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Sample records for alpine tectonic evolution

  1. The Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, S.M.; Bernoulli, D.; Fügenschuh, B.; Matenco, L.C.; Schefer, S.; Schuster, R.; Tischler, M.; Ustaszewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    A correlation of tectonic units of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic system of orogens, including the substrate of the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins, is presented in the form of a map. Combined with a series of crustal-scale cross sections this correlation of tectonic units yields a clearer

  2. Complex tectonic and tectonostratigraphic evolution of an Alpine foreland basin: The western Duero Basin and the related Tertiary depressions of the NW Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, F.; Heredia, N.

    2011-04-01

    The tectonic and tectonostratigaphic evolution of foreland basins and related Tertiary depressions are the key to investigate deformation history and the uplifting of the continental lithosphere of the Alpine-Pyrenean Orogeny. The northern part of the Duero basin is the foreland basin of the Cantabrian Mountains, which are, in turn, the western part of the Pyrenean Orogen. We have studied the western sharp end of the Duero foreland basin, and its relation to the Tertiary deposits of the NW Iberian Peninsula and the topography evolution. In order to propose a coherent tectonic and tectonosedimentary model that could explain all Tertiary deposits, we have analysed the depositional environment, stratigraphic sequences, paleocurrents and established a correlation of the main outcrops. Besides, a detailed structural mapping of the Alpine structures that limit and affect the main Tertiary outcrops has been carried out. The Tertiary deposits of the NW Iberian Peninsula depressions are affected and fragmented by Alpine structures that limit their extensions and locations. The stratigraphic succession is similar in the NW Tertiary outcrops; they are mainly terrigenous and carbonated continental deposits formed by assemblage of alluvial fans developed at the mountains front, in arid or semiarid conditions. Three formations can be identified in the main depressions: Toral Fm, Santalla Fm and Médulas Fm. The NW Tertiary outcrops were the western deposits of the Duero foreland basin that surrounded the lateral termination of the Pyrenean Orogen. These deposits were fragmented and eroded by the subsequent uplift of the Galaico-Leoneses Mountains and the NE-SW strike-slip faults activity (broken foreland basin). Only the latest stages of some of these outcrops can be considered as intramontane basins as traditionally have been interpreted. The sedimentation started in the northeast (Oviedo-Infiesto) during the Eocene and migrated to the west (As Pontes) during the Late Oligocene

  3. Crustal-scale alpine tectonic evolution of the western Pyrenees - eastern Cantabrian Mountains (N Spain) from integration of structural data, low-T thermochronology and seismic constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, I.; Pedreira, D.; Pulgar, J. A.; Van der Beek, P.; Bernet, M.; Pik, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Pyrenean-Cantabrian Mountain belt extends in an E-W direction along the northern border of Spain and resulted from the convergence between the Iberian and European plates from the Late Cretaceous to the Miocene, in the context of the Alpine orogeny. The main aim of this work is to characterize the tectonic evolution at a crustal-scale of the transition zone from the Pyrenees to the Cantabrian Mountains, in the eastern Basque-Cantabrian Basin (BCB). We integrate structural work, thermochronology (apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He) and geophysical information (shallow seismic reflection profiles, deep seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles and seismicity distribution) to propose an evolutionary model since the Jurassic to the present. During the Albian, hyperextension related to the opening of the Bay of Biscay yielded to mantle unroofing to the base of the BCB. This process was favored by a detachment fault that connected the mantle in its footwall with the base of a deep basin in its hanging wall. During this process, the basin experienced HT metamorphism and fluid circulation caused the serpentinization of the upper part of the mantle. There is no evidence of seafloor mantle exhumation before the onset of the Alpine orogeny. The thermochronological study points to a N-vergent phase of contractional deformation in the late Eocene represented by the thin-skinned Leiza fault system followed in the early Oligocene by the S-vergent, thick-skinned, Ollín thrust. Exhumation rates for the late Eocene-early Oligocene are of 0.2-0.7 km/Myr. After that period, deformation continues southwards until the Miocene. The crustal-scale structure resultant of the Alpine orogeny consists of an Iberian plate that subducts below the European plate. The crust is segmented into four blocks separated by three S-vergent crustal faults inherited from the Cretaceous extensional period. The P-wave velocities in this transect show anomalous values (7.4 km/s) in the

  4. Paleomagnetism and the alpine tectonics of Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raven, Th.

    1964-01-01

    The following paper by Gregor and Zijderveld is the first of a series planned to report results of paleomagnetic investigations in the Alpine area from Italy to the Himalayas. These investigations are carried out in close collaboration between the well-equipped paleomagnetic laboratory of

  5. Tectonic evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.U.; Golombek, M.P.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Any model for the tectonic evolution of Mars must account for two major crustal elements: the Tharsis bulge and the topographically low and lightly crated northern third of the planet. Ages determined by crater density indicate that both of these elements came into existence very early in Martian history, a conclusion that holds no matter which of the current crater density versus age curves is used. The size of these two major crustal elements and their sequential development suggest that both may be related to a global-scale internal process. It is proposed that the resurfacing of the northern third of Mars is related to subcrustal erosion and isostatic foundering during the life of a first-order convection cell. With the demise of the cell, denser segregations of metallic materials began to coalesce as a gravitatively unstable layer which finally overturned to form the core. In the overturn, lighter crustal materials was shifted laterally and underplated beneath Tharsis to cause rapid and permanent isostatic rise. This was followed by a long-lived thermal phase produced by the hot underplate and by the gravitative energy of core formation slowly making its way to the surface to produce the Tharsis volcanics

  6. Land and OBS recordings of tectonic tremor on New Zealand's Alpine Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wech, A.; Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Townend, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Collins, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Tectonic tremor is characterized by persistent, low-frequency seismic energy seen at major plate boundaries. Although predominantly associated with subduction zones, tremor also occurs along the deep extension of the strike-slip San Andreas Fault. Here we present the observations of tectonic tremor along New Zealand's Alpine Fault, a major transform boundary that is late in its earthquake cycle using a combination of land and ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS). We report tectonic tremor that occurred on the central section of the Alpine Fault on 12 days between March 2009 and October 2011. Tremor hypocenters concentrate in the lower crust at the downdip projection of the Alpine Fault; coincide with a zone of high P-wave attenuation (low Qp) and bright seismic reflections; occur in the 25-45 km depth range, below the seismogenic zone; and may define the deep plate boundary structure extending through the lower crust and into the upper mantle. We infer this tremor to represent slow slip on the deep extent of the Alpine Fault in a fluid-rich region marked by high attenuation and reflectivity. These observations provide the first indication of present-day displacement on the lower crustal portion of the Australia-Pacific transform plate boundary. Furthermore, the offshore observations—ground-truthed by onshore shallow borehole seismometers—demonstrate the potential utility of OBS experiments in better characterizing plate boundary processes.

  7. Inversion Tectonics in the Alpine Foreland, Eastern Alps (Austria)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Granado, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    [eng] In this thesis, the 3D structure and kinematics of the locally and mildly inverted Lower Austria Mesozoic Basin beneath the Alpine-Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt is described. This study has been carried out by the integrative interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic surveys, well and geophysical logs data and gravity maps. A basin-scale, 3D structural model has been carried out, focused on the sub-thrust and foreland zones. The Late Eocene to Early Miocene Alpine–Carpathian fold-and-thrus...

  8. Tectonic evolution of Lavinia Planitia, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Frank, Sharon L.; Mcgill, George E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have revealed the first details of the morphology of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus. Lavinia is a broad lowland over 2000 km across, centered at about 45 deg S latitude, 345 deg E longitude. Herein, the tectonic evolution of Lavinia is discussed, and its possible relationship to processes operating in the planet's interior. The discussion is restricted to the region from 37.3 to 52.6 deg S latitude and from about 340 to 0 deg E longitude. One of the most interesting characteristics of Lavinia is that the entire region possesses a regional tectonic framework of striking regularity. Lavinia is also transected by a complex pattern of belts of intense tectonic deformation known as ridge belts. Despite the gross topographic similarity of all of the ridge belts in Lavinia, they exhibit two rather distinct styles of near surface deformation. One is composed of sets of broad, arch-like ridges rising above the surrounding plains. In the other type, obvious fold-like ridges are rare to absent in the radar images. Both type show evidence for small amounts of shear distributed across the belts.

  9. The significance of Gosau-type basins for the Late Cretaceous tectonic history of the Alpine-Carpathian Belt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willingshofer, E.; Neubauer, F.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A key feature of Late Creataceous tectonics throughout the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian (ALCAPA) region is the synchronous formation of sedimentary basins (Gosau basins) and exhumation of metamorphic domes. Initial subsidence, spatially varying in time (Cenomanian-Santonian), within Gosau-type basins

  10. Alpine tectonic wedging and crustal delamination in the Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegui, Jorge; Pulgar, Javier A.; Gallart, Josep

    2016-07-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains have been interpreted as a Paleozoic basement block uplifted during an Alpine deformation event that led to the partial closure of the Bay of Biscay and the building of the Pyrenean range in the Cenozoic. A detailed interpretation of deep seismic reflection profile ESCIN-2 and the two-dimensional seismic modelling of the data allowed us to construct a N-S geological cross section along the southern border of the Cantabrian Mountains and the transition to the Duero Cenozoic foreland basin, highlighting the Alpine structure. The proposed geological cross section has been constrained by all geophysical data available, including a 2-D gravity model constructed for this study as well as refraction and magnetotelluric models from previous studies. A set of south-vergent thrusts dipping 30 to 36° to the north, cut the upper crust with a ramp geometry and sole in the boundary with the middle crust. These thrusts are responsible for the uplift and the main Alpine deformation in the Cantabrian Mountains. A conspicuous reflective Moho shows that the crust thickens northwards from the Duero basin, where subhorizontal Moho is 32 km deep, to 47 km in the northernmost end of ESCIN-2, where Moho dips to the north beneath the Cantabrian Mountains. Further north, out of the profile, Moho reaches a maximum depth of 55 km, according to wide-angle/refraction data. ESCIN-2 indicates the presence of a tectonic wedge of the crust of the Cantabrian margin beneath the Cantabrian Mountains, which is indented from north to south into the delaminated Iberian crust, forcing its northward subduction.

  11. MEVTV Workshop on Early Tectonic and Volcanic Evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Although not ignored, the problems of the early tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mars have generally received less attention than those later in the evolution of the planet. Specifically, much attention was devoted to the evolution of the Tharsis region of Mars and to the planet itself at the time following the establishment of this major tectonic and volcanic province. By contrast, little attention was directed at fundamental questions, such as the conditions that led to the development of Tharsis and the cause of the basic fundamental dichotomy of the Martian crust. It was to address these and related questions of the earliest evolution of Mars that a workshop was organized under the auspices of the Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonism, and Volatiles (MEVTV) Program. Four sessions were held: crustal dichotomy; crustal differentiation/volcanism; Tharsis, Elysium, and Valles Marineris; and ridges and fault tectonics

  12. Plate tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean-Middle East region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gealey, W. K.

    1988-12-01

    An interpretive model for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic plate tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean and adjacent areas is illustrated by a series of paleoposition maps at selected intervals between the Late Triassic and Recent. This interval witnessed an important period of tensional development during the Triassic and Jurassic that fragmented Pangea after its Late Paleozoic consolidation. A number of oceanic areas evolved through Jurassic time, all of which have since been consumed during the Alpine orogeny. During the Cretaceous and Tertiary, sea-floor spreading geometry in the North and South Atlantic resulted in convergence between Africa and Eurasia that controlled the evolution of the Mediterranean and adjacent Middle East areas from the Late Mesozoic to Recent. The interpretation departs from several previous ones in the following respects: (1) The Eastern Mediterranean and adjacent Middle East area are interpreted to have developed as two seaways with an intervening continental sliver derived from Africa that now comprises Central Turkey and West Iran. These seaways persisted from the Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous, by which time they were largely consumed by northward subduction. (2) Spreading that produced the present Eastern Mediterranean Sea developed during the Late Cretaceous, driving the Tripolitza-Eratosthenes-Iskenderun continental fragments northward from Africa to collision with Central Turkey as the preceding southern arm of the Mesozoic Tethys sea-floor was entirely consumed. Initial block faulting in this zone occurred during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous but without subsidence reaching clearly bathyal depths until the Cenomanian-Turonian. This differs from the timing of events in the "Ionian" sequence of the Pindic Nappe of Crete, which shows a change from shallow carbonate shelf in the Triassic to deep basin in the Liassic to the north of equivalent platform facies of the Tripolitza Nappe. (3) Moesia and Rhodope are concluded to have been a

  13. Problems of Tectonics and Tectonic Evolution of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikovskiy, V. A.; Metelkin, D. V.; Matushkin, N. Y.; Vernikovskaya, A. E.; Chernova, A. I.; Mikhaltsov, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean within Russia remains poorly investigated area, in particular to geological structures and the Arctic Ocean floor. Many researchers believe that the basements of the terranes, composing the Arctic shelf and continental slopes, are of the Precambrian age. It was assumed that the Arctic terranes formed the ancient paleocontinent of Arctida that broke up during rifting, whereas the separated plates and terranes accreted to the periphery of the Arctic Ocean at a later stage. However, geological, geochronological and paleomagnetic evidence to test this assumption has been insufficient. Recently, geological and geophysical studies have significantly increased, in particular to the structures of Eastern Arctic. For example, the New Siberian Islands Archipelago is one of key structures for understanding geology and evolution of the Arctic region. Additionally, several submerged structures containing fragments of continental crust, including the Lomonosov Ridge and the Mendeleev Rise, are identified within the Arctic Ocean and adjacent to the New Siberian Islands Archipelago. Here we present new geochronological and paleomagnetic data to refine the evolution of the Arctida paleocontinent. Our model implies existence of the two Arctidas during Late Precambrian - Late Paleozoic. The earlier Arctida-I was located near equator and connected with the continental margins of Laurentia, Baltica and Siberia within the supercontinent of Rodinia. The initiation of Arctida-I rifting is associated with breakup of Rodinia. As a result, small plates, including Svalbard, Kara, New Siberia Island and other terranes, were formed. We have reconstructed the main stages of further remobilization and global drift of these plates before Pangea assemblage. We assume that the later Arctida-II was located at the Pangean periphery in the temperate latitudes, and was also connected to the Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberia cratons. The breakup of the Arctida-II is suggested to have

  14. Evolution process of the Late Silurian–Late Devonian tectonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 1. Evolution process of ... Keywords. Tectonic evolution; zircon U–Pb dating; geochemistry; granitoid; Late Silurian–Late Devonian; Qimantagh. ... We obtained 5 zircon U–Pb ages from the Late Silurian–Late Devonian granitoids in the Qimantagh area.

  15. Tectonic evolution of mercury; comparison with the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.; Masson, P.

    1983-01-01

    With regard to the Earth or to Mars, the Moon and Mercury look like tectonicless planetary bodies, and the prominent morphologies of these two planets are due to impact and volcanic processes. Despite these morphologies, several types of tectonic activities may be shown. Statistical studies of lineaments direction indicate that Mercury, as well as the Moon, have a planet wide lineament pattern, known as a ''grid''. Statistical studies of Mercury scarps and the Moon grabens indicate an interaction between planetary lithospheric evolution and large impact basins. Detailed studies of the largest basins indicate specific tectonic motions directly or indirectly related to impacts. These three tectonic types have been compared on each planet. The first tectonic type seems to be identical for Mercury and the Moon. But the two other types seem to be different, and are consistent with the planets' thermal evolution

  16. Plate Tectonics and Planetary Evolution: Implications for Understanding Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2015-12-01

    A primary purpose in our study of exoplanets is the search for life. In hypothesizing how we might detect life, we start by examining life on Earth; it is our only example. How do we understand the meaning of habitability when there is only one example? All clues seem significant: the common need for the existence of water, the range of temperatures over which life on Earth is found, and the chemical cycles that maintain the surface and near-surface of the Earth within that range. A common assertion is that plate tectonics is necessary for the carbon cycle that keeps the Earth at habitable temperatures by sequestering carbon in limetone in oceans, and parceling it back into the atmosphere through volcanoes. This is an unproven hypothesis. There are other tectonic processes that cycle carbon into a planetary interior and back to the atmosphere; one possibility is small-scale convection that returns lithospheric material to the mantle and produces small-scale volcanism. Whether this process is sufficient to stabilize climate on one-plate planets or planets with sluggish convection remains to be demonstrated. Before we can discuss the criticality of plate tectonics on other planets we need to understand its criticality on Earth, and its apparent lack on Venus. And before we can predict whether plate tectonics should exist on a given exoplanet, we need to understand why it exists on Earth, and apparently not on Venus, and we need to know more about that exoplanet than can currently be detected. In this talk I will compare the predictions for exoplanetary conditions conducive to plate tectonics, walk through possible pathways in planetary evolution that lead to plate tectonics, and discuss whether any aspect of plate tectonics on an exoplanet is detectable from Earth. Predicting and hoping to detect plate tectonics on exoplanets is walking out a shaky limb; making cautious incremental advances in understanding terrestrial plate tectonics is critical before extending

  17. Evolution process of the Late Silurian–Late Devonian tectonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 1. Evolution process of the Late Silurian–Late Devonian tectonic environment in Qimantagh in the western portion of east Kunlun, China: Evidence from the geochronology and geochemistry of granitoids. Nana Hao Wanming Yuan Aikui Zhang Yunlei ...

  18. Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the coastal basin of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tectonic events largely controlled the evolution of the coastal basin of Tanzania and the Indian Ocean. These included the Karoo rifting during Permo-Triassic, the break up of the Gondwana Supercontinent, which started with rifting in the Triassic period, the opening of the Somali basin in the Middle Jurassic, and the ...

  19. Fission-track evidence of tectonic evolution in the northwestern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    track evidence of tectonic evolution in the ... The later (1.2–32.0 Ma) tectonothermal event resulted from further collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates along the Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone. Strata in the Qaidam Basin were further ...

  20. Continental Transform Boundaries: Tectonic Evolution and Geohazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Steckler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Continental transform boundaries cross heavily populated regions, and they are associated with destructive earthquakes,for example, the North Anatolian Fault (NAFacross Turkey, the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault in Haiti,the San Andreas Fault in California, and the El Pilar fault in Venezuela. Transform basins are important because they are typically associated with 3-D fault geometries controlling segmentation—thus, the size and timing of damaging earthquakes—and because sediments record both deformation and earthquakes. Even though transform basins have been extensively studied, their evolution remains controversial because we don’t understand the specifics about coupling of vertical and horizontal motions and about the basins’long-term kinematics. Seismic and tsunami hazard assessments require knowing architecture and kinematics of faultsas well as how the faults are segmented.

  1. Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Norton, Ian O.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Stone, David B.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Scholl, David W.; Fujita, Kazuya

    2000-01-01

    The Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific is recorded mainly in the orogenic collages of the Circum-North Pacific mountain belts that separate the North Pacific from the eastern part of the North Asian Craton and the western part of the North American Craton. These collages consist of tectonostratigraphic terranes that are composed of fragments of igneous arcs, accretionary-wedge and subduction-zone complexes, passive continental margins, and cratons; they are overlapped by continental-margin-arc and sedimentary-basin assemblages. The geologic history of the terranes and overlap assemblages is highly complex because of postaccretionary dismemberment and translation during strike-slip faulting that occurred subparallel to continental margins.We analyze the complex tectonics of this region by the following steps. (1) We assign tectonic environments for the orogenic collages from regional compilation and synthesis of stratigraphic and faunal data. The types of tectonic environments include cratonal, passive continental margin, metamorphosed continental margin, continental-margin arc, island arc, oceanic crust, seamount, ophiolite, accretionary wedge, subduction zone, turbidite basin, and metamorphic. (2) We make correlations between terranes. (3) We group coeval terranes into a single tectonic origin, for example, a single island arc or subduction zone. (4) We group igneous-arc and subduction- zone terranes, which are interpreted as being tectonically linked, into coeval, curvilinear arc/subduction-zone complexes. (5) We interpret the original positions of terranes, using geologic, faunal, and paleomagnetic data. (6) We construct the paths of tectonic migration. Six processes overlapping in time were responsible for most of the complexities of the collage of terranes and overlap assemblages around the Circum-North Pacific, as follows. (1) During the Late Proterozoic, Late Devonian, and Early Carboniferous, major periods of rifting occurred along

  2. Volatile organic compounds in alpine valleys: sources, evolutions and transformations; Les composes organiques volatils dans les vallees alpines: sources, evolutions et transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomb, A.

    2002-12-01

    Dynamic and chemical specificity in alpine valleys was the principal goal during the POVA project (Pollution des Vallees Alpines). Volatile Organic Compounds emissions in troposphere have important impacts on animal lives and environment. Then, the aim of this work was the improvement of the biogenic or anthropogenic VOC sources determination, of VOC transformation and evolution in mountain areas. During this project, the realisation of a daily continuous measurements campaign of a few chemical compounds allowed the understanding of the seasonal variations of these compounds. The goals of intensive field campaigns, realised in August 2000 and January 2001, were to understand photochemical process in a temporal and geographic small scale and to follow diurnal variation of different pollutants in summer and winter. Moreover, the VOC data would be used to develop and validate coupled atmospheric dynamic/chemical model. Therefore, these VOC measures give answer to two lacks of knowledge in alpine valleys about: - Biogenic and anthropogenic VOC respective part, and their main sources, - VOC photochemical reactions in alpine valleys, according to seasonal and diurnal cycles. Finally, we presented two atypical days results, in Maurienne valley during a Saharan episode in August 2000. This episode permitted to understand mass air transport mechanism in mountain region. (author)

  3. Cretaceous—Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians: constraints from structural, sedimentary, geomorphological, and fission track data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králiková Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tatra Mts area, located in the northernmost part of Central Western Carpathians on the border between Slovakia and Poland, underwent a complex Alpine tectonic evolution. This study integrates structural, sedimentary, and geomorphological data combined with fission track data from the Variscan granite rocks to discuss the Cretaceous to Quaternary tectonic and landscape evolution of the Tatra Mts. The presented data can be correlated with five principal tectonic stages (TS, including neotectonics. TS-1 (~95-80 Ma is related to mid-Cretaceous nappe stacking when the Tatric Unit was overlain by Mesozoic sequences of the Fatric and Hronic Nappes. After nappe stacking the Tatric crystalline basement was exhumed (and cooled in response to the Late Cretaceous/Paleogene orogenic collapse followed by orogen-parallel extension. This is supported by 70 to 60 Ma old zircon fission track ages. Extensional tectonics were replaced by transpression to transtension during the Late Paleocene to Eocene (TS-2; ~80-45 Ma. TS-3 (~45-20 Ma is documented by thick Oligocene-lowermost Miocene sediments of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin which kept the underlying Tatric crystalline basement at elevated temperatures (ca. > 120 °C and < 200 °C. The TS-4 (~20-7 Ma is linked to slow Miocene exhumation rate of the Tatric crystalline basement, as it is indicated by apatite fission track data of 9-12 Ma. The final shaping of the Tatra Mts has been linked to accelerated tectonic activity since the Pliocene (TS-5; ~7-0 Ma.

  4. Metallogenic relationships to tectonic evolution - the Lachlan Orogen, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierlein, Frank P.; Gray, David R.; Foster, David A.

    2002-08-01

    Placing ore formation within the overall tectonic framework of an evolving orogenic system provides important constraints for the development of plate tectonic models. Distinct metallogenic associations across the Palaeozoic Lachlan Orogen in SE Australia are interpreted to be the manifestation of interactions between several microplates and three accretionary complexes in an oceanic back-arc setting. In the Ordovician, significant orogenic gold deposits formed within a developing accretionary wedge along the Pacific margin of Gondwana. At the same time, major porphyry Cu-Au systems formed in an oceanic island arc outboard of an evolved magmatic arc that, in turn, gave rise to granite-related Sn-W deposits in the Early Silurian. During the ongoing evolution of the orogen in the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, sediment-hosted Cu-Au and Pb-Zn deposits formed in short-lived intra-arc basins, whereas a developing fore-arc system provided the conditions for the formation of several volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. Inversion of these basins and accretion to the Australian continental margin triggered another pulse of orogenic gold mineralisation during the final consolidation of the orogenic belt in the Middle to Late Devonian.

  5. Tectonic evolution of Tarim basin in Cambrian–Ordovician and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 2 ... In order to find the impact of regional tectonic evolution of Tarim basin on the inside distribution of sedimentary facies and reservoir development, this paper, based on the research of plate-tectonic evolution of Tarim basin, conducts an in-depth ...

  6. Subsidence stress regime and rotation(s) of a tectonically active sedimentary basin within the Western Alps: the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (Alpine domain, Northwest Italy). In: Tracing Tectonic deformation using the Sedimentary Record, Eds. McCann. (Geological Society of London, Special Publication)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrapa, B.; Bertotti, G.V.; Krijgsman, W

    2003-01-01

    The Oligocene to Miocene Tertiary Piedmont Basin (TPB) is located in the NW part of Italy at the junction between the Apennine and the Alpine thrust belts. The position of the TPB on top of the Alpine/Apennine Orogen poses fundamental questions as to the tectonics of the basin subsidence. Having

  7. Tectonic evolution of the South Fiji Basin: UNCLOS helps tackle regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, R.; Roest, W.; Barker, D.; Mortimer, N.; Mauffret, A.; Lafoy, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Marine surveys to study the evolution of remnant arcs and backarc basins north of New Zealand have been complemented by UNCLOS surveys by three countries - France, New Zealand and Australia - with potential extended continental shelf claims in the region. The UNCLOS factor allowed 9 cruises to focus on the region in the past 9 years, collecting approximately 30,000 km of seismic reflection (5,000 deep crustal), 263,700 sq km of swath bathymetry, and 70 dredge samples. Feedback through sharing or publishing data and joint participation allowed efficient planning and deployment of academic and UNCLOS cruises. Two models for South Fiji (SFB) and Norfolk (NB) basin evolution arise from current studies: at the level of the Three Kings Ridge - NB - southern SFB both involve Pacific trench roll-back and southward propagating spreading, but one also uses two subduction systems and arc-continent collision. Linked spreading of the NB and SFB is invoked in both models, but the veracity and geodynamics of the link are not investigated. A growing body of petrological and radiometric evidence and the tectonics of the New Zealand continental margin point to tandem Early Miocene spreading of the SFB and NB despite published magnetic interpretations that would confine SFB spreading to the Oligocene. The Franco-NZ NOUCAPLAC-1 cruise, the last cruise relevant to UNCLOS in this region, included a scientific objective to investigate the SFB-NB link in the critical area bounded by the Loyalty Ridge (LR), the Cook Fracture Zone (CFZ), the Bounty spreading centre (BSC) and the Julia Lineament (JL) with swath mapping, magnetics and seismic reflection. Initial results show a complex bathymetry where a possible link between the BSC and the CFZ involves ridge propagation, overlapping spreading centres, rift blocks and overprinting volcanoes. The link to the JL was not adequately tested due to sparse coverage. Closer to the LR, a thick, faulted sedimentary basin was found.

  8. Paleomagnetism and Tectonic Evolution of Mexico: Precambrian to Recent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2007-05-01

    It is 20yr since publication of the last synthesis of country-wide paleomagnetic data and almost 30yr of first attempt to construct an apparent polar wander path for Mexico. During this time, data has increased ten-fold and a new synthesis may appear long overdue. Mexico constitutes the southern portion of the North American plate, and tectonic models long suggested a complex evolution involving ocean-basin closure, continental collision/break-up, terrane accretion, large-scale motions, orogenic deformation, oceanic plate reorganizations and oceanic basin development. Paleoreconstructions of Atlantic-bordering continents show major overlap of northern South America onto Mexico, highlighting the geometric problem, allocthonous nature and opening room for a diversity of models. Paleomagnetism appears well-suited to tackle these problems, and data had early been used to evaluate tectonic models. Likewise, the larger database is now used to assess models and develop alternatives. This task is greatly aided by new available geochronological, geophysical and geological data. Our new synthesis still shows data gaps, with Paleozoic and Precambrian units poorly represented. Paleomagnetic data and tectonic models require complex large-scale motions of Precambrian and Paleozoic blocks, solutions for opening of Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, and post-Triassic-Jurassic amalgamation of Mexico and Central America. The southern edge of the North American craton is positioned in northern Mexico, marking the limit for accreted terranes to the south. Possible southern extension of Marathon-Ouachita Paleozoic belt, obscured or truncated when it comes into Mexico, remains unstudied paleomagnetically. Left-lateral motions along faults related to opening of Gulf of Mexico are not supported by paleomagnetism. The Western Cordilleran belt appears laterally displaced in southern US and into Mexico, where the paleomagnetic signature of northward latitudinal translations and clockwise

  9. The Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahirovic, S.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.

    2014-04-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of Southeast Asia have given rise to numerous controversies that include the accretionary history of Sundaland and the enigmatic tectonic origin of the proto-South China Sea. We assimilate a diversity of geological and geophysical observations into a new regional plate model, coupled to a global model, to address these debates. Our approach takes into account terrane suturing and accretion histories, the location of subducted slabs imaged in mantle tomography in order to constrain the evolution of regional subduction zones, as well as plausible absolute and relative plate velocities and tectonic driving mechanisms. We propose a scenario of rifting from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, driven by northward slab pull from north-dipping subduction of Tethyan crust beneath Eurasia, to detach East Java, Mangkalihat, southeast Borneo and West Sulawesi blocks that collided with a Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zone in the mid-Cretaceous and subsequently accreted to the Sunda margin (i.e., southwest Borneo core) in the Late Cretaceous. In accounting for the evolution of plate boundaries, we propose that the Philippine Sea plate originated on the periphery of Tethyan crust forming this northward conveyor. We implement a revised model for the Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zones to reconcile convergence rates, changes in volcanism and the obduction of ophiolites. In our model the northward margin of Greater India collides with the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc at ∼53 Ma, followed by continent-continent collision closing the Shyok and Indus-Tsangpo suture zones between ∼42 and 34 Ma. We also account for the back-arc opening of the proto-South China Sea from ∼65 Ma, consistent with extension along east Asia and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites presently found on the island of Mindoro. The related rifting likely detached the Semitau continental fragment from South China, which accreted to northern Borneo in the mid

  10. Tectonic Evolution of Mozambique Ridge in East African continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Tectonic Evolution of Mozambique Ridge in East African continental margin Yong Tang He Li ES.Mahanjane Second Institute of Oceanography,SOA,Hangzhou The East Africa passive continental margin is a depression area, with widely distributed sedimentary wedges from southern Mozambique to northern Somali (>6500km in length, and about 6km in thickness). It was resulted from the separation of East Gondwana, and was developed by three stages: (1) rifting in Early-Middle Jurassic; (2) spreading from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous; (3) drifting since the Cretaceous period. Tectonic evolution of the Mozambique continental margin is distinguished by two main settings separated by a fossil transform, the Davie Fracture Zone; (i) rifting and transform setting in the northern margin related to opening of the Somali and Rovuma basins, and (ii) rifting and volcanism setting during the opening of the Mozambique basin in the southern margin. 2D reflection seismic investigation of the crustal structure in the Zambezi Delta Depression, provided key piece of evidence for two rifting phases between Africa and Antarctica. The magma-rich Rift I phase evolved from rift-rift-rift style with remarkable emplacement of dyke swarms (between 182 and 170 Ma). Related onshore outcrops are extensively studied, the Karoo volcanics in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa, all part of the Karoo "triple-junction". These igneous bodies flow and thicken eastwards and are now covered by up to 5 km of Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments and recorded by seismic and oil exploration wells. Geophysical and geological data recorded during oceanographic cruises provide very controversial results regarding the nature of the Mozambique Ridge. Two conflicting opinions remains open, since the early expeditions to the Indian Ocean, postulating that its character is either magmatic (oceanic) or continental origin. We have carried out an China-Mozambique Joint Cruise(CMJC) on southern Mozambique Basin on 1st June to

  11. Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Dewey will complete his term as editor-in-chief of Tectonics at the end of 1984. Clark Burchfiel's term as North American Editor will also end. Tectonics is published jointly with the European Geophysical Society. This newest of AGU's journals has already established itself as an important journal bridging the concerns of geophysics and geology.James A. Van Allen, president of AGU, has appointed a committee to recommend candidates for both editor-in-chief and North American editor for the 1985-1987 term.

  12. Late Alpine evolution of the central Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Erdin

    2001-03-01

    The central Menderes Massif (western Turkey) is characterized by an overall dome-shaped Alpine foliation pattern and a N-NNE-trending stretching lineation. A section through the southern flank of the central submassif along the northern margin of Büyük Menderes graben has been studied. There, asymmetric non-coaxial fabrics indicate that the submassif has experienced two distinct phases of Alpine deformation: a top-to-the N-NNE contractional phase and a top-to-the S-SSW extensional event. The former fabrics are coeval with a regional prograde Barrovian-type metamorphism at greenschist to upper-amphibolite facies conditions. This event, known as the main Menderes metamorphism, is thought to be the result of internal imbrication of the Menderes Massif rocks along south-verging thrust sheets during the collision of the Sakarya continent in the north and the Anatolide-Tauride platform in the south across the İzmir-Ankara suture during the (?)Palaeocene-Eocene. Top-to-the S-SSW fabrics, represented by a well-developed ductile shear band foliation associated with inclined and/or curved foliation, asymmetric boudins, and cataclasites, were clearly superimposed on earlier contractional fabrics. These fabrics are interpreted to be related to a low-grade (greenschist?) retrogressive metamorphism and a continuum of deformation from ductile to brittle in the footwall rocks of a south-dipping, presently low-angle normal fault that accompanied Early Miocene orogenic collapse and continental extension in western Turkey. A similar tectono-metamorphic history has been documented for the northern flank of the dome along the southern margin of the Gediz graben with top-to-the N-NNE extensional fabrics. The exhumation of the central Menderes Massif can therefore be attributed to a model of symmetric gravity collapse of the previously thickened crust in the submassif area. The central submassif is thus interpreted as a piece of ductile lower-middle crust that was exhumed along two

  13. A planetary perspective on Earth evolution: Lid Tectonics before Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, John D. A.

    2013-03-01

    Plate Tectonics requires a specific range of thermal, fluid and compositional conditions before it will operate to mobilise planetary lithospheres. The response to interior heat dispersion ranges from mobile lids in constant motion able to generate zones of subduction and spreading (Plate Tectonics), through styles of Lid Tectonics expressed by stagnant lids punctured by volcanism, to lids alternating between static and mobile. The palaeomagnetic record through Earth history provides a test for tectonic style because a mobile Earth of multiple continents is recorded by diverse apparent polar wander paths, whilst Lid Tectonics is recorded by conformity to a single position. The former is difficult to isolate without extreme selection whereas the latter is a demanding requirement and easily recognised. In the event, the Precambrian palaeomagnetic database closely conforms to this latter property over very long periods of time (~ 2.7-2.2 Ga, 1.5-1.3 Ga and 0.75-0.6 Ga); intervening intervals are characterised by focussed loops compatible with episodes of true polar wander stimulated by disturbances to the planetary figure. Because of this singular property, the Precambrian palaeomagnetic record is highly effective in showing that a dominant Lid Tectonics operated throughout most of Earth history. A continental lid comprising at least 60% of the present continental area and volume had achieved quasi-integrity by 2.7 Ga. Reconfiguration of mantle and continental lid at ~ 2.2 Ga correlates with isotopic signatures and the Great Oxygenation Event and is the closest analogy in Earth history to the resurfacing of Venus. Change from Lid Tectonics to Plate Tectonics is transitional and the geological record identifies incipient development of Plate Tectonics on an orogenic scale especially after 1.1 Ga, but only following break-up of the continental lid (Palaeopangaea) in Ediacaran times beginning at ~ 0.6 Ga has it become comprehensive in the style evident during the

  14. The tectonic evolution of the New Siberian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepjohn, K.; Brandes, C.; Gaedicke, C.; Franke, D.; Mrugalla, S.; Sobolev, N.; Tolmacheva, T.

    2012-04-01

    The New Siberian Islands are located on the wide arctic shelf between the Laptev Sea in the west and the East-Siberian Sea in the east and represent the westernmost part of the Chuchotka-Alaska Terrane. Geologically, they are bounded by the Laptev Sea Rift in the west, the passive continental margin towards the Arctic Ocean in the north and the South Anyui Suture Zone in the south. Two scenarios are discussed: (1) the New Siberian Islands were situated at the North American margin before the start of the break-up of Laurasia in Jurassic times, and (2) the New Siberian Islands are part of the Siberian platform since at least Palaeozoic times. Compared with the structural evolution of Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard, the sedimentary succession of the New Siberian Islands is only very little affected by tectonicdeformation. There is no evidence for the Caledonian and Ellesmerian orogeny on the New Siberian Islands. Although there are some Late Ordovician volcanics exposed on the DeLong Islands, the stratigraphic succession continues without important breaks from Cambrian to Middle Carboniferous, a time span which includes both orogenies. Furthermore, the Paleozoic evolution of the sedimentary basin on the New Siberian Islands has more affinities to the Siberian platform than to Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard. The only observed deformation on the New Siberian Islands is related to the plate tectonic re-organisation of the recent Arctic during the break-up of the Arctic Ocean in probably Early Tertiary times. The deformation on the Anyui Islands is characterized by mostly gentle, open synclines and anticlines with NW-SE trending axis. The deformation increases westwards towards the Laptev Sea, and is dominated by tight folding, thrusting and partly cleavage-development at the west coast of Koteĺny Island and on Beĺkovski Island. The fold-vergencies and the cross-cutting relationships of bedding and cleavage indicate NE

  15. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between...... or cover tectonism took place. Our objectives are thus 1) to analyze the interaction between basement and cover structures, and if possible 2) to relate the structures to the regional tectonic evolution. The Zechstein evaporites pinch out onto the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, which in the eastern North Sea...... including decompaction in the Central Graben along the Arne-Elin trend shows that two phases of basement related inversion took place duringthe Paleocene-Eocene and the Oligocene. Halokinetics and differential compaction across the Paleogene inversion structure explain later tectonic signals...

  16. The tectonic stress field evolution of India since the Oligocene

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Müller, R.D.; Yatheesh, V.; Shuhail, M.

    strengths, enabling the modelling of stress field deflections along interfaces between relatively strong and weak tectonic elements through time. At 33 Ma a roughly NNW–SSE oriented band of relatively high maximum horizontal compressive stress (S...

  17. Three-phase tectonic evolution of the Andaman backarc basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.

    to explore possible hydrothermal activity in the region, provided new i n- sights into the tectonic evoluti on of the backarc basin. Rao et al. 3 documented the absence of recognizable magnetic anomalies and presence of a thick pile of sediments, over..., very smooth t o- po graphic plane on either side characterizes segment C. Si n- gle - channel seismic reflection data over this segment depict a thick pile of sediments, with expressions of e x- tensional tectonics. Seismic eviden ce indicates...

  18. Sediment storage quantification and postglacial evolution of an inner-alpine sedimentary basin (Gradenmoos, Schober Mountains, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, J.; Buckel, J.; Otto, J. C.; Schrott, L.

    2012-04-01

    Knickpoints in longitudinal valley profiles of alpine headwater catchments can be frequently assigned to the lithological and tectonical setting, to damming effects through large (rockfall) deposits, or to the impact of Pleistocene glaciations causing overdeepened basins. As a consequence various sedimentary sinks developed, which frequently interrupt sediment flux in alpine drainage basins. Today these locations may represent landscape archives documenting a sedimentary history of great value for the understanding of alpine landscape evolution. The glacially overdeepened Gradenmoos basin at 1920 m a.s.l. (an alpine lake mire with adjacent floodplain deposits and surrounding slope storage landforms; approx. 4.1 km2) is the most pronounced sink in the studied Gradenbach catchment (32.5 km2). The basin is completely filled up with sediments delivered by mainly fluvial processes, debris flows, and rock falls, it is assumed to be deglaciated since Egesen times and it is expected to archive a continuous stratigraphy of postglacial sedimentation. As the analysis of denudation-accumulation-systems is generally based on back-calculation of stored sediment volumes to a specific sediment delivering area, most reliable results will be consequently obtained (1) if sediment output of the system can be neglected for the investigated period of time, (2) if - due to spatial scale - sediment storage can be assessed quantitatively with a high level of accuracy, and (3) if the sediment contributing area can be clearly delimited. All three aspects are considered to be fulfilled to a high degree within the Gradenmoos basin. Sediment storage is quantified using geophysical methods, core drillings and GIS modelling whereas postglacial reconstruction is based on radiocarbon dating and palynological analyses. Subject to variable subsurface conditions, different geophysical methods were applied to detect bedrock depth. Electrical resistivity surveying (2D/3D) was used most extensively as it

  19. Contrasting effects of winter and summer climate on alpine timberline evolution in monsoon-dominated East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongya; Piao, Shilong; Yin, Yi; Ciais, Philippe; Wu, Xiuchen; Luo, Yao; Zhang, Caina; Song, Yaqiong; Gao, Yishen; Qiu, Anan

    2017-08-01

    Alpine timberline is particularly sensitive to global climate change, with the danger of losing essential ecosystem services in high elevational regions. Its evolution is generally linked to annual average thermal regimes, and is regarded as an indicator of climate warming. However, the effect of uneven seasonal climate change stressed by the Hijioka et al. (2014) on alpine timberline dynamics in terms of both position migration and species composition remains unclear. Here, we documented approximately 6000 years of postglacial alpine timberline evolution on Mt. Tabai in the monsoon-dominated East Asian subtropical-temperate transition. We analyzed three high-resolution lacustrine sediment sequences located below, within, and above the current alpine timberline, an ecotone between the forest line and treeline, respectively. The timberline position appears to have varied coincidently with the temperature effect of cold East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), implying that enhanced EAWM shortened the duration of the growing season and reduced forest survival at the alpine timberline. Unlike position migration, however, timberline species composition depends on summer precipitation. We found that drought-tolerant herb and shrub species were much more sensitive to variations in the water-bearing East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) than mesophytic trees at the alpine timberline. Our results suggest that prediction of future timberline dynamics should consider uneven seasonal climate changes.

  20. Fission-track evidence of tectonic evolution in the northwestern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo-Qiang Sun

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau: Fission-track constraints; Tectono- phys. S1–2 111–134. Kang T S and Wang S C 1991 Fission track – a method in geothermal history research; Science Press, Beijing. Lai S C, Deng J F and Zhao H L 1996 Volcanism and tec-.

  1. Tectonics and subsidence evolution of the Sirt Basin, Libya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadi, A.M.; Wees, J.D. van; Dijk, P.M. van; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Backstripping analysis of 225 wells located within the Sirt Basin (Fig. 1) provide new constraints on the Sirt Basin development. Four coherent tectonic phases from Late Jurassic to present. The presentation of contour maps of subsidence and crustal stretching allows to visualize spatial and

  2. Pollen sensitivity to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) suggests floral structure evolution in alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2014-03-31

    Various biotic and abiotic factors are known to exert selection pressures on floral traits, but the influence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light on the evolution of flower structure remains relatively unexplored. We have examined the effectiveness of flower structure in blocking radiation and the effects of UV-B on pollen viability in 42 species of alpine plants in the Hengduan Mountains, China. Floral forms were categorized as either protecting or exposing pollen grains to UV-B. The floral materials of plants with exposed and protected pollen grains were able to block UV-B at similar levels. Exposure to UV-B radiation in vitro resulted in a significantly greater loss of viability in pollen from plant species with protective floral structures. The pronounced sensitivity of protected pollen to UV-B radiation was associated with the type of flower structure. These findings demonstrate that UV-B plays an important role in the evolution of protective floral forms in alpine plants.

  3. Tethyan evolution of Turkey: A plate tectonic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ^Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Yilmaz, Yücel

    The Tethyan evolution of Turkey may be divided into two main phases, namely a Palaeo-Tethyan and a Neo-Tethyan, although they partly overlap in time. The Palaeo-Tethyan evolution was governed by the main south-dipping (present geographic orientation) subduction zone of Palaeo-Tethys beneath northern Turkey during the Permo-Liassic interval. During the Permian the entire present area of Turkey constituted a part of the northern margin of Gondwana-Land. A marginal basin opened above the subduction zone and disrupted this margin during the early Triassic. In this paper it is called the Karakaya marginal sea, which was already closed by earliest Jurassic times because early Jurassic sediments unconformably overlie its deformed lithologies. The present eastern Mediterranean and its easterly continuation into the Bitlis and Zagros oceans began opening mainly during the Carnian—Norian interval. This opening marked the birth of Neo-Tethys behind the Cimmerian continent which, at that time, started to separate from northern Gondwana-Land. During the early Jurassic the Cimmerian continent internally disintegrated behind the Palaeo-Tethyan arc constituting its northern margin and gave birth to the northern branch of Neo-Tethys. The northern branch of Neo-Tethys included the Intra-Pontide, Izmir—Ankara, and the Inner Tauride oceans. With the closure of Palaeo-Tethys during the medial Jurassic only two oceanic areas were left in Turkey: the multi-armed northern and the relatively simpler southern branches of Neo-Tethys. The northern branch separated the Anatolide—Tauride platform with its long appendage, the Bitlis—Pötürge fragment from Eurasia, whereas the southern one separated them from the main body of Gondwana-Land. The Intra-Pontide and the Izmir—Ankara oceans isolated a small Sakarya continent within the northern branch, which may represent an easterly continuation of the Paikon Ridge of the Vardar Zone in Macedonia. The Anatolide-Tauride platform itself

  4. Morphometric analysis of El Salvador Fault Zone. Implications to the tectonic evolution. Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio

    2013-04-01

    It is considered that the study of the recent topography development, and the use of geomorphological indexes are good tools for the quantification of the active tectonics. We have used quantitative geomorphology in order to improve our understanding of the recent activity and tectonic evolution of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ); an E-W oriented strike-slip fault zone that extends 150 km through El Salvador (Martínez-Díaz et al. 2004). Previous studies propose a transtensive tectonic regime at the Central America Volcanic Arc in El Salvador, which induces relative vertical motions on the faults within El Salvador Fault Zone (i.e. Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008, Cáceres et al. 2005,). This relative vertical displacement can be quantified with the use of hypsometry as a geomorphological character. The morphometric analysis done contributes to a better understanding of the ESFZ. We have defined km scale tectonic block relative displacements that may be useful to constrain the strain distribution along the ESFZ, length of segments with homogeneous vertical movements and lateral relay of active structures. This study supports the hypothesis of a recent migration in the maximum shortening direction, and the accomodation of the current deformation through the reactivation of pre-existing structures inherited from a previous tectonic frame. A similar tectonic evolution as described Weinberg (1992) in Nicaragua, is interpreted from the results of this study.

  5. Western Black Sea region-tectonics, evolution and petroleum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Western Black Sea region comprises parts of:East European platform, Scythian paltform, North Dobrogea orogen, Moesian paltform, Balkan orogen, Eastern Srednogorie, Strandzha orogen, Karkinit basin, West Black Sea basin, Bourgas basin and Thrace basin. The West Black Sea basin consists of two western branches; northern one-Histria sub-basin (in Romania) and southern one-Kamchia sub-basin (in Bulgaria).The eastern Mosian platform is fringed to North by North Dobrogea rift (Seghedi,2001) and to South by Eastern Srednogorie-Balkan rift zone (ESBRZ). These two rift basins were inverted into orogenic belts. Eastwards to the Western Black Sea basin only a broad transitional zone with complex structure can be outlined. To West the Moesian platforms surrounded by south Carpathian-Balkan thrust-fold belt. Both rift basins restricted the Eastern Moesian platform to north and south, are superimposed on the Hercynian sutures.The North Dobrogea rift basin-on the suture between the south-western edge of East Europen platform and Moesian block, and the ESBRZ-on the suture between Moesian block and peri-Gondwana derived Thracian block. The South Moesian platform margin was repeatedly affected by Mesozoic rifting cycles in the Eastern Srednogorie-Balkan zone (ESBZ), interrupted and followed by compressional events,causing strong platform margin shortening and ultimately its overprinting by the alpine orogen.

  6. New Constraints for Tectono-Thermal Alpine Evolution of the Pyrenees: Combining Zircon Fission-Track and (U-Th)/He Analyses with Raman Spectrometry and In-Situ K-Ar Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, M.; Bellahsen, N.; Mouthereau, F.; Pik, R.; Bernet, M.; Scaillet, S.; Rosenberg, C.

    2017-12-01

    The pyrenean range was formed by the convergence of European and Iberian plates following the inversion of the Mesozoic rifting in the north of Pyrenees. In the Axial Zone, the collision caused an antiformal nappe-stacking of tectonic units. Recent studies pointed out the importance of pre-collision structural and thermal inheritance that may play a major role for orogeny such as: 1) Paleozoic Variscan inheritance; 2) Mesozoic rift-related high geothermal gradients, which are maintained during the onset of convergence in the North Pyrenean Zone. From a mineralogical point of view, pre-collision feldspars have been destabilized and influenced the development of alpine phyllonite in brittle-ductile conditions which suggests a weak crustal behavior during the formation of the orogenic wedge. Our aim is to get a better understanding of alpine deformation and exhumation by coupling different thermochronological, geochronological and thermometric methods. We document the thermal evolution of each tectonic unit by using low-temperature thermochronometers (Zircon Fission Tracks, U-Th/He on zircons including laser ablation profiles). Our data on vertical profiles combined to existing dataset on apatite allows to model alpine exhumation across the Axial zone. Structural observations through alpine thrusts coupled to geochronology (in situ K/Ar on phengites), Raman and chlorite-phengite thermo(baro)metry provide new key data to unravel the alpine evolution of the Pyrenees. According to preliminary ZFT results on granite massifs in the central part of Pyrenean Axial zone (near ECORS profile), exhumation ages potentially indicates a migration of exhumation towards the south. Exhumation ages of the northern massifs seems to have preserved the North Pyrenean Cretaceous rift evolution. Further south, the onset of exhumation is as old as Paleocene, which precedes the Eocene ages of the literature. The low burial estimated in the northern massifs may indicate a high thermal gradient

  7. Geodynamic evolution of the Earth over the Phanerozoic: Plate tectonic activity and palaeoclimatic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vérard

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we compare values derived from the tectonic model (ages of oceanic floor, production and subduction rates, tectonic activity with a combination of chemical proxies (namely CO2, 87Sr/86Sr, glaciation evidence, and sea-level variations known to be strongly influenced by tectonics. One of the outstanding results is the observation of an overall decreasing trend in the evolution of the global tectonic activity, mean oceanic ages and plate velocities over the whole Phanerozoic. We speculate that the decreasing trend reflects the global cooling of the Earth system. Additionally, the parallel between the tectonic activity and CO2 together with the extension of glaciations confirms the generally accepted idea of a primary control of CO2 on climate and highlights the link between plate tectonics and CO2 in a time scale greater than 107 yr. Last, the wide variations observed in the reconstructed sea-floor production rates are in contradiction with the steady-state model hypothesized by some.

  8. The Upper Cretaceous to Palaeogene Sedimentary History and Tectonic Evolution of the Bala Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Emre, Mehmet Fahrettin

    1985-01-01

    The study area is situated on the northern extension of the Tuzgolu basin, (Central Anatolia) and contains Upper Cretaceous--Tertiary volcanic, clastic, and carbonate rocks with evaporites deposited on an ophiolitic melange basement, the Ankara Melange. The present structure of the area is the result of tectonism during late Alpine movements. The movements controlled the timing and conditions of sediment accumulation. The Bala basin evolved on the northern continental margin of the Kirsehi...

  9. Tectonic evolution of the Sicilian Maghrebian Chain inferred from stratigraphic and petrographic evidences of Lower Cretaceous and Oligocene flysch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglisi Diego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a Lower Cretaceous flysch group, cropping out from the Gibraltar Arc to the Balkans with a very similar structural setting and sedimentary provenance always linked to the dismantling of internal areas, suggests the existence of only one sedimentary basin (Alpine Tethys s.s., subdivided into many other minor oceanic areas. The Maghrebian Basin, mainly developed on thinned continental crust, was probably located in the westernmost sector of the Alpine Tethys. Cretaceous re-organization of the plates triggered one (or more tectonic phases, well recorded in almost all the sectors of the Alpine Tethys. However, the Maghrebian Basin seems to have been deformed by Late- or post-Cretaceous tectonics, connected with a “meso-Alpine” phase (pre-Oligocene, already hypothesized since the beginning of the nineties. Field geological evidence and recent biostratigraphic data also support this important meso- Alpine tectonic phase in the Sicilian segment of the Maghrebian Chain, indicated by the deformations of a Lower Cretaceous flysch sealed by Lower Oligocene turbidite deposits. This tectonic development is emphasized here because it was probably connected with the onset of rifting in the southern paleomargin of the European plate, the detaching of the so-called AlKaPeCa block (Auct.; i.e. Alboran + Kabylian + Calabria and Peloritani terranes and its fragmentation into several microplates. The subsequent early Oligocene drifting of these microplates led to the progressive closure of the Maghrebian Basin and the opening of new back-arc oceanic basins, strongly controlled by extensional processes, in the western Mediterranean (i.e. Gulf of Lion, Valencia Trough, Provençal Basin and Alboran Sea.

  10. U-Pb thermochronology of rutile from Alpine Corsica: constraints on the thermal evolution of the European margin during Jurassic continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, T. A.; Beltrando, M.; Müntener, O.

    2017-12-01

    U-Pb thermochronology of rutile can provide valuable temporal constraints on the exhumation history of the lower crust, given its moderate closure temperature and the occurrence of rutile in appropriate lithologies. We present an example from Alpine Corsica, in which we investigate the thermal evolution of the distal European margin during Jurassic continental rifting that culminated in the opening of the Alpine Tethys ocean. The Belli Piani unit of the Santa Lucia nappe (Corsica) experienced minimal Alpine overprint and bears a striking resemblance to the renowned Ivrea Zone lower crustal section (Italy). At its base, a 2-4 km thick gabbroic complex contains slivers of granulite facies metapelites that represent Permian lower crust. Zr-in-rutile temperatures and U-Pb ages were determined for rutile from three metapelitic slivers from throughout the Mafic Complex. High Zr-in-rutile temperatures of 850-950 °C corroborate textural evidence for rutile formation during Permian granulite facies metamorphism. Lower Zr-in-rutile temperatures of 750-800 °C in a few grains are partly associated with elongate strings of rutile within quartz ribbons, which record recrystallisation of some rutile during high-temperature shearing. Zr thermometry documents that both crystallisation and re-crystallisation of rutile occurred above the closure temperature of Pb in rutile, such that the U-Pb system can be expected to record cooling ages uncomplicated by re-crystallisation. Our new high-precision single-spot LA-ICPMS U-Pb dates are highly consistent between and within samples. The three samples gave ages from 160 ± 1 Ma to 161 ± 2 Ma, with no other age populations detected. The new data indicate that the Santa Lucia lower crust last cooled through 550-650 °C at 160 Ma, coeval with the first formation of oceanic crust in the Tethys. The new data are compared to previous depth profiling rutile U-Pb data for the Belli Piani unit1, and exploited to cast light on the tectonothermal

  11. Fission-track evidence of tectonic evolution in the northwestern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    right Y-axis, which indicates the age of that grain. The right panels are the age component and. Gaussian curve histograms. Figure 4. Evolution of the Altyn Tagh strike-slip fault (modified after Liu et al. 2001) a.At the end of the Mesozoic era, the Tibetan plateau started to uplift alone with the collision between the Indian and ...

