NBS program among Saudi women. However, they have several concerns to improve the availability of medication and formulas, genetic counseling, medical interventions, communication, education materials, and awareness.

  14. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING RICE CONSUMPTION IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Duwais, Abdul-Aziz M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past decade, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has undergone rapid economic growth and development. This expansion stems from the increase in the Kingdom's production of petroleum--oil being the source of most of the country's exports, foreign exchange, and government revenues. However, despite this growth, Saudi Arabia is one of the top foodstuff importers among developing countries. It has been estimated that the value of Saudi agriculture imports in 1981 increased about 33 percent to ...

  16. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping

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    Abdulaziz Alqarni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  17. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  18. Saudi Arabia plans future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

  19. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

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    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  20. Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Amani

    2005-01-01

    The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

  1. Attitudes of Saudi medical students toward the disclosure of information on cancer in eastern Saudi Arabia

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    Ali M Al-Amri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the attitude of future physicians regarding the disclosure of diagnosis, prognosis, benefits, and adverse effects of therapeutic intervention if they happen to have cancer. It also examined the differences if any between regions or gender. Materials and Methods: A total of 332 medical students from University of Dammam, in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of nine questions on the attitudes to disclosure of information on cancer. This self-administered questionnaire was completed by the students in the presence of an investigator. Results: The vast majority of Saudi medical students stated that they would like to know about diagnosis of cancer (92.8% and only 7.2% wanted information withheld from them. Further, 67% of the males and 74.1% of the females wanted family members to know (P = 0.01, but one-third (33% did not want their family to know. Only 24.1% of the male and 21.1% of female students wanted their friends to know. In addition, -97% of the males and 98.8% of the females wanted to know the diagnosis, and 97% and 95.8% of females and males, respectively, would like to know the side effects of the therapy. Almost 95% of male and 93.4% of female students wanted to know the prognosis. Also, 98% of medical students from the Eastern Region would want the diagnosis of cancer to be disclosed compared to 73.6% of those from other regions (P = 0.01. There is no difference between the genders in attitudes toward the disclosure of the diagnosis, 94.6% and 92.2% (P = 0.38. Conclusions: There was a consensus among Saudi medical students on the knowledge of the benefits of treatment, adverse effects of therapy, and prognosis. Female students significantly more than males would like their families to be informed. Significantly more medical students from the Eastern Region than those from other regions would like the diagnosis of

  2. Health Education in Saudi Arabia; Historical overview

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Al-Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the evolution of health education in Saudi Arabia. It outlines milestones in the development of the health education profession and traces the roles of various health sectors and their achievements in the health education field. Additionally, this review seeks to describe the status of health education professionals in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

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    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  4. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

  5. Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Alsayeqh; shawkat mohamed fathi

    2012-01-01

    There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3), most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 %) suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and...

  6. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-01-01

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in south western, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Almushait, Mona A.; Dajem, Saad M. Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M.; Eskandar, Mamdoh A.; Al Azraqi, Tarik A.; Makhlouf, Laila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent...

  8. Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Alsayeqh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 % suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011 in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.

  9. Gender-segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms the Saudi Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Roula Baki

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by cons...

  10. The development process and its relation to oil revenues and dependence on imported labor market in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive non-oil sector. In one generation the Kingdom created an infrastructure suitable to a rapid transformation from Bedouin tribes to a modern state, which became a leading regional power and now occupies an important place in international society. Important advances were made in social services, health services and education at all levels. Large-scale importation of foreign labor workers during the 1970s and early 1980s was necessary for the Development Plans. By the 1990s the major infrastructure was completed and only the maintenance work and minor projects remained for foreign labor sources

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayed AlGhamdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influence Saudi retailers in deciding whether or not to adopt online channels. As part of a larger research project using mixed methods, this paper focuses on a quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of retailers in Saudi Arabia. The design of the questionnaire instrument was based on the findings of a qualitative analysis reported in a previous paper. The main findings of the current study include a list of key factors that affect retailers’ e-commerce adoption, such as lack of online payment options and lack of clear legislation on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia, and quantitative indications of the relative strengths of the various relationships.

  12. Very low prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR protein expression and gene amplification in Saudi breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tamimi Dalal M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancers which demonstrate EGFR protein expression, gene amplification and/or gene mutations may benefit therapeutically from tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In Western studies, EGFR protein expression has been demonstrated in 7-36% of breast cancer patients, while gene amplification has been found in around 6% of cases and mutations were either absent or extremely rare. Studies addressing EGFR protein expression and gene amplification in Saudi breast cancer patients are extremely scanty and the results reported have been mostly non-conclusive. Herein we report the prevalence of EGFR protein expression and gene amplification in a cohort of Saudi breast cancer patients. Findings We noticed a remarkably low incidence of EGFR protein expression (1.3% while analyzing the spectrum of molecular subtypes of breast cancer in a Saudi population by immunohistochemistry. Also, EGFR gene amplification could not be demonstrated in any of 231 cases studied using silver enhanced in situ hybridization. Conclusions The extremely low incidence of EGFR protein expression and gene amplification in Saudi breast cancer patients as compared to Western populations is most probably ethnically related as supported by our previous finding in the same cohort of a spectrum of molecular breast cancer types that is unique to the Saudi population and in stark contrast with Western and other regionally based studies. Further support to this view is provided by earlier studies from Saudi Arabia that have similarly shown variability in molecular breast cancer subtype distribution between Saudi and Caucasian populations as well as a predominance of the high-grade pathway in breast cancer development in Middle East women. More studies on EGFR in breast cancer are needed from different regions of Saudi Arabia before our assumption can be confirmed, however.

  13. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wael Mohamed Lotfy; Souad Mohamed Alsaqabi

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  14. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mohamed Lotfy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  15. Attitudes and Practices of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Nada A Abahussain

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females) aged 15–19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatmen...

  16. Use of modern family planning methods among Saudi women in Taif, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Aref Albezrah

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that the prevalence of contraception use among Saudi women of reproductive age between 15-49 years was 67.7 %. Oral contraception (53.8 % was the most used contraceptive method followed by intrauterine device and injectable hormonal contraception respectively (34.3 % and 8.3 %. A further study is needed on a larger study sample to examine the effect of different demographic, social and economic determinants on the fertility behavior of Saudi women in Taif region. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 990-994

  17. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Idrees, Majdy M; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for e...

  18. Changed priorities in the Gulf: Saudi Arabia and the Emirates rethink their relationship with Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are likely to scale back noticeably on their generous financial gifts to Egypt under its President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi. In the one year that King Salman has ruled Saudi Arabia, the kingdom has improved relations with the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization the Egyptian regime portrays as the source of all evil. Riyadh’s overriding priority is now to stem Iran’s influence in the region, particularly in Yemen and Syria. However, in Syria especial...

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia:Epidemiological trends from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarek Tawfik Amin; Hamdan Ibrahim Al-Mohammed; Feroze Kaliyadan; Balghonaim Salah Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study epidemiological trends related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Al Hassa, an endemic area in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This retrospective study included the spatial/temporal analysis of the reported cases of CL using the available surveillance database for the disease at the regional Vector Control Unit, from 2000 to 2010. Results: The incidence of CL was declining at a stable rate especially during the last 3 years of the study (2008-2010). An interesting finding was the percentage of expatriates affected was increasing over the last 10 years compared to that of the Saudis. Conclusions:A definite declining trend in the incidence of CL was observed in Al Hassa. Further studies are warranted to assess whether special public health measures are needed for better control of CL in expatriate populations in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions.

  1. Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

    2010-01-01

    To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low...

  2. Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs

  3. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and

  4. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made.Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory 

  5. Saudi decree encourages MTBE, Chevron aromatics plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevron Chemical (Houston), encouraged by a new Saudi royal decree that establishes extremely low feedstock prices, is in final negotiations to build a novel aromatics plant in Saudi Arabia. Chevron says it plans to close the deal and announce details the first week of March. The unit will be based on Chevron's Aromax reforming process, which uses a zeolite catalyst to convert light naphtha into benzene and toluene. No existing plant is using the technology, but Chevron is building a $250-million, 150-million gal/year Aromax unit at its refinery site in Pascagoula, MS, and Idemitsu has licensed the process for a plant in Chiba, Japan. The Saudi decree, issued late last year, pegs domestic feedstocks - propane, butane, and naphthas - at 30% below the lowest price of the prior quarter in major non-domestic markets. That clarifies and guarantees the Saudi feedstock price, which has always been nebulous, and thus allows project feasibility to be more clearly assessed. The decree is designed to encourage further private petrochemical investment in the country. In particular, the Saudi government hopes guaranteed low prices for butane will encourage more methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects. Arabian American Chemical, a 50/50 joint venture between Mobile and Arabian Chemical Investments, said in October of last year that its 830,000-m.t./year MTBE project at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, would go ahead if feedstock questions could be resolved. The decree apparently resolves those questions

  6. Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William

    2006-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

  7. Noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome in a Saudi male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesidioblastosis is focal or diffuse islet hyperplasia leading tohyperinsulinism with subsequent hypoglycemia in the absence of insulinoma,usually described in neonates and infancy. We described the first adult caseof nesidioblastosis in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The diagnosis andtreatment of the condition can be very difficult and challenging. Despite thefact that our patient responded initially to surgical treatment, hishypoglycemic symptoms occasionally recurred and needed adjunctive medicaltreatment. Although initially thought to affect only infants and children,cases of nesidioblastosis can effect adults and pose a diagnostic andtherapeutic challenge to the clinicians. (author)

  8. Strategic directions for university hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards.

  9. Diffusion of the Adoption of Online Retailing in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Rayed

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia is a leading producer of oil and natural gas, a member of G-20, has the largest and fastest growth of ICT marketplaces in the Arab region, and is very wealthy, online retailing activities are not progressing at the same speed as its growing ICT marketplace. For this reason, the attitudes of retailers in companies at different stages of e-commerce maturity were investigated to determine what factors are causing this problem. The data collection included two s...

  10. Deficiencies under plenty of sun: Vitamin D status among adults in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Tuffaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, current data on vitamin D status are lacking. Aims: To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. Materials and Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years and above on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams. Results: 62.65% of female Saudis and 40.6% of male Saudis aged 15 years and above are deficient in vitamin D. Out of them, less than 1% males and less than 2% females consume vitamin D supplements. Women who have never married and obese individuals are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, compared to men who were currently married and nonobese individuals. Those consuming vitamin D supplements are less likely to be deficient in vitamin D. Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi men and women, and the results call for an increased awareness to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D for better health in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, our findings are certainly relevant for other countries in the Gulf region or countries with similar cultures, clothing, and religions.

  11. Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam, Ayman S.

    2010-05-01

    Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects

  12. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  13. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  14. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant

  15. Nedtur. Griske prinser svækker Saudi-Arabien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2016-01-01

    I analyze the ability of Saudi-Arabia to adjust to present low oil prices. I analyze the political foundations of the Saudi state and its weak autonomy in relation to its power bases: the avaricious princes and the fundamentalist religious Sheikhs. I am pessimistic as to the likelyhood of Saudi......-Arabia making the needed ajdustments due to current low oil prices. This is the second of two articles on Saudi-Arabia....

  16. Blended learning in Saudi universities: challenges and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universitie...

  17. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Veiled Delusions: Gender, Education, and Employment in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Patricia; Caram, Chris A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the oppression endured by Saudi Arabian women, and discusses the state of education, higher education, and employment for them. States that it will be difficult for Saudi women to achieve their aspirations brought about by higher education due to the growing number of unemployed Saudi males and the heavy rule of the monarchist…

  19. Sustainable Energy Development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 1971–2012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.

  20. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  1. Colour vision screening among Saudi Arabian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Matthew Oriowo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of congenital red-green colour vision defects among Saudi Arabian male and female children.Methods: The study involved 1638 elementary and high school participants (838 males, and 800 females, who were randomly selected and screened for red-green colour vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates test. Inclusion criteria were Snellen VA 20/20 or better and absence of known ocular pathologies.Among the females, 0.75% of the 800 participants showed CVD, with 0.25% and 0.5% demonstratingprotan and deutan defects, respectively.Conclusion: The results show that the prevalence of red-green colour deficiency among the female children from central Saudi Arabia is not significantly different from that of female populations inwestern countries.  The current prevalence among the males is higher than previously reported for central Saudi Arabia, but less than for Caucasian populations. 

  2. On the relationship between climatic variables and pressure systems over Saudi Arabia in the winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanean, H. M.; Basset, H. Abdel; Hussein, M. A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The synoptic circulation over Saudi Arabia is complicated and frequently governed by the effect of large-scale pressure systems. In this work, we used NCEP-NCAR global data to illustrate the relationship between climatic variables and the main pressure systems that affect the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia, and also to investigate the influence of these pressure systems on surface air temperature (SAT) and rainfall over the region in the winter season. It was found that there are two primary patterns of pressure that influence the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia. The first occurs in cases of a strengthening Subtropical High (SubH), a weakening Siberian High (SibH), a deepening of the Icelandic Low (IceL), or a weakening of the Sudanese Low (SudL). During this pattern, the SubH combines with the SibH and an obvious increase of sea level pressure (SLP) occurs over southern European, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East. This belt of high pressure prevents interaction between midlatitude and extratropical systems, which leads to a decrease in the SAT, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall over Saudi Arabia. The second pattern occurs in association with a weakening of the SubH, a strengthening of the SibH, a weakening of the IceL, or a deepening of the SudL. The pattern arising in this case leads to an interaction between two different air masses: the first (cold moist) air mass is associated with the Mediterranean depression travelling from west to east, while the second (warm moist) air mass is associated with the northward oscillation of the SudL and its inverted V-shape trough. The interaction between these two air masses increases the SAT, RH and the probability of rainfall over Saudi Arabia, especially over the northwest and northeast regions.

  3. Trends of reported human cases of brucellosis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Abdulaziz D; Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; McNabb, Scott J N

    2016-03-01

    Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease and is especially concerning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), where livestock importation is significant. We analyzed reported human brucellosis disease trends in KSA over time to help policymakers understand the magnitude of the disease and guide the design of prevention and control measures. By using data from the national registry from 2004 to 2012, we calculated the cumulative numbers by age group and months. Trends of incidence rates (IRs) by gender, nationality, and region were also calculated. We found that there was a greater number of cases (19,130) in the 15-44 years age group than in any other age group. The IRs significantly decreased from 22.9 in 2004 [95% confidence interval (CI)=22.3, 23.5] to 12.5 in 2012 (95% CI=12.1, 13). Males had a significantly greater IR than females. Most cases were reported during spring and summer seasons. The IR of Saudi citizens was significantly greater than that of non-Saudis, but this difference reduced over time. The IRs of Al-Qassim, Aseer, and Hail were in the highest 25th percentile. Young, male Saudi citizens living in highly endemic areas were at greatest risk of acquiring brucellosis. We recommend vaccinating susceptible animals against brucellosis and increasing the public's awareness of preventive measures.

  4. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world.

  5. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world. PMID:25737650

  6. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  7. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  8. Saudi Arabia between conservatism, accomodation and reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Meijer; P. Aarts; J. Wagemakers; M. Kanie; A. Geel

    2012-01-01

    Of all the countries in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia seems to have remained immovable since the beginning of the Arab Spring. What does conservatism mean, are reforms possible, and what is the pace of change? The clever mix of conservatism, reform and accommodation are the characteristic features o

  9. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  10. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  11. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Nora Sahly; Dana Sawan; Souzan Kafy; Faten Alzaban

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for th...

  12. A SURVIVABILITY MODEL FOR SAUDI ICT STARTUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Almakenzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation and entrepreneurship are critical elements in the transition to the knowledge-based economy and future competition. Unfortunately, innovation tends to be absent in Arab states for many reasons. To promote innovation in Saudi Arabia, for instance, it is necessary to support inventors’ ideas to turn inventions into start-up companies, which are companies in their early stage. At the same time, it seems that there is a need for more academic research to study the success factors of Saudi information and communication technology (ICT start-up companies. ICT start-ups are important to the economy because they are needed for the progress of all industries. Therefore, this study will identify the factors that lead to successful ICT start-up projects. Then, it will develop a model for the best practices in the interplay among the defined factors that will increase the opportunity to initiate successful start-ups. This research involves a factor analysis study based on a quantitative method to measure the interdependences among the success factors for ICT start-ups. The identified factors are verified using a sample of Saudi start-up companies. The study will contribute to enhancing the technological content to diversify the Saudi economy in order to prepare for the post-oil era. The study result is a survivability model for Saudi-incubated ICT startups. The resulting model has two phases, as follows: (1 the incubation period, which includes the relationships among three factors leading to constant and successful updates and upgrades of the ICT startup business model; and (2 the postincubation period, which include relationships among the three factors that help to deal with the changing nature of the market and the emergence of competing products. This solution can be applied within startups with similar conditions.

  13. Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

  14. Insulin resistance in Saudi postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome and its association with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: These observations suggest that hypovitaminosis D may be associated with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Interrelationships between IR, metabolic syndrome, and hypovitaminosis D are of particular interest in Saudi population, given the high prevalence of these conditions in this region.

  15. Distribution And Mineralogy Of The Clay Deposits In Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mohandis, Ahmed A. [احمد عبد القادر المهندس

    1993-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the mineral clay deposits in Saudi Arabia; especially their mineral composition, deposit size, geological setting and possible uses. Different published reports and papers on clay deposits of Saudi Arabia have been reviewed. Three major clay deposits have been studied by XRD, DTA and chemical analyses. Saudi clay deposits consist generally of kaolinite as a major mineral, and small amounts other clay minerals, such as montmorillonite and illite. ...

  16. Saudi University Undergraduates’ Language Learning Attitudes: A Preparatory Year Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. AbdulRahman Al Asmari

    2013-01-01

    The present study is a comprehensive investigation of the attitudes of Saudi freshmen studying at Taif University towards various dynamics of English language teaching/learning process. Findings seem to have significant implications for English language pedagogy considering the fact that the results of this study provide a detailed survey of psychological underpinnings of Saudi EFL learners at the university level. The purpose has been to better understand the Saudi EFL undergraduate learners...

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING THE IMPORT OF WHEAT IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Goosi, Adbullah I.

    1980-01-01

    The modern economy of Saudi Arabia depends primarily on oil exports. Oil being the source of most of the country's exports, foreign exchange, and government revenues, it follows that the oil sector affects the economy rather than the economy affecting the oil sector. Saudi Arabia lacks natural resources for most of its essential goods and because of sudden high income, it has become necessary to introduce new strategies for producing necessary goods and services. Since Saudi Arabia depends mo...

  18. The health of Saudi youths: current challenges and future opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A.; Al Mazroa, Mohammad A.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Background The health status of the young people is an important indicator for future health and health care needs of the next generation. In order to understand the health risk factors of Saudi youth, we analyzed data from a large national survey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods The Saudi Health Information Survey sample included 2382 youths aged 15 to 24 years old. The questionnaire included information on socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, risky behaviors, chronic cond...

  19. E-learning Accessibility for Saudi Women: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Al Alhareth

    2014-01-01

    Saudi government has made significant efforts and heavily invested in its e-learning innovation in order to offer students alternative opportunity to complete their higher education. However despite all the efforts being made, Saudi Arabia is still in the early stage of its e-learning development and faces many challenges especially for female’s students from their ability to take the benefit of such technology. Therefore, understanding the ability of Saudi women to access and use e-learning ...

  20. Caries prevalence, oral hygiene and orthodontic status of Saudi Bedouin children.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyne A; al-Dlaigan Y; Khan N.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine caries prevalence, oral hygiene and orthodontic status of Bedouin children in a desert around Al-Qasseem Region of Saudi Arabia. One hundred and fifty three children were examined for caries, oral hygiene and orthodontic status with mirror and explorer utilizing natural light. These children were divided into two groups for analyses. The primary dentition group consisted of 77 children, 39 (50.6%) male and 38 (49.4%) female with a me...

  1. Why Would Khat Chewers Quit? An In-Depth, Qualitative Study on Saudi Khat Quitters

    OpenAIRE

    Alsanusy, Rashad; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2013-01-01

    Background: Khat chewing, which has many adverse health and social consequences, is highly prevalent and socially accepted in the Jazan region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted with 47 adult male former khat users regarding their khat initiation, continuance, and cessation, the amounts of khat they had used, and the health and social consequences of their use and cessation of use. Results: Participants noted a desire to show maturity, ease of availabil...

  2. Airborne gamma-radiation survey of the Jabel Ishmas Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Vincent J.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne gamma-radiation survey system, which includes digital recording and automatic data processing procedures developed by the U. S. Geological Survey Saudi Arabian Project, is used to collect spectral gamma-radiation data as an aid to regional geologic mapping of pediment areas on the Arabian Shield. The areal extent of rock units can generally be distinguished by the intensity of their radiation pattern. Rocks of ultramafic composition have low radiation response, whereas more felsic rocks reflect higher radiation response.

  3. Respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoub Meo, Sultan; Fahad A Al-Kheraiji, Mohammad; Fahad AlFaraj, Ziyad; abdulaziz Alwehaibi, Nasser; Adnan Aldereihim, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Sandstorms are metrological events and frequently occur in many regions throughout the world. Sandstorms are a main source of long-distance transport of dust, air pollution and cause various health problems. This study aimed to investigate the acute respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: The present descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riy...

  4. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Alsuwaida Abdulkareem; Farag Youssef; Al Sayyari Abdulla; Mousa Dujanah; Alhejaili Fayez; Al-Harbi Ali; Housawi Abdulrahman; Mittal Bharati; Singh Ajay

    2010-01-01

    There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their esti...

  5. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for testicular germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alotaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor-node-metastasis staging system 7th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence level, they are based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health care policy makers in the management of patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors.

  6. Saudi oncology society and Saudi urology association combined clinical management guidelines for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abusamra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system 7th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence level, they are based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors who were selected by the Saudi oncology society and Saudi urological association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology, and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health care policy makers in the management of patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate to.

  7. An overview of nursing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Saleh AlYami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving and maintaining a stable nursing workforce is an important issue for the well-being of the rapidly growing population of Saudi Arabia. However, high turnover of expatriate staff and low recruitment of Saudi nationals have led to a serious staff shortage in the professions, particularly of well-qualified and experienced nurses. Nursing leaders need to work to improve the image of nurses and facilitate the recruitment of women into the nursing profession. Reduced working hours and part-time contracts with increased salaries and benefits could attract more young women to the profession, as might the provision of facilities such as private transportation and on-site childcare. Furthermore, establishing a national association for nurses would advance the nursing profession and help to ensure that all nurses undertake fully comprehensive training before entering the workforce.

  8. Saudi Aramco describes crisis oil flow hike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco)

  9. Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)

  10. Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low student performances on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. There is a growing demand for national assessment standards for all key subject areas to monitor students’ learning progress. This study acknowledges extant research on this important topic and offers a strategy of national assessment to guide educational reform.

  11. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  12. ERP Implementation Success Factors in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik F. Saleh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature on successful implementation of ERP reveals that there are many case studies undertaken by researches, but very few have empirically examined the success factors of ERP implementation. While most of those empirical studies were undertaken in Western countries, very few had examined the implementations in Middle Eastern countries and none in Saudi Arabia. Factors and challenges of ERP implementation in developing countries differ from those of Western countries. Hence a gap in the literature that examines Middle Eastern countries exists. This study is motivated to fill such gap by going beyond case study and boundaries of Western counties to empirically examine the determinants of successful ERP implementation in Saudi Arabia. The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of some critical factors on successful implementation of ERP.

  13. Rights of shareholders under Saudi company law

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zahrani, Youseif AM

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The thesis examines the efficacy of the provisions of Saudi Company Law 1965 in terms of protecting the rights of minority shareholders in joint stock companies (JSCs). The aim is to assess the effectiveness of the current form of SCL 1965 in this regard and to suggest a reform scheme. This research finds that SCL 1965 does not adequately provide minority shareholders with all the rights that...

  14. ERP Implementation Success Factors in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Malik F. Saleh; Muneer Abbad; Mohammed Al-Shehri

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature on successful implementation of ERP reveals that there are many case studies undertaken by researches, but very few have empirically examined the success factors of ERP implementation. While most of those empirical studies were undertaken in Western countries, very few had examined the implementations in Middle Eastern countries and none in Saudi Arabia. Factors and challenges of ERP implementation in developing countries differ from those of Western countries. Henc...

  15. Two important Saudi crude assays updated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on updating two important Saudi Arabian crude oils-Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) and Arabian Light-which is part of a continuing series on world export crudes. Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) was reassayed in early 1990; Arabian Light in May 1990. These assays, therefore, replace those that appeared previously. However, as is frequently the case with crudes from major, single reservoirs, there is little, if any, change in their characteristics

  16. A SURVIVABILITY MODEL FOR SAUDI ICT STARTUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Almakenzi; Arif Bramantoro; Waleed Rashideh

    2015-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship are critical elements in the transition to the knowledge-based economy and future competition. Unfortunately, innovation tends to be absent in Arab states for many reasons. To promote innovation in Saudi Arabia, for instance, it is necessary to support inventors’ ideas to turn inventions into start-up companies, which are companies in their early stage. At the same time, it seems that there is a need for more academic research to study the success f...

  17. Dietary Practices in Saudi Cerebral Palsy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hammad, Nouf S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dietary practices of Saudi cerebral palsy (CP) children. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following information from parents of CP children: demographics, main source of dietary information, frequency of main meals, foods/drinks used for main meals and in-between-meals. Results: Parents of 157 CP children participated. Parents were divided into three, while children were divided into two age groups. The main sources of dietary inf...

  18. Awareness regarding childhood asthma in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Saleh; Al-Harbi, Adel S.; Al-Khorayyef, Abdullah; Al-Qwaiee, Mansour; Al-Shamarani, Abdullah; Al-Aslani, Wafa; Kamfar, Hayat; Felemban, Osama; Barzanji, Mohammed; Al-Harbi, Naser; Dhabab, Ruqaia; Al-Omari, Mohammed Ahmed; Yousef, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessing the knowledge and awareness of the Saudi society about bronchial asthma in children. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were randomly distributed to 1039 Saudi Arabians in May 2014 at Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. RESULTS: The awareness of bronchial asthma questions showed that 67% of total sample thought that it could be a fatal disease, and only 13.2% thought that there is a difference between bronchial asthma and chest allergies in children. 86.1% thought that the symptoms of bronchial asthma include dyspnea and nocturnal cough, and 45.7% thought that fever, a runny nose and throat inflammation are not symptoms. 60.2% thought that infectious respiratory diseases may increase bronchial asthma progression. In addition, 40% thought that the use of antibiotics doesn’t help in diminishing bronchial asthma complications, and some thought that the patient can stop medication after an acute asthma attack. 34.1% thought that inhaled medication for asthma doesn’t cause addiction. Very highly significant results are shown between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, the level of education, marital status, and if the individual knows a person who suffers from bronchial asthma (P < 0.001). There are positive correlations between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, marital status, and level of education (r = 0.152, 0.150, 0.197), respectively. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that bronchial asthma knowledge in the Saudi Arabian population is insufficient, and efforts should be carried out to spread bronchial asthma management. PMID:26933459

  19. Association of Interleukin-10 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms in Saudi Patients with Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abanmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The promoter region of human Interleukin −10 gene is highly polymorphic and has been associated with numerous autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have linked vitiligo with defective autoimmune system. This study is aimed to explore a possible association between IL-10 gene polymorphism and vitiligo in Saudi population. This case control study consisted of 184 Saudi subjects including 83 vitiligo patients (40 males, 43 females mean age 27.85 ± 12.43 years and 101 matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples of healthy controls and Vitiligo patients visiting out patient clinic of Department of Dermatology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, using QIA ampR DNA mini kit (Qiagen CA, USA. Interleukin-10 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using Arms primers to detect any polymorphism involved at positions −592, −819 and −1082.

  20. Health care provider's role in facing the future burden of breast cancer in Saudi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care professionals on the early detection of breast cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah and Abha regions of Saudi Arabia from May to November 2009. A detailed questionnaire was distributed to 500 doctors from different hospitals. The questionnaire contained items on the practice of clinical breast examination and mammogram examination, and the doctor's perception of their roles in education. The results of 337 questionnaires analyzed indicated that most health care professionals do not practice clinical breast examination and mammography, and the perception of their roles in education is not as expected. Health care providers are one of the main barriers in improving early detection of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia. There is a need to increase awareness among health care providers of their role in the fight against breast cancer through focused education and training programs (Author).

  1. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  2. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Pallister, John S.

    2010-09-26

    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient data analysis approaches to enhance the quality of customer service in Saudi Government sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Baz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common aim of all our daily activities is providing services to others or ourselves. Services provided by the government are called public services while those provided by some people to some others are called private services. Both types differ from country to country and from region to region. In Saudi Arabia, public services include education, health, police, trading, and environmental services. It is the aim of all government agencies in Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world to offer more services to their customers, improve the quality of their customer service, and enhance the existing services. Nowadays, most government agencies have already developed a number Information Systems (ISs to help their customers in applying for services and help their employees in processing the requested services. However, hardly a government agency utilizes the data in the employed ISs to improve the quality of its customer service. This paper is dedicated to addressing this gap by proposing a number of data analysis techniques that can be utilized to improve the quality of customer service and enhance the existing services in the Saudi government sector. Moreover, this article introduced a relational database structure that can be utilized to apply the proposed data analysis techniques.

  4. Optimization of Broadband Seismic Network in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Alshuhail, Abdulrahman

    2011-05-01

    Saudi Arabia covers a large portion of the Arabian plate, a region characterized by seismic activity, along complex divergent and convergent plate boundaries. In order to understand these plate boundaries it is essential to optimize the design of the broadband seismic station network to accurately locate earthquakes. In my study, I apply an optimization method to design the broadband station distribution in Saudi Arabia. This method is based on so called D-optimal planning criterion that optimizes the station distribution for locating the hypocenters of earthquakes. Two additional adjustments were implemented: to preferentially acquire direct and refracted wave, and to account for geometric spreading of seismic waves (and thus increases the signal to noise ratio). The method developed in this study for optimizing the geographical location of broadband stations uses the probability of earthquake occurrence and a 1-D velocity model of the region, and minimizes the ellipsoid volume of the earthquake location errors. The algorithm was applied to the current seismic network, operated by the Saudi Geologic Survey (SGS). Based on the results, I am able to make recommendations on, how to expand the existing network. Furthermore, I quantify the efficiency of our method by computing the standard error of epicenter and depth before and after adding the proposed stations.

  5. Saudi English-Major Undergraduates' Academic Writing Problems: A Taif University Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khairy, Mohamed Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a) the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b) Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c) the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and…

  6. The New Saudi Educational Renaissance: In between the "Capacity to Aspire" and the "Capacity to Remember"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia investments in higher education have increased exponentially in recent years, and the New Saudi Educational Renaissance is attracting the attention of international academia. The purpose of this study is to draw on Saudi sources, with the aim of allowing Saudi voices to introduce their strategies for the design of a…

  7. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  8. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  9. Learning English: Experiences and Needs of Saudi Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Susan; Obeidat, Fayiz

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, Saudi engineering students talk openly of their experiences learning English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and as university students in the United States (US). These students reported that they learned only the basics of vocabulary and grammar in KSA. Consequently, they came to the US with few English skills. In…

  10. Blended Learning in Saudi Universities: Challenges and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

    2010-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…

  11. Willingness to Communicate in English among Saudi Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjoman, Mona Obaid Alrahman Ashik

    2016-01-01

    Since the English Language teaching system differs from public schools to private ones, it is presumed that this would have a great impact of students' willingness to communicate in English in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of private and public school education on WTC in English among Saudi Female…

  12. Kas Saudi Araabia naftatulu leiab tee Rootsi pangandusturule? / Romet Enok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Enok, Romet

    2008-01-01

    Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma

  13. The dangers of incense burning: COPD in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kassimi FA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.

  14. Measuring the Climate of Training in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Richard G.

    1981-01-01

    One practitioner's experience in setting up on-the-job training in Saudi Arabia is described, including training materials, cultural environment, and the Saudi work ethic. In a related article, off-duty life for Americans is discussed, including dress for women and men, cultural aspects, and entertainment. (CT)

  15. Saudi production capacity climbing to 10 million b/d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia this year is completing its expansion of production capacity and developing recent discoveries to enhance export flexibility. The 3 million b/d capacity expansion to 10 million b/d, announced in 1989, is on target for completion by year end 1994. Most of the effort involves restoration of mothballed production equipment and installation of several gas-oil separation plants (GOSPs) in existing fields. But Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) also this year will start up production of extra-light oil from a new field in the central part of the kingdom. Start-up of Hawtah area production demonstrates success of an oil search Aramco began after receiving exclusive exploration rights to nearly all of Saudi Arabia's prospective area in 1986. From new fields and traditional producing areas, therefore, Saudi Arabia has the potential to expand production capacity beyond 10 million b/d. The paper describes the development of the extra capacity

  16. Introducing SMART Table Technology in Saudi Arabia Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafar Almalki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Education remains one of the most important economic development indicators in Saudi Arabia. This is evident in the continuous priority of the development and enhancement of education. The application of technology is crucial to the growth and improvement of the educational system in Saudi Arabia. Introducing SMART Table technology in the Saudi Arabian education system is argued in this paper as being able to assist teachers and students in the process of accommodating both technological changes and new knowledge. SMART Tables also can enhance the level of flexibility in the educational system, thus improving the quality of education within a modern Saudi Arabia. It is crucial to integrate technology effectively and efficiently within the educational system to improve the quality of student outcomes. This study will consider the potential benefits and recommendations associated with the adoption of SMART Tables in Saudi Arabian education system.

  17. 76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh... (MAS) units are organizing an Executive-Led Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi... generation. The trade mission will target products, technologies and services in the clean energy...

  18. Motivation for domestic tourism : a case study of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogari, Naima Bakor

    2002-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia there is a growing amount of leisure time and a high percentage of disposable income is being spent on various forms of tourism; such trends have increased the number of Saudis travelling to tourist destinations, internationally or domestically. Spending the annual holiday away from Saudi is normal for most Saudi families and it is estimated that the total expenditure on domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia is only 16.7% of total tourism expenditure. International e...

  19. Perceptions of the Educational Contract among Saudi Residents and Western Staff Physicians in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajeh, Saad

    1995-01-01

    A 2-year study investigated the attitudes of 63 Saudi medical residents and their 74 Western clinical teachers concerning the teacher-student relationship. Conflicts in perceptions in the first year were found to be largely resolved in the second year, possibly because of the study itself. (MSE)

  20. Attitudes and practices of complementary and alternative medicine among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Abahussain, Nada A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females) aged 15-19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatment, with significant differences between genders, except in the use of dietary supplements, black cumin, and acupuncture therapies. Females were more likely to use CAM for treating abdominal pains, cold and flu, and cough than males (P < 0.000). Family members and friends (67.7%) were the main source of CAM usage, followed by television (10%), and Internet (8%). Religious and medicinal herb healers were the CAM healers most commonly visited by adolescents. Nearly 21-43% of adolescents had positive attitudes toward CAM, with some significant differences between males and females. It can be concluded that CAM is widely used by Saudi adolescents, but caution should be exercised for the safe usage of some CAM treatments. CAM should not be ignored; however there is an urgent need to establish regulations for CAM usage. PMID:25560362

  1. DEVELOPING EFL TEACHING AND LEARNING PRACTICES IN SAUDI COLLEGES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ahmed Liton

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Ministry of education is highly concerned with the pursuit of excellence in effective EFL teaching-learning in the arena of education but it experiences tardy progress especially in college level. This is a common scenario in almost every stage of learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores the new flights and avenues of developing EFL teaching-learning aspect in the intermediate level. The author of this study valorised to investigate the possible corridors in the realm of language learning motivation with a view to developing and incorporating EFL teaching-learning affairs and attempts to diagnose the predicaments of EFL learning in Saudi colleges through survey questionnaires for both teachers and students (see Appendix-1&2 and observation. The data of this research were collected through questionnaires from a total of 380 students and 94 teachers at renowned institutions of all the regions of the Kingdom. Finally, this paper offers some useful and effective recommendations to speed up better EFL learning outcomes based on the results of statistical data analyses and observation of the present research survey.

  2. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Schistosomiasis and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrous, Ghazwan

    2014-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with the parasite Schistosoma, which is a flat-worm or fluke. The dominant species are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis is the third most common parasitic disease in the world after malaria and amoebiasis. It is endemic in more than 70 countries affecting about 200 million people worldwide, of whom 80% are in sub-Saharan Africa. There are pockets of infection in north-eastern Brazil, near the Yangtze River in China, and some pockets in south East Asia. In the East Mediterranean regions, the Schistosoma have been reported in Iraq and Egypt as well as in Sudan. The latter has the highest infection rate nowadays, particularly in the Al Jazeera area, due to the poor Schistosoma control program. In the Arabian peninsula, schistosomiasis has been reported in southwest part of Saudi Arabia, mainly in the Asir province and Jizan province, which lay in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia and directly north of the border with Yemen. The efforts to control schistosomiasis have been very successful in Saudi Arabia due to the irrigation system control. However, the infection is prone in Yemen, where the schistosomiasis control is much less strict. Thus as a result, the problem still exists due to transmigration of the populations from both countries. As a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), schistosomiasis is still under diagnosed and undertreated. This article with give a highlight about the pathophysiology of the disease and both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25076995

  3. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Schistosomiasis and pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazwan Butrous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with the parasite Schistosoma, which is a flat-worm or fluke. The dominant species are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis is the third most common parasitic disease in the world after malaria and amoebiasis. It is endemic in more than 70 countries affecting about 200 million people worldwide, of whom 80% are in sub-Saharan Africa. There are pockets of infection in north-eastern Brazil, near the Yangtze River in China, and some pockets in south East Asia. In the East Mediterranean regions, the Schistosoma have been reported in Iraq and Egypt as well as in Sudan. The latter has the highest infection rate nowadays, particularly in the Al Jazeera area, due to the poor Schistosoma control program. In the Arabian peninsula, schistosomiasis has been reported in southwest part of Saudi Arabia, mainly in the Asir province and Jizan province, which lay in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia and directly north of the border with Yemen. The efforts to control schistosomiasis have been very successful in Saudi Arabia due to the irrigation system control. However, the infection is prone in Yemen, where the schistosomiasis control is much less strict. Thus as a result, the problem still exists due to transmigration of the populations from both countries. As a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, schistosomiasis is still under diagnosed and undertreated. This article with give a highlight about the pathophysiology of the disease and both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  4. Current Arabian Plate Motion From Campaign GPS Measurements in Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuslmani, B.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Moore, T.

    2007-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains, and the Farasan Islands, all in south-western Saudi Arabia, have been established, for which the past and future campaign GPS measurements will provide valuable data for investigations of crustal deformations close to the plate boundaries between the Nubia, Somalian and Arabian plates. In this presentation we will show results in the form of velocity field and plate motion estimates based on data from at least three campaigns occupying the initial 32 GDMS GPS network stations, but also from a number of IGS stations in the region. Our reference frame is aligned to ITRF2005 and uses approximately 40 IGS reference frame stations located on all major tectonic plates, e.g. Nubia and Somalia, surrounding the Arabian plate. Furthermore, we apply absolute satellite and receiver antenna phase center models together with newly available GPS products from a recent global re-processing effort.

  5. A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2012-07-15

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially

  6. Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim K Alhowaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380 than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our

  7. Economic development and diabetes prevalence in MENAcountries: Egypt and Saudi Arabia comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif Shalaby; Bauer E Sumpio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions globally,exhibiting the most striking increase in third worldcountries with emerging economies. This phenomena isparticularly evident in the Middle East and North Africa(MENA) region, which has the highest prevalence ofdiabetes in adults. The most concerning indirect costof diabetes is the missed work by the adult populationcoupled with the economic burden of loss of productivity.The major drivers of this epidemic are the demographicchanges with increased life expectancy and lifestylechanges due to rapid urbanization and industrialization.Our focus is to compare MENA region countries,particularly Egypt and Saudi Arabia, in terms of theireconomic development, labor force diversity and theprevalence of diabetes.

  8. Significance of communication sharing between the Saudi universities using Long Term Evaluation Technology: Evaluation proposal based on Jazan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kuppuswamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evaluation, is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for data transaction terminal and mobile technology. LTE is to provide an extremely high performance radio-access technology that offers full vehicular speed mobility and that can readily coexist with High Speed Packet Access and earlier networks. LTE technology commonly agreed upon, both by industry and academia, and hence conceived to be an unwritten standard. Saudi Government giving more importance for promoting the Educational standards. Every year, Saudi government spending millions of money for the growth of Educational sector. Almost all the Saudi Universities are interconnecting with various community colleges on Region based. This paper first discusses the suitability of LTE and related technologies for interconnecting colleges for communication service provisioning. Next, it discuss the argument that the most plausible future scenarios to deliver the increasingly data-intensive applications demanded by the colleges. We are trying to obtain best evaluation benefits of interconnecting colleges under Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  9. Wind power potential of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ph.

    1985-01-01

    Wind data for 20 locations in Saudi Arabia have been analysed. Monthly and annual mean wind speeds and wind powers have been determined. The latter range from 2.5 to 4.4 m s/sup -1/, and from 21.8 to 77.7 W m/sup -2/, respectively. Specific outputs from two hypothetical aerogenerators with rated wind speeds of 5 and 7 m s/sup -1/ have been estimated. Examples of monthly mean wind speed and wind power temporal variations are given. Results suggest that wind power would be more profitably used for local small-scale applications. (author).

  10. Outcome of stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating

  11. Histiocytosis-X in Saudi children.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Mulhim I; Sabbah R; al-Akkad S

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 21 Saudi children with Histiocytosis-X were reviewed. 13 were males, 8 were females, with a ratio of 1.62:1. Five had unifocal disease while 16 were with multifocal disease. Bone involvement was seen in 19 patients (90.4%), and three patients had organ dysfunction. One patient had family history of Histiocytosis-X. Follow-up was from 1-10 years (Median 3 years). Three patients died, three had recurrences and eight patients had various disabilities (38%...

  12. Colour vision screening among Saudi Arabian children

    OpenAIRE

    O. Matthew Oriowo; Abdullah Z. Alotaibi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of congenital red-green colour vision defects among Saudi Arabian male and female children.Methods: The study involved 1638 elementary and high school participants (838 males, and 800 females), who were randomly selected and screened for red-green colour vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates) test. Inclusion criteria were Snellen VA 20/20 or better and absence of known ocular pathologies.Among the females, 0.75% of the 800 participa...

  13. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  14. Study of Aerosols’ Characteristics and Dynamics over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Using a Multisensor Approach Combined with Ground Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Farahat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers various aspects of the aerosol distribution and characteristics, namely, optical depth climatology, absorption characteristics, and their microphysical properties over four regions in Saudi Arabia using satellite and ground observations including MODIS/Terra and Aqua, OMI, MISR/Terra, AERONET, and CALIPSO for the period April 2003–January 2013. The study includes cities in the North Western, Western, Eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia and in the Rub al Khali desert or Empty Quarter. Satellite and ground observations showed that the dust season extends from April to August with prominent peaks yet with high anthropogenic contribution late summer and early fall. Analysis shows an increase in the aerosol concentration during March 2009 which could be attributed to a major dust storm during that time. Comparing the AOD time series over regions 1–3 and region 4 (desert we observe monthly and annual variability with no recurrence pattern over the years. The Aqua Deep Blue AOD550 data shows a single peak pattern that occurs over region 4 during the spring season known for its frequent dust events. OMI data shed the light on the presence of higher air pollution levels over region 3, representing the oil rich eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Attitudes of Saudi mothers towards breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshebly, Mashael; Sobaih, Badr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the practice and attitudes of Saudi mothers towards breastfeeding. A cross-sectional survey done on a total of 517 Saudi mothers using a questionnaire inquiring about their demographic data, breastfeeding practice in the first 6 months after delivery and longer, different reasons for stopping breastfeeding. Furthermore, their impression on the relation between breastfeeding and breast cancer as well as prevention of infant's allergic and infectious diseases. Only 37.5% of the mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. 31.9% of the mothers continued breastfeeding until 9-12 months, and only 23% continued until 18-24 months. Insufficient breast milk was the commonest reason for stopping breastfeeding (25.9%). The vast majority of the mothers (95.2%) believe that breast milk can prevent allergy and infection to their infants, and 88.4% agreed that breastfeeding may decrease the risk of breast cancer. 30% of mothers with higher income and higher socio-economic class tend to have less compliance with breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months lag far behind the WHO recommendation. There is a major problem with adequacy of breast milk production in the majority of mothers in this study which might indicate the need for proper awareness and teaching programs regarding breastfeeding in our community. PMID:27651551

  16. Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peter R.; Stewart, Ian C. F.

    1995-05-01

    A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield and are interpreted as delineating extensions of shield-type rocks down-dip beneath Phanerozoic cover. These rocks constitute terranes making up part of a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt that underlies Northeast Africa and western Arabia and it is proposed that their magnetically indicated easternmost extent marks the concealed eastern edge of the orogenic belt in central Arabia. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector, not entirely accounted for as an effect of deep burial, may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that, according to some tectonic models of the region, collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion.

  17. Current care services provided for patients with COPD in the Eastern province in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsubaiei ME

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed E Alsubaiei,1,2 Paul A Cafarella,1,2 Peter A Frith,1,2 R Doug McEvoy,2,3 Tanja W Effing1,2 1Repatriation General Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Flinders University, School of Medicine, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Repatriation General Hospital, Sleep and Respiratory Medicine, Southern Adelaide Local Health Network, Daw Park, SA, Australia Background: COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence rate of COPD in the general Saudi population is estimated to be 2.4% and 14.2% among smokers. Not much is known about current health care services for patients with COPD in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to determine the current care services for patients with COPD provided by government hospitals in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Directors of the Department of Internal Medicine from all 22 general government hospitals that are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health or the Ministry of Higher Education in this region were asked to participate. Data were collected using a questionnaire.Results: The study results indicated that there are limited hospital facilities for patients with COPD: no respiratory departments in any of the included hospitals, no spirometry in 77.3% of the hospitals, no intensive care units in 63.7% of the hospitals, and no pulmonary rehabilitation program in any of the hospitals. Among the included 22 hospitals, 24 respiratory physicians, 29 respiratory therapists, and three physiotherapists were involved in COPD care.Conclusion: In conclusion, current care services provided by government hospitals in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia for patients with COPD do not meet international recommendations for COPD management. Increased awareness, knowledge, and implementation of COPD guidelines by health care providers will most probably

  18. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

  19. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Khalid

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

  20. Symptomatic gallstones: A disease of young Saudi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murshid Khalid

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study performed to identify the risk factors for gallstones in Saudis, taking the patient population of King Khalid University Hospital as a sample. Only Saudis with symptomatic gallstones were studied, the parameters being age, sex, weight, body mass index, fertility, age at menarche and age at marriage. The results showed that sex, weight, body mass index and fertility all appeared to be important factors in the development of gallstones and that the condition affects more Saudi females and at a younger age than reported in the literature, probably due to overweight and factors related to reproductivity. We conclude that gallstones are common in Saudi women and affect them at a younger age than western women, weight and fertility appear to be important risk factors.