  12. Escape tectonics and foreland basin evolution: The Austrian-German Molasse basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The Alpine peripheral foreland basin formed during Eocene collision of the lower, European plate and the upper, Adriatic plate. Two marine to continental megasequences fill the basin. The transition form deep marine to continental deposits of the first megasequence at the Early - Late Oligocene boundary has been related to a change from predominant horizontal to vertical movements in the core of the orogenic wedge. The second megasequence is, however, poorly understood, and different models have been put forward. I present an alternative explanation for the development of this second megacycle, based on an analysis of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt east of the Rhine river (Ortner et al., 2015). The main characteristics of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt are: 1) A frontal anticline/thrust started to develop during deposition of the older, marine portion of the second megasequence. Structures continued to grow throughout deposition of the younger, continental part of the megasequence. Structural growth is documented by growth strata. 2) The thrusts in the Subalpine Molasse evolved in a break-back sequence. 3) The amount of shortening during depositon of the second megasequence reduces from 40-50 km near the Rhine valley to zero in the east in the Salzburg area. The onset of the second megasequence in the foreland north of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt is characterized by an angular unconformity documenting a tilt of the foreland toward the orogen, and therefore ongoing flexure of the lower plate. East of the eastern end of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt, the deposits of the second megasequence are in a horizontal position, lower plate flexure had stopped. In the internal part of the Alpine orogenic wedge, shortening, exhumation and E-directed stretching of the Tauern Window as a consequence of escape tectonics was active. Most probably shortening was transferred from the Alpine front into the zone of lateral escape, causing the break-back thrust sequence

  13. Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal

    2016-04-01

    Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western Anatolian extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North Anatolian Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic faults. The Sekli thrust fault is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan fault is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya fault is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central Turkey. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.

  14. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Kazdaǧ Massif (NW Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, B.; Akay, E.; Hasözbek, A.; Satır, M.; Siebel, W.

    2009-04-01

    and paleogeographic evolution of the southern part of the northwestern Anatolia. Geologica Romana 27, 13-80 Bingöl, E. (1971) Classification of age determination methods and application of Rb/Sr and K/Ar methods in Kazdağ. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey 14, 1-16 (in Turkish) Duru, M., Pehlivan, Ş., Şentürk, Y., Yavaş, F. ve Kar, H. (2004) New results on the lithostratigraphy of the Kazdağ Massif in northwest Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 13, 177-186 Okay, A.I and Monie, P. (1997) Early Mesozoic subduction in the eastern Mediterranean: Evidence from Triassic eclogite in northwest Turkey. Geology 25, 595-598 Okay, A.I and Satır, M. (2000) Coeval plutonism and metamorphism in a latest Oligocene metamorphic core complex in northwestern Turkey. Geological Magazine 137, 495-516 Okay, A.I, Siyako, M and Burkan, K.A. (1991) Geology and tectonic evolution of the Biga Peninsula, northwestern Turkey. Bulletin of the Technical University of İstanbul 44, 191-256 Okay, A.I, Monod, O and Monie, P. (2002) Triaasic blueschists and eclogites from northwestern Turkey: vestiges of the Paleo-Tethyan subduction. Lithos 64, 155-178 Okay, A.I, Satır, M., Maluski, H., Sıyako, M., Monie, P., Metzger, R., Akyüz, S., (1996) Paleo- and Neo-Tethyan events in northwestern Turkey: Geologic and geochronologic constrains. The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, 420-441 Topuz, G, Altıner, D, Satır, M, and Schwartz, W.H. (2004) Low-grade metamorphic rocks from the Pulur Complex, NE Turkey: implications for the pre-Liassic evolution of the Eastern Pontides. International Journal of Earth Science, 93, 72-91 Yaltırak C. and Okay A.İ (1994) Geology of the Paleo-Tethyan units in the north of Edremit Bay. Bulletin of the Technical University of İstanbul , 3/1, 67-79 (in Turkish)

  15. Overview of geology and tectonic evolution of the Baikal-Tuva area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkochub, Dmitry; Donskaya, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    This chapter provides the results of geological investigations of the main tectonic units of the Baikal-Tuva region (southwestern part of Siberia) during the last decades: the ancient Siberian craton and adjacent areas of the Central Asian Orogenic belt. In the framework of these main units we describe small-scale blocks (terranes) with focus on details of their inner structure and evolution through time. As well as describing the geology and tectonics of the area studied, we give an overview of underwater sediments, neotectonics, and some phenomena of history and development of the Baikal, Khubsugul, Chargytai, and Tore-Chol Lakes basins of the Baikal-Tuva region. It is suggested that these lakes' evolution was controlled by neotectonic processes, modern seismic activity, and global climate changes.

  16. Distinct phases of eustatic and tectonic forcing for late Quaternary landscape evolution in southwest Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mouslopoulou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which climate, eustasy and tectonics interact to shape the late Quaternary landscape is poorly known. Alluvial fans often provide useful indexes that allow the decoding of information recorded on complex coastal landscapes, such as those of the eastern Mediterranean. In this paper we analyse and date (using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL dating a double alluvial fan system on southwest Crete, an island straddling the forearc of the Hellenic subduction margin, in order to constrain the timing and magnitude of its vertical deformation and discuss the factors contributing to its landscape evolution. The studied alluvial system is exceptional because each of its two juxtaposed fans records individual phases of alluvial and marine incision, thus providing unprecedented resolution in the formation and evolution of its landscape. Specifically, our analysis shows that the fan sequence at Domata developed during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3 due to five distinct stages of marine transgressions and regressions and associated river incision, in response to sea-level fluctuations and tectonic uplift at averaged rates of  ∼ 2.2 mm yr−1. Interestingly, comparison of our results with published tectonic uplift rates from western Crete shows that uplift during 20–50 kyr BP was minimal (or even negative. Thus, most of the uplift recorded at Domata must have occurred in the last 20 kyr. This implies that eustasy and tectonism impacted the landscape at Domata over mainly distinct time intervals (e.g. sequentially and not synchronously, with eustasy forming and tectonism preserving the coastal landforms.

  17. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Jamie R; Vamosi, Jana C; Rogers, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral) and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci), but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci). By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  18. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R McEwen

    Full Text Available Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci, but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci. By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  19. Late Vendian-Early Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Baltic Basin: regional tectonic implications from subsidence analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poprawa, P.; Sliaupa, S.; Stephenson, R.A.; Lazauskiene, J.

    1999-01-01

    Subsidence analysis was performed on 43 boreholes penetrating the Upper Vendian-Lower Palaeozoic sedimentary succession of the Baltic Basin. The results were related to lithofacial and structural data to elucidate subsidence mechanisms and the regional tectonic setting of basin development. Tectonic

  20. Gneiss Macuira: tectonic evolution of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Alta Guajira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez I; A Julian; Zuluaga C; A, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Macuira Gneiss is a Paleozoic metamorphic unit that outcrops in the Simarua, Jarara and Macuira ranges, Alta Guajira. It is composed by a lithologies metamorphosed under amphibolite facies P-T conditions and consist of amphibolitic and quartz feldspathic gneisses, amphibolites, schists, pegmatites, calc-silicated rocks and marbles, with migmatization evidences in gneisses and amphibolites. Five foliations (S1-5) and three folding events (F1-3) were identified and interpreted as product of two metamorphic events, developed in a progressive barrovian metamorphic gradient of intermediate pressure with intermediate P-T ratio, interpreted as product of continental collision tectonics. This unit is important in understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Alta Guajira and Caribbean because it records different deformational phases pre-, syn- and post-migmatitic, that could be related with different tectonic episodes: the first associated with the collision between Laurasia and Gondwana (Alleghanian Orogeny - Late Paleozoic), and the second related with the Caribbean Plate evolution (Andean Orogeny - Meso-Cenozoic).

  1. Syn-kinematic palaeogeographic evolution of the West European Platform: correlation with Alpine plate collision and foreland deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.

    Sequence stratigraphic correlations indicate that intermittent changes of the kinematic far-field stress-field regimes, and the associated geodynamic re-organisations at the plate-tectonic contacts of the African, Apulian, Iberian and European plates, affected the Tertiary palaeogeographic evolution

  2. Impact of tectonic and volcanism on the Neogene evolution of isolated carbonate platforms (SW Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courgeon, S.; Jorry, S. J.; Jouet, G.; Camoin, G.; BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.; Bachèlery, P.; Caline, B.; Boichard, R.; Révillon, S.; Thomas, Y.; Thereau, E.; Guérin, C.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the impact of tectonic activity and volcanism on long-term (i.e. millions years) evolution of shallow-water carbonate platforms represents a major issue for both industrial and academic perspectives. The southern central Mozambique Channel is characterized by a 100 km-long volcanic ridge hosting two guyots (the Hall and Jaguar banks) and a modern atoll (Bassas da India) fringed by a large terrace. Dredge sampling, geophysical acquisitions and submarines videos carried out during recent oceanographic cruises revealed that submarine flat-top seamounts correspond to karstified and drowned shallow-water carbonate platforms largely covered by volcanic material and structured by a dense network of normal faults. Microfacies and well-constrained stratigraphic data indicate that these carbonate platforms developed in shallow-water tropical environments during Miocene times and were characterized by biological assemblages dominated by corals, larger benthic foraminifera, red and green algae. The drowning of these isolated carbonate platforms is revealed by the deposition of outer shelf sediments during the Early Pliocene and seems closely linked to (1) volcanic activity typified by the establishment of wide lava flow complexes, and (2) to extensional tectonic deformation associated with high-offset normal faults dividing the flat-top seamounts into distinctive structural blocks. Explosive volcanic activity also affected platform carbonates and was responsible for the formation of crater(s) and the deposition of tuff layers including carbonate fragments. Shallow-water carbonate sedimentation resumed during Late Neogene time with the colonization of topographic highs inherited from tectonic deformation and volcanic accretion. Latest carbonate developments ultimately led to the formation of the Bassas da India modern atoll. The geological history of isolated carbonate platforms from the southern Mozambique Channel represents a new case illustrating the major

  3. Structural evolution and tectonic style of the Tunisian central Atlas; role of inherited faults in compressive tectonics (Ghoualguia anticline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, Haithem; Ahmadi, Riadh; Smida, Rabiaa; Rekhiss, Farhat

    2018-04-01

    Geological mapping, field cross sections, structural analyses and new subsurface data were used to characterize the geometry and tectonic setting of the Ghoualguia structure, which is an E-W-trending anticline located between the Kalaa Khasba and Rouhia troughs of the central Tunisian Atlas. The results show an important NE-SW extensional phase during the Mesozoic, as demonstrated by synsedimentary normal faults (NW-SE and E-W) and thickness variations. In the Aouled Mdoua area, the absence of Paleocene-Eocene rocks indicates that the eastern and western parts of the Ghoualguia structure were separated by high topography. In addition, the angular unconformity observed between the Upper Cretaceous unit (Abiod Fm.) and the upper Eocene series (Souar Fm.) provide evidence of a tilted-block structure delineated by North-South faults. A major compressional phase during the middle to late Miocene created various detachment levels that originated mainly in the Triassic and Cretaceous deposits. Faults were reactivated as thrust and strike-slip faults, creating fault-related fold structures. In the core of the Ghoualguia fold, an original S-dipping normal fault underwent reverse movement as a back thrust. Fault-slip data indicate that the area records a major NE-SW extensional phase that took place during the late Miocene and Pliocene. A balanced cross section provides insight into the existence of two main detachment levels rooted in the Triassic (depth ± 6 km) and the lower Cretaceous (depth ± 2.5 km). The balanced cross section highlights a shortening of about 2.5 km along cross section and 1.5 km in the central part of the Ghoualguia anticline. This work underlines the predominant role of the inherited Mesozoic structures during the evolution of the Atlassic range and their influence on the geometry of the central Tunisian atlas.

  4. Miocene to recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Anaximander Seamounts; eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranshaw, Jennifer

    This thesis is focused on the Messinian to Recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Anaximander Mountains and surrounding environs in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is based on processing of high-resolution seismic reflection data and the interpretation and mapping of seismic reflection profiles collected from this area during the 2001 and 2007 research cruises. The data show that the greater Anaximander Mountains region experienced a short interval of tectonic quiescence during the Messinian when a thin evaporite unit was deposited across a major erosional surface. This phase of limited tectonic activity ended in the latest Miocene and was replaced by an erosional phase. Major unconformities in the area are interpreted to develop during the desiccation of the eastern Mediterranean associated with the so-called Messinian salinity crisis. During the early Pliocene, the region experienced an increase in tectonic activity, dominated by transpression. Small amounts of growth observed in Pliocene-Quaternary sediments suggested that the tectonic activity remained low during the early Pliocene-Quaternary. However, the extensive growth strata wedges developed in older sediments indicate a period of accelerated tectonic activity during the mid-late Pliocene-Quaternary. This study suggests that the Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto ) and the Anaximenes Mountain developed during the Pliocene-Quaternary as the result of a crustal-scale thick-skinned linked imbricate thrust fan. The development of back thrusts in both mountains heightened the seafloor morphology of these submarine mountains and brought Eocene-Oligocene sediments into the core of these mountains. The Sim Erinc Plateau represents a 30-40 km wide transpressional fault zone developed during the Pliocene-Quaternary. In this region the corrugated seafloor morphology observed in the multibeam bathymetry map is the reflection of high-angle faults. It is speculated that this transpressional fault zone

  5. New constraints on the tectonic and thermal evolution of the Central-Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelluccio, Ada; Andreucci, Benedetta; Grigo, Domenico; Jankowski, Leszek; Ketcham, Richard A.; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Zattin, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Central-Western Carpathians have been studied for long time but they are a still matter of discussion. In addition, they are one of the principal East European targets for oil and gas exploration. Understanding the tectonic evolution and the spatial and temporal variation of the thermal regime is crucial for this purpose. This orogene formed after the collision between the European Platform and the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates from the Upper Jurassic to the Neogene. The widely accepted interpretation suggests the occurrence of the oceanic lithosphere subducting under the two microplates and the development of the oceanic suture in the Pieniny Klippen Belt area during the Paleocene. The subduction ends when the accretionary wedge reaches its present-day position on top of the southern border of the European Platform. The Carpathian arc can be subdivided into three tectonic domains: • Outer Carpathians made up of Upper Jurassic to Lower Miocene siliciclastic deposits intercalated with shales and sandstones; • Pieniny Klippen Belt formed by Mesozoic olistoliths and olistostromes in a sandy-clay Cretaceous sheared matrix; • Inner Carpathians consisting in Variscan allochthonous crystalline basement with its Mesozoic cover involved in the late Cretaceous folding and thrusting These deposits are unconformably overlain by the undeformed Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin successions. Cross-section balancing and sequential restoration integrated with low-temperature thermochronometry (apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis) can better constrain the tectonic evolution of this area and, in particular, its exhumation history. Seven balanced sections have been constructed across the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians. The sequential restoration shows a thick-skinned tectonics during the Upper Cretaceous, involving the Inner Carpathian basin. The erosion of the Mesozoic basement cover and the sedimentation of these deposits in the foreland basin

  6. Stagnant lids and mantle overturns: Implications for Archaean tectonics, magmagenesis, crustal growth, mantle evolution, and the start of plate tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean H. Bédard

    2018-01-01

    probability that oceanic crustal segments could founder in an organized way, producing a gradual evolution of pre-subduction convergent margins into modern-style active subduction systems around 2.5 Ga. Plate tectonics today is constituted of: (1 a continental drift system that started in the Early Archaean, driven by deep mantle currents pressing against the Archaean-age sub-continental lithospheric mantle keels that underlie Archaean cratons; (2 a subduction-driven system that started near the end of the Archaean.

  7. Hinterland tectonics and drainage evolution recorded by foreland basin archives: the Neogene Siwaliks of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Matthias, Bernet; Catherine, Chauvel; Jean-Louis, Mugnier; Laurent, Husson; François, Chirouze

    2014-05-01

    Provenance analysis and detrital thermochronology of detrital synorogenic sediments, derived from erosion of mountain belts and deposited in surrounding sedimentary basins, are well-established methods to examine the exhumation history of convergent zones, tectonic activity and the associated evolution of the drainage network. We have conducted multidisciplinary studies on magnetostratigraphically dated sections throughout the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin of the Himalayan belt since more than 10 years. Sr, Nd and Hf isotopes are used as provenance indicators, providing information on the nature and size of catchment basins and their evolution through time in response to tectonics. Detrital zircon and apatite thermochronology provides constraints on exhumation rates in the hinterland of the Himalaya and the deformation of the Sub-Himalayan foreland basin. Throughout the Himalaya, detrital zircons from the Siwaliks generally show three age peaks: two static peaks (i.e., displaying constant peak ages through time), and a moving peak. The latter shows a constant lag time of ~4 m.y. corresponding to source-area exhumation rates on the order of 1.8 km/my, while the two static peaks respectively reveal a major 15-20 Ma exhumation event in the belt, the significance of which is still debated, and inheritance of pre-Himalayan ages that indicate recycling of Tethyan sediments. Therefore, our ZFT results suggest that the exhumation dynamics are broadly similar throughout the Himalaya since at least 13 m.y, as also shown by the Bengal Fan detrital sediment record. We relate this switch in tectonic regime to the destabilization of the Himalayan wedge that is rendered overcritical as a response to the transience of dynamic topography caused by the deforming underlying Indian slab. Nonetheless, in detail, the timing of thrusting in the Siwalik domain is delayed by about 1 my eastward as demonstrated by both structural and apatite fission-track data, suggesting overall eastward

  8. Tectonic-thermal evolution from the northeast region of Minas Gerais and South of Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwinski, N.

    1985-01-01

    The northeast region of Minas Gerais and South Bahia are centered to the east of 42 0 00 ' WGr, between parallels 15 0 and 18 0 . Its tectonic-thermal evolution is presented here with the support of stratigraphy/lithology, structural analysis, petrography, petrochemistry, regional metamorphism/retro metamorphism and radio chronology. It is pointed out that the evolution occurred in a mobile belt initiating its history in the terminal Archean up to Inferior Proterozoic. The northeast of the region attained crustal stability during 1700 My up to 1800 My (Sao Francisco Craton) meanwhile the rest of the zone kept mobilized till upper proterozoic times. Radio chronological studies suggest for the post tectonic granitic rocks, ages from the brasiliano cycle as well as for those pre-existing rocks which suffered isotopic regeneration and metamorphose in that same cycle an original age from Archean to inferior proterozoic times, except for those which are situated in the northeast part of the region. Petrochemical data point to an origin from sedimentary processes for the majority of the metamorphosed rocks in this region. (author)

  9. Sedimentologic indicators of the Miocene tectonic evolution in the Nunchia syncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Arias, Juan Carlos; Mora, Andres; Parra, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    The study area corresponds to the Nunchia syncline, which is located in the eastern foothills of the eastern cordillera of Colombia. This structure is bounded by the Yopal thrust to the east, and Guaicaramo thrust to the west. This syncline has mostly outcrops of Miocene units, which belong to the Carbonera (C1-C5), Leon and Guayabo formations. Here we use sedimentologic data, especially in the Guayabo Formation, in order to determine the influence of active tectonics during its deposition. Petrographic analyses of sandstones indicate the presence of components associated with upper Cretaceous - Paleocene formations in the eastern cordillera. Paleocurrent orientation shows a preferential trend towards the se during the deposition of most of the studied formations, with a reversal in flow direction towards the W-NW during the deposition of the middle Guayabo Formation preserved in the Nunchia syncline. The collected data allows establishing a structural evolution in the Nunchia syncline which was therefore active during most of the Miocene. This evolution appears to be continuous, although fragmentation of the geological record shows more specific periods of tectonic activity.

  10. Tectonic evolution of Caledonian Palaeohigh in the Sichuan Basin and its relationship with hydrocarbon accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian Palaeohigh is an important gas exploration domain of Sinian and Lower Paleozoic in western Central Sichuan Basin where gas discoveries have been made successively in recent years. In order to sort out the relationship between the tectonic evolution of this Palaeohigh and hydrocarbon accumulation there, we carried out a new round of research based on previous study results. The evolution history of this Palaeohigh can be divided into seven episodes: the Late Sinian overall tilting and the youth form development of this Palaeohigh, the Cambrian-Ordovician syndepositional uplifting, the Silurian joint uplifting, the Devonian-Carboniferous uplifting and erosion, the Permian overall subsidence and deposition of regional caprock, the Triassic-Jurassic migration of structural high of the eastern segment of this Palaeohigh, and Cretaceous-Neogene strong deformation of the western segment of this Palaeohigh. The hydrocarbon accumulation in the Sinian-Lower Paleozoic experienced three evolution stages, namely the formation of ancient oil reservoirs in the Silurian-Triassic period, the development of the paleo-gas reservoirs in the Jurassic-Oligocene period, and differential evolution of gas reservoirs since the Miocene era. The Sinian-Lower Paleozoic paleo-reservoirs mainly occur in the Leshan-Ziyang-Gaoshiti-Longnǚsi zone and in the area to its north. The tectonic movement of the western segment of the Palaeohigh was strong, while its eastern segment was relatively stable since the later Himalayan epoch, which is favorable for gas accumulation and preservation. It is believed that the Gaoshiti-Moxi-Longnǚsi structural belt and its northern flank are not only favorable for the development of structural gas reservoirs in the Lower Paleozoic but also for gas reservoirs of karstic-lithologic type on the top of the Cambrian and Ordovician. The later type will be the major exploration target of this area in the future.

  11. Evidence of Variscan and Alpine tectonics in the structural and thermochronological record of the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (south-eastern Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Spikings, Richard; Wetzel, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a composite crystalline belt within the Eastern European Alpine orogen, outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south. The central parts of this massif (south-eastern Serbia) consist of the medium- to high-grade Lower Complex and the low-grade Vlasina Unit. Outcrop- and micro-scale ductile structures in this area document three major stages of ductile deformation. The earliest stage D1 is related to isoclinal folding, commonly preserved as up to decimetre-scale quartz-feldspar rootless fold hinges. D2 is associated with general south-eastward tectonic transport and refolding of earlier structures into recumbent metre- to kilometre-scale tight to isoclinal folds. Stages D1 and D2 could not be temporally separated and probably took place in close sequence. The age of these two ductile deformation stages was constrained to the Variscan orogeny based on indirect geological evidence (i.e. ca. 408-ca. 328). During this period, the SMM was involved in a transpressional amalgamation of the western and eastern parts of the Galatian super-terrane and subsequent collision with Laurussia. Outcrop-scale evidence of the final stage D3 is limited to spaced and crenulation cleavage, which are probably related to formation of large-scale open upright folds as reported previously. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology was applied on hornblende, muscovite, and biotite samples in order to constrain the age of tectonothermal events and activity along major shear zones. These 40Ar/39Ar data reveal three major cooling episodes affecting the central SMM. Cooling below greenschist facies conditions in the western part of the Vlasina Unit took place in a post-orogenic setting (extensional or transtensional) in the early Permian (284 ± 1 Ma). The age of activity along the top-to-the-west shear zone formed within the orthogneiss in the Božica area of the Vlasina Unit was constrained to Middle Triassic (246 ± 1 Ma). This

  12. Leucogranites in Lhozag, southern Tibet: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunmei; Zhao, Zhidan; Li, Guangming; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Liu, Dong; Shi, Qingshang

    2017-12-01

    Petrogenesis of the Himalayan leucogranite is strongly influenced by conditions which are associated with the tectonic evolution of Himalayan orogen. In this article, we present petrological, geochronological and geochemical results of the Lhozag leucogranites that crop out alongside the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) in the east of Himalaya. Zircon U-Pb dating revealed three episodes of leucogranitic magmatism in Lhozag at 17.8 ± 0.1 Ma, 15.1 ± 0.1 Ma, and 12.0 ± 0.1 Ma, respectively. The Lhozag leucogranites show relatively low εNd(t), low zircon εHf(t) and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, which are similar to the High Himalayan Crystalline Series (HHCS), indicating that they were derived from the HHCS. The characteristics of relatively high Na2O and Rb contents, high Rb/Sr ratios and low CaO, MgO, TFe2O3, TiO2, and Sr contents indicate that both the ca. 18 Ma Lhozag tourmaline leucogranites and the ca. 15 Ma Lhozag two-mica granites were derived from fluid-absent muscovite-dehydration melting of metasediments. The opposite geochemistry characteristics of the ca. 12 Ma Khula Kangri two-mica granites imply that these granites are derived from fluid-present melting of metasediments. Four Khula Kangri two-mica granite samples with relatively lower TiO2, TFe2O3, MgO, and CaO contents, higher Rb concentrations and Rb/Sr ratios could be evolved from the Khula Kangri two-mica granites with relatively lower Rb/Sr ratios. The melting behaviors of the Lhozag leucogranites varied from fluid-absent melting to fluid-present melting, implying that there were P-T-XH2O variations in the deep crust. The tectonic evolution would give rise to variation of P-T-XH2O variation, and subsequent transformation of melting behavior. Our new results display the transformation of melting behavior of the Lhozag leucogranites, which implies the tectonic evolution from earlier N-S extension to later E-W extension in the eastern Himalaya at ca. 12 Ma.

  13. Geochronology and Tectonic Evolution of the Lincang Batholith in Southwestern Yunnan, China

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    Hongyuan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geochronological research of the Lincang Batholith is one key scientific problem to discuss the tectonic evolution of the Tethys. Two granitic specimens were selected from the Mengku-Douge area in the Lincang Batholith to perform the LA-ICPMS Zircon U-Pb dating based on thorough review of petrological, geochemical, and geochronological data by the former scientists. Rock-forming age data of biotite granite specimen from Kunsai is about 220 Ma, the Norian age. However, the west sample from Mengku shows 230 Ma, the Carnian age. The later intrusion in Kunsai area located east to the Mengku area shows directly their uneven phenomena in both space and time and may indirectly reflect the space difference of the contraction-extension transformation period of the deep seated faults. Considering the former 40Ar/39Ar data and the outcrop in Mengku, the Lincang Batholith should have experienced one tectonic exhumation and regional subsidence cycle. The regional subsidence cycle has close relations to the expansion of the Meso Tethys.

  14. Seismic Interpretation of the Nam Con Son Basin and its Implication for the Tectonic Evolution

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    Nguyen Quang Tuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.127-137The Nam Con Son Basin covering an area of circa 110,000 km2 is characterized by complex tectonic settings of the basin which has not fully been understood. Multiple faults allowed favourable migration passageways for hydrocarbons to go in and out of traps. Despite a large amount of newly acquired seismic and well data there is no significant update on the tectonic evolution and history of the basin development. In this study, the vast amount of seismic and well data were integrated and reinterpreted to define the key structural events in the Nam Con Son Basin. The results show that the basin has undergone two extentional phases. The first N - S extensional phase terminated at around 30 M.a. forming E - W trending grabens which are complicated by multiple half grabens filled by Lower Oligocene sediments. These grabens were reactivated during the second NW - SE extension (Middle Miocene, that resulted from the progressive propagation of NE-SW listric fault from the middle part of the grabens to the margins, and the large scale building up of roll-over structure. Further to the SW, the faults of the second extentional phase turn to NNE-SSW and ultimately N - S in the SW edge of the basin. Most of the fault systems were inactive by Upper Miocene except for the N - S fault system which is still active until recent time.

  15. A combined rigid/deformable plate tectonic model for the evolution of the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. G.; Glover, C. T.; Adriasola Munoz, A. C.; Harris, J. P.; Goodrich, M.

    2012-04-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions are essential for placing geological information in its correct spatial context, understanding depositional environments, defining basin dimensions and evolution, and serve as a basis for palaeogeographic mapping and for palaeo-climate modelling. Traditional 'rigid' plate reconstructions often result in misfits (overlaps and underfits) in the geometries of juxtaposed plate margins when restored to their pre-rift positions. This has been attributed to internal deformation pre- and/or syn- continental break-up. Poorly defined continent-ocean boundaries add to these problems. To date, few studies have integrated continental extension within a global model. Recent plate tectonic reconstructions based on the relative motions of Africa, Madagascar, India and Antarctica during the break-up of eastern Gondwana have not taken into account the effects of deformation; particularly between India and Madagascar, and India and the Seychelles. A deformable plate model is in development that builds on the current rigid plate model to describe the complex multiphase break-up history between Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles and India, the associated magmatic activity and subsequent India/Eurasia collision. The break-up of eastern Gondwana occurred in the mid Jurassic by rifting between Africa and the India-Madagascar-Australian-Antarctica plates, followed by the Late Jurassic drift of India away from Australia and the Cretaceous break-up of Australia and Antarctica. The northwards drift of the Seychelles-India block in the Tertiary was accommodated by the opening of the Laxmi Basin. This was followed by the eruption of the extensive Deccan flood basalts and the separation of India and the Seychelles. Crustal domains on volcanic margins can be very difficult to define due to the accretion of magmatic material. On these margins, there is much speculation on the position of the continent-ocean boundary and the timing of rifting and sea-floor spreading. The

  16. Alpine tourism

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    Andrea Macchiavelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectacular increase in tourism in the Alps in recent decades has been founded mainly on the boom in skiing, resulting in both strong real estate development and an increasing array of infrastructures and ski runs. Today the ski market seems to have virtually reached saturation point and the winter sports sector needs to diversify its offer through innovation. After a review of the main factors of change in mountain tourism, the paper presents a grid for interpreting the life cycle of alpine destinations, identifying the phases that characterize their evolution. The conditions that may favour innovation in alpine tourism are then identified, as well as the contradictions that frequently accompany them. In most cases, innovation is the result of a process that begins within the alpine community, frequently encouraged and supported by national and international institutions and with whose help structural difficulties are successfully overcome.La forte croissance qu’ont connue les pays alpins dans les dernières décennies a surtout été fondée sur l’offre des activités du ski, avec comme conséquence, un massif développement immobilier et la multiplication d’infrastructures et de pistes. Aujourd’hui, le marché du ski semble arriver à saturation, la Convention alpine a mis un frein à la poursuite du développement des domaines skiables et on observe donc avec intérêt la diversification de l’offre soutenue par l’innovation. Après avoir rappelé les facteurs de changement en cours les plus significatifs dans le tourisme montagnard, l’article présente une grille interprétative de l’évolution des destinations touristiques alpines, identifiant les phases qui ont caractérisé son développement. Ensuite, l’article propose une réflexion sur certaines conditions qui peuvent favoriser l’innovation dans le tourisme alpin, ainsi que sur les contradictions qui accompagnent souvent ces conditions. Dans la plupart des cas

  17. Tectonic evolution of the eastern margin of the Thaumasia Plateau (Mars) as inferred from detailed structural mapping and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borraccini, F.; Di Achille, G.; Ori, G. G.; Wezel, F. C.

    2007-05-01

    The eastern margin of the Thaumasia Plateau (EMTP) is characterized by a diversity of tectonic features, which recorded its complex, and still controversial, tectonic history. A detailed structural survey and analyses have been carried out in order to assess the kinematics and relative age of the main deformational events. Combining results from statistics of lineament orientations and density of fault length for each geologic unit and taking into account crosscutting relationships among tectonic structures, three main deformational events have been recognized. The early stage of the tectonic evolution of EMTP is recorded by Noachian units at the southern edge of Melas Dorsa and is represented by N-S oriented grabens sutured by Early Hesperian formations. Starting from Late Noachian, the extensional stress field became NE-SW oriented and resulted in the formation of NW-SE striking sets of grabens. At the boundary between Noachian and Hesperian, the most important change in tectonic regime occurred. The Hesperian tectonics are characterized by an E-W shortening possibly related to an eastward motion of the Thaumasia Plateau. This tectonic phase likely produced a N-S-oriented wrinkle ridges as well as regional folds and thrust faults. E-W-oriented preexisting tectonic lineaments could have been reactivated forming regional transfer zones. In this scenario, Coprates Rise, Melas Dorsa, and Thaumasia Ridge could be interpreted as mountain belts resulting from buckling and thrust faulting of the eastern and southern margins of the Thaumasia plateau. The proto-Valles Marineris could have experienced a left-lateral component of displacement and played a role of a transfer shear zone.

  18. Tectonic Evolution of the Rift Basins in the Northeastern Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohriak, Webster U.; Bassetto, Marcelo; Vieira, Ines S.

    The transition from onshore failed rifts to offshore sedimentary basins along divergent continental margins is discussed on the basis of a regional, multidisciplinary integration of deep seismic reflection profiling, potential fied methods, geological data, and tectonic analysis. The following themes are addressed: a) the geologic evolution of the onshore and offshore rift systems of the Brazilian northeastern margin; b) the potential field methods response to the deep crustal structures; c) the seismic expression of major structural features in the rifts and within the continental and oceanic crusts; d) a possible geodynamic model for the evolution of the rift system; and e) analogies with a number of failed rifts and passive margin systems in the North Atlantic. The sedimentary basins in northeastern Brazil include a series of asymmetric grabens, such as the onshore Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá rift system (RTJ) and the offshore Jacuípe-Sergipe-Alagoas basins (JSA). Pre-rift sediments include Paleozoic to Jurassic/Early Cretaceous sediments deposited above a basement that includes Archean rocks to Late Proterozoic metasediments. The main rift phase (Neocomian to Barremian) terminated in the onshore rifts with fluvial deposits above a major regional unconformity. No further sedimentation is observed in the Recôncavo and Tucano basins, in a marked contrast to the geodynamic evolution of the Sergipe Basin, which is characterized by renewed phases of basement-involved faulting from Aptian to Early Albian, followed by a thermal phase of subsidence. The overall picture of two branches of a rift system, with different geodynamic evolution following the inception of oceanic crust, may be associated with a regional lithospheric extension during the Neocomian, first distributed over a wide region, and subsequently, focussing along a deeper mantle weak zone, local of a later plate rupture.

  19. Tectonic Evolution of the Cretaceous Sava-Klepa Massif, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, based on field observations and microstructural analysis - Towards a new geodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Tobias; Peternell, Mark; Prelević, Dejan; Köpping, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    the deformation history, i.e. the switch from compressive to extensional, rift forming, regime. REFERENCES Ferrill, D.A. et al. (2004). Calcite twin morphology: a low-temperature deformation geothermometer. Journal of Structural Geology 26: 1521-1529. Peternell, M. et al. (2010). Evaluating quartz crystallographic preferred orientations and the role of deformation partitioning using EBSD and fabric analyser techniques. Journal of Structural Geology 32: 803-817. Robertson, A.H.F. & Karamata, S. (1994). The role of subduction-accretion processes in the tectonic evolution of the Mesozoic Tethys in Serbia. Tectonophysics, 234:73-94. Schmid, S.M. et al. (2008). The Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units. Swiss Journal of Geoscience, 101:139-183.

  20. Formation and evolution of yardangs activated by Late Pleistocene tectonic movement in Dunhuang, Gansu Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Wu, Fadong; Zhang, Xujiao; Zeng, Peng; Ma, Pengfei; Song, Yuping; Chu, Hao

    2016-12-01

    Developed in the Anxi-Dunhuang basin, the yardangs of Dunhuang (western China) are clearly affected by tectonic movement. Based on fieldwork, this study ascertained three levels of river terrace in the area for the first time. Through the analysis of river terraces formation and regional tectonic movement, the study ascertained that the river terraces were formed mainly by Late Pleistocene tectonic uplift, which had activated the evolution of yardangs in the study area. By electron spin resonance (ESR) dating and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, the starting time and periodicity of the evolution of the yardangs were determined. The river terraces designated T3, T2 and T1 began to evolve at 109.0 ˜98.5, 72.9 ˜66.84 and 53.2 ˜38.0 kaBP, respectively, which is the evidence of regional neotectonic movement. And, the formation of the yardangs was dominated by tectonic uplift during the prenatal stage and mainly by wind erosion in the following evolution, with relatively short stationary phases. This research focused on the determination of endogenic processes of yardangs formation, which would contribute to further understanding of yardangs formation from a geological perspective and promote further study of yardang landform.

  1. Tectonic evolution of the Western Eger rift: a tale of two faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, Jan; Kley, Jonas; Fischer, Tomáš; Štěpančíková, Petra

    2017-04-01

    The Eger Rift and Cheb basin in northwestern Bohemia are part of the European Cenozoic Rift System. They are associated with earthquake swarms, voluminous CO2 outgassing and Quaternary mantle-derived volcanism. The Eger Graben, of which the Cheb basin is traditionally considered a subbasin, contains a Cenozoic volcano-sedimentary record no thicker than 500 m. The structure of the extensional system is dominated by two large faults: (1) the ENE-striking Krušné Hory Fault (KHF), which delimits the northwestern shoulder of the Eger rift and has accommodated tilting and uplift of the Erzgebirge, creating a present day elevation difference of 700 m; (2) the NNW-striking Mariánské Lázně Fault (MLF), which is the master fault of the Cheb basin. First-order structural relationships indicate that the MLF has cross-cut the Eger rift at right angle and offset it with dominantly normal sense of motion. These relationships suggest that activity on the MLF was accentuated late in the history of the rift, around early Pliocene time, reflecting a fundamental change of the governing stress field. We aim to constrain, in conjunction with a Czech companion project focussing on tectonic geomorphology and seismology, the tectonic evolution of the two basins, and in particular the kinematics and timing of the Krušné Hory (Erzgebirge) and Mariánské Lázně bounding faults over Late Cenozoic time. This will be done by modelling the subsidence of the basins from stratigraphic and structural data. Rift shoulder uplift, exhumation and fault offsets will be constrained by low-T thermochronology, especially (U-Th)/He on apatite (AHe). 2D cross-sections and restorable structural 3D models will delimit the range of possible fault geometries and constrain the magnitude of fault displacements, their gradients and the deep architecture of the large faults. The Cheb basin forms an approximate semi-ellipse in map view, suggesting it is a half-graben bounded by a listric, WSW-dipping MLF

  2. Constraints on the evolution of the Naga Hills: from disparate origins to tectonic amalgamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, J. C.; Clarke, G. L.; Ireland, T. R.; Ao, A.; Bhowmik, S. K.; Kapesa, L.; Roeder, T.; Stojanovic, D.; Kachovich, S.

    2016-12-01

    structural architecture differ markedly from that seen in classic Himalayan transects. New detrital zircon U/Pb studies reveal a fascinating history that suggests derivation of some units from Sibumasu rather than the Lhasa or Qiangtang terranes. Detailed study of this area sheds important light on the tectonic evolution of the SE Asia region.

  3. Temporal stability of pollinator preference in an alpine plant community and its implications for the evolution of floral traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yan-Bing; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2011-07-01

    A traditional view of diverse floral traits is that they reflect differences in foraging preferences of pollinators. The role of pollinators in the evolution of floral traits has been questioned recently by broad community surveys, especially studies concerning variation in pollinator assemblages and visitation frequency, which suggest a diminished role of pollinators in floral evolution. Here, we investigate the relationships between six categories of floral traits of 29 species and 10 pollinator functional groups in an alpine meadow in the Hengduan Mountains of China, over three consecutive years. Simpson's diversity index was used to estimate the level of pollinator generalization of each plant species by considering both pollinator groups and their relative visitation frequencies. Multivariate analyses indicated that eight of the ten pollinator groups showed constant preferences for at least two floral traits, leading to a relatively stable level of ecological generalization for most floral traits (two out of three categories), despite the fact that the level of generalization of the entire community varied across years. Shape preferences of butterflies, honeybees and beeflies varied such that open flowers exhibited a lower level of ecological generalization in 2007 than closed flowers, in contrast with the other 2 years. These results suggest that temporally stabilized preferences of diverse pollinators may contribute to the evolution of specialized versus generalized floral traits; however, their role may be moderated by variation in community structure, including both the composition and abundance of plants and pollinators.

  4. Pre-Alpine evolution of the Seckau Complex (Austroalpine basement/Eastern Alps): Constraints from in-situ LA-ICP-MS Usbnd Pb zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Magdalena; Kurz, Walter; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Fritz, Harald; Klötzli, Urs; Schuster, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    The Variscan European Belt is a complex orogen with its southern margin partly obscured by Alpine tectonics and metamorphism. We present a study of one of the units, the Seckau Complex, that constitute the southern part of the Variscan European Belt in the Eastern Alps in order to clarify its origin, age and lithostratigraphy. The magmatic and geochronological evolution of this Complex in the northwestern part of the Seckau Nappe (as part of the Austroalpine Silvretta-Seckau Nappe System) was investigated by zircon Usbnd Pb dating of paragneisses and metagranitoids coupled with petrological and geochemical data. This reveals the distinction of three newly defined lithostratigraphic/lithodemic sub-units: (1) Glaneck Metamorphic Suite, (2) Hochreichart Plutonic Suite and (3) Hintertal Plutonic Suite. The Glaneck Metamorphic Suite is mainly composed of fine-grained paragneisses that yield Usbnd Pb zircon ages in the range between 2.7 Ga and 2.0 Ga, as well as concordia ages from 572 ± 7 Ma to 559 ± 11 Ma. All of these ages are interpreted as detrital zircon ages originating from an igneous source. The paragneisses are the host rock for the large volumes of metagranitoids of the Hochreichart Plutonic Suite and the Hintertal Plutonic Suite. The Hochreichart Plutonic Suite comprises highly fractionated melts with mainly S-type characteristics and late Cambrian to Early Ordovician Usbnd Pb zircon ages (508 ± 9 Ma to 486 ± 9 Ma), interpreted as magmatic protolith ages. The Hintertal Plutonic Suite is composed of metagranitoids with Late Devonian to early Carboniferous (365 ± 11 Ma and 331 ± 10 Ma) protolith ages, that intruded during an early phase of the Variscan tectonometamorphic event. The metagranitoids of the Hintertal Plutonic Suites define a magmatic fractionation trend, seen in variable Rb/Sr ratios. On this base they can be further subdivided into (a) the Griessstein Pluton characterized by S-type metagranitoids and (b) the Pletzen Pluton distinguished by

  5. Tectonic evolution of a part of the Tethyside orogenic collage: The Kargi Massif, northern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Okan

    1990-02-01

    The central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment, one of the major tectonic units in Turkey, provides critical data for evaluating the Cimmeride and Alpide evolution of the Mediterranean Tethysides. Tectonic events that affected the central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment since the end of the Paleozoic, generated east-west trending belts with the event of every episode redeforming and partly obliterating the structures of previous episodes. This evolution may be conveniently described in terms of three major episodes: (1) Two different realms of pre-Dogger oceanic rocks are present in the area. The northern realm coincided with main branch of Paleo-Tethys that was being actively destroyed by south dipping subduction. The southern realm, the Karakaya ocean, a back arc basin related to this subduction, began opening by rifting of a retroarc carbonate platform during the Permo-Triassic. To the west a continental domain with sparse magmatism seperated the two oceanic areas. Toward the east the two oceans become united by the wedging out of the continental domain. These two pre-Dogger oceans closed during the Lias, and their remnants were emplaced between the southern margin of Laurasia and the fragments of the Cimmerian continent. (2) The second episode partly overlapped the first with rifting south of the Cimmerian continent fragment during the Lias. This rifting was followed by a transgression which covered the ruins of the Cimmeride orogenic belt by the Malm. This rifting concurrently led to the development of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys and a south facing Atlantic-type continental margin. A southerly thickening sedimentary prism developed on this margin during the Lias to early Cretaceous interval. (3) The floor of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys began to be consumed along the north dipping subduction zone beneath the previosly constructed continental margin. This convergent margin generated a magmatic arc to the north and to the south a subduction

  6. Evolution of Golpazari-Huyuk karst system (Bilecik-Turkey: indications of morpho-tectonic controls

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    Ekmekci Mehmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Golpazari-Huyuk karst system is located in the Central Sakarya Basin whose geomorphologic evolution is mainly controlled by the Post-Miocene epirogenic continental rise. Drastic change in the drainage pattern and dissection of the carbonate platform were the major consequences of this tectonic movement. Rapid incision of the Sakarya river changed the position of the erosion base which consequently distorted the direction of surface and subsurface flow. The Golpazari and Huyuk plains are two topographically distinct, flat bottomed geomorphic features separated by a carbonate rock relief. The difference in elevation between these 10 km distant plains is 350 m. Morphological, geological and hydrological behavior of the plains suggests that the both have functioned as closed basins connected to each other through subsurface flow paths. Drainage has changed from subsurface to surface after the emplacement of the Sakarya river into its modern course. In this study, the authors suggest a conceptual model to reconstruct the hydrological-geomorphological processes that have been effective in the evolution of this karst area. The methodology is based on the records preserved in the morphological and sedimentological archives as well as the hydrogeological setting in the study area. According to the suggested model, the present landscape which exhibits a late stage of karstification has evolved in three main phases, after an initial stage attributed to Lower Miocene. The first phase represents karstification of carbonate rocks of Jurassic age at the Huyuk area and the limestone of Paleocene age at the Golpazari area. This region must have been significantly elevated from the karstification (erosion base. The geomorphologic and drainage setting reveal that the karstification was controlled mainly by major drainage elements in Late Miocene-Early Pliocene.The second phase is characterized by the uplift of the region and the subsequent rapid incision of

  7. Tectonic evolution of the continental crust of South America and its importance in the characterization of uraniferous provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordani, U.G.

    1981-01-01

    The tectonic evolution of the South American Continent and its relationship with uranium mineralization is discussed. During the Phanerozoic at least three phases are identified as related to the Andean chain, namely, in the lower Palaeozoic, in the upper Palaeozoic and in the Meso-Cenozoic. Recent systematic age dating of the Precambrian indicates the period of 450-700 million years (m.y.) (Brazilian Cycle) as one of the most important tectonic events in South America. Another age-dating cluster corresponds to the 1700-2100 m.y. interval (Transamazonic Cycle). An even older event within the Archean is identified with datings older than 2600 m.y. in Venezuela (Estado Bolivar), Surinam and Brazil (Bahia, Santa Catarina, Goias). All the Brazilian uranium deposits related to the Brazilian platform, such as Amorinopolis, are located on the eastern border of the platform where the Brazilian tectonic cycle is dominant. The uranium source rocks are of alkaline granitic nature. Other deposits (Itataia, Campos Belos) are associated with polycyclic rocks belonging to the basement of the Brazilian Cycle but were affected by the 450-700 m.y. tectonic event; these amphibolitic facies rocks show alkaline metamorphism and magmatization processes which indicate large geochemical mobility during which important uranium mobilization has taken place. Finally, the Pocos de Caldas deposit is excellent evidence of the important relationship of tectonic reactivations and uranium enrichments within the Brazilian platform. (author)

  8. Geodynamics of kimberlites on a cooling Earth: Clues to plate tectonic evolution and deep volatile cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Sebastian; Smart, Katie; Torsvik, Trond; Massuyeau, Malcolm; de Wit, Mike

    2018-02-01

    Kimberlite magmatism has occurred in cratonic regions on every continent. The global age distribution suggests that this form of mantle melting has been more prominent after 1.2 Ga, and notably between 250-50 Ma, than during early Earth history before 2 Ga (i.e., the Paleoproterozoic and Archean). Although preservation bias has been discussed as a possible reason for the skewed kimberlite age distribution, new treatment of an updated global database suggests that the apparent secular evolution of kimberlite and related CO2-rich ultramafic magmatism is genuine and probably coupled to lowering temperatures of Earth's upper mantle through time. Incipient melting near the CO2- and H2O-bearing peridotite solidus at >200 km depth (1100-1400 °C) is the petrologically most feasible process that can produce high-MgO carbonated silicate melts with enriched trace element concentrations akin to kimberlites. These conditions occur within the convecting asthenospheric mantle directly beneath thick continental lithosphere. In this transient upper mantle source region, variable CHO volatile mixtures control melting of peridotite in the absence of heat anomalies so that low-degree carbonated silicate melts may be permanently present at ambient mantle temperatures below 1400 °C. However, extraction of low-volume melts to Earth's surface requires tectonic triggers. Abrupt changes in the speed and direction of plate motions, such as typified by the dynamics of supercontinent cycles, can be effective in the creation of lithospheric pathways aiding kimberlite magma ascent. Provided that CO2- and H2O-fluxed deep cratonic keels, which formed parts of larger drifting tectonic plates, existed by 3 Ga or even before, kimberlite volcanism could have been frequent during the Archean. However, we argue that frequent kimberlite magmatism had to await establishment of an incipient melting regime beneath the maturing continents, which only became significant after secular mantle cooling to below

  9. The P-T-t History of the Alpine Schist, New Zealand: Constraining Tectonic Processes During the Late Stages of Gondwana Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. I.; Smit, M. A.; Cottle, J. M.; Hagen-Peter, G.

    2015-12-01

    Separation of the microcontinent Zealandia from the Marie Byrd Land sector of Antarctica in the Late Cretaceous marked the final stage in the breakup of Gondwana. Two contrasting ideas for the Late Cretaceous rifting of Zealandia from Gondwana have been proposed. One is that subduction at the paleo-Pacific - Gondwana convergent margin ceased after the last pulse of batholith emplacement at ~100 Ma, followed by a rapid transition to extension and seafloor spreading at 82 Ma. The other hypothesis is that convergence continued along Zealandia simultaneously with back-arc extension until ~85 M. This hypothesis is based on recently reported Late Cretaceous ages from the Alpine Schist, a metamorphosed accretionary wedge assemblage. Without accompanying pressure-temperature (P-T) information, the significance of Late Cretaceous ages from the Alpine Schist in terms of the orogenic processes that occurred during cessation of subduction at the paleo-Pacific - Gondwana margin remains unclear. In this study, Lu-Hf geochronology of Alpine Schist garnet is paired with phase equilibria modelling to elucidate the P-T-t history of the orogen and clarify the mechanisms behind Zealandia-Gondwana rifting. Garnet Lu-Hf dates have been obtained from 9 samples ranging in bulk composition from quartzo-feldspathic schists to mafic amphibolites. Garnet yields Early Cretaceous ages from the southern Alpine Schist, whereas northern Alpine Schist garnet yields Late Cretaceous ages. Garnet textures and major and trace element compositional zoning suggest that an additional, later period of garnet growth or recrystallization may be recorded in the northern samples. P-T-t data from each dated sample is supplemented with thermobarometric analysis from an adjacent sample of different lithology, with the advantage of providing more complete local P-T-t paths. The P-T-t paths define whether garnet grew during increasing P-T (prograde early), decreasing P and increasing T (prograde late), and

  10. Palinspastic reconstruction of the Alpine thrust belt at the Alpine-Carpathian transition - A geological Sudoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidinger, A.; Decker, K.; Zamolyi, A.; Hölzel, M.; Hoprich, M.; Strauss, P.

    2009-04-01

    The palinspastic reconstruction of the Austroalpine thrust belt is part of the project Karpatian Tectonics, which is funded by OMV Austria. The objective is to reconstruct the evolution of the thrust belt through the Early to Middle Miocene in order to obtain information on the palaeogeographic position of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) in the region of the present Vienna Basin. A particular goal of the study is to constrain the position of reservoir rocks within the Rhenodanubic Flysch units and the NCA with respect to the autochthonous Malmian source rocks overlying the European basement below the Alpine-Carpathian thrust wedge, and to constrain the burial history of these source rocks. Reconstruction uses regional 2D seismic lines crossing from the European foreland into the fold-thrust belt, 3D seismic data covering the external thrust sheets, and lithostratigraphic data from a total of 51 selected wells, which were drilled and provided by OMV Austria. The main criterion, whether a well was suitable for palinspastic reconstruction or not, was its penetration of Alpine thrust sheets down to the Autochthonous Molasse of the foreland. Additional wells, which do not penetrate the entire Alpine thrust complex but include the Allochthonous Molasse or the external Alpine-Carpathian nappes (Waschberg and Roseldorf thrust unit, Rhenodanubic Flysch nappes) in their well path, were also taken into account. The well data in particular comprise stratigraphic information on the youngest overthrust sediments of the different thrust units and the underlying Autochthonous foreland Molasse. These data allow constraining the timing of thrust events in the allochthonous thrust units and overthrusting of the Autochthonous Molasse. In the particular case of overthrust Autochthonous Molasse, additionally to the timing of overthrusting, which can be derived from the youngest overthrust sediments, the palaeogeographic position of the Alpine Carpathian thrust front could directly be

  11. A New Framework For The Evolution of Terrestrial Planets: Bi-stability, Stochastic Effects, and the Non-Uniqueness of Tectonic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, M. B.; Lenardic, A.

    2017-12-01

    Of all the Solar System bodies, the Earth is the only one for which significant observation and constraints are accessible such that they can be used to discriminate between competing models of Earth's tectonic evolution. Therefore, it is a natural tendency to use these observations to inform more general models of planetary evolution. Yet, our understating of Earth's evolution is far from complete. Geodynamic and geochemical evidence suggests that plate tectonics may not have operated on the early Earth, with both the timing of its onset and the length of its activity far from certain. In recent years, the potential of tectonic bi-stability (multiple stable, energetically allowed solutions) has been shown to be dynamically viable, both from analytical analysis and through numeric experiments in two and three dimensions. The indication is that multiple tectonic modes may operate on a single planetary body at different times within its temporal evolution. Further, there exists the potential that feedback mechanisms between the internal dynamics and surface processes (e.g., surface temperature changes driven by long term climate evolution), acting at different thermal evolution times, can cause terrestrial worlds to alternate between multiple tectonic states over giga-year timescales. Implied here is that terrestrial planets have the potential to migrate through tectonic regimes at similar `thermal evolutionary times' - points were planets have a similar bulk mantle temperature and energies -, but at very different `temporal times' - time since planetary formation. It can then be shown that identical planets at similar stages of their evolution may exhibit different tectonic regimes due to random fluctuations. A new framework of planetary evolution that moves toward probabilistic arguments based on general physical principals, as opposed to particular rheologies, and incorporates the potential of tectonic regime transitions and multiple tectonics states being viable

  12. Mesozoic - Cenozoic tectonic evolution of southwestern Tian Shan: Evidence from detrital zircon U/Pb and apatite fission track ages of the Ulugqat area, Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.; Jolivet, M.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Guo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The Late Tertiary tectonic and topographic evolution of the Tian Shan Range has beenwidely studied as it represents a key example of active intra-continentalmountain belts. Recent studies have shown that both the general tectonic framework of Tian Shan and some of its actual topographic features

  13. Seismic studies of crustal structure and tectonic evolution across the central California margin and the Colorado Plateau margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, John Mark

    This thesis presents results from two integrated deep-crustal seismic-reflection and wide-angle-reflection/refraction studies that improve our understanding of crustal structure and tectonic evolution in two tectonically active areas of the western United States. A multi-faceted approach to the study of crustal structure includes the use of compressional and shear wave seismic data. Supplementing the controlled source seismic observations with seismicity, gravity, heat flow, laboratory measurements and available geologic information allows a much improved understanding of crustal structure and tectonic evolution than would be available from the seismic data alone. Chapter 1 introduces the data integration strategy applied to the studies completed. In Chapter 2, an integrated crustal-velocity model across the south-central California margin west of the San Adreas fault is presented. The crustal structure defines tectonostratigraphic terranes 15 to 20 km thick underlain by a 6-km-thick high-velocity layer (6.8-7.0 km/s) interpreted as tectonically underplated oceanic crust. Structures defined in the oceanic crust indicate significant compressional and strike-slip deformation within the oceanic crust that probably formed during the final stages of subduction from 24-16 Ma. In Chapter 3, the crustal model from Chapter 2 is used as a constraint for models of the tectonic evolution of the Pacific-North American transform plate boundary. By combining the crustal structure with thermal models for asthenospheric upwelling associated with a slab-free window, I find that the mantle lithosphere east of the coast beneath south-central California probably delaminated from the oceanic crust, stranding the oceanic crust beneath the margin. In Chapter 4, results from a high-resolution reflection experiment in central Arizona across the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau address the relationship between strength of the crust and localization of extensional tectonism. A low

  14. Alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.W. Rundel; C.I. Millar

    2016-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are typically defined as those areas occurring above treeline, while recognizing that alpine ecosystems at a local scale may be found below this boundary for reasons including geology, geomorphology, and microclimate. The lower limit of the alpine ecosystems, the climatic treeline, varies with latitude across California, ranging from about 3500 m in...