  1. Puberty Onset Among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Alwan, Ibrahim; Felimban, Naila; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Al Mutair, Angham; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamimi, Waleed

    2010-01-01

    Background: The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims: The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods: Cross-sectional study among male school chi...

  2. Validity of moyers mixed dentition analysis for Saudi population

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.; Nasser D. Alqahtani; Almoammar, Khalid; Al-Jewair, Thikriat; Salamah, Fahad Bin; Alswilem, Mohamme; Sahar F. Albarakati

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the applicability of Moyers probability tables and to formulate more accurate mixed dentition prediction tables in the Saudi population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Dentistry, Kind Saud University, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected from 410 (203 males and 207 females) orthodontic study models, which had erupted mandibular permanent incisors, maxillary, mandibular canines and premolars. The mesiodistal widths were measured using ...

  3. Saudi Arabia; Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    KEY ISSUES Context. Saudi Arabia’s economy has grown very strongly in recent years, benefitting from high oil prices and output, strong private sector activity, and government spending. It has played a systemic and stabilizing role in the global oil market. The economy has not been affected by the recent global financial market volatility. The Saudi population is young, growing, and increasingly well educated. Outlook and risks. The near term economic outlook is positive. Oil production is ...

  4. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud; Muhammad Rahatullah Khan (Rahatullah, M, K.,)

    2013-01-01

    Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Sau...

  5. ISLAMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE STUDY OF SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    RASEM N. KAYED; M Kabir Hassan

    2010-01-01

    As this paper examines the relationship between Islamic values and entrepreneurial activity, it seeks to establish whether these values can be more effectively tapped into to raise the profile of Islamic form of entrepreneurship. A written, self-administered questionnaire among a random sample of Saudi entrepreneurs in the city of Riyadh was employed to generate descriptive data to assess the views and attitudes of Saudi entrepreneurs toward both conventional and Islamic forms of entrepreneur...

  6. Counter-Terrorism in Saudi Arabia: Narratives, Practices and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    AlMaawi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Since 9/11, both in the Middle East and worldwide, the academic, political and religious focus on extreme radicalisation has intensified. The attacks carried out in Riyadh, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, by Al-Qaeda in 2003, motivated a succession of bombings within and outside of the Kingdom. These events have led to a plethora of general and specific studies to understand the phenomenon of extremism. This thesis investigates radicalisation in Saudi Arabia since 2001, focus...

  7. Molecular Characterization of Some Popular Fish Species in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman M. Sabry; Hassan, Mohamed M.; Mohamed, Alaa A.

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to molecularly characterize some popular Saudi fish species. Seven popular Saudi fish species namely, Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus), Mousa (Solea solea), Hamor (Greasy grouper), Shour (Lethrinus lentjan), Dennis (Caranxsex fasciatus), Harid (Scarus arabicus) and Black surgeon (Acanthurus gahhm) were characterized using six RAPD and three ISSR as well as Rep-PCR markers. These markers produced 187 distinct bands 89.4% were considered as polymorphic bands and 10.6% were co...

  8. Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque of healthy Saudis

    OpenAIRE

    Contractor Qais; Tahir Mohammed; Naseem Shahzad; Ahmad Shamweel

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque of healthy Saudis and its relation to dental care. One hundred randomly selected healthy Saudis attending the dental clinic were assessed for oral hygiene and periodontal disease by dental examination. Information about the use of toothpaste, chewing stick, smoking and dentures was obtained. Samples of dental plaque were collected after scoring it according to the plaque index. Presence of H. ...

  9. Carbonic Anhydrase II Deficiency in a Saudi Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Alhuzaim, Omar N; Almohareb, Ohoud M; Safiya M. Sherbeeni

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbonic anhydrase (CA) II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the CA II gene that leads to osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis (RTA), and cerebral calcification. Our aim is to present a patient with the classic triad of CA II deficiency syndrome to enhance the awareness about this rare syndrome. METHODS We describe the clinical and radiological findings of a Saudi woman patient with CA II deficiency syndrome. RESULTS A Saudi woman in her 20s pr...

  10. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaffi A Shaik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones....

  11. WATER IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KKhodran H. Al-Zahrani and M. B. Baig

    2011-01-01

    Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources affecting the Saudi development plans. The acute shortage of fresh water resources poses a major challenge in Saudi Arabia. Demand for fresh water is on the rise as sufficient water is no longer available to meet daily needs. Some 95% of water comes from aquifers. Desalination plants and waste water reclamation projects provide about 4% and 1% water respectively. About 30% of the water for household consumption comes from desalinating p...

  12. Seroprevalence of erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Johargy, Ayman K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erythrovirus B19 infection is associated with clinical symptoms that range from mild to severe. The common clinical presentation of B19 virus (B19V) infection is erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, aplastic crisis, and fetal infection. Infection in seronegative pregnant women can lead to fetal hydrops. Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Me...

  13. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Baghli, Nadira A.; Al-Ghamdi, Aqeel J.; Khalid A Al-Turki; Ahmad G El-Zubaier; Al-Mostafa, Bader A.; Fadel A Al-Baghli; Al-Ameer, Mahmood M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect d...

  14. Changing patterns of hepatitis A prevalence within the Saudi population over the last 18 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faleh AI Faleh; Suliman AI Shehri; Saleh AI Ansari; Mohammed AI Jeffri; Yaqoub AI Mazrou; Ahmad Shaffi; Ayman A Abdo

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis A (HAV) amongst Saudi children and compare it with previously reported prevalence data from the same population.METHODS:A total of 1357 students were randomly selected between the ages of 16 and 18 years (689 males and 668 females) from three different regions of Saudi Arabia (Madinah,Al-Qaseem,and Aseer) and tested for anti-HAV-IgG.RESULTS:The overall prevalence of anti-HAV-IgG among the study population was 18.6%.There was no difference between males and females but there was a significant difference in the seroprevalence (P=0.0001) between the three different regions,with Madinah region showing the highest prevalence (27.4%).When classified according to socioeconomic status,lower class students had a prevalence of 36.6%,lower middle class 16.6%,upper middle class 9.6%,and upper class 5.9% (P=0.0001).Comparing the current study results with those of previous studies in 1989 and 1997 involving the same population,there was a marked reduction in the overall prevalence of HAV from 52% in 1989,to 25% in 1997,to 18.6% in 2008 (P<0.0001).CONCLUSION:Over the last 18 years,there has been a marked decline in the prevalence of HAV in Saudi children and adolescents.The current low prevalence rates call for strict adherence to vaccination policies in high-risk patients and raises the question of a universal HAV vaccination program.

  15. The Saudi electricity sector: pressing issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With 266 billion barrels of proved oil reserves (16% of world total), Saudi Arabia holds the world's largest (conventional) crude oil reserves, was the largest exporter of total petroleum liquids in 2013, and the second largest petroleum liquids producer behind the United States. The Kingdom has the lion share of the global oil production spare capacity, which proved to be crucial for the oil market stability on many occasions in the past, allowing Saudi Arabia to replace missing barrels from any other oil producer in the world. In the same manner, Saudi Arabia's decision last November not to step-in and reverse the oil price decline thus, abandoning its historical role as a 'swing producer,' revived the old debate on the use of oil as a 'political weapon' on the international energy scene. In addition to its well-known predominant role in the oil markets and in the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), several other features make the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a major player in the world economy and global geopolitics. - Although the Kingdom does not export nor import natural gas, Saudi Arabia is embodied with the 5. natural gas proved reserves (8.2 trillion cubic meters (tcm), 4.4% of world natural gas proved reserves), behind Russia, Iran, Qatar and United States. With a production of 103 billion cubic meters (bcm), Saudi Arabia is also a gas producer solely for its domestic demand. - Because the Kingdom relies heavily on hydrocarbons for its present and future prosperity, the country is very active in climate change negotiations, as mitigation measures resulting from such negotiations will impact global oil demand. In the international talks on climate change, Saudi Arabia has often been calling for the need to address the vulnerabilities of the economies dependent on a single resource. - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is member of G20 Group, putting up-front oil producers' interests in a forum which accounts for 85

  16. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi women attending the infertility clinic in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfarraj, Dunia A.; Ali M. Somily; Alssum, Rasheed M.; Abotalib, Zeinab M.; El-Sayed, Amal A.; Al-Mandeel, Hazim H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection among Saudi women, its clinical presentation, and its association to infertility. Methods: This study was conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at King Khalid University Hospital and King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Female patients aged between 19 and 46 years old with infertility problems seen at both hospitals were recruited to join the study. A separate gro...

  17. Nutritional Status among a Sample of Saudi College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar M. El-Qudah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional habits and health behaviors have been a major concern for public health, especially among vulnerable groups such as teenage and college students. This study aims to assess nutritional status of a sample of Saudi college students and their dietary behaviors. A multi-stage sample was obtained from a private college in the north-western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Descriptive statistics was used to assess the frequency of some nutritional habits and their correlation to Body Mass Index (BMI. The results show that overweight and obese subjects represented 22.6 and 11.6% of the students respectively, compared to 13.7% for underweight subjects. Twenty five percent of male and 20.3% of female students were overweight while 16.7% of male and 6.7% of female students were obese. There was a statistical significant difference between males and females in relation to the mean weight and height (p<0.001 and BMI (p<0.05. Approximately 15.7% of the subjects skip their breakfast daily. Both males (50% and females (45.9% used to eat their meals irregularly. More than 58% of the students stated that they consume fast foods, the proportion of females was more (64.9% than the males (51.4% and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. A relatively small percentage (21.2% of students reported not eating burgers and a majority of respondents 61% preferred regular size burgers. However, the tendency to eat large size burgers was more pronounced among males than females (p<0.05. A regular portion size of potato chips was preferred by 61% of the students, among them 24.3% were females and 11.1% were males (p<0.01. There was a wide range of preferences for consumption of different foods among participants. Females showed a higher rate in the consumption of sweets and chocolates on daily basis (28.4 and 29.7%, respectively compared to males (18.1 and 16.6%, respectively (p<0.05. Males were more prone to consume red meat (p<0.05 and

  18. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Husson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period  is scarce. This article also  is concerned with describing the evolution  of certain striking  aspects of the close  relation  between  the pilgrimage to Mecca  and Indonesian migrants  looking  for work.  We need to consider  the methods  of hiring  labor,  the networks  involved  in recruiting it, the organization  of travel,  as well as the increasing indebtedness  of the migrants  through  intermediaries  who, more and more professionally, arrange  these attempts  to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire  for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767

  19. Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.

  20. Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

  1. Osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)

  2. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  3. Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-Ghaith, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastes...

  4. Female employment and family commitment in Saudi Arabia : a case study of Riyadh City

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khateeb, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    This study argues that ideological rather than material constraints are the major obstacles that limit full female participation in the Saudi Arabian labour force and hinder Saudi working women from combining their double roles as mothers and paid workers. As a developing country, Saudi Arabia is facing multiple problems. One of these challenges is the great shortage of human resources. In 1984/85, 59.8 per cent of the labour force in Saudi society was foreign. Female ...

  5. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  6. A Narrative Inquiry into Academic Experiences of Female Saudi Graduate Students at a Comprehensive Doctoral University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandekian, Robyn E.; Weddington, Michael; Birnbaum, Matthew; Keen, J. Katée

    2015-01-01

    Saudi student enrollment in U.S. colleges and universities has nearly tripled since 2009-2010, in large part due to the King Abdullah Scholarship Program. The representation of Saudi females is also increasing due to the loosening of Saudi Arabia's long-standing restrictions on women's travel and acceptable fields of study and careers. This…

  7. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Boshra

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  8. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats. PMID:26462199

  9. The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hannan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma aestuans (Linnaeus and X. (Ctenoxylocopa sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central Saudi Arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. Females and males of both species are figured and biological notes provided for X. sulcatipes. Notes on the nesting biology and ecology of X. sulcatipes are appended. As in studies for this species from elsewhere, nests were found in dried stems of Calotropis procera (Aiton (Asclepiadaceae and Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae.

  10. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    Model. The empirical models then are applied to sets of data from 1980 to 2002 for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Venezuela and Norway. The rationale of including other oil-exporting countries is to distinguish whether the shocks are country-specific, regional-specific, or global. Two sets of shocks are considered: international shocks and domestic shocks. Three types of international shocks are chosen: commodity-price (oil price) shock, international financial (interest rate) shock, and international real (output) shock. In addition, five domestic shocks which are non-oil output shock, oil production shock, price level shock, monetary shock, and exchange rate shock. The findings reached in the study demonstrate that the international shocks are responsible for a high proportion of fluctuations in the economic activity in Saudi Arabia. Most importantly, the international financial shocks represented by the US interest rate and oil price shocks are the major sources of fluctuations in the Saudi Arabian economy. Domestically, the economy is mostly affected by the oil production and the non-oil output shocks for Saudi Arabia. These results emphasize that the Saudi Arabia's role in the international oil market and its fixed exchange rate regime have significant implications on the domestic economy. Thus, special considerations should be placed on designing the appropriate policies to lessen the dependency on the oil sector and strengthen the role of private sector to diversify the economic base, and provide an independent sound monetary policy to steer the economy from the fluctuations in the global economy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.

  12. Seroprevalence of erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman K Johargy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Erythrovirus B19 infection is associated with clinical symptoms that range from mild to severe. The common clinical presentation of B19 virus (B19V infection is erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, aplastic crisis, and fetal infection. Infection in seronegative pregnant women can lead to fetal hydrops. Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG to erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 364 blood (serum samples were tested for erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibody in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Results: Erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibodies were detected in 182/364 (50% of Saudi pregnant women of different age groups. Conclusion: This study indicated that B19V is clearly circulating in the community in a way that is similar to what is found in most nontemperate countries.

  13. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.

    2016-04-08

    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  14. Current situation and the development of the dairy industry in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaisi, Othman; Ndambi, O Assah; Uddin, Mohammad Mohi; Hemme, Torsten

    2010-08-01

    The development of the dairy industry plays an important role in the economy of Middle Eastern countries. Judged by its growth rate, the dairy industry is viewed as one of the most progressive food industries in the Middle East. During the early 1970s, countries established executive programs to promote dairy farming; the major objective was to attain self-sufficiency in milk production. A massive investment was set up for importing top class cattle, complying with top industry operating standards, and a simultaneous introduction of the latest technology in processing, packaging, and distributing. Milk production has grown tremendously at rates of 6.6% and 4.9% in Syria and Saudi Arabia, respectively, between 2002 and 2007, which resulted in these nations being almost self-sufficient. Regarding Jordan, milk production has not yet met this target. An excessive growth in the dairy industry is quite noticeable in this region with an expanding capacity for exports. The aim of this study is to show the most recent trends and future prospects of the dairy industries in Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan. It also attempts to investigate the drivers for the development of milk production, consumption, and trade in the region. PMID:20352329

  15. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Zahran, Hani; Mai, P. Martin

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  16. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng

    2016-05-11

    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  17. Health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Al-Manaa, Hamad A.; Khoja, Tawfik A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Aburisheh, Khaled H.; Youssef, Amira M.; Alotaibi, Metib S.; Al-Gamdi, Ali A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and diabetes health care expenditure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was part of a nationwide, household, population based cross-sectional survey conducted at the University Diabetes Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2007 and December 2009 covering 13 administrative regions of the Kingdom. Using patients’ interview questionnaires, health care services data were collected by trained staff. Results: A total of 5,983 diabetic patients were chosen to assess health care services and expenditure. Approximately 92.2% of health services were governmental and the remaining 7.8% were in private services. The mean annual number of visits to physicians was 6.5±3.9 and laboratories was 5.1±3.9. Diabetic patients required one admission every 3 years with a mean admission duration of 13.3±28.3 days. General practitioners managed 85.9% of diabetic cases alone, or shared with internists and/or endocrinologists. Health care expenditure was governmental in 90% of cases, while it was personal in 7.7% or based on insurance payment in 2.3%. Conclusion: Health services and its expenditure provided to diabetic citizens in Saudi Arabia are mainly governmental. Empowerment of the role of both the private sector and health insurance system is badly needed, aside from implementing proper management guidelines to deliver good services at different levels. PMID:26446334

  18. Heterogeneity and diversity of ABO and Rh blood group genes in select Saudi Arabian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Malik, S

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of ABO and Rh blood group genes in the Saudi Arabian population, we assembled the phenotypic data of approximately 66,000 subjects from ten representative Saudi populations: Al-Khobar, Riyadh, Tabuk/Madina Al-Munawaara, Jeddah, Abha, South region, Sakaka, Domah, Al-Qurayat, and Sweer. The frequencies of p[A], q[B], and r[O] alleles at the ABO locus were observed to be 0.1688, 0.1242, and 0.7070, respectively, and the frequency of the D allele at the Rh locus was 0.7138. The heterozygosities at the ABO and Rh loci were 0.4563 and 0.4086, respectively, while the combined heterozygosity was 0.4324. Homogeneity tests revealed the population of Abha to be the most heterogeneous while that of Tabuk/Madina was found to be the least heterogeneous. Homogeneity was higher among the Northern populations while Southern populations demonstrated subdivisions and stratification. Gene diversity analyses yielded a total heterozygosity value of 0.4449. The coefficient of gene differentiation was 0.0090. Nei's genetic distance analyses showed that there was close affinity between the populations of Al-Khobar and Riyadh. The largest differences were observed between the populations of Sakaka and Domah. Furthermore, negative correlations were found between p[A] and r[O] alleles, and between q[B] and r[O] alleles at the ABO locus. Clinal analyses revealed that the r[O] allele showed an increasing trend from North-East to South-West, and conversely the q[B] allele exhibited a decreasing trend at these coordinates. These analyses present interesting aspects of the blood group allele distribution across the geography of Saudi Arabia. PMID:26214466

  19. Prevalence of Beta-Thalassemia in premarital screening in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Al-Hassa area is one of the regions in Saudi Arabia where hemoglobinopathies are prevalent. The Saudi Ministry of Health designed a protocol for premarital testing after the royal decree in December 2003. The protocol was implemented in a February 2004 order. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait among subjects coming for premarital screening in the Al-Hassa area. From February 2004 to November 2004, healthy subjects coming to six marriages consultation centers in the Al-Hassa area underwent routine mandatory tests. Subjects were considered to have beta-thalassemia trait if they had a mean corpuscular volume (MCV), 80 fL and/or a mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 3.2%. Venous blood was taken into ETDA tube and the complete blood count and red blood cell indices were measured by a Coulter automated cell counter on the same day of hemoglobin collection. Electrophoresis was done on cellulose acetate. All Saudi participants (n=8918), including 4218 (47.3%) males and 4700 (52.7%) females were screened. The prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait with high hemoglobin A2 and microcytic hypochromic anemia was 3.4% (307/8918). In countries with a high prelevance of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program is helpful for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages. With a 3.4% prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait in premarital couples, future comprehensive programs are needed to know the actual prevalence of beta-thalassemia in Al-Hassa. (author)

  20. Motivations and future practice plans of orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamlan, Nasir; Al-Ruwaithi, Moatazbellah M.; Al-Shraim, Nasir; El-Metwaaly, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to explore the criteria used by graduate students while selecting a career as orthodontists and their future aspirations. Materials and Methods: A list of Saudi Board of Orthodontics (SB-Ortho) residents was obtained from the Central and Western regions of the Kingdom and all orthodontic residents (excluding the 1st year residents) were invited to participate in this survey. Permission to contact the orthodontic residents was obtained from the respective program directors. The final study sample composed of 36 orthodontic residents. Results: About 39% of residents chose orthodontic specialty after graduation, nearly 33% selected the career during the undergraduate education while the rest chose the specialty at other stages. Approximately, 67% of the residents chose orthodontic specialty because it is intellectual challenging. Around 25% of residents choose orthodontic to improve their earning and 39% join orthodontic for job prestige. Around 50% of orthodontic Saudi residents planned to use self-ligating brackets; 63.9% planned to use invisalign; 86.1% plan to use temporary anchorage devices. About 72% of residents plan to use a cone-beam computerized tomography; 89% plan to use a digital imaging program; 39% plan to use indirect bonding; and 28% plan to use lingual orthodontics. More than half of the residents showed interest to participate in the research and about a quarter of them were willing to work in small cities. Conclusions: Most of the orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia take up this specialty as they felt that it was intellectually challenging. The SB-Ortho program adequately prepares the residents in all the modern aspects of the specialty. PMID:24987645

  1. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.

  2. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168

  3. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

  4. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  5. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  6. Growth and Maturation of Plectropomus spp. in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DesRosiers, Noah

    2011-05-01

    Two species of plectropomid grouper (Plectropomus areolatus and P. pessuliferus) are found in the Red Sea. In Saudi Arabia these are the most valuable fishes by weight, averaging wholesale prices around US $15 per kilogram (personal observation). Over the past two decades, the number of fishing vessels in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea has tripled. Despite this increase in fishing effort Saudi Arabia has not implemented any marine resource management for Red Sea fisheries. Little biological data are currently available to inform managers. The research presented here addresses knowledge gaps on the growth pattern, longevity and sexual ontogeny of Plectropomus spp. in the Red Sea. Collections of each species were established by purchasing landed individuals from fishermen and fish markets distributed evenly between three latitudinal regions around the country. The total length of each fish was measured to the nearest millimeter. Age was estimated by enumerating annual bands visualized in transverse sections of sagittal otoliths. Sexual stage was determined via histological examination of gonadal tissue. Plots of total length versus age were fitted with reparameterized von Bertalanffy growth functions constrained to a size-at-settlement estimate of 20 mm. P. pessuliferus achieved a larger size (maximum 960 mm) and an older age (maximum 19 years) than P. areolatus (maximum size 570 mm, maximum age 9 years). While no regional patterns were found for P. pesuliferus, likelihood ratio tests revealed regional differences in growth pattern for P. areolatus, finding an increasing mean age, increasing mean length, and decreasing growth rate with decreasing latitude. In addition, males of P. areolatus were more abundant in the Southern region. These findings contradict existing theories about the effects of latitudinal temperature gradients on life history. It is hypothesized that the broader continental shelf in the Southern region may be providing a haven for these species in the

  7. Cardiac diseases as a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to ascertain the role of cardiac diseases as a risk factor for stroke in a cohort of Saudi children who were evaluated in a retrospective and prospective study. Children with cardiac diseases were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who presented with stroke. They were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards or evaluated at the Outpatient Clinics of the Division of Pediatric Neurology (DPN), and the Division of Pediatric Cardiology at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). A comprehensive form for clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological and laboratory data retrieval was designed and completed for each patient. Cardiac evaluation included 12-lead ECG and serial echocardiograms. Cardiac catheterization and 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) were conducted on clinical discretion. Cardiac diseases were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 6 (5.8%) of the 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). The patients (4males and 2 females) were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 5.3 years (range=1-8 years; median 6.5 years). Onset of stroke was at a mean age of 34 months (range= 4 months - 8 years; median = 30 months). Five patients had stroke in association with congenital heart disease (CHD), whereas the sixth had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The identified CHD consisted of membranous ventricular septal defect in a 5-year-old boy who had moyamoya syndrome and sickle cell b-thalassemia, asymptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a 17-months-old girl, atrioventricular canal defect and PDA in an 8-year-old boy who also had Down syndrome, partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in a one-year-old boy. The latter patient developed hemiparesis secondary to a septic embolus, which evolved into brain abscess involving the right fronto-preital region. This was successfully managed surgically

  8. Association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus with leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Yasir, Muhammad; El-Kafrawy, Sherif Ali; Abbas, Ayman T; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Bakhashwain, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl Sudan virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites. Here we report the association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The complete genome sequence analysis showed highest (99.9 %) identity with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease in Arabian Peninsula. In phylogenetic relationships analysis, the identified virus formed closest cluster with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. Findings of this study strongly supports the associated virus is a variant of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing disease in Sudan, Yemen and Arabian Peninsula. The betasatellites sequence analysis showed highest identity (99.8 %) with tomato leaf curl betasatellites-Amaranthus-Jeddah. The phylogenetic analysis result based on betasatellites formed closed cluster with tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites. The importance of these findings and occurrence of begomovirus in new geographic regions causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are discussed. PMID:27366765

  9. The impact of critical total quality management practices on hospital performance in the ministry of health hospitals in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraki, Mohammad Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) offers a method for solving quality and patient safety problems and bringing significant improvement to hospital performance. However, only few studies have been conducted in this area in developing countries, particularly in Saudi Arabia. This research is carried out in an attempt to address this gap, exploring the impact of applying TQM practices on hospital performance in the Saudi Ministry of Health hospitals. The study has included 4 hospitals in Tabuk Region, namely, King Khaled Hospital, King Fahad Hospital, Maternity and Children Hospital, and Hagel General Hospital. The data collection was done by the researcher when 400 questionnaires were distributed using a convenient sampling technique to access the required data. The response rate was 67.25% of the total questionnaires distributed. The TQM practices used in the study were as follows: leadership, employee management, information analysis, training, customer focus, continuous improvement, process management, and supplier management. The findings of the research show a significant positive correlation between the 8 practices of TQM and hospital performance with a correlation coefficient r value of 0.9 (P = .0001). The study also reveals that Saudi hospitals are facing difficulties in engaging the clinical staff in their quality initiative. Moreover, our findings show that accredited hospitals have significantly applied TQM practices more than unaccredited hospitals.

  10. The role of corchorus in spreading of tomato yellow leaf curl virus on tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2016-03-01

    Corchorus (Corchorus capsularis L. and Corchorus olitorius L.) is one of the most important fiber crops grown in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Field survey was conducted and naturally infected leaf samples were collected from corchorus and tomato plants in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The causal virus was transmitted by whiteflies to tomato plants and begomovirus infection was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction. The complete viral genome and associated betasatellites were amplified, cloned and sequenced from both corchorus and tomato samples. The genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships were determined for both isolates (corchorus and tomato). The complete genome sequences showed highest (99.5 % nt) similarity with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and formed closest cluster with TYLCV-Tomato reported from Jizan and Al-Qasim, Saudi Arabia and betasatellites sequences showed highest similarity (99.8 % nt) with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites-Jeddah followed by Tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites and formed closed cluster with TYLCV-Tomato. On the basis of results obtained from whiteflies transmission, sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationships; it is concluded that the identified virus could be a variant of TYLCV circulating in the Kingdom. The significance of this study demonstrated that the corchorus is serving as reservoir and alternative host and playing an important role in spreading the begomovirus associated disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  11. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mokdad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietar...

  12. Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri HM; Madkhali A; Al-Kadi MT; Bakhsh H; Alruwaili NN; Tamim HM

    2014-01-01

    Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal...

  13. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor

  14. The Birds of the Highlands of South-West Saudi Arabia and adjacent parts of the Tihama: July 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Michael C; Al-Momen, Amar R. H.; Haresi, Jabr S. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the survey was to compare habitats and bird life in the Asir region, particularly Jebal Souda and the Raydah escarpment protected area of the Saudi Wildlife Commission, and adjacent regions of the tihama, with those observed in July 1987 (Jennings, et al., 1988). The two surveys were approximately the same length and equal amounts of time were spent in the highlands and on the tihama. A number of walked censuses were carried out during 2010 on Jebal Souda, using the same meth...

  15. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {10accent="true">1¯3}, and less frequently along {10accent="true">1¯1} and {10accent="true">1¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {10accent="true">1¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  16. Nationalization Scheme (Nitaqat in Saudi Arabia and the Condition of Filipino Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henelito A. SEVILLA, Jr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines is one of few countries in the developing world that heavily relied on exporting its laborers to sustain its economic growth. Despite attempts by previous administrations to minimize sending Filipino workers abroad by improving working condition at home so that working abroad would no longer be compulsory but optional, many Filipinos continue to leave the country hoping to alleviate their families from poverty. This idea of working abroad has several implications for migrant workers especially in regions where labor policies are not clearly laid down and that rights and welfare of migrant workers are not protected. This paper seeks to elucidate the conditions of Overseas Filipinos Workers (OFWs in Saudi Arabia which strictly implemented “Saudization”2 policy since 2011. In particular, the paper tries to address the following questions: What does “Saudization” (nitaqat mean from Filipinos’ perspectives?; Who are affected by this policy and Why have OFWs been affected by such policy?; How did undocumented or illegal OFWs survive in previous years?; What policies they have implemented to counter it? This paper is centered on its main thesis that Saudi Nationalization policy, which is centered on solving socio-economic problems facing the young and unemployed population in several Gulf countries, has been the driver for these governments to strictly implement such a law and that many migrant workers including Filipinos working on specific areas together with undocumented ones are gravely affected.

  17. Geophysical Imaging of Fault Structures Over the Qadimah Fault, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    AlTawash, Feras

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use geophysical imaging methods to identify the conjectured location of the ‘Qadimah fault’ near the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’, Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 2-D resistivity and seismic surveys were conducted at two different locations, site 1 and site 2, along the proposed trace of the ‘Qadimah fault’. Three processing techniques were used to validate the fault (i) 2-D travel time tomography, (ii) resistivity imaging, and (iii) reflection trim stacking. The refraction traveltime tomograms at site 1 and site 2 both show low-velocity zones (LVZ’s) next to the conjectured fault trace. These LVZ’s are interpreted as colluvial wedges that are often observed on the downthrown side of normal faults. The resistivity tomograms are consistent with this interpretation in that there is a significant change in resistivity values along the conjectured fault trace. Processing the reflection data did not clearly reveal the existence of a fault, and is partly due to the sub-optimal design of the reflection experiment. Overall, the results of this study strongly, but not definitively, suggest the existence of the Qadimah fault in the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’ region of Saudi Arabia.

  18. Factors affecting tobacco use among middle school students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Al Agili, D E; Bartolucci, A

    2012-12-01

    A rapid rise in the number of tobacco users in Saudi Arabia has occurred in the past decade, particularly among the youth. This study identified socio-cultural determinants of tobacco use and explored possible approaches to prevent adolescents' tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was administered using a self-administered questionnaire for collecting information on risk and protective factors for tobacco use among middle school students. School selection was stratified by region, gender, and type (public or private). Of 1,186 7-9th grade students, 1,019 questionnaires were analyzed. Risk factors affecting tobacco use included all important others' perceptions; mother, sister, friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; pressure to use tobacco from brother, sister, friend and important persons; easy access to tobacco and frequent skipping of classes. Protective factors for tobacco use included family's perception; friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; parents' help; support from family, friends, and teachers; accessibility to tobacco; school performance and family income, father's education, and district of residence. The findings of this study show clear gender differences in social influences and attitudes towards tobacco use. Religious beliefs and access to tobacco products were significantly associated with attitudes towards tobacco use and future intention of use. Developing and implementing effective gender specific school-based tobacco prevention programs, strict reinforcement of tobacco control policies, and a focus on the overall social context of tobacco use are crucial for developing successful long-term tobacco prevention programs for adolescents.

  19. Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp. in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%, while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%. Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.

  20. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A antibodies among children in a Saudi community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Sabry Hammad; Khaled Refaat; Reda Al-Enazi

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the current seroprevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus in selected group of children aged 1-6 years in Northern borders region, Saudi Arabia, and to identify risk factors for infection.Methods: A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study of 950 children who attended 10 randomly selected primary health care centers (5 urban and 5 rural) was done. Parents of all children were subjected to a questionnaire including sociodemographic and housing environmental data. The determination of anti-HAV antibodies was carried out by ELISA-test.Results:The prevalence of HAV-IgG was 33.8% overall, 35.5% among males and 32.0% among females with no statistically significant difference. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increasing age, rural residence, non Saudi nationality, and non availability of safe municipal water source were the most important independent predictors for HAV seropositivity in the studied children.Conclusions:There is a clear decrease in hepatitis A prevalence in the studied children particularly in urban areas and indicates that a transition may be underway to intermediate endemicity and possible shift of the risk to the adult age with increased morbidity. So, we recommend including Hepatitis A in the schedule of routine childhood vaccinations.

  1. A taxonomic survey of Saudi Arabian Red Sea octocorals (Cnidaria: Alcyonacea)

    KAUST Repository

    Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.

    2013-05-04

    A preliminary survey of Saudi Arabian Alcyonacea is presented, which combines classical taxonomy, multilocus molecular barcodes, and in situ photographs. We explored 14 locations along the west coast of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the regional taxonomic diversity of non-gorgonian alcyonaceans. We collected samples from a total of 74 colonies, distributed among four families: 18 colonies of Alcyoniidae, 14 of Nephtheidae, 9 of Tubiporidae, and 33 of Xeniidae. We sequenced the octocorals using multiple nuclear [ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) and ATP Synthetase Subunit α (ATPSα)] and mitochondrial [MutS homolog (mtMutS) and Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit one (COI)] loci, providing molecular barcodes which will: (1) allow direct comparison of biodiversity from this location to others for which molecular data are available, and (2) facilitate future identifications of these taxa. Finally, this preliminary phylogeny of sampled taxa provides insights on the resolution of mitochondrial versus nuclear loci, and highlights octocoral taxa that require further taxonomic attention. © 2013 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Self-perception of personal oral health in Saudi population: a social media approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShahrani, I; Tikare, S; Togoo, R A; AlAsere, Y H; AlAsmari, A A

    2015-08-27

    Subjective perceptions and perceived needs for dental care in a population can provide important information for policy-makers. This study aimed to assess self-perceived personal oral health status among the Saudi Arabia population who could be accessed through social media. A pre-tested questionnaire for completion online was designed to assess self-perceived oral health via 13 items in 4 domains with weighted scores from 1-3. The questionnaire was uploaded to the Internet and the link to it was made available through popular social networking sites in Saudi Arabia. With respondents recruited by snowball methods a total of 4618 people (57.2% males, 42.8% females) completed the questionnaire. The total mean score for the participants was 23.0 (SD 5.0) (scale range 13-39). Self-perceived oral health was rated as poor by 24.2% of respondents, average by 50.6% and good by 25.2%. Educational level, age and region but not sex were significantly associated with self-perceived oral health.

  3. Recharge Regimes of the Saq Aquifer System, Saudi Arabia: Inferences from Geochemical and Isotopic Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelmagd, A.; McCabe, M. F.; Castro, M. C.; Sultan, M.; Jana, R. B.; Al-Mashharawi, S.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most valuable groundwater reserves in Saudi Arabia is the Saq aquifer system (SAS), a thick (400-1200 meters) sandstone unit that extends across 300,000 km2 in Saudi Arabia and neighboring Jordan. Due to its high productivity and high water quality, current pumping and overexploitation of the aquifer has significantly lowered the groundwater level over the years. Understanding the recharge regimes of the SAS is critical for the development of sustainable exploitation of water resources in the region and for the establishment of appropriate management practices. In this study, we investigate the hydrologic setting of the SAS and seek to differentiate the degree of paleo versus modern contributions using a range of geochemical approaches. Multiple groundwater samples were collected from deep production wells tapping the SAS at depths between 375-1800 m and across a range of locations. Samples were analyzed for their chemical concentrations, stable isotopic compositions (δ18O and δ2H), and dissolved noble gas concentrations and isotopic ratios. Examining these data identifies unmixed pools of fossil groundwater at deeper depths as well as mixed shallower systems that indicate contributions from modern precipitation. Through isotopic and noble gas analyses, the relative age and timing of these recharge events was examined and show contributions from both glacial and inter-glacial periods, with some modest contributions from modern meteoric sources.

  4. CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES: A SAUDI UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurashi, Abdulrahman M.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Continuing medical education (CME) is an important and useful activity for updating knowledge in order to improve for outcome of health care. A CME update symposium on Infectious Diseases was therefore organized at the King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Participants included clinicians, laboratory personnel and nursing staff from different hospitals and universities in Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To report the proceedings of the first CME on Infectious Diseases in the region and to evaluate it using a questionnaire-based feedback. Methodology: This CME was evaluated on specific feedback obtained on standardized evaluation forms provided during the symposium. The responses of 194 participants were statistically analyzed for the various components of the symposium. Results and Conclusion: Salient important issues covered during the program are presented. The CME included five sessions on: hospital acquired infections, immunology, mycotic diseases, malaria, lesihmaniasis and virology. Some lacunae were also identified. The evaluation of the scientific sessions showed a satisfaction level of 3.98 ± 0.59, on a scale of five. As this CME activity proved successful on many counts, it was concluded that it was worthwhile to conduct updates on infectious diseases on a regular basis. PMID:23008630

  5. Limited genetic diversity among Plasmodium falciparium isolates using nested PCR in Jazan Area, Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omima; M.Eida; Amany; M.Eida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Jazan Area of Saudi Arabia measured with highly polymorphic genetic marker, i.e. the merozoite surface protein 2(MSP 2).Methods: Blood samples were collected from 128 clinically suspected patients attending both Jazan and Sabia hospitals, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Both hospitals reflected urban and rural settings respectively. Analysis of central polymorphic region of MSP 2(3D7 and FC27 allelic families) was performed using nested PCR for malaria patients.Results: For MSP 2 allelic families of Plasmodium falciparum, 16 cases(53.3%) carried FC27 type and 14 cases(46.7%) carried 3D7 type, whereas no malaria cases harbored both allelic types. The present study showed that in urban area, 80% of FC27 fragments were 500 bp while in rural area it was 45.5%(P = 0.08). The FC27 400 bp allele was more prevalent in patients from rural than those from the urban area(P = 0.08). The most prevalent infecting 3D7 allele was the 3D7 300 bp in both areas. In the present study, there were no multiple infections.Conclusions: The limited genetic diversity which was observed in Jazan(considered as an endemic area) may be attributed to the small sample size or sustained malaria control program.

  6. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi El-Hawagry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794, Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909, Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804, while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone.

  7. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

    2015-01-01

    Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyiadiscoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylumcandidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopalinearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopaminos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopalinearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylumcandidum and Bombomyiadiscoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  8. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  9. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  10. Teaching English for Specific Purposes: Attitudes among Saudi Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Majed Ali

    2015-01-01

    Attitude is considered as one of the most crucial factors for learning a second or foreign language for a specific purpose. It plays a major role in arousing student's interest and motivation towards learning. The main purpose for conducting this research is to identify the attitude among engineering students in Saudi Arabia towards learning…

  11. On Selected Morphemes in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carla; Schneider, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Following a year of study of Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL), we are documenting our findings to provide a grammatical sketch of the language. This paper represents one part of that endeavor and focuses on a description of selected morphemes, both manual and non-manual, that have appeared in the course of data collection. While some of the…

  12. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  13. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  14. Saudi Arabian Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Mohaned; Pearson, Susan; Clarke, Paula; Chambers, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It affects 3-7% of school-aged children, interfering with their academic performance and social interactions. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of teachers in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The…

  15. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  16. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... its Master Gas System, building an NGL recovery plant, a new grass-roots gas plant, and enhancing capacity at an existing plant. While the global recession that began in 2008 has presented new economic... architecture, engineering, design and construction firms. Saudi Arabia's transport sector--including...

  17. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  18. Saudi oil policy and the changing world energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    The author draws on his seven years of experience in Saudi Arabia and his knowledge of the interrelationship between changing technology in the hydrocarbon field and economic and financial factors to trace the long-term pattern of the Kingdom's oil policy and its impact on today's oil market.

  19. Aetiology of Neonatal Septicaemia in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashier, Ali M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Of the 1,797 babies admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia over a 3-year period, 8% were documented as having NNS. Identified several gram-positive bacteria, several gram-negative bacteria, and candida albicans as etiological agents in the cases of NNS. Determined the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria. (BC)

  20. Perspectives of petroleum and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion

  1. Saudi Aramco details 1990 surge in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabian Oil Co. that has jumped its crude oil production 29% to an average 6,257,600 b/d last year. That was Saudi Arabia's response to Iraq's Aug. 2, 1990, invasion of Kuwait and the ensuing Persian Gulf crisis with its United Nations embargo on Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports. It was Saudi Aramco's biggest average crude oil volume since the 6,327,220 b/d gauged in 1982, according to the company's 1990 annual report. By the end of 1990 Saudi Aramco's maximum sustained production capability was 8.5 million b/d of crude. To meet long term demand, it decided to advance the timetable and increase the scope of a crude oil expansion program adopted in 1989. Reserves at the end of the year were 257.9 billion bbl of crude and 180.5 tcf of dissolved, associated, and non-associated natural gas, compared with 257.5 billion bbl and 180.355 tcf at yearend 1989

  2. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  3. Do Saudi EFL Teachers Promote Creativity in Their Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Abdulaziz Ali

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efforts made by the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia, there is still much to be done in order to nourish creativity in schools. According to a number of studies, there is an urgent need to reconsider the role of creativity in the current educational programmes because there is an increasing gap between the reality of the…

  4. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  5. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  6. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers. This trade mission will...'s primary ICT hubs. Trade mission participants will have the opportunity to interact with...

  7. Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…

  8. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  9. Libraries of Two Women's Colleges in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status of higher education for women in Saudi Arabia and discusses the special problems of access to library materials encountered by women in this society, focusing on the collections, services, and administration of two women's colleges' libraries. A proposed national educational development plan is briefly described. (CLB)

  10. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  11. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bcheraoui C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam

  12. Saudi Intermediate School EFL Teachers' Views in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of the Multiple Intelligences Theory as an Inclusive Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researcher attempted to shed light on Saudi intermediate school EFL teachers' views of the multiple intelligences theory as an inclusive pedagogy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of multiple intelligences on Saudi intermediate students' learning of EFL. The study also tried to illustrate the main…

  13. Exploring the Mismatch between Skills and Jobs for Women in Saudi Arabia in Technical and Vocational Areas: The Views of Saudi Arabian Private Sector Business Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John R.; Al-Shetaiwi, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of women in both general and technical-vocational education and employment in Saudi Arabia. Reports on a survey of 220 private business managers: 83% indicated that Saudi women had limited participation in technical jobs; 63% suggested that vocational-technical education did not promote women's participation. (Contains 51…

  14. Changing Pattern of Saudi Arabia's Oil Exports and Broad Prospects for China and Saudi Arabia Cooperation in Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    Changing pattern of Saudi Arabia's oil exports Saudi Arabia (hereinafter referred to as Saudi) long time ranks No. one of world oil production and lost the title only in 2009 and 2010 due to cutting output which is slightly lower than the Russian output. It is predicted that global annual oil output in the next 10 years will be more than 4 billion tons, during which Saudi annual oil output will be up to 540-550 million tons, accounting for about 14 percent of global annual oil output. Saudi's 2005 oil exports of about 360 million tons accounted for 17.78 percent of the global oil exports, and 42.66% of the Middle East. Over the next 10 years, it is expected Saudi oil exports will reach 380-400 tons. Saudi plenty of spare oil production capacity and enhanced oil recovery will increase its remaining recoverable oil reserve,

  15. Epidemiology of the human immunodeficiency virus in Saudi Arabia; 18-year surveillance results and prevention from an Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mazrou Yagob Y

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background data on HIV epidemiology and preventive measures in Islamic countries is limited. This study describes the results of 18-year of HIV surveillance in Saudi Arabia (SA and the preventive measures implemented from an Islamic perspective. Methods surveillance for HIV has been underway in SA since 1984. Indications for HIV testing include clinical suspicion, screening of contacts of HIV-infected patients, and routine screening of blood and organ donors, prisoners, intravenous drug users, patients with other sexually transmitted infections, and expatriates pre-employment. This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed HIV infections diagnosed in SA from 1984 through 2001. Results a total of 6046 HIV infections were diagnosed, of which 1285 (21.3% cases were Saudi citizens. Over the 18-year surveillance period the number of HIV infections diagnosed annually among Saudi citizens gradually increased and, over the period 1997–2001, it reached to 84 to 142 cases per year. The number of cases per 100,000 population varied widely between regions with a maximum of 74 cases and a minimum of 2 cases. The infection was most common in the age group 20–40 years (74.6% and predominantly affected men (71.6%. The modes of transmission among Saudi citizens and expatriates, respectively, were as follows: heterosexual contact, 487 (37.9% and 1352 (28.4% cases; blood transfusion, 322 (25.0% and 186 (3.9% cases; perinatal transmission, 83 (6.5% and 19 (0.4% cases; homosexual contact, 32 (2.5% and 38 (0.8% cases; intravenous drug use, 17 (1.3% and 33 (0.7% cases; bisexual contact, 10 (0.8% and 14 (0.3% cases; unknown, 334 (26.0% and 3119 (65.5% cases. The number of HIV infections transmitted by blood or blood products transfusion declined to zero by year 2001 and all such infections occurred due to transfusions administered before 1986. At HIV diagnosis, 4502/6046 (74.5% patients had no symptoms, 787 (13.0% patients had non-AIDS defining

  16. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

  17. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsuwaida Abdulkareem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The over-all prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mel-litus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients.

  18. Patterns of psychotropic medication use in inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosaimi FD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Abdulhadi Alhabbad,2 Mohammed F Abalhassan,3 Ebtihaj O Fallata,4 Nasser M Alzain,5 Mohammad Zayed Alassiry,6 Bander Abdullah Haddad71Department of Psychiatry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Prince Mohammed Medical City, Aljouf, 3Department of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Hospital, Jeddah, 5Department of Psychiatry, Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, 6Medical Services Department, Abha Psychiatric Hospital, Abha, 7Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To study the pattern of psychotropic medication use and compare this pattern between inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia.Method: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2014 on patients seeking psychiatric advice at major hospitals in five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Male (n=651 and female (n=594 patients who signed the informed consent form and were currently or had been previously using psychotropic medications, irrespective of the patient’s type of psychiatric diagnosis and duration of the disease, were included. A total of 1,246 patients were found to be suitable in the inclusion criteria of whom 464 were inpatients while 782 were outpatients.Results: Several studied demographic factors have shown that compared with outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be male (P=0.004, unmarried (P<0.001, have less number of children (1–3; P=0.002, unemployed (P=0.001, have a lower family income (<3,000 SR; P<0.001, live in rural communities (P<0.001, have a lower body mass index (P=0.001, and are smokers (P<0.001; however, there were no differences with regard to age or educational levels. The current frequency of use of psychotropic medications in overall patients was antipsychotics (76.6%, antidepressants (41.4%, mood stabilizers

  19. Technology transfer : a case study analysis of the Saudi oil and petrochemical sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Ankari, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent past a number of technologies have been imported into The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This experience has affirmed the conviction that technology can make an invaluable contribution to the growth of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. However, in doing so, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, like other nations, faces some questions of possible obstacles, trials and errors during the course of industrial development and technology transfer, that can be addressed by utilising scienc...