  15. Teaching about the Early Earth: Evolution of Tectonics, Life, and the Early Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kirk, K.; Williams, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    The early history of the Earth is the subject of some of the most exciting and innovative research in the geosciences, drawing evidence from virtually all fields of geoscience and using a variety of approaches that include field, analytical, experimental, and modeling studies. At the same time, the early Earth presents unique opportunities and challenges in geoscience education: how can we best teach "uncertain science" where the evidence is either incomplete or ambiguous? Teaching about early Earth provides a great opportunity to help students understand the nature of scientific evidence, testing, and understanding. To explore the intersection of research and teaching about this enigmatic period of Earth history, a national workshop was convened for experts in early Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The workshop was held in April, 2007 at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development program. The workshop was organized around three scientific themes: evolution of global tectonics, life, and the early atmosphere. The "big scientific questions" at the forefront of current research about the early Earth were explored by keynote speakers and follow-up discussion groups: How did plate tectonics as we know it today evolve? Were there plates in the Hadean Eon? Was the early Earth molten? How rapidly did it cool? When and how did the atmosphere and hydrosphere evolve? How did life originate and evolve? How did all these components interact at the beginning of Earth's history and evolve toward the Earth system we know today? Similar "big questions" in geoscience education were addressed: how to best teach about "deep time;" how to help students make appropriate inferences when geologic evidence is incomplete; how to engage systems thinking and integrate multiple lines of evidence, across many scales of observation (temporal and spatial), and among many disciplines. Workshop participants

  16. Brittle tectonic history document the late- to post-orogenic evolution in the Lufilian Arc, RDCongo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipata, Louis; Delvaux, Damien; Ntabwoba Sebagenzi, Mwene; Cailteux, Jean-Jacques; Sintubin, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Pan-African orogenic processes in Centra Africa involve intracontinental collision but also late-orogenic and intraplate processes that occurred in dominantly brittle conditions and can be documented by fault kinematic analysis and paleostress reconstructions. The Congo and Tanzania cratons in Central Africa are surrounded by Pan-African belts orogenic belts which all entered almost synchronously in collision stage in the early Paleozoic. While their tectonic history up to the collision stage is increasingly better documented by ductile deformation and metamorphic studies, their late evolution remain poorly known as soon as they enter in the brittle deformation regime. This results in an incomplete understanding of the orogenic processes, especially when the transition from ductile to the brittle regime occurred at the end of the orogenic compression. In this case, the last compressional stages and the entire late orogenic extension and extensional collapse stages remain undocumented. This is the case for the Lufilian orogeny which developed along the southern margin of the Congo Craton in Central Africa during the pan-African and was marked by a collisional event with crustal thickening and white schist formation at 550-530 Ma. The Lufilian Arc which forms the external part of the Lufilian orogeny developed as an arcuate fold-and-thrust belt. Its foreland is formed by the Kundelungu plateau, between the Bangweulu block and the Kibaran belt. This entire region is also tectonically active, as part of the incipient SW branch of the East African rift system. The long period between the paroxysm of the Lufilian orogeny and the late Neogene to Quaternary rifting has been investigated by fault-kinematic analysis and paleostress reconstruction in open mines spread over the entire arc and foreland. Paleostress tensors were computed from 23 sites totaling 1900 fault-slip data by interactive stress tensor inversion and data subset separation, and a succession of 8 brittle

  17. Diagenetic Evolution and Reservoir Quality of Sandstones in the North Alpine Foreland Basin: A Microscale Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Doris; Grundtner, Marie-Louise; Misch, David; Riedl, Martin; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F; Scheucher, Lorenz

    2015-10-01

    Siliciclastic reservoir rocks of the North Alpine Foreland Basin were studied focusing on investigations of pore fillings. Conventional oil and gas production requires certain thresholds of porosity and permeability. These parameters are controlled by the size and shape of grains and diagenetic processes like compaction, dissolution, and precipitation of mineral phases. In an attempt to estimate the impact of these factors, conventional microscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, and wavelength dispersive element mapping were applied. Rock types were established accordingly, considering Poro/Perm data. Reservoir properties in shallow marine Cenomanian sandstones are mainly controlled by the degree of diagenetic calcite precipitation, Turonian rocks are characterized by reduced permeability, even for weakly cemented layers, due to higher matrix content as a result of lower depositional energy. Eocene subarkoses tend to be coarse-grained with minor matrix content as a result of their fluvio-deltaic and coastal deposition. Reservoir quality is therefore controlled by diagenetic clay and minor calcite cementation.Although Eocene rocks are often matrix free, occasionally a clay mineral matrix may be present and influence cementation of pores during early diagenesis. Oligo-/Miocene deep marine rocks exhibit excellent quality in cases when early cement is dissolved and not replaced by secondary calcite, mainly bound to the gas-water contact within hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  18. Alpine endemic spiders shed light on the origin and evolution of subterranean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Isaia, Marco; Arnedo, Miquel A

    2015-01-01

    We designed a comparative study to unravel the phylogeography of two Alpine endemic spiders characterized by a different degree of adaptation to subterranean life: Troglohyphantes vignai (Araneae, Linyphiidae) and Pimoa rupicola (Araneae, Pimoidae), the latter showing minor adaptation to hypogean life. We sampled populations of the model species in caves and other subterranean habitats across their known geographical range in the Western Alps. By combining phylogeographic inferences and Ecological Niche Modeling techniques, we inferred the biogeographic scenario that led to the present day population structure of the two species. According to our divergent time estimates and relative uncertainties, the isolation of T. vignai and P. rupicola from their northern sister groups was tracked back to Middle-Late Miocene. Furthermore, the fingerprint left by Pleistocene glaciations on the population structure revealed by the genetic data, led to the hypothesis that a progressive adaptation to subterranean habitats occurred in T. vignai, followed by strong population isolation. On the other hand, P. rupicola underwent a remarkable genetic bottleneck during the Pleistocene glaciations, that shaped its present population structure. It seems likely that such shallow population structure is both the result of the minor degree of specialization to hypogean life and the higher dispersal ability characterizing this species. The simultaneous study of overlapping spider species showing different levels of adaptation to hypogean life, disclosed a new way to clarify patterns of biological diversification and to understand the effects of past climatic shift on the subterranean biodiversity.

  19. Development and evolution of an Alpine sulphuric acid cave: Kraushoehle (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waele, J.; Plan, L.; Audra, Ph.; Rossi, A.; Spötl, Ch.; Polyak, V.; McIntosh, W.

    2009-04-01

    The number of known active and fossil hypogene cave systems is increasing rapidly thanks to recent advances in our understanding of this type of karst. Many cave systems previously thought to be of epigene origin have undergone more or less important phases of hypogene development. Epigene overprinting tends to obliterate hypogene features rendering identification of caves of multiphase speleogenesis a challenge. Among hypogene caves the sulphuric acid ones are the most interesting for a number of reasons: they host important bacterial and arthropod communities, they have peculiar and typical morphologies, and contain a variety of mineralisations. Sulphuric acid caves have been described from the Americas (Lechuguilla and Carlsbad in New Mexico, Cueva de Villa Luz in Mexico, Kane caves in Wyoming), but examples are also known in Europe (Movile cave in Romania, Frasassi and Monte Cucco in Italy). Until recently, the Serpents cave (Aix-les-Bains, northern Prealps) was the only sulphuric acid cave described in the international literature from the Alpine belt. Kraush

  20. Analytically based forward and inverse models of fluvial landscape evolution during temporally continuous climatic and tectonic variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Liran; Petit, Carole

    2017-04-01

    Fluvial channels respond to changing tectonic and climatic conditions by adjusting their patterns of erosion and relief. It is therefore expected that by examining these patterns, we can infer the tectonic and climatic conditions that shaped the channels. However, the potential interference between climatic and tectonic signals complicates this inference. Within the framework of the stream power model that describes incision rate of mountainous bedrock rivers, climate variability has two effects: it influences the erosive power of the river, causing local slope change, and it changes the fluvial response time that controls the rate at which tectonically and climatically induced slope breaks are communicated upstream. Because of this dual role, the fluvial response time during continuous climate change has so far been elusive, which hinders our understanding of environmental signal propagation and preservation in the fluvial topography. An analytic solution of the stream power model during general tectonic and climatic histories gives rise to a new definition of the fluvial response time. The analytic solution offers accurate predictions for landscape evolution that are hard to achieve with classical numerical schemes and thus can be used to validate and evaluate the accuracy of numerical landscape evolution models. The analytic solution together with the new definition of the fluvial response time allow inferring either the tectonic history or the climatic history from river long profiles by using simple linear inversion schemes. Analytic study of landscape evolution during periodic climate change reveals that high frequency (10-100 kyr) climatic oscillations with respect to the response time, such as Milankovitch cycles, are not expected to leave significant fingerprints in the upstream reaches of fluvial channels. Linear inversion schemes are applied to the Tinee river tributaries in the southern French Alps, where tributary long profiles are used to recover the

  1. Molecular bases for parallel evolution of translucent bracts in an alpine "glasshouse" plant Rheum alexandrae (Polygonaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, B. B.; Opgenoorth, L.; Miehe, G.; Zhang, D.-Y.; Wan, D.-S.; Zhao, C.-M.; Jia, Dong-Rui; Liu, J.-Q.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 134-141 ISSN 1674-4918 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cDNA-AFLPs * parallel evolution * adaptations, mutations, diversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2013

  2. Evolution and dynamics of the Cenozoic tectonics of the South Balkan extensional system

    OpenAIRE

    Burchfiel, Clark B.; Nakov, R.; Dumurdzanov, Nikola; Papanikolaou, D.; Tzankov, Tzanko; Serafimovski, Todor; King, Robert W.; Kotzev, Valentin; Todosov, Angel; Nurce, Bilbil

    2008-01-01

    The South Balkan extensional system consists of normal faults and associated sedimentary basins within southern Bulgaria, Macedonia, eastern Albania, northern Greece, and northwestern Turkey. Extensional tectonism began during the final convergence across the Vardar, Intra-Pontide, and Izmir-Ankara suture zones, where oceanic regions closed between continental Europe and continental fragments that make up the Pelagonian, Sakar, and western Anatolian tectonic units. Earliest extension of lates...

  3. Apollo 17: One giant step toward understanding the tectonic evolution of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.

    1992-01-01

    Our present understanding of the tectonic history of the Moon has been shaped in large measure by the Apollo Program, and particularly the Apollo 17 Mission. I attempt to summarize some of the interpretations that have emerged since Apollo 17, focusing on some of the problems and uncertainties that remain to stimulate future exploration of the Moon. The topics covered include: (1) Taurus-Littrow Valley; (2) origin of mare ridges; and (3) nature and timing of tectonic rille formation.

  4. The role of the Anaxagoras Mountain in the Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourne, Mark; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; Çifçi, Günay

    2014-05-01

    The Anaximander Mountains are one of the many enigmatic structures situated along the morphologically and structurally complicated junction between the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, in the eastern Mediterranean. Interpretation of ~750 km of marine multi-channel seismic reflection data show that the present day Anaximander Mountains underwent several distinct phases of tectonic activity since Miocene. During the mid-late Miocene, a protracted, contractional tectonic regime produced the east-west trending, south-verging fold-thrust belt observed in the area. The Messinian was a period of relatively low tectonic activity, and is marked by the deposition of an evaporite layer. This phase lasted until the latest Miocene - earliest Pliocene, when a major erosional event associated with the Messinian salinity crisis occurred. Beginning in the early-mid Pliocene-Quaternary a transpressional and rotational tectonic regime prevailed over the area. The Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto) and Anaximenes Mountain developed in the Pliocene-Quaternary associated with the reactivation, uplift and rotation of a linked, thick skinned pre-Messinian imbricate thrust fan. Back thrusting in the region accentuated the morphology of these mountains. The Anaxagoras Mountain differs both lithologically and morphologically from the Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto) and the Anaximenes Mountain. It is probably developed associated with the emplacement of the ophiolitic Antalya Nappe Complex. Faulting in the Anaxagoras region is characterized by southwest striking thrust and/or oblique thrust faults. Due to the similarities in morphology between the Isparta Angle of southwestern Turkey and the Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato), it is hypothesized that the tectonic evolution of the two regions are similar in nature. The Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato) can thus be considered the offshore replication of the Isparta Angle, produced by similar mechanisms, but being of a younger age.

  5. Multi-parameter monitoring of the construction and evolution of a snow bridge over a crevasse on an Alpine glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Malet, Emmanuel; Batoux, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Snow bridges that form over the crevasses of the Alpine glaciers allow mountaineers and skiers to cross them easily but constitute an important danger in case of rupture. Between 2008 and 2014, 37 injured persons and 13 deaths related to falls into crevasse were recorded (i.e. an average of two deaths per year) on the glaciers of the French side of the Mont Blanc massif - out of the famous Vallée Blanche ski route, which however embodies an important part of the aid related to falls into crevasses. To understand the construction and evolution of these fragile structures, instrumentation was set up on the Glacier du Géant, at 3450 m a.s.l., near the Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l.), on the French side of the Mont Blanc massif, close to a crevasse whose bridge had recently collapsed over a length of 37 m. The maximum width of the crevasse in this area is 6 m. At the top of a 7-m-high pole - to prevent future snowfalls -, sensors have been installed in September 2016 to measure different snow and weather parameters: air temperature, wind speed and direction, snow height. An automatic camera surveys the crevasse and the snow bridge geometry. Several other sensors monitor the temperature of snow and air in the crevasse. In addition, an extensometer was installed into the crevasse to measure the evolution of its width. The results of the first 6 months of survey are presented, including the formation of the bridge in mid-November, during a period of snowfall associated with a strong wind. Although the instrumentation is well suited to the high mountain conditions, its maintenance is delicate due to the strong instability of the environment (glacier movements and extreme weather conditions, primarily) but the results of this work will bring new glaciological knowledges which should participate in a better safety on glaciers.

  6. The influence of surface and tectonic processes on landscape evolution of the Iberian Chain (Spain): Quantitative geomorphological analysis and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, V. N.; Molin, P.; Faccenna, C.; Soligo, M.; Casas-Sainz, A.

    2014-02-01

    In tectonically active areas, the landscape response to tectonic forcing is described and possibly quantified by regional topographic and hydrographic features as well as by spatial variation in rates of surface processes. We investigated the recent landscape evolution of the Iberian Chain (NE Spain), an intraplate thrust-belt formed in Cenozoic times and characterized by a dome-shaped topography. In its central sector the landscape is dominated by low relief surfaces, Late Neogene (?) in age, presently standing at an average altitude of 1300 m. A recent regional uplift controlled the organization of the present fluvial network and dissection of the landscape. In this framework we investigated the geomorphic responses to tectonic forcing by the calculation of morphometric parameters, focusing on topography (map of local relief, swath profiles) and hydrography (basin hypsometric curve and integral, basin asymmetry factor, river longitudinal profiles and relative indices), and using SRTM DEM. The results of morphometric analysis have been coupled with radiometric uranium-series dating of calcareous tufas lying on fluvial strath terraces. The obtained ages allow the estimation of incision rate along the High Tajo and Martín rivers. Our results indicate that uplift and rock-type erodibility are the main factors influencing landscape evolution of the study area. The incision rates are very similar throughout the central sector of the range, indicating that, despite subtle local variation, the rivers are responding to a main tectonic input: the regional uplift. In conclusion, the Iberian Chain landscape is in a transient state in response to a recent dome-like uplift. Indeed, the fluvial processes that weakly incised this landscape at a rate of ~ 0.6 mm/yr are approaching a radial pattern. On the basis of geological and geomorphic constraints, we hypothesize that the uplift started around or after 3 Ma.

  7. Rift architecture and evolution: The Sirt Basin, Libya: The influence of basement fabrics and oblique tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    zones and adjoining highs. Late Eocene rocks exposed in the western part of the basin exhibit a complex network of branching segmented normal and strike-slip faults, generally with a NNW-SSE structural orientations. Many surface structural features have been interpreted from satellite images which confirm sinistral strike-slip kinematics. Relay ramp structures, numerous elongate asymmetric synclines associated with shallow west limbs and steeper dipping east limbs are developed in the hangingwalls adjacent to west downthrowing normal faults. These structural patterns reflect Cretaceous/Tertiary extensional tectonics with additional control by underlying pre-existing Pan-African basement fabrics and ENE-WSW trending Hercynian structures. We relate the Sirt Basin rift development as exemplified in our study area to the break-up of Gondwana represented by the structural evolution of the West-Central African rift system, and the South and Central Atlantic, the Tethys and the Indian Oceans.

  8. Rodinian granulites from southern Qiangtang terrane: Implications for tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingyuan Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bordered by the Longmu Co-Shuang Hu-Lancangjiang suture zone in the north and east, as well as the Bangong Nujiang suture zone in the south and west, the southern Qiangtang terrane is one of the least-studied blocks in the Tibetan region. The early tectonic evolution of the southern Qiangtang terrane has remained a controversy for a long time. Here we report granulites from the Tongka high-grade metamorphic complexes in the southern Qiangtang terrane. The mafic granulites occur as small lenses in the felsic granulites and leucogranites with peak mineral assemblage including garnet (core + diopside + low An plagioclase + quartz. The retrograde assemblage is represented by garnet (rim + pargasite + high An plagioclase + quartz. The fine-grained aggregates of feldspar + garnet + aluminosilicates + rutile around reddish-brown biotite relics in the felsic granulites are interpreted as products of partial melting of biotites. Thermobarometric estimates for the peak assemblages of the mafic rocks are P = 17.5 kbar and T = 811 °C, whereas the retrograde assemblages of the mafic rocks experienced decompression to P = 10.4 kbar, at T = 674 °C. Zircon texture and SIMS U-Pb data reveal that the felsic granulites were derived from Achaean to Proterozoic sedimentary rocks that underwent high-temperature metamorphism and transformation to paragneisses or granitoids at 1100 to 1000 Ma. During 950–900 Ma, the crystalline rocks were further buried deeply to be transformed into the felsic granulites. We therefore interpret the Tongka high-grade metamorphic complexes to be a portion of the Rodinian continental collision belt. Evidently some domains of the Rodinian continental crust were thickened during the Grenville events, similar to the more recent processes in the Himalaya and Tibetan plateau. The Tongka high-grade metamorphic complexes which form the basement of the southern Qiangtang terrane was subsequently disrupted and

  9. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the upper plate of the Eo-Alpine nappe-stack: constraints from the Oberhof Window (Carinthia, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinetz, Marianne Sophie; Huet, Benjamin; Iglseder, Christoph; Rantitsch, Gerd; Grasemann, Berhard

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Austro-Alpine Unit in the Eastern Alps corresponds to a nappe-stack that formed during the Eo-Alpine Cretaceous event. It is dominated by crystalline rocks that show Variscan, Permo-Triassic, Eo-Alpine and Neo-Alpine metamorphic imprints. Understanding the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Eo-Alpine nappe-stack is therefore hampered by a complex polyphase history. Most published studies focused on the subducted lower plate that contains the eclogite-bearing nappes (Koralpe-Wölz nappe system) but the upper plate (Ötztal-Bundschuh nappe system and Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system) is less understood. Our contribution focuses on the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Bundschuh nappe (Oberhof Window, Carinthia, Austria). This nappe contains metasediments intruded by granites of Ordovician age. Characteristically, these rocks underwent Variscan amphibolite-facies. They were later covered by Carboniferous to Mesozoic sediments and, all together, overprinted by greenschist to amphibolite-facies metamorphism in the upper plate of the Eo-Alpine wedge. During this event, the Bundschuh nappe was overthrusted by the nappes of the Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system. The core of the window is occupied by the middle-grained "Oberhof orthogneiss". LA-ICP-MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded a late Ordovician age for its protolith. The orthogneiss is overlain by the transgressive Carboniferous metasediments comprising meta-conglomerate, graphite schist and quartzite. The Bundschuh nappe is overthrusted by garnet-micaschist, amphibolite, hornblende-garbenschist, calc-micaschist, quarzite and graphitic schist interpreted as parts of the basal Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system. Deformation is characterized by isoclinal folds with an E-W/SE-NW trending fold-axes and top-to-the-East/South-East shearing. This kinematics is related to normal faulting in the upper part of the Eo-Alpine orogenic wedge. The graphite schist contains an assemblage of isolated round garnet and abundant chloritoid in

  10. Cenozoic sedimentation in the Mumbai Offshore Basin: Implications for tectonic evolution of the western continental margin of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nisha; Pandey, Dhananjai K.

    2018-02-01

    Interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection data along the Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB) revealed the tectonic processes that led to the development of sedimentary basins during Cenozoic evolution. Structural interpretation along three selected MCS profiles from MOB revealed seven major sedimentary sequences (∼3.0 s TWT, thick) and the associated complex fault patterns. These stratigraphic sequences are interpreted to host detritus of syn- to post rift events during rift-drift process. The acoustic basement appeared to be faulted with interspaced intrusive bodies. The sections also depicted the presence of slumping of sediments, subsidence, marginal basins, rollover anticlines, mud diapirs etc accompanied by normal to thrust faults related to recent tectonics. Presence of upthrusts in the slope region marks the locations of local compression during collision. Forward gravity modeling constrained with results from seismic and drill results, revealed that the crustal structure beneath the MOB has undergone an extensional type tectonics intruded with intrusive bodies. Results from the seismo-gravity modeling in association with litholog data from drilled wells from the western continental margin of India (WCMI) are presented here.

  11. Time variability in Cenozoic reconstructions of mantle heat flow: plate tectonic cycles and implications for Earth's thermal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, S J; Becker, T W; Conrad, C P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C; Corsetti, F A

    2007-09-04

    The thermal evolution of Earth is governed by the rate of secular cooling and the amount of radiogenic heating. If mantle heat sources are known, surface heat flow at different times may be used to deduce the efficiency of convective cooling and ultimately the temporal character of plate tectonics. We estimate global heat flow from 65 Ma to the present using seafloor age reconstructions and a modified half-space cooling model, and we find that heat flow has decreased by approximately 0.15% every million years during the Cenozoic. By examining geometric trends in plate reconstructions since 120 Ma, we show that the reduction in heat flow is due to a decrease in the area of ridge-proximal oceanic crust. Even accounting for uncertainties in plate reconstructions, the rate of heat flow decrease is an order of magnitude faster than estimates based on smooth, parameterized cooling models. This implies that heat flow experiences short-term fluctuations associated with plate tectonic cyclicity. Continental separation does not appear to directly control convective wavelengths, but rather indirectly affects how oceanic plate systems adjust to accommodate global heat transport. Given that today's heat flow may be unusually low, secular cooling rates estimated from present-day values will tend to underestimate the average cooling rate. Thus, a mechanism that causes less efficient tectonic heat transport at higher temperatures may be required to prevent an unreasonably hot mantle in the recent past.

  12. Structure and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Central Cuba: Insights into deformation in an accretionary wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despaigne-Díaz, Ana Ibis; García Casco, Antonio; Cáceres Govea, Dámaso; Wilde, Simon A.; Millán Trujillo, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    The Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Cuba, forms part of an accretionary wedge built during intra-oceanic subduction in the Caribbean from the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic. The structure reflects syn-subduction exhumation during thickening of the wedge, followed by extension. Field mapping, metamorphic and structural analysis constrain the tectonic evolution into five stages. Three ductile deformation events (D1, D2 and D3) are related to metamorphism in a compressional setting and formation of several nappes. D1 subduction fabrics are only preserved as relict S1 foliation and rootless isoclinal folds strongly overprinted by the main S2 foliation. The S2 foliation is parallel to sheared serpentinised lenses that define tectonic contacts, suggesting thrust stacks and underthrusting at mantle depths. Thrusting caused an inverted metamorphic structure with higher-grade on top of lower-grade nappes. Exhumation started during D2 when the units were incorporated into the growing accretionary wedge along NNE-directed thrust faults and was accompanied by substantial decompression and cooling. Folding and thrusting continued during D3 and marks the transition from ductile to brittle-ductile conditions at shallower crustal levels. The D4-5 events are related to extension and contributed to the final exhumation (likely as a core complex). D4 is associated with a regional spaced S4 cleavage, late open folds, and numerous extension veins, whereas D5 is recorded by normal and strike-slip faults affecting all nappes. The P-t path shows rapid exhumation during D2 and slower rates during D3 when the units were progressively incorporated into the accretionary prism. The domal shape formed in response to tectonic denudation assisted by normal faulting and erosion at the surface during the final stages of structural development. These results support tectonic models of SW subduction of the Proto-Caribbean crust under the Caribbean plate during the latest Cretaceous and provide

  13. First evidence of high-pressure metamorphism in the ''Cover Series'' of the southern Menderes Massif. Tectonic and metamorphic implications for the evolution of SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmelé, Gaëtan; Oberhänsli, Roland; Goffé, Bruno; Jolivet, Laurent; Candan, Osman; Çetinkaplan, Mete

    2003-11-01

    The Menderes Massif occupies a large part of western Turkey. It is tectonically overlain by nappes of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone (including the Bornova Flysch Zone) on its northern flank, the Afyon Zone on its eastern border, and the Lycian Nappes on its southern flank. The discovery of magnesiocarpholite-kyanite assemblages in the Mesozoic 'cover' sequence of the southern Menderes Massif leads to the very first consideration that a major high-pressure (HP) metamorphic event affected the massif during its Alpine evolution. Estimations of minimum pressure-temperature conditions about 10-12 kbar and 440 °C suggest a minimum burial of 30 km for the metasedimentary rocks of the Menderes Massif, similar to that for the Eocene Dilek Blueschists, which belong to the Cycladic complex. This finding of high-pressure rocks within the Menderes 'cover' series, as well as the recent description of low-grade high-pressure parageneses in the basal thrust sheets of the overlying Lycian nappe complex, has strong implications for the tectono-metamorphic evolution of these units. The characteristics of this high-pressure metamorphism and the deformation features observed in the southern Menderes Massif allow consideration of a fast burial during Alpine subduction and nappe stacking. Three high-pressure units were piled up during the Eocene collision of the Sakarya continent and the Tauride-Menderes block. The lowermost unit consists of the imbricated 'core' and 'cover' of the Menderes Massif. The intermediate unit is the Cycladic Blueschist complex (Dilek and Samos regions) and the uppermost unit is made of the Lycian Nappes. The retrogression of high-pressure parageneses from the Menderes Massif follows an isothermal decompression path and the associated deformation is characterized by a severe stretching oriented N-S to NE-SW during the high-pressure event and its exhumation. We propose a tectono-metamorphic model in three main stages: (1) the southward translation of the high

  14. Tectonic evolution, structural styles, and oil habitat in Campeche Sound, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles-Aquino, F.J.; Reyes-Nunez, J.; Quezada-Muneton, J.M.; Meneses-Rocha, J.J. [Pemex Exploracion-Produccion, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    Campeche Sound is located in the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. This area is Mexico`s most important petroleum province. The Mesozoic section includes Callovian salt deposits; Upper Jurassic sandstones, anhydrites, limestones, and shales; and Cretaceous limestones, dolomites, shales, and carbonate breccias. The Cenozoic section is formed by bentonitic shales and minor sandstones and carbonate breccias. Campeche Sound has been affected by three episodes of deformation: first extensional tectonism, then compressional tectonism, and finally extensional tectonism again. The first period of deformation extended from the middle Jurassic to late Jurassic and is related to the opening of the Gulf of Mexico. During this regime, tilted block faults trending northwest-southwest were dominant. The subsequent compressional regime occurred during the middle Miocene, and it was related to northeast tangential stresses that induced further flow of Callovian salt and gave rise to large faulted, and commonly overturned, anticlines. The last extensional regime lasted throughout the middle and late Miocene, and it is related to salt tectonics and growth faults that have a middle Miocene shaly horizon as the main detachment surface. The main source rocks are Tithonian shales and shaly limestones. Oolite bars, slope and shelf carbonates, and regressive sandstones form the main reservoirs. Evaporites and shales are the regional seals. Recent information indicates that Oxfordian shaly limestones are also important source rocks.

  15. Tectonic controls on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such activities along the HFT and transverse faults have controlled the accommodation space by causing differential subsidence of the basin,and aggradation processes by causing channel migration,channel incision and shifting of depocentres.The active tectonic movements have further modified the landscape of the area ...

  16. Tectonic controls on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Piedmont Zone has formed as a result of coalescing alluvial fans,alluvial aprons and talus deposits.The fans have differential morphologies and aggradation processes within a common climatic zone and similar litho-tectonic setting of the catchment area. Morphotectonic analysis reveals that the fan morphologies and ...

  17. Early to Middle Jurassic tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains, Northwest China: Evidence from sedimentology and detrital zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongjie; Tao, Huifei; Wang, Qi; Qiu, Zhen; Ma, Dongxu; Qiu, Junli; Liao, Peng

    2018-03-01

    The Bogda Mountains, as an important intracontinental orogenic belt, are situated in the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and are a key area for understanding the Mesozoic evolution of the CAOB. However, the tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains remains controversial during the Mesozoic Era, especially the Early to Middle Jurassic Periods. The successive Lower to Middle Jurassic strata are well preserved and exposed along the northern flank of the Western Bogda Mountains and record the uplift processes of the Bogda Mountains. In this study, we analysed sedimentary facies combined with detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology at five sections of Lower to Middle Jurassic strata to detect the tectonic evolution and changes of provenance in the Bogda area. During Early to Middle Jurassic times, the fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine environments dominated in the western section of the Bogda area. The existence of Early Triassic peak age indicates that the Bogda Mountains did not experience uplift during the period of early Badaowan Formation deposition. The Early Triassic to Late Permian granitoid plutons and Carboniferous volcanic rocks from the Barkol and Santanghu areas were the main provenances. The significant change in the U-Pb age spectrum implies that the Eastern Bogda Mountains initiated uplift in the period of late Badaowan Formation deposition, and the Eastern Junggar Basin and the Turpan-Hami Basin were partially partitioned. The Eastern Bogda Mountains gradually became the major provenance. From the period of early Sangonghe to early Toutunhe Formations deposition, the provenance of the sediments and basin-range frame were similar to that of late Badaowan. However, the Eastern Bogda Mountains suffered intermittent uplift three times, and successive denudation. The uplifts respectively happened in early Sangonghe, late Sangonghe to early Xishanyao, and late Xishanyao to early Toutunhe. During the deposition stage of Toutunhe Formation, a

  18. Chronological constraints on tectonic evolution of the Chinese Tianshan Orogen through detrital zircons from modern and paleo-river sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rong; Guan, Shuwei; Han, Baofu

    2017-04-01

    The Chinese Tianshan Orogen marked the prolonged, complicated interactions between the southwestern Paleo-Asian Ocean and surrounding blocks. Massive new and previous detrital zircon U-Pb chronological data from modern and paleo-river sands (more than 7000 ages from 102 samples) were compiled to constrain its tectonic evolution. The Chinese Tianshan Orogen is characterized by predominant Paleozoic and minor Mesozoic and Precambrian detrital zircon ages that show multimodal characteristic. The oldest Phanerozoic zircon population (peak at 475 Ma) results from subduction and closure of the Early Paleozoic Terskey Ocean. But the absence of this peak in Chinese North and southern South Tianshan suggests that the subductions of the North and South Tianshan oceans may not initiate until Late Ordovician, with subsequent 460-390 Ma and 360-320 Ma arc magmatism. Similar to magmatic suite in classic collisional orogens, the youngest massive 320-270 Ma magmatism is supposed to be post-collisional. The North and South Tianshan oceans therefore probably had their closure to form the Chinese Tianshan Orogen during Late Carboniferous. The weak Mesozoic intra-plate magmatism further argues against a Late Permian-Triassic Tianshan Orogen for the lack of extensive syn- and post-collisional magmatism. Moreover, the diverse Precambrian detrital zircon age patterns indicate that the surrounding blocks have distinct tectonic evolution and short-term amalgamation during the Neoproterozoic.

  19. Quantification and Postglacial evolution of an inner alpine sedimentary basin (Gradenmoos Basin, Hohe Tauern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Götz, J.

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is the quantification of sediment storage and the reconstruction of postglacial landscape evolution within the glacially overdeepened Gradenmoos Basin (subcatchment size: 4.1 km 2 ; basin floor elevation: 1920 m) in the central Gradenbach catchment (Schober Range, Hohe Tauern, Austrian Alps). Following the approach of denudation-accumulation-systems, most reliable results are obtained (1) if sediment output of a system can be neglected for an established period of time, (2) if sediment storage can be assessed with a high level of accuracy, (3) if the onset of sedimentation and amounts of initially stored sediments are known, and (4) if sediment contributing areas can be clearly delimited. Due to spatial scale and topographic characteristics, all mentioned aspects are fulfilled to a high degree within the studied basin. Applied methods include surface, subsurface and temporal investigations. Digital elevation data is derived from terrestrial laserscanning and geomorphologic mapping. The quantification of sediment storage is based on core drillings, geophysical methods (DC resistivity, refraction seismic, and ground penetrating radar), as well as GIS and 3D modelling. Radiocarbon dating and palynological analyses are additionally used to reconstruct the postglacial infilling progress of the basin. The study reveals that a continuous postglacial stratigraphic record is archived in the basin. As proposed by Lieb (1987) timing of basin deglaciation could be verified to late-Egesen times by means of radiocarbon ages (oldest sample just above basal till: 10.4 ka cal. BP) and first palynologic results. Lateglacial oscillations seem to have effectively scoured the basin, leaving only a shallow layer of basal till. The analysis of postglacial sedimentation in the basin is further improved by the existence of a former lake in the basin lasting for up to 7500 years until approx. 3.7 ka cal. BP. Both, the stratigraphic (fine, partly

  20. Breaking Ground on the Moon and Mars: Reconstructing Lunar Tectonic Evolution and Martian Central Pit Crater Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathan Robert

    Understanding the structural evolution of planetary surfaces provides key insights to their physical properties and processes. On the Moon, large-scale tectonism was thought to have ended over a billion years ago. However, new Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) high resolution images show the Moon's surface in unprecedented detail and show many previously unidentified tectonic landforms, forcing a re-assessment of our views of lunar tectonism. I mapped lobate scarps, wrinkle ridges, and graben across Mare Frigoris -- selected as a type area due to its excellent imaging conditions, abundance of tectonic landforms, and range of inferred structural controls. The distribution, morphology, and crosscutting relationships of these newly identified populations of tectonic landforms imply a more complex and longer-lasting history of deformation that continues to today. I also performed additional numerical modeling of lobate scarp structures that indicates the upper kilometer of the lunar surface has experienced 3.5-18.6 MPa of differential stress in the recent past, likely due to global compression from radial thermal contraction. Central pit craters on Mars are another instance of intriguing structures that probe subsurface physical properties. These kilometer-scale pits are nested in the centers of many impact craters on Mars as well as on icy satellites. They are inferred to form in the presence of a water-ice rich substrate; however, the process(es) responsible for their formation is still debated. Previous models invoke origins by either explosive excavation of potentially water-bearing crustal material, or by subsurface drainage of meltwater and/or collapse. I assessed radial trends in grain size around central pits using thermal inertias calculated from Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) thermal infrared images. Average grain size decreases with radial distance from pit rims -- consistent with pit-derived ejecta but not

  1. The polyphased tectonic evolution of the Anegada Passage in the northern Lesser Antilles subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, M.; Marcaillou, B.; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Lallemand, S.; Laigle, M.; Lebrun, J.-F.

    2017-05-01

    The influence of the highly oblique plate convergence at the northern Lesser Antilles onto the margin strain partitioning and deformation pattern, although frequently invoked, has never been clearly imaged. The Anegada Passage is a set of basins and deep valleys, regularly related to the southern boundary of the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) microplate. Despite the publications of various tectonic models mostly based on bathymetric data, the tectonic origin and deformation of this Passage remains unconstrained in the absence of deep structure imaging. During cruises Antithesis 1 and 3 (2013-2016), we recorded the first deep multichannel seismic images and new multibeam data in the northern Lesser Antilles margin segment in order to shed a new light on the structure and tectonic pattern of the Anegada Passage. We image the northeastern extent of the Anegada Passage, from the Sombrero Basin to the Lesser Antilles margin front. Our results reveal that this northeastern segment is an EW trending left-stepping en échelon strike-slip system that consists of the Sombrero and Malliwana pull-apart basins, the Malliwana and Anguilla left-lateral faults, and the NE-SW compressional restraining bend at the Malliwana Hill. Reviewing the structure of the Anegada Passage, from the south of Puerto Rico to the Lesser Antilles margin front, reveals a polyphased tectonic history. The Anegada Passage is formed by a NW-SE extension, possibly related to the rotation or escape of PRVI block due to collision of the Bahamas Bank. Currently, it is deformed by an active WNW-ESE strike-slip deformation associated to the shear component of the strain partitioning resulting from the subduction obliquity.

  2. Evolution of the Altaid tectonic collage and Palaeozoic crustal growth in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengör, A. M. C.; Natal'in, B. A.; Burtman, V. S.

    1993-07-01

    A new tectonic model, postulating the growth of giant subduction-accretion complexes along a single magmatic arc now found contorted between Siberia and Baltica, shows that Asia grew by 5.3 million square kilometres during the Palaeozoic era. Half of this growth may have occurred by the addition of juvenile crust newly extracted from the mantle, supporting models of considerable continental growth continuing throughout the Phanerozoic eon.

  3. Tectonic evolution and paleokarstification of carbonate rocks in the Paleozoic Tarim Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuhui; Chen, Qianglu; Chu, Chenglin; Li, Guorong; Liu, Cunge; Shi, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Thick carbonate rocks were developed in the depression of the Tarim craton during the Cambrian-Middle Ordovician periods. The compressional tectonic movement during the Middle Caledonian-Hercynian created the paleouplifts, which became the base for the paleokarst in the Ordovician carbonate rocks. Based on the large quantity of seismic, drilling, and geological outcrop data, this study analyzed the paleokarst development in relation to the multi-stage tectonic movements in the Paleozoic Era and different stages of karstification and hypothesized paleogeomorphology and paleokarst water system of those stages. Fractures from the tectonic movements in the carbonate and non-carbonate rocks were essential for water cycle, and therefore, the karst development in deep carbonate rocks. Paleokarsts in the Tarim Basin can be classified into four major types based on the paleogeomorphology, degree of karstification, and the layering, i.e., Tahe type, gentle hill type, high steep hill type, and covered-semi-open type. Relatively, the Tahe type was mostly on hill slopes and had the strongest karstification, the gentle hill type often located in the plain areas or basin bottoms and had least karstification, the high steep hill type was controlled by faults and had medium karstification, the semi-open type was controlled by precipitation and hydraulic gradient, and fracture passages and karst caves were mostly developed along major fractures. Overall, the paleokarsts of the Ordovician carbonate rocks in the Tarim Basin can be characterized by long geologic history, multiple development stages, deep burial depth, and various karst types.

  4. Polyphase tectonic evolution of the Aksu Basin, Isparta Angle (Southern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üner, Serkan; Özsayin, Erman; Kutluay, Alkor; Dirik, Kadir

    2015-04-01

    The Aksu Basin, within the Isparta Angle, is located to the north of the intersection of the Aegean and Cyprus arcs and has been evolving since the Middle Miocene. Correlation of: (1) kinematic analysis of fault planes that cut the basin fill, (2) the reactivation/inversion of fault planes and (3) sedimentological data indicate that the Aksu Basin has evolved by four alternating compressional and extensional tectonic phases since its formation. The first phase was NW-SE oriented compression caused by the emplacement of the Lycian Nappe units which ended in Langhian. This compressional phase that induced the formation and the initial deformation of the basin was followed by a NW-SE extensional phase. This tectonic phase prevailed between the Langhian and Messinian and was terminated by a NE-SW compressional regime known as the Aksu Phase. The neotectonic period is characterized by NE-SW extension and began in the Late Pliocene. Correlation with the existing tectonic literature shows that the order of deformational phases proposed in this study might also be valid for the entire Isparta Angle area.

  5. Large Sanjiang basin groups outside of the Songliao Basin Meso-Senozoic Tectonic-sediment evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The basis geological problem is still the bottleneck of the exploration work of the lager Sanjiang basin groups. In general terms, the problems are including the prototype basins and basin forming mechanism of two aspects. In this paper, using the field geological survey and investigation, logging data analysis, seismic data interpretation technical means large Sanjiang basin groups and basin forming mechanism of the prototype are discussed. Main draw the following conclusions: 1. Sanjiang region group-level formation can be completely contrasted. 2. Tension faults, compressive faults, shear structure composition and structure combination of four kinds of compound fracture are mainly developed In the study area. The direction of their distribution can be divided into SN, EW, NNE, NEE, NNW, NWW to other groups of fracture. 3. Large Sanjiang basin has the SN and the EW two main directions of tectonic evolution. Cenozoic basins in Sanjiang region in group formation located the two tectonic domains of ancient Paleo-Asian Ocean and the Pacific Interchange. 4. Large Sanjiang basin has experienced in the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of two-stage and nine times. The first stage, developmental stage basement, they are ① Since the Mesozoic era and before the Jurassic; ② Early Jurassic period; The second stage, cap stage of development, they are ③ Late Jurassic depression developmental stages of compression; ④ Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑤ depression in mid-Early Cretaceous period; ⑥ tensile Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑦ inversion of Late Cretaceous tectonic compression stage; ⑧ Paleogene - Neogene; ⑨ After recently Ji Baoquan Sedimentary Ridge. 5. Large Sanjiang basin group is actually a residual basin structure, and Can be divided into left - superimposed (Founder, Tangyuan depression, Hulin Basin), residual - inherited type (Sanjiang basin), residual - reformed (Jixi, Boli, Hegang basin). there are two developed depression and the mechanism

  6. Late Neogene stratigraphy and tectonic control on facies evolution in the Laguna Salada Basin, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Barajas, A.; Vázquez-Hernández, S.; Carreño, A. L.; Helenes, J.; Suárez-Vidal, F.; Alvarez-Rosales, J.

    2001-10-01

    The Laguna Salada Basin (LSB) in northeastern Baja California records late-Neogene marine incursions in the Salton Trough and progradation of the Colorado River delta. Early subsidence and subsequent tectonic erosion are related to evolution of the Sierra El Mayor detachment fault during late Miocene time (stratigraphy of uplifted blocks on the east-central margin of the Laguna Salada Basin and from three exploratory wells allows reconstruction of the main sedimentary and tectonic events. Marine mudstone and sandstone, and subordinate conglomerate of the Imperial Formation tectonically overlie metamorphic and granitic basement. Microfossils, lithology, and sedimentary structures in the Imperial Formation define Upper Miocene (<6 Ma) outer-shelf facies that grade up-section into inner-shelf and tide-dominated delta plain deposits of the ancient Colorado River. Lower Pliocene (˜4-2 Ma) reddish, sub-arkosic fluvial sandstone and siltstone of the Palm Spring Formation defines progradation of non-marine fluvio-deltaic deposits over the marine Imperial Formation. Continuous outcrops of the Palm Spring are less than 170-m thick, but correlative deposits are more than 570 m thick in the lower part of a 2400-m deep geothermal exploratory well on the eastern margin of LSB. Interfingering fluvial-sandstone deposits and prograding alluvial fanglomerates with coarse debris-flow and rock-avalanche deposits crudely mark the onset of vertical slip along the Laguna Salada fault and rapid uplift of Sierra Cucapa and Sierra El Mayor. Up to 2 km of Quaternary alluvial-fan and lacustrine deposits accumulated along the eastern margin of LSB, whereas lower subsidence rates produced a thinner sedimentary wedge over a ramp-like crystalline basement along the western margin. In early Pleistocene time (˜2-1 Ma), the Laguna Salada became progressively isolated from the Colorado River delta complex, and the Salton Trough by activity on the Elsinore and Laguna Salada fault zones.

  7. Deformed Neogene basins, active faulting and topography in Westland: Distributed crustal mobility west of the Alpine Fault transpressive plate boundary (South Island, New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisetti, Francesca; Sibson, Richard H.; Hamling, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Tectonic activity in the South Island of New Zealand is dominated by the Alpine Fault component of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. West of the Alpine Fault deformation is recorded by Paleogene-Neogene basins coeval with the evolution of the right-lateral/transpressive plate margin. Initial tectonic setting was controlled by N-S normal faults developed during Late Cretaceous and Eocene-early Miocene rifting. Following inception of the Alpine Fault (c. 25 Ma) reverse reactivation of the normal faults controlled tectonic segmentation that became apparent in the cover sequences at c. 22 Ma. Based on restored transects tied to stratigraphic sections, seismic lines and wells, we reconstruct the vertical mobility of the Top Basement Unconformity west of Alpine Fault. From c. 37-35 Ma to 22 Ma subsidence was controlled by extensional faulting. After 22 Ma the region was affected by differential subsidence, resulting from eastward crustal flexure towards the Alpine Fault boundary and/or components of transtension. Transition from subsidence to uplift started at c. 17 Ma within a belt of basement pop-ups, separated by subsiding basins localised in the common footwall of oppositely-dipping reverse faults. From 17 to 7-3 Ma reverse fault reactivation and uplift migrated to the WSW. Persistent reverse reactivation of the inherited faults in the present stress field is reflected by the close match between tectonic block segmentation and topography filtered at a wavelength of 25 km, i.e. at a scale comparable to crustal thickness in the region. However, topography filtered at wavelength of 75 km shows marked contrasts between the elevated Tasman Ranges region relative to regions to the south. Variations in thickness and rigidity of the Australian lithosphere possibly control N-S longitudinal changes, consistent with our estimates of increase in linear shortening from the Tasman Ranges to the regions located west of the Alpine Fault bend.

  8. Magnetostratigraphy and 230Th dating of a drill core from the southeastern Qaidam Basin: Salt lake evolution and tectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Dong Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Qarhan Salt Lake area is the Quaternary depocenter of the Qaidam Basin, and carries thick lacustrine sediments, as well as rich potassium and magnesium salt deposits. The abundant resources and thick sediments in this lake provide an ideal place for the study of biogas formation and preservation, salt lake evolution, and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we attempt to construct a paleomagnetic and 230Th age model and to obtain information on tectonic activity and salt lake evolution through detailed studies on a 1300-m-long drill core (15DZK01 from the northwestern margin of the Qarhan Salt Lake area (Dongling Lake. Based on gypsum 230Th dating, the age of the uppermost clastic deposit was calculated to be around 0.052 Ma. The polarity sequence consist of 13 pairs of normal and reversed zones, which can be correlated with subchrons C2r.1r-C1n of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS 2012 (from ∼2.070 Ma to ∼0.052 Ma. Sedimentary characteristics indicate that Dongling Lake witnessed freshwater environment between ∼2.070 Ma and 1.546 Ma. During this period, the sedimentary record reflects primarily lakeshore, shallow-water and swamp environments, representing favourable conditions for the formation of hydrocarbon source rocks. Between 1.546 Ma and ∼0.052 Ma, the Dongling Lake was in sulphate deposition stage, which contrasts with the central Qarhan Salt Lake area, where this stage did not occur in the meantime. During this stage, Dongling Lake was in a shallow saltwater lake environment, but several periods of reduced salinity occurred during this stage. During the late Pleistocene at ∼0.052 Ma, the Dongling Lake experienced uplift due to tectonic activity, and saltwater migrated through the Sanhu Fault to the central Qarhan Salt Lake area, resulting in the absence of halite deposition stage. The residual saline water was concentrated into magnesium-rich brine due to the lack of freshwater, and few

  9. The Late Cenozoic Climatic and Tectonic Evolution of the Mount Everest Region, Central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mary Hannah

    The collision of India and Eurasia constructed the Himalayan Mountains. Questions remain regarding how subsequent exhumation by climatic and tectonic processes shaped the landscape throughout the Late Cenozoic to create the complex architecture observed today. The Mount Everest region underwent tectonic denudation by extension and bestrides one of the world's most significant rain shadows. Also, glacial and fluvial processes eroded the Everest massif over shorter timescales. In this work, I review new bedrock and detrital thermochronological and geochronological data and both one- and two-dimensional thermal-mechanical modeling that provides insights on the age range and rates of tectonic and erosional processes in this region. A strand of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS), a series of prominent normal-sense structures that dip to the north and strike along the Himalayan spine, is exposed in the Rongbuk valley near Everest. Using thermochronometric techniques, thermal-kinematic modeling, and published (U-Th)/Pb geochronology, I show exhumation rates were high ( 3-4 mm/a) from at least 20 to 13 Ma because of slip on the STDS. Subsequently, exhumation rates dropped drastically to ≤ 0.5 mm/a and remain low today. However, thermochronometric datasets and thermal-kinematic modeling results from Nepal south of Everest reveal a sharp transition in cooling ages and exhumation rates across a major knickpoint in the river profile, corresponding to the modern-day Himalayan rainfall transition. To the north of this transition, exhumation histories are similar to those in Tibet. Conversely, Everest. Integrated laser ablation U/Pb and (U-Th)/He dating of detrital zircon from fluvial and moraine sediments reveal sourcing from distinctive areas of the catchment. In general, the glacial advances eroded material from lower elevations, while the glacial outwash system carries material from higher elevations.

  10. The 1590-1520 Ma Cachoeirinha magmatic arc and its tectonic implications for the Mesoproterozoic SW Amazonian craton crustal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Amarildo S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic and chemical data of rocks from the Cachoeirinha suite provide new insights on the Proterozoic evolution of the Rio Negro/Juruena Province in SW Amazonian craton. Six U-Pb and Sm-Nd analyses in granitoid rocks of the Cachoeirinha suite yielded ages of 1587-1522 Ma and T DM model ages of 1.88-1.75 Ga (EpsilonNd values of -0.8 to +1.0. In addition, three post-tectonic plutonic rocks yielded U-Pb ages from 1485-1389 Ma (T DM of 1.77-1.74 Ga and EpsilonNd values from -1.3 to +1.7. Variations in major and trace elements of the Cachoeirinha suite rocks indicate fractional crystallization process and magmatic arc geologic setting. These results suggest the following interpretations: (1 The interval of 1590-1520 Ma represents an important magmatic activity in SW Amazonian craton. (2 T DM and arc-related chemical affinity supportthe hypothesis that the rocks are genetically associated with an east-dipping subduction zone under the older (1.79-1.74 Ga continental margin. (3 The 1590-1520 Ma age of intrusive rocks adjacent to an older crust represents similar geological framework along the southern margin of Baltica, corroborating the hypothesis of tectonic relationship at that time.

  11. Pan-African tectonic evolution in central and southern Cameroon: transpression and transtension during sinistral shear movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngako, V.; Affaton, P.; Nnange, J. M.; Njanko, Th.

    2003-04-01

    Kinematic analysis of the central Cameroon shear zone (CCSZ) and its Sanaga fault relay, indicate early sinistral shear movement (phase D 2) that was later followed by a dextral shear movement (phase D 3) during the Pan-African orogeny. The correlation of tectonic events among the CCSZs, thrusting of the Yaounde Group and the deformation in the Lom Group indicate a diachronous deposition history of these groups, where the Yaounde Group is pre-kinematic while the sedimentary and magmatic rocks of the Lom basin are syn-kinematic. Sinistral shear movements along the CCSZ and Sanaga faults are correlated with metamorphism and thrusting of the Yaounde granulites onto the Congo craton, on one hand, and to the opening of the Lom pull-apart basin, oblique to the shear zone, on the other. Kinematic interactions between shear and thrust movements characterize transpression, whereas interactions between shear and oblique normal fault movements characterize transtension. Resulting kinematic indicators show that the Lom basin represents a sinistral transtensional relay of the Sanaga fault. Greenschist-facies metamorphism in the Lom Group rocks dominantly affected by a monophase tectonic evolution were achieved during the late dextral shear movements along the Sanaga fault.

  12. The tectonic evolution of western India and its impact on hydrocarbon occurrences: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombos, Andrew M.; Powell, William G.; Norton, Ian O.

    1995-04-01

    The largest hydrocarbon accumulations of India were localized in western India by a unique convergence of tectonic events. Mesozoic rifting along the structural trends of Proterozoic mobile belts formed the passive margin basins of the Indian coast. During the Campanian rifting of Madagascar from India, north-south-striking normal faults propagated into the area of the Cambay Graben. Late Maastrichtian doming over the incipient Deccan/Réunion hotspot imparted extensional stresses to the northwestern Indian coast and formed the fault block that became the Bombay High. After eruption of the Deccan flood basalts in Early Paleocene, extension continued in the weakened crust. This resulted in enhanced subsidence of the Cambay Graben and Surat (Danahu) Depression, rifting of the Seychelles microcontinent from India, and reactivation of normal faults on the emergent Bombay High. The Cambay Graben and the Surat (Danahu) Depression filled with organic-rich source shales as they underwent thermal subsidence. Shallow-water Eocene to Miocene carbonates developed on the slowly subsiding Bombay Platform, and sea-level oscillations fostered secondary porosity development. Late Tertiary maturation of the Surat (Danahu) Depression shales generated hydrocarbons that migrated into the carbonate reservoirs on the Bombay High. Konkan-Kerala, and the older basins of the east coast of India, were unaffected by the post-Campanian tectonic events, and lack the favorable play elements that characterize the giant fields.

  13. Tracking the evolution of mantle sources with incompatible element ratios in stagnant-lid and plate-tectonic planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Kent C.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of high field strength incompatible element ratios Zr/Nb, Nb/Th, Th/Yb and Nb/Yb in terrestrial oceanic basalts prior to 2.7 Ga suggests the absence or near-absence of an enriched mantle reservoir. Instead, most oceanic basalts reflect a variably depleted mantle source similar in composition to primitive mantle. In contrast, basalts from hydrated mantle sources (like those associated with subduction) exist from 4 Ga onwards. The gradual appearance of enriched mantle between 2 and 3 Ga may reflect the onset and propagation of plate tectonics around the globe. Prior to 3 Ga, Earth may have been in a stagnant-lid regime with most basaltic magmas coming from a rather uniform, variably depleted mantle source or from a non-subduction hydrated mantle source. It was not until the extraction of continental crust and accompanying propagation of plate tectonics that ;modern type; enriched and depleted mantle reservoirs developed. Consistent with the absence of plate tectonics on the Moon is the near absence of basalts derived from depleted (DM) and enriched (EM) mantle reservoirs as defined by the four incompatible element ratios of this study. An exception are Apollo 17 basalts, which may come from a mixed source with a composition similar to primitive mantle as one end member and a high-Nb component as the other end member. With exception of Th, which requires selective enrichment in at least parts of the martian mantle, most martian meteorites can be derived from sources similar to terrestrial primitive mantle or by mixing of enriched and depleted mantle end members produced during magma ocean crystallization. Earth, Mars and the Moon exhibit three very different planetary evolution paths. The mantle source regions for Mars and the Moon are ancient and have HFS element signatures of magma ocean crystallization well-preserved, and differences in these signatures reflect magma ocean crystallization under two distinct pressure regimes. In contrast, plate

  14. Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Yabulai Basin, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Wu, Xiaozhi

    2014-05-01

    The Yabulai petroliferous basin is located at the north of Hexi Corridor, western China, striking NEE and covering an area of 1.5×104 km2. It is bounded on the south by Beidashan Mountain to the Chaoshui Basin, on the east by Bayanwulashan Mountain to the Bayanhaote Basin, and on the northwest by Yabulai Mountain to the Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin. It is a Meso-cenozoic compressive depression residual basin. In view of regional geotectonics, the Yabulai basin sits in the middle-southern transition belt of Arershan massif in North China Craton. Driven by Indosinian movement at the late Triassic, two near EW normal faults were developed under the regional extensional stress along the northern fringe of Beidashan Mountain and the southern fringe of Yabulai Mountain front in the Arershan massif, forming the embryonic form of the Yabulai rift lake basin. Since Yanshan period, the Yabulai basin evolved in two major stages: Jurassic rift lake basin and Cretaceous rift lake basin. During early Yanshan period, EW striking Yabulai tensional rift was formed. Its major controlling fault was Beidashan normal fault, and the depocenter was at the south of this basin. During middle Yanshan period, collision orogenesis led to sharp uplift at the north of this basin where the middle-lower Jurassic formations were intensely eroded. During late Yanshan period, the Alashan massif and its northern area covered in an extensional tectonic environment, and EW striking normal faults were generated at the Yabulai Mountain front. Such faults moved violently and subsided quickly to form a new EW striking extensional rift basin with the depocenter at the south of Yabulai Mountain. During Himalayan period, the Alashan massif remained at a SN horizontal compressional tectonic environment; under the compressional and strike slip actions, a NW striking and south dipping thrusting nappe structure was formed in the south of the Yabulai basin, which broke the Beidashan normal fault to provide the echelon

  15. Post-Pan-African tectonic evolution of South Malawi in relation to the Karroo and recent East African rift systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaing, C.