  20. Value relevance and predictive ability of financial statement information: the case of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Barrak, Thamir

    2011-01-01

    The Saudi financial reporting environment witnessed significant development in the past two decades, which is evidenced by the incorporation of the Saudi accounting standard setter (Saudi Organization for Certified Public Accountants (SOCPA)) and its subsequent development of the accounting profession. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether developments in financial reporting following SOCPA’s inception resulted in financial statement information being more value relevant ...

  1. The right to a fair trial under Saudi Law of Criminal Procedure: a human rights critique

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Subaie, Salman Muhammed

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University This study examines the compatibility of the Law of Criminal Procedure of 2001 in Saudi Arabia with the international human rights standards, and provides recommendations for criminal procedure reforms. The recent developments in the Saudi Arabian criminal justice system make it important to examine the right to a fair trial within the legal system of Saudi Arabia. This study starts by examini...

  2. A qualitative exploration of the major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals w...

  3. Evaluation of Different Soil Salinity Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Arid Ecosystems, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Elhag

    2016-01-01

    Land covers in Saudi Arabia are generally described as salty soils with sand dunes and sand sheets. Waterlogging and higher soil salinity are major challenges to sustaining agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia principally within closed drainage basins. Agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia were flourishing in the last two decades. The newly reclaimed lands were added annually and distributed all over the country. Irrigation techniques are mostly modernized to fulfill water saving strategie...

  4. Learning style and teaching method preferences of Saudi students of physical therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Al Maghraby, Mohamed A.; Alshami, Ali M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: To the researchers′ knowledge, there are no published studies that have investigated the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of physical therapy students in Saudi Arabia. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of Saudi physical therapy students. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study design. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three Saudis studying physical therapy (21 males and 32 females) participated in the study. The...

  5. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...

  6. Recent incidence and descriptive epidemiological survey of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Abid A. Ansari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number o...

  7. The first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abulkhair, Omalkhair A.; Al Tahan, Fatina M.; Young, Susan E.; Musaad, Salma MA.; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlations between im...

  8. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    OpenAIRE

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Jozaa Z. Al-Tamimi; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; AL-SHWAIYAT, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them.Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girl...

  9. Prospects for Gulf Region with closed greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    In countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, water is scarce as rainfall is minimal. Growers in the Gulf Region rely on groundwater for evaporative cooling and irrigation. This source of water is running out and growers are deciding to end production. The governments of the Kingdo

  10. Large scale patterns of antimicrofouling defenses in the hard coral Pocillopora verrucosa in an environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Martin; Al-Sofyani, Abdelmohsin; Saha, Mahasweta; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Large scale patterns of ecologically relevant traits may help identify drivers of their variability and conditions beneficial or adverse to the expression of these traits. Antimicrofouling defenses in scleractinian corals regulate the establishment of the associated biofilm as well as the risks of infection. The Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast features a pronounced thermal and nutritional gradient including regions and seasons with potentially stressful conditions to corals. Assessing the pattern...

  11. Large Scale Patterns of Antimicrofouling Defenses in the Hard Coral Pocillopora verrucosa in an Environmental Gradient along the Saudi Arabian Coast of the Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Martin; Al Sofyani, Abdulmohsin; Saha, Mahasweta; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Large scale patterns of ecologically relevant traits may help identify drivers of their variability and conditions beneficial or adverse to the expression of these traits. Antimicrofouling defenses in scleractinian corals regulate the establishment of the associated biofilm as well as the risks of infection. The Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast features a pronounced thermal and nutritional gradient including regions and seasons with potentially stressful conditions to corals. Assessing the pattern...

  12. Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, a family new to the fauna of Saudi Arabia, with the description of the previously unknown male of Eucharis (Psilogastrellus affinis Bouček

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen S. Gadallah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Saudi Arabia based on Hydrorhoa caffra (Westwood and Eucharis (Psilogastrellus affinis Bouček. The record of H. caffra suggests that Al-Baha and Asir provinces should be considered as part of the Afrotropical rather than the Palaearctic region. The previously unknown male of E. affinis Bouček is described and figured. Macrophotographs of the species are provided.

  13. Teachers' and pupils' perceptions of and responses to cooperative learning methods within the Islamic culture courses in one secondary school in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Algarfi, Abdulrahman

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development and implementation of cooperative learning in two Saudi classrooms seeking the perspectives of teachers and pupils. A review of the literature suggests that efforts to introduce cooperative learning have tended to be initiated in Oceanic, North American or European contexts (Jolliffe and Hutchinson, 2007). Research is less forthcoming in other regions in the world. Research on group work / cooperative learning methods in Arab-speaking nations is in its ...

  14. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-01-01

    Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egypt...

  15. Prevalence Rate of Intestinal Parasites in Camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in camels was studied in the Riyadh region, central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was carried out over a population of 240 animals which examined their feces by coprological methods. Out of 240 samples of feces examined, 143 cases (59.6% were positive for intestinal parasites of whom 82 were male (34.2% and 61 were female (25.4%. There was a significant difference between male and female (pTrichostrongylus spp. (15.4%, Haemonchus spp. (10.4%, Trichuris spp. (8.8%, Nematodirus spp. (5%, Osrtertagia spp. (2.9% and cestoda: Moniezia expansa (6.7%, Stilesia spp. (3.3% coccidia: Eimeria cameli (7.1%. The high prevalence of intestinal parasites among camels reported during summer season.

  16. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, May B; Jones, Geoffrey P; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Neale, Stephen; Thorrold, Simon; Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral reef communities between 26.8 °N and 18.6 °N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna. PMID:26608504

  17. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roberts, May B.

    2015-11-20

    Coral reef communities between 26.8°N and 18.6°N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna.

  18. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alam, Mohammed S., E-mail: m.s.alam@bham.ac.uk [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Harrison, Roy M., E-mail: r.m.harrison@bham.ac.uk [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources.

  19. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources

  20. Deficiencies Under Plenty of Sun: Vitamin D Status among Adults in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa Tuffaha; Charbel El Bcheraoui; Farah Daoud; Hessah Abdulla Al Hussaini; Fahad Alamri; Mohammad Al Saeedi; Mohammed Basulaiman; Memish, Ziad A.; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), current data on vitamin D status are lacking. Aims: To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. Materials and Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) is a cross-sectional national multistage...

  1. Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

  2. The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar HA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadeel A Mokhtar, Layla W Abuljadayel, Reem M Al-Ali, Mohammed Yousef Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy: smile picture (P-value =0.003, diastema picture (P-value =0.000 and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004. As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009. Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. Keywords: diastema, gummy, reverse

  3. BREASTFEEDING PRACTICE IN DAMMAM AREA OF SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Qadri, Mohammad H.; Al-Harfi, Ridah A.; Al-Gamdi, Mohammad A.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the breastfeeding status for children under 24 months and assess the causes of breastfeeding failure among those mothers who do not breastfeed their babies. Methodology: This study was conducted on a sampled population of 1185 children under 24 months of age, using breastfeeding indicators recommended by World Health Organization, for assessing breastfeeding practices within a recall period of 24 hours, in the Dammam area of Saudi ...

  4. Novel mutations in two Saudi patients with congenital retinal dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Leen Abu Safieh; Humoud M Al-Otaibi; Richard Alan Lewis; Igor Kozak

    2016-01-01

    To report novel mutations in two Saudi children with clinical features of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and Alström syndrome. Case reports. Case 1 was a child with phenotypic features of LCA including oculodigital sign, bilateral enophthalmos, nystagmus, pale disc, and retinal changes. Direct sequencing of the coding sequence of GUCY2D revealed a missense mutation affecting highly conserved position (c. 743C > T; p.S248 L). Case 2 describes a girl with marked nystagmus, photophobia, and re...

  5. Saudi law and judicial practice in commercial and banking arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Baamir, Abdulrahman

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University on 10 March 2009. This thesis examines various issues of arbitration law and practice in relation to the Islamic Shari’a law and the law of Saudi Arabia in general, and for arbitration in conventional banking disputes in particular. The thesis found that the Shari’a regulates arbitration tightly compared to other contemporary developments as no fundamental differences were found to exist betwe...

  6. Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Saudi Arabian Dermatology Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anwar E.; Al-Dahmash, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Boqami, Qamra T.; Al-Tebainawi, Yazeed F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients and to assess associations with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 consecutive dermatology patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in August 2015. The Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was used to screen for symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Results: A total of 254 dermatology patients participated in the study (response rate: 84.7%). The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was 12.6%, 22.1% and 7.5%, respectively. The presence of at least one of these negative emotional states was noted among 24.4% of the cohort (95% confidence interval: 19.3–30.2%). Depression was significantly higher among subjects who lacked family support (26.5% versus 10.7%; P = 0.006) while anxiety was less common among patients who engaged in physical exercise (14.5% versus 29.4%; P = 0.005). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, poor QOL and a lack of family support were significant predictors of a negative emotional state. Conclusion: Almost a quarter of the studied Saudi Arabian dermatology patients were found to suffer from at least one negative emotional state. A lack of family support and poor QOL were the primary factors associated with a negative emotional state. Interventional studies are needed to examine the effects of social and family support on psychological conditions among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients. PMID:27226914

  7. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Some Popular Fish Species in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Sabry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to molecularly characterize some popular Saudi fish species. Seven popular Saudi fish species namely, Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus, Mousa (Solea solea, Hamor (Greasy grouper, Shour (Lethrinus lentjan, Dennis (Caranxsex fasciatus, Harid (Scarus arabicus and Black surgeon (Acanthurus gahhm were characterized using six RAPD and three ISSR as well as Rep-PCR markers. These markers produced 187 distinct bands 89.4% were considered as polymorphic bands and 10.6% were considered as monomorphic bands. The RAPD OPA-06 primer revealed 100% polymorphism for 19 produced bands where band width ranged from 190 to 2100 bp. Likewise Rep- PCR ERIC1R primer exhibited 100% polymorphism for 18 bands produced bands where band width ranged from 50 to 1400bp. Data of the three types of genetic markers were combined for phylogenetic analysis. The resulted dendergram produced two large linages with around 59% genetic similarity. One linage only included Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus, and the other linage comprised the other six species. This result suggested that this six species were descended from Morgan fish. The second linage comprised two clades; the first clade contained four species (Mousa, Hamor, Shour, and Dennis, where the next clade included only Harid and Black surgeon. Generally genetic distance among native fishes was relatively low. The smallest genetic distance (0.512 was estimated between Shour fish and Black surgeon fish. To the best of our knowledge this work is breaking new ground in two directions, first, molecular characterization of Saudi fish, second employment Rep- PCR genetic marker for molecular characterization of fish species. This work could be considered as preliminary work towards an establishment of Saudi genetic conservation program.

  9. Anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia among adults in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Abdalla A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: dyslipidemia and obesity are key independent modifiable risk factors for many non communicable chronic diseases. Patterns of association between these factors may help prevention and control. This study aims to assess the association between lipids profile and obesity among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identify anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia.Methods: data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using WHO STEPwise approach that included 4 990 Sa...

  10. Mangrove ecosystem of Red Sea coast (Saudi Arabia)

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Saifullah

    1997-01-01

    The present paper reviews critically the existing information on mangrove ecosystem of Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast and identifies problems and shortcomings that should be removed or remedied. Mangrove structure and composition seems to have been substantially studied along with salient environmental features, and these are thoroughly summarized herewith. However, the functional aspects, especially energy flow through the ecosystem, remain totally neglected. Both the flora and fauna indicate s...

  11. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir Belloumi; Atef Saad Alshehry

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). Additionally, to test the ro...

  12. Leadership Role of School Superintendents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Almannie

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the practice of school superintendents in Saudi Arabia in five roles as seen by education supervisors within school district offices. The purpose of the study is to examine the leadership of school superintendents in these five roles: work environment, rules and regulations, implementation of technology, accountability, and professional development of the education supervisors in school districts. The study sample consists of 276 education supervisors working in 30 school ...

  13. CSR, Employee Job Attitude and Behavior: Saudi Bank Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Tahlil AZIM; Abdulhamid A. DIYAB; Saleh A. AL-SABAAN

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the relation- ship between the external CSR practices of the organizations and employees’ job satisfaction, employee engagement and organizational cit- izenship behavior in the context of the Saudi banking industry. A positive relationship between CSR and employee job satisfaction, employee engagement and organizational citizenship be- havior related to the organization is observed. However, the organizational citizenship behavior related to individual is found unre...

  14. MIDDLE TO LATE JURASSIC BIOFACIES OF SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERAINT W. HUGHES

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabian Jurassic carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs were first examined stratigraphically using microfauna. Current microfaunal studies concentrate on the identification and constraint of palaeoenvironmental variations and determination of high-resolution depositional cyclicity of the reservoir carbonates. It is apparent that the environmental sensitivity of benthonic foraminifera provides a potentially valuable technique for the determining subtle variations in the depositional environment and also providing a proxy for sea-level fluctuations.

  15. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and the World Bank Knowledge Index (KI) and Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) and other indicators often used in the international literature to examine progress in transition to a knowledge-based economy ...

  16. Trends in Ectopic Pregnancies in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Haifa Abdulaziz Al-Turki

    2013-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in ectopic pregnancies (EP) in a tertiary care center of Eastern Saudi Arabia. Method. Information about patients with ectopic pregnancies who had been admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, between January 2000 and 31 December 2011 was collected from a computerized hospital registry. Age-specific ectopic pregnancy incidence was calculated. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social S...

  17. Emergency contraception: Awareness, attitudes and barriers of Saudi Arabian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Syed Irfan; Irfan, Farhana; Rowais, Norah Al; Zahrani, Basma Al; Qureshi, Riaz; Qadrah, Bedoor H Al

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude, and barriers about emergency contraception (EC) among married women of child bearing age. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted over a 6-month period, commencing in March 2013 at Family Practice Clinics of King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a structured pretested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 statistical software. Result: A total of 242 women were enrolled ...

  18. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)

  20. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  1. Parkinson's Disease in Saudi Patients: A Genetic Study.

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    Bashayer R Al-Mubarak

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the major causes of parkinsonism syndrome. Its characteristic motor symptoms are attributable to dopaminergic neurons loss in the midbrain. Genetic advances have highlighted underlying molecular mechanisms and provided clues to potential therapies. However, most of the studies focusing on the genetic component of PD have been performed on American, European and Asian populations, whereas Arab populations (excluding North African Arabs, particularly Saudis remain to be explored. Here we investigated the genetic causes of PD in Saudis by recruiting 98 PD-cases (sporadic and familial and screening them for potential pathogenic mutations in PD-established genes; SNCA, PARKIN, PINK1, PARK7/DJ1, LRRK2 and other PD-associated genes using direct sequencing. To our surprise, the screening revealed only three pathogenic point mutations; two in PINK1 and one in PARKIN. In addition to mutational analysis, CNV and cDNA analysis was performed on a subset of patients. Exon/intron dosage alterations in PARKIN were detected and confirmed in 2 cases. Our study suggests that mutations in the ORF of the screened genes are not a common cause of PD in Saudi population; however, these findings by no means exclude the possibility that other genetic events such as gene expression/dosage alteration may be more common nor does it eliminate the possibility of the involvement of novel genes.

  2. Thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel diseases: a report from Saudi Arabia

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    Hussain Issa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence of IBD is low. In Saudi Arabia, IBD is considered to be rare, but the incidence is increasing. Where the clinical manifestations resemble those of developed countries, TE as a complication of IBD is considered to be very rare. This report describes six IBD patients with TE. This importance of the complication of TE is stressed, and physicians caring for these patients should be aware of it in order to obviate potential morbidity and mortality.Keywords: thromboembolism, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis

  3. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  4. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  5. The potential of high heat generating granites as EGS source to generate power and reduce CO2 emissions, western Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharam, D.; Lashin, A.; Al Arifi, N.; Al Bassam, A.; El Alfy, M.; Ranjith, P. G.; Varun, C.; Singh, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    Saudi Arabia's dependence on oil and gas to generate electricity and to desalinate sea water is widely perceived to be economically and politically unsustainable. A recent business as usual simulation concluded that the Kingdom would become an oil importer by 2038. There is an opportunity for the country to over come this problem by using its geothermal energy resources. The heat flow and heat generation values of the granites spread over a cumulative area of 161,467 sq. km and the regional stress regime over the western Saudi Arabian shield strongly suggest that this entire area is potential source of energy to support 1) electricity generation, 2) fresh water generation through desalination and 3) extensive agricultural activity for the next two decades. The country can adopt a policy to harness this vast untapped enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) to mitigate climate and fresh water related issues and increase the quantity of oil for export. The country has inherent expertise to develop this resource.

  6. Clinical profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Faifa-Gizan, South west province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Raghu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to know the age, sex distribution and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in a remote hilly area, Faifa, Gizan situated in the South West region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. C L accounted for nearly 5% of the new outpatient attendance in the study period (1988-90 of 20 months. Out of the 140 new patients who formed the study group, 82 were males (58.57% and 58 females (41.43% in the age range of 9 months to 60 years. Ninety two patients were children (65.71% below 15 years. including 58 boys and 34 girls and CL is a major public health problem in children of this area. The fact that out of 140 affected individuals, 134 were local Saudis and 6 non-Saudis reveals the autochthonous nature of the disease in this region. The clinical spectrum included dry crusted ulcers, erythematous indurated plaques, nodules, papules, and oozing shallow ulcers. The lesions were distributed mostly on face and extremities. Response to pentostam (Sodium stibogluconate was highly satisfactory.

  7. Menopausal symptoms and quality of life among Saudi women visiting primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Aida AlDughaither,1 Hind AlMutairy,2 Mohammed AlAteeq11College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: Menopause is associated with somatic, vasomotor, psychological, and sexual complaints that may affect quality of life. We determined the prevalence and severity of menopausal...

  8. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  9. Growing Up under Pressure: The Cultural and Religious Context of the Saudi System of Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljughaiman, Abdullah M.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    This essay presents an overview of the system of gifted education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To highlight the characteristics of this system, however, its presentation is preceded by a discussion of particular aspects of Saudi society and its general system of education. These aspects distinctly differentiate the general and gifted systems of…

  10. Saudi Elementary School Science Teachers' Beliefs: Teaching Science in the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Amani K. Hamdan; Al-Salouli, Misfer Saud

    2013-01-01

    This study explored Saudi elementary school science teachers' beliefs about the process of teaching and learning science. This involved the exploration of their views about the new Saudi science curriculum, which emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving. Comprehensive interviews were held in 8 schools with 4 male and 6 female--2 of whom…

  11. Saudi parent′s attitude and practice about self-medicating their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Eldalo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study revealed the fact that parental self-medication among public in Saudi Arabia is a routine practice. The researchers suggested introduction of parental educational interventions throughout the Saudi Arabia to ensure that children will receive best pharmaceutical care.

  12. Mind Maps to Modify Lack of Attention among Saudi Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghistan, Bulquees Ismail Abdul Majid

    2016-01-01

    This research study aims at investigating the impact of Mind Maps on modifying the lack of attention in Arabic language class among Saudi Kindergarten children. To achieve the goals of this study the researcher used an experimental design with a random sample from AlRae'd Kindergarten's children in Riyadh -Saudi Arabia for the academic year…

  13. Evaluating EFL Intermediate Teachers' Performance in the Light of Quality Standards in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thumali, Amani Dakheel Allah

    2011-01-01

    The present research aimed at four points: First, Identifying the most appropriate standards of EFL Saudi teachers' performance in the light of quality standards. Second, designing an objective and comprehensive evaluation rubric based on quality standards to evaluate EFL Saudi intermediate teachers' performance. Third, determining to what extent…

  14. Barriers for setting up a pulmonary rehabilitation program in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed E Alsubaiei

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a worrisome lack of knowledge regarding content and benefits of PR programs among Saudi health care providers treating COPD patients. These findings imply that improving awareness and increasing education of the health care providers regarding PR will be required before PR can be more widely implemented as an integral treatment modality for patients with COPD in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Saudi Mode of Greeting Rituals: Their Implications for Teaching and Learning English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanain, Khalid S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the sociolinguistic aspects of Saudi greeting rituals, discussing the phraseology and nonverbal signals employed by greeter and greetee in various situations. Also explores the communication problems that Saudis and Americans have when communicating in each other's language and culture. (MDM)

  16. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Informatics Masters Program at KSAU-HS University, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Altuwaijri

    2007-01-01

    The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…

  17. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  18. Where English, Neoliberalism, Desire and Internationalization Are Alive and Kicking: Higher Education in Saudi Arabia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phan Le; Barnawi, Osman Z.

    2015-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education globally continues to grow more and more towards commercialization and neoliberalism paths, despite growing concerns about the underlying consequences. Building further on our work and using Saudi Arabia as a national case, this article critically investigates how and in what ways the Saudi government's…

  19. Knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in illegal residents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A Memish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in illegal residents, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted among the illegal residents from four regions in Saudi Arabia: Jeddah, Makkah, Riyadh, and Jazan. Results: The survey enrolled 5,000 participants, 79%male (39.6% from Jeddah; 20% from Riyadh; and 20% from Jazan, aged between 15 and 45 years. Of the total, 1288 (25.8% had not heard about HIV/AIDS. Knowledge of HIV transmission was poor in 90% of the respondents. Of the total, 737 had read about HIV/AIDS materials and 649 participants had been previously tested for HIV. The majority of participants (85% held a negative attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Those who were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS expressed more a positive attitude. One-fifth (968, majority were men; single 55%, married 45% had engaged in non-marital sexual activity. The largest proportion of the individuals who had engaged in non-marital sex were single (54.9% followed by the married ones (40.4%. Men cited pleasure as the main reason for such activity (84.6%, whereas women (73.4% cited financial gain. Of the respondents, 53.9 and 32.1% believed that TV and schools were the best media through which information with regard to HIV/AIDS could be imparted. Conclusions: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and prevention measures was poor. Educational programs specifically targeted toward this group were required.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of NDM-Positive Escherichia coli from Municipal Wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla-Calderon, David; Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Wang, Tiannyu; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Al-Jassim, Nada; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of resistance to last-resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over a 1-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 10(4) to 10(5) copies/m(3) of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of sequence type 101 (ST101), from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater represents a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli strain isolated from a nonnosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia and may set a priority concern for the need to establish improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions. PMID:27324770

  1. Organ Donation From Deceased Donors: A Proactive Detection Program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Souqiyyeh, Muhammad Ziad; Attar, Besher; Ibrahim, Amal; Alsayyari, Abdulla

    2015-11-01

    Several challenging obstacles remain to increasing the number of organ donations from deceased patients in a hospital setting. These include medical, administrative, and ethical issues. Possible medical obstacles include the failure of early recognition of possible donors and inadequate care of potential and actual donors. To maximize the use of donated organs, proper care of the donors and expedited donor consent cannot be overemphasized. The care rendered to patients should ensure appropriate perfusion and nutrition of the organs, with meticulous follow-up until organ recovery. For example, patients involved in accidents are presumed to be healthy, but many have no available medical history on file. At the time of organ recovery, unexpected infections or malignancies can be minimized by raising the index of suspicion of the presence of serious conditions in donors, especially in donors with unknown medical history. A careful physical examination and an appropriate and aggressive laboratory investigation may disclose the cause of suspected clinical conditions in these potential donors. Individuals who work in intensive care units are the main group of health care providers directly involved in the process of organ donation. Appointing a donor coordinator in each intensive care unit could improve all aspects of organ donation. Such coordination could harmonize efforts toward the goals mentioned above and surmount the obstacles encountered during deceased-donor organ donation. Here, we describe the preliminary results of the Proactive Detection Program, a collaboration between the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation (the national organ donation and transplant supervising center) and intensive care units of donating hospitals. With its success in Saudi Arabia, it is hoped that it will be widely adopted in other regions. PMID:26640899

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW BIOTYPE Moringa OF SAUDI ARABIA USING RAPD AND ISSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyan Robiansyah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa peregrina and M. oleifera are the only Moringa species found in Saudi Arabia. Both species are drought resistant and have very high nutritional and medicinal properties. Detection of genetic diversity is of great value for the improvement of nutritional and medicinal value of these plants. The aim of the present study was to characterize a new biotype Moringa observed in Al Bahah Region, Saudi Arabia. We used 11 RAPD and 15 ISSR primers to characterize and compare the new biotype with M. peregrina and M. oleifera. Level of polymorphism generated by each marker was calculated. We also calculate Nei and Li’s coefficient to measure the genetic distance between the studied species. Level of polymorphism generated by RAPD and ISSR was 46% and 57%, respectively. RAPD and ISSR primers revealed that the new biotype shared 55 amplicons (45.08% with both M. peregrina and M. oleifera, 28 amplicons with M. peregrina (22.95%, 21 amplicons (17.21% with M. oleifera, and displayed 18 unshared amplicons (14.75%. Based on RAPD data, genetic distance between M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.32, whereas genetic distance between the new biotype and M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.21 and 0.29, respectively. For ISSR data, genetic distance between M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.5, whereas genetic distance between the new biotype and M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.36 and 0.34, respectively. Based on these results we suggested that the new biotype is a hybrid crossbred between M. peregrina and M. oleifera.

  3. Factors affecting tobacco use among middle school students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Al Agili, D E; Bartolucci, A

    2012-12-01

    A rapid rise in the number of tobacco users in Saudi Arabia has occurred in the past decade, particularly among the youth. This study identified socio-cultural determinants of tobacco use and explored possible approaches to prevent adolescents' tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was administered using a self-administered questionnaire for collecting information on risk and protective factors for tobacco use among middle school students. School selection was stratified by region, gender, and type (public or private). Of 1,186 7-9th grade students, 1,019 questionnaires were analyzed. Risk factors affecting tobacco use included all important others' perceptions; mother, sister, friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; pressure to use tobacco from brother, sister, friend and important persons; easy access to tobacco and frequent skipping of classes. Protective factors for tobacco use included family's perception; friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; parents' help; support from family, friends, and teachers; accessibility to tobacco; school performance and family income, father's education, and district of residence. The findings of this study show clear gender differences in social influences and attitudes towards tobacco use. Religious beliefs and access to tobacco products were significantly associated with attitudes towards tobacco use and future intention of use. Developing and implementing effective gender specific school-based tobacco prevention programs, strict reinforcement of tobacco control policies, and a focus on the overall social context of tobacco use are crucial for developing successful long-term tobacco prevention programs for adolescents. PMID:22210554

  4. Comparative Analysis of Seasonal Variation in Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Wagner, Thomas; Jamil, Mohsin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia during the time period of 2004-2015 are discussed. Data products from the satellite instrument OMI are used. The results show a large NO2 growth over major cities of both countries, particularly the areas with rapid urbanization. Different seasonal cycles were observed over both countries. Especially, seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 over Pakistan is largely impacted by the photolysis rate, OH radical and monsoon rains in addition to soil emissions, agriculture fires and other anthropogenic activities. While in the case of Saudi Arabia, the seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 is completely driven by thermal power generation. Furthermore, different regions of Pakistan exhibited different seasonal trends. In the provinces of Punjab (north-east), Khyber Paktunkhwa (north-west) and Sindh (south-east), NO2 columns are maximum in winter and minimum in summer months while a reversed seasonality was observed in the province of Baluchistan (south-west). We compared the observed Spatio-temporal patterns to existing emission inventories and found that for the most populated provinces the NOx emissions are clearly dominated by anthropogenic sources. In these areas also the strongest positive trends were observed. NOx released from soils and produced by lightning both together contribute about 20% for the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, while its contribution in Baluchistan is much stronger (~50%). NOx emissions from biomass burning are negligible. This finding can also explain the observed summer maximum in Baluchistan since the highest lightning activity occurs during the Monsoon season. Our comparison also indicates that the inventories of anthropogenic NOx emissions over Pakistan seem to underestimate the true emissions by about a factor of two.

  5. Association between high risk foot, retinopathy and HBA1c in Saudi diabetic population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: One of the important complications of diabetes is diabetic-foot-ulcer, also reported in Saudi Arabia, like other countries. Similarly, the complications, like retinopathy and nephropathy are also occurring in diabetic patients of this region. Apart from the care and monitoring of these patients, it is important to find out association between these complications and their relation with common factors, like HbA1c levels. Such relation is not yet reported in literature. Objective: Therefore, this study was planned to find out association between neuropathy (leading to high risk foot) and retinopathy by the estimation of HbA1c levels in Saudi population. Methods: After exclusion of the cases of gestational diabetes and children with type-1 diabetes, 333 Patients having age 21 to 97 years were examined in the Diabetology Clinic of Diabetes Centre, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha. All patients were screened for neuropathy (High risk of the foot) and retinopathy (by Fundus Photography). HbA1c levels were determined, using standardised procedure. The obtained data was analysed statistically by SPSS-12 for Windows. Results: HbA1c levels of less than or equal to have been found to be associated with neuropathy, high risk foot, and as well as non- proliferative and proliferative retinopathy. Pearson chi square test has demonstrated association between progressive retinopathy and development of high risk foot. Conclusion: The observed data indicate poor glycemic or diabetes control on the basis of higher HbA1c levels and strong association between high risk foot and the development of progressive retinopathy. (author)

  6. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility

  7. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An average of less than 50 mm yr−1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions

  8. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez, O.

    2014-07-28

    An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions. 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and cancer in Saudi Arabian populations: Can we hypothesize a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Gowher; Hobani, Yahya; Sarwat, Maryam

    2015-08-01

    Inspite of having so much sunshine, Saudi Arabian population is suffering from the deficiency of the 'sunshine vitamin', vitamin D, measured in the serum as 25-OHD level. According to a recent report, about 83.6% of Saudi population is vitamin D deficient. 31.9% have severe, 32% have moderate and 19.7% have mild vitamin D deficiency (VDD). The severity of VDD differs with age, gender and region. Females are more severely vitamin D deficient than males. Various factors contributing towards it deficiency are linked to their housing designs, religious practices, lifestyle choices and dark skin color. The increasing incidences of breast, prostate and colon cancer among this society are also raising an alarm. The presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the enzyme responsible for conversion of the 25(OH)D in its active metabolite 25(OH)2D3 in extra renal tissue shows the involvement of vitamin D in other diseases like cancer, diabetes, multiple sclerosis etc. About 2000 genes related to various types of diseases are found to be regulated by VDRs. These genes possess vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) in their promoters. Studies on population of other regions also have shown correlation with low serum levels of 25(OH)D and certain diseases So, we hypothesized that vitamin D deficiencies might cause a higher prevalence of these diseases in the Kingdom. PMID:26025591

  10. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  11. The Role and Responsibility of the National Regulator of Radiation Sources and Materials in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are neither nuclear power reactors nor are there research reactors in Saudi Arabia. However, the country imports a lot of radioactive sources that are used in different fields such as medicine, hydrology, industry and research. Usage of radioactive material is governed by national and the IAEA regulations for the safe usage and transport of radioactive materials. KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology) is an independent scientific organization established in 1977. It is the national competent authority that sets the rules of transporting, using and disposing of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia.. This paper discusses the role of KACST and other authorities in the country regarding the 1) licensing and evaluation of the importing and exporting applications of radioactive sources and/or devices in Saudi Arabia, 2) The regulatory framework of radiation protection in Saudi Arabia, 3) the management of radioactive wastes in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  12. Helicobacter pylori cagA and iceA genotypes status and risk of peptic ulcer in Saudi patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of cagA+ and iceA genotypes among Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates from a group of Saudi patients with gastric complaints, and to find out any significant correlation between these strains and severe gastric clinical outcomes such as peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in Saudi population. A total of 1104 gastric biopsies from 368 patients who presented with symptoms suggestive of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, or gastric carcinoma were taken from the main hospitals in the Western region of Saudi Arabia from July 2004 to July 2005. We cultured the samples for H. pylori and a polymerase chain reaction was carried out to check for the presence or absence of cagA gene and the status of iceA genotypes. Among the 368 suspected patients to be infected with H. pylori by means of clinical features and endoscopic findings; 103 (28%) were positive using culture technique. The relation of the presence of cagA and the development of cases to gastritis and ulcer was statistically significant (p=0.0001). Furthermore, this study revealed that 100% of ulcer cases were infected with iceA1 with a statistically significant correlation (p=0.0001), while 94.6% of gastritis and 90.9% of normal were infected with iceA2 (p=0.0001). Moreover cagA+/iceA1 combined genotypes was statistically correlated with peptic ulcer (100%) but not cagA-/iceA1 (0%; p=0.0001).Certain H. pylori genotypes were more virulent than others. Multiple clinical implications based on these finding might be studied further.(author)

  13. Association of Helicobacter pylori cagA Gene with Gastric Cancer and Peptic Ulcer in Saudi Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Taisir; Ghonaim, Mabrouk M; Yousef, Amany R; Khalifa, Amany; Al Qurashi, Hesham; Shaqhan, Mohammad; Samaha, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between occurrence of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer, and the presence of H. pylori cagA gene and anti-CagA IgG, and to estimate the value of these antibodies in detecting infection by cagA gene-positive H. pylori strains in Saudi patients. The study included 180 patients who were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Taif province and Western region of Saudi Arabia (60 gastric cancer, 60 peptic ulcer, and 60 with non-ulcer dyspepsia). Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained and tested for H. pylori infection by rapid urease test and culture. PCR was performed on the isolated strains and biopsy specimens for detection of the cagA gene. Blood samples were collected and tested for CagA IgG by ELISA. H. pylori infection was detected among 72.8% of patients. The cagA gene and anti-CagA IgG were found in 63.4% and 61.8% of H. pylori-infected patients, respectively. They were significantly (p ulcer compared with those with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Detection of the CagA IgG was 91.6% sensitive, 89.6% specific, and 90.8% accurate compared with detection of the cagA gene. Its positive and negative predictive values were 93.8% and 86%, respectively. The study showed a significant association between the presence of the cagA gene and gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease, and between anti-CagA IgG and the cagA gene in Saudi patients. However, a further larger study is required to confirm this finding.

  14. High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Camel in different districts of Saudi Arabia

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    Ali Ahmed Al-Eesa

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of serum antibodies to BTV in different domesticated animals in different localities of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 4845 field sera collected from different animal species within 10 districts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were screened for the presence of group-specific BTV antibodies by competitive ELISA (c ELISA. Results: The overall BTV antibody prevalence was 54.1%, 53.3%, 44.8% and 25.7% in sheep, goat, cattle and camel respectively (at 95% confidence level. The Jizan and Eastern Province districts were the regions with the highest prevalence resulting 65.8% of sheep, 68.2% of goats, 49.3% of cattle, 44% of camel in Jizan and 65.8% of sheep, 62.5% of goats, 53.4% of cattle, 28.5% of camel in Eastern Province positive to c-ELISA. The second highest rate was in Najran district where the seropositivity for Bluetongue was found to be 60% of sheep, 57.9% of goats, 47.2% of cattle and 29.3% of camel. Our results recorded positive animals in all examined districts which indicate serological evidence of exposure to infection was widely distributed all over the country. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the high occurrence of the BTV that emphasize the necessity to a well-defined control strategy for preventing and controlling the BTV in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 389-393

  15. Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Waleed I Albaker; Ahmed Badar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculate...

  16. Prevalence of intimate partner violence and its associated risk factors among Saudi female patients attending the primary healthcare centers in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahrani, Turki A.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A.; Ramadan, Iman K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among female patients, age 18-60 years, attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) and to measure its determinants, and reporting behavior. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using validated, translated, and self-administered questionnaire among 497 Saudi female patients attending PHCCs in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from January to February 2015 was employed. A 2-stage probability sampling was adopted f...

  17. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; El-Sheemy MA

    2014-01-01

    Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized inc...

  18. The prevalence of smoking and its associated factors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham I Al-Khashan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify its potential predictors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among military personnel in the five military regions of KSA between January 2009 and January 2011. The sample of 10,500 military personnel in the Saudi Armed Forces was equally divided among the five regions with a ratio 3:7 for officers and soldiers. A multistage stratified random sampling was used to recruit participants in the four services of the armed forces in the five regions. Information on sociodemographic characteristics with a detailed history of smoking was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with smoking, and multiple logistic regression analysis to discover its potential predictors. Results: About 35% of the sample was current smokers, with higher rates among soldiers. The eastern region had the highest rate (43.0%, and the southern region the lowest (27.5%. Navy personnel had a higher risk of being current smokers (40.6%, and the air defense the lowest risk (31.0%. Multivariate analysis identified working in the navy, and low income as positive predictors of current smoking, while residing in the southern region, older age, years of education, being married, and having an officer rank were negative (protective factors. Conclusion: Smoking is prevalent among military personnel in KSA, with higher rates in the Navy and Air Force, among privates, younger age group, lower education and income, and divorced/widowed status. Measures should be taken to initiate programs on smoking cessation that involve changes in the environment that is likely to promote this habit.

  19. Characterization of Nonmethane Hydrocarbons at Three Urban Sites in Western Saudi Arabia, in Lahore (Pakistan), and in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, B.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, N. J.; Meinardi, S.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Zeb, J.; Yu, L. E.; Khwaja, H. A.; Farrukh, M. A.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Favorable conditions to tropospheric ozone (O3) formation are present over the Persian Gulf Region. Ozone is a well known pollutant affecting human health and natural ecosystems. Among the several factors contributing to the formation of the O3 hot spot over the Middle East, the presence of local emissions of its precursors needs to be considered. We report initial measurements of a suite of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), an important component of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which, coupled with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight, are key chemical precursors of tropospheric O3. We measured 63 speciated C2-C10 NMHCs, in addition to methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) in three cities of Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Mecca, and Madina; October-November 2012 and April 2013) and in the city of Lahore (Pakistan; December 2012). To put these data into perspective, we compare our results to data collected in Singapore (August-November 2012). We observed enhanced levels in all three Saudi Arabian cities compared to the local background and to those measured in Singapore. However, the Saudi levels are much lower than those measured in Lahore, where the sum of quantified NMHCs is about six times higher. For Madina, enhanced levels of the alkenes, ethyne and CO indicated that vehicle exhaust was the dominant source. In Jeddah and Mecca, the most abundant NMHC were the alkanes (47-61% of total measured NMHCs), which are more closely associated with emissions from natural gas, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and gasoline evaporation. In Lahore, the hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity, used to evaluate the importance of the different measured species toward ozone production, is three to six times higher than for the Saudi cities, and more than 20 times higher than for Singapore. For all urban areas reported here, among the measured compounds, the alkenes (especially ethene and propene) dominate in terms of OH reactivity because of a combination of their great abundance and

  20. A new ant species of the genus Tetramorium mayr, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from Saudi Arabia, with a revised key to the Arabian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa R Sharaf

    Full Text Available Tetramorium amalae sp. n. is described and illustrated from Saudi Arabia based on two worker caste specimens collected in Al Bahah region. The new species belongs to the T. shilohense group and appears to be closely related to T. dysderke Bolton from Nigeria. T. amalae is distinguished by having well-developed frontal carinae, smaller eyes, greater head length and width, greater pronotal width, and the petiole node is longer than broad. Tetramorium latinode Collingwood & Agosti is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia and for only the second time since the original description. The worker caste of T. latinode is redescribed and illustrated using scanning electron micrographs to facilitate recognition and the gyne is described for the first time with observations given on species relationships, biology and habitat. A revised key to the nineteen Tetramorium species recorded from Arabian Peninsula based on worker castes is provided. Tetramorium bicarinatum (Nylander is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia. It is suggested that T. amalae and T. latinode are endemic to the Arabian Peninsula.

  1. Intronic Polymorphisms in the CDKN2B-AS1 Gene Are Strongly Associated with the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Artery Disease in the Saudi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed AbdulAzeez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on the chromosome 9p21.3 conferring the risk for CAD (coronary artery disease in individuals of Caucasian ancestry. We performed a genetic association study to investigate the effect of 12 candidate SNPs within 9p21.3 locus on the risk of CAD in the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A total of 250 Saudi CAD patients who had experienced an myocardial infarction (MI and 252 Saudi age-matched healthy controls were genotyped using TaqMan assay. Controls with evidenced lack of CAD provided 90% of statistical power at the type I error rate of 0.05. Five percent of the results were rechecked for quality control using Sanger sequencing, the results of which concurred with the TaqMan genotyping results. Association analysis of 12 SNPs indicated a significant difference in the genotype distribution for four SNPs between cases and controls (rs564398 p = 0.0315, χ2 = 4.6, odds ratio (OD = 1.5; rs4977574 p = 0.0336, χ2 = 4.5, OD = 1.4; rs2891168 p = 1.85 × 10 − 10, χ2 = 40.6, OD = 2.1 and rs1333042 p = 5.14 × 10 − 9, χ2 = 34.1, OD = 2.2. The study identified three protective haplotypes (TAAG p = 1.00 × 10 − 4; AGTA p = 0.022 and GGGCC p = 0.0175 and a risk haplotype (TGGA p = 2.86 × 10 − 10 for the development of CAD. This study is in line with others that indicated that the SNPs located in the intronic region of the CDKN2B-AS1 gene are associated with CAD.

  2. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing. PMID:27354384

  3. Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

  4. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  5. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = − 0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: ► New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. ► Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. ► Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. ► Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  6. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing.

  7. The Saudi guidelines for the diagnosis and management of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed H Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome the issue of underutilization of spirometry for diagnosing COPD, handheld spirometry is recommended to screen individuals at risk for COPD. A unique feature about this guideline is the simplified practical approach to classify COPD into three classes based on the symptoms as per COPD Assessment Test (CAT and the risk of exacerbations and hospitalization. Those patients with low risk of exacerbation (<2 in the past year can be classified as either Class I when they have less symptoms (CAT < 10 or Class II when they have more symptoms (CAT ≥ 10. High-risk COPD patients, as manifested with ≥2 exacerbation or hospitalization in the past year irrespective of the baseline symptoms, are classified as Class III. Class I and II patients require bronchodilators for symptom relief, while Class III patients are recommended to use medications that reduce the risks of exacerbations. The guideline recommends screening for co-morbidities and suggests a comprehensive management approach including pulmonary rehabilitation for those with a CAT score ≥10. The article also discusses the diagnosis and management of acute exacerbations in COPD.

  8. Risk factors associated with postpartum depression in the Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharbi AA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abeer A Alharbi,1 Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Postpartum depression (PPD is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods: Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby's sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results: Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%. Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8% had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5% females were anemic during pregnancy (P≤0.05. These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03. Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95, but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary. Keywords: postpartum depression, hemoglobin level, anemia, EPDS

  9. Variations in basic demographics consequential to population size of governorate in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khraif, Rshood; Salam, Asharaf Abdul; Potty, Rajaram Subramanian; Aldosari, Ali; Elsegaey, Ibrahim; AlMutairi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia, divided into 5 planning regions, 13 administrative regions and further to 118 governorates (administrative units), has diverse demographic characteristics from one region to another and from one governorate to another. Rural to urban migration and an exodus of immigrants characterize the Kingdom, where development planning depend largely upon local level requirements based on economic activities. An attempt was made to analyze the population characteristics, such as population size, sex ratio, native to foreigner ratio, and households and persons per households by keeping governorate as unit of analysis. Data of two census period (2004 and 2010) was used in order to explore the situation and track the intercensal changes. Large variations in population were observed between governorates and it varied from 3686 to 5,007,886 in 2010. Governorates are divided according to the number of native population demarcating urbanization, modernization and infrastructure. During the intercensal period, the number of small governorates reduced and medium and large sized governorates increased mainly due to population growth. The average population in governorates was increased in total and in the larger governorates during the period. However, we noticed a reduction in the average population size in the small and medium sized governorates. The size of native population in a governorate influences the sex ratio, the native-foreigner ratio and the persons per household as well as the variations within the group of governorates. Analyses of lower level data shall aid not only to understand the situation but also to support local development policies. PMID:27652007

  10. Variations in basic demographics consequential to population size of governorate in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khraif, Rshood; Salam, Asharaf Abdul; Potty, Rajaram Subramanian; Aldosari, Ali; Elsegaey, Ibrahim; AlMutairi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia, divided into 5 planning regions, 13 administrative regions and further to 118 governorates (administrative units), has diverse demographic characteristics from one region to another and from one governorate to another. Rural to urban migration and an exodus of immigrants characterize the Kingdom, where development planning depend largely upon local level requirements based on economic activities. An attempt was made to analyze the population characteristics, such as population size, sex ratio, native to foreigner ratio, and households and persons per households by keeping governorate as unit of analysis. Data of two census period (2004 and 2010) was used in order to explore the situation and track the intercensal changes. Large variations in population were observed between governorates and it varied from 3686 to 5,007,886 in 2010. Governorates are divided according to the number of native population demarcating urbanization, modernization and infrastructure. During the intercensal period, the number of small governorates reduced and medium and large sized governorates increased mainly due to population growth. The average population in governorates was increased in total and in the larger governorates during the period. However, we noticed a reduction in the average population size in the small and medium sized governorates. The size of native population in a governorate influences the sex ratio, the native-foreigner ratio and the persons per household as well as the variations within the group of governorates. Analyses of lower level data shall aid not only to understand the situation but also to support local development policies.

  11. Outbreaks of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Libya and Saudi Arabia During 2013 Due to an Exotic O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 Lineage Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N J; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Wadsworth, J; Mioulet, V; Valdazo-González, B; Eldaghayes, I M; Dayhum, A S; Kammon, A M; Sharif, M A; Waight, S; Shamia, A M; Tenzin, S; Wernery, U; Grazioli, S; Brocchi, E; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B; King, D P

    2016-10-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease viruses are often restricted to specific geographical regions and spread to new areas may lead to significant epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the VP1 genome region of recent outbreak viruses from Libya and Saudi Arabia has revealed a lineage, O-Ind-2001, normally found in the Indian subcontinent. This paper describes the characterization of field viruses collected from these cases and provides information about a new real-time RT-PCR assay that can be used to detect viruses from this lineage and discriminate them from other endemic FMD viruses that are co-circulating in North Africa and western Eurasia.