    1991-05-01

    Structural studies conducted in the Lengwe and Mwabvi Karroo basins and in the basement in South Malawi, using regional maps and published data extended to cover Southeast Africa, serve to propose a series of geodynamic reconstructions which reveal the persistence of an extensional tectonic regime, the minimum stress σ3 of which has varied through time. The period of Karroo rifting and the tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism which terminated it, were controlled by NW-SE extension, which resulted in the creation of roughly NE-SW troughs articulated by the Tanganyika-Malawi and Zambesi pre-transform systems. These were NW-SE sinistral-slip systems with directions of movement dipping slightly to the Southeast, which enabled the Mwanza fault to play an important role in the evolution of the Karroo basins of the Shire Valley. The Cretaceous was a transition period between the Karroo rifting and the formation of the Recent East African Rift System. Extension was NE-SW, with some evidence for a local compressional episode in the Lengwe basin. Beginning in the Cenozoic, the extension once more became NW-SE and controlled the evolution in transtension of the Recent East African Rift System. This history highlights the major role of transverse faults systems dominated by strike-slip motion in the evolution and perpetuation of the continental rift systems. These faults are of a greater geological persistence than the normal faults bounding the grabens, especially when they are located on major basement anisotropies.

  16. The Geomorphological Evolution of a Landscape in a Tectonically Active Region: the Sennwald Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksay, Selçuk; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Hippe, Kristina; Graemiger, Lorenz; Vockenhuber, Christof

    2016-04-01

    The Säntis nappe is a fold-and-thrust structure in eastern Switzerland consisting of numerous tectonic discontinuities that make rocks vulnerable to rock failure. The Sennwald landslide is one of those events that occurred due to the failure of Lower Cretaceous Helvetic limestones. This study reveals the surface exposure age of the event in relation to geological and tectonic setting, earthquake frequency of the Central Alps, and regional scale climate/weather influence. Our study comprises detailed mapping of landform features, thin section analysis of landslide boulder lithologies, landslide volume estimation, numerical DAN-3D run-out modelling, and the spatial and temporal relationship of the event. In the Sennwald landslide, 92 million m3 of limestones detached from the south-eastern wall of the Säntis nappe and slid with a maximum travel distance of ~4'500 m and a "fahrboeschung" angle of 15° along the SE-dipping sliding plane almost parallel to the orientation of the bedding plane. Numerical run-out modelling results match the extent and the thickness of landslide deposits as observed in the field. The original bedrock stratigraphy was preserved as geologically the top layer in the bedrock package travelled the farthest and the bottom layer came to rest closest to the release bedrock wall during the landslide. Velocities of maximum 90 m/s were obtained from the numerical run-out modelling. Total Cl and 36Cl were determined at ETH AMS facility with isotope dilution methods defined in the literature (Ivy-Ochs et al., 2004). Surface exposure ages of landslide deposits in the accumulation area are revealed from twelve boulders. The distribution of limestone boulders in the accumulation area, the exposure ages, and the numerical run-out modelling support the hypothesis that the Sennwald landslide was a single catastrophic event. The event is likely to have been triggered by at least light to moderate earthquakes (Mw=4.0-6.0). The historical and the last 40-year

  17. Implications Of Fault Damaged Bedrock To Tectonic and Landscape Evolution In Coastal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, A.; Koons, P. O.; Roy, S. G.; Birkel, S. D.; Kaluzienski, L. M.; Campbell, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Bedrock material strength properties heavily impact erosion rates in temperate glacial environments. We focus on the influence of localized tectonic crustal weakening in southeast Alaska on modern glacial erosion rates, thereby quantifying a primary feedback in tectonic/climatic coupling. Southeast Alaska, with its coincident high strain rates, vigorous glacial erosion and rapid sedimentation rates, provides an excellent setting in which to evaluate this interaction. To characterize the relationship between fault damage and glacial incision, we collected data in transects across the strike-slip Fairweather Fault in Yakutat and Disenchantment Bays, in deglaciated valleys below the Mendenhall, Herbert, Ptarmigan, and Lemon Creek Glaciers on the perimeter of the Juneau Icefield, and on deglaciated nunataks on the Echo and Vaughan Lewis Glaciers in the interior of the Juneau Icefield. The mechanical properties of the bedrock are characterized by estimates of fault spacing and material cohesion. In structurally-controlled bedrock valleys exploited by glaciers, fracture spacing may vary by several orders of magnitude across fault damage zones, from more than 10 m to less than 0.1 m. Analysis of active and quiescent fault zones indicate that this variation approximates a power law relationship and correlates with a gradient in cohesive strength varying from greater than 50 MPa to less than 50 kPa between intact bedrock and the core of fault damage zones. The width and orientation of the damage zones is highly variable and we have chosen our field sites to sample zones of very large total displacement, up to kilometers along the Fairweather Fault, and substantially smaller displacements, down to centimeters for the Juneau Icefield locales. Using a Cordilleran Ice sheet model to extend our modern observations into last glacial maximum conditions, we predict both erosion rates and sediment provenance for a material strength pattern influenced by tectonically induced fault

  18. Tectonic Constraints on the Evolution of Geothermal Systems in the Central Andean Volcanic Zone (CAVZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, E. E.; Tardani, D.; Aron, F.; Elizalde, J. D.; Sanchez-Alfaro, P.; Godoy, B.

    2017-12-01

    South of 19°S, geothermal fields and Pliocene-to-Holocene volcanic centers of the Central Andean Volcanic Zone are spatially associated with distinct, large-scale fault systems disrupting the volcanic arc, which control the architecture and dynamics of the fluids reservoirs at shallow crustal levels. Based on an extensive compilation of structural, lithological and isotopic data, and satellite imagery band-ratio analyses, we produced detailed maps of 13 areas comprising 19 identified and/or potential geothermal fields, to examine if particular local-scale tectonic configurations are associated to fluids migrating from different crustal levels. We defined three main tectonic environments according to the specific, kilometer-scale structural arrangement and its spatial relation to the geothermal surface manifestations. T1, dominated by left-lateral, pure strike-slip motion on a NW-trending duplex-like geometry with geothermal fields located along the faults - in turn distributed into five major subparallel zones cutting across the orogenic belt between ca. 20° and 27°S. T2, dominated by shortening on a series of N-trending thrust faults and fault-propagated folds, cut and displaced by the above mentioned NW-trending faults, with geothermal fields hosted at fault intersections and at fold hinges. And T3, characterized by transtension accommodated by NW-to-WNW-trending left-lateral/normal faults, with hot-springs lying along the fault traces. Interestingly, each of the independently defined tectonic environments has distinctive helium (in fluids) and strontium (in lavas) isotopic signatures and estimated geothermal reservoir temperatures. T1 shows a large 4He contribution, low 87Sr/86Sr ratio and temperatures varying between ca. 220°-310°C; T3 low 4He and high 87Sr/86Sr ratio and temperature (260°-320°C); T2 isotopic values fall between T1 and T3, yet showing the lowest (130°-250°C) temperatures. We suggest that these particular isotopic signatures are due to

  19. Paleomagnetism and tectonic evolution of the Pan-African Damara Belt, southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, M. O.; KröNer, A.

    1981-06-01

    Paleomagnetic results are reported from the Nosib, Otavi, and Mulden groups of the Damara Supergroup, a late Precambrian shelf sequence on the southern margin of the Congo craton in Namibia. Three magnetizations were isolated in the Nosib group samples. In order of decreasing blocking temperature they are NQ1 (n = 6 sites, λ = 28°N, ϕ = 323°E, α95 = 15°), NQ2 (n = 7 sites, λ = 51°S, ϕ = 213°E, α95 = 12°), and NQ3 (n = 13 samples, λ = 09°N, ϕ = 295°E, α95 = 13°). Overall precision of all three magnetizations upon tectonic correction suggests that they predate Pan-African (650-450 Ma) folding. Two magnetizations were isolated in the Otavi group samples, above the Nosib in stratigraphic sequence. The DC1 component of possible prefolding age (n = 4 sites, λ = 52°S, ϕ = 186°E, α95 = 35°) has been over-printed by the DC2 magnetization (n = 10 sites, λ = 55°S, ϕ = 044°E, α95 = 15°) of probable postfolding age. A single magnetization of probable pre-folding age was isolated in the overlying Mulden Group samples (n = 6 sites, λ = 12°S, ϕ = 090°E, α95 = 16°). Together with previously published paleomagnetic data from Africa, the new data showed that no great relative movements have occurred between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the interval of Pan-African tectonism in the Damara belt (McElhinny and McWilliams, 1977). Continental collision preceded by large relative displacements and closure of a wide ocean (e.g., a Himalayan analog) is effectively ruled out for the Damara belt. We develop an alternative model consistent with the available paleomagnetic and geologic data, which invokes rifting, heating, and stretching of the lithosphere underneath the Damara belt, followed by delamination of the subcrustal lithosphere. Hot asthenospheric material rises to take the place of the detached and sinking lithospheric base, inducing subduction and interstacking of continental crust. The much thickened continental crust is partially melted

  20. Consequences of Chixculub Impact for the Tectonic and Geodynamic Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico North Carribean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangin, C.; Crespy, A.; Martinez-Reyes, J.

    2013-05-01

    The debate for Pacific exotic origin versus in situ inter American plate Atlantic origin of the Caribbean plate is active in the scientific community since decades. Independently of the origin of this plate, its fast motion towards the east at a present rate of 2cm/yr is accepted to have been initiated during the early-most Cenozoic. The Paleocene is a key period in the global evolution of Central America mainly marked also by the Chicxulub multiring meteor impact in Yucatan. We question here the genetic relationship between this impact event and the incipient tectonic escape of the Caribbean plate. The mostly recent published models suggest this impact has affected the whole crust down to the Moho, the upper mantle being rapidly and considerably uplifted. The crust was then fragmented 600km at least from the point of impact, and large circular depressions were rapidly filled by clastic sediments from Cantarell to Western Cuba via Chiapas and Belize. North of the impact, the whole Gulf of Mexico was affected by mass gravity sliding, initiated also during the Paleocene in Texas, remaining active in this basin up to present time. South of the impact, in the Caribbean plate, the Yucatan basin was rapidly opened, indicating a fast escape of the crustal material towards the unique free boundary, the paleo-Antilles subduction zone. Shear waves velocity data below the Caribbean plate suggest this crustal tectonic escape was enhanced by the fast eastward flowing mantle supporting a fragmented and stretched crust. The proposed model suggests Chicxulub impact (but also the hypothetic Beata impact) have fragmented brittle crust, then easily drifted towards the east. This could explain the Paleogene evolution of the Caribbean plate largely stretched during its early evolution. Geologically, this evolution could explain the absence of evident Paleogene oblique subduction along the Caribbean plate northern and southern margins, marked only by Mid Cretaceous dragged volcanic

  1. Tectonics, orbital forcing, global climate change, and human evolution in Africa: introduction to the African paleoclimate special volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, Mark A; Christensen, Beth

    2007-11-01

    The late Cenozoic climate of Africa is a critical component for understanding human evolution. African climate is controlled by major tectonic changes, global climate transitions, and local variations in orbital forcing. We introduce the special African Paleoclimate Issue of the Journal of Human Evolution by providing a background for and synthesis of the latest work relating to the environmental context for human evolution. Records presented in this special issue suggest that the regional tectonics, appearance of C(4) plants in East Africa, and late Cenozoic global cooling combined to produce a long-term drying trend in East Africa. Of particular importance is the uplift associated with the East African Rift Valley formation, which altered wind flow patterns from a more zonal to more meridinal direction. Results in this volume suggest a marked difference in the climate history of southern and eastern Africa, though both are clearly influenced by the major global climate thresholds crossed in the last 3 million years. Papers in this volume present lake, speleothem, and marine paleoclimate records showing that the East African long-term drying trend is punctuated by episodes of short, alternating periods of extreme wetness and aridity. These periods of extreme climate variability are characterized by the precession-forced appearance and disappearance of large, deep lakes in the East African Rift Valley and paralleled by low and high wind-driven dust loads reaching the adjacent ocean basins. Dating of these records show that over the last 3 million years such periods only occur at the times of major global climatic transitions, such as the intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (2.7-2.5 Ma), intensification of the Walker Circulation (1.9-1.7 Ma), and the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution (1-0.7 Ma). Authors in this volume suggest this onset occurs as high latitude forcing in both Hemispheres compresses the Intertropical Convergence Zone so that East Africa

  2. Structure and tectonic evolution of the Southern Eurasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekretov, Sergey B.

    2002-07-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection data acquired by Marine Arctic Geological Expedition (MAGE) of Murmansk, Russia in 1990 provide the first view of the geological structure of the Arctic region between 77-80°N and 115-133°E, where the Eurasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean adjoins the passive-transform continental margin of the Laptev Sea. South of 80°N, the oceanic basement of the Eurasia Basin and continental basement of the Laptev Sea outer margin are covered by 1.5 to 8 km of sediments. Two structural sequences are distinguished in the sedimentary cover within the Laptev Sea outer margin and at the continent/ocean crust transition: the lower rift sequence, including mostly Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleocene deposits, and the upper post-rift sequence, consisting of Cenozoic sediments. In the adjoining Eurasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean, the Cenozoic post-rift sequence consists of a few sedimentary successions deposited by several submarine fans. Based on the multichannel seismic reflection data, the structural pattern was determined and an isopach map of the sedimentary cover and tectonic zoning map were constructed. A location of the continent/ocean crust transition is tentatively defined. A buried continuation of the mid-ocean Gakkel Ridge is also detected. This study suggests that south of 78.5°N there was the cessation in the tectonic activity of the Gakkel Ridge Rift from 33-30 until 3-1 Ma and there was no sea-floor spreading in the southernmost part of the Eurasia Basin during the last 30-33 m.y. South of 78.5°N all oceanic crust of the Eurasia Basin near the continental margin of the Laptev Sea was formed from 56 to 33-30 Ma.

  3. Interaction of tectonic and depositional processes that control the evolution of the Iberian Gulf of Cadiz margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, A.; Nelson, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an integrated view of the growth patterns and factors that controlled the evolution of the Gulf of Cadiz continental margin based on studies of the tectonic, sedimentologic and oceanographic history of the area. Seven sedimentary regimes are identified, but there are more extensive descriptions of the late Cenozoic regimes because of the larger data base. The regimes of the Mesozoic passive margin include carbonate platforms, which become mixed calcareous-terrigenous deposits during the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary. The Oligocene and Early Miocene terrigenous regimes developed, in contrast, over the active and transcurrent margins near the African-Iberian plate boundary. The top of the Gulf of Cadiz olistostrome, emplaced in the Late Miocene, is used as a key horizon to define the 'post-orogenic' depositional regimes. The Late Miocene progradational margin regime is characterized by a large terrigenous sediment supply to the margin and coincides with the closing of the Miocene Atlantic-Mediterranean gateways. The terrigenous drift depositional regime of the Early Pliocene resulted from the occurrence of high eustatic sea level and the characteristics of the Mediterranean outflow currents that developed after the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar. The Late Pliocene and Quaternary regimes are dominated by sequences of deposits related to cycles of high and low sea levels. Deposition of shelf-margin deltas and slope wedges correlate with regressive and low sea level regimes caused by eustasy and subsidence. During the highstand regimes of the Holocene, inner shelf prograding deltas and deep-water sediment drifts were developed under the influence of the Atlantic inflow and Mediterranean outflow currents, respectively. A modern human cultural regime began 2000 years ago with the Roman occupation of Iberia; human cultural effects on sedimentary regimes may have equalled natural factors such as climate change. Interplay of tectonic and

  4. Tectonic and Climatic Control of Landscape Evolution in the Northern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, E. R.; Strecker, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    Rock uplift, surface uplift and exhumation can be constrained if thermochronologic data can be converted to exhumation and if geological relations provide a datum. In the northern Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina, the Cenozoic Santa María basin, which overlay resistant crystalline basement prior to rapid exhumation, provides an ideal setting to examine the effect of contrasting thermal and erosional regimes. There, tectonically active reverse-fault bounded blocks partly preserve a basement peneplain at elevations >4500 m. Prior to exhumation, the study area was covered by 1 to 1.6 km of ca. 12-6 Ma sediments; this sequence begins with shallow marine deposits immediately overlying the regional erosion surface which are superseded by sandstones and conglomerates. These rapidly deposited sediments have low thermal conductivity and are readily eroded, in contrast to underlying resistant basement. Apatite fission-track data were obtained from two vertical transects in the Calchaquíes and Aconquija ranges bounding the basin. At Cumbres Calchaquíes, erosion leading to the development of the peneplain commenced in the Cretaceous; limited late Neogene cooling is documented by track-length modeling. In contrast, Sierra Aconquija cooled rapidly between 5.5 and 4.5 My. At the onset of this rapid exhumation, sediment was quickly removed, causing fast cooling, but relatively slow rates of surface uplift. Syntectonic conglomerates could only be produced when faulting exposed resistant bedrock; this change in rock erodability lead to enhanced surface uplift rates but decreased exhumation rates. The creation of an orographic barrier after the range had attained sufficient elevation further decreased exhumation rates on the leeward side and increased surface uplift rates. This imbalance cannot be sustained for extended periods of time; either crustal strength or bedrock fluvial incision will ultimately limit the magnitude of relief which can be created before tectonism, and hence

  5. Plio-pleistocene volcano-tectonic evolution of la Reforma Caldera, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demant, Alain; Ortlieb, Luc

    1981-01-01

    La Reforma volcanic complex, in east-central Baja California, shows a characteristic caldera structure, 10 km in diameter. The first eruptive stage, during the Pliocene, was manifested by ash and pumice falls and by subaqueous pumitic flows. In a second stage basic flows were deposited in a near-shore environment (subaerial and pillow lavas). During the early Pleistocene a large ignimbritic eruption, producing mainly pantelleritic tuffs, immediately predated the formation of the caldera itself. Afterwards, along marginal fractures of the caldera, some rhyolitic domes and flows partially covered the thick ignimbritic sheet. A block of Miocene substratum, in the center of the caldera, has been uplifted, nearly 1 km, by "resurgent doming". Small outcrops of diorite might constitute the top of coarse-grained crystallized magmatic bodies, and thus support the "resurgent doming" interpretation. A few basaltic cones were finally built on the flanks of the caldera complex; the latter are not related to the caldera history but to the extension tectonics of the Gulf of California which are also responsible for the Tortuga Island and the Holocene Tres Virgenes tholeiitic cones. South of la Reforma are found the highest (+300 m) Pleistocene marine deposits of the Gulf coast of Baja California. The uplift of this area is due in part to the positive epeirogenic movements of the whole peninsular crustal block, and also to the late doming of the caldera. On the coastal (eastern) flank of La Reforma complex up to seven stepped wave-cut terraces have been preserved, the highest reaching more than +150 m and the lowest ones +25 m. Lateral correlations of the marine terraces along the whole Gulf of California suggest that this volcano-tectonic uplift, that is still active, is of the order of 240 mm/10 3 y. The set of terraces is interpreted to be Middle (700-125 × 10 3y) to Upper (125-80 × 10 3y) Pleistocene, and is tentatively correlated with the paleoclimatic chronology of deep

  6. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Canete Basin, Lima, Peru, a plate tectonic model for the Mesozoic evolution of the Central Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, A.M. (Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    An arc-trench system has been active in the Central Andes since at least since Late Triassic. This Mesozoic margin was characterized by subduction-erosion processes, PreMesozoic metamorphic outer basement high, pervasive extension, tectonic inversion, sporadic igneous activity and segmentation of the arc. Episodic variations in the tectonic evolution of the associated basins were controlled by the variable angle of subduction, age of the subducted plate, rate and angle of convergence, and the relative motion of the Farallon and South America Plates. The Canete Basin is an elongate frontal arc basin, subparallel to the arc, which documents the early evolution of the Andean Orogeny. In the Canete Basin, the oldest arc volcanism is documented by the interbedded tuffs, lava flows and tuffaceous marine shales of the Late Jurassic Puente Piedra Group which was deposited along a series of isolated and elongated troughs that formed adjacent to the arc. During Late Berriasian the arc subsided and the lithofacies changed from arc to continental derived lithologies. The shallow marine, quartz rich Morro Solar Group was derived from the uplifted metamorphic basement high in the west, as the result of ensialic extension. Locally, volcanic quiescence was interrupted by deposition of the volcaniclastic rich Pucusana Formation. The Late Hauterivian to Aptian Lima Group consists of lime mudstones, shales and subordinated gypsum and bioclastic limestones with volcaniclastic and lava flow facies of the Chilca Group. Stratigraphic relationship rapid changes in thickness and facies of this unit document the development of an incipient arc and the persistence of ensialic extension prior to the maximum paroxysm of volcanic activity of the overlying Albian to Cenomanian Chillon Group. Interbedded volcaniclastic sandstones, lava flows, hyaloclastic breccias and the tuffaceous shales of the Chillon Group were coeval with the early phases of emplacement of the Coastal Batholith (CB).

  7. Tectonic control on Pleistocene basin-filling processes and landscape evolution: the intermontane Kangra Basin, NW Sub-Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The growth of a collisional mountain belt like the Himalaya is dynamically coupled both to tectonics and climate and can result in strong temporal variations in the delivery of sediment to intermontane basins and the foreland. Orogenic critical taper models have been helpful to explain the processes controlling the evolution of mountain fronts in such settings. Rapid and voluminous sediment accumulations might destabilize the orogenic wedge and force architectural re-organization by outward propagation of the deformation front, while basin evacuation can induce out-of-sequence-thrusting to return the wedge to a critical taper. Structural reentrants along the Himalayan front are promising locations to study sediment delivery, storage, and sediment-evacuation mechanisms, as those areas commonly expose extensive transiently stored foreland-basin sediments. The Kangra re-entrant in the NW Sub-Himalaya hosts intermontane valley fills of Pleistocene age, eroded from the Dhauladhar Range. The sediments were unconformably deposited on top of Neogene foreland-basin sediments (i.e. the Siwaliks) in the hanging wall of the NW-SE striking Jwalamukhi Thrust. This major sediment accumulation phase appears to have preceded a phase of sediment evacuation in the course of episodic re-incision into the fill unit, which carved a series of fill-terrace levels. Angular unconformities, differential fluvial incision, tilted fluvial terraces, drainage re-organization, and steepened river segments in the hanging wall of the Jwalamukhi Thrust indicate post-depositional shortening and uplift in the Kangra re-entrant. From this evidence, we infer a primary importance of the Jwalamukhi Thrust in controlling the Quaternary sediment deposition in the Kangra re-entrant - however, we cannot exclude the influence of climate as the main trigger for sediment aggradation and subsequent excavation. However, knickpoints and steep river-channel gradients crossing other tectonic structures within the

  8. Investigation of newly discovered lobate scarps: Implications for the tectonic and thermal evolution of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jaclyn D.; Hurtado, José M.; Hiesinger, Harald; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.; Bernhardt, Hannes

    2017-12-01

    Using observations of lunar scarps in Apollo Panoramic Camera photos, Binder and Gunga (1985) tested competing models for the initial thermal state of the Moon, i.e., whether it was initially completely molten or if the molten portion was limited to a global magma ocean. Binder and Gunga (1985) favored the concept of an initially molten Moon that had entered into a late-stage epoch of global tectonism. Since the start of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, thousands of new small lobate scarps have been identified across the lunar surface with high-resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). As such, we selected spatially random scarps and reevaluated the fault dynamical calculations presented by Binder and Gunga (1985). Additionally, we examined the geometry and properties of these fault scarps and place better constraints on the amount of scarp-related crustal shortening. We found that these low angle thrust faults (∼23˚) have an average relief of ∼40 m and average depths of 951 m. Using crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements, we derived absolute model ages for the scarp surfaces proximal to the trace of the fault and found that the last slip event occurred in the last ∼132 Ma. Along with young model ages, lunar lobate scarps exhibit a youthful appearance with their crisp morphologies which is indicative of late-stage horizontal shortening. In conclusion, interior secular cooling and tidal stresses cause global contraction of the Moon.

  9. Gravitational spreading, bookshelf faulting, and tectonic evolution of the South Polar Terrain of Saturn's moon Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, An; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2015-11-01

    Despite a decade of intense research the mechanical origin of the tiger-stripe fractures (TSF) and their geologic relationship to the hosting South Polar Terrain (SPT) of Enceladus remain poorly understood. Here we show via systematic photo-geological mapping that the semi-squared SPT is bounded by right-slip, left-slip, extensional, and contractional zones on its four edges. Discrete deformation along the edges in turn accommodates translation of the SPT as a single sheet with its transport direction parallel to the regional topographic gradient. This parallel relationship implies that the gradient of gravitational potential energy drove the SPT motion. In map view, internal deformation of the SPT is expressed by distributed right-slip shear parallel to the SPT transport direction. The broad right-slip shear across the whole SPT was facilitated by left-slip bookshelf faulting along the parallel TSF. We suggest that the flow-like tectonics, to the first approximation across the SPT on Enceladus, is best explained by the occurrence of a transient thermal event, which allowed the release of gravitational potential energy via lateral viscous flow within the thermally weakened ice shell.

  10. Analysis of the stress regime and tectonic evolution of the Azerbaijan Plateau, Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A.; Hoseynalizadeh, Z.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number of earthquakes in recent decades in Northwestern Iran and the determination of the epicenters of these events makes possible to estimate accurately the changing tectonic regime using the Win-Tensor inversion focal mechanism program. For this purpose focal mechanism data were collected from various sources, including the Centroid Moment Tensor catalog (CMT). The focal mechanism and fault slip data were analyzed to determine change in the stress field up to the present day. The results showed that two stages of brittle deformation occurred in the region. The first stage was related to Eocene compression in NE-SW direction, which created compressional structures with NW-SE strike, including the North and South Bozgush, south Ahar and Gushedagh thrust belts. The second brittle stage began in the Miocene with NW-SE compression and caused developing thrusts with N-S trends that were active presently. These stress regimes were created by the counter-clockwise rotation of the Azerbaijan plateau caused by movement on strike slip faults and continuous compression between the Arabian plate, the south Caspian basin and the Caucasus region. Pliocene-Quaternary activity of the Sabalan and Sahand volcanoes as well as recent earthquakes occurred as a result of this displacement and rotational movement. The abundance of hot springs in the Ardebil, Hero Abad and Bostanabad areas also bore witness to this activity.

  11. Fission-track constraints on the thermal and tectonic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounov, Alexandre; Schmid, Stefan M.

    2013-01-01

    New zircon and apatite fission-track (FT) data, including apatite thermal modelling, are combined with an extensive literature survey and reconnaissance-type structural fieldwork in the Eastern Apuseni Mountains. This leads to a better understanding of the complex structural and thermal history of a key area at the boundary between two megatectonic units in the Balkan peninsula, namely the Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units. Following Late Jurassic obduction of the Transylvanian ophiolites onto a part of the Dacia Mega-Unit, that is, the Biharia nappe system, both units were buried to a minimum of 8 km during late Early Cretaceous times when these units were underthrust below the Tisza Mega-Unit consisting of the present-day Codru and Bihor nappe systems. Tisza formed the upper plate during Early Cretaceous (`Austrian') east-facing orogeny. Turonian to Campanian zircon FT cooling ages (95-71 Ma) from the Bihor and Codru nappe systems and the Biharia and Baia de Arieş nappes (at present the structurally lowest part of the Dacia Mega-Unit) record exhumation that immediately followed a second Cretaceous-age (i.e. Turonian) orogenic event. Thrusting during this overprinting event was NW-facing and led to the overall geometry of the present-day nappe stack in the Apuseni Mountains. Zircon FT ages, combined with thermal modelling of the apatite FT data, show relatively rapid post-tectonic cooling induced by a third shortening pulse during the latest Cretaceous (`Laramian' phase), followed by slower cooling across the 120°-60 °C temperature interval during latest Cretaceous to earliest Paleogene times (75-60 Ma). Cenozoic-age slow cooling (60-40 Ma) was probably related to erosional denudation postdating `Laramian' large-scale updoming.

  12. Magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Ladakh Block from field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, U.; Honegger, K.

    1989-04-01

    The Ladakh Block is in an intermediate position between the Indian plate in the south and the Karakorum-Tibetan plate in the north. To the west it is separated from the Kohistan Arc by the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, to the east it is cut off from the Lhasa Block by the Gartok-Nubra Fault. Present data, together with previously published results, show, that the Ladakh Block consists of an island arc in the south and a calc-alkaline batholith in the north with remnants of a continental crust. Migmatitic gneisses and metasedimentary sequences, such as quartzites and metapelites, interbedded with basaltic volcanics and overlain by thick platform carbonates were found as evidence of a continental crust. Remnants of megafossils ( Megalodon and Lithiotis) within the high-grade metamorphic marbles indicate a probable age of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. These sediments were intruded by a faintly layered hornblende-gabbro, which preceded the calc-alkaline magmatic episode. Gabbro and gabbronorites are found as roof pendants and large inclusions within diorites and granodiorites. The major part of the batholith consists of granodiorite and biotite-granite plutons, ranging from Late Cretaceous to Tertiary. Associated with the intrusives are volcanic rocks with trachyandesite to alkalibasalt and basalt-andesite to rhyolite compositions. Garnet-bearing leucogranites succeeded the emplacement of the major plutons. The magmatic stage ended, finally, by intense fracturing and injections of NE-SW striking andesitic dykes. The southernmost unit of the Ladakh Block is formed by oceanic crust with serpentinized peridotite and hornblende-gabbro and is covered by volcanics of an island-arc type (Dras volcanics). These units are intruded by gabbronorite, as well as Middle and Upper Cretaceous granodiorite and coarse-grained biotite-granite. In a plate tectonic view the Ladakh Block represents a transitional sector between the pure island arc of Kohistan in the west and the Andean type

  13. Tectonic Evolution of the Patagonian Orocline: New Insights from a Paleomagnetic Study in Southernmost America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperch, P. J.; Poblete, F.; Arriagada, C.; Herve, F.; Ramirez de Arellano, C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most noteworthy features of the Southern Andes is its bend, where the orogenic trend and main tectonic provinces change from Andean N-S oriented structures to W-E orientations in Tierra del Fuego. Few paleomagnetic studies have been carried out, and whether the bending is a primary curvature or a true orocline is still matter of controversy; also the mechanism of its formation. We have conducted a paleomagnetic study between 50°S to ~56°S, where 146 sites were drilled. Paleomagnetic data were obtained in 44 sites. Results in Early Cretaceous sediments and volcanics rocks confirm a remagnetization event during the mid-Cretaceous and record ~90° of counterclockwise rotation. Paleomagnetic results in mid-Cretaceous intrusives rocks record large counterclockwise rotation (>90°) while Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene intrusive rocks only record ~45° to ~30°. The paleomagnetic results reveal a systematic pattern of rotation—the Fueguian rotation pattern—suggesting that the curvature of Patagonia would have occurred in two stages: the first stage during the collapse and obduction of the Rocas Verdes basin in the mid-Cretaceous and a second stage between the Late Cretaceous and the Paleocene, concomitant with exhumation of Cordillera Darwin and propagation of the fold and thrust belt into the Magallanes foreland. Integrating this result in plate reconstructions shows the Antarctic Peninsula as a prolongation of Patagonia and would have acted as a non-rotational rigid block, facilitating the development of the Patagonia Bend. This land bridge could be a dispersal mechanism for fauna between Australia and South America and would have restricted deep ocean water circulation.

  14. Driving Forces of Plate Tectonics and Evolution of the Oceanic Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    As plate tectonics became established as an excellent kinematic description of the relative motions of different blocks of the Earth's lithosphere, many investigators also began exploring the forces involved in driving the plate motions. Because the plates move at nearly constant velocities over long periods of time and inertial terms are unimportant, driving forces must always be balanced by resisting forces in a way that regulates the velocities. Forsyth and Uyeda (1975) incorporated the balancing of torques on the individual plates to help constrain the relative importance of the driving and resisting forces, as parameterized in a way based on prior model investigations of individual parts of the convecting system. We found that the primary driving force was sinking of subducting lithosphere at trenches, balanced largely by viscous resisting forces in the sub-asthenospheric mantle; that viscous drag beneath the oceanic plates was negligible; and that mid-ocean ridges provided a relatively small push. One of the early questions was whether there was buoyant upwelling on a large scale beneath mid-ocean ridges as part of a whole mantle convection system with subduction of the plates representing the downwelling limb. If so, then it would be likely that the plates were just riding on top of large convection cells. Seismic tomography has demonstrated that, on average, there are no deep roots beneath mid-ocean ridges, so that active, buoyant upwelling from the deep mantle does not exist beneath spreading centers. However, more recent tomographic studies have found asymmetry of the shear velocity structure beneath ridges in some areas, pointing to a smaller scale of active convection in the shallow mantle perhaps induced by melt retention buoyancy or the local effects of ridge/hotspot interaction.

  15. Paleogene plate tectonic evolution of the Arabian and Eastern Somali basins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royer, J.-Y.; Chaubey, A.K.; Dyment, J.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Srinivas, K.; Yatheesh, V.; Ramprasad, T.

    Universitaire Europeen de la Mer (IUEM), Place Copernic, 29280 Plouzane, France (e-mail: jyroyer@univ-brest.fr) 2 Geological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India Abstract: We review previous models... 'ocean Indien: cinematique Inde-Afrique. These de Doctorat, Universite Denis Diderot (Paris 7), Paris. DYMENT, J. 1991. Structure et evolution de la litho- sphe're oceanique dans I'ocean Indien: apport des anomalies magnetiques. These de Doctorat, Univcr...

  16. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and Central cordilleras of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Magna, Tomas; Kammer, Andreas; Winkler, Wilfried; Beltrán, Alejandro

    2011-08-01

    Autochthonous rocks of the pre-Cretaceous continental margin of NW South America (the Tahami Terrane) are juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous rock units that assembled during the Early Cretaceous. Allochthonous, oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province collided with and accreted onto the margin during the Late Cretaceous. We present the first regional-scale dataset of zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages for intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the autochthonous Tahami Terrane, Early Cretaceous igneous para-autochthonous rocks and accreted oceanic crust. The U-Pb zircon data are complemented by multiphase 40Ar/ 39Ar crystallization and cooling ages. The geochronological data are combined with whole rock major oxide, trace element and REE data acquired from the same units to constrain the tectonic origin of the rock units and terranes exposed in the Western Cordillera, Cauca-Patía Valley and the Central Cordillera of Colombia. The Tahami Terrane includes lower Paleozoic orthogneisses (~ 440 Ma) that may have erupted during the active margin stage of the Rheic Ocean. Basement gneisses were intruded by Permian, continental arc granites during the final assembly of Pangea. Triassic sedimentary rocks were subsequently deposited in rift basins and partially melted during high-T metamorphism associated with rifting of western Pangea during 240-220 Ma. Continental arc magmatism during 180-145 Ma is preserved along the whole length of the Central Cordillera and was followed by an Early Cretaceous out-board step of the arc axis and the inception of the Quebradagrande Arc that fringed the continental margin. Back-stepping of the arc axis may have been caused by the collision of buoyant seamounts, which were coeval with plateau rocks exposed in the Nicoya Peninsular of Costa Rica. Rapid westward drift of South America closed the Quebradagrande basin in the late Aptian and caused medium-high P-T metamorphic rocks of the Arquía Complex to exhume and obduct onto

  17. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Farris

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21-25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of <1 wt. %, and plot in mid-ocean ridge/back-arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5-0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100-1190°C magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5. However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm. require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the

  18. Plio-Quaternary tectonic evolution off Al Hoceima, Moroccan Margin of the Alboran Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Manfred; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabaute, Alain; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Gorini, Christian; Ammar, Abdellah; Tahayt, Abdelilah

    2015-04-01

    We use data from a compilation of industrial and academic 2D surveys and recent data from MARLBORO-1 (2011), MARLBORO-2 (2012), and SARAS (2012) surveys, which provide high resolution bathymetry and 2D seismic reflexion data. We focus on the key area located south of the Alboran Ridge and the Tofiño Bank, and encompassing the Nekor and Boudinar onshore-offshore basins on the Moroccan side of the Alboran Sea. The Nekor basin is a present pull-apart basin in relay between inherited N050° sinistral strike-slip faults. We consider that these faults define the Principal Displacement Zones (PDZ). The northern PDZ marks the position of the crustal Bokkoya fault, which is connected to the Al-Idrisi Fault Zone en relais with the Adra and Carboneras Fault Zones. On the seabed, right-stepping non-coalescent faults characterize the sinistral kinematics of the northern PDZ and give a general N050° azimuth for the crustal discontinuity. The southern PDZ corresponds to the Nekor fault Zone, a Miocene sinistral strike-slip fault acting as the structural limit of the External Rif. On its eastern edge, the Nekor basin is bounded by the N-S onshore-offshore Trougout fault, connecting the northern and the southern PDZ. The western boundary of the Nekor basin is marked by the Rouadi and El-Hammam Quaternary active N-S normal faults. In the offshore Nekor basin, recent N155° conjugated normal faults affect the seabed. Further east, the Boudinar basin is a Plio-Quaternary uplifted Neogene basin. The northeastern segment of the Nekor fault bounds this basin to the south but is inactive in the Quaternary. Normal east-dipping N150° faults are visible offshore in the continuity of the Boudinar fault. From our perspective, the orientation of major tectonic structures (Bokkoya, Nekor and Carboneras faults and the Alboran ridge) under the present compressive regime due to the Europe/Africa convergence is not compatible with a strike-slip motion. The orientation of the most recent Plio

  19. The structure and stratigraphy of deepwater Sarawak, Malaysia: Implications for tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madon, Mazlan; Kim, Cheng Ly; Wong, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The structural-stratigraphic history of the North Luconia Province, Sarawak deepwater area, is related to the tectonic history of the South China Sea. The Sarawak Basin initiated as a foreland basin as a result of the collision of the Luconia continental block with Sarawak (Sarawak Orogeny). The foreland basin was later overridden by and buried under the prograding Oligocene-Recent shelf-slope system. The basin had evolved through a deep foreland basin ('flysch') phase during late Eocene-Oligocene times, followed by post-Oligocene ('molasse') phase of shallow marine shelf progradation to present day. Seismic interpretation reveals a regional Early Miocene Unconformity (EMU) separating pre-Oligocene to Miocene rifted basement from overlying undeformed Upper Miocene-Pliocene bathyal sediments. Seismic, well data and subsidence analysis indicate that the EMU was caused by relative uplift and predominantly submarine erosion between ˜19 and 17 Ma ago. The subsidence history suggests a rift-like subsidence pattern, probably with a foreland basin overprint during the last 10 Ma. Modelling results indicate that the EMU represents a major hiatus in the sedimentation history, with an estimated 500-2600 m of missing section, equivalent to a time gap of 8-10 Ma. The EMU is known to extend over the entire NW Borneo margin and is probably related to the Sabah Orogeny which marks the cessation of sea-floor spreading in the South China Sea and collision of Dangerous Grounds block with Sabah. Gravity modelling indicates a thinned continental crust underneath the Sarawak shelf and slope and supports the seismic and well data interpretation. There is a probable presence of an overthrust wedge beneath the Sarawak shelf, which could be interpreted as a sliver of the Rajang Group accretionary prism. Alternatively, magmatic underplating beneath the Sarawak shelf could equally explain the free-air gravity anomaly. The Sarawak basin was part of a remnant ocean basin that was closed by

  20. Analysis of topography and relief as a function of the tectonic - geomorphologic evolution of the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungies, Nadin; Rosenberg, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Alpine topography and relief vary regionally (Frisch et al., 1997), even on the scale of tens of kilometers. The causes of these differences are the aim of this work that is based on a geomorphological study of the eastern Alps. Earlier investigations on the topography of the Central Alps (Rosenberg & Garcia, 2013) show, by using 50 km, 75 km, and 100 km swath profiles, that the relief northward of the Insubric Line increases westward, whereas the relief southwards of the Insubric Line decreases eastward. This trend reflects collisional shortening trends recently observed in the Central Alps (Rosenberg & Kissling, 2013). In this work, we analyse the topography of the eastern Alps from the Brenner Area in the west to the Steiermark Area in the east, based on satellite images and digital terrain models, that cover an area of 36 000 km2 in the Austrian and Italian Alps. Based on these data, new GIS-aided datasets containing selected relief factors have been derived. These data are set in relationship to the eastward decrease in collisional shortening to test whether the latter trend has a geomorphic expression. In order to assess such a relationship north-south striking profiles, subparallel to the shortening direction and in addition to an E-W profile are investigated. It can be shown that the total relief of 3100 m (500-3600 m asl.) in the west of the working area is more pronounced than the total relief of 2300 m (700-3000 m asl) in the east of the working area. Furthermore slopes have higher amplitudes in the west when compared to the east. In the west approximately 65% of the slope profile show slopes larger than 50° while in the east approximately 40% of slopes are larger than 50° (based on 30 m topographic data). The evaluation of potential influencing factors will be achieved by conducting spatial and statistical data analysis and interpretation and is complemented by local studies investigating the evolution of relief for selected geologic units. Here

  1. Post-tectonic landscape evolution in NE Iberia using staircase terraces: Combined effects of uplift and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Claudia J.; Sancho, Carlos; McDonald, Eric V.; Peña-Monné, José Luis; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Rhodes, Edward; Calle, Mikel; Soto, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    River incision into bedrock resulting from the combined effects of tectonic uplift and climate governs long-term regional landscape evolution. We determined spatial and temporal patterns of post-orogenic stream incision from a sequence of well-preserved staircase terraces developed over the last 1 Ma in the Central Pyrenees and its southern foreland Ebro basin (NE Spain). Extensive remnants of ten vertically separated terraces (Qt1 to Qt10, from oldest to youngest) were mapped along 170 km of the Cinca River valley, transverse to the Pyrenean mountain belt. Multiple outcrops appear in the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa sector, 50 km from headwaters) as well as in the lower reach (Albalate sector, 125 km from headwaters). Fluvial incision into bedrock was calculated using (i) differentially corrected GPS measurements of the altitude of straths and (ii) numerical dating of alluvial sediments from the lower terraces (Qt5 to Qt9) by Optically Stimulated Luminescence, previously reported by Lewis et al. (2009), and supplemented with new dates for the upper terraces (Qt1, Qt2 and Qt3) based on paleomagnetism and supported by soil development. Considering altitude differences and the elapsed time between successive well preserved terrace couples (Qt3-Qt7, Qt7-Qt9 and Qt9-Active channel), mean bedrock incision rates ranged from 0.76 to 0.38 m ka- 1, at the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa section), and from 0.61 to 0.20 m ka- 1, at the lower reach (Albalate section). River incision along the valley produced vertically separated, near-parallel longitudinal terrace profiles evidencing a rapid near-uniform regional uplift as response to (i) the tectonic lithospheric thickening in NE Iberia and (ii) the erosional download rebound related to the Ebro basin exorheism. Moreover, a subtle upstream divergence of strath profiles may have been a consequence of an increase in uplift rate toward the head of the valley. Additionally, incision rates changed over time as indicate

  2. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Espirito Santo Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eric Zagotto; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Lobato, Gustavo; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Petersohn, Eliane [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper documents the analysis of seismic data of the Espirito Santo basin obtained during the project realized through partnership between COPPE/UFRJ/Lab2M with the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) during 2006 and 2007. The major objective of the seismic data interpretation in the project was to define the main structural and stratigraphic features in order to build a sedimentation model and a tectonic-stratigraphic evolution model of the Espirito Santo basin. Thus, the sedimentary package has been divided into eight genetic units (UN), grouped into five third order stratigraphic sequences, namely: UN-B, represented by siliciclastics rocks of the rift stage and evaporitic sag-rift stage, deposited during the Aptian; UN-C, which represents the carbonatic rocks deposited in a marine environment, and siliciclastics rocks located in the proximal portions during the Albian; and UN-D, represented by sediments, composed mainly by pelites, deposited in between the Cenomanian and Recent, and includes the Eocene volcanic event, which one changed the sedimentation pattern of the basin. (author)

  3. Origin and tectonic evolution of early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Biao; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Yang, Chuan

    2017-12-01

    The origin and tectonic evolution of the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) are widely debated. This paper presents detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of early Paleozoic strata in the Zhangjiatun arc terrane of central Jilin Province, northeast (NE) China, and compares them with the Bainaimiao and Jiangyu arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC. Detrital zircons from early Paleozoic strata in three arc terranes exhibit comparable age groupings of 539-430, 1250-577, and 2800-1600 Ma. The Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean ages and Hf isotopic composition of the detrital zircons imply the existence of the Precambrian fragments beneath the arc terranes. Given the evidences from geology, igneous rocks, and detrital zircons, we proposed that the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC are a united arc terrane including the exotic Precambrian fragments, and these fragments shared a common evolutionary history from Neoproterozoic to early-middle Paleozoic.

  4. Southern Brasilia Belt (SE Brazil): tectonic discontinuities, K-Ar data and evolution during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valeriano, Claudio Morrison de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: cmval@uerj.br; Teixeira, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Simoes, Luiz Sergio Amarante [UNESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Heilbron, Monica [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2000-03-01

    This paper focuses the tectonic evolution of the southern brasilia belt, with emphasis on the Furnas segment, along the 21 deg C S parallel. The uppermost structural unit (Passos Nappe - PN) comprises a highly deformed metasedimentary succession interpreted as a fragment of the Neoproterozoic passive margin of western Sao francisco craton. An inverted metamorphic gradient ranging from greensvhits to lower granulite facies of medium to high-pressure regime characterizes the PN as relict of a subduction zone. The External Domain display a complex imbrication of basement rocks (Archean Piumhi greenstones, a turbiditic gaywacke succession and a calc-alkaline granitoid suite) with undated siliciclast low-grade metasedimentary rocks. The Sao Francisco Craton (SFC) comprises pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks covered by anchimetamorphic Neoproterozoic carbonatic shallow marine platform deposits of the Bambui group. The Brasiliano thrust stacking generated a coarse clastic influx of molassic character on the foreland zone of Sao Francisco Craton, coeval with the exhumation of the External Domain thrust sheets. New K-Ar determinations on mineral separates are presented an interpreted among previous data. The SFC basement rocks display Paleo-to Meesoproterozoic cooling ages. The allochthonous units, in contrast, display K-Ar ages within the 560-675 Ma range. Brasiliano thrust stacking is therefore interpreted to have taken place onto a cold Sao Francisco craton foreland, in a thin-skinned style, as basement rocks were not heated enough to have their-K-ar systems reset during the allochthony. (author)

  5. Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and its relation to sandstone-type uranium mineralization in northern Tarim area--Evidence from apatite fission track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongxu; Dong Wenming; Liu Zhangyue; Chen Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    The apatite fission track dating and inversion result of geological thermal history of four rock specimens from Sawafuqi area and Talike area in northern Tarim Basin show that two areas uplifted at different ages. The apatite fission track ages of Sawafuqi range from 3.5 to 3.9 Ma, while the ages of Talike range from 53 to 59 Ma. The thermal history recorded by rock samples reveals that there are at least three prominent cooling phases since Late Cretaceous epoch. Detailed study was made on the division of uplifting stages during Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution with the existing data in northern Tarim area. And new ideas on tectonic evolution and sandstone-type uranium mineralization have been put forward by combining with the sandstone-type uranium mineralization ages in this area.(authors)

  6. Source-to-sink constraints on tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Central Range and Cenderawasih Bay (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, Julien; Viaplana-Muzas, Marc; Legrand, Xavier; Van Den Driessche, Jean; González-Quijano, Manuel; Mudd, Simon M.

    2018-05-01

    The island of New Guinea is the result of continent-arc collision that began building the island's Central Range during the late Miocene. Recent studies have shown that rapid subduction, uplift and exhumation events took place in response to rapid, oblique convergence between the Pacific and the Australian plates. The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Cenderawasih Bay, in the northwestern part of the New Guinea Island is still poorly understood: this bay links a major structural block, the Kepala Burung block, to the island's Central Ranges. Previous studies have shown that Cenderawasih Bay contains a thick (>8 km) sequence of undated sediments. One hypothesis claims that the embayment resulted from a 3 Ma opening created by anticlockwise rotation of the Kepala Burung block with respect to the northern rim of the Australian plate. Alternatively, the current configuration of Cenderawasih Bay could have resulted from the southwest drift of a slice of volcanics and oceanic crust between 8 and 6 Ma. We test these hypotheses using (i) a geomorphologic analysis of the drainage network dynamics, (ii) a reassessment of available thermochronological data, and (iii) seismic lines interpretation. We suggest that sediments started to accumulate in Cenderawasih Bay and onshore in the Waipoga Basin in the late Miocene since the inception of growth of the Central Range, beginning at 12 Ma, resulting in sediment accumulation of up to 12,200 m. This evidence is more consistent with the second hypothesis, and the volume of sediment accumulated means it is unlikely that the embayment was the result of recent (2-3 Ma) rotation of structural blocks. At first order, we predict that infilling is mainly composed of siliciclastics sourced in the graphite-bearing Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt and its equivalent in the Weyland Overthrust. Ophiolites, volcanic arc rocks and diorites contribute minor proportions. From the unroofing paths in the Central Range we deduce two rates of solid phase

  7. Gravity modeling constraints on the Gatun-Chagres Basin and tectonic evolution of north-central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynhier, Kelci

    The Oligocene-Miocene collision between Panama and South America significantly influenced ocean currents, global climate, and species diversification. Intraplate deformation of the Panama Block also played an important role in the evolution of this tectonic system, but is not well understood. A high-resolution gravity survey, coupled with geologic observations, was conducted in north-central Panama to better constrain the processes responsible for the Isthmus' modern configuration. Approximately 110 gravity stations were collected from Colon to Nombre de Dios, Panama and merged with existing data. Subsequently, four 2.5-D gravity models were produced to constrain the geometry of the Gatun-Chagres Basin using different sedimentary densities (1.8, 2.0, and 2.2 g/cm 3) to produce a realistic range of basin thicknesses. Overall, models with an average basin density of 2.0 g/cm3 are most consistent with offshore seismic profiles and field evidence, suggesting basin thickness is ~3.0--3.5 km. Previous seismic reflection data and geochemical analyses of Miocene arc volcanic rocks delineate a zone of extension in the Panama Canal Region, and gravity analysis from this study supports this hypothesis. Field evidence of multiple NW-facing normal faults suggests that they separate the basin from uplifted arc basement rocks east of the Canal, resulting in a 60 mGal gravity gradient. Beneath the basin, gravity models indicate ~5--10 km of crustal thinning. 3-D reconstruction of the 2.5-D models show a northward thickening basin and two depocenters that correspond to the Rio Indio and Toro facies of the Chagres Formation. This analysis suggests two directional extension of the Gatun-Chagres Basin; an east-west direction corresponding to the initial formation of the basin, and a modern northwest-southeast direction. To the northeast, gravity modeling indicates that there is a ~150 m-thick, Cretaceous-Holocene sedimentary basin present from Portobelo to Nombre de Dios. Sedimentary

  8. Evolution of high-pressure mafic granulites and pelitic gneisses from NE Madagascar: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwar-Kumar, C.; Sajeev, K.; Windley, B. F.; Kusky, T. M.; Feng, P.; Ratheesh-Kumar, R. T.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Razakamanana, T.; Yagi, K.; Itaya, T.

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of high-pressure mafic-ultramafic bodies within major shear zones is one of the indicators of paleo-subduction. In mafic granulites of the Andriamena complex (north-eastern Madagascar) we document unusual textures including garnet-clinopyroxene-quartz coronas that formed after the breakdown of orthopyroxene-plagioclase-ilmenite. Textural evidence and isochemical phase diagram calculations in the Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2 system indicate a pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution from an isothermal (780 °C) pressure up to c. 24 kbar to decompression and cooling. Such a P-T trajectory is typically attained in a subduction zone setting where a gabbroic/ultramafic complex is subducted and later exhumed to the present crustal level during oceanic closure and final continental collision. The present results suggest that the presence of such deeply subducted rocks of the Andriamena complex is related to formation of the Betsimisaraka suture. LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon dating of pelitic gneisses from the Betsimisaraka suture yields low Th/U ratios and protolith ages ranging from 2535 to 2625 Ma. A granitic gneiss from the Alaotra complex yields a zircon crystallization age of ca. 818 Ma and Th/U ratios vary from 1.08 to 2.09. K-Ar dating of muscovite and biotite from biotite-kyanite-sillimanite gneiss and garnet-biotite gneiss yields age of 486 ± 9 Ma and 459 ± 9 Ma respectively. We have estimated regional crustal thicknesses in NE Madagascar using a flexural inversion technique, which indicates the presence of an anomalously thick crust (c. 43 km) beneath the Antananarivo block. This result is consistent with the present concept that subduction beneath the Antananarivo block resulted in a more competent and thicker crust. The textural data, thermodynamic model, and geophysical evidence together provide a new insight to the subduction history, crustal thickening and evolution of the high-pressure Andriamena complex and its link to the terminal

  9. Tectonic evolution of the Northern Pyrenees. Results of the PYRAMID project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mary; Mouthereau, Fredéric; Christophoul, Fredéric; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Espurt, Nicolas; Labaume, Pierre; Vergés, Jaume; Teixell, Antonio; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Vacharat, Arnaud; Pik, Raphael; Pironon, Jacques; Carpentier, Cédric; Angrand, Paul; Grool, Arjan; Salardon, Roland; Huismans, Ritske; Bader, Anne-Gaëlle; Baudin, Thierry; Aubourg, Charles

    2017-04-01

    The aims of the PYRAMID project funded by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche of France, were to investigate and constrain the 3D structural style and architecture of the North Pyrenean retrowedge and foreland basin, their evolution through time, to define the character and role of inherited crustal geometries, to investigate the interactions between deformation, fluids and thermicity in the different structural units, and to carry out source to sink studies In this talk we present a series of restored cross sections through the central and eastern Pyrenean retrowedge to illustrate structural style, amount and type of deformation and how it was accommodated within the upper crust along the orogen. The total amount of convergence appears to have been constant and the timing of onset of convergence was synchronous. However, in the retrowedge the complexity of the Cretaceous oblique rift system has led to high lateral structural variability. Inherited vertical late Variscan faults trending NE-SW to ENE-WSW segment the European crust and have strongly compartmentalised both retrowedge and foreland basin evolution along the orogen. Crustal scale restorations provide new evolutionary models for the geometry and style of inversion of the pre-orogenic hyper-extended rift system where mantle was exhumed in the most distal domain. Numerical models provide insight into retrowedge inversion. A new stratigraphic scheme has been developed for the eastern and central foreland. Subsidence analyses and foreland basin reconstructions document two pulses of convergence (Late Santonian to Early Paleocene and Eocene to Oligocene) separated by a quiet phase during the Paleocene. These phases can be linked to deformation in the North Pyrenean Zone thrust belt. The first phase was caused mainly by inversion and emplacement of the Metamorphic Internal Zone onto external zones associated with subduction of the exhumed mantle domain. Little or no relief was created during this phase

  10. Integrated high-resolution stratigraphy : Relative contributions of tectonics, eustasy and climate on basin evolution (Vienna Basin, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulissen, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentary basins form in a range of large-scale tectonic settings involving extensional, compressional or lateral movements. The dynamics of the basin infill are controlled by driving mechanisms such as tectonics, climate and eustatic control. The created accommodation space in the basin is filled

  11. Tectonic evolution of the Mexico flat slab and patterns of intraslab seismicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, L. N.; Sandiford, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Cocos plate slab is horizontal for about 250 km beneath the Guerrero region of southern Mexico. Analogous morphologies can spontaneously develop in subduction models, through the presence of a low-viscosity mantle wedge. The Mw 7.1 Puebla earthquake appears to have ruptured the inboard corner of the Mexican flat slab; likely in close proximity to the mantle wedge corner. In addition to the historical seismic record, the Puebla earthquake provides a valuable constraint through which to assess geodynamic models for flat slab evolution. Slab deformation predicted by the "weak wedge" model is consistent with past seismicity in the both the upper plate and slab. Below the flat section, the slab is anomalously warm relative to its depth; the lack of seismicity in the deeper part of the slab fits the global pattern of temperature-controlled slab seismicity. This has implications for understanding the deeper structure of the slab, including the seismic hazard from source regions downdip of the Puebla rupture (epicenters closer to Mexico City). While historical seismicity provides a deformation pattern consistent with the weak wedge model , the Puebla earthquake is somewhat anomalous. The earthquake source mechanism is consistent with stress orientations in our models, however it maps to a region of relatively low deviatoric stress.