  12. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  13. Designing an ESP Curriculum for Saudi Science Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Saleh Suleiman Alfallaj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study looks at available views on ESP especially for students of science both as an academic tool and as an occupational need. It also endeavours to present a curriculum for the undergraduate students of Science at Qassim University, KSA. It is an objective of the paper to propose a use and need based syllabus to prepare the learners for life. The study concludes with a set of recommendations and suggestions that would improve the Academic and occupational aspects of the ESP scenario at all institutions of Higher Learning in the Kingdom where English is a secondary subject.Keywords: Designing curriculum, Saudi students, ESP

  14. Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahammam MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Maha A BahammamDepartment of Periodontology, King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: This study aimed to examine diabetic patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, regarding their general diabetic and oral health-related awareness and practices, their awareness of the association of diabetes with periodontal disease, and their sources of diabetes-related information.Methods: Diabetic patients (n=454 who were receiving care at the diabetes clinic in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to May 2014, completed a six-part questionnaire assessing their sociodemographic characteristics, general and oral health awareness and practices, and sources of diabetes-related information. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results.Results: The responses indicated inadequate health-related practices in the surveyed group: 22.2% brushed their teeth twice daily, 73.6% never flossed their teeth, and while 80.2% visited a physician in the past year, only 12.6% visited a dentist during the same year. Of the respondents, 94.8% reported that they had never received advice on oral hygiene tasks in relation to diabetes from a health professional. Awareness about the diabetes and periodontal disease association was limited: 46.7% knew that diabetics have gum problems more often if their blood sugar stays very high, and only 21.8% knew that gum disease makes it harder to control blood sugar in diabetic patients. A significant association (P<0.05 was found between a higher level of education and greater general and oral awareness, as well as a significant association (P<0.05 between longer duration of disease, regular exercise, and regular visits to the physician and awareness about diabetes mellitus. Additionally, a significant association (P<0.05 was found between regular dental visits and both periodontal disease and diabetes awareness. Family and friends were the main source of

  15. Smoking pattern among female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Koura, Manal R.; Ahlam F Al-Dossary; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. The estimated annual death rate of 4.9 million people in 1999 is expected to rise to 10 million by the 2020s and 2030s, 7 million of which will occur in developing countries. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and assess its pattern among non-medical female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study ...

  16. Factors of successful women leadership in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Kattan, Manal

    2015-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral leída en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid en 2015. Directores de la Tesis: José Luis Montes Botella y Vasilica Maria Margalina Saudi woman face many typesof sexual segregation, which hinders her opportunity to reach leadership positions, even that there are misconceptions in our society that she is not suitable for leadership, so we try here to focus on this subject in the light of lack of studies which investigate this matter. This paper aims to highlight t...

  17. A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almutairi AF, McCarthy A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take care of Saudi patients who are from the dominant culture. In this scenario, a lack of knowledge of Saudi culture among nurses can lead to cultural conflicts and misunderstanding of some of the behaviours and practices of the indigenous Saudi people. Culture is a complex notion; however, being aware of cultural differences and having cultural knowledge can help people to interact safely. Educating expatriate nurses about the cultural heritage of the Saudi people, which is mainly influenced by Islamic teachings, is important to increase cultural harmony.

  18. Risk Factors for and Barriers to Control Type-2 Diabetes among Saudi Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alneami, Yahya Mari; Coleman, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Type-2 Diabetes is dramatically increasing in urban areas within Saudi Arabia. Hence, Type-2 Diabetes has now become the most common public health problem. Understanding the major risk factors for and barriers to control Type-2 Diabetes may lead to strategies to prevent, control, and reduce in the burden of disease cases. Objective: To describe risk factors for and barriers to control Type- 2 Diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The literature search was conducted on risk factors for and barriers to control Type- 2 Diabetes in Saudi Arabia using the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar (2007-2015). The literature search yielded 80 articles, of which 70 articles were included in this review after excluding non-relevant articles. Results: The literature review revealed that obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, smoking, and aging are the major risk factors for Type-2 Diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Further, the review allocated a complex set of barriers including, lack of education, social support, and healthy environment. These barriers may hinder Saudis with Type-2 Diabetes from controlling their disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of Type-2 Diabetes is high among the Saudi population and represents a major public health problem. Effective research programs are needed to address the modifiable risk factors for and barriers to control Type-2 Diabetes among Saudi population. PMID:27157156

  19. Foods and food allergy: The prevalence of IgE antibodies specific for food allergens in Saudi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Rab Mohamad Osman

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The intent of this study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of sensitivity to food allergens in Saudi patients. Subjects: The subjects included in this study were 58 patients with asthma, 47 patients with rhinitis and 112 patients with urticaria. They all gave clinical history suspecting food as causing or aggravating their symptoms. Methods: Specific IgE antibodies to different food allergens were measured in the patients serum by using the Pharmacia CAP Radioaller gosorbent (RAST Fluoroimmunoassay (FEIA test. Results: IgE-antibodies specific for different foods were detected in 38 (17.5% out of 217 patients. Most positive reactions were detected in urticaria patients (9.7% followed by asthmatic patients (5.5% and allergic rhinitis (2.3%. Reactions to peanut (22.6%, egg white (14.5 and cow′s milk (12.9% were very prominent. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of food allergy seems to be high in Saudi patients when compared to studies from other regions. The pattern of food reactions, detected in this study, can be utilized in diagnosis of patients with suspected food allergy. Further studies will be required to obtain more information about the prevalence and incidence rates among different patient groups.

  20. A review of environmental governance and its effects on concentrate discharge from desalination plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan

    2013-01-01

    The most likely environmental impact of concentrate discharges (in most instances twice the concentration of the ambient environment) leaking from desalination plants on local marine ecosystems has been controversially discussed for many years. Increasing water demand and lack of renewable natural water resources in Saudi Arabia also result in greater dependence on desalination and consequently amplify the impact on marine environment and multifactorial ecosystems in near-field areas of desalination discharges. Accurate scientific baseline data should furnish information on various factors such as intake- and outfall locality, brine (concentrate) discharge and chemical characteristics (i.e. effluent concentration, mass flow rates (flux)), local effects, and even cumulative effects of desalination activities, at least on a regional and even on a national scale. Even if such data were available, in many cases they are non-transparent and are not even accessible, or tend to be overlooked as a result of ambiguous desalination-related policies. This paper focuses on national environmental regulations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and how such regulations help control the flow of concentrate discharge into the receiving waters. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  1. Potential Use of Communications and Project Management Systems in Remote Construction Projects: The Case of Saudi Electric Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhzad Sidawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote projects have their unique problems that are caused mainly by the remoteness of the project itself thus the loose control over management. This is due to a number of reasons such as lack of human resources and infrastructure. Research studies that were undertaken worldwide - regarding this issue- has highlighted few unique management problems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how far the IT tools would help in managing remote construction projects in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Due to the lack of previous research regarding remote projects within the Gulf region and the KSA, a pilot study was conducted in 2009 to define and test the wording of questions that are part of the main survey. The main survey was undertaken on Saudi Electric Company (SEC. The study found that IT systems and tools have the potential but this potential is hindered by a number of technical, managerial, staff factors. Therefore, successful application of IT systems would require changes to the present management settings at various levels. This would ensure that the SEC is capable of achieving the full benefit from using these advanced systems.

  2. The relationship between quality of work life and turnover intention of primary health care nurses in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almalki Mohammed J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of work life (QWL has been found to influence the commitment of health professionals, including nurses. However, reliable information on QWL and turnover intention of primary health care (PHC nurses is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between QWL and turnover intention of PHC nurses in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of Quality of Nursing Work Life, the Anticipated Turnover Scale and demographic data questions. A total of 508 PHC nurses in the Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia, completed the questionnaire (RR = 87%. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, General Linear Model (GLM univariate analysis, standard multiple regression, and hierarchical multiple regression were applied for analysis using SPSS v17 for Windows. Results Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life, with almost 40% indicating a turnover intention from their current PHC centres. Turnover intention was significantly related to QWL. Using standard multiple regression, 26% of the variance in turnover intention was explained by QWL, p 2 = .263. Further analysis using hierarchical multiple regression found that the total variance explained by the model as a whole (demographics and QWL was 32.1%, p Conclusions Creating and maintaining a healthy work life for PHC nurses is very important to improve their work satisfaction, reduce turnover, enhance productivity and improve nursing care outcomes.

  3. The impact of Dust Storms on both Solar Radiation and Sky temperature in Tabouk Saudi Arabia, theoretical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Abdullrahman

    2016-04-01

    Dust particles affect both solar and terrestrial radiation by scattering and absorption and are therefore considered to be a significant climate-forcing factor. Dust storms are a very frequent phenomenon in Saudi Arabia. Several dust storm events occurred in Tabouk, northern region of Saudi Arabia, during the period between 2014-2015. In this study, simulations using the SMART model were conducted to investigate how the dusty conditions affected the solar irradiances during these events. Additionally, theoretical simulations were carried out using MODTRAN program to examine the changes in the infrared sky temperature during dusty conditions. The Atmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) measurements at (500 nm) were used as an input into both programs. The analysis showed that the dusty conditions significantly decrease the global and direct irradiances and increase the diffuse component compared with clear sky days. Also it was found that the dust storms increase the sky temperature in the atmospheric window (8-14 μm) such that the window emissions resembled those of a blackbody and the atmospheric window was almost closed.

  4. Prevalence and Pattern of Refractive Errors among Primary School Children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Wadaani, Fahd Abdullah Al; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Ayub; Khan, Ataur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Some 12.8 million in the age group 5–15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were sel...

  5. Saudi demand for Filipino workers: labor migration issues in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J E

    1982-08-01

    The increased demand for Filipino workers in Saudi Arabia over the past decade is analyzed. The role of the Philippines in the supply of foreign labor is briefly considered. An overview of manpower needs in the Middle East is presented, and the effects of various social, political, and economic features of Saudi Arabian development on the demand for Filipino workers are examined. Issues discussed include the long-term American presence in Saudi Arabia, sensitivity to the impact of foreigners on the work force and on life-style, investment in the welfare of temporary workers, skill requirements, wages and productivity, and political influence.

  6. Saudi Arabia's oil policy after 1. oil crisis explained with the help of a cartel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabian oil policy is analyzed by using a cartel model where Saudi Arabia's oil production is a function of oil price and oil production in other OPEC countries. Elasticities for oil production and oil price are estimated covering oil crises and 3 intercrises periods. During all intercrises periods, production elasticity is not significantly different from 1 which, to a considerable extent, shows that the oil production in Saudi Arabia followed that of the other OPEC countries. During oil crisis periods, production elasticities were either significantly negative or not significantly different from zero. In most cases, the price elasticity was not significantly different from zero. (au)

  7. Between obedience and rebellion: a field study on the young women of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaouhari, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    This research explores the perceptions young Saudi women in Jeddah have of their lives. It seeks to uncover the role and different degrees that obedience and rebellion feature in the everyday lives of the young Saudi women in Jeddah. The subjects of the research were young Saudi women aged 16-21, all living in Jeddah at the time of the study and studying at either high school or university. The study employed a qualitative methodology to identify the extent of obedience and rebellion and thei...

  8. Saudi regulations for the accreditation of sleep medicine physicians and technologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional content of sleep medicine has grown significantly over the past few decades, warranting the recognition of sleep medicine as an independent specialty. Because the practice of sleep medicine has expanded in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, a national regulation system to license and ascertain the competence of sleep medicine physicians and technologists has become essential. Recently, the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties formed the National Committee for the Accreditation of Sleep Medicine Practice and developed national accreditation criteria. This paper presents the newly approved Saudi accreditation criteria for sleep medicine physicians and technologists.

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with low bone mineral density in Saudi women: a community based survey

    OpenAIRE

    AlJohara M. AlQuaiz; Kazi, Ambreen; Tayel, Salwa; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al-Sharif, Abdullah; Othman, Saleh; Habib, Fawzia; Fouda, Mona; Sulaimani, Riad

    2014-01-01

    Background Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a public health issue in Saudi Arabia. This study measured the prevalence and factors associated with low BMD in Saudi women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross sectional study using two stage cluster sampling technique was conducted in Riyadh, 2009. Thirty clusters, each comprising of 300 houses were randomly chosen and from each cluster 38–40 households were selected to identify 1150 women of >40 years. Women were invited to primary health c...

  10. Menopausal symptoms and quality of life among Saudi women visiting primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlDughaither A; AlMutairy H; AlAteeq M

    2015-01-01

    Aida AlDughaither,1 Hind AlMutairy,2 Mohammed AlAteeq11College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: Menopause is associated with somatic, vasomotor, psychological, and sexual complaints that may affect quality of life. We determined the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and their ...

  11. A Rapid Assessment of Scleractinian and Non-Scleractinian Coral Growth Forms Along the Saudi Arabian Coast, Red Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani; N. Marimuthu; J. Jerald Wilson

    2014-01-01

    In this study we assessed the current status of coral reefs along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea. Among the three growth forms of Acroporid corals, the branching forms were found to dominate in the Farassan Islands (44.55%±11.10%cover) fol-lowed by tabular forms in the Doga Islands (ranging between 18%±6.47% and 18.30%±9.47% cover). Digitate forms were rarely found along the coast except at Maqna. Among the five growth forms of non-Acroporid corals, we observed maximum cover of branching forms in the Yanbu offshore area (58.89%±15.11% cover) followed by the Jeddah coast (24.76%±14.04% cover). The Millepora spp., a non-Scleractinian coral, was abundant at all the near-shore sites, such as Jeddah (10.70%±8.21%) and Al-Wajh (9.81%±6.69%). The live coral cover (including both Scleractinian and non-Scleractinian corals) of Saudi Red Sea coast was seen to be higher in the north and gradually decrease towards the south. Principal Component analysis showed that the contribution of Acro-porid corals was greater in the southern region than in the northern and middle regions, but vice-versa in the case of non-Acroporid corals. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis categorized all the study sites into two major clusters with 60% similarity. Among them, one cluster-forming sites from Maqna to Masturah (Northern region) and the second one comprised the middle and southern regions (Jeddah to Farassan Islands), and one outlier Rabigh.

  12. Novel mutations in two Saudi patients with congenital retinal dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Abu Safieh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To report novel mutations in two Saudi children with clinical features of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA and Alström syndrome. Case reports. Case 1 was a child with phenotypic features of LCA including oculodigital sign, bilateral enophthalmos, nystagmus, pale disc, and retinal changes. Direct sequencing of the coding sequence of GUCY2D revealed a missense mutation affecting highly conserved position (c. 743C > T; p.S248 L. Case 2 describes a girl with marked nystagmus, photophobia, and retinal changes in both eyes with short and stubby fingers tapering at the distal phalanges. The electroretinograms were nonrecordable in each eye. She had a hearing aid in the left ear, mid-facial hypoplasia, bilateral enophthalmos, and insulin dependent diabetes. Mutation screening of candidates genes revealed a pathogenic mutation in ALMS1 gene (c. 8441C > A, p.S2814*. Two novel mutations causing phenotypic LCA and Alström syndrome in Saudi patients from consanguineous families expand the genotypic spectrum of congenital retinal dystrophies

  13. Structural model for the Saudi Arabian economy: a monetary approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hajji, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to quantify the sensitivity of the major macroeconomic variables of the Saudi Arabian economy with respect to (i) monetary and fiscal actions, (ii) the price and quantity of oil exports, and (iii) the price of imports variable, this study employs the monetary approach in constructing a macroeconomic model for the Saudi economy. This macroeconomic model, estimated for 1968-1984, proved to be stable since the historical dynamic simulation of the model for the estimation period resulted in simulated series that closely follow their corresponding actual series. Using this model, the multiplier analysis implies that fiscal policy is far more effective than monetary policy. Furthermore, the multiplier analysis suggests that due to changes in the price and quantity of oil exports, the monetary base is subject to feedback effects from the foreign and government sectors. Finally, using the model, the levels of major macroeconomic variables were forecasted for the period 1985-1995. Based on three scenarios related to the price and quantity of oil exports, findings indicate that, with implementation of fiscal policy, the economy will adjust to the adverse effects of the sharp decline in the price of oil in 1986-1987 and conditions suitable for a growing economy can be created.

  14. Detection of Toxic Metalsin Lipsticks Products in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairia Mohamed Ahmed Al-Qahtani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Since the dawn of civilization cosmetics have constituted a part of routine body care not only by the upper strata of society but also by middle and low class people. Heavy metals contamination in cosmetic products is becoming an important health problem in both worldwide and locally at the level of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA.The aim of this study was tostudy.Quantitatively estimated heavy metals “lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic” using graphite.Methods: total of 21 popular brands used lipstick products sold in Riyadh market samples from 3 different types of lipsticks frequently used among females in Saudi Arabia was digested. The digested samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic using graphite furnace- atomic absorption spectrometry. Results:the mercury concentration was high followed by arsenic and cadmium, finally lead. The results indicate that the toxic heavy metals in all the samples were below the US FDA and SFDA permissible limits for cosmetic products with the exception the mercury content in some lipstick samples was higher than SFDA. There was no significant difference among the lipsticks in price categories.Conclusion: Continuous use and possible unintended ingestion of these toxic heavy metals, though in low levels in the cosmetics, may pose potential health risk due to their bioaccumulation in body organs.

  15. Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice toward medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldalo, Ahmed S.; Yousif, Mirghani A.; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad

    2013-01-01

    The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15–20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines’ uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine’s efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students’ reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ⩽18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P < 0.014). The study showed that Saudi school students aged 15–20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students’ practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406

  16. Evaluation of Saudi pegmatite and its use in porcelain industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M.H. Al-Marzouki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegmatite is the main source of feldspar for ceramics industry. Usage of pegmatite in ceramic industry causes some problems due to the presence of mica and iron oxides. These materials reduce tile strength, hardness and density of the final product leading to low quality ceramic products. Southern Saudi pegmatite separation treatment was carried out in two phases in order to improve the ceramic quality of the feldspar obtained from this pegmatite. The first phase consists of gravitational separation to remove the heavy impurities and in the second phase magnetic separation was carried out to further minimize iron content. Porcelain ceramic batches were prepared by wet-mixing, drying, pressing (semi-dry press and fired at temperatures from 1000 to 1350 °C. The porcelain ceramic bodies were prepared and examined by DTA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and tested for bulk density, linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength. These results indicated that, after treatment (gravity and magnetic separation, the pegmatite can be considered as a good source of potash feldspar. The present study provides a positive indication for using of Southern Saudi pegmatite after treatment in ceramic industries.

  17. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alghadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

  18. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  19. In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-04-01

    Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

  20. Consanguinity pattern and heritability of Vitiligo in Arar, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaifallah A Alenizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors. Aim: To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar. Patients and Methods: This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 ± 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 ± 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 ± 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%, 21 (30.4%, 8 (11.6%, and 18 (26.1%, respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2% cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model. Conclusion: Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo.

  1. Anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia among adults in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A Saeed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: dyslipidemia and obesity are key independent modifiable risk factors for many non communicable chronic diseases. Patterns of association between these factors may help prevention and control. This study aims to assess the association between lipids profile and obesity among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identify anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia.Methods: data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using WHO STEPwise approach that included 4 990 Saudi adults aged 15- 64 years selected by stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling technique. Lipid profiles (cholesterol categories and triglycerides were determined spectrophotometrically by colorimetric biochemical methods. Obesity was determined by calculation of body mass index (BMI=Kg/m2, waist and hip circumferences and ratio and waist to height ratio.Results: the overall prevalence of obesity ranged from 33.8 to 44.4 % and the overall dyslipidemia prevalence ranged from about 25 to 44% depending on type of dyslipidemia and anthropometrics used. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and mean concentration of lipids profile were generally significantly higher in obese than non obese. The indicator waist/height ratio was the significant predictor for all types of dyslipidemia and all levels of serum lipids.Conclusions: the prevalence dyslipidemia and obesity are high and they are positively associated. Waist/height ratio was the most important predictor of dyslipidemia among adults.

  2. Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

    2013-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

  3. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

  4. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadira A Al-Baghli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.

  5. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia. PMID:24673080

  6. Prospect of Neem Plantation at Arafat, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. U Mridha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indicaA.Juss. is a multipurpose agroforestry tree that is well adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions and has gained worldwide recognition for its pharmaceutical and pesticidal properties.The world's largest pure Neem plantations are available in the plains of Arafat, Saudi Arabia where 50,000 thousands Neem trees were planted to provide shade from the blazing summer sun for the millions of Hajis (Muslim pilgrims. Sporadic mature Neem trees are also found in Medinah, Taif and elsewhereof the Kingdom. The Neem tree is adapted to Arafat under harsh climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia and the plantation may be extended to other parts of the Kingdom as a avenue tree and also to minimize the desertification under changing climatic conditions and to improve the environmental condition of the country. At Arafat mixed plantations may be advocated to save the present plantation which may come from climate change as well as pest and diseases problems. So care must be taken to monitor the diseases of Neem tree at Arafat on a regularbasis. Because of insufficient growth of Neem at Arafat the methods of green cultivation with microbial inoculants, organic fertilizers, mycotrophic green manure plants may be practiced for successful plantation.

  7. The Saudi Thoracic Society guidelines for influenza vaccinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed O Zeitouni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses are responsible for the influenza outbreaks that lead to significant burden and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Based on the core proteins, influenza viruses are classified into three types, A, B, and C, of which only A and B cause significant human disease and so the vaccine is directed against these two subtypes only. The effectiveness of the vaccine depends on boosting the immune system against the serotypes included within it. As influenza viruses undergo periodic changes in their antigen, the vaccine is modified annually to ensure susceptibility. In contrast to other countries, Saudi Arabia faces a unique and challenging situation due to Hajj and Umrah seasons, when millions of people gather at the holy places in Mecca and Madinah, during which influenza outbreaks are commonly found. Such challenges making the adoption of strict vaccination strategy in Saudi Arabia is of great importance. All efforts were made to develop this guideline in an easy-to-read form, making it very handy and easy to use by health care workers. The guideline was designed to provide recommendations for problems frequently encountered in real life, with special consideration for special situations such as Hajj and Umrah seasons and pregnancy.

  8. Physical Activity and Health Beliefs among Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas S. Al-Eisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity (PA is associated with health benefits and disease prevention and is often prescribed in managing many health conditions. Understanding the cultural influences is relevant in order to effectively promote PA. The objective of this study was to assess the level of PA among Saudi women, measured by daily step count, and the association between PA and health beliefs. Methods. A total of 161 eligible participants were asked to complete two questionnaires to assess health beliefs: Health Locus of Control (HLC and Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale. Each participant was given a pedometer and a diary to record their daily PA for two weeks. Results. One hundred and five participants completed the two weeks pedometer data (mean age 26.3±7.1 years, BMI 25±4.2 kg/m2. The average pedometer score over two weeks was 5114±2213 steps. Step count had strong correlation with self-efficacy (rs=0.75, mild correlation with internal HLC (rs=0.42, and mild negative correlation with external HLC (rs=−0.35. Conclusion. The study demonstrates high level of inactivity among Saudi females in reference to the international recommendation for minimum activity. The data also reveal an association between PA and health beliefs. Ultimately, such information can be used to design gender- and culture-sensitive interventions that could enhance adherence to PA.