  12. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Cumuruxatiba Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia de Cumuruxatiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Gustavo; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Silva, Eric Zagotto; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem Multidisciplinar de Bacias Sedimentares; Ribeiro, Juliana [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, the exploratory interest on Cumuruxatiba Basin has been inconstant, with modest discoveries of oil. Aiming to deepen the geological knowledge of the basin and in order to attract the interest of oil companies, the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) signed contract with COPPE/UFRJ for carrying out an analysis basin project. The project was developed by the Basin Analysis Multidisciplinary Modeling Laboratory (Lab2M/UFRJ) in the period 2006/2007, and was with the main objective outline the main structural and seismo-stratigraphic features of the basin, and in an integrated and multidisciplinary way, build a model of its sedimentation and tectono-stratigraphic evolution. This paper presents the results of the regional seismic mapping, aided by well and potential methods data. The stratigraphic succession the basin has been divided into genetic units (UN-B, UN-C e UN-D) corresponding to second order depositional sequences, they are: UN-B, corresponding by a rift and sag-rift siliciclastic deposits, plus the Aptian evaporitic deposits; UN-C, characterized by carbonatic deposits, and shelf related sediments; and UN-D, corresponding by a final transgressive (siliciclastic) - regressive (mix) cycle, between Cenomanian and actual days. (author)

  13. Tectonic evolution of the Salton Sea inferred from seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D.S.; Driscoll, N.W.; Kent, G.M.; Harding, A.J.; Babcock, J.M.; Baskin, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Oblique extension across strike-slip faults causes subsidence and leads to the formation of pull-apart basins such as the Salton Sea in southern California. The formation of these basins has generally been studied using laboratory experiments or numerical models. Here we combine seismic reflection data and geological observations from the Salton Sea to understand the evolution of this nascent pull-apart basin. Our data reveal the presence of a northeast-trending hinge zone that separates the sea into northern and southern sub-basins. Differential subsidence (10 mm yr 1) in the southern sub-basin suggests the existence of northwest-dipping basin-bounding faults near the southern shoreline, which may control the spatial distribution of young volcanism. Rotated and truncated strata north of the hinge zone suggest that the onset of extension associated with this pull-apart basin began after 0.5 million years ago. We suggest that slip is partitioned spatially and temporally into vertical and horizontal domains in the Salton Sea. In contrast to previous models based on historical seismicity patterns, the rapid subsidence and fault architecture that we document in the southern part of the sea are consistent with experimental models for pull-apart basins. ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  14. Miocene tectonic history of the Central Tauride intramontane basins, and the paleogeographic evolution of the Central Anatolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Ayten; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kuiper, Klaudia F.

    2017-11-01

    suggest that the extension we documented in the Central Tauride intramontane basins are in part responsible for the major topography that characterizes the Central Taurides today. The causes of extension remain engmatic, but we suggest that the tomographically imaged Antalya Slab may have caused the contemporaneous formation of NE-SW trending syn-contractional basins in the west and NW-SE trending Central Tauride intramontane basins in the east by slab retreat. Our study highlights that the Neogene deformation history, and perhabs even active tectonics, may be strongly affected by complex slab geometry in SW Turkey, and that crustal deformation plays an important role in generating the Miocene Tauride topography. The role of this crustal deformation needs to be taken into account in attempts to explain the ride of the Taurides and the evolution of the Anatolian Plateau.

  15. Mantle Evolution under the Bouvet Triple Junction (SMAR) from the aspect of Tectonic and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdisova, Natalia; Sobolev, Alexander; Sushchevskaya, Nadejda; Belyatsky, Boris; Kuzmin, Dmitrii

    2010-05-01

    Three main structures of the oceanic floor - Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR), American Antarctic Ridge (AAR) and Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) - constitute the Bouvet Triple Junction (BTJ). These constituents have changed their position relatively each other a lot of times during the evolution (Ligi et al., 1999). The unstable character of their interaction was the main cause of the complicated structure of BTJ. The segment of BTJ is characterized by the tholeiitic type of magmatism. However those magmas have different conditions of generation and eruption. Nevertheless basaltic rocks of the studying segment of the rift valley SWIR are determined as moderately enriched tholeiites on the basis of trace and major element variations. Normalized patterns of incompatible elements of BTJ basalts are characterized by relative maxima of Nb, Ta, and La and minima of Pb and less pronounced minima of Th and U. There is a clear Sr minimum in the most fractionated basalts from the Spiess Ridge. Apparent "garnet signature" expressed in the elevated values of (Gd/Yb)N ratio (up to 2.5) present in some basalt compositions. This indicates the presence of garnet in the source of basaltic melts of the BTJ. Ni excess over Mg and Mn deficiency over Fe in olivine phenocrysts suggest the presence of olivine-free pyroxenite lithologies in the sources of primary melts (Sobolev et al., 2007). The lowest amounts of pyroxenite component (X PX Mn/Fe = 0-10%) were recorded for the samples from the station S18-63, located in the MAR valley. The greatest range (X PX Mn/Fe = 0-90% in the single rock) was observed in samples from the station G96-10 situated on the western slope of the Spiess Ridge. Obtained results suggest the participation of recycled crustal component in the generation of primary melts. That component was involved in the rising mantle in the form of silica oversaturated eclogite as previously subducted oceanic crust or as fragments of ancient continental lithosphere. Melts generated

  16. Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: A review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H.; Abdelsalam, M.; Ali, K. A.; Bingen, B.; Collins, A. S.; Fowler, A. R.; Ghebreab, W.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Johnson, P. R.; Kusky, T. M.; Macey, P.; Muhongo, S.; Stern, R. J.; Viola, G.

    2013-10-01

    The East African Orogen, extending from southern Israel, Sinai and Jordan in the north to Mozambique and Madagascar in the south, is the world´s largest Neoproterozoic to Cambrian orogenic complex. It comprises a collage of individual oceanic domains and continental fragments between the Archean Sahara-Congo-Kalahari Cratons in the west and Neoproterozoic India in the east. Orogen consolidation was achieved during distinct phases of orogeny between ∼850 and 550 Ma. The northern part of the orogen, the Arabian-Nubian Shield, is predominantly juvenile Neoproterozoic crust that formed in and adjacent to the Mozambique Ocean. The ocean closed during a protracted period of island-arc and microcontinent accretion between ∼850 and 620 Ma. To the south of the Arabian Nubian Shield, the Eastern Granulite-Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex of southern Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique was an extended crust that formed adjacent to theMozambique Ocean and experienced a ∼650-620 Ma granulite-facies metamorphism. Completion of the nappe assembly around 620 Ma is defined as the East African Orogeny and was related to closure of the Mozambique Ocean. Oceans persisted after 620 Ma between East Antarctica, India, southern parts of the Congo-Tanzania-Bangweulu Cratons and the Zimbabwe-Kalahari Craton. They closed during the ∼600-500 Ma Kuungan or Malagasy Orogeny, a tectonothermal event that affected large portions of southern Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar and Antarctica. The East African and Kuungan Orogenies were followed by phases of post-orogenic extension. Early ∼600-550 Ma extension is recorded in the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the Eastern Granulite-Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex. Later ∼550-480 Ma extension affected Mozambique and southern Madagascar. Both extension phases, although diachronous,are interpreted as the result of lithospheric delamination. Along the strike of the East African Orogen, different geodynamic settings resulted in the evolution of

  17. New insights and questions about the Meso-Cenozoic Tectonic evolution of Eastern Black Sea and Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosson, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Hässig, Marc; Meijers, Maud; Smith, Brigitte; Muller, Carla; Adamia, Shota; Melkonian, Rafael; Kangarli, Talat; Sahakyan, Lilit; Sadradze, Nino; Avagyan, Ara; Galoyan, Ghazar; Alania, Victor; Enukidze, Onice; Sheremet-Korniyenko, Yevgeniya; Yegorova, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Since last decade a lot of new field researches (supported by MEBE and DARIUS programmes) were carried out in order to clarify the tectonic evolution of the South Caucasus and Eastern Black Sea regions. A summary of these improvements are as following: 1. Evidence of only one suture zone in the Lesser Caucasus: the Sevan-Akera suture zone as the eastward continuity of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan one. 2. Timing and modalities of the Upper Cretaceous obduction process of the Sevan-Akera back-arc basin. 3. Paleolatitude reconstruction of the Taurides-Anatolides-South Armenia microplate (TASAM) since the Late Cretaceous 4. Paleocene to Miocene tectonic evolution of the collision zone between Eurasia and the TASAM. 5. Structures and propagation of the Lesser Caucasus and Greater Causasus foreland basins from Paleocene to Miocene. 6. Structures of the inverted Paleocene-Eocene Adjara-Trialeti basin of the Eurasian margin and timing of deformations from Lesser Caucasus to Greater Caucasus. 7. New stratigraphic data from the Crimea Mountain which argues for a Lower Cretaceous rifting of the Eastern Black Sea. According to aforementioned results and previous studies, this widespread zone (from the Eastern Black Sea to the Lesser Caucasus) appears act as a large puzzle of heterogeneous lithospheres (continental, oceanic, arc, back-arc basins) since the Early Cretaceous. This is probably why this area has differently reacted in time and space to the northward collision of the TASAM with Eurasia since the Late Cretaceous and then of Arabian plate since the Oligo-Miocene. It seems that some lithospheres which have cold mantellic behavior (especially the Black Sea) react as rigid blocks, while others with a continental origin, reheated by magmatism, (as the Taurides-Anatolides) were extruded to the west or bended as an orocline (as the Lesser Caucasus, the Pontides). This is why some main questions remain, are not solved and are still debated. 1. The continuity of main structures

  18. Exploring the Tectonic Evolution of the Seafloor using Roughness, Covariance, and Anisotropy in Bathymetry and Marine Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnins, L. M.; Simons, F.

    2017-12-01

    Between the vastness of the oceans and the technological challenges water poses, data scarcity is frequently a limiting factor in studying the tectonic and morphological evolution of the seafloor. It is therefore essential to extract maximum information from the available gravity and bathymetry data, whilst also retaining realistic estimates of uncertainties. Here, we use a frequency-domain maximum-likelihood procedure to map the roughness structure and the nature of the topographic covariance of the seafloor. Rather than requiring us to assume the covariance is Gaussian or exponential, the flexibility of the Matérn form's parameterisation (variance, range, and differentiability) lets us solve for the shape of the covariance and map out its changes without a priori assumptions.We also examine the relationship between gravity and bathymetry through their coherence and admittance, particularly the anisotropy in the relationship. We extend the robust analysis developed to map anisotropy in lithospheric strength in the continents (Kalnins et al., 2015) to the oceanic domain. This method lets us separate out measurements of anisotropy likely to be linked to anisotropy in the long-term mechanical strength of the lithosphere itself; those aligned with anisotropies in the input gravity and bathymetry data; and those that are mathematically significant, but unexplained. Ultimately, we aim to use the statistical analyses to infer geophysical parameters of interest, such as oceanic spreading rate, level of volcanic activity, and potential for energy dissipation in ocean circulation. Our first results show a general alignment of strong directions ridge-parallel and weak directions ridge-perpendicular, suggesting widespread mechanical anisotropy derived from the lithosphere's highly anisotropic formation at mid-ocean ridges. However, this pattern changes markedly near sites of significant intraplate volcanism, where little to no robust anisotropy in strength is recovered. This

  19. Depositional Record of the Bagua Basin, Northern Peru: Implications for Climate and Tectonic Evolution of Tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F.; George, S. W. M.; Williams, L. A.; Horton, B. K.; Garzione, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Andes Mountains exert critical controls on the climate, hydrology, and biodiversity of South America. The Bagua Basin, a low elevation (400-600 m) intermontane basin in northern Peru, offers a unique opportunity to study the ecological, climatic, and structural evolution of the western topographic boundary of the Amazonian foreland. Situated between the Marañon fold-thrust belt of the Western Cordillera and basement block uplifts of the Eastern Cordillera, the Bagua region contains a protracted, semi-continuous record of Triassic through Pleistocene sedimentation. Whereas Triassic-Cretaceous marine deposits were potentially related to extension and regional thermal subsidence, a Paleocene-Eocene shift to shallow marine and fluvial systems marks the onset of foreland basin conditions. Oligocene-Miocene sedimentation corresponds to a braided-meandering fluvial system with exceptional development of paleosols. In this study, we use new detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and oxygen stable isotopic datasets to establish a chronology of pre-Andean and Andean processes within the Bagua Basin. Detrital zircon geochronology provides constraints on when the Western and Eastern cordilleras shed sediments into the basin. Syndepositional zircons within Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene strata provide key age control for a previously poorly constrained depositional chronology. Preliminary results suggest a dramatic provenance shift in which Paleocene deposits contain almost exclusively cratonic populations (500-1600 Ma) whereas Eocene deposits show a mix of syndepositional zircons from the magmatic arc, recycled Mesozoic zircons, and cratonic zircon populations. Oxygen stable isotopes (δ18O) of carbonate nodules from Neogene paleosols will help elucidate when the Eastern Cordillera became an orographic barrier intercepting moisture from the Amazon basin to the east. Together, these records will help uncover the history of tectonics and climate interaction in tropical South

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Adaptive Evolution of Notopterygium incisum and Notopterygium franchetii, Two High-Alpine Herbal Species Endemic to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yun; Liu, Mi-Li; Yue, Ming; Zhao, Zhe; Zhao, Gui-Fang; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2017-07-11

    The extreme conditions (e.g., cold, low oxygen, and strong ultraviolet radiation) of the high mountains provide an ideal natural laboratory for studies on speciation and the adaptive evolution of organisms. Up to now, few genome/transcriptome-based studies have been carried out on how plants adapt to conditions at extremely high altitudes. Notopterygium incisum and Notopterygium franchetii ( Notopterygium , Apiaceae) are two endangered high-alpine herbal plants endemic to China. To explore the molecular genetic mechanisms of adaptation to high altitudes, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the transcriptomes of the two species. In total, more than 130 million sequence reads, 81,446 and 63,153 unigenes with total lengths of 86,924,837 and 62,615,693 bp, were generated for the two herbal species, respectively. OrthoMCL analysis identified 6375 single-copy orthologous genes between N. incisum and N. franchetii . In total, 381 positively-selected candidate genes were identified for both plants by using estimations of the non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate. At least 18 of these genes potentially participate in RNA splicing, DNA repair, glutathione metabolism and the plant-pathogen interaction pathway, which were further enriched in various functional gene categories possibly responsible for environment adaptation in high mountains. Meanwhile, we detected various transcription factors that regulated the material and energy metabolism in N. incisum and N. franchetii, which probably play vital roles in the tolerance to stress in surroundings. In addition, 60 primer pairs based on orthologous microsatellite-containing sequences between the both Notopterygium species were determined. Finally, 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers (SSR) were successfully characterized for the two endangered species. Based on these candidate orthologous and SSR markers, we detected that the adaptive evolution and species divergence of N. incisum

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Adaptive Evolution of Notopterygium incisum and Notopterygium franchetii, Two High-Alpine Herbal Species Endemic to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The extreme conditions (e.g., cold, low oxygen, and strong ultraviolet radiation of the high mountains provide an ideal natural laboratory for studies on speciation and the adaptive evolution of organisms. Up to now, few genome/transcriptome-based studies have been carried out on how plants adapt to conditions at extremely high altitudes. Notopterygium incisum and Notopterygium franchetii (Notopterygium, Apiaceae are two endangered high-alpine herbal plants endemic to China. To explore the molecular genetic mechanisms of adaptation to high altitudes, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to characterize the transcriptomes of the two species. In total, more than 130 million sequence reads, 81,446 and 63,153 unigenes with total lengths of 86,924,837 and 62,615,693 bp, were generated for the two herbal species, respectively. OrthoMCL analysis identified 6375 single-copy orthologous genes between N. incisum and N. franchetii. In total, 381 positively-selected candidate genes were identified for both plants by using estimations of the non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate. At least 18 of these genes potentially participate in RNA splicing, DNA repair, glutathione metabolism and the plant–pathogen interaction pathway, which were further enriched in various functional gene categories possibly responsible for environment adaptation in high mountains. Meanwhile, we detected various transcription factors that regulated the material and energy metabolism in N. incisum and N. franchetii, which probably play vital roles in the tolerance to stress in surroundings. In addition, 60 primer pairs based on orthologous microsatellite-containing sequences between the both Notopterygium species were determined. Finally, 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers (SSR were successfully characterized for the two endangered species. Based on these candidate orthologous and SSR markers, we detected that the adaptive evolution and species divergence

  2. Le tourisme alpin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Macchiavelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La forte croissance qu’ont connue les pays alpins dans les dernières décennies a surtout été fondée sur l’offre des activités du ski, avec comme conséquence, un massif développement immobilier, la multiplication d’infrastructures et l’extension des domaines. Aujourd’hui, le marché du ski semble arriver à saturation, la Convention alpine a mis un frein à la poursuite du développement des domaines skiables et on observe donc avec intérêt la diversification de l’offre soutenue par l’innovation. Après avoir rappelé les facteurs de changement en cours les plus significatifs dans le tourisme montagnard, l’article présente une grille interprétative de l’évolution des destinations touristiques alpines, identifiant les phases qui ont caractérisé son développement. Puis il propose une réflexion sur certaines conditions qui peuvent favoriser l’innovation dans le tourisme alpin, ainsi que sur les contradictions qui les accompagnent souvent. Dans la plupart des cas l’innovation est le résultat d’un processus qui a été lancé et qui s’est développé au sein de la communauté alpine, souvent favorisé et soutenu par des institutions nationales et internationales, et grâce auquel les difficultés structurelles qui ont déjà été abordées précédemment ont pu être surmontées avec succès.The spectacular increase in tourism in the Alps in recent decades has been founded mainly on the boom in skiing, resulting in both strong real estate development and an increasing array of infrastructures and ski runs. Today the ski market seems to have virtually reached saturation point and the winter sports sector needs to diversify its offer through innovation. After a review of the main factors of change in mountain tourism, the paper presents a grid for interpreting the life cycle of alpine destinations, identifying the phases that characterize their evolution. The conditions that may favour innovation in alpine

  3. Petrogenesis of the Dalongkai ultramafic-mafic intrusion and its tectonic implication for the Paleotethyan evolution along the Ailaoshan tectonic zone (SW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huichuan; Wang, Yuejun; Zi, Jian-Wei

    2017-06-01

    Layered ultramafic-mafic intrusions are usually formed in an arc/back-arc or intra-plate tectonic environment, or genetically related to a mantle plume. In this paper, we report on an ultramafic-mafic intrusion, the Dalongkai intrusion in the Ailaoshan tectonic zone (SW China), whose occurrence is closely associated with arc/back-arc magmatic rocks. The Dalongkai intrusion is composed of plagioclase-lherzolite, hornblende-peridotite, lherzolite and wehrlite at the bottom, cumulate plagioclase-pyroxenite at the middle part, changing to fine-grained gabbro towards the upper part of the intrusion, forming layering structure. Zircons from the plagioclase-pyroxenites and gabbros yielded U-Pb ages of 272.1 ± 1.7 Ma and 266.4 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. The plagioclase-pyroxenites show cumulate textures, and are characterized by high MgO (25.0-28.0 wt.%; mg# = 80.6-82.3), Cr (1606-2089 ppm) and Ni (893-1203 ppm) contents, interpreted as early cumulate phases. By contrast, the gabbros have relatively lower mg# values (56.3-62.7), and Cr (157-218 ppm) and Ni (73-114 ppm) concentrations, and may represent frozen liquids. The plagioclase-pyroxenites and gabbros share similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns and primitive mantle-normalized trace element profiles which are analogous to those of typical back-arc basin basalts. The εNd(t) values for both rock types range from +2.20 to +4.22. These geochemical and isotopic signatures suggest that the Dalongkai ultramafic-mafic rocks originated from a MORB-like mantle source metasomatized by subduction-related, sediment-derived fluids. Our data, together with other geological evidence, indicate that the emplacement of the Dalongkai ultramafic-mafic intrusion most likely occurred in a back-arc extensional setting associated with subduction of the Ailaoshan Paleotethyan branch ocean during the Middle Permian, thus ruling out the previously speculated linkage to the Emeishan mantle plume, or to an intra-continental rift.

  4. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution of valley networks based on SRTM DEM, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kusák, Michal; Kropáček, J.; Vilímek, V.; Schillaci, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2016), 37-50 ISSN 1724-4757 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : valley network * tectonic lineaments * Jemma River basin * Ethiopian Highlands Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  5. The interplay between tectonics, sediment dynamics and gateways evolution in the Danube system from the Pannonian Basin to the western Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, Liviu; Munteanu, Ioan; ter Borgh, Marten; Stanica, Adrian; Tilita, Marius; Lericolais, Gilles; Dinu, Corneliu; Oaie, Gheorghe

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the natural evolution of a river-delta-sea system is important to develop a strong scientific basis for efficient integrated management plans. The distribution of sediment fluxes is linked with the natural connection between sediment source areas situated in uplifting mountain chains and deposition in plains, deltas and, ultimately, in the capturing oceans and seas. The Danube River-western Black Sea is one of the most active European systems in terms of sediment re-distribution that poses significant societal challenges. We aim to derive the tectonic and sedimentological background of human-induced changes in this system and discuss their interplay. This is obtained by analysing the tectonic and associated vertical movements, the evolution of relevant basins and the key events affecting sediment routing and deposition. The analysis of the main source and sink areas is focused in particular on the Miocene evolution of the Carpatho-Balkanides, Dinarides and their sedimentary basins including the western Black Sea. The vertical movements of mountains chains created the main moments of basin connectivity observed in the Danube system. Their timing and effects are observed in sediments deposited in the vicinity of gateways, such as the transition between the Pannonian/Transylvanian and Dacian basins and between the Dacian Basin and western Black Sea. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding threshold conditions driving rapid basins connectivity changes superposed over the longer time scale of tectonic-induced vertical movements associated with background erosion and sedimentation. The spatial and temporal scale of such processes is contrastingly different and challenging. The long-term patterns interact with recent or anthropogenic induced modifications in the natural system and may result in rapid changes at threshold conditions that can be quantified and predicted. Their understanding is critical because of frequent occurrence during

  6. Late Carboniferous to early Permian sedimentary–tectonic evolution of the north of Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China: Evidence from the Amushan Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiquan Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The late Paleozoic evolution of the Wulijishanhen (WSH-Shangdan (SD area near to the Chaganchulu Ophiolite belt is reinterpreted. Analysis of the upper Carboniferous to lower Permian sedimentary sequence, biological associations, detrital materials, sandstone geochemistry and volcanic rocks indicates that the SD area was an epicontinental sea and rift during the late Paleozoic rather than a large-scale ocean undergoing spreading and closure. This study reveals that the actual evolution of the study area is from the late Carboniferous to the early Permian. The fusulinids Triticites sp. and Pseudoschwagerina sp. in the limestones demonstrate that the Amushan Formation develops during the late Carboniferous to the early Permian. The limestones at the base of the SD section indicate that it is a stable carbonate platform environment, the volcanic rocks in the middle of the sequence support a rift tectonic background, and the overlying conglomerates and sandstones are characteristic of an epicontinental sea or marine molasse setting. The rift volcanism made the differences in the fossil content of the SD and WSH sections and led to two sections expose different levels within the Amushan Formation and different process of tectonic evolution. Moreover, the geochemical characteristics and detrital materials of the sandstones show that the provenance and formation of the sandstones were related to the setting of active continental margin. The quartz-feldspar-lithic fragments distribution diagram indicates that the material source for the sandstones was a recycled orogenic belt. Thus, the source area of the sandstones may have been an active continental margin before the late Carboniferous–early Permian. The characteristics of the regional tectonic evolution of the area indicate that the region may form a small part of the Gobi–Tianshan rift of southern Mongolia.

  7. Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Jebel Saghro and Bou Azzer - El Graara inliers, eastern and central Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Harrison, Richard W.; Burton, William C.; Quick, James E.; Benziane, Foudad; Yazidi, Abdelaziz; Saadane, Abderrahim

    2012-01-01

    New mapping, geochemistry, and 17 U–Pb SHRIMP zircon ages from rocks of the Sirwa, Bou Azzer–El Graara, and Jebel Saghro inliers constrain the Neoproterozoic evolution of the eastern Anti-Atlas during Pan-African orogenesis. In the Sirwa inlier, Tonian quartzite from the pre Pan-African passive margin deposits of the Mimount Formation contains detrital zircon derived entirely from the West African Craton (WAC), with most grains yielding Eburnean Paleoproterozoic ages of about 2050 Ma. Cryogenian Pan-African orogenic activity (PA1) from about 760 to 660 Ma included northward-dipping subduction to produce a volcanic arc, followed by ophiolite obduction onto the WAC. In the Bou Azzer–El Graara inlier, calc-alkaline granodiorite and quartz diorite, dated at 650–646 Ma, are syn- to post-tectonic with respect to the second period of Pan-African orogenesis (PA2), arc-continent accretion, and related greenschist facies metamorphism. Slab break-off and lithospheric delimination may have provided the source for the supra-subduction calc-alkaline plutons. At about 646 Ma, quartz diorite intruded the Tiddiline formation placing an upper limit on molassic deposition. Widespread Ediacaran high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic plutonism and volcanism during the final stage of Pan-African orogenesis (PA3) occurred in a setting related to either modification of the margin of the WAC or formation of a continental volcanic arc above a short-lived southward-dipping subduction zone. In the Saghro inlier, eight plutonic rocks yield ages ranging from about 588 to 556 Ma. Sampled plutonic rocks previously considered to be Cryogenian yielded Ediacaran ages. Peraluminous rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the lower part of the Ouarzazate Supergroup, including ash-flow tuffs of the Oued Dar’a caldera, yield ages between about 574 and 571 Ma. The Oued Dar’a caldera developed in a pull-apart graben produced by a left-step in a northeast-trending, left-lateral strike-slip fault zone, and

  8. Performative Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mullins, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies two digital generative tools in terms of Performative Tectonics. Performative Tectonics is a term developed in the paper, which links the contemporary development of digital tools to the tectonic tradition of architecture. Within the theoretical framework of this definition......, the paper presents case studies of the structural optimisation software eifForm, and the parametric modelling software Generative-Components....

  9. Erosion of the French Alpine foreland controlled by crustal thickening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stéphane; Gautheron, Cécile; Audin, Laurence; Nomade, Jérôme; Dumont, Thierry; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Pinna-Jamme, Rosella; van der Beek, Peter

    2017-04-01

    In alpine-type collision belts, deformation of the foreland may occur as a result of forward propagation of thrusting and is generally associated with thin-skinned deformation mobilizing the sedimentary cover in fold-and-thrust belts. Locally, foreland deformation can involve crustal-scale thrusting and produce large-scale exhumation of crystalline basement resulting in significant relief generation. In this study, we investigate the burial and exhumation history of Tertiary flexural basins located in the western Alpine foreland, at the front of the Digne thrust-sheet (SE France), using low-temperature apatite fission-track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology. Based on the occurrence of partially to totally reset apatite grain ages, we document 3.3 to 4.0 km burial of these basins remnants between 12-6 Ma, related to thin-skinned thrust-sheet emplacement without major relief generation. The onset of exhumation is dated at 6 Ma and is linked to erosion associated with subsequent relief development. This evolution does not appear controlled by major climate changes (Messinian crisis) or by European slab breakoff. Rather, we propose that the erosional history of the Digne thrust-sheet corresponds to basement involvement in foreland deformation, leading to crustal thickening and the incipient formation of a new external crystalline massif. Our study highlights the control of deep-crustal tectonic processes on foreland relief development and its erosional response at mountain fronts.

  10. Sedimentary tectonic evolution and reservoir-forming conditions of the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Great breakthrough recently achieved in the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas exploration in the Leshan–Longnüsi paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, has also made a common view reached, i.e., large-scale paleo-uplifts will be the most potential gas exploration target in the deep strata of this basin. Apart from the above-mentioned one, the other huge paleo-uplifts are all considered to be the ones formed in the post-Caledonian period, the impact of which, however, has rarely ever been discussed on the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic oil and gas reservoir formation. In view of this, based on outcrops, drilling and geophysical data, we analyzed the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic tectonic setting and sedimentary background in the East Sichuan Basin, studied the distribution rules of reservoirs and source rocks under the control of paleo-uplifts, and finally discussed, on the basis of structural evolution analysis, the conditions for the formation of Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas reservoirs in this study area. The following findings were achieved. (1 The Dazhou–Kaijiang inherited uplift in NE Sichuan Basin which was developed before the Middle Cambrian controlled a large area of Sinian and Cambrian beach-facies development. (2 Beach-facies reservoirs were developed in the upper part of the paleo-uplift, while in the peripheral depression belts thick source rocks were developed like the Upper Sinian Doushantuo Fm and Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, so there is a good source–reservoir assemblage. (3 Since the Permian epoch, the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift had gradually become elevated from the slope zone, where the Permian oil generation peak occurred in the slope or lower and gentle uplift belts, while the Triassic gas generation peak occurred in the higher uplift belts, both with a favorable condition for hydrocarbon accumulation. (4 The lower structural layers, including the Lower Cambrian and its underlying strata, in the East Sichuan Basin, are now equipped with a

  11. Structural Framework of the Sub-Himalaya and its tectonic evolution along Kameng river section: Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, T.; Bezbaruah, D.; Sarmah, R. K.

    2012-04-01

    The structural style or architecture of the Neogene-Quaternary foreland basin is studied in the Kameng River section of Arunachal Pradesh. The Kimi, Dafla-Subansiri, and Kimin formations correspond to Lower, Middle and Upper Siwaliks. The outcrop scale structures from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) towards S shows an overall ramp and flat geometry. The intervening strata between two parallel thrust faults (roof thrust and floor thrust) are sub-parallel. The individual subsidiary faults in imbricate fashion (horses) occur as planar units with straight sides. These duplex structures are significant manifestation of the processes involved in the internal domain of the Siwalik rocks and they represent the mechanism of the slip transfer processes from one glide horizon at depth to another at shallower depth. This process of slip transfer and formation of horses are responsible for the formation of structural thickening, duplex growth and mass addition to the moving thrust complex. In the present area the Siwalik strata showing duplex structures have undergone structural thickness in their internal domain mainly in Dafla formation. The lithology in the foreland basin dominantly composed of the sandstones (Greywacke and lithic -arenite), siltstone, claystone, carbonaceous shale, boulder beds in the upper part. In the microscopic scale, the lithological response in the structural development is well documented as pressure solution seams, elongated quartz and feldspar grains, bent micas, kinked biotites, strained quartz grains, healed grains, and micro-fractures. The basement asperities play a significant role as the moving thrust front produced a major lateral ramp. The differential movement of the mountain front on both sides of the ramp is visible in the field as the mountain front of the western part of the Kameng River move more southeastward compared to the eastern part. The tectonic evolution of the area initiated with the development of the MBT, which resulted in

  12. The Carboniferous to Jurassic evolution of the pre-Alpine basement of Crete: Constraints from U-Pb and U-(Th)-Pb dating of orthogneiss, fission-track dating of zircon, structural and petrological data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romano, S. S.; Brix, M. R.; Dörr, K.; Fiala, Jiří; Krenn, E.; Zulauf, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 260, - (2006), s. 69-90 ISSN 0375-6440 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : tectonic-evolution * Carboniferous * Jurassic * uranium-lead-dating * orthogneiss * fission-track-dating * zircon * structural-geology * petrology * metamorphism * high-temperature Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  13. Early Cretaceous I-type granites in the Tengchong terrane: New constraints on the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Early Cretaceous granitoids that are widespread in the Tengchong terrane of Southwest China play a critical role in understanding the tectonic framework associated with the Tethyan oceans. In this study, we present a detailed description of zircon U–Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Hf isotopes for the Laoxiangkeng pluton in the eastern Tengchong terrane and elucidate their petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Zircon U–Pb dating of the Laoxiangkeng pluton yields ages of 114 ± 1 Ma and 115 ± 1 Ma, which imply an Early Cretaceous magmatic event. The Laoxiangkeng pluton enriched in Si and Na, is calc-alkaline and metaluminous, and has the characteristics of highly fractionated I-type granites. Zircons from the pluton have calculated εHf(t values of −12.7 to −3.7 and two-stage model ages of 1327–1974 Ma, respectively, indicating a mixed source of partial melting of Paleo-Neoproterozoic crust-derived compositions with some inputs of mantle-derived magmas. By integrating all available data for the regional tectonic evolution of the eastern Tethys tectonic domain, we conclude that the Early Cretaceous magmatism in the Tengchong terrane was produced by the northeastward subduction of the Meso-Tethyan Bangong–Nujiang Ocean.

  14. Alpine dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marnezy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  15. Fracture patterns of the drainage basin of Wadi Dahab in relation to tectonic-landscape evolution of the Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea transform fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Crustal rifting of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and formation of the Afro-Arabian rifts since the Miocene resulted in uplifting and subsequent terrain evolution of Sinai landscapes; including drainage systems and fault scarps. Geomorphic evolution of these landscapes in relation to tectonic evolution of the Afro-Arabian rifts is the prime target of this study. The fracture patterns and landscape evolution of the Wadi Dahab drainage basin (WDDB), in which its landscape is modeled by the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault, are investigated as a case study of landscape modifications of tectonically-controlled drainage systems. The early developed drainage system of the WDDB was achieved when the Sinai terrain subaerially emerged in post Eocene and initiation of the Afro-Arabian rifts in the Oligo-Miocene. Conjugate shear fractures, parallel to trends of the Afro-Arabian rifts, are synthesized with tensional fracture arrays to adapt some of inland basins, which represent the early destination of the Sinai drainage systems as paleolakes trapping alluvial sediments. Once the Gulf of Aqaba rift basin attains its deeps through sinistral movements on the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault in the Pleistocene and the consequent rise of the Southern Sinai mountainous peaks, relief potential energy is significantly maintained through time so that it forced the Pleistocene runoffs to flow via drainage systems externally into the Gulf of Aqaba. Hence the older alluvial sediments are (1) carved within the paleolakes by a new generation of drainage systems; followed up through an erosional surface by sandy- to silty-based younger alluvium; and (2) brought on footslopes of fault scarps reviving the early developed scarps and inselbergs. These features argue for crustal uplifting of Sinai landscapes syn-rifting of the Gulf of Aqaba rift basin. Oblique orientation of the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift relative to the WNW-trending Precambrian Najd faults; and

  16. The Pennsylvanian-early permian bird spring carbonate shelf, Southeastern California: Fusulinid biostratigraphy, paleogeographic evolution, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Bird Spring Shelf in southeastern California, along with coeval turbidite basins to the west, records a complex history of late Paleozoic sedimentation, sea-level changes, and deformation along the western North American continental margin. We herein establish detailed correlations between deposits of the shelf and the flanking basins, which we then use to reconstruct the depositional history, paleogeography, and deformational history, including Early Permian emplacement of the regionally significant Last Chance allochthon. These correlations are based on fusulinid faunas, which are numerous both on the shelf and in the adjoining basins. Study of 69 fusulinid species representing all major fusulinid-bearing Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian limestone outcrops of the Bird Spring Shelf in southeastern California, including ten new species of the genera Triticites, Leptotriticites, Stewartina, Pseudochusenella, and Cuniculinella, forms the basis for our correlations. We group these species into six fusulinid zones that we correlate with fusulinid-bearing strata in east-central and southern Nevada, Kansas, and West Texas, and we propose some regional correlations not previously suggested. In addition, we utilize recent conodont data from these areas to correlate our Early Permian fusulinid zones with the standard Global Permian Stages, strengthening their chronostratigraphic value. Our detailed correlations between the fusulinid-bearing rocks of the Bird Spring Shelf and deep-water deposits to the northwest reveal relationships between the history of shelf sedimentation and evolution of basins closer to the continental margin. In Virgilian to early Asselian (early Wolfcampian) time (Fusulinid Zones 1 and 2), the Bird Spring Shelf was flanked on the west by the deep-water Keeler Basin in which calcareous turbidites derived from the shelf were deposited. In early Sakmarian (early middle Wolfcampian) time (Fusulinid Zone 3), the Keeler Basin deposits were uplifted and

  17. Old stories and lost pieces of the Eastern Mediterranean puzzle: a new approach to the tectonic evolution of the Western Anatolia and the Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaltırak, Cenk; Engin Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; Elitez, İrem

    2015-04-01

    During the last 20 or so years, the tectonic evolution of Aegean Sea and Western Anatolia has been dominantly explained by back-arc extension and escape tectonics along the North Anatolian Fault. Various datasets have been considered in the construction of general tectonic models, including the geometry of fault patterns, paleomagnetic data, extensional directions of the core complexes, characteristic changes in magmatism and volcanism, the different sense of Miocene rotation between the opposite sides of the Aegean Sea, and the stratigraphy and position of the Miocene and Pliocene-Quaternary basins. In these models, the roles of the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, the Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone, the Anaximander Mountains and Isparta Angle have almost never been taken into consideration. The holistic evaluation of numerous land and marine researches in the Aegean Sea and western Anatolia suggest the following evolutionary stages: 1. during the early Miocene, Greece and western Anatolia were deformed under the NE-SW extensional tectonics associated with the back-arc extension, when core complexes and supra-detachment basins developed, 2. following the collision of the Anaximander Mountains and western Anatolia in early Miocene , the Isparta Angle locked this side of the western arc by generating a triangle-shaped compressional structure, 3. while the Isparta Angle penetrated into the Anatolia, the NE-striking Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone in the west and NW-striking Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone in the north developed along the paleo-tectonic zones , 4. the formation of these two tectonic structures allowed the counterclockwise rotation of the western Anatolia in the middle Miocene and this rotation removed the effect of the back-arc extension on the western Anatolian Block, 5. the counterclockwise rotation developed with the early westward escape of the Western Anatolian reached up to 35-40o and Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone created a total dextral displacement of about 200

  18. The Structural Architecture and Tectonic Inheritance of the Vlora-Elbasan Transfer Zone in Albanides-Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abus, E. D.; Dilek, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Albanides in the Balkan Peninsula are part of the Alpine orogenic belt and host one of the most significant oil fields in SE Europe. The late Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Albanides has been strongly controlled by the relative movements of Adria or Apulia, a microcontinent with a West Gondwana affinity with respect to Eurasia. In northeastern Albania, the Internal Albanides consist of Paleozoic - Jurassic basement rocks, which involved subduction zone tectonics of the Pindos-Mirdita ocean basin. The External Albanides, on the other hand, represent a fold-and-thrust belt with deformation in a broad zone of oblique convergence. This tectonic domain is divided, from east to west, into five major structural zones: the Krasta-Cukali Zone, the Kruja Zone, the Peri-Adriatic Depression, the Ionian Zone, and the Sazani Zone, which is represented by the Apulian platform carbonates. The zone is characterized by NW-SE-running and SW-verging thrust fault systems that involve a thick series of Mesozoic - Tertiary passive margin carbonates, unconformably overlain by Oligocene clastic units. These two tectonic zones are dissected by the NE-SW-striking Vlora-Elbasan Transfer Zone, which extends eastwards into the Internal Albanides, affecting the structural architecture and the tectonic evolution of the entire mountain belt. This fault zone that has been tectonically active from the Triassic to recent have display diapiric structures along it.

  19. Architecture and evolution of an Early Permian carbonate complex on a tectonically active island in east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Magginetti, Robert T.; Stone, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The newly named Upland Valley Limestone represents a carbonate complex that developed on and adjacent to a tectonically active island in east-central California during a brief interval of Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. This lithologically unique, relatively thin limestone unit lies within a thick sequence of predominantly siliciclastic rocks and is characterized by its high concentration of crinoidal debris, pronounced lateral changes in thickness and lithofacies, and a largely endemic fusulinid fauna. Most outcrops represent a carbonate platform and debris derived from it and shed downslope, but another group of outcrops represents one or possibly more isolated carbonate buildups that developed offshore from the platform. Tectonic activity in the area occurred before, probably during, and after deposition of this short-lived carbonate complex.

  20. Cenozoic exhumation and tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range, northern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the heavy mineral compositions, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and seismic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Wu, C.; Wang, J.; Zhou, T.; Zhang, C.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Qaidam Basin is the largest intermountain basin within the Tibetan Plateau. The Cenozoic sedimentary flling characteristics of the basin was significantly influenced by the surrounding tectonic belt, such as the Altyn Tagh Range to the north-west and Qimen Tagh Range to the south. The tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range and the structural relationship between the Qaidam Basin and Qimen Tagh Range remain controversial. To address these issues, we analyzed thousands of heavy mineral data, 720 detrital zircon ages and seismic data of the Qaidam Basin. Based on the regional geological framework and our kinematic analyses, the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range can be divided into two stages. From the Early Eocene to the Middle Miocene, the Devonian (400-360 Ma) and Permian to Triassic (300-200 Ma) zircons which were sourced from the Qimen Tagh Range and the heavy mineral assemblage of zircon-leucoxene-garnet-sphene on the north flank of the Qimen Tagh Range indicated that the Qimen Tagh Range has been exhumed before the Eocene and acted as the primary provenance of the Qaidam Basin. The Kunbei fault system (i.e. the Kunbei, Arlar and Hongliuquan faults) in the southwest of the Qaidam Basin, which can be seen as a natural study window of the Qimen Tagh Range, was characterized by left-lateral strike-slip faults and weak south-dipping thrust faults based on the seismic sections. This strike-slip motion was generated by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau caused by the onset of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Since the Middle Miocene, the primary mineral assemblages along the northern flank of the Qimen Tagh Range changed from the zircon-leucoxene-garnet-sphene assemblage to the epidote-hornblende-garnet-leucoxene assemblage. Simultaneously, the Kunbei fault system underwent intense south-dipping thrusting, and a nearly 2.2-km uplift can be observed in the hanging wall of the Arlar fault. We attributed these variations to the rapid uplift event of

  1. Alpine research today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Brun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine research benefits from several international coordination networks, only one of which – ISCAR (the International Scientific Committee on Research in the Alps – works solely in the Alpine arc. The creation of ISCAR is a consequence of the input and involvement of various Alpine partners around the Alpine Convention. Alpine research now aims to promote an integrated vision of Alpine territories focusing on creating and maintaining spatial and temporal networks of sustainable relationships between humans and the other components of the ecosphere. It combines resource usage with conservation of the biological and cultural diversity that makes up the Alpine identity. This article aims to show: (1 how international Alpine research coordination is organised; (2 the role played by the Alpine Convention as a framework of reference for specifically Alpine research; and (3 the role that the ISCAR international commit-tee and the Interreg “Alpine Space” programmes play in uniting research around territorial challenges relating to biodiversity conservation and territorial development.La recherche sur les Alpes bénéficie de plusieurs réseaux de coordination internationaux dont un seul, le comité international recherche alpine (ISCAR, se consacre exclusivement à l’arc alpin. La création de l’ISCAR est une retombée de la mobilisation des divers partenaires alpins autour de la mise en place de la Convention alpine. Aujourd’hui, la recherche alpine vise à promouvoir une vision intégrée des territoires centrée sur la création et le maintien d’un réseau spatial et temporel de relations durables entre les hommes et les autres composantes de l’écosphère. Elle associe étroitement la mise en valeur des ressources et la conservation des diversités biologiques et culturelles qui constituent l’identité alpine. Cet article a pour ambition de montrer : (1 comment s’organise la coordination internationale des recherches sur les

  2. Morphological expression of active tectonics in the Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Evolving drainage pattern and corresponding metrics of the channels (e.g. normalized steepness index) are sensitive indicators for tectonic or climatic events punctuating the evolution of mountain belts and their associated foreland basins. The analysis of drainage systems and their characteristic properties represents a well-established approach to constrain the impact of tectonic and climatic drivers on mountainous landscapes in the recent past. The Southern Alps (SA) are one of the seismically most active zones in the periphery of northern Adria. Recent deformation is caused by the ongoing convergence of the Adriatic and European plate and is recorded by numerous earthquakes in the domain of the SA. Deformation in the SA is characterized by back-thrusting causing crustal thickening and should therefore result in uplift and topography formation. The vertical velocity field determined by GPS-data clearly indicates a belt of significant uplift in the south South alpine indenter between Lake Garda in the west and the Triglav in the east and strong subsidence of the foreland basin surrounding the Mediterranean Sea near Venice, although subsidence is often related to ongoing subduction of the Adriatic microplate underneath Appennines. Despite of these short term time series, timing, rates and drivers of alpine landscape evolution are not well constrained and the linkage between crustal deformation and topographic evolution of this highly active alpine segment remains unclear for the following reasons: (1) The eastern Southern Alps were heavily overprinted by the Pleistocene glaciations and tectonic signals in the alpine landscape are blurred. Only the transition zone to the southern foreland basin remained unaffected and allows an analysis of a glacially undisturbed topography. (2) The major part of this domain is covered by lithology (carbonatic rocks) which is unsuitable for low temperature geochronology and cosmogenic isotope dating so that exhumation and erosion

  3. Late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault (SE Tibet): implications for kinematic change during Plateau growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Schoenbohm, Lindsay; Zhang, Jinjiang; Zhou, Renjie; Hou, Jianjun

    2016-04-01

    The India-Eurasia continental collision has created the Tibetan Plateau, a spectacular example of continental plateaus. Along its southeastern margin, surface uplift, river incision, shear-zone exhumation and displacement along active faults have all interacted to shape the landscape. The Ailao Shan-Red River fault, a continental-scale strike-slip fault striking over 1000 km from the Tibetan Plateau to South China Sea, is an excellent recorder for those processes, providing important insights into the evolution of the southeastern plateau margin. However, its late Cenozoic tectonic evolution still remains elusive. This work presents new structural and stratigraphic data from the Miocene basin in the bend area and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological data from the shear zone to put constraints on the timing and nature of structural and geomorphic evolution of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault region. Our observations indicate that the major bend in the fault was a releasing bend in the early Miocene, but became a restraining bend after the late Miocene reversal of displacement. The strata preserved in bend area record the nature and timing of exhumation of the shear zone. Apatite (U-Th)/He data show two phases of rapid exhumation in the Miocene. The first rapid exhumation occurred before 16 Ma, the timing of which is supported by the early Miocene sedimentary record and previous geochronologic results. It may have ended before the formation of a low-relief erosion surface. The second episode of rapid exhumation began at ~14-13 Ma, lasting 2-3Myr. During this interval, the Ailao Shan range may have uplift to the modern elevation and the high relief may have developed along the range due to river incision. Metamorphic clasts from the shear zone were deposited in the Red River valley. Regional compilation reveals a coincidence of tectonic events in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings in the middle-late Miocene, indicating dramatic kinematic change during the course

  4. Structural, metamorphic and geochronological insights on the Variscan evolution of the Alpine basement in the Belledonne Massif (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréville, Kévin; Trap, Pierre; Faure, Michel; Melleton, Jérémie; Li, Xian-Hua; Lin, Wei; Blein, Olivier; Bruguier, Olivier; Poujol, Marc

    2018-02-01

    A structural and petrochronological study was carried out in the southern part of the Belledonne crystalline massif. A first tectonometamorphic event, Dx, corresponds to the eastward thrusting of the Chamrousse ophiolitic complex characterized by a low-temperature-moderate-pressure metamorphism reaching 0.535 ± 0.045 GPa and 427.5 ± 17.5 °C. A subsequent D1 deformation is defined by a penetrative S1 foliation that mostly dips toward the west and displays an E-W- to NE-SW-trending mineral and stretching lineation L1. D1 is associated with a top-to-the east shearing and is responsible for the crustal thickening accommodated by the eastward nappe stacking and the emplacement of the Chamrousse ophiolitic complex upon the Rioupéroux-Livet unit. This event is characterized by an amphibolite facies metamorphism (0.58 GPa ± 0.06; 608 ± 14 °C) that attains partial melting at the base of the nappe pile (0.78 ± 0.07 GPa; 680.5 ± 11.5 °C). LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of monazite grains from the mica schists of the Rioupéroux-Livet unit constrain the age of D1 to 337 ± 7 Ma. The D2 tectono-metamorphic event is characterized by NE-SW trending, upright to NE-verging synfolial folding. Folding associated with D2 is pervasively developed in all lithotectonic units with the development of a steeply-dipping S2 foliation. In particular, D2 involves the uppermost weakly metamorphosed Taillefer unit. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating performed on detrital zircon grains shows that the Taillefer conglomerates was deposited during the Visean. A zircon SIMS U-Pb age of 352 ± 1 Ma from a plagioglase-rich leucocratic sill of the Rioupéroux-Livet unit is interpreted as the age of magmatic emplacement. Our results suggest that the D2 event took place between 330 Ma and 310 Ma. We propose a new interpretation of the tectonometamorphic evolution of the southern part of the Belledonne massif, focusing on the Middle Carboniferous stages of the Variscan orogeny.

  5. The role of post-collisional strike-slip tectonics in the geological evolution of the late Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Guaratubinha Basin, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Leonardo M.; Trzaskos, Barbara; Vesely, Fernando F.; de Castro, Luís Gustavo; Ferreira, Francisco J. F.; Vasconcellos, Eleonora M. G.; Barbosa, Tiago C.

    2017-12-01

    The Guaratubinha Basin is a late Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary basin included in the transitional-stage basins of the South American Platform. The aim of this study is to investigate its tectonic evolution through a detailed structural analysis based on remote sensing and field data. The structural and aerogeophysics data indicate that at least three major deformational events affected the basin. Event E1 caused the activation of the two main basin-bounding fault zones, the Guaratubinha Master Fault and the Guaricana Shear Zone. These structures, oriented N20-45E, are associated with well-defined right-lateral to oblique vertical faults, conjugate normal faults and vertical flow structures. Progressive transtensional deformation along the two main fault systems was the main mechanism for basin formation and the deposition of thick coarse-grained deposits close to basin-borders. The continuous opening of the basin provided intense intermediate and acid magmatism as well as deposition of volcaniclastic sediments. Event E2 characterizes generalized compression, recorded as minor thrust faults with tectonic transport toward the northwest and left-lateral activation of the NNE-SSW Palmital Shear Zone. Event E3 is related to the Mesozoic tectonism associated with the South Atlantic opening, which generated diabase dykes and predominantly right-lateral strike-slip faults oriented N10-50W. Its rhomboidal geometry with long axis parallel to major Precambrian shear zones, the main presence of high-angle, strike-slip or oblique faults, the asymmetric distribution of geological units and field evidence for concomitant Neoproterozoic magmatism and strike-slip movements are consistent with pull-apart basins reported in the literature.

  6. Tectonic and environmental factors controlling on the evolution of Oligo-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along a tropical SE Circum-Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Lara, M. E.; Nana Yobo, L.; Erdal, Y. D.; Sanchez, J.; Zapata-Ramirez, P. A.

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of the Cenozoic Circum-Caribbean shallow marine carbonate factories and ecosystems has been for long attributed to major global climatic and environmental changes. Although temporal variations in the Cenozoic shallow marine carbonate factories in this region seem to follow global trends, the potential effects of regional processes, such tectonic activity and local environmental change, on the evolution of the shallow marine carbonate factories are not well established. Here we present detailed sedimentologic and stratigraphic information from Middle Oligocene - Middle Miocene (Chattian-Burdigalian) shallow marine carbonate successions of the Siamana Formation in the Cocinetas sub-basin, Alta Guajira Basin, Guajira Peninsula, northern Colombia. We document the potential effects of regional tectonics and local environmental deterioration on the evolution of the Oligocene-Miocene tropical shallow marine carbonate factories along the SE Circum-Caribbean. Our results show that mixed heterozoan-photozoan biotic associations dominated the shallow marine carbonate factories during the Chattian, while purely photozoan biotic associations constituted the primary carbonate factory during the Aquitanian-Burdigalian transition. The Chattian mixed heterozoan/photozoan biotic association is associated with the development of mixed carbonate/siliciclastic shelves along which detached patchy reef areas occur. The onset of the Aquitanian-Burdigalian purely photozoan biotic associations parallels the increase in coral diversity as well as the occurence of rimmed/detached carbonate platforms in the northern part of the basin. The development of the rimmed/detached platforms coincides with a time of increased basin subsidence and increased silicilcastic input along the southernmost part of the basin. A significant change in the carbonate factory occurs in the Late Burdigalian, when purely heterozoan (rodalgal) biotic associations constituted the main shallow marine

  7. Analysis of the geological structure and tectonic evolution of Xingning-Jinghai sag in deep water area, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoying; Ren, Jianye; Lin, Zi; Yang, Linlong

    2015-04-01

    Recent years, oil and gas exploration of the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the northern margin of South China Sea continuously achieved historic breakthroughs. The Xingning-Jinghai sag, which is located in southeast of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, is a deep-water sag with a great exploration potential. Its tectonic evolution is extremely complex. It experienced Mesozoic subduction to Cenozoic intra-continental rifting background, and finally evolved into a deep-water sag of the northern continental margin of South China Sea. The geological characteristics and the tectonic evolution of Xingning-Jinghai sag was closely related to the process of formation and evolution of the passive continental margin of the northern South China Sea. It is confirmed by many geophysical data that compared with adjacent Chaoshan depression, the crustal thickness of Xingning-Jinghai sag was rapidly thinning, and it developed detachment faults with later magmatic intrusion. The development of detachment faults have dynamic significance for the spreading of the South China Sea. Based on the seismic geological interpretation of 2D seismic data in the study area, the characteristics of detachment fault and supra-detachment basin have been proposed in this study. The characteristics of the detachment fault are low angle and high ratio between heave and throw. The geometry of the detachment fault is a typical lisric shape, with the dip of fault decreasing generally from the seismic profile. The detachment basin where sediments are not deposited over a tilting hanging-wall block but onto a tectonically exhumed footwall which is different from the typical half graben basin. Seismic profiles indicate two different structural styles in the east and west part of Xingning-Jinghai sag. In the west of the sag, there developed two large detachment faults, which control their detachment basin systems and the typical H block, and the two detachment faults are dipping landward and seaward, respectively. In

  8. Stress state reconstruction and tectonic evolution of the northern slope of the Baikit anteclise, Siberian Craton, based on 3D seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, A. N.; Khudoley, A. K.; Khusnitdinov, R. R.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we consider application of an original method for determining the indicators of the tectonic stress fields in the northern Baikit anteclise based on 3D seismic data for further reconstruction of the stress state parameters when analyzing structural maps of seismic horizons and corresponded faults. The stress state parameters are determined by the orientations of the main stress axes and shape of the stress ellipsoid. To calculate the stress state parameters from data on the spatial orientations of faults and slip vectors, we used the algorithms from quasiprimary stress computation methods and cataclastic analysis, implemented in the software products FaultKinWin and StressGeol, respectively. The results of this work show that kinematic characteristics of faults regularly change toward the top of succession and that the stress state parameters are characterized by different values of the Lode-Nadai coefficient. Faults are presented as strike-slip faults with normal or reverse component of displacement. Three stages of formation of the faults are revealed: (1) partial inversion of ancient normal faults, (2) the most intense stage with the predominance of thrust and strike-slip faults at north-northeast orientation of an axis of the main compression, and (3) strike-slip faults at the west-northwest orientation of an axis of the main compression. The second and third stages are pre-Vendian in age and correlate to tectonic events that took place during the evolution of the active southwestern margin of the Siberian Craton.

  9. Volcano-tectonic evolution of a linear volcanic ridge (Pico-Faial Ridge, Azores Triple Junction) assessed by paleomagnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro F.; Henry, Bernard; Marques, Fernando O.; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Lopes, Ana; Madureira, Pedro; Madeira, José; Nunes, João C.; Roxerová, Zuzana

    2018-02-01

    The morphology of volcanic oceanic islands results from the interplay between constructive and destructive processes, and tectonics. In this study, the analysis of the paleomagnetic directions obtained on well-dated volcanic rocks is used as a tool to assess tilting related to tectonics and large-scale volcano instability along the Pico-Faial linear volcanic ridge (Azores Triple Junction, Central-North Atlantic). For this purpose, 530 specimens from 46 lava flows and one dyke from Pico and Faial islands were submitted to thermal and alternating magnetic fields demagnetizations. Detailed rock magnetic analyses, including thermomagnetic analyses and classical high magnetic field experiments revealed titanomagnetites with different Ti-content as the primary magnetic carrier, capable of recording stable remanent magnetizations. In both islands, the paleomagnetic analysis yields a Characteristic Remanent Magnetization, which presents island mean direction with normal and reversed polarities in agreement with the islands location and the age of the studied lava flows, indicating a primary thermo-remanent magnetization. Field observations and paleomagnetic data show that lava flows were emplaced on pre-existing slopes and were later affected by significant tilting. In Faial Island, magmatic inflation and normal faults making up an island-scale graben, can be responsible for the tilting. In Pico Island, inflation related to magma intrusion during flow emplacement can be at the origin of the inferred tilting, whereas gradual downward movement of the SE flank by slumping processes appears mostly translational.

  10. Morphotectonic evolution of triangular facets and wine-glass valleys in the Noakoh anticline, Zagros, Iran: Implications for active tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Shahram

    2012-07-01

    The Noakoh anticline is located in Kermanshah province and is part of the Simply Folded Belt of Zagros. Boundaries of 97 triangular facets and 67 wine-glass (W-G) valleys, which formed on anticline limbs, were delineated using Quickbird satellite imagery. The strata dip (D), area (A), base length (BL), topographic slope (S) of facets, the maximum width (M), outlet width (O) and ratio of maximum width to outlet width (W index) of W-G valleys were analysed in detail. Noakoh anticline was subdivided into 9 tectonic zones on the basis of dip, topographic slopes and width of limbs. Results show that there are strong positive correlations between means of D-BL and S-BL pairs. Poor positive correlations exist between means of D-A and S-A pairs. Among W-G valley metrics, the W index has strong relations with D and S parameters. Based on the results, steep facets with long bases and well developed W-G valleys with narrow outlets and wide upper parts are associated with more rotated limbs having steep slopes. Facets on the northeastern slope have more forest cover, micro-organism activity, karstic features and soil cover, whereas facets on relatively drier southwestern slope are characterized by physical weathering processes and minor karstic landforms. This study demonstrates that, apart from tectonic activity as a major control on the morphometry of facets and valleys, climate and slope aspect have also acted as secondary factors on the development of the studied landforms.

  11. Cenozoic landforms and post-orogenic landscape evolution of the Balkanide orogen: Evidence for alternatives to the tectonic denudation narrative in southern Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Y.; Calvet, M.; Meyer, B.; Pinna-Jamme, R.; Bour, I.; Gautheron, C.; Carter, A.; Dimitrov, D.

    2017-01-01

    progressed at a mean velocity of 3 to 4 km/Ma. The Neogene horst-and-graben mosaic that defines the modern landscape (Phase 3) has completely overprinted the earlier fabrics of Phases 1 and 2, and has been the prime focus of tectonic geomorphologists working in the region. The new narrative proposed here for linking the geodynamic evolution of SE Europe with surface landform assemblages raises issues in favour of better documenting the regional sedimentary record of existing Paleogene basins, which constitute a poorly documented missing link to the thermochronological evidence presented here.

  12. Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  13. Seismostratigraphy and tectonic architecture of the Carboneras Fault offshore based on multiscale seismic imaging: Implications for the Neogene evolution of the NE Alboran Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ximena; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolomé, Rafael; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Perea, Héctor; de la Peña, Laura Gómez; Iacono, Claudio Lo; Piñero, Elena; Pallàs, Raimon; Masana, Eulàlia; Dañobeitia, Juan José

    2016-10-01

    In the SE Iberian Margin, which hosts the convergent boundary between the European and African Plates, Quaternary faulting activity is dominated by a large left-lateral strike-slip system referred to as the Eastern Betic Shear Zone. This active fault system runs along more than 450 km and it is characterised by low to moderate magnitude shallow earthquakes, although large historical events have also occurred. The Carboneras Fault is the longest structure of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, and its southern termination extends further into the Alboran Sea. Previously acquired high-resolution data (i.e. swath-bathymetry, TOBI sidescan sonar and sub-bottom profiler) show that the offshore Carboneras Fault is a NE-SW-trending upwarped zone of deformation with a length of 90 km long and a width of 0.5 to 2 km, which shows geomorphic features typically found in subaerial strike-slip faults, such as deflected drainage, pressure ridges and "en echelon" folds. However, the neotectonic, depth architecture, and Neogene evolution of Carboneras Fault offshore are still poorly known. In this work we present a multiscale seismic imaging of the Carboneras Fault (i.e. TOPAS, high-resolution multichannel-seismic reflection, and deep penetration multichannel-seismic reflection) carried out during three successive marine cruises, from 2006 to 2010. The new dataset allowed us to define a total of seven seismostratigraphic units (from Tortonian to Late Quaternary) above the basement, to characterise the tectonic architecture and structural segmentation of the Carboneras Fault, and to estimate its maximum seismic potential. We finally discuss the role of the basement in the present-day tectonic evolution of the Carboneras Fault, and explore the northern and southern terminations of the fault and how the strain is transferred to nearby structures.

  14. Late Miocene-Pliocene geomorphological evolution of the Xiaoshuizi peneplain in the Maxian Mountains and its tectonic significance for the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jijun; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Xiaomiao; Peng, Tingjiang; Guo, Benhong; Zhang, Jun; Song, Chunhui; Liu, Jia; Hui, Zhengchuang; Yu, Hao; Ye, Xiyan; Liu, Shanpin; Wang, Xiuxi

    2017-10-01

    As a remnant elevated peneplain, the Tangxian planation surface is widely distributed in North China and the Ordos Plateau. Further into the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Main planation surface can also be traced across this, the highest plateau on the Earth's surface. What the relation is between these two planation surfaces and whether they represent the remnants of a unique planation surface remains open to question. As the intermediate region between the low-altitude North China and the high-altitude TP, the Maxian Mountains and such bilateral basins located in the northeastern TP margin retain a series of well-preserved geomorphic features such as planation surfaces, pediment surface, and the fluvial terraces of the Yellow River. When and how the Xiaoshuizi peneplain was formed are crucial questions to elucidate the geomorphic evolution of the northeastern TP and infer the tectonic history of the TP. Here we present two parallel red clay-loess drill cores from the uplifted Xiaoshuizi bedrock peneplain in the Maxian Mountains, which document both the upper formation age of the planation surface and the evolution of Asian aridification. Based on the integration of high-resolution magnetostratigraphy analysis and Pliocene mammal fossils, we demonstrate that the red clay-loess succession deposited on the Xiaoshuizi peneplain probably began to accumulate at 6.9 Ma, implying that the Xiaoshuizi peneplain had begun to form before this. These results support the hypothesis that the Xiaoshuizi planation surface is equivalent to Tangxian planation surface of North China and Main planation surface of the TP. Furthermore, the onset of red clay sequence may indicate that the Xiaoshuizi peneplain was ultimately destroyed by the intensive tectonic uplift of the northeastern TP before 6.9 Ma. Taking into account the synchronous Late Miocene red clay deposition between the Xiaoshuizi peneplain and central Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), we propose that the onset of interior Asian

  15. Tectonic evolution of the Black Sea orogene belt and the history of opening of the Black Sea basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesuemezsoy, S. (Istanbul Univ. (Turkey))

    1988-08-01

    The Black Sea basin is surrounded by successive orogenic belts of Hercynian, Cimmerian, and Alpine ages. The Rhodope, Thracian, western Pontian, and Transcaucasian (RTPT) blocks of Precambrian age were involved by the circum-Black Sea orogene belts. The Hercynian orogene was documented in the Balkanide, Great Caucasian, Kriastide, southern Pontian, and Transcaucasian belts. The Cimmerian orogene extended north and south of the Black Sea. The southern Cimmerian orogene was represented by the circum-Rhodope and East Thracian-Strandja-Kuere belts. The northern Cimmerian orogene belt extended along the Dobruca-Crimean and southern slope belts. Following the demise of the Black Sea Cimmerian basin, the northernmost oceanic branch extending from Nish-Trajan through the present Black Sea to the intra-Transcaucasian basin, was opened within the Hercynian and Cimmerian consolidated terrain in the Late Jurassic. The other oceanic branch, extending from Izmir-Ankara through circum Kirsehir to various basins, was opened within the Paleotethyan collision belt, considered to be eastern extension of the Pindus basin. The Nish-Trajan sector of the northernmost basin was closed in the middle Cretaceous, and the Moesian platform re-fused to the Getic-Serbo-Macedonian-Rhodope belt. The easternmost extension of the intra-Transcaucasian basin disappeared in the Late Cretaceous. Consequently, the northernmost oceanic branch was reduced to the present Black Sea basin.

  16. Dynamic response to strike-slip tectonic control on the deposition and evolution of the Baranof Fan, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Maureen A. L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Reece, Robert S.; Barth, Ginger A.; Christeson, Gail L.; VanAvendonk, Harm J.

    2014-01-01

    The Baranof Fan is one of three large deep-sea fans in the Gulf of Alaska, and is a key component in understanding large-scale erosion and sedimentation patterns for southeast Alaska and western Canada. We integrate new and existing seismic reflection profiles to provide new constraints on the Baranof Fan area, geometry, volume, and channel development. We estimate the fan’s area and total sediment volume to be ∼323,000 km2 and ∼301,000 km3, respectively, making it among the largest deep-sea fans in the world. We show that the Baranof Fan consists of channel-levee deposits from at least three distinct aggradational channel systems: the currently active Horizon and Mukluk channels, and the waning system we call the Baranof channel. The oldest sedimentary deposits are in the northern fan, and the youngest deposits at the fan’s southern extent; in addition, the channels seem to avulse southward consistently through time. We suggest that Baranof Fan sediment is sourced from the Coast Mountains in southeastern Alaska, transported offshore most recently via fjord to glacial sea valley conduits. Because of the translation of the Pacific plate northwest past sediment sources on the North American plate along the Queen Charlotte strike-slip fault, we suggest that new channel formation, channel beheadings, and southward-migrating channel avulsions have been influenced by regional tectonics. Using a simplified tectonic reconstruction assuming a constant Pacific plate motion of 4.4 cm/yr, we estimate that Baranof Fan deposition initiated ca. 7 Ma.

  17. Crustal architecture and tectonic evolution of the Sergipe-Alagoas and Jacuípe basins, offshore northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohriak, Webster Ueipass; Bassetto, Marcelo; Vieira, Ines Santos

    1998-03-01

    The Sergipe-Alagoas and the Jacuípe basins are divergent margin basins located in the South Atlantic Ocean, at the northeastern Brazilian margin. High-quality 18 s (two-way travel time) seismic reflection profiles, which extend from the coastline towards the boundary with the oceanic crust, were integrated with potential field data and calibrated with the results of several exploratory boreholes. When combined, these data provide evidence that the deep seismic reflectors in the deep-water region are related to the crustal architecture of the basin, rather than to sedimentary features. Arrays of high-impedance reflectors, previously interpreted as top of basement, probably correspond to detachment planes near the base of the crust, or to underplated igneous rocks above the Moho. The extensional processes that were active during rifting resulted in normal crustal faults that apparently detach near the seismic Moho in the deep-water region. These crustal faults control and rotate syn-rift sedimentary units along the margin. The seaward portion of the rift seems to have been uplifted and highly eroded during a post-break-up tectonic event. The deep seismic reflection profiles also indicate that the deep-water province is characterized by wedges of reflectors that dip seawards. These features probably correspond to seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR), which are composed of volcanic rocks marking the transition to oceanic crust. The SDR wedges are locally associated with volcanic intrusions. Several volcanic plugs in deep-water region are aligned with oceanic fracture zones that apparently penetrate through the whole crust and reach the upper mantle. On the other hand, there are some diapiric structures located near the boundary between continental and oceanic crust that bear evidence for deep-water salt tectonics.

  18. The Alpine loop of the tethys zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmelen, R.W. van

    The Alpine loop in Europe results from semi-autochthonous crustal movements which are restricted to the mobile Tethys zone. Its evolution cannot be explained by a uniform northward drift and push of the African continent; it has to be sought, in the first place, in geodynamic processes occurring in

  19. Plants in alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  20. Dinosaur tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole; Milàn, Jesper; B. Loope, David

    2007-01-01

    to crustal scale tectonics associated with plate tectonics and foreland fold-thrust belts. A structural analysis of the dinosaur tracks shows the timing and direction of the forces exercised on the substrate by the animal's foot during the stride. Based on the structural analysis, we establish a scenario......A dinosaur trackway in the Middle Jurassic eolian Entrada Sandstone of southern Utah, USA, exposes three undertracks that we have modeled as isolated tectonic regimes showing the development of fold-thrust ramp systems induced by the dinosaur's feet. The faulted and folded sequence is comparable...... for foot movements and weight distribution in the feet. During the end of the weight-bearing phase of the stride, the weight of the animal was transferred to the front of the digits, creating a rotated disc below the foot that was bounded by an extensional fault at the front and a thrust ramp toward...

  1. Crustal structure and evolution of the NW Zagros Mountains (Iran): Insights from numerical modeling of the interplay between surface and tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Eduard; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Casciello, Emilio; Vergés, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Protracted Arabia-Eurasia convergence resulted in the closure of the >2000 km wide Neo-Tethys Ocean from early Late Cretaceous to Recent. This process was controlled by the structure of the NE margin of the Arabian plate, the NE-dipping oceanic subduction beneath Eurasia, the obduction of oceanic lithosphere and the collision of small continental and volcanic arc domains of the SW margin of Eurasia. The evolution of the Zagros Amiran and Mesopotamian foreland basins is studied in this work along a ~700 km long transect in NW Zagros constrained by field, seismic and published data. We use the well-defined geometries and ages of the Amiran and Mesopotamian foreland basins to estimate the elastic thickness of the lithosphere and model the evolution of the deformation to quantitatively link the topographic, tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the system. Modelling results show two major stages of emplacement. The obduction (pre-collision) stage involves the thin thrust sheets of the Kermanshah complex together with the Bisotun basement. The collision stage corresponds to the emplacement of the basement duplex and associated crustal thickening, coeval to the out of sequence emplacement of Gaveh Rud and Imbricated Zone in the hinterland. The geodynamic model is consistent with the history of the foreland basins, with the regional isostasy model, and with a simple scenario for the surface process efficiency. The emplacement of Bisotun basement during obduction tectonically loaded and flexed the Arabian plate triggering deposition in the Amiran foreland basin. The basement units emplaced during the last 10 My, flexed the Arabian plate below the Mesopotamian basin. During this stage, material eroded from the Simply Folded belt and the Imbricated zone was not enough to fill the Mesopotamian basin, which, according to our numerical model results, required a maximum additional sediment supply of 80 m/Myr. This additional supply had to be provided by an axial drainage system

  2. PALEOMAGNETISM OF SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN VOLCANICS FROM THE CHINGIZ ISLAND ARC, KAZAKHSTAN, AND ITS BEARING ON TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE URAL-MONGOL BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Levashova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Ural-Mongol belt between the cratons of Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim is the key to the formation of the Eurasian supercontinent during Paleozoic time, but the views on this complicated process remain very disparate and sometimes controversial. Three volcanic formations of the Middle Silurian, LowertoMiddle Devonian and Middle Devonian age from the southwestern boundary of the Chingiz Range (NE Kazakhstan yields what are interpreted as primary paleomagnetic directions that help clarify the evolution of the belt. A singlepolarity characteristic component in midSilurian andesites yields a positive intraformational conglomerate test, whereas dualpolarity prefolding components are isolated from the two Devonian collections. These new data were evaluated together with previously published paleomagnetic results from Paleozoic rocks in the Chingiz Range, and allow us to establish with confidence the hemisphere in which the area was located at a given time. We conclude that NE Kazakhstan was steadily moving northward crossing the equator in Silurian time. These new paleomagnetic data from the Chingiz range also agree with and reinforce the hypothesis that the strongly curved volcanic belts of Kazakhstan underwent oroclinal bending between Middle Devonian and Late Carboniferous time. A comparison of the Chingiz paleolatitudes with those of Siberia shows similarities between the northward motion and rotational history of the Chingiz unit and those of Siberia, which imposes important constraints on the evolving paleogeography of the Ural-Mongol belt.

  3. Collision tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, M.P.; Ries, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The motions of lithospheric plates have produced most existing mountain ranges, but structures produced as a result of, and following the collision of continental plates need to be distinguished from those produced before by subduction. If subduction is normally only stopped when collision occurs, then most geologically ancient fold belts must be collisional, so it is essential to recognize and understand the effects of the collision process. This book consists of papers that review collision tectonics, covering tectonics, structure, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, metamorphism, and magmatism.

  4. The role of western Mediterranea tectonic evolution in the geometry of a karstic domain in the Betic Cordilleras (Sierra Gorda, Spain): Importance of a tardy extensional regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistre, Séverin; Lopez-Chicano, Manuel; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Drogue, Claude

    1999-01-01

    Located in the central part of the Betic Cordilleras, the large carbonate Sierra Gorda Massif provides an example of a west-Mediterranean karstic aquifer. In spite of a complex polyphased tectonic history, the fracturing presents, from aerial views and at outcrop scale a quite organised geometry. Four fracture directions are found over the massif: N000-010, N050-070, N090-100 and N140-170. The statistical and geostatistical approach allows the characteristics (lengths, orientations) and the spatial structure for each fracture set to be determined. The NOOO-010 and N140-170 sets are grouped in packets whereas the two other sets are grouped in bands. The microtectonic study describes the evolution of the massif in the geodynamic context of this part of Mediterranea, distinguishing three recent stages of brittle tectonic activity in the massif: a WNW-ESE Middle Miocene compression, then a NNW-SSE to NW-SE compression with a poorly wrenching regime, and finally a probably pre-Quaternary N-S radial distension. This last stage is essential for the karstification of the massif and groundwater circulation. From the combined analysis of fracture network geometry and palaeostresses a multiple porosity model in agreement with hydrological observations made inside the massif can be proposed: in particular, the hectometric N090-100 (and N050-070) fractures which are essential for the network connectivity, and have a major drainage role at aquifer scale, while the N000-010 and N140-170 ones have a more local drainage role. This extensive tardy regime, which is for the first time described separately from the internal zones of the Cordilleras, must be considered as a significant phenomenon on a regional scale, and henceforth integrated in future geodynamic schemes of this part of Mediterranea.

  5. Tectonic stress evolution in the Pan-African Lufilian Arc and its foreland (Katanga, DRC): orogenic bending, late orogenic extensional collapse and transition to rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipata, M. L.; Delvaux, D.; Sebagenzi, M. N.; Cailteux, J.; Sintubin, M.

    2012-04-01

    Between the paroxysm of the Lufilian orogeny at ~ 550 Ma and the late Neogene to Quaternary development of the south-western branch of the East African rift system, the tectonic evolution of the Lufilian Arc and Kundelungu foreland in the Katanga region of the Democratic Republic of Congo remains poorly unknown although it caused important Cu-dominated mineral remobilizations leading to world-class ore deposits. This long period is essentially characterized by brittle tectonic deformations that have been investigated by field studies in open mines spread over the entire arc and foreland. Paleostress tensors were computed for a database of 1450 fault-slip data by interactive stress tensor inversion and data subset separation, and the relative succession of 8 brittle deformation events established. The oldest brittle structures observed are related to the Lufilian brittle compressional climax (stage 1). They have been re-oriented during the orogenic bending that led to the arcuate shape of the belt. Unfolding the stress directions from the first stage allows to reconstruct a consistent NE-SW direction of compression for this stage. Constrictional deformation occurred in the central part of the arc, probably during orogenic bending (Stage 2). After the orogenic bending, a sequence of 3 deformation stages marks the progressive onset of late-orogenic extension: strike-slip deformations (stages 3-4) and late-orogenic arc-parallel extension (stage 5). It is proposed that these 3 stages correspond to orogenic collapse. In early Mesozoic, NW-SE compression was induced by a transpressional inversion, interpreted as induced by far-field stresses generated at the southern active margin of Gondwana (stage 6). Since then, this region was affected by rift-related extension, successively in a NE-SW direction (stage 7, Tanganyika trend) and NW-SE direction (stage 8, Moero trend).

  6. Evolution of the western segment of Juan Fernández Ridge (Nazca Plate): plume vs. plate tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Luis E.; Rodrigo, Cristián; Reyes, Javier; Orozco, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    The Juan Fernandez Ridge (Eastern Pacific, Nazca Plate) is thought to be a classic hot spot trail because of the apparent age progression observed in 40Ar-39Ar data. However, geological evidence and some thermochronological data suggest a more complex pattern with a rejuvenation stage in Robinson Crusoe Island, the most eroded of the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. In fact, a postshield stage at 900-700 ka separates the underlying shield-related pile from the post-erosional alkaline succession (Ba/Yb=38.15; La/Yb=15.66; Ba/Y=20.27; Ba/Zr=2.31). Shield volcanoes grew at high effusion rate at ca. 5-4 Ma erupting mostly tholeiitic to transitional magmas (Ba/Yb=18.07-8.32; La/Yb=4.59-9.84; Ba/Y=4.24-8.18; Ba/Zr=0.73-1.09). Taken together, shield volcanoes form a continuous plateau with a base at ca. 3900 mbsl. However, a more complex structural pattern can be inferred from geophysical data, which suggest some intracrustal magma storage and a more extended area of magma ascent. A role for the Challenger Fracture Zone is hypothesized fueling the controversy between pristine plume origin and the effect of plate tectonic processes in the origin of intraplate volcanism. This research is supported by FONDECYT Project 1110966.

  7. Tectonic paleostress fields and structural evolution of the NW-Caucasus fold-and-thrust belt from Late Cretaceous to Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintot, Aline; Angelier, Jacques

    2002-11-01

    The NW-Caucasus fold-and thrust belt essentially corresponds to the inverted western Flysch Zone of the Great Caucasus Mountains, a deep basin that developed from Late Jurassic to Eocene times between the Scythian Plate to the north and the Transcaucasian terranes to the south (the Shatsky Ridge, SW of the NW-Caucasus zone). The Flysch Basin was strongly affected by compression in Late Eocene times, when the characteristic WNW trending folds and thrusts of the NW-Caucasus belt developed (some authors regard the main compressive deformation as Miocene in age). By means of remote sensing analysis, we elucidate the geometry of major structures in the belt: WNW trending south-vergent thrusts and folds, and major vertical and transverse NNE-SSW to NE-SW deep fault zones. The later structures are interpreted as ancient faults that were active during the development of the Flysch Basin. Paleostress investigations reveal seven main tectonic episodes in the evolution of the NW-Caucasus since Late Cretaceous. Combining structural interpretation, remote sensing analysis and paleostress field reconstruction, we propose a model for the structural evolution of the belt. During the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene, the western Caucasus zone was under transtensional regime with an E-W to NE-SW trending σ3 that generated oblique normal movements along NNE-SSW transverse faults and WNW-ESE margins of the Flysch Basin. This tectonism could correspond to rifting related to the formation of the Eastern Black Sea Basin. At the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, a transpressional event with an E-W to NW-SE trending σ1 developed and the NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending faults could have been inverted. This event could correspond to an attenuation in the Eastern Black Sea Basin formation or to the incipient accretion of the Transcaucasian terranes. During the Eocene, another E-W to NW-SE oblique extension (-transtensional event) affected the Flysch Basin that could be related to a known rifting phase in the

  8. Edaphics, active tectonics and animal movements in the Kenyan Rift - implications for early human evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Rucina, Stephen; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2014-05-01

    The quality of soils (edaphics) and the associated vegetation strongly controls the health of grazing animals. Until now, this has hardly been appreciated by paleo-anthropologists who only take into account the availability of water and vegetation in landscape reconstruction attempts. A lack of understanding the importance of the edaphics of a region greatly limits interpretations of the relation between our ancestors and animals over the last few million years. If a region lacks vital trace elements then wild grazing and browsing animals will avoid it and go to considerable length and take major risks to seek out better pasture. As a consequence animals must move around the landscape at different times of the year. In complex landscapes, such as tectonically active rifts, hominins can use advanced group behaviour to gain strategic advantage for hunting. Our study in the southern Kenya rift in the Lake Magadi region shows that the edaphics and active rift structures play a key role in present day animal movements as well as the for the location of an early hominin site at Mt. Olorgesailie. We carried out field analysis based on studying the relationship between the geology and soil development as well as the tectonic geomorphology to identify 'good' and 'bad' regions both in terms of edaphics and accessibility for grazing animals. We further sampled different soils that developed on the volcanic bedrock and sediment sources of the region and interviewed the local Maasai shepherds to learn about present-day good and bad grazing sites. At the Olorgesailie site the rift valley floor is covered with flood trachytes; basalts only occur at Mt. Olorgesailie and farther east up the rift flank. The hominin site is located in lacustrine sediments at the southern edge of a playa that extends north and northwest of Mt. Olorgesailie. The lakebeds are now tilted and eroded by motion on two north-south striking faults. The lake was trapped by basalt flows from Mt. Olorgesailie

  9. Changing Depositional Conditions of the Cretaceous-Paleocene Sediments in the Southern Sakarya Zone and Implications for Tectonic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykut, Tanyel; Koral, Hayrettin; Özkar Öngen, İzver

    2016-04-01

    Study area is located between Göynük (Bolu) and Nallıhan (Ankara), NW Anatolia, to the north of the Neotethyan (Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan) Suture Zone. It comprises units ranging from the Jurassic to Miocene ages. Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous age pelagic limestones of the Soǧukçam Formation is the oldest rock, overlain by the Upper Cretaceous Gölpazarı Group. The Gölpazarı Group includes the Cenomanian-Campanian age turbiditic Yenipazar Formation and the Maastrichtian age Taraklı Formation. Over the Taraklı Formation lies conformably the Kızılçay Group, and it exhibits varying facies from north to south of the study area. In the north, there occurs the coral-bearing Lower Paleocene Selvipınar Formation. In the south, instead, there are clastics of the Kızılçay Group overthrust by the Soǧukçam Formation. Clastics and bituminous shales of the Kızılçay Group indicate a terrestrial setting of the study area during the Lower Paleocene-Eocene. The Soǧukçam and Yenipazar Formations represent deep marine conditions, while the Taraklı Formation a shallow one. This indicates the region underwent a rapid uplift due possibly to initial collision and overthrusting. In the post-Maastrichtian age units, the occurrence and lateral transitions of shallow marine and terrestrial sediments suggest a progress of uplift, but at different rates at different locations; at a relatively fast rate in the south and a slow rate in the north. The presence of tectonic features such as E-W oriented folds, overturned folds and faults are related to shortening during a collisional stage that affected the whole region.

  10. Tectonometamorphic evolution of the gneissic Kidal assemblage related to the Pan-African thrust tectonics (Adrar des Iforas, Mali)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champenois, M.; Boullier, A. M.; Sautter, V.; Wright, L. I.; Barbey, P.

    In the central part of the Adrar des Iforas (Mali), the 2 Ba Eburnean granulatic unit has been thrust above a high-grade gneissic unit, the so-called 'Kidal assemblage', during an early event of the Pan-African orogeny. The Kidal assemblage can be defined as a tectonic mixing of an Eburnean granulitic basement, its sedimentary cover of Middle to Upper Proterozoic age (quartzites, marbles, basalts and metavolcanics) and various pretectonic rocks: ultrabasic to basic rocks, diorites, tonalites. All these rocks have been deformed during at least four main events and metamorphosed together. Thrusting of the Iforas Granulitic Unit above the Kidal assemblage happened during the first event D1. The movement direction was roughly N-S, as shown by the stretching lineation. Some field criteria indicate a sense of displacement towards the north. The lattice preferred orientation of quartz c- and axes indicate that the slip was dominantly on prismatic and probably pyramidal planes along an direction; consequently D1 deformation was achieved at high temperature or low-strain rate. The quartz c- and axes do not show any constant asymmetry, so they do not indicate a sense of shear. Two metamorphic stages have been found in the Kidal assemblage: the first one is characterized by kyanite in aluminous metasediments and by the occurrence of garnet-clinopyroxene-bearing boundis of basic rocks. The P-T range of this event is located at 700 ± 50°C and around 10 Kb. The second event is a syntectonic high temperature (600-650°C) low pressure (3.5 Kb) stage accompanied by migmatization. Such a tangential deformation in barrowian-type metamorphic conditions and with N-S transport direction is known along the entire Trans-Saharan belt and cannot be related in a simple way to the collision between West African Craton and the mobile belt.

  11. Provenance, tectonic setting and source-area weathering of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    s12040-017-0803-5. Provenance, tectonic setting and source-area weathering of the lower Cambrian ... (2010) carried out detrital zircon studies in order to correlate ...... and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt;. Chinese Sci. Bull.

  12. Tectonic evolution of the central-eastern sector of Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt and its influence on the eruptive history of the Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.

    2006-11-01

    The Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age located within the central and eastern sectors of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Morphostructural analysis, aerial photograph and satellite image interpretation, structural analysis and geological fieldwork were methods used to investigate the relationship between the evolution of the volcano and the tectonic framework of its basement. The study revealed that the area of Nevado de Toluca is affected by three main fault systems that intersect close to the volcanic edifice. These are from oldest to youngest, the Taxco-Querétaro, San Antonio and Tenango fault systems. The NNW-SSE Taxco-Querétaro fault system was active in the area since Early Miocene, and is characterized by right-lateral transtensive movement. Its reactivation during Early to Middle Pleistocene was responsible for the emplacement of andesitic to dacitic lava flows and domes of La Cieneguilla Supersynthem. The NE-SW San Antonio fault system was active during Late Pliocene, before the reactivation of the Taxco-Querétaro fault system, and is characterized by extensional left-lateral oblique-slip kinematics. The youngest is the E-W Tenango fault system that has been active since Late Pleistocene. This fault system is characterized by transtensive left-lateral strike-slip movement, and partly coeval with the youngest eruptive phase, the Nevado Supersynthem, which formed the present summit cone of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. The stress re-orientation from the Taxco-Querétaro to the Tenango fault system during Late Pleistocene is responsible for the ˜ 1 Ma hiatus in the magmatic activity between 1.15 Ma and 42 ka. After this period of repose, the eruptive style drastically changed from effusive to explosive with the emission of dacitic products. The methodology presented here furnish new data that can be used to better assess the complex structural evolution of this sector of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt

  13. Comments on "structural-tectonic controls and geomorphology of the karst corridors in alpine limestone ridges: Southern Carpathians, Romania" by L. Tîrlă and I. Vijulie, Geomorphology 197 (2013), 123-136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, Jan; Pánek, Tomáš

    2014-10-01

    In the recently published paper by Tîrlă and Vijulie (2013), the authors interpret the abundant trenches affecting the limestone ridge of the Vânturariţa-Buila Massif (Southern Carpathians, Romania) as bogaz-like landforms (syn. kluftkarren, karst corridors, karst streets, zanjones etc.). These karst features originated, according to the authors, through the corrosion of structurally anisotropic limestone bedrock. This proposed origin is supported by a comparison of the rose diagrams of the directions of both bogaz and tectonic discontinuities, by a morphometric analysis and by observations of the speleothem remnants covering the exposed fault surfaces. Furthermore, the authors described the typically karstic settings of the area, such as extremely poor surface drainage, subterranean connections between the karst corridors and karst springs in pocket valleys. We disagree with their main interpretations and argue that the presumed bogaz are gravitationally-induced grabens and trenches created by mass movement activity, namely by deep-seated slope failures. The speleothem remnants are interpreted as flowstones deposited during the subsurface widening of the joints by gravitational activity. These speleothem remnants became fossil (and even rotated from the original position) after sufficient widening of the joints and subsequent exposure of the crevices to the surface due to slope failure progression. The morphology of the slope failure along the Vânturariţa-Buila Massif is similar to numerous other elevated ridges within the Carpathian Mountains.

  14. Metallogenesis of Precambrian gold deposits in the Wutai greenstone belt: Constrains on the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Quan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wutai greenstone belt in central North China Craton (NCC hosts a number of Precambrian gold deposits and ore occurrences. Based on the host rock association, these can be divided into Banded Iron Formation (BIF, meta-volcano-sedimentary and meta-conglomerate types. The two former types formed during ∼2.5–2.3 Ga and the third one at ∼1.85 Ga. The characteristics of these Precambrian gold deposits are broadly similar with those of the orogenic gold deposits. Based on available geochronological data, here we reconstruct the major tectonic events and their relationship with gold mineralization in the Wutai-Hengshan-Fuping region during Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic as follows. (1 ∼2.6–2.5 Ga: widespread intrusion of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG magmas in the Hengshan terrane and Fuping continental arc, formation of the Wutai volcanic arc in the southern margin of Hengshan terrane with granitoids emplacement, and the Hengshan-Wutai intra-oceanic arc accretion to the Fuping arc at the end of Neoarchean. (2 ∼2.5–2.3 Ga: the subduction of Hengshan arc from north leading to persistent magmatism and orogenic gold mineralization. (3 ∼2.2–2.1 Ga: extension leading to the formation of graben structure in the Wutai and Fuping region, deposition of the Hutuo and Wanzi Group sediments, formation of placer gold through erosion of the orogenic gold deposits. (4 ∼2.2–2.0 Ga: widespread magmatism in the Wutai-Hengshan-Fuping region. (5 ∼1.95–1.8 Ga: regional metamorphism associated with collision of the Western and Eastern Blocks of the NCC and associated orogenic gold deposits. The multiple subduction-accretion-collision history and subsequent deep erosion has significantly affected most of the Precambrian gold deposits in the Wutai greenstone belt.

  15. Constraining the Late Mesozoic and Early Tertiary Tectonic Evolution of Southern Mexico: Structure and Deformation History of the Tierra Caliente Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano; Draper; Lang; Harrison

    2000-07-01

    We analyze the structure and assess the deformation history of the Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex (TCMC) of southern Mexico, where Laramide accretion of exotic terranes is in debate. The TCMC consists of a south-plunging antiform fault that is bounded on both its eastern and western flanks. Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex rocks show at least two phases of compressional deformation. The first and most prominent records a mean tectonic transport direction of 068 degrees. This phase is responsible for east-verging asymmetrical folding and thrusting of both metamorphic and superjacent sedimentary rocks. The second phase has an average transport direction of 232 degrees and is restricted to the western portion of the TCMC. A third phase is responsible for normal faulting. Lack of discernible deformation before Late Cretaceous time indicates that the main deformation phase is coincident with Laramide orogenesis elsewhere in the North American Cordillera. The stratigraphy, structure, and deformational history of the TCMC do not require accretion of exotic terranes. We explain the Mesozoic tectonostratigraphic evolution of the TCMC in terms of deposition and deformation of Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary strata over the attenuated continental crust of the North American plate.

  16. The distribution, geochronology and geochemistry of early Paleozoic granitoid plutons in the North Altun orogenic belt, NW China: Implications for the petrogenesis and tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Tong; Chen, Bai-Lin; Zhao, Ni-Na; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Wen-Gao; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Bin; Han, Mei-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Abundant early Paleozoic granitoid plutons are widely distributed in the North Altun orogenic belt. These rocks provide clues to the tectonic evolution of the North Altun orogenic belt and adjacent areas. In this paper, we report an integrated study of petrological features, U-Pb zircon dating, in situ zircon Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical compositions for the Abei, 4337 Highland and Kaladawan Plutons from north to south in the North Altun orogenic belt. The dating yielded magma crystallization ages of 514 Ma for the Abei Pluton, 494 Ma for the 4337 Highland Pluton and 480-460 Ma for the Kaladawan Pluton, suggesting that they are all products of oceanic slab subduction because of the age constraint. The Abei monzogranites derived from the recycle of Paleoproterozoic continental crust under low-pressure and high-temperature conditions are products of subduction initiation. The 4337 Highland granodiorites have some adakitic geochemical signatures and are sourced from partial melting of thickened mafic lower continental crust. The Kaladawan quartz diorites are produced by partial melting of mantle wedge according to the positive εHf(t) values, and the Kaladawan monzogranite-syenogranite are derived from partial melting of Neoproterozoic continental crust mixing the juvenile underplated mafic material from the depleted mantle. These results, together with existing data, provide significant information about the evolution history of oceanic crust subduction during the 520-460 Ma. The initiation of subduction occurred during 520-500 Ma with formation of Abei Pluton; subsequent transition from steep-angle to flat-slab subduction at ca.500 Ma due to the arrival of buoyant oceanic plateaus, which induces the formation of 4337 Highland Pluton. With ongoing subduction, the steep-angle subduction system is reestablished to cause the formation of 480-460 Ma Kaladawan Pluton. Meanwhile, it is this model that account for the temporal-spatial distribution of these early

  17. WESTERN EXTENSION OF THE SEVAN-AKERA SUTURE ZONE (ERZINCAN-ERZURUM REGION, TURKEY): COMPARISION OF NEW DATA CONCERNING ORIGIN, STRUCTURE AND TECTONIC EVOLUTION BETWEEN SEVAN-AKERA AND ERZINCAN SUTURE ZONES

    OpenAIRE

    Hässig, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Topuz, G.; Çelik, Ö.; Sosson, Marc

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In order to better understand the tectonic evolution of the Sevan-Akera suture zone, particularly its connection westward into the Ankara-Erzincan suture, field observations and sampling were carried out on the Erzincan suture zone (near Erzincan). The goal of this study is to solve the problem of linking both odbucted ophiolitic domains. As in Armenia, the structures in Turkey are complex and have been reworked and reactivated because of post-obduction collision stage...

  18. A suture delta: the co-evolution of tectonics and sedimentology as a remnant ocean basin closes; the Indo Burman ranges, northeast India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Zoramthara, C.

    2017-12-01

    The closure of an ocean basin involves the interplay of tectonics and sedimentology, whereby thick successions of fluvio-deltaic and shallow marine sediment accumulate in the closing gap between the subduction zone and passive margin. The transition from subduction to collision involves processes that are inherently time-transgressive and co-evolve to influence the nature of the developing tectonic wedge. The Indo-Burman Ranges (IBR) of eastern India present a unique opportunity to examine this scenario on a variety of spatial (10-2­­­-105 m2) and temporal (1 a-10 Ma) scales. Recent field mapping campaigns in the IBR have illuminated analogous depositional environments expressed in the Neogene outcrops of the IBR and the Holocene sediment archive of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD). Six distinct lithofacies are present in shallow-marine to fluvial strata of the IBR, containing sedimentary structures that reflect depositional environments correlative with the modern delta. Cyclical alternations of fine sands and silts in packages on the order of 15-20 cm thick define part of the shallow-marine section (M2 facies) that we interpret to represent the foreset beds of the ancient subaqueous delta. The overall scale and sedimentary structures of M2 compare favorably with modern foreset deposits in the Bay of Bengal. Tan-orange medium-grained, well sorted fluvial sandstone that contain large scale (1-10 m) tabular and trough cross bedding represent large-river channel deposits (F2 facies) that overlie the shallow marine strata. F2 deposits bear a striking resemblance in scale and character to bar deposits along the modern Jamuna River. Preliminary grain size analyses on the F2 facies yield grain size distributions that are remarkably consistent with Brahmaputra-sourced mid-Holocene sediments from Sylhet basin within the GBMD. Current research on the GBMD has revealed quantifiable trends in bed thicknesses, downstream fining, and grain size within fluvial

  19. Tectono-thermal evolution of the southwestern Alxa Tectonic Belt, NW China: Constrained by apatite U-Pb and fission track thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Glorie, Stijn; Xiao, Wenjiao; Collins, Alan S.; Gillespie, Jack; Jepson, Gilby; Li, Yongchen

    2018-01-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is regarded to have undergone multiple phases of intracontinental deformation during the Meso-Cenozoic. Located in a key position along the southern CAOB, the Alxa Tectonic Belt (ATB) connects the northernmost Tibetan Plateau with the Mongolian Plateau. In this paper we apply apatite U-Pb and fission track thermochronological studies on varieties of samples from the southwestern ATB, in order to constrain its thermal evolution. Precambrian bedrock samples yield late Ordovician-early Silurian ( 430-450 Ma) and late Permian ( 257 Ma) apatite U-Pb ages; the late Paleozoic magmatic-sedimentary samples yield relatively consistent early Permian ages from 276 to 290 Ma. These data reveal that the ATB experienced multiple Paleozoic tectono-thermal events, as the samples passed through the apatite U-Pb closure temperature ( 350-550 °C). We interpret these tectonic events to record the long-lived subduction-accretion processes of the Paleo-Asian Ocean during the formation of the southern CAOB, with possible thermal influence of the Permian Tarim mantle plume. Apatite fission track (AFT) data and thermal history modelling reveal discrete low-temperature thermal events for the ATB, inducing cooling/reheating through the AFT partial annealing zone ( 120-60 °C). During the Permian, the samples underwent rapid cooling via exhumation or denudation from deep crustal levels to temperatures < 200 °C. Subsequent thermal events in the Triassic were thought to be associated with the final amalgamation of the CAOB or the closure of the Paleotethys. During the Jurassic-Cretaceous the study area experienced heating by burial, followed by renewed cooling, which may be related with the construction and subsequent collapse of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny, or the Lhasa-Eurasia collision and subsequent slab break-off. These results indicate that the ATB may have been stable after late Cretaceous in contrast to the Qilian Shan and Tianshan. Finally, our

  20. Evolution and Structural Architecture of the Cenozoic Southern Sivas Fold-Thrust Belt: Implications for the Transition from Arabian Collision to Tectonic Escape in Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, M. H.; Gürer, D.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Anatolian Plate formed as a result of a major yet poorly understood plate boundary reconfiguration in the eastern Mediterranean involving a transition from distributed contraction to strain localization and tectonic escape along large strike-slip faults. The Sivas Basin is a E-W-elongate retro-foreland basin that formed above the Inner Tauride suture zone following Paleocene collision of the Tauride micro-continent with Eurasia, but prior to Arabian collision. Basin exhumation began in the Eocene with development of the thin-skinned Southern Sivas Fold and Thrust Belt (SSFTB), a >300 km-long by 30 km-wide, convex-north arcuate belt of contractional structures in Late Cretaceous to Miocene strata. Because of its age and geographic position north of the Arabian indenter, the SSFTB provides an important record of pre-, syn- and post-collisional processes in the Anatolian Orogen, including the transition from collision to escape tectonics. We use geologic mapping, apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology, paleomagnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to characterize the architecture, deformation style, and structural evolution of the SSFTB. NE- to E-trending upright folds with slight northward asymmetry, south-dipping thrust faults, and overturned folds in Paleogene strata indicate an overall northward vergence in the SSFTB. However, several thrusts, including some that were previously unmapped, are south-vergent and typically displace younger (Miocene) units. Structural relationships and AFT data indicate that crustal shortening and rapid basin exhumation began in the late Eocene and ended by latest Miocene time. Pliocene and younger units are only locally deformed by either halokinesis or transpressional faulting along the sinistral Central Anatolian fault zone (CAFZ) and where the dextral Northern Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) intersects the SSFTB. Paleomagnetic data from sedimentary units reveal moderate counter-clockwise and clockwise vertical-axis block

  1. Source-to-Sink constraints on tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Central Range, Cenderawasih Bay (Indonesia) and Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, J.; Viaplana-Muzas, M.; Legrand, X.; Van Den Driessche, J.; González-Quijano, M.; Mudd, S. M.; Kergaravat, C.; Ringenbach, J. C.; Callot, J. P.; Vetel, W.; Dhont, D.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Papua New Guinea is the result of continent-arc collision that began building the island's Central Range during the late Miocene. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Cenderawasih Bay, in the northwestern part of the island of Papua New Guinea (Indonesia), which links the Kepala Burung block to the Central Range is still poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that this bay contains a thick (> 8 km) sequence of undated sediments. Hypothesis claim that the embayment resulted from a 3 Ma aperture created by anticlockwise rotation of the Kepala Burung block with respect to the northern rim of the Australian plate, or from the southwest drift of a slice of volcanics/oceanic crust between 8 and 6 Ma. Using a source-to-sink approach, based on i) a geomorphologic analysis of the drainage network dynamics, ii) a reassessment of available thermochronological data, and iii) seismic lines interpretation, we suggest that sediments started to accumulate in the Cenderawasih Bay and onshore in the Waipoga Basin in the late Miocene since the beginning of the Central Range building at 12 Ma, resulting in sediment accumulation of up to 12200 m. At first order, we predict that infilling is mainly composed of siliciclastics sourced in the graphite-bearing Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt and its equivalent in the Weyland Overthrust. From the unroofing paths in the Central Range we deduce two rates of solid phase accumulation (SPAR) since 12 Ma, the first one at a mean SPAR ranging between 0.12-0.25 mm/a with a maximum SPAR of 0.23-0.58 mm/a, and the second during the last 3 Ma, at a mean SPAR ranging between 0.93-1.62 mm/a and with a maximum SPAR between 2.13-3.17 mm/a, i.e., 6700-10000 m of Plio-Pleistocene sediment accumulation. Local transtensional tectonics may explain these unusually high rates of sedimentation in an overall sinistral oblique convergence setting. We further extended this approach to the Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea), a foreland basin developed

  2. Spiral tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  3. Dinosaur tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole; Milàn, Jesper; B. Loope, David

    2007-01-01

    for foot movements and weight distribution in the feet. During the end of the weight-bearing phase of the stride, the weight of the animal was transferred to the front of the digits, creating a rotated disc below the foot that was bounded by an extensional fault at the front and a thrust ramp toward...... of the undertrack. The total length of the tectonic disturbance created by the dinosaur is up to three times that of the original footprint. Early, near-surface cementation gave the substrate the rheological properties necessary for development of the observed structures....

  4. Tectonic Evolution of the Izmir Ankara Suture Zone in Northwest Turkey Using Zircon U-Pb Geochronology and Zircon Lu-Hf Isotopic Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C.; Taylor, M. H.; Licht, A.; Mueller, M.; Ocakglu, F.; Moeller, A.; Metais, G.; Beard, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Detrital zircons from a Cretaceous forearc basin and Tertiary foreland basin located along the Sakarya Zone of the Western Pontides were analyzed to better understand the closure history of the Tethyan oceans. The Variscan Orogeny is characterized by abundant 350-300 Ma U-Pb ages and vertical ɛHf arrays, consistent with a mature magmatic arc that emplaced plutons through a southward growing accretionary margin. An ɛHf pull-up is observed from 300-250 Ma interpreted as rifting of the Intra-Pontide Ocean. The Cimmerian Orogeny is characterized by a 250-230 Ma ɛHf pull-down, followed by a 230-200 Ma magmatic gap consistent with underthrusting of the Karakaya Complex. From 200-120 Ma another magmatic lull is observed. The Alpine Orogeny is characterized by an ɛHf pull-down from 120-85 Ma within Cretaceous forearc sediments and a 100 Ma deviant ɛHf vertical array within Tertiary foreland basin sediments. Minor zircon U-Pb age peaks and contrasting inter-basinal ɛHf evolution are interpreted to represent onset of Andean-style subduction along the southern margin of the Sakarya Zone at 120 Ma followed by crustal thickening until 85 Ma. The deviant 100 Ma ɛHf vertical array within foreland basin detritus is interpreted as initiation of intra-oceanic subduction within the Izmir-Ankara Ocean. An 85-75 Ma ɛHf pull-up from forearc basin sediments is interpreted as slab roll-back along the southern margin of the Sakarya Zone, responsible for final rifting of the Western Black Sea. At 80 Ma, a vertical ɛHf array from Tertiary foreland basin deposits is interpreted to represent synchronous melting of the Tavsanli Zone and intra-oceanic slab break-off. A single 66 Myr pre-collisional grain defines a sharp ɛHf pull-down immediately prior to total arc shut-off, interpreted to represent incipient collision between the Sakarya and Tavsanli zones. A 52 Ma syn-collisional tuff yields minimally intermediate ɛHf values followed by a slight 48 Ma ɛHf pull-down, interpreted as a

  5. Albian salt-tectonics in Central Tunisia: Evidences for an Atlantic-type passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillard, Etienne; Bouillin, Jean-Pierre; Ouali, Jamel; Dumont, Thierry; Latil, Jean-Louis; Chihaoui, Abir

    2017-11-01

    Tunisia is part of the south-Tethyan margin, which comprises Triassic evaporites and a thick series of Jurassic and Cretaceous, mainly marine deposits, related to the Tethyan rifting evolution. A survey of various Cretaceous outcrops of central Tunisia (Kasserine-El Kef area), combined with literature descriptions, shows that the style of Albian deformation changes from the proximal (South) to the distal part (North) of the margin. The southern part is dominated by tilted blocks and growth faults, which evolve to the north to turtle-back and roll-over structures. Farther North, deformation is dominated by the extrusion of diapirs and salt walls. Such a distribution of deformation strongly suggests that the whole sedimentary cover glided northward on the Triassic evaporites during Albian times, as described for the Atlantic passive margin or for the Gulf of Mexico. Subsequently, these halokinetic structures have been folded during Alpine compressional tectonics.

  6. NW Africa post-rift tectonics: fieldwork constraints from an "unfitting" anticline in west Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Gouiza, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of the Moroccan Atlantic rifted margin is marked by a period of abnormal and excessive early post-rift subsidence during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous affecting the proximal coastal basins, the continental shelf and the distal deep basins, which acted coevally to km-scale uplift and erosion of large domains to the east. The tectonics of the uplift event are still unclear, as it took place 30 to 50 Myr after lithospheric breakup between Morocco and Nova Scotia and prior to the Atlas/Alpine contraction, which gave rise to the Atlas and the Rif mountain belts. The Essaouira-Haha basin, located on the coastal plain of the Atlantic rifted margin of Morocco, and bounded by two uplifted Paleozoic basement highs (i.e. the Massif Ancien of Marrakech, to the east, and the Jebilet, to the northeast), is an ideal location to investigate the tectonic processes that might have triggered these vertical movements. Although most of the deformation observed in the basin is classically attributed to Upper Cretaceous halokinesis and Neogene Atlas contraction, recent works have shown the existence of contractional structures. We carry out a structural analysis of the Jbel Amsittene Anticline, located in the middle of the Essaouira-Haha basin to investigate the tectonics of its formation and its relationship with the above-mentioned exhumation. We show structural field data along several cross-sections transecting the anticline, and characterize a salt-cored fault propagation fold verging north, with a Triassic salt acting as a detachment plane. Regional kinematic indicators and structures show overall NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW shortening and active tectonics during the postrift phase, as indicated by syn-tectonic wedges seen for the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous period. These facts discard the "salt-drives-tectonics" theory to let "tectonic-drives-salt" one to rise, and point to factors other than small-cell mantle convection acting during the evolution of the Moroccan

  7. Palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Barbate-Trafalgar coast (Cadiz) during the last ˜ 140 ka: Climate, sea-level interactions and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Cari; Mercier, Norbert; Lario, Javier; Roquero, Elvira; Goy, José-Luis; Silva, Pablo G.; Cabero, Ana; Borja, Francisco; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Bardají, Teresa; Soler, Vicente; García-Blázquez, Ana; Luque, Luis de

    2008-08-01

    Coastal response to tectonic activity and eustatic-climate interactions during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene has been analyzed along the Barbate-Trafalgar shoreline. The study area consists of an uplifted platform (La Breña, ˜ 140 m) bounded by two major NW-SE faults that have created two subsiding areas: Meca in the west and Barbate in the east. The areas of subsidence have favoured the accumulation of a thick morphosedimentary sequence consisting of (in ascending stratigraphic order) beach, alluvial, and aeolian deposits, which repeatedly underwent soil-forming processes. This study outlines the palaeogeographical evolution of the area over the last ˜ 140 ka, as deduced from geomorphological mapping associated with a range of laboratory analyses (mineralogical, geochemical, magnetic susceptibility, and soil micromorphology analyses), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating), and existing U-Th dating. Special attention has been paid to the alluvial unit, made up of vertically stacked sandy sheet-flood deposits with interbedded red paleosols. OSL ages suggest that sediment supply to the alluvial/coastal environments took place mainly at the end of the two most recent glacial periods (Oxygen Isotopic Stage [OIS] 6 and OIS 3/OIS 2) and during the last interglacial period (end of OIS 5). This means that although alluvial sedimentation took place at times of relatively high sea level, these were not times of highstand because very high sea levels (like the present) allow marine erosion of the distal part of the fans (fan toes), cutting cliffed coasts. The repeated occurrence of paleosols in the alluvial sequence seems to indicate a recurrence of environmental changes that modified the feedback relationships between the catchment and the coastal areas. These changes are recorded in repeated oscillations of soil parameters, and are revealed from the results of geochemical and environmental magnetism analyses. We associate repeated pedogenesis and alluvial

  8. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin

    2018-03-01

    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  9. Besshi-type mineral systems in the Palaeoproterozoic Bryah Rift-Basin, Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia: Implications for tectonic setting and geodynamic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirajno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we use VMS mineral systems in the Bryah rift-basin to constrain the tectonic setting of the widespread mafic and ultramafic magmatism that characterises the rift-basin in question. Two distinct, but temporally closely associated, lithostratigraphic sequences, Narracoota and Karalundi Formations, are discussed. The Karalundi Formation is the main host of VMS mineral systems in the region. The Karalundi Formation consists of turbiditic and immature clastic sediments, which are locally intercalated with basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and banded jaspilites. We propose that the basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and clastics and jaspilites rocks, form a distinct unit of the Karalundi Formation, named Noonyereena Member. The VMS mineral systems occur near the north-east trending Jenkin Fault and comprise the giant and world-class DeGrussa and the Red Bore deposits. The nature of these deposits and their intimate association with terrigenous clastic rocks and dominantly marine mafic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, as well as the common development of peperitic margins, are considered indicative of a Besshi-type environment, similar to that of present-day Gulf of California. Our Re-Os age data from a primary pyrite yielded a mean model age of 2012 ± 48 Ma, which coincides (within error with recent published Re-Os data (Hawke et al., 2015 and confirms the timing of the proposed geodynamic evolution. We propose a geodynamic model that attempts to explain the presence of the Narracoota and Karalundi Formations as the result of mantle plume activity, which began with early uplift of continental crust with intraplate volcanism, followed by early stages of rifting with the deposition of the Karalundi Formation (and Noonyereena Member, which led to the formation of Besshi-type VMS deposits. With on-going mantle plume activity and early stages of continental separation, an oceanic plateau was formed and is now represented by mafic

  10. Mineral parageneses, regional architecture, and tectonic evolution of Franciscan metagraywackes, Cape Mendocino-Garberville-Covelo 30' x 60' quadrangles, northwest California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex is a classic subduction-zone assemblage. In northwest California, it comprises a stack of west vergent thrust sheets: westernmost Eastern Belt outliers; Central Belt mélange; Coastal Belt Yager terrane; Coastal Belt Coastal terrane; Coastal Belt King Range/False Cape terranes. We collected samples and determined P-T conditions of recrystallization for 88 medium-fine-grained metasandstones to assess their subduction-exhumation histories and assembly of the host allochthons. Feebly recrystallized Yager, Coastal, and King Range strata retain clear detrital features. Scattered neoblastic prehnite occurs in several Coastal terrane metasandstones; traces of possible pumpellyite are present in three Yager metaclastic rocks. Pumpellyite ± lawsonite ± aragonite-bearing Central Belt metasandstones are moderately deformed and reconstituted. Intensely contorted, thoroughly recrystallized Eastern Belt affinity quartzose metagraywackes contain lawsonite + jadeitic pyroxene ± aragonite ± glaucophane. We microprobed neoblastic phases in 23 rocks, documenting mineral parageneses that constrain the tectonic accretion and metamorphic P-T evolution of these sheets. Quasi-stable mineral assemblages typify Eastern Belt metasandstones, but mm-sized domains in the Central and Coastal belt rocks failed to achieve chemical equilibrium. Eastern Belt slabs rose from subduction depths approaching 25–30 km, whereas structurally lower Central Belt mélanges returned from ∼15–18 km. Coastal Belt assemblages suggest burial depths less than 5–8 km. Eastern and Central belt allochthons sequentially decoupled from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and ascended into the accretionary margin; K-feldspar-rich Coastal Belt rocks were stranded along the continental edge without undergoing appreciable subduction, probably during Paleogene unroofing of the older, deeply subducted units of the Franciscan Complex in east-vergent crustal wedges.