  9. Preliminary assessment of atmospheric turbidity at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, M.A.; Nimmo, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    Direct and total radiation measurements carried out over several years in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia in support of the Research Institute's solar energy programs have indicated a relatively large diffuse radiation component. This is primarily due to airborne particulates carried aloft by the prevailing winds in a desert environment and occurs particularly during the Shamal (north wind) sandstorm season. As a first step in quantifying the nature of this atmospheric turbidity, spectral beam solar radiation measurements for the period July 1980 to June 1981 were made in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Lat. 26/sup 0/ 23', Long. 50/sup 0/ 00'), using broad-band filter techniques. Schott filters (OG1, RG2 and RG8) arranged on an automatically rotated disk mounted on an Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer were used for the measurements. The Beer-Lambert relation was used to calculate optical depths from which values of the Angstroem Coefficient of Turbidity, ..beta.., were obtained for the wavelength exponent, ..cap alpha.. = 1.3. In addition, Herovanu's method was used to obtain ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. values for each month. The 12-month average values of ..beta.. and ..cap alpha.. were 0.22 and 1.28, respectively. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  10. A multi-decadal assessment of the performance of gauge- and model-based rainfall products over Saudi Arabia: Climatology, anomalies and trends

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2015-05-15

    Many arid and semi-arid regions have sparse precipitation observing networks, which limits the capacity for detailed hydrological modelling, water resources management and flood forecasting efforts. The objective of this work is to evaluate the utility of relatively high-spatial resolution rainfall products to reproduce observed multi-decadal rainfall characteristics such as climatologies, anomalies and trends over Saudi Arabia. Our study compares the statistical characteristics of rainfall from 53 observatories over the reference period 1965-2005, with rainfall data from six widely used gauge-based products, including APHRODITE, GPCC, PRINCETON, UDEL, CRU and PREC/L. In addition, the performance of three global climate models (GCMs), including CCSM4, EC-EARTH and MRI-I-CGCM3, integrated as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), was also evaluated. Results indicate that the gauge-based products were generally skillful in reproducing rainfall characteristics in Saudi Arabia. In most cases, the gauge-based products were also able to capture the annual cycle, anomalies and climatologies of observed data, although significant inter-product variability was observed, depending on the assessment metric being used. In comparison, the GCM-based products generally exhibited poor performance, with larger biases and very weak correlations, particularly during the summertime. Importantly, all products generally failed to reproduce the observed long-term seasonal and annual trends in the region, particularly during the dry seasons (summer and autumn). Overall, this work suggests that selected gauge-based products with daily (APHRODITE and PRINCETON) and monthly (GPCC and CRU) resolutions show superior performance relative to other products, implying that they may be the most appropriate data source from which multi-decadal variations of rainfall can be investigated at the regional scale over Saudi Arabia. Discriminating these skillful products is

  11. Liquidity and firm performance: Evidence from the MENA region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Bouaich, Fatima Zahra

    2012-01-01

    How can individual investors infer value relevant information from publicly available data in information scarce emerging markets? Using a large dataset from the MENA region (Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain), we document a significantly positive...

  12. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  13. Biogeographic Patterns of Reef Fish Communities in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roberts, May B.

    2014-12-01

    As a region renowned for high biodiversity, endemism and extreme temperature and salinity levels, the Red Sea is of high ecological interest. Despite this, there is relatively little literature on basic broad scale characteristics of the biodiversity or overall reef fish communities and how they change across latitude. We conducted visual transects recording the abundance of over 200 species of fish from 45 reefs spanning over 1000 km of Saudi Arabian coastline and used hierarchical cluster analysis to find that for combined depths from 0m-10m across this geographical range, the reef fish communities are relatively similar. However we find some interesting patterns both at the community level across depth and latitude as well as in endemic community distributions. We find that the communities, much like the environmental factors, shift gradually along latitude but do not show distinct clusters within the range we surveyed (from Al-Wajh in the north to the Farasan Banks in the south). Numbers of endemic species tend to be higher in the Thuwal region and further south. This type of baseline data on reef fish distribution and possible factors that may influence their ranges in the Red Sea are critical for future scientific studies as well as effective monitoring and in the face of the persistent anthropogenic influences such as coastal development, overfishing and climate change.

  14. Economical Feasibility of Utilizing Photovoltaics for Water Pumping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Z. Sahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and water are the two major need of the globe which need to be addressed for the sustenance of the human beings on this planet. All the nations, no matter most populous, developed and developing need to diversify the means and ways of producing energy and at the same time guarding the environment. This study aims at techno economical feasibility of producing energy using PV solar panels and utilizing it to pump-water at Dhahran, Riyadh, Jeddah, Guriat, and Nejran regions in Saudi Arabia. The solar radiation data from these stations was used to generate electricity using PV panels of 9.99 kW total capacity. Nejran region was found to be most economical in terms of minimal payback period and cost of energy and maximum internal rate of return whereas PV power production was concerned. Water-pumping capacity of the solar PV energy system was calculated at five locations based on the PV power production and Goulds model 45J series of pumps. Monthly total and annual total water pumping capacities were determined. Considering the capital cost of combined solar PV energy system and the pump unit a cost analysis of water pumping for a well of 50 m total dynamic head (TDH was carried out. The cost of water pumping was found to vary between 2 and 3 /m3.

  15. Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

    2012-01-01

    The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

  16. Saudi rahuplaan ajas Iisraeli juhid tülli / Marek Laane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laane, Marek, 1969-

    2002-01-01

    Saudi Araabia esitatud Lähis-Ida rahuplaan on ajanud Iisraeli juhtkonna tülli: peaminister Ariel Sharon on selle vastu, president Moshe Katsar on aga valmis saudidega kohtuma. Kaart: Iisraeli muutuvad piirid

  17. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment and... Federal Register, posting on the Commerce Department trade mission calendar (...

  18. Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

    2011-10-01

    Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4±6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6±6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7±5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The "within regions" (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region "1" (p = 0.783) and versus region "5" (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region "3" ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region "4" (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other

  19. Knowledge Management in Higher Education : Applicability of LKMC Model in Saudi Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Farzana Shafique

    2015-01-01

    This paper stresses on the need of using Knowledge Management (KM) in the higher education institutions of Saudi Arabia. The paper is based on the literature review and personal experience of the author in the education sector. The paper aims at highlighting the importance of KM for the educational institutions particularly for developing countries. It also revi ews the readiness of Saudi Arabia for KM appli...

  20. BOARD OF DIRECTORS, AUDIT COMMITTEE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE PERFORMANCE OF SAUDI ARABIA LISTED COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Ali Al-Matari; Abdullah Kaid Al-Swidi; Faudziah Hanim Bt Fadzil Hanim Fadzil; Ebrahim Mohammed Al-Matari

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the internal corporate governance mechanism related to the board of directors, the audit committee characteristics and the performance of the Saudi companies listed in the Saudi stock exchange (TADAWL) in 2010, excluding financial companies. The statistical results of the study are not in line with the agency theory that board of directors and audit committee might mitigate agency problems leading to reduced agency cost by aligning the interests of...

  1. Board of Directors, Audit Committee Characteristics and Performance of Saudi Arabia Listed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Ali Al-Matari; Abdullah Kaid Al-Swidi; Faudziah Hanim Bt Fadzil; Ebrahim Mohammed Al-Matari

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the internal corporate governance mechanism related to the board of directors, the audit committee characteristics and the performance of the Saudi companies listed in the Saudi stock exchange (TADAWL) in 2010, excluding financial companies. The statistical results of the study are not in line with the agency theory that board of directors and audit committee might mitigate agency problems leading to reduced agency cost by aligning the interests of...

  2. Incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 complications among Saudi adult patients at primary health care center

    OpenAIRE

    Alsenany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed type 2 diabetes and its role in complications among adult Saudi patients. [Subjects] Patients attending four primary health care centers in Jeddah were enrolled. [Methods] A cross-sectional design study among Saudi patients attending Ministry of Health primary health care centers in Jeddah was selected for use by the Primary Health Care administration. Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires to determine the presence of diabetes and risk factors ...

  3. Tobacco consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013: findings from a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A.; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco consumption is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The Saudi Ministry of Health started a national tobacco control program in 2002 with increased and intensified efforts after joining the World Health Organization Framework Convention for Tobacco Control in 2005. Methods In order to assess the status of tobacco consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), we conducted a survey on 10735 individuals aged 15 years or older (5253 men and 5482 women) which was ...

  4. A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rayed AlGhamdi; Steve Drew; Thamer Alhussain

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four...

  5. End of the Islamic Cold War: the Saudi-Iranian Detente and its implications

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Saudi Arabia and Iran are not only reconciling their diplomatic differences, but are also cooperating in numerous areas including oil, trade, and domestic security. Given their differences, what forces are lessening tensions and motivating them to pursue this new detente? More importantly, what are the implications of this new relationship? Shifting political sands in Saudi Arabia and Iran in the late 90s, the failure of the US "Dual Containment" policy, and the collapse of the Middle East P...

  6. Female Teachers’ Perception of Reflective Teaching as a Teacher Development Tool in the Saudi Context

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Shukri

    2014-01-01

    Teacher development in the EFL context has been well-established in Western educational institutions. However, although there are some limited studies in the Middle East, it is still under-researched in Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the EFL teachers’ perceptions of reflective teaching as a tool for teacher development and its challenges in higher education in Saudi Arabia. It also aims to raise teachers’ awareness of the importance of teacher development and its empowering impact in m...

  7. Role of language and communication in providing quality healthcare by expatriate nurses in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrhman Albougami

    2015-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has experienced rapid growth in its healthcare system, leading to an influx of many foreign professional nurses in the healthcare workforce. This increasing trend of foreign professional nurses into the KSA healthcare system has serious implications such as cultural, language and communication barriers that in turn have the potential to compromise the ability to ensure quality of care to Saudi patients. KSA is a conservative Islamic country that is guided by ...

  8. Language Learning Strategy Use of Saudi EFL Students in an Intensive English Learning Context

    OpenAIRE

    Eid Alhaisoni

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the type and frequency of language learning strategies used by Saudi EFL students. The subjects were 701 male and female Saudi EFL students enrolled in an intensive English language program at the University of Ha’il. The Oxford Strategies Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) was used with some modifications. The study seeks to extend our knowledge by examining the relationship between the use of language learning strategies (LLS) and gender and proficiency level. The...

  9. Stress among medical Saudi students at College of Medicine, King Faisal University

    OpenAIRE

    ABDEL RAHMAN, A.G.; AL HASHIM, B.N.; AL HIJI, N.K.; AL-ABBAD, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background. Sources of student stress can be academic pressures, social or personal issues and medical students have to face the challenge of rigorous curriculum and also have to learn how to deal with emotionally difficult experiences. Aim of Work. Determination of the prevalence of stress and to identify the risk factors of stress among Saudi medical students at Faculty of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A survey study design was conducted among medical stud...

  10. Novel Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase Gene Mutations in Saudi Arabian Hyperuricemia Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Alanazi; Abdulrahman Saud Al-Arfaj; Zainularifeen Abduljaleel; Hussein Fahad Al-Arfaj; Narasimha Reddy Parine; Jilani Purusottapatnam Shaik; Zahid Khan; Akbar Ali Khan Pathan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, a steady increase in the incidence of HPRT-related hyperuricemia (HRH) has been observed in Saudi Arabia. We examined all the nine exons of HPRT gene for mutations in ten biochemically confirmed hyperuricemia patients, including one female and three normal controls. In all, we identified 13 novel mutations in Saudi Arabian HPRT-related hyperuricemia patients manifesting different levels of uric acid. The Lys103Met alteration was highly recurrent and was observed in 50% o...

  11. The Determinants of Arab Countries Demand for Saudi Exports: Panel Data Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdullah Aljebrin

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically estimates the critical parameters of export demand function for Saudi Arabia by using annual time series-cross section data (1984-2008) and by applying fixed effects model. The empirical results confirm that there exists a significant relationship among the real value of Saudi Arabia exports to Arab countries and trade partner's real income, relative export price, and trade partner's real exchange rates. The estimation results show that all variables have a significant ...

  12. Petroleum and international relations: Saudi Arabia, victim of the new world energy deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country

  13. Oil and Politics in Saudi Arabia : A Critical Discussion of the Rentier State Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The Saudi academic Mamoun Fandy (1999:252-53) observes that rentier analysis dominates contemporary Arab Gulf studies. According to Fandy, this discourse has now become a hegemonic discourse that is no longer deterred by alternative hypotheses or alternative data. It is a self-contained discourse that reaffirms its validity and reliability via a detour of narrative. Fandy's observation is in particular true for Saudi Arabia and the other GCC monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the Un...

  14. The driving factors of continuance online shopping: Gender differences in behaviour the case of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The 465-respondent sample consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male and female groups are equivalent....

  15. The driving factors of continuance online shopping: Gender differences in behaviour among students in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure student gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The 234-respondent sample consists of 61.5% women and 38.5% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male and female groups are equivalent. Th...

  16. A study of corporate social responsibility disclosure practices in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Aldosari, A; Atkins, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses changes in corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting practices among Saudi listed companies in the past three years. Using content analysis methodology of annual reports, a sample of 174 annual reports representing 58 Saudi listed companies from different sectors were analysed to investigate the extent of the level of CSR disclosure in the years 2010 to 2012. Our paper focuses on trends of CSR information in the four categories: Environment; Employee; Community and C...

  17. Use of dental clinics and oral hygiene practices in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Kravitz, Hannah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Memish, Ziad A.; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a large household survey in 2013 to determine the current status of oral health practices and use of oral health services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods The Saudi Health Information Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals ≥ 15 years of age. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure the association between having been to a dental clinic during the last year, and sex, age, marital status, education, time...

  18. Hubungan Luar Negeri Indonesia-Arab Saudi Dalam Konteks Tenaga Kerja Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tobing, Cindy Paramitha

    2015-01-01

    This research event will by so many cases violance to Indonesian migrant worker in Saudi Arabia. Most people just blashphemous Indonesian migrant worker employer who commit such torture without knowing what actually happened. Due the cases of foreign relations that have been intertwined for decades between Indonesia and Saudi Arabia became slightly stretchable. The main factors that give rise to conflicts between the employer and the worker, one of which is language, as we know Indonesian mig...

  19. An Evaluation of Special Education Program in Saudi Universities According To National Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Suhail Mahmoud Al-Zoubi; Majdoleen Sultan Bani Abdel Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate special education program in Saudi Universities according to national standards. The sample of study consisted of (17) Head of Special Education Department in Saudi Universities. A National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment (NCAAA) standards was used to evaluate special education program. Results showed that there are four standards available in a high degree, namely: student affairs and support services, employment processes, learning an...

  20. Readiness for Self-Directed learning among first year Saudi Medical students: A descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Mona; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study was to explore the readiness for Self Directed Learning (SDL) among first year Saudi Medical students enrolled at King Saud University (KSU) and Princess NourahBintAbdulrahman University (PNU) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: First year medical students were invited to participate in a descriptive cross sectional study design. Data were collected using a Self-Directed Learner Readiness Scale (SDLRS) which is a self- assessment tool aimed to assess thre...

  1. Inclusive education for deaf students in Saudi Arabia: perceptions of schools principals, teachers and parents

    OpenAIRE

    Alothman, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    This study is set in Saudi Arabia within the context of increasing national and international emphasis on inclusive education of deaf students and where policy overtly supports increasingly inclusive schools. This research is important because it is one of the few qualitative Saudi Arabian studies that have been conducted within the interpretive paradigm with a view to understanding the complexity of inclusive education. It specifically explores the factors that have influenced its theory and...

  2. Fortification with vitamin D: Comparative study in the Saudi Arabian and US markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi Arabian population. To evaluate the current status of vitamin D fortification and calcium content of commonly consumed food items by the Saudi population and to compare it to US data. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional market survey at markets of Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and State of Illinois, USA. Methods: A dietary survey was carried out for the content of calcium and vitamin D on the most commonly consumed food products by the Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D. The survey included different brands of fresh milk, yoghurt, powdered milk, cheese, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and orange juice. Vitamin D content in the products studied from the Saudi marketplace was compared with the suggested vitamin D content in the same products according to US Code of Federal Regulations recommendations. Results: The overall calcium content in the processed dairy products is generally higher than the content in fresh dairy products. Vitamin D content in the fresh dairy products varied from 40 IU/L to 400 IU/L. None of the cereals or orange juice in Saudi Arabia contain vitamin D supplement. The vitamin D content in the food items from the Saudi marketplace is mostly lower than recommended by the US Code of Federal Regulations. Conclusion: Most commonly consumed food products by Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D either not fortified or contain an amount less than recommended by guidelines set for US marketplace.

  3. Effects of Perceived Procedural Justice and Exchange Ideology on Employees' Affective Commitment: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Naguib Moussa

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined how perceived procedural justice and exchange ideology affect employees’ commitment inSaudi private sector companies. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 104Saudi employees. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis and regression analysis, were used to analyze thedata. The results revealed that perception of organizational procedural justice influenced employees’commitment towards their organizations. Employees with high exchange ide...

  4. CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES: A SAUDI UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qurashi, Abdulrahman M.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Continuing medical education (CME) is an important and useful activity for updating knowledge in order to improve for outcome of health care. A CME update symposium on Infectious Diseases was therefore organized at the King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Participants included clinicians, laboratory personnel and nursing staff from different hospitals and universities in Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To report the proceedings of the first CME on Infect...

  5. The factors driving online shopping in Saudi Arabia: Gender differences and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose — This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. Design/Methodology — The 465-respondent sample consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Findings — Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male...

  6. A SOCIO-CULTURAL OVERVIEW OF E-LEARNING IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Many regard Saudi Arabia as a conservative and religious nation with a perception of some degree of neglect or discrimination towards its female population. This deters many to realize the kind of revolution this nation is going through, especially in the field of education. Many might not realize that the kingdom of Saudi Arabia has state of art educational institutions with best possible equipment and infrastructure in the world. In addition, the government is providing very lucrative schol...

  7. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel RM

    2013-01-01

    Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Sa...

  8. The desire to utilize postmastectomy breast reconstruction in Saudi Arabian women

    OpenAIRE

    Awan, Basim A; Osama A Samargandi; Alghamdi, Hattan A.; Sayegh, Anas A.; Hakeem, Yasir J.; Merdad, Leena; Merdad, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study factors that influence the desire to utilize breast reconstruction after mastectomy, and to investigate the barriers to reconstruction among women in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at 2 surgical centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all breast cancer patients attending the surgery clinics for follow-up after mastectomy between January and March 2013. Ninety-one patients met the study inclusion cr...

  9. Breast Cancer Screening in Saudi Arabia: Free but Almost No Takers

    OpenAIRE

    Charbel El Bcheraoui; Mohammed Basulaiman; Shelley Wilson; Farah Daoud; Marwa Tuffaha; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Memish, Ziad A.; Mohammed Al Saeedi; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mammography ensures early diagnosis and a better chance for treatment and recovery from breast cancer. We conducted a national survey to investigate knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among Saudi women aged 50 years or older in order to inform the breast cancer national health programs. Materials and Methods The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included questions on socio-demographic ch...

  10. Body mass index and obstetric outcomes in Saudi Arabia: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Hammad, Sabry

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of body mass index in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcome since no study in Saudi Arabia has addressed this question. METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved women registered for antenatal care during the first month of pregnancy at primary health care centers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected from records and by direct interview. RESULTS: The study included 787 women. Compared to normal weight women (n=307), overweight (n...

  11. Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhayal A; Aldhukair S; Alselaim N; Aldekhayel S; Alhabdan S; Altaweel W; Magzoub ME; Zamakhshary M

    2012-01-01

    Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud b...

  12. The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in the adult population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia- a community-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bahijri, Suhad M; Jambi, Hanan A.; Al Raddadi, Rajaa M.; FERNS, Gordon; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 (T2DM) is believed to be common in Saudi Arabia, but data are limited. In this population survey, we determined the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A representative sample among residents aged ≥ 18 years of the city of Jeddah was obtained comprising both Saudi and non-Saudi families (N = 1420). Data on dietary, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were collected and anthropometric measurements taken. Fasting plasma glucose ...

  13. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel RM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

  14. Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19 years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400 and females (1506 aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use, physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire, and dietary habits (intake frequency per week. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk, but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level = 0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR and frequency of breakfast (aOR for  Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by

  15. Sources and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Fine Particles in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebare, S. R.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hussain, M. M.; Zeb, J.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution research in Saudi Arabia and the whole of Middle East is at its inception, making air pollution in the region a significant problem. This study presents the first detailed data on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations of Black Carbon (BC), ions, and trace metals at Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, and assesses their sources. Results showed several characteristic aspects of air pollution at Rabigh. Daily levels of PM2.5 and BC showed significant temporal variability ranging from 12.2 - 75.9 µg/m3 and 0.39 - 1.31 µg/m3, respectively. More than 90% of the time, the daily PM2.5 exceeded the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 µg/m3. Sulfate, NO3-, and NH4+ dominated the identifiable components. Trace metals with significantly higher concentrations included Si, S, Ca, Al, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg, K, and Ti, with average concentrations of 3.1, 2.2, 1.6, 1.2, 1.1, 0.7, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.1 µg/m3, respectively. Based on the Air Quality Index (AQI), there were 44% days of moderate air quality, 33% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, and 23% days of unhealthy air quality throughout the study period. Two categories of aerosol trace metal sources were defined: anthropogenic (S, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Cd, Sb, and Pb) and naturally derived elements (Si, Al, and Fe). The extent of anthropogenic contribution was estimated by the degree of enrichment of these elements compared to the crustal composition. Soil resuspension and/or mobilization is an important source of "natural" elements, while "anthropogenic" elements originate primarily from fossil fuel combustion and industries. Ni and V correlated strongly pointing to combustion of heavy fuel oil as the likely source. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to obtain information about possible sources. Our study highlights the need for stringent laws on PM2.5 emission control to protect human health and the environment.

  16. Macrobenthic community structure in the northern Saudi waters of the Gulf, 14years after the 1991 oil spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2012-02-01

    The 1991 Gulf oil spill heavily impacted the coastal areas of the Saudi waters of the Arabian Gulf and recent studies have indicated that even 15. years after the incident, macrobenthos had not completely recovered in the sheltered bays in the affected region such as, Manifa Bay. This study investigates the community conditions of macrobenthos in the open waters in one of the impacted areas, Al-Khafji waters, about 14. years after the spill. Diversity measures and community structure analyses indicate a healthy status of polychaete communities. The BOPA index reveals that oil sensitive amphipods were recolonized in the study area. This confirms that the benthic communities of the oil spill impacted area had taken only <14 years to recover in the open waters of the impacted areas. The study also reveals the existence of three distinct polychaete communities along the depth and sediment gradients. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Environmental Effect on the Biological Behavior of The Cucurbit Beetle Epilachna chrysomelina in Al-Qunfudah Province-Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Aldigail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilachna chrysomelina (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae is a phytophagous insect with an economic importance damaging the agricultural crops. The Melon Ladybird Beetle, E. Chrysomelinais one of the major phytophagous insects that feed on cucurbit plants. It is considered an economic pest in agriculture and multi-habitat insect widely distributed throughout the world.The insect is abundant in the southern region of Saudi Arabia and choose the most favourable conditions for its life cycle completion. It prefers humid habitats with optimum temperature degrees. The generations of the insect are affected by changes in environmental conditions and its numbers increase or decline according to variation in temperature and relative humidity (RH. These factors play an important role in changing its biological behaviour particularly feeding, breeding, reproduction and development of its generations. There were significant differences between the different developmental stages in the periods of time of their development.

  18. The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Almalki SS; Alghamdi MS; Alghamdi MM; El-Sheemy MA

    2014-01-01

    Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study...

  19. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; Alghamdi MM; Dohal AA; El-Sheemy MA

    2014-01-01

    Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospi...

  20. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geospatial Information Infrastructure - AN Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.