  11. Volcanic and Tectonic Evolution of The Gulf of California Near Mulege, Baja California Sur: Results From Baja Basins NSF-REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, S. J.; Allard, J.; Acuna, N.; Graettinger, A. H.; Busby, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cenozoic volcanic rocks have been studied along many parts of the Gulf of California margin of Baja California because they provide a record of its volcano-tectonic evolution, from subduction (24-12 Ma), to rifting (820 m thick red bed sequence, sourced to the east by andesitic volcanic rocks eroded from the footwall of a west-dipping normal fault. Proximal alluvial fan bajada deposits are debris-flow dominated, with angular clasts up to 1.3 m in size. Distal braided stream deposits have sandstones and cobble conglomerates, with abundant cut and fill structures and rounded clasts. Adakite trachyandesite block-and-ash-flow tuffs are interstratified with the proximal deposits, representing pyroclastic flows generated by collapse of lava domes plumbed up the basin-bounding fault to the east. (2) The redbeds were cut by a dike swarm that fed a field of lava shield volcanoes. The dikes and lava shields include calcalkaline basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite, as well as magnesian trachyandesite and basaltic andesite. (3) A N-S, subvertical fault stepped into the basin and dropped the lava shields down to the east, while they were eroded off the uplifted footwall to the west. (4) The footwall block was beveled and overlain by plateau-forming magnesian basaltic trachyandesite lavas. Basal clastic sequences in the Baja Gulf of California margin have been inferred to represent Oligocene forearc rocks, with overlying volcanic rocks recording westward sweep of the Miocene arc into the area. However, on the basis of our geochemistry, we infer that all of these rocks record post-subduction (<12 Ma) processes. 1 Acuna et al., this volume

  12. Middle-Late Mesozoic sedimentary provenances of the Luxi and Jiaolai areas: Implications for tectonic evolution of the North China Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Zhong

    2015-11-01

    Provenances of sedimentary rocks may provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the North China Block (NCB). Previous studies have demonstrated that the northern NCB (NNCB) and the Xing-Meng orogenic belt (XMOB) supplied massive detritus southward into the hinterland of the NCB during the Jurassic. In order to study the evolution of sedimentary provenance during the Middle-Late Mesozoic, U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopic geochemistry of detrital zircon grains and chemical compositions of detrital garnets from sandstones in the Luxi and Jiaolai areas, eastern NCB, were analyzed in combination with published data on the Jurassic sandstones. The Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic (367-139 Ma) zircons in the lowermost Cretaceous Mengyin Formation samples from the Luxi area show εHf(t) values of -15.3 to -3.2 and +1.3 to +10.0, which are very similar to the results of analyses of the Jurassic formations. Further, the increased amount of Mesozoic zircons and granulite-derived garnets in the Mengyin Formation samples, compared to those in the Jurassic samples, indicates there was more detritus supply from the NNCB than from the XMOB. In the overlying Qingshan Formation samples, zircon grains do not exhibit Paleozoic ages, but most of them have Early Cretaceous ages and negative εHf(t) values, which are similar to the zircon grains extracted from the widespread Early Cretaceous igneous rocks in the NCB. This suggests that the provenance might have changed to a locally derived source. In contrast, the zircon population of the Early Cretaceous sandstones from the Jiaolai basin is dominated by grains of mid-Neoproterozoic age (700-900 Ma) which signifies contribution from the Sulu orogen. Moreover, the detrital garnet assemblages of sandstones in the Luxi area are not consistent with those from representative metamorphic rocks in the Sulu orogen. The above results seem to confirm that the Mesozoic sedimentary provenance of the Luxi area had no evident connection with

  13. Evolution of Plate Tectonics on Earth since the Mid-Mesoarchean was Controlled by Sedimentary Fluxes from Continents to Oceans and Mantle Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, S. V.; Brown, M.

    2017-12-01

    Plate tectonics (PT) is the most important geological process operating on Earth, making it unique among the rocky planets in the Solar System. The question of how PT was initiated and which factors controlled its evolution over Earth's history are widely discussed, but remain controversial. It is broadly accepted that a necessary condition for initiation and stable operation of PT is maintaining low strength along plate boundaries, particularly along the subduction zone interfaces in the subduction channels. Examples from the South American Andes and other convergent margins show that unconsolidated continental sediments in trenches serve as an efficient lubricant for subduction; if these are lacking, friction in the subduction channel and strength of the plate boundary are significantly increased. We suggest that lubrication of subduction by accumulation of continental sediments in trenches played a crucial role during the evolution of PT on Earth since the mid-Mesoarchean. We posit that continental emergence and enhanced surface erosion caused an increasing flux of sediments into the oceans, which in turn lubricated subduction channels and intensified PT. Thus, peaks in orogenesis, as confirmed by several proxies, during periods of supercraton/supercontinent assembly represent periods of vigorous subduction and continental sedimentation in trenches prior to terminal collision. Conversely, a decrease in plate boundary length and a reduction in continental sediment accumulation in trenches during periods of stability after supercraton/supercontinent assembly is the likely reason for periods of lower PT vigor, including the so called `boring billion' between 1.8 and 0.8 Ga. The largest surface erosion and subduction-lubrication event occurred at the end of the `snowball' Earth epoch in the Neoproterozoic and likely accelerated the most recent episode of vigorous PT. Based on analysis of various geological observations, we suggest that the cyclic behavior of PT on

  14. Geoprospective study of a nuclear waste repository. Prospective tectonics: convergent and divergent episodes, evolution of stress during the next 100,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Within the frame of a contract with the CEC, dealing with storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations, the B.R.G.M. has been involved in a research on prospective tectonics. Within the Western European continental plate, since Mesozoic times, one sees the alternation or succession of convergent and divergent tectonic episodes. These tectonic episodes, although representing geologically discontinuous phenomena, still have time periods of between 4 to 40 millions years. These tectonic phenomena are the cause of the formation or reactivation, at all scales in the continental plate, of brittle, fault-like structures. Tectonic analysis and the in situ measures of stress and the earthquake focal phenomena show that, from the lower Quaternary to the present, the Western European continental plate has been subjected to NNW to SSE convergent stress. A study of the arrangement of European and African plates in the Western Mediterranean shows that the entire region, is undergoing a period of continental collision. The change in the process implies a westerly continental drift of the Spanish plate, a movement which would take several million years. On the Western European scale, the most likely hypothesis during the next 100,000 years is the persistance of the present stress trending approximately N-5. On the other hand, on a local scale, reorganisations of this stress are possible, owing to the presence of tectonic or lithological heterogeneities

  15. Sudbuction-related tectonic mixing between serpentinized mantle and continental crust in the internal Western Alps: exhumed portion of a marble cake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalla, M.; Zucali, M.; Cantù, M.; Roda, M.; Marotta, A.

    2011-12-01

    The pre-Alpine continental crust of the Western Alps is widely affected by subduction-related high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) metamorphism and the Sesia-Lanzo Zone (SLZ) represents the widest crustal complex re-equilibrated under HP conditions during Late-Cretaceous (early-Alpine) times. Its Alpine tectonic evolution is compatible with an uplift during active oceanic lithosphere subduction (e.g. Spalla et al., 1996; Meda et al., 2010; Zucali & Spalla, 2011). In the SLZ three main lithologic complexes have been recognized (e.g. Compagnoni et al., 1977): i) Gneiss Minuti complex (GMC); ii) Eclogitic Micaschists complex (EMC); iii) II Dioritic-Kinzigitic Zone (IIDK). IIDK consists of kilometer-size lenses of pelitic and mafic granulites that escaped eclogite facies re-equilibration. EMC and GMC, both pervasively eclogitised, strongly differ in the volume percentage of greenschist facies re-equilibration (Stuenitz, 1989; Spalla et al., 1991). In the southern SLZ the metamorphic complex of Rocca Canavese thrust sheets (RCT; Pognante, 1989 a; Pognante, 1989b) has been recognised, on the ground of its strongly contrasted Alpine metamorphic evolution, characterized by a P-climax recorded under very LT conditions. A new multi-scale structural analysis, performed to acquire new detailed petrologic data and to refine the tectonic trajectory of such a peculiar metamorphic complex, pointed out that RCT is a tectonic mixing of serpentinized mantle and continental rocks deformed together under high pressure conditions. Field analysis reports a superposed grid of metamorphic foliations allowing regional scale correlation of structural and metamorphic stages, after micro-structural identification of mineral assemblages marking successive fabrics in each rock type. Chemical data on variations of mineral compositions in different micro-structural sites, led to the reconstruction of a PTdt (Pressure-Temperature-relative deformation time) path and opened therefore the possibility

  16. The late Quaternary evolution of the Arno Coastal plain (northern Tuscany, Italy): unravelling the interplay between glacio-eustatic and tectonic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, G.; Rossi, V.; Amorosi, A.; Ciampalini, A.; Molli, G.; Moretti, S.; Solari, L.

    2016-12-01

    Through the integration of sedimentological, radar interferometry and structural studies, a complex mid-late Quaternary coastal evolution related to Milankovitch-scale glacio-eustatic oscillations and local tectonics was reconstructed for the southern margin of the Arno coastal plain (APC, Tuscany, Italy). A set of 14C and ESR ages combined with SAR data, paleontological and archaeological proxy support the chronological framework. At a regional scale, the ACP straddles at the SW termination of a regional-scale fault, a crustal expression of lithospheric-scale tear segmenting the deep structure of the northern Apennines. GPS data, historical and present-day seismicity testify the activity of the fault zone. The thickness (up to 3000 m) and the age (Upper Miocene-Holocene) of the APC fill deposits reflect the accommodation space through time north of the Livorno-Sillaro line (LSL), in contrast to the recent uplifting documented south of the it. The uppermost 100 m of subsurface in the APC shows a Pleistocene incised-valley system (IVS), ca. 4 km wide and 45 m deep. The IVS fill is composed of floodplain clays passing upwards to estuarine deposits, dated to MIS 7. Above, a succession of amalgamated fluvial-channel sands record both depositional and erosional events of post-MIS 7 age. Upwards, a Holocene alluvial-deltaic succession overlies an indurated horizon related to a younger IVS system that formed at MIS 3/MIS 2 transition. The Holocene succession becomes thin in proximity of an isolated relief, Upper Pleistocene in age, rising up to 15 m above the present-day plain, ca. 6 km south of the Arno River. ERS and Envisat SAR data were acquired between the 1992 and the 2010 and processed by using the PSInSAR technique. The subsidence rates along the southern boundary of the ACP, reach 28 mm/y even if this data may be partially enhanced by water exploitation. Our results document that the transition between the subsiding and uplifting areas does not coincide with the

  17. A Paleomagnetic study on the tectonic evolution of the Nigde-Kirsehir massif and the Taurides since the Mesozoic-Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz Cinku, M.; Mumtaz Hisarli, Z.; Hirt, A. M.; Ulker, B.; Oksum, E.; Kaya, N.; Setzer, F.; Yilmaz, Y.-; Orbay, N.

    2013-12-01

    The main tectonic domains of Turkey consist of several different assemblages of microcontinents represented by the Istranca massif, Istanbul Zone, Sakarya Zone, Nigde-Kirsehir Massif, Anatolide-Tauride block, and the Arabian platform. It is widely reported that the borders between these fragments are represented by suture zones, which resulted from the closure of different branches of the Neotethian Ocean. The northern suture zone, the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone, is well known, whereas the suture zone between the Nigde-Kirsehir massif and the Taurides has been a subject of debate. It has been proposed that the Nigde-Kirsehir massif rifted from the Taurides-Anatolides in the Mesozoic and that the Intra-Tauride Ocean lay between these blocks. Other researchers have alternatively proposed that the Intra-Tauride Ocean between the Taurides-Anatolides and the Nigde-Kirsehir massif never existed, and assume that the it is a promontory of the Taurides. Paleomagnetic rotations obtained from a previous study indicate oroclinal bending in the Late Cretaceous in the northern part of the Nigde-Kirsehir massif due to its northwards indentation onto the Sakarya zone. However the southern deformation history of the Nigde-Kirsehir massif during Mesozoic has not been investigated. We have carried out a paleomagnetic study on the southern part of the massif, using a total of 120 sites that are of Late Jurassic to Miocene in age, to constrain the paleotectonic evolution of the Nigde-Kirsehir massif and its surrounding area. A paleolatitude of 17°N is obtained for the Late Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Tauride carbonate platform, whereas Late Cretaceous arc volcanics from the suture zone around the Nigde-Kirsehir massif (Mersin ophiolite, Pozanti ophiolite) indicate a ~20°N paleolatitude. Both the Late Jurassic to Middle Eocene paleomagnetic declinations from the southeastern part of the investigation area indicates counterclockwise rotation, whereas Late Cretaceous declinations

  18. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min

    2017-10-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  19. Geochemistry and geochronology of the mafic dikes in the Taipusi area, northern margin of North China Craton: Implications for Silurian tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Hua; Li, Huan; Xi, Xiao-Shuang; Kong, Hua; Wu, Qian-Hong; Peng, Neng-Li; Wu, Xi-Ming; Cao, Jing-Ya; Gabo-Ratio, Jillian Aira S.

    2017-07-01

    The Taipusi area in the Bainaimiao Arc Belt is located in the northern margin of the North China Craton, at the southern margin of the middle Central Asian Orogenic Belt. It is characterized by large exposures of mafic dikes. In this contribution, we present first-hand whole-rock major and trace elements, zircon U-Pb geochronology and in situ trace element geochemistry data for these mafic rocks, which reveal their petrogenesis and tectonic evolution. These mafic dikes display varied compositions of SiO2 (49.42-54.29%), TiO2 (0.63-1.08%), Al2O3 (13.94-17.60%), MgO (4.66-10.51%), Fe2O3 (1.59-3.07%), FeO (4.60-6.90%), CaO (4.57-8.91%), Na2O (1.61-4.26%), K2O (0.92-2.54%) and P2O5 (0.11-0.29%). They are mainly of high-K calc-alkaline series with indistinct Eu anomalies, enriched in large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Ba, K and Sr) but depleted in high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, P and Ti). These suggest that the crystallizing magma was derived from enriched mantle altered by metasomatic fluids in a subduction setting with imprints of active continental margin features. The high concentrations of Hf, U, Th, Pb and Y, pronounced positive Ce but slightly negative Eu anomalies in zircons indicating that the magma underwent a fractional crystallization and crustal contamination process, with medium to high fO2. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating yielded concordant ages of 437-442 Ma for these mafic dikes, which is consistent with the early Paleozoic volcanic arc magmatic activity in the Bainaimiao area. Hence, we conclude that the Bainaimiao Arc Belt is a continental arc formed by the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian ocean during early Paleozoic.

  20. THE BASAL COMPLEX STRATIGRAPHY OF THE HELMINTHOID MONTE CASSIO FLYSCH: A KEY TO THE EOALPINE TECTONICS OF THE NORTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAOLO VESCOVI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Below the Monte Cassio helminthoid Flysch of the type locality, a well exposed basal complex outcrops in which Cenomanian turbidites of up to 200 m thickness are recognized. The bulk of these turbidites, named here Case Baruzzo Sandstone (CBS, consists of thick-bedded silty marlstones with a fine arenaceous base and represents the oldest siliciclastic input within the succession of the Cassio tectonic unit. The Case Baruzzo Sandstone lies unconformably on the Palombini shale of Hauterivian-Aptian age and on stratified packets of Jurassic-Cretaceous formations with Austroalpine affinity (Radiolarites, Aptici Shale and Maiolica. The Cenomanian CBS are unconformably overlain by Varicoloured Clay of Santonian - Campanian age and affected by soft-sediment deformations. The petrography of the CBS shows two petrofacies indicating (1 a direct provenance from their substrate and (2 an extrabasinal source similar to the terrigenous framework of the tectonically independent Coniacian-Santonian Ostia Sandstone outcropping southwest of the Cassio Unit. Because of its Cenomanian age the CBS must be considered as a siliciclastic wedge distinct from the younger Ostia Sandstone belonging to the Media Val Taro Unit and time correlative to the Varicoloured Clay of the Cassio Unit. The initiation of the turbidite sandstones terrigenous supply is Cenomanian into the Cassio Basal Complex (CBS, Coniacian into the Media Val Taro Unit (Ostia Sandstone and Campanian into the more internal Gottero Unit (fine-grained turbidites interbedded within the Val Lavagna Formation. It is proposed that the relative positions of the highest tectonic units outcropping in the Emilian Apennines (i.e. Gottero, Media Val Taro and Cassio Units during Late Cretaceous were not very different to the present setting, and that their tectono-stratigraphic evolution was related to Alpine-vergent accretionary wedges. The Alpine tectonic polarity should have controlled the westwards migration of

  1. Inversion tectonics of the benue trough | Mamah | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Benue Trough, an aulacogen at the entrant of the Gulf of Guinea in Nigeria, has been historically studied from the concepts of ortho-mio-eu-geosynclines at outcrops and in the subsurface. Its structural evolution reveals a tectonic scenario compatible with Plate tectonic evolution of the Atlantic Ocean. Spreading was ...

  2. Alpine orogenic evolution from subduction to collisional thermal overprint: The 40Ar/39Ar age constraints from the Valaisan Ocean, central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiederkehr, Michael; Sudo, Masafumi; Bousquet, Romain

    2009-01-01

    age populations of white mica record peak pressure conditions (42–40 Ma) and several stages of subsequent retrograde metamorphic evolution (36–25 Ma). Biotite isotopic analyses yield consistent apparent ages that cluster around 18–16 Ma for the Barrow-type thermal overprint. The recorded isotopic data...

  3. Tectonic evolution of the Cretaceous Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange during the Late Cretaceous to pre-Miocene interval in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojay, Bora

    2013-04-01

    The chaotic tectonic belt, which is distinguished in northern Anatolia, is called the - Ankara Accretionary Complex - in the Ankara region, central Anatolia. The belt is differentiated into three imbricated tectonic subbelts, namely, pre-Triassic metamorphics, Mélange with calcareous blocks and Cretaceous mélange with ophiolitic blocks (Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange). The Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange (AOM) is a chaotic tectono-sedimentary mixture made up of detached blocks of Mesozoic ultramafic rocks, Cretaceous pillow basalts, Cretaceous radiolarites, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones and closely associated Upper Cretaceous basinal sequences. The detached and dismembered blocks lie within a highly sheared and brecciated ophiolitic detrital matrix or a block-on-block to sheared sedimentary matrix that varies along the mélange belt. Cenomanian-Turonian and Turonian-Santonian trench-linked basin deposits onlap the Cenomanian sedimentary and Cretaceous ophiolitic mélanges. The elements of the ophiolitic mélange were comixed as a result of tectonic recycling in the accretionary wedge. The belt is unconformably overlain by Campanian-Maastrichtian to Paleogene accretionary fore-arc basin deposits. The AOM developed in an accretionary wedge setting in which oceanic leading edge of the Anatolide-Tauride platform subducted toward north during the post-Barremian-pre-Campanian period. The AOM emplaced episodically and progressively as a result of in thrust tectonics with vergence ranging from SSW to SE during the post-Turonian to pre-Miocene in the Ankara terrain.

  4. Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc belt, Eastern Tianshan: Constraints from the magmatism of the Yuhai porphyry Cu deposit, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfeng; Chen, Huayong; Han, Jinsheng; Chen, Shoubo; Huang, Baoqiang; Li, Chen; Tian, Qinglei; Wang, Chao; Wu, Jianxin; Chen, Mingxia

    2018-03-01

    pyroxene diorite shows slight enrichments in LREEs ((La/Yb)N = 2.04-2.55), Ba, U, K and Pb, weak depletions in Nb, Ta and Ti, elevated Th/U ratios, and low Ni contents and Ce/Pb ratios. Integrating with the regional tectonic evolution, we suggest that the pyroxene diorite was likely originated from the partial melting of depleted mantle metasomatized by subducted slab-derived fluids. In addition, crustal contamination likely occurred when the pyroxene diorite magma traversed the continental crust. Integrating our new results with published works on the early Paleozoic Dananhu-Tousuquan and Bogeda-Haerlike island arc belts, we propose that the Yuhai quartz diorite may have formed in a subduction setting related to the N-dipping subduction of the North Tianshan oceanic plate. The younger Yuhai granite was likely generated by the bipolar subduction of the North Tianshan oceanic plate, which formed both of the Dananhu-Tousuquan belt to the north and the Aqishan-Yamansu belt to the south. The youngest Yuhai pyroxene diorite was likely formed under a post-collisional extension setting after the Dananhu-Tousuquan and Aqishan-Yamansu belts had collided.

  5. Investigating the landscape of Arroyo Seco—Decoding the past—A teaching guide to climate-controlled landscape evolution in a tectonically active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Havens, Jeremy C.

    2017-05-19

    IntroductionArroyo Seco is a river that flows eastward out of the Santa Lucia Range in Monterey County, California. The Santa Lucia Range is considered part of the central California Coast Range. Arroyo Seco flows out of the Santa Lucia Range into the Salinas River valley, near the town of Greenfield, where it joins the Salinas River. The Salinas River flows north into Monterey Bay about 40 miles from where it merges with Arroyo Seco. In the mountain range, Arroyo Seco has cut or eroded a broad and deep valley. This valley preserves a geologic story in the landscape that is influenced by both fault-controlled mountain building (tectonics) and sea level fluctuations (regional climate).Broad flat surfaces called river terraces, once eroded by Arroyo Seco, can be observed along the modern drainage. In the valley, terraces are also preserved like climbing stairs up to 1,800 feet above Arroyo Seco today. These terraces mark where Arroyo Seco once flowed.The terraces were formed by the river because no matter how high they are, the terraces are covered by gravel deposits exactly like those that can be observed in the river today. The Santa Lucia Range, Arroyo Seco, and the Salinas River valley must have looked very different when the highest and oldest terraces were forming. The Santa Lucia Range may have been lower, the Arroyo Seco may have been steeper and wider, and the Salinas River valley may have been much smaller.Arroyo Seco, like all rivers, is always changing. Some-times rivers flow very straight, and sometimes they are curvy. Sometimes rivers are cutting down or eroding the landscape, and sometimes they are not eroding but depositing material. Sometimes rivers are neither eroding nor transporting material. The influences that change the behavior of Arroyo Seco are mountain uplift caused by fault moment and sea level changes driven by regional climate change. When a stream is affected by one or both of these influences, the stream accommodates the change by

  6. Provenance and detrital zircon geochronologic evolution of lower Brookian foreland basin deposits of the western Brooks Range, Alaska, and implications for early Brookian tectonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Potter, Christopher J.; Donelick, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    The Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part of the Brookian sequence of northern Alaska consists of syntectonic deposits shed from the north-directed, early Brookian orogenic belt. We employ sandstone petrography, detrital zircon U-Pb age analysis, and zircon fission-track double-dating methods to investigate these deposits in a succession of thin regional thrust sheets in the western Brooks Range and in the adjacent Colville foreland basin to determine sediment provenance, sedimentary dispersal patterns, and to reconstruct the evolution of the Brookian orogen. The oldest and structurally highest deposits are allochthonous Upper Jurassic volcanic arc–derived sandstones that rest on accreted ophiolitic and/or subduction assemblage mafic igneous rocks. These strata contain a nearly unimodal Late Jurassic zircon population and are interpreted to be a fragment of a forearc basin that was emplaced onto the Brooks Range during arc-continent collision. Synorogenic deposits found at structurally lower levels contain decreasing amounts of ophiolite and arc debris, Jurassic zircons, and increasing amounts of continentally derived sedimentary detritus accompanied by broadly distributed late Paleozoic and Triassic (359–200 Ma), early Paleozoic (542–359 Ma), and Paleoproterozoic (2000–1750 Ma) zircon populations. The zircon populations display fission-track evidence of cooling during the Brookian event and evidence of an earlier episode of cooling in the late Paleozoic and Triassic. Surprisingly, there is little evidence for erosion of the continental basement of Arctic Alaska, its Paleozoic sedimentary cover, or its hinterland metamorphic rocks in early foreland basin strata at any structural and/or stratigraphic level in the western Brooks Range. Detritus from exhumation of these sources did not arrive in the foreland basin until the middle or late Albian in the central part of the Colville Basin.These observations indicate that two primary provenance areas provided

  7. Evolution and relationships between volcanism and tectonics in the central-eastern part of the Oligocene Borovitsa caldera (Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Damien; Yanev, Yotzo; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Chorowicz, Jean

    2008-04-01

    The nested Borovitsa caldera emplaced during the collision-related Paleogene volcanism in the Eastern Rhodopes. The pre-caldera succession consists in Priabonian to Early Oligocene sediments and lavas (absarokites, shoshonites, latites). The caldera filling corresponds to an acid volcanism Early Oligocene in age. The tectono-magmatic evolution of the caldera can be divided into six main stages. (1) Ignimbritic units (more than 1.5 km thick) with a trachydacitic to trachytic composition deposited. The K-Ar method yields an age of 34-33.5 Ma. The volcanic products are either strongly or not welded in the western and eastern parts of the caldera, respectively. (2) An initial Murga caldera, 7-10 km in diameter, collapsed. This event was accompanied by the intrusion of a circular body consisting of lenses-bearing rocks of trachyrhyodacitic to rhyolitic composition within the border faults. (3) The emission of pyroclastic rocks continued and a large sub-volcanic body (33 Ma) of trachydacitic to trachyrhyolitic composition intruded in the western part of the circular body. (4) The Borovitsa caldera (15 km × 34 km) collapsed. Rhyolitic and trachydacitic dykes dated at 32.5 Ma intruded along its border faults. (5) High-Si trachyrhyolitic-perlitic domes intruded in the eastern part of the Borovitsa caldera at 30-32 Ma and the Dushka caldera collapsed within the Borovitsa structure. (6) Dykes of various compositions (from shoshonite to rhyolite) and trachydacitic to rhyolitic sub-volcanic stocks finally intruded within the caldera and along its rims at 27.5-29.5 Ma. Observations on radar and optical satellite imagery allowed both a new mapping of the structural pattern in the Borovitsa caldera and the understanding of the relationships between faulting and volcanism in this area. Horse-tail features accommodating the right-lateral throw component at the termination of NW-SE and N-S right-lateral strike-slip faults are superimposed upon the Murga caldera and the eastern part

  8. The role of recent tectonics and hydrological processes in the evolution of recurring landslides on the Danube's high bank in Dunaföldvár, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentes, Gyula

    2017-08-01

    There are high loess banks prone to landslide along the River Danube in Hungary. One of these is the high loess bank in Dunaföldvár, where several landslides occurred in the last decades. Quantitative relationships between the movements of the high loess bank and the variation of the water level of the River Danube, the ground water table, precipitation and temperature are investigated by two borehole tiltmeters and a vertical borehole extensometer. The twelve-year long observation from 2002 to 2014 made it possible to distinguish between the high bank movements due to slow recent tectonic and geomorphologic processes and the short-period (from hours to months) movements caused by hydrometeorological effects. The results revealed that besides geomorphologic processes recent tectonics can play an important role in the recurrence of landslides in the area. In the investigated period the total tilt of the high bank was 162 μrad in the SSE direction according to the geomorphologic and recent tectonic processes in the surroundings of Dunaföldvár. Investigations of the relationships between the high bank movements and the water level of the River Danube, ground water table changes and the precipitation revealed that the tilt magnitudes caused by the ground water table variations are two orders of magnitude greater than the tilts caused by the water level regime of the river and the direct effect of the precipitation on the high bank tilts can be disregarded.

  9. Interpretation of remagnetization directions by Small Circle methods. Application to various tectonic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Villalaín, Juan; Casas, Antonio; Calvín, Pablo; Soto-Marín, Ruth; Torres, Sara; Moussaid, Bennacer

    2017-04-01

    Secondary magnetizations have been used to constraint geological models in spite of the difficulties of dating the remanence age and the uncertainty in applying the valid tectonic correction, specially if the remagnetization is syntectonic. The fold test is the main tool used traditionally to identify and interpret remagnetization. In particular, the incremental fold test has been applied to attempt calculating the appropriate tectonic correction in synfolding remanences. However the fold test assumes symmetrical deformation giving erroneous solutions when dealing with asymmetrical folding. This strongly limits the use of the fold test because asymmetric tectonic evolution is very common in different geological processes. Therefore, it is necessary to use alternative techniques for analyzing remagnetization directions. In this sense, the use of small circles (SC) represents a very interesting option because it allows considering asymmetric deformations and degrees of freedom which fold test restricts. A SC is defined by a complete rotation of the in situ site mean paleomagnetic direction about the strike of bedding (i.e. the apical angle of its cone is the angle between the paleomagnetic vector and the strike of beds). In this presentation we analyze the use of SC for analysis of remagnetization directions in two phases: a) determination of the magnetic field direction at the remagnetization acquisition time by calculating the SC intersection (SCI) by methods described by Shipunov (1997) or Waldhör and Appel (2006). This obtained direction can be used to date the remagnetization by comparison with the APWP, but also as reference direction for restoration of the rotated remagnetization directions. And b) calculation of the bedding plane at the moment of the acquisition of the remagnetization (paleodip) by restoring the in situ remagnetization directions using each SC as described Villalaín et al. (2003), Henry et al. (2004) and Villalaín et al. (2015). In this

  10. Tectonics of montage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    We build in accordance with specific contemporary conditions, defined by production methods, construction and materials as well as ethics, meaning and values. Exactly this relationship between the work as such and the conditions behind its coming into being is a crucial point. The simultaneity of...... and the creation of meaning forms the core of tectonics. So tectonic thinking is not only about portraying a constructional logic. Tectonics is to create material realities that reveal narrative meaning. Tectonics is to construct with cultural references....

  11. Structural analysis and Miocene-to-Present tectonic evolution of a lithospheric-scale, transcurrent lineament: The Sciacca Fault (Sicilian Channel, Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorik, Jakub; Toscani, Giovanni; Lodolo, Emanuele; Civile, Dario; Bonini, Lorenzo; Seno, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Seismo-stratigraphic and structural analysis of a large number of multichannel seismic reflection profiles acquired in the northern part of the Sicilian Channel allowed a 3-D reconstruction of a regional NS-trending transfer zone which displays a transcurrent tectonic regime, and that is of broad relevance for its seismotectonic and geodynamic implications. It is constituted of two major transcurrent faults delimiting a 30-km-wide, mostly undeformed basin. The western fault (Capo Granitola) does not show clear evidence of present-day tectonic activity, and toward the south it is connected with the volcanic area of the Graham Bank. The eastern fault (Sciacca) is structurally more complex, showing active deformation at the sea-floor, particularly evident along the Nerita Bank. The Sciacca Fault is constituted of a master and splay faults compatible with a right-lateral kinematics. Sciacca Fault is superimposed on an inherited weakness zone (a Mesozoic carbonate ramp), which borders to the east a 2.5-km-thick Plio-Quaternary basin, and that was reactivated during the Pliocene. A set of scaled claybox analogue models was carried out in order to better understand the tectonic processes that led to the structural setting displayed by seismic data. Tectonic structures and uplift/subsidence patterns generated by the models are compatible with the 3-D model obtained from seismic reflection profiles. The best fit between the tectonic setting deriving from the interpretation of seismic profiles and the analogue models was obtained considering a right-lateral movement for the Sciacca Fault. Nevertheless, the stress field in the study area derived from GPS measurements does not support the present-day modelled right-lateral kinematics along the Sciacca Fault. Moreover, seismic events along this fault show focal mechanisms with a left-lateral component. We ascribe the slip change along the Sciacca Fault, from a right-lateral transcurrent regime to the present-day left

  12. Geochronology and geochemistry of Mesozoic intrusive rocks in the Xing'an Massif of NE China: Implications for the evolution and spatial extent of the Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Xu, Wen-Liang; Tang, Jie; Pei, Fu-Ping; Wang, Feng; Sun, Chen-Yang

    2018-04-01

    This study presents new zircon U-Pb-Hf and whole-rock geochemical data for intrusive rocks in the Xing'an Massif of NE China, with the aim of furthering our understanding of the evolution and spatial influence of the Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic regime. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that five stages of Mesozoic magmatism are recorded in the Xing'an Massif, namely during the Middle Triassic ( 237 Ma), the Late Triassic ( 225 Ma), the Early Jurassic ( 178 Ma), the Middle Jurassic ( 168 Ma), and the late Early Cretaceous ( 130 Ma). The Middle Triassic-Early Jurassic intrusive rocks in the Xing'an Massif are dominantly granodiorites, monzogranites, and syenogranites that formed from magma generated by partial melting of newly accreted continental crust. Geochemistry of the Middle Triassic-Early Jurassic granitoid suites of the Xing'an Massif indicates their formation at an active continental margin setting, related to the southwards subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate. The Middle Jurassic monzogranites in the Xing'an Massif are geochemically similar to adakites and have εHf(t) values (+3.8 to +5.8) and Hf two-stage model ages (TDM2; 979-850 Ma) that are indicative of derivation from magma generated by partial melting of thickened juvenile lower crust. The Middle Jurassic monzogranites formed in a compressional setting related to the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. The late Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks in the Xing'an Massif are dominated by A-type granitoids that are associated with bimodal volcanic rocks, suggesting their formation in an extensional environment related to either (i) delamination of a previously thickened region of the crust, associated with the Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic regime; (ii) the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate; or (iii) the combined influence of these two tectonic regimes.

  13. The role of tectonic inheritance in the morphostructural evolution of the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains from digital bathymetric model (DBM) analysis (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, A.; Jané, G.; Llave, E.; López-Martínez, J.; Bohoyo, F.; Druet, M.

    2017-09-01

    The identification of recent major tectonic structures in the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains was carried out by means of a quantitative analysis of the linear structures having bathymetric expression on the seabed. It was possible to identify about 5800 lineaments throughout the entire study area, of approximately 271,500 km2. Most lineaments are located in the Charcot and Coruña highs, in the western sector of the Galicia Bank, in the area of the Marginal Platforms and in the northern sector of the margin. Analysis of the lineament orientations shows a predominant NE-SW direction and three relative maximum directions: NW-SE, E-W and N-S. The total length of the lineaments identified is over 44,000 km, with a mode around 5000 m and an average length of about 7800 m. In light of different tectonic studies undertaken in the northwestern margin of the Iberian Peninsula, we establish that the lineaments obtained from analysis of the digital bathymetric model of the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains would correspond to fracture systems. In general, the orientation of lineaments corresponds to main faults, tectonic structures following the directions of ancient faults that resulted from late stages of the Variscan orogeny and Mesozoic extension phases related to Triassic rifting and Upper Jurassic to Early Cretaceous opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The N-S convergence between Eurasian and African plates since Palaeogene times until the Miocene, and NW-SE convergence from Neogene to present, reactivated the Variscan and Mesozoic fault systems and related physiography.

  14. The revised tectonic history of Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Sylvain; Baratoux, David; Paulien, Nicolas; Missenard, Yves; Saint-Bézar, Bertrand

    2018-04-01

    Constraining the timing of the emplacement of the volcano-tectonic province of Tharsis is critical to understanding the evolution of mantle, surface environment and climate of Mars. The growth of Tharsis had exerted stresses on the lithosphere, which were responsible for tectonic deformation, previously mapped as radial or concentric faults. Insights into the emplacement history of Tharsis may be gained from an analysis of the characteristics and ages of these tectonic features. The number, total length, linear density of extensional or compressional faults in the Tharsis region and deformation rates are reported for each of the following 6 stages: Early and Middle Noachian (stage 1); Late Noachian (stage 2); Early Hesperian (stage 3); Late Hesperian (stage 4), Early Amazonian (stage 5) and Middle Amazonian to Late Amazonian (stage 6). 8571 Tharsis-related tectonic features (radial or concentric to the center of Tharsis) were assigned to one of these periods of time based on their relationship with stratigraphic units defined in the most recent geological map. Intense faulting at Tempe Terra, Claritas and Coracis Fossae and Thaumasia Planum confirms that tectonic deformation started during the Noachian. However, we report a peak in both compressive and extensive rates of deformation during the Early Hesperian whereas the quantitative indicators for compressional and extensional tectonics vary within less than one order of magnitude from the Late Noachian to the Late Hesperian. These observations indicate a protracted growth of Tharsis during the first quarter of Mars evolution and declining from 3 Gyrs ago.

  15. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1985-01-01

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  16. Applying the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility technique to the study of the tectonic evolution of the West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dudzisz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the use of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS method to determine the orientation of the principal tectonic strain directions developed during the formation of the West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt (WSFTB. The AMS measurements and extensive rock-magnetic studies of the Lower Triassic rocks reported here were focused on the recognition of the magnetic fabric, the identification of ferromagnetic minerals and an estimation of the influence of ferro- and paramagnetic minerals on magnetic susceptibility. At most sites, the paramagnetic minerals controlled the magnetic susceptibility, and at only one site the impact of ferromagnetic minerals was higher. The AMS technique documented the presence of different types of magnetic fabrics within the sampled sites. At two sites, a normal (Kmin perpendicular to the bedding magnetic fabric of sedimentary origin was detected. This was associated with a good clustering of the maximum AMS axes imposed by tectonic strain. The Kmax magnetic lineation directions obtained here parallel the general NNW–SSE trend of the WSFTB fold axial traces and thrust fronts. The two other investigated sites possessed mixed and inverted fabrics, the latter of which appear to reflect the presence of iron-bearing carbonates.

  17. The distribution and composition characteristics of siliceous rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, South China: constraint on the tectonic evolution of plates in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu

    2013-01-01

    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak.

  18. Post-magmatic structural evolution of the Troodos Ophiolite Pillow Lavas revealed by microthermometry within vein precipitates, with application to Alpine-Mediterranean supra-subduction zone settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, W.; Quandt, D.; Micheuz, P.; Krenn, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, is one of the best preserved ophiolites. Based on geochemical data a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) setting was proposed. Microtextures and fluid inclusions of veins and vesicles within the Pillow Lavas record the post-magmatic structural and geochemical evolution of this SSZ beginning at 75 Ma. Three different vein types from the Upper and Lower Pillow Lavas are distinguished and imply vein precipitation under a dominant extensional regime: (1) syntaxial calcite-, quartz- and zeolite-bearing veins are interpreted as mineralized extension fractures that were pervaded by seawater. This advective fluid flow in an open system changed later into a closed system characterized by geochemical self-organization. (2) Blocky and (3) antitaxial fibrous calcite veins are associated with brecciation due to hydrofracturing and diffusion-crystallization processes, respectively. Based on aqueous fluid inclusion chemistry with seawater salinities in all studied vein types, representative fluid inclusion isochores crossed with calculated litho- and hydrostatic pressure conditions yield mineral precipitation temperatures between 180 and 210 °C, for veins and vesicles hosted in the Upper and Lower Pillow Lavas. This points to a heat source for the circulating seawater and implies that vein and vesicle minerals precipitated shortly after pillow lava crystallization under dominant isobaric cooling conditions. Compared to previous suggestions derived from secondary mineralization a less steep geothermal gradient of 200 °C from the Sheeted Dyke Complex to the Pillow Lavas of the Troodos SSZ is proposed. Further fossil and recent SSZ like the Mirdita ophiolite, Albania, the South-Anatolian ophiolites, Turkey, and the Izu-Bonin fore arc, respectively, reveal similar volcanic sequences. Vein samples recovered during International Ocean Discovery Program expedition 351 and 352 in the Izu-Bonin back and fore arc, respectively, indicate also seawater infiltration

  19. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. From milk to cheese: Evolution of flavor fingerprint of milk, cream, curd, whey, ricotta, scotta, and ripened cheese obtained during summer Alpine pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, M; Bittante, G

    2018-02-14

    The role of each step of cheese and ricotta making in development of flavor of cheese and other dairy products is not yet well known. The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOC) in cheese and ricotta making with bulk milk from cows grazing in a highland area and to evaluate their evolution in the various dairy products and by-products obtained during the production processes. A group of 148 cows was grazed day and night on pasture from June to September. A total of 7 cheese-making sessions were carried out using the bulk milk collected every 2 wk during summer pasturing according to the artisanal procedure used for Malga cheese production. All milks, products, and by-products were sampled, and the VOC content of milk, cream, whey, ricotta, scotta (residual liquid), fresh cheeses, and cheeses ripened for 6 and 12 mo was determined by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty-nine compounds were identified belonging to the following chemical families: alcohols (13), aldehydes (9), esters (8), free fatty acids (6), ketones (5), lactones (2), sulfurs (2), terpenes (2), phenol (1), and benzene (1). The results showed that the amounts of VOC in the various dairy products differed significantly. Comparisons between the VOC of 4 types of milk (whole evening, skim evening, whole morning, mixed in the vat) showed that the skimming process had the greatest effect, with about half of all the VOC analyzed affected, followed by time of milking (evening milking vs. morning milking) and mixing (skim evening milk mixed with whole morning milk). In general, among fresh products, cream had higher contents of fatty acids, sulfurs, and terpene volatile compounds than fresh cheese and ricotta, whereas ricotta showed a very high VOC amount compared with fresh cheese, probably due to its high processing temperature. The effects of the progressive nutrient depletion in milk during processing were investigated by comparing

  1. Semenic Mountains’ alpine skiing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BANIAȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents, after a short history of alpine skiing which describes apparition, necessity, utility and universality of skiing during time, a comparative study referring to the alpine skiing domain in the Semenic Mountains area. In the paper are also presented general notions about alpine skiing methodology together with an ample description of the plateau area form Semenic Mountains, describing localization and touristic potential. Based on the SWOT analysis made for each slope, was realized a complex analysis of the entire skiing domain, an analysis which includes technical, financial, climatic and environmental aspects, along with an analysis of the marketing policy applied for the specific zone.

  2. Late cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Patagonian Andes between 42oS and 52oS, southern Chile assessed using fission-track thermochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.N; Herve, F; Stockhert, B.; Brix, M.R.; Adriasola, A

    2001-01-01

    Fission-track (FT) analysis has been applied in the Patagonian Andes of southern Chile to assess the late Cenozoic geomorphic and tectonic response of the overriding plate to subduction of the Chile rise active oceanic spreading centre (Thomson et al., 2001). The timing and nature of tectonic uplift and denudation along the southern parts of the major transpression intra-arc Liquine-Ofqui fault (LOF) system have also been investigated (Thomson, 2001, submitted). Results from 130 FT ages (72 zircon and 58 apatite ages) and 39 apatite track length measurements reveal initiation of rapid cooling and denudation at ca. 30 Ma at the western margin of southern continental South America. This was followed by a ca. 200km eastward migration of the locus of maximum denudation to the position of the present day topographic divide between ca. 30 Ma and ca. 12 to 10 Ma. East of the Andean divide less than 3 km of denudation has occurred since the Late Cretaceous. Enhanced denudation is interpreted to be the result of increased tectonic uplift driven by a large increase in convergence rates at ca. 28 to 26 Ma that triggered orographically enhanced precipitation on the west-side of the Patagonian Andes allowing increased erosion by fluvial incision and mass transport processes. The eastward migration of the locus of maximum denudation can be related to either coeval eastward migration of the retro-arc deformation front, the effects of subduction erosion in the overriding plate at the Peru-Chile trench or shallowing of the angle of subduction. Away from the influence of the LOF the process of spreading centre subduction and collision itself coincides with an overall slow-down in denudation rates in the overriding plate most likely caused by a major reduction in the main tectonic force driving tectonic uplift in the upper plate to subduction. In contrast to the Andes south of ca. 46 o S, increased cooling and denudation related to transpression induced rock uplift and erosion along

  3. Petrography and detrital zircon study of late Carboniferous sequences in the southwestern North China Craton: Implications for the regional tectonic evolution and bauxite genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuhui; Wang, Qingfei; Liu, Xuefei; Feng, Yuewen; Zhang, Ying

    2015-02-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) has been flanked by the North Qilian and North Qinling arc-accretionary belts to the south and southwest since ∼400 Ma. The part of the NCC to the east of the Alax terrane (E-NCC) experienced a long sedimentary hiatus and tectonic quiescence between the Middle Ordovician and the late Carboniferous. The northern margin of the E-NCC was reactivated and uplifted with contemporaneous volcanism during the late Carboniferous, an event that partly induced the transformation of the E-NCC from an erosional platform to a continental sedimentary basin. However, the factors controlling this transformation are still not fully understood. A series of sedimentary rocks overlying Ordovician carbonates in the southwestern E-NCC contains a lower iron-oxide layer and an upper phyllosilicate layer. Detrital zircons from different parts of the profile, from the base to the top of the two layers, have similar U-Pb ages. These zircons have a minimum age of ca. 300 Ma and a prominent peak at ca. 450 Ma, with subordinate peaks at ca. 1000 and 2500 Ma. The near-identical minimum age for the two layers suggests they were semi-simultaneously deposited in the late Carboniferous after the long hiatus in sedimentation. Detrital zircons with ages of ∼450 Ma have initial Hf isotopic compositions that vary from large negative to elevated positive. These data, together with the trace element compositions of these zircons, indicate that these minerals formed in a continental arc environment. Samples from the upper sedimentary layer contain mica group minerals that are weakly buckled and fractured, and have weathered to form clay minerals, including chlorite and illite. This suggests that the protolith of this sedimentary layer was dominated by mica schist or mica-bearing granitoid that most likely located near the adjoined part between the North Qilian and North Qinling arc-accretionary belts. Detrital zircons with the youngest ages (ca. 300 Ma) were considered to

  4. Unraveling the tectonic evolution of a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian active margin in the Ribeira Orogen (Se Brazil): U-Pb and Lu-Hf provenance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Gabriel Lamounier de F. [Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Schmitt, Renata; Bongiolo, Everton M.; Mendes, Julio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Basei, Miguel S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Full text: The Neoproterozoic-Ordovician Central Ribeira Orogen, in SE Brazil, presents two contrasting tectonic domains in its southern portion: (a) The Arc Domain constituted of Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic magmatic rocks and low P-high T metamorphic para (Sao Fidelis Group) - and ortho- derived units (in Oriental Terrane); and (b) The Basement Domain, constituted of a Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic medium P-high T metamorphic para (Palmital-Buzios Succession)- and ortho-derived units (in Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain). Our work focuses on paraderived rocks sequences from both domains. The provenance analysis using U-Pb and Lu-Hf in zircon grains is presented here as an effective tool to unravel the paleogeography and nature of the pre-collisional sedimentary basins. We performed 505 analyses (U-Pb) on detrital zircon grains and some metamorphic overgrowths from six paragneiss samples. Besides, 141 analyses (Lu-Hf) in six samples only on the detrital zircon grains domains. All samples present a main peak from Neoproterozoic sources (750-570 Ma) and the other minor peak in the Stenian/Tonian periods (1200-850Ma), this indicate an orogenic contribution for this basin. Scarce register from the Mesoproterozoic and two peaks in the Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.6 and 1.9 Ga) are recognized as a contribution from an ancient continent. The Lu-Hf data reveals a juvenile source for the detrital zircon grains from Buzios Succession while Palmital and Sao Fidelis Group units show a main crustal signature for their detrital zircon population. Based on the U-Pb and Lu-Hf data presented here, plus petrological data, geological correlations, and compilation of data from literature, we propose a tectonic model for the origin of para-derived rocks from the eastern part of the Ribeira Orogen. Starting with an extensional environment of ca. 600 Ma in a back-arc basin (Buzios succession deposition) and continuing as an active margin between 570 and 550 Ma in the fore-arc and prism

  5. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  6. Is plate tectonics needed to evolve technological species on exoplanets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As we continue searching for exoplanets, we wonder if life and technological species capable of communicating with us exists on any of them. As geoscientists, we can also wonder how important is the presence or absence of plate tectonics for the evolution of technological species. This essay considers this question, focusing on tectonically active rocky (silicate planets, like Earth, Venus, and Mars. The development of technological species on Earth provides key insights for understanding evolution on exoplanets, including the likely role that plate tectonics may play. An Earth-sized silicate planet is likely to experience several tectonic styles over its lifetime, as it cools and its lithosphere thickens, strengthens, and becomes denser. These include magma ocean, various styles of stagnant lid, and perhaps plate tectonics. Abundant liquid water favors both life and plate tectonics. Ocean is required for early evolution of diverse single-celled organisms, then colonies of cells which specialized further to form guts, appendages, and sensory organisms up to the complexity of fish (central nervous system, appendages, eyes. Large expanses of dry land also begin in the ocean, today produced above subduction zones in juvenile arcs and by their coalescence to form continents, although it is not clear that plate tectonics was required to create continental crust on Earth. Dry land of continents is required for further evolution of technological species, where modification of appendages for grasping and manipulating, and improvement of eyes and central nervous system could be perfected. These bioassets allowed intelligent creatures to examine the night sky and wonder, the beginning of abstract thinking, including religion and science. Technology arises from the exigencies of daily living such as tool-making, agriculture, clothing, and weapons, but the pace of innovation accelerates once it is allied with science. Finally, the importance of plate

  7. A case for wind enhanced tectonics: Plio-Quaternary sedimentation, erosion, and structural evolution controlled by wind within the Qaidam Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heermance, R. V.; Kapp, P. A.; Pullen, A.; Garzione, C. N.

    2012-12-01

    The interplay between tectonics and localized erosion through fluvial and/or glacial processes has been widely documented. Wind erosion, however, has gone largely un-recognized as a potentially important process in this concept. We document an acceleration in shortening in response to wind deflation above actively deforming fault propagation anticlines since ~3.0 Ma in the Qaidam Basin, China. Evidence for this comes from a 1750 m measured section along the southwestern flank of an intra-basin anticline (38.33°N, 93.46°E) and regional cross-sections. Magnetostratigraphy provides age control for prominent stratigraphic and isotopic changes within the section. A positive shift of ~6‰ in the δ18O values of lake carbonates occurs at 1090 m (3.1 Ma), interpreted to be the result of increased aridity at that time. An intraformational angular unconformity, associated with anticline growth, appears at 1172 m (3.0 Ma) and records the initiation of growth strata deposition. At 1235 m (2.6 Ma), a marked lithofacies change to sub-aerial, evaporitic conditions is observed, and is associated with a 3-fold reduction in sedimentation rate. Paleo-yardangs, which are wind-eroded landforms preserved in the stratigraphic record, appear at 1260 m (2.4 Ma). These observations indicate that regional aridification at 3.1 Ma was followed closely by or coincident with fold growth. Facies changes to more evaporitic strata and erosion of the basin floor (based on paleo-yardangs) trailed initial climate and tectonic changes by 500,000-700,000 years. Although the on-lap relationship of post-growth strata implies that syn-tectonic strata may have pinched-out along the flanks of the anticline, our new analysis indicates that at least 1172 m of pre-growth strata must have been eroded from the core of the anticline since 3.0 Ma at a time-averaged rate of ~0.4 mm/year, comparable to fluvial and glacial erosion rates within active tectonic settings. The lack of an integrated fluvial channel

  8. The Tectonic Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    has the consequence that it is difficult to create architecture where the technical concerns are an inherent part of the architectural expression. The aim of the thesis is to discuss the role of digital tools in overcoming the distance between the professional specializations and thereby support...... a tectonic practice. The project develops a framework to understand the role of digital tools in the tectonic practice from and discusses how and in which areas the tectonic practice could become supported by digital tools....

  9. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    OpenAIRE

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after c...

  10. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  11. Palaeomagnetic Constrains on the Timing and the Geographical Distribution of Tectonic Rotations in the Betic Chain, Southern Spain. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osete, M. L.; Villalain, J. J.; Pavon-Carrasco, F. J.; Palencia, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Betic Cordillera is the northern branch of the Betic-Rifean orogen, the westernmost segment of the Mediterranean Alpine orogenic system. Several palaeomagnetic studies have enhanced the important role that block rotations about vertical axes have played in the tectonic evolution of the region. In this work we present a review of published palaeomagnetic data. According with the rotational deformation, the Betics are divided into the central-western area and the eastern Betics. A sequence of rotations for the two regions is also proposed. In central and western Subbetics almost constant clockwise rotations of about 60 are documented in Jurassic limestones. The existence of a pervasive remagnetization of Jurassic limestones, which was coeval with the folding of the studied units and dated as post-Palaeogene, constrains the timing of tectonic rotations in western Subbetics. New palaeomagnetic data from Neogene sedimentary sequences in central Betics indicate that palaeomagnetic clockwise rotations continued after late Miocene. A similar pattern of 40 CW rotations occurred after 20-17 Ma was obtained from the study of the Ronda-Malaga peridotites (western Internal Betics). In eastern Subbetics a more heterogeneous pattern, including very high CW rotations has been observed. But recent rotational deformation in the Internal part of eastern Betics is CCW and related to the left-lateral strike-slip fault systems. Proposed kinematics models for the Betics are discussed under the light of the present available palaeomagnetic information.

  12. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  13. Biological modulation of tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    Photosynthesis has had geologic consequences over the Earth's history. In addition to modifying Earth's atmosphere and ocean chemistry, it has also modulated tectonic processes through enhanced weathering and modification of the nature and composition of sedimentary rocks within fold mountain belts and convergent margins. Molecular biological studies indicate that bacterial photosynthesis evolved just once and that most bacterial clades descend from this photosynthetic common ancestor. Iron-based photosynthesis (ideally 4FeO + CO2 + H2O = 2Fe2O3 + CH2O) was the most bountiful anoxygenic niche on land. The back reaction provided energy to heterotrophic microbes and returned FeO to the photosynthetic microbes. Bacterial land colonists evolved into ecosystems that effectively weathered FeO-bearing minerals and volcanic glass. Clays, sands, and dissolved cations from the weathering process entered the ocean and formed our familiar classes sedimentary rocks: shales, sandstones, and carbonates. Marine photosynthesis caused organic carbon to accumulate in black shales. In contrast, non-photosynthetic ecosystems do not cause organic carbon to accumulate in shale. These evolutionary events occurred before 3.8 Ga as black shales are among the oldest rock types (Rosing and Frei, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217, 237-244, 2004). Thick sedimentary sequences deformed into fold mountain belts. They remelted at depth to form granitic rocks (Rosing et al., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 99-11, 2006). Regions of outcropping low-FeO rocks including granites, quartzites, and some shales were a direct result. This dearth of FeO favored the evolution of oxic photosynthesis of cyanobacteria from photosynthetic soil bacteria. Black shales have an additional modulation effect on tectonics as they concentrate radioactive elements, particularly uranium (e.g. so that the surface heat flow varies by a factor of ca. 2). Thick sequences of black shales at continental rises of passive margins are

  14. Geochemistry and geochronology of ore-bearing and barren intrusions in the Luanchuan ore fields of East Qinling metallogenic belt, China: Diverse tectonic evolution and implications for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Wang, Gongwen; Santosh, M.; Yang, Fan; Shen, Zhiwei; Kong, Liang; Guo, Nana; Zhang, Xuhuang; Jia, Wenjuan

    2018-05-01

    The Luanchuan ore fields form part of the East Qinling metallogenic belt in central China. In this study, we compare two ore-bearing intrusions, the Shibaogou granitic pluton (SBG) and the Zhongyuku granitic pluton (ZYK), with the ore-barren Laojunshan intrusion (LJS) from the Luanchuan ore field. Geochemically, all the three intrusions are characterized by high-Si, high-K, and alkalis, together with moderate-ASI, exhibiting I-type granite features. The rocks, especially the ore-related plutons also show enrichment in LREEs. Mineral chemistry of biotite from the intrusions exhibits similar features of high Si and Mg, and low Al and Fe. Zircon grains from the ZYK intrusion yielded a U-Pb age of 149.6 ± 2.4 Ma. The zircon grains show εHf (t) values and two stage model ages (TDM2) in the range of -16.8 to -19.7 and 1998-2156 Ma respectively. The biotite composition and Hf isotopic data indicate that the magma was derived by re-melting of deep crustal material with minor input of mantle components. We evaluate the results to understand the physico-chemical conditions, petrogenesis, and tectonic setting, and their implications for mineral exploration. The ore-bearing plutons show wide ranges of temperature and oxygen fugacity, favoring Mo-W mineralization. In addition, estimates on pressure and depth of emplacement suggest that lower solidification pressure in a decompressional setting contributed to the evolution of magmatic hydrothermal deposits. Our data suggest that the ZYK has the highest potential for Mo-W mineralization. The ore-bearing plutons of ZYK and SBG were formed in a transitional tectonic setting from compression to extension, with the large-scale metallogeny triggered by slab melts at ca. 145 Ma. However, the ore-barren LJS batholith formed in an extension-related geodynamic setting at ∼115 Ma. Our study shows that different tectonic settings and consequent physico-chemical conditions dictated the ore potential of the intrusions in the Luanchuan ore

  15. Paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies of Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the Central Western Carpathians: new insights into paleogeographic setting and tectonic evolution of the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, R.; Jankowski, L.; Ludwiniak, M.; Mazzoli, S.; Szczygieł, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Carpathian Mountains were formed through progressive collision and amalgamation of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform. The Central Western Carpathians (CWC) tectonic unit analyzed in this study constitutes a fragment of the Alcapa microplate - research in this area is therefore of great importance in the context of the geotectonic evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Our paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies were focused on Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement. We present new results from three mountain massifs: Low Tatra, Velka Fatra and Strazovske Vrchy, comparing them with our earlier works performed in the Tatra Mts. Rockmagnetic studies reveal similar results in all four studied regions - the dominant ferromagnetic carrier in red sandstones is hematite, while the magnetic fabric is mostly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results outline a bedding parallel foliation and a tectonic lineation. This lineation lies in the bedding plane but is somewhat oblique to the present horizontal plane. The fact that the lineation is not exactly parallel to the strike of the beds is most likely due to multistage deformation: the lineation is related to bedding parallel shortening associated with the folding and thrusting stage, while present-day bedding attitude results at least partially from rotations associated with subsequent uplift and/or faulting. Paleomagnetic analysis indicate that hematite carrier records characteristic remanent component of high unblocking temperatures (680°C) and both normal (dominant) and reversed polarity. Paleomagnetic inclinations are similar to those expected from reference paleomagnetic data from the European Platform. Declination values are rather similar in all four studied areas and imply moderate counterclockwise rotations of the CWC. These results are incompatible with some of the previous paleomagnetic studies of younger rocks from the CWC

  16. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology from the basement of the Central Qilian Terrane: implications for tectonic evolution of northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changfeng; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yan, Zhu; Jiang, Tian; Song, Zhijie; Liu, Wencan; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    The Tuolai Group dominates the Central Qilian Terrane, and there are different opinions on the age and tectonic attribute of the Tuolai Group. Based on large-scale geologic mapping and zircon dating, the Tuolai Group is divided into four parts: metamorphic supracrustal rocks, Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks, early-middle Ordovician acid intrusive rocks and middle Ordovician basic intrusive rocks. The metamorphic supracrustal rocks are the redefined Tuolai complex-group and include gneiss and schist assemblage by faulting contact. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS dating was conducted on these samples of gneiss and migmatite from the gneiss assemblage, quartzite, two-mica schist and slate from the schist assemblage. The five detrital samples possess similar age spectra; have detrital zircon U-Pb main peak ages of 1.7 Ga with youngest U-Pb ages of 1150 Ma. They are intruded by Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks. Therefore, the Tuolai Group belonging to late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. With this caveat in mind, we believe that U-Pb detrital zircon dating, together with the geologic constraints obtained from this study and early work in the neighboring regions. We suggest that the formation age of the entire crystalline basement rocks of metasedimentary sequence from the Central Qilian Terrane should be constrained between the Late Mesoproterozoic and the Late Neoproterozoic, but not the previous Paleoproterozoic. The basement of the Central Qilian Terrane contains the typical Grenville ages, which indicates the Centre Qilian Terrane have been experienced the Grenville orogeny event.

  17. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology from the basement of the Central Qilian Terrane: implications for tectonic evolution of northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changfeng; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yan, Zhu; Jiang, Tian; Song, Zhijie; Liu, Wencan; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Hongyuan

    2017-08-01

    The Tuolai Group dominates the Central Qilian Terrane, and there are different opinions on the age and tectonic attribute of the Tuolai Group. Based on large-scale geologic mapping and zircon dating, the Tuolai Group is divided into four parts: metamorphic supracrustal rocks, Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks, early-middle Ordovician acid intrusive rocks and middle Ordovician basic intrusive rocks. The metamorphic supracrustal rocks are the redefined Tuolai complex-group and include gneiss and schist assemblage by faulting contact. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS dating was conducted on these samples of gneiss and migmatite from the gneiss assemblage, quartzite, two-mica schist and slate from the schist assemblage. The five detrital samples possess similar age spectra; have detrital zircon U-Pb main peak ages of 1.7 Ga with youngest U-Pb ages of 1150 Ma. They are intruded by Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks. Therefore, the Tuolai Group belonging to late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. With this caveat in mind, we believe that U-Pb detrital zircon dating, together with the geologic constraints obtained from this study and early work in the neighboring regions. We suggest that the formation age of the entire crystalline basement rocks of metasedimentary sequence from the Central Qilian Terrane should be constrained between the Late Mesoproterozoic and the Late Neoproterozoic, but not the previous Paleoproterozoic. The basement of the Central Qilian Terrane contains the typical Grenville ages, which indicates the Centre Qilian Terrane have been experienced the Grenville orogeny event.

  18. Applications of quaternary stratigraphic, soil-geomorphic, and quantitative geomorphic analyses to the evaluation of tectonic activity and landscape evolution in the Upper Coastal Plain, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.L.; Bullard, T.F.; Wit, M.W. de; Stieve, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Geomorphic analyses combined with mapping of fluvial terraces and upland geomorphic surfaces provide new approaches and data for evaluating the Quaternary activity of post-Cretaceous faults that are recognized in subsurface data at the Savannah River Site in the Upper Coastal Plain of southwestern South Carolina. Analyses of longitudinal stream and terrace profiles, regional slope maps, and drainage basin morphometry indicate long-term uplift and southeast tilt of the site region. Preliminary results of drainage basin characterization suggests an apparent rejuvenation of drainages along the trace of the Pen Branch fault (a Tertiary reactivated reverse fault that initiated as a basin-margin normal fault along the northern boundary of the Triassic Dunbarton Basin). This apparent rejuvenation of drainages may be the result of nontectonic geomorphic processes or local tectonic uplift and tilting within a framework of regional uplift. Longitudinal profiles of fluvial terrace surfaces that are laterally continuous across the projected surface trace of the Pen Branch fault show no obvious evidence of warping or faulting within a resolution of ∼3 m. This combined with the estimated age of the terrace surfaces (350 ka to 1 Ma) indicates that if the Pen Branch fault is active, the Pleistocene rate of slip is very low (0.002 to 0.009 mm/yr)

  19. NEW LATE JURASSIC PALEOMAGNETIC RESULTS FROM SHARILYN FORMATION, SOUTHERN MONGOLIA, AMURIA BLOCK, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE MONGOL–OKHOTSK SUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amuria block occupies the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt between the Siberia craton and the North China block (NCB and bears important information to understand the evolution of the MongolOkhotsk suture and the amalgamation of East Asia. However, the paleomagnetic database of Amuria remains very poor.

  20. The multi-stage tectonic evolution of the Xitieshan terrane, North Qaidam orogen, western China : From Grenville-age orogeny to early-Paleozoic ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Cong; Bader, Thomas; Zhang, Lifei; van Roermund, Herman

    The geodynamic evolution of the early Paleozoic ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt in North Qaidam, western China, is controversial due to ambiguous interpretations concerning the nature and ages of the eclogitic protoliths. Within this framework, we present new LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages from

  1. Mantle constraints on the plate tectonic evolution of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone and the South Fiji Basin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W.P.; Spakman, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Tonga–Kermadec–Hikurangi subduction zone is a major plate boundary in the Southwest Pacific region, where the Pacific plate subducts westward underneath the Australian plate. Considerable controversy exists regarding the Cenozoic evolution of this subduction zone, its connection with

  2. Mantle constraints on the plate tectonic evolution of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone and the South Fiji Basin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Spakman, W.

    The Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone is a major plate boundary in the Southwest Pacific region, where the Pacific plate subducts westward underneath the Australian plate. Considerable controversy exists regarding the Cenozoic evolution of this subduction zone, its connection with the

  3. Les barrages alpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marnezy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  4. Physiology of Alpine skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, R E; Montgomery, D L

    1988-10-01

    Physiological profiles of elite Alpine skiers reveal the importance of muscular strength, anaerobic power, anaerobic endurance, aerobic endurance, coordination, agility, balance, and flexibility. On-hill snow training and dryland training programmes should focus on the elevation of these fitness components. Physical characteristics of elite skiers reveal an average height and body mass. Today, successful skiers are taller and heavier than their predecessors. Slalom skiers tend to be leaner than skiers in other events while the downhill racers are the heaviest. Elite skiers have strong legs when peak torque is measured during isometric and isokinetic conditions involving knee extension, which may be a specific adaptation since the skier is in a crouched position for a prolonged period when racing. Leg strength correlates significantly with performance in the downhill and giant slalom events. The glycolytic contribution in the slalom and giant slalom events is about 40% of the total energy cost. Following a race, blood lactate concentration averages 9 to 13 mmol/L. A muscle lactate concentration of 24 mmol/kg wet muscle tissue has been reported. Elite skiers have higher lactate values than advanced or novice skiers. The aerobic demands of competitive Alpine skiing may approach (90 to 95%) of the athlete's maximal aerobic power. Maximal heart rate is achieved during the latter part of the race. Elite skiers have a high VO2max. This may reflect their training programme and not the actual demands of the sport. When turning, muscular activity acts to impede blood flow and oxygen delivery. As a consequence, anaerobic metabolism is increased. Glycogen studies show significant utilisation from both slow and fast twitch muscle fibres. Skilled and unskilled skiers differ with respect to glycogen utilisation. Skilled skiers have greater glycogen depletion in the slow twitch fibres compared to unskilled skiers. Muscle glycogen decreases by about 32 mmol/kg wet muscle tissue

  5. Polyhalite microfabrics in an Alpine evaporite m?lange: Hallstatt, Eastern Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Schorn, Anja; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In the Hallstatt salt mine (Austria), polyhalite rocks occur in 0.5?1?m thick and several metre long tectonic lenses within the protocataclasite to protomylonite matrix of the Alpine Haselgebirge Fm..?Thin section analysis of Hallstatt polyhalites reveals various fabric types similar to metamorphic rocks of crust-forming minerals, e.g. quartz and feldspar. Polyhalite microfabrics from Hallstatt include: (1) polyhalite mylonites, (2) metamorphic reaction fabrics, (3) vein-filling, fibrous poly...

  6. Recent crustal movements and geophysical interpretation of geodynamic processes in the Alpine mountain belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, E.; Kahle, H. G.

    It is a well-known fact that the surface phenomena of global plate tectonics are most convincingly seen and felt along the boundaries of the moving lithospheric plates. These boundaries are morphologically expressed as mild-ocean ridges or as subduction zones such as deep sea trenches or Himalayan/Alpine fold belts, the latter of which are the subject of this paper. On a global scale, there are kinematic models giving an idea of what kind of rates can be expected. This is due to the fact that magnetic sea floor spreading anomalies are missing in the Alpine environment. On the other hand, the structure and kinematics of the Apulian microplate are of major interest to Switzerland because its northern boundary seems to be formed by the Alpine chain. In Switzerland there are some 14 special study groups actively working in this field of geodynamics. This paper is restricted to the geodetic and gravity studies. With emphasis on the assumed northern boundary of the Apulian microplate, the kinematics of relative plate movements in the Alpine area were investigated. A simplified tectonic map of this region is shown.

  7. The Quaternary N-Apennine tectonics recorded in the Po Basin: stratigraphic and geomorphological evidences along a N-S traverse in Lombardy (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersezio, Riccardo; Zuffetti, Chiara; Cavalli, Emmanuele; Baio, Mariangelo; Cantone, Martino; Inzoli, Silvia; Mele, Mauro; Pavia, Fabrizio; Rigato, Valentina; Rusnighi, Yuri; Rodondi, Cecilia; Sozzi, Samuele

    2016-04-01

    The stratigraphy and geomorphology of the Quaternary Po Basin fill record the tectonic evolution of the foreland shared by Apennine and Alpine mountain ranges. The study of N-S, 3-D cross-sections, orthogonal to the average axial strike of the basin, permits to investigate the interplay between the tectonics of the Apennine fold and thrust belt (the Quaternary southern active range of the basin) and the glacial-related dynamics along the Alpine side (the northern main source of sediments), that drove the evolution of the depositional systems and landscapes of the interposed basin. Here we present a 25-50 Km wide, 3-D cross-section that parallels the Adda river course, connecting the Southern Alps foothills with the northernmost relieves of the Apennines, close to the present-day Po river. The GIS-based work integrates surface geology (1:10.000 mapping) with subsurface correlation of about 1000 borehole data points (20 to >1000 m deep, most ranging between 100-200 m b.g.s.) and geophysical surveys (VES, ERGI, GPR; about 200 data points, maximum investigation depth of about 300 m b.g.s.). Some radiocarbon and OSL age determinations, integrated by micropaleontological and petrographic analyses, brought additional constraints to the available stratigraphic calibration of the tectono-sedimentary evolution. The first release of the 3-D architectural model yields some suggestions: 1) In the Early Pleistocene, the northward propagation of the Apennine blind thrusts shaped the southern and central parts of the basin in a complex pattern of fault-propagation folds and intervening depocentres. The contemporary bulging of the northern Alpine side induced the progressive southward entrenchment and filling of alluvial valleys into the Plio-Pleistocene shallow marine units. A terraced landscape was confined to this northernmost part of the basin. In the depocentre, the coarse-grained depositional systems, fed by the Southern Alps, interfingered with the sands delivered by the

  8. WAVE TECTONICS OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  9. Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Chinese western Tianshan Orogen: Integrating detrital zircon provenance analysis with regional magmatic, stratigraphic, and tectonothermal evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yigui; Zhao, Guochun

    2017-04-01

    The convergence between the Tarim Craton and the southwestern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the late Paleozoic resulted in the closure of the South Tianshan (STS) Ocean and a continent-continent collision that formed the western Tianshan Orogen in NW China. Recent intensive studies in this region have produced a great deal of new data, and also many competing tectonic interpretations, especially regarding the subduction polarity and closure time of the STS Ocean and the initial uplift of the western Tianshan Orogen. To address the controversy, this study presents a systematic provenance analysis of detrital zircons from Carboniferous to Mesozoic sedimentary strata distributed in the northern Tarim and STS regions. In combination with recent data of regional magmatism, sedimentation, and tectonothermal activity, we propose a tectonic model that can reconcile most of important geological events during late Paleozoic to Mesozoic time in the western Tianshan region. U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from Carboniferous and Permian strata in the northern Tarim and STS regions yielded consistent age patterns, i.e. two prominent populations at 270-305 Ma and 400-500 Ma, and some peaks clustering at 600-1200 Ma, 1.9 Ga, and 2.5 Ga. The scarcity of 310-380 Ma zircons in the two regions and contemporaneous passive margin sedimentation support a northward subduction of the STS oceanic crust. The closure of the ocean and continental collision probably occurred in the late Carboniferous, as indicated by a significant decrease of zircon ɛHf(t) values at 310 Ma and coeval (ultra-)high pressure metamorphic events. Detrital zircon age data also indicate that the foreland region (i.e. the northern Tarim and STS) had not received sediments from the upper plate throughout the late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic, implying insignificant surface uplift and erosion during and after collision. To interpret this, a plume-modified orogenic model is introduced, partially

  10. Early Mesozoic paleogeography and tectonic evolution of the western United States: Insights from detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMaskin, Todd A.; Vervoort, J.D.; Dorsey, R.J.; Wright, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses early Mesozoic provenance linkages and paleogeographic-tectonic models for the western United States based on new petrographic and detrital zircon data from Triassic and Jurassic sandstones of the "Izee" and Olds Ferry terranes of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon. Triassic sediments were likely derived from the Baker terrane offshore accretionary subduction complex and are dominated by Late Archean (ca. 2.7-2.5 Ga), Late Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.2-1.6 Ga), and Paleozoic (ca. 380-255 Ma) detrital zircon grains. These detrital ages suggest that portions of the Baker terrane have a genetic affinity with other Cordilleran accretionary subduction complexes of the western United States, including those in the Northern Sierra and Eastern Klamath terranes. The abundance of Precambrian grains in detritus derived from an offshore complex highlights the importance of sediment reworking. Jurassic sediments are dominated by Mesozoic detrital ages (ca. 230-160 Ma), contain significant amounts of Paleozoic (ca. 290, 380-350, 480-415 Ma), Neoproterozoic (ca. 675-575 Ma), and Mesoproterozoic grains (ca. 1.4-1.0 Ga), and have lesser quantities of Late Paleoproterozoic grains (ca. 2.1-1.7 Ga). Detrital zircon ages in Jurassic sediments closely resemble well-documented age distributions in transcontinental sands of Ouachita-Appalachian provenance that were transported across the southwestern United States and modified by input from cratonal, miogeoclinal, and Cordilleran-arc sources during Triassic and Jurassic time. Jurassic sediments likely were derived from the Cordilleran arc and an orogenic highland in Nevada that yielded recycled sand from uplifted Triassic backarc basin deposits. Our data suggest that numerous Jurassic Cordilleran basins formed close to the Cordilleran margin and support a model for moderate post-Jurassic translation (~400 km) of the Blue Mountains Province. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  11. The Palos Verdes Fault offshore southern California: late Pleistocene to present tectonic geomorphology, seascape evolution and slip rate estimate based on AUV and ROV surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Conrad, James E.; Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary L.; Caress, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The Palos Verdes Fault (PVF) is one of few active faults in Southern California that crosses the shoreline and can be studied using both terrestrial and subaqueous methodologies. To characterize the near-seafloor fault morphology, tectonic influences on continental slope sedimentary processes and late Pleistocene to present slip rate, a grid of high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, and chirp subbottom profiles were acquired with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) along the main trace of PVF in water depths between 250 and 600 m. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from vibracores collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and ship-based gravity cores. The PVF is expressed as a well-defined seafloor lineation marked by subtle along-strike bends. Right-stepping transtensional bends exert first-order control on sediment flow dynamics and the spatial distribution of Holocene depocenters; deformed strata within a small pull-apart basin record punctuated growth faulting associated with at least three Holocene surface ruptures. An upper (shallower) landslide scarp, a buried sedimentary mound, and a deeper scarp have been right-laterally offset across the PVF by 55 ± 5, 52 ± 4 , and 39 ± 8 m, respectively. The ages of the upper scarp and buried mound are approximately 31 ka; the age of the deeper scarp is bracketed to 17–24 ka. These three piercing points bracket the late Pleistocene to present slip rate to 1.3–2.8 mm/yr and provide a best estimate of 1.6–1.9 mm/yr. The deformation observed along the PVF is characteristic of strike-slip faulting and accounts for 20–30% of the total right-lateral slip budget accommodated offshore Southern California.

  12. Structural and petrological constraints on the tectonic evolution of the garnet-lherzolite facies Higashi-akaishi peridotite body, Sanbagawa belt, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Wallis, Simon R.

    2005-12-01

    The Higashi-akaishi peridotite body in the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt is a unique example of a kilometer-scale body including garnet-lherzolite facies rocks from an oceanic subduction-type orogen. In this body, four distinct deformational phases D1, D2, D3, and D4 can be defined. The tectonic significance of D1 is unclear. Microstructural observations and application of garnet-orthopyroxene geothermobarometry suggest that D2 took place during high-temperature subduction up to depths of ˜100 km (from 2.3 GPa to above 2.8 GPa at temperature of 700-800°C) or more. D3 represents a major phase of exhumation. After exhumation the Higashi-akaishi body became juxtaposed with the adjacent Besshi and Eclogite units at a depth of around 35 km (1 GPa). The common history of the two units after D3 is shown by the intertectonic growth of tremolite between D3 and D4 that corresponds to a stage of intertectonic growth of plagioclase in the Besshi and Eclogite units. Both the spatial distribution and the estimated pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of this intertectonic phase of mineral growth in the different units are in excellent agreement. The development of an antigorite schistosity during the late stage of D2 indicates an anticlockwise P-T path with cooling at depths of around 100 km. The association of the antigorite-bearing fabric and the onset of exhumation after the D2 stage suggest that the density decrease due to antigorite formation may have been sufficient to trigger the exhumation of dense ultramafic body from UHP conditions in subduction zones. Syn-D2 water introduction and the anticlockwise P-T path are expected when convection in the mantle wedge brings peridotite toward a subduction boundary through mantle wedge or when peridotite is dragged down along a subduction boundary that is progressively cooling immediately after initiation of subduction.

  13. Fluid chemistry and evolution of hydrothermal fluids in an Archaean transcrustal fault zone network: The case of the Cadillac Tectonic Zone, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, P.; Hagemann, S.G.; Banks, D.A.; Yardley, B.W.D.; Couture, J.-F.; Landis, G.P.; Rye, R.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed fluid geochemistry studies on hydrothermal quartz veins from the Rouyn-Noranda and Val-d'Or areas along the transcrustal Cadillac Tectonic Zone (CTZ) indicate that unmineralized (with respect to gold) sections of the CTZ contained a distinct CO2-dominated, H2S-poor hydrothermal fluid. In contrast, both gold mineralized sections of the CTZ (e.g., at Orenada #2) and associated higher order shear zones have a H2O-CO2 ?? CH4-NaCl hydrothermal fluid. Their CO2/H2S ratios indicate H2S-rich compositions. The Br/Cl compositions in fluid inclusions trapped in these veins indicate that hydrothermal fluids have been equilibrated with the crust. Oxygen isotope ratios from hydrothermal quartz veins in the CTZ are consistently 2??? more enriched than those of associated higher order shear zones, which are interpreted to be a function of greater fluid/rock ratios in the CTZ and lower fluid/rock ratios, and more efficient equilibration of the hydrothermal fluid with the wall rock, in higher order shear zones. An implication from this study is that the lower metal endowment of the transcrustal CTZ, when compared with the higher metal endowment in higher order shear zones (ratio of about 1 : 1000), may be the result of the lack of significant amounts of H2O-H2S rich fluids in most of the CTZ. In contrast, gold mineralization in the higher order shear zones appear to be controlled by the high H2S activity of the aqueous fluids, because gold was likely transported in a bisulfide complex and was deposited during sulfidation reactions in the wall rock and phase separation in the quartz veins. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  14. The Dom Feliciano belt (Brazil-Uruguay)and its fore land (Rio de la Plata Craton): framework, tectonic evolution and correlations with similar terranes of southwestern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.; Siga, O.; Masquelin, H.; Harara, O.; Reis Neto, J.; Preciozzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB) stretches for ca. 1,200 km along southeastern Brazil and eastern Uruguay, with an average width of 150 km. From its northern limit in Santa Catarina to its termination m Uruguay, DFB is internally organized according three crustal segments characterized, from southeast to northwest, by a Granitoid belt (calci-alkaline to alkaline granitoid rocks deformed to different degrees); a Schist belt (volcano-sedimentary rocks metamorphosed from green schist to amphibolite facies), and a Fore land belt (sedimentary and anchimetamorphic volcanic rocks), the latter situated between the Schist belt and the old western terranes. Despite discontinuously covered by younger sediments, the continuity of these three segments is suggested by the similar lithotypes and structural characteristics, as well as by the gravimetric geophysical signature.In this work, DBF is interpreted as the product of successive subduction s and collisions related to the agglutination of different terranes generated or intensely reworked from the Neoproterozoic to the Cambrian, during the Brasiliano and Rio Doce orogenesis, with maximum time starting at 900 Ma (opening of the Adamastor Ocean) and ending at 530 Ma (deformation of the fore land basins) related to the tecto no-magmatic events associated with the formation of the Western Gondwana.Besides the Neoproterozoic DFB and its fore land, the Rio de la Plata Craton and the Luis Alves Microplate, constituted by Paleoproterozoic gneissic-migmatitic rocks, two other tectonic units can be recognized in southeastern Brazil and eastern Uruguay: the Sao Gabriel Block (RS) where Neoproterozoic juvenile material can be characterized in regional scale (in great part associated with an island are), and the Punta del Este Terrane, which presents, in southern Uruguay, an ortho gneiss basement with ages around 1,000 Ma and a meta sedimentary cover (Rocha Group), which can correspond in the South-American portion, to the Namaqua and Gariep

  15. High-pressure granulites in the Fuping Complex of the central North China Craton: Metamorphic P-T-t evolution and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiahui; Yin, Changqing; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Li; Wang, Luojuan

    2018-04-01

    Mafic granulites in the Fuping Complex occur as lenses or boudins within high-grade TTG (Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite) gneisses. Petrographic observations reveal four generations of mineral assemblage in the granulites: an inclusion assemblage of hornblende + plagioclase + ilmenite + quartz within garnet core; an inferred peak assemblage composed of garnet ± hornblende + plagioclase + clinopyroxene + rutile/ilmenite + quartz; a decompression assemblage characterized by symplectites of clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene + plagioclase, coronae of plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± hornblende around embayed garnet porphyroblasts or a two-pyroxene association; and a late amphibolite-facies retrogressive assemblage. Two representative samples were used for pseudosection modeling in NCFMASHTO model system to determine their metamorphic evolution. The results show that these granulites experienced a high-pressure stage of metamorphism with peak P-T conditions of 12-13 kbar and 760-800 °C (Pmax) and a post-peak history under P-T conditions of ∼9.0 kbar and 805-835 °C (Tmax), indicating a nearly isothermal decompression process (ITD) with a slight heating. Metamorphic evolution from the Pmax to the Tmax is predicted to be dominated by garnet breakdown through continuous metamorphic reactions of garnet + quartz ± diopside = hornblende + plagioclase + liquid and garnet + quartz + hornblende = plagioclase + diopside + liquid + orthopyroxene. Further metamorphic evolution after the Tmax is dominated by cooling, suggesting that high-pressure (HP) granulites may also exist in the Fuping Complex. Metamorphic zircons in the Fuping HP mafic granulites have left inclined REE patterns, Ti contents of 1.68-6.88 ppm and crystallization temperatures of 602-712 °C. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating on these zircons yields 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1891 ± 14 Ma and 1849 ± 6 Ma, interpreted to represent the cooling stage of metamorphism. The P-T-t evolution of the Fuping HP mafic granulites records

  16. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  17. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  18. Evolution of magmatism from the uppermost cretaceous to Oligocene, and its relationship to changing tectonic regime, in the Inca de Oro-El Salvador area (Northern Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, Paula; Matthews, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We present geochronological and petrological data for extrusive and intrusive rocks in the Inca de Oro and El Salvador sheets (in prep.), and the Potrerillos (Tomlinson et al., 1999) and Salar de Maricunga sheets (Cornejo et al., 1998), III Region, Chile (26 o -27 o S). Most of these data were collected as part of the SERNAGEOMIN regional mapping programme. Additionally, we include published data for El Salvador and Potrerillos districts (Cornejo et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1997; Gustafson et al., 2001). The dataset includes K/Ar, Ar/Ar and U-Pb mineral ages, which have been carefully selected for quality. The area is underlain by Carboniferous-Permian granitic basement rocks, which are covered by Triassic to Early Upper Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary successions, including both marine and continental sequences (Cornejo et al., 1993). The period studied in this paper includes extrusive and intrusive rocks of Maastrichtian to Oligocene age, which are of particular interest since they record the 'preparation' of the lithosphere prior to, during, and after the mid-Eocene Incaic deformation and associated porphyry copper event. Shortening in the early-upper Cretaceous (95-85Ma; e.g. Mpodozis and Ramos, 1989; Arevalo and Grocott, 2000) deformed large areas of northen Chile, and marked the transition from the dominance of intra-arc extension to that of shortening punctuated by periods of extension. We recognise seven tectono-magmatic periods from the uppermost Cretaceous to Oligocene, comprising a volcanic sedimentary event contemporaneous with an extensional tectonic regime in the Upper Cretaceous, associated with graben formation, followed by an important compressive event at the beginning of the Tertiary. The middle Paleocene was again dominated by voluminous volcanic activity (collapse calderas) in an extensional regime. During the lowest Eocene the magmatic activity in the area shows a gradual transition from pyroxene-bearing to amphibole-bearing lithologies

  19. Tectonic evolution and chrono-stratigraphy of sediments in Lake Ohrid Basin (Macedonia/Albania) revealed by multichannel seismic and bathymetric data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Reicherter, K. R.; Stipp, M.; Wagner, B.; Schwenk, T.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Ohrid located on the Balkan Peninsula is probably the oldest existing lake in Europe and is often referred to as a hotspot of endemic biodiversity. Here we present the analysis of multichannel seismic cross sections and bathymetric data demonstrating the importance of Lake Ohrid as a valuable sedimentary archive within the terrestrial Mediterranean region. According to our data Lake Ohrid formed in two main deformation phases such as a transtensional phase opening up a pull-apart basin in Late Miocene and an extensional phase since the Pliocene leading to the present geometry. The early stage geometry of the basin has a typical rhomboidal shape restricted by two sets of major normal faults. The location of the basin initiation coincides with the greatest depth of the acoustic basement that is now covered by more than 700 m of undisturbed sediments. Numerous faults are present in the northern area offsetting syn-tectonic sediments, thus confirming the hypothesis that Lake Ohrid Basin is still experiencing extension. Seismic stratigraphic interpretation revealed a succession of fluvial deposits overlying the pre-rift basement. The majority of the entire sedimentary infill is interpreted as deep lacustrine sediments. A chrono-stratigraphic scheme developed for undisturbed lacustrine sediments back to an age of 430 kyr indicate that the sediments document glacial and interglacial cycles back to Marine Isotope Stage 12. A refined calculation on the basis of our new data set revealed a limnological age of at least 2 Myr for Lake Ohrid. Mass wasting deposits are widespread in Lake Ohrid at different stratigraphic levels of the basin. Slide deposits, in general are present adjacent to major fault structures suggesting that they are seismically triggered. A mass wasting deposited along the Lini Fault in the NW-part can be linked to the 518 AD earthquake that destroyed the city of Ohrid. The Udenisht Slide Complex (USC) in the southwestern part of the lake is the

  20. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Borohoro pluton in the northern Yili Block, NW China: Implication for the tectonic evolution of the northern West Tianshan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Chen, Youxin; Zheng, Yanrong

    2018-03-01

    The closure of the North Tianshan Ocean between the Junggar Terrane and the Yili Block is a longtime debated issue in literature, because of the different understanding of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks in the northern margin of the Yili Block. This study presents new geochronological and whole-rock geochemical data for the granitic rocks from the Borohoro pluton to provide constraints on the tectonic regime for the northern West Tianshan during the Carboniferous. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating results reveal two magmatic phases for the Borohoro pluton. The former magmatic activity in the Early Carboniferous formed the fine-grained granodiorite (332 Ma). The later magmatic activity occurred during the Late Carboniferous (305-300 Ma), forming a diversity of granitic rocks, involving quartz diorite, granodiorite and granite. Geochemical and mineralogical studies reveal that the studied granitic rocks from the Borohoro pluton all belong to metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, calc-alkaline I-type granites. They are characterized by enrichment in LILEs relative to HFSEs, and depletion of Nb, Ti and P, typical of continental arc-type granites. The intermediate SiO2, high Al2O3, and relatively low Fe2O3T, MgO and TiO2 contents reflect that these granitic rocks are mainly crust-derived. But the high Mg# values for most samples and the occurrence of microgranular mafic enclaves indicate that their magma sources were mixed by mantle-derived components. Especially, the Late Carboniferous rocks define an elegant mixing trend in both the Rb-Rb/V and the 1/V-Rb/V diagrams, consistent with mixing between magmas from subcontinental lithospheric mantle and mafic lower crust. Taking into consideration of the facts that all the Devonian to Carboniferous granitoids belong to calc-alkaline I-type granites, and granitoids of A-type didn't appear until the Early Permian, we suggest that the subduction of the North Tianshan Ocean continued to the Late Carboniferous, generating the granitic

  1. Uplifted ophiolitic rocks on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile: implications for the closure history of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and the tectonic evolution of the Beagle Channel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W. D.

    1994-04-01

    A succession of mafic rocks that includes gabbro, sheeted dikes and deformed pillow basalts has been mapped in detail on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile and is identified as an upper ophiolitic complex representing the uplifted floor of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes marginal basin. The complex was uplifted, deformed, and regionally metamorphosed prior to the intrusion of an undeformed 90 Ma granodiorite that cuts the complex. The complex appears para-autochthonous, is gently tilted to the northeast and is internally sheared by near-vertical foliation zones. No evidence for obduction was observed although the base of the complex is not exposed. The ophiolitic rocks have been regionally metamorphosed to mid-upper greenschist levels. Isla Gordon is bounded by the northwest and southwest arms of the Beagle Channel, two important structural boundaries in the southernmost Andes that are interpreted to have accommodated north-side-up and left-lateral displacements. Directly north of Isla Gordon is the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex that exposes the highest grade metamorphic rocks in the Andes south of Peru. On the north coast of Isla Gordon a volcaniclastic turbidite sequence that is interpreted to have been deposited above the mafic floor is metamorphosed to lower greenschist levels in strong metamorphic contrast to amphibolite-grade othogneisses exposed in Cordillera Darwin only 2 km away across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel. The profound metamorphic break across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel and the regional northeast tilt of the ophiolitic complex are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that Isla Gordon represents the upper plate to an extensional fault that accommodated tectonic unroofing of Cordillera Darwin. However, limited structural evidence for extension was identified in this study to support the model and further work is needed to determine the relative importance of contractional, extensional and

  2. Holocene construction and evolution of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: the influence of climate, eustasy, and tectonics on stratigraphic architecture and fluvial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Pickering, J.; Wilson, C.; Patrick, M. G.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Jean-Louis, G.; Grall, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), an archetypal tidally-influenced deltaic margin, has been the subject of several multi-national, multi-institutional, and interdisciplinary field studies over the past several years, resulting in an unprecedented density of data coverage for stratigraphy, hydrodynamics, and tectonics on a scale previously only found on well-studied delta systems of other types (e.g., Nile, Mississippi, Rhine-Meuse). Using a suite of geochemical, geophysical, and lithologic data extracted from a network of over 400 shallow (Basin has been illuminated. Provenance of pre- to early-Holocene sediments suggests the position of the Brahmaputra River was once west of its modern location, following a course along the eastern edge of the Tista Fan and west of the modern confluence with the Ganges. Construction of the modern delta, consisting of a thick (up to 80 m) succession of fluvial and deltaic sediments, was initiated by an intensified summer monsoon, coincident with accommodation generated by rapid sea-level rise following the Younger-Dryas. Sediment delivery has been focused along three pathways associated with antecedent topography inherited from Pleistocene lowstands. Stacked channel sands are the predominant facies within the upper delta, grading to isolated sand lenses in the distal reaches of Sylhet Basin, indicative of a shift from a highly mobile braidbelt to a less mobile distributary system as bedload is extracted to deposition. Episodic avulsions of the Brahmaputra River into Sylhet Basin during the mid-Holocene have been documented using a robust radiocarbon geochronology. The volume of sediment preserved from these events is insufficient to account for the entire sediment budget based on estimates of modern discharge, likely a consequence of both a weakened mid-Holocene monsoon and bypass out of the basin. Rapid (up to 7 mm/yr) subsidence in Sylhet Basin has not acted as an attractor for channel steering during much of the

  3. Sequence architecture of the Palaeocene Transitional Facies and Response to Tectonic Evolution and Sea Level Change in the Lishui Depression, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Lishui Depression (LD) is a polycyclic rift basin located in the southwestern of the East China Sea Shelf Basin. From bottom to top, the Palaeocene strata sequentially comprise the Yueguifeng (YGF), Lingfeng (LF) and Mingyuefeng Formations (MYF). The YGF clastic deposits were produced by a continental lacustrine. The LF and MYF were a set of coal-bearing strata formed by marine transgressive-regressive cycles. The Palaeocene depositional cycle is divided into two second-order sequences, namely SQII1 (YGF, 66.5-60Ma) and SQII2 (LF and MYF, 60-53Ma), which can be interpreted as the initial rifting sequence and the strong rifting sequence respectively that controlled by episodic tectonic subsidence, namely Yandang and Oujiang movements. The SQII1 includes only one third-order sequence, namely SQIII1, which is constituted by lake transgressive systems tract (LTST) and lake regressive systems tract (LRST). The SQII2 can be subdivided into four third-order sequences, namely SQIII2 (Lower LF, 60-57Ma), SQIII3 (Upper LF, 57-55Ma), SQIII4 (Lower MYF, 55-54.5Ma) and SQIII5 (Upper MYF, 54.5-53Ma). In the SQIII2 period, LD suffered massive transgression and the sustained high relative sea level led to the only development of transgressive systems tract (TST) and highstand systems tract (HST). In the SQIII3 period, the relative sea level declined and simultaneously two sets of incised valley were recognized on the seismic reflection with no lowstand fan developed. So the SQIII3 is considered to be composed of basin margin systems tract (BMST, similar to the shelf margin systems tract), TST and HST. Early SQIII4 (55Ma ), the relative sea level started global rapid declining and the LST of LD developed a completed system of prograding wedge, incised valley and basin floor fan. While the TST developed a retrograding marine sediments and the HST was characterized by a typical foreset parasequences. In SQIII5 period, the global sea level continuously rose and the sedimentary

  4. Landslides control the spatial and temporal variation of channel width in southern Taiwan: implications for landscape evolution and cascading hazards in steep, tectonically active landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanites, B.; Bregy, J. C.; Carlson, G.; Cataldo, K.; Holahan, M.; Johnston, G.; Mitchell, N. A.; Nelson, A.; Valenza, J.; Wanker, M.

    2017-12-01

    Intense precipitation or seismic events can generate clustered mass movement processes across a landscape. These rare events have significant impacts on the landscape, however, the rarity of such events leads to uncertainty in how these events impact the entire geomorphic system over a range of timescales. Taiwan is a steep, seismically active region and is highly prone to landslide and debris flows, especially when exposed to heavy rainfall events. Typhoon Morakot made landfall in Taiwan in August of 2009, delivering record-breaking rainfall and inducing more than 22,000 landslides in southern Taiwan. The topographic gradient in southern Taiwan leads to spatial variability in landslide susceptibility providing an opportunity to infer the long-term impact of landslides on channel morphology. The availability of pre and post typhoon imagery allows a quantitative reconstruction on the propagating impact of this event on channel width. The pre and post typhoon patterns of channel width to river and hillslope gradients in 20 basins in the study area reveal the importance of cascading hazards from landslides on landscape evolution. Prior to Typhoon Morakot, the river channels in the central part of the study area were about 3-10 times wider than the channels in the south. Aggradation and widening was also a maximum in these basins where hillslope gradients and channel steepness is high. The results further show that the narrowest channels are located where channel steepness is the lowest, an observation inconsistent with a detachment-limited model for river evolution. We infer this pattern is indicative of a strong role of sediment supply, and associated landslide events, on long-term channel evolution. These findings have implications across a range of spatial and temporal scales including understanding the cascade of hazards in steep landscapes and geomorphic interpretation of channel morphology.

  5. Syn-sedimentary tectonics in the Cretaceous succession of the Wildhorn nappe (SW Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, G. L.; Mancktelow, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    During Early Cretaceous to Early Tertiary times, the area of the future Helvetic Nappes was part of a large ramp-type depositional system on the European margin, in which the area of the Wildhorn nappe was transitional to the more distal and relatively deeper Ultra-Helvetic basin. The Wildhorn nappe includes a late Cretaceous succession bearing clear evidence for post-breakup extensional tectonics such as: synsedimentary geometries related to well oriented, parallel and spaced NE-striking faults; sedimentary dykes; lateral variations in the thickness and facies of formations; anomalous and discordant contacts corresponding to paleoescarpments; and slump folds. This field evidence indicates an important Late Cretaceous extensional tectonic event that affects the older Jurassic passive margin sequence. This process cannot be related to partial or local gravitational collapse, being the faults cross-cut suitable candidates for preferential gliding (e.g. the thick succession of Lower Cretaceous shales). Until now, the regional importance and magnitude of this late Cretaceous extension was not recognized in this part of the Alps. During the Cretaceous, this transitional area experienced three tectonic and sedimentary stages. (1) Post- Cenomanian disruption and exhumation of the Schrattenkalk platform was related to distribute normal faulting, which contributed to the initiation of karst erosion on the topographic highs and sedimentation in the lower parts. (2) During the Campanian and following a marine transgression, the area experienced more localized normal faulting accompanied by subsidence and slope instability directed toward the fault-scarps. A transition from distributed to more localized faulting is observed, related to a final stage in the evolution of the Cretaceous extensional process. The facies and thickness of subsequent post-Campanian sediments reflect a passive adaption to the pre-existing topography of the sea floor, established during the earlier

  6. Progressive Subduction-Accretion Growth of the Late Paleozoic-Cretaceous Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone Melange in Northern Anatolia, Turkey, and a New Tectonic Model for the Evolution of Northern Neotethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Y.; Sarifakioglu, E.; Sevin, M.

    2011-12-01

    Seamount-oceanic plateau remnants and ophiolite fragments with MORB-like and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities occur as blocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone in north-central Turkey, and provide temporal and geochemical evidence for magmatism associated with subduction initiation-evolution and convergent margin growth in the Northern Neotethys. Ophiolitic blocks and the serpentinite and/or greywacke matrix of the mélange are deformed and imbricated along generally south-directed thrust sheets as a result of the north-dipping subduction polarity and the continental collision tectonics in the early Paleogene. Plagiogranite dikes intruding the SSZ gabbros have revealed U/Pb zircon ages of 179 Ma; epi-ophiolitic pelitic rocks resting directly on various ophiolitic units, on the other hand, contain zircons with ages around 130 Ma. Upper Cretaceous flyschal deposits unconformably cover imbricate thrust sheets of the SSZ-type ophiolite and the ophiolitic mélange containing MORB-like ophiolitic slabs and seamount fragments. SSZ-type ophiolite blocks include upper mantle peridotites, cumulate to massive gabbros, sheeted diabase dykes, plagiogranite veins and stocks, and basalt-chert-radiolarite. MORB-like ophiolitic blocks mainly contain upper mantle peridotites, massive gabbros, basaltic lavas, and chert-radiolarite. TiO2 contents of the SSZ-type, diabasic dykes and basaltic lavas are between 0.2 - 0.93 wt.%, whereas those of the MORB-like basalts range between 0.85 - 5.05 wt.%. Nb contents of the SSZ-type diabasic dykes and basaltic lavas range between 0.1-2.5 ppm and of the MORB-like lavas between 3.7-5.4 ppm. SSZ-type basic rocks have Th/Yb ratios of 0.1-1 whereas the MORB-like basic rocks show Th/Yb values ranging from 0.01 to 0.3, suggesting enrichment by slab-derived fluids. The low TiO2 and Nb values, combined with higher Th/Yb ratios, indicate an IAT affinity of the SSZ rock suites in comparison to the tholeiitic features

  7. Late Pleistocene acceleration of deformation across the northern Tianshan piedmont (China) evidenced from the morpho-tectonic evolution of the Dushanzi anticline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreau, Julien; Saint-Carlier, Dimitri; Lavé, Jérôme; Dominguez, Stéphane; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Nathan D.; Malatesta, Luca Claude; Wang, Shengli; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2018-04-01

    We document the temporal evolution of deformation in the northern Tianshan piedmont where the deformation is partitioned across several thrusts and folds. We focus on the Dushanzi anticline, where abandoned terraces and growth strata allow us to constrain the history of folding since the Miocene. Based on subsurface seismic imaging, structural measurements and morphological analysis, we show that this anticline is associated with two decollement levels. We use kink band migration in growth strata dated by paleomagnetism to constrain the shortening from the Mio-Pliocene to the Holocene. Our results show that the Dushanzi anticline has been active since at least 8 Ma and that the fold grew at a steady shortening rate of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr from 8 to 1.5 Ma with possible variations from 2.5 to 1.5 Ma. Then it accelerated rapidly to a rate of 4.3 ± 1.0 mm/yr over at least the last 100 ka. These results, together with similar temporal shortening evolutions across other structures, suggest that the deformation rate across the eastern Tianshan piedmont increased relatively recently. This may reflect either a redistribution of the deformation from the internal structures toward the borders or a general acceleration of the deformation across the entire range.

  8. Aspects of collision tectonics and intraplate deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, M.P.

    1988-08-01

    Alpine collisional tectonics occurred episodically over the past 100 m.y., closing various small Tethyan basins and causing ripples of basin contraction and tectonic inversion across western Europe. Both at the Tethyan margin and in the smaller basins, deformation styles were controlled by existing fault geometries, in particular, (1) the position, dip, and detachment levels of the important bounding normal faults, (2) the locations of northwest-southwest trending lateral ramps/tear faults, which compartmentalize and tram-line the deformation, and (3) the distribution and thickness of Mesozoic postrift sediments. Collision began in the middle Cretaceous, with the closure of Ligurian and Valais basins and the associated reactivation of northwest-southeast strike-slip faults and small basins as far away as the Atlantic margin. This movement was associated with the earliest orogenic flysch deposits, the subduction of Tethyan ophiolites, and local A-type subduction and high-pressure metamorphism close to the Tethyan continental margins. Major crustal shortening occurred in southern Europe (Spain and southern France) in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene associated with closure of Pyrenean basins, but in the Alps, the major shortening continued throughout the Neogene. Section restorations based on regional studies, linked to commercial and deep seismic data, indicate well over 100 km of crustal shortening in the western and central Alps, with subduction of lower European crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Alps and the Po plain.

  9. La recherche alpine aujourd’hui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Brun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine research benefits from several international coordination networks, only one of which – ISCAR (the International Scientific Committee on Research in the Alps – works solely in the Alpine arc. The creation of ISCAR is a consequence of the input and involvement of various Alpine partners around the Alpine Convention. Alpine research now aims to promote an integrated vision of Alpine territories focusing on creating and maintaining spatial and temporal networks of sustainable relationships between humans and the other components of the ecosphere. It combines resource usage with conservation of the biological and cultural diversity that makes up the Alpine identity. This article aims to show: (1 how international Alpine research coordination is organised; (2 the role played by the Alpine Convention as a framework of reference for specifically Alpine research; and (3 the role that the ISCAR international commit-tee and the Interreg “Alpine Space” programmes play in uniting research around territorial challenges relating to biodiversity conservation and territorial development.La recherche sur les Alpes bénéficie de plusieurs réseaux de coordination internationaux dont un seul, le comité international recherche alpine (ISCAR, se consacre exclusivement à l’arc alpin. La création de l’ISCAR est une retombée de la mobilisation des divers partenaires alpins autour de la mise en place de la Convention alpine. Aujourd’hui, la recherche alpine vise à promouvoir une vision intégrée des territoires centrée sur la création et le maintien d’un réseau spatial et temporel de relations durables entre les hommes et les autres composantes de l’écosphère. Elle associe étroitement la mise en valeur des ressources et la conservation des diversités biologiques et culturelles qui constituent l’identité alpine. Cet article a pour ambition de montrer : (1 comment s’organise la coordination internationale des recherches sur les

  10. Dynamic of an intra-continental orogenic prism: thermo-chronologic (apatite fission tracks) and tectonic evolution of the axial zone and the piedmont of the west-central Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meresse, F.

    2013-02-01

    This work illustrates the application of thermo chronology to the study of the following geologic issue: the tectonic evolution of the Pyrenean oncologic prism. Thermo-chronology gives information on the vertical movements at the scale of geological eras. Thermo-chronology is based on the following principle: the decay of a nucleus gives birth to a daughter nucleus. Above a specific temperature named closure temperature, the daughter element can diffuse outside the system while below the closure temperature, diffusion is not possible. Consequently thermo-chronology can be considered to date the moment when a mineral goes below a a specific closure temperature. Minerals have different closure temperatures and so by using a suite of thermo-chronometers on a single sample, its cooling path through the crust can be reconstructed. This work focuses on apatite fission track (AFT)analysis which is a low temperature thermo-chronometer. In apatites the temperature range between 60 and 120 Celsius degrees corresponds to the partial annealing zone. The spontaneous fission of one U 238 nucleus entails the formation of one fission track. The determination of the initial quantity of U 238 is based on the natural steady ratio U 238 /U 235 which equals 137.88. The initial quantity of U 235 is determined through the neutron irradiation of the sample. The knowledge of the initial quantity of U 238 and the number of tracks in the sample allows the dating of the sample. In this work we combine AFT thermo- chronology with a detailed structural analysis to describe vertical movements related to the thrusting system evolution, and to determine the influence of the latter on the sedimentation/burial/exhumation cycle of the syn-orogenic deposits of the southern fore-land basin

  11. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate validation of any numerical model of any geological process comes when it can accurately forward model a case study from the geological record. However, as the example of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt demonstrates, geological information on even the most basic aspects of the present day state of such systems is highly incomplete and usually known only with large uncertainties. Fold thrust-belts are studied and understood by geologists in an iterative process of constructing their subsurface geometries and structures (folds, faults, bedding etc) based on limited subsurface information from boreholes, tunnels or seismic data where available, and surface information on outcrops of different layers and their dips. This data is usually processed through geometric models which involve conservation of line length of different beds over the length of an entire cross section. Constructing such sections is the art of cross section balancing. A balanced cross section can be easily restored to its pre-deformation state, assuming (usually) originally horizontal bedding to remove the effects of folding and faulting. Such a pre-deformation state can then form an initial condition for a forward mechanical model of the section. A mechanical model introduces new parameters into the system such as rock elasticity, cohesion, and frictional properties. However, a forward mechanical model can also potentially show the continuous evolution of a fold thrust belt, including dynamic quantities like stress. Moreover, a forward mechanical model, if correct in most aspects, should match in its final state, the present day geological cross section it is simulating. However, when attempting to achieve a match between geometric and mechanical models, it becomes clear that many more aspects of the geodynamic history of a fold thrust belt have to be taken into account. Erosion of the uppermost layers of an evolving thrust belt is the most obvious one of these. This can potentially

  12. Tectonic evolution of the NE section of the Pamir Plateau: New evidence from field observations and zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Lin; Zou, Hai-Bo; Ye, Xian-Tao; Chen, Xiang-Yan

    2018-01-01

    The Pamir Plateau at the western end of the India-Asia collision zone underwent long-term terrane drifting, accretion and collision between early Paleozoic and Mesozoic. However, the detailed evolution of this plateau, in particular, the timing of the Proto- and Palaeo-Tethys ocean subduction and closure, remains enigmatic. Here we report new field observations and zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of the representative rocks from the so-called Precambrian basement in the northeastern Pamir, i.e., the Bulunkuole Group. The rock associations of the Bulunkuole Group indicate volcano-sedimentary sequences with arc affinities. Geochronological data demonstrate that the deposition age of the Bulunkuole Group in the NE section of the Pamir was Middle to Late Cambrian (530-508 Ma) rather than Paleoproterozoic. The deposition age became progressively younger from south to north. The amphibolite- to granulite facies metamorphism of the Bulunkuole Group took place at ca. 200-180 Ma. Unlike the scenario in the Southern Kunlun terrane (SKT) in the eastern section of the West Kunlun Orogenic Belt (WKOB), early Paleozoic metamorphism (ca. 440 Ma) was absent in this area. Two phases of magmatic intrusions, composed of granites and minor gabbros with arc geochemical signatures, emplaced at 510-480 Ma and 240-200 Ma. The amphibolite (meta mafic sheet? 519 Ma) and the meta-rhyolite (508 Ma) have zircon εHf(t) values of 1.6 to 5.9 and - 1.5 to 1.4, respectively. The 511 Ma gneissic granite sheet and the 486 Ma gabbro have zircon εHf(t) values of - 0.1 to 2.4 and 1.3 to 3.6, respectively. Zircon εHf(t) of the 245 Ma augen gneissic granite sheet varies from - 2.2 to 2.0 whereas the metamorphic zircons from the amphibolite (193 Ma) and high-pressure mafic granulite sample (187 Ma) have negative εHf(t) values of - 5.3 to - 2 and - 15 to - 12, respectively. In line with rock association and the deposition age of the Bulunkuole Group and the Saitula Group in the eastern

  13. Constraining the thermal and tectonic evolution of a greenschist facies shear zone on Syros, Greece by using stable isotopes and mineral chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, M.; Barnes, J.; Behr, W. M.

    2016-12-01

    Retrograde metamorphic rocks are key to understanding the exhumation history of high-pressure/low-temperature terranes. The Cycladic Blueschist Unit of Syros, Greece experienced peak metamorphic conditions of 15 kbar and 500 °C at 50 Ma and was subsequently exhumed to the shallow-crust ( 1-3 km) by 15 Ma; however, the processes associated with exhumation from mantle depths to the mid-crust remain poorly understood. We present structural, microstructural, and geochemical analyses of greenschist facies metamafic rocks exposed on Lotos beach in Syros that help to constrain the early exhumation history of these rocks. The outcrop preserves two main fabrics: 1) an early transposition foliation (Ss) defined by tight, isoclinal folds with shallow hingelines, and 2) upright open folds with a steep axial-planar cleavage (Sc). Ss is associated with viscous deformation and alignment of both amphibole and epidote into the foliation plane, whereas Sc is associated with semi-brittle deformation, amphibole overgrowths, and boudinage in elongate epidote (ep). Amphiboles display a progressive evolution from Na-to-Ca-rich end-members and exhibit continuous crystallization throughout Ss and Sc, as evidenced by new amphibole growth and overgrowths oriented parallel to foliation. Cal-qtz precipitates in ep boudin necks and chl + cal pseudomorphs after actinolite represent the last stage of lower greenschist facies metamorphism. These results indicate that foliation-forming deformation initiated prior-to or during blueschist facies and continued through lowermost greenschist facies. Oxygen isotope thermometry indicates that qtz-cal pairs equilibrated at 187 °C. Carbon and oxygen isotope values of fluids in equilibrium with qtz-cal pairs (δ18O and δ13C ≈ 0 ‰) indicate a seawater-derived fluid source. Preliminary results suggest this shear zone experienced cooling during decompression, followed by interaction with fluids transferred along a low-angle detachment.

  14. Performance of Alpine Touring Boots When Used in Alpine Ski Bindings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeffrey R; Scher, Irving S; Carpenter, David; Jahnke, Bruce L; Ching, Randal P

    2017-10-01

    Alpine touring (AT) equipment is designed for ascending mountains and snow skiing down backcountry terrain. Skiers have been observed using AT boots in alpine (not made for Alpine Touring) ski bindings. We tested the effect on the retention-release characteristics of AT boots used in alpine bindings. Ten AT ski boots and 5 alpine ski boots were tested in 8 models of alpine ski bindings using an ASTM F504-05 (2012) apparatus. Thirty-one percent of the AT boots released appropriately when used in alpine ski bindings. One alpine binding released appropriately for all alpine and AT boots tested; 2 alpine ski bindings did not release appropriately for any AT boots. Altering the visual indicator settings on the bindings (that control the release torque of an alpine system) had little or no effect on the release torque when using AT boots in alpine ski bindings. Many combinations released appropriately in ski shop tests, but did not release appropriately in the more complex loading cases that simulated forward and backward falls; the simple tests performed by ski shops could produce a "false-negative" test result. These results indicate that using AT boots with alpine ski bindings could increase the likelihood of lower leg injuries.

  15. Advances in understanding the tectonic evolution of the Santa Rosalia Basin and its stratiform ore deposits: Results of the Baja Basins Research Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, T. M.; Busby, C.; Murowchick, J. B.; Martinez Gutierrez, G.; Antinao Rojas, J. L.; Graettinger, A.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Studies conducted during the three years of the Baja Basins REU program made progress toward solving a number of geologic questions in the Santa Rosalía Basin (SRB) of central Baja California. Geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on volcanic rocks within the SRB record the transition from subduction (13.32-9.95 Ma) to rifting (younger than 9.42 Ma) prior to deposition of the upper Miocene Boleo Formation. In contrast, magnesian andesite lavas and intrusions on the south margin of the SRB are dated at 6.1 +/- 0.3 Ma, and may have provided the heat engine for Boleo basin mineralization, which occurs in stratabound layers called "mantos". Mineralizing fluids in the Boleo Fm had near-neutral pH, evolved from a low Eh to more oxidizing conditions, were relatively low-temperature (near ambient T during manto ore deposition), and likely derived the Cu, Zn, Co, and Mn by leaching of mafic minerals in the volcanic rocks underlying the basin. Deposition of the ores was driven by oxidation as warm spring fluids vented to subaerial or near-shore marine environments, producing blankets of precipitated oxides interlayered with detrital fine to very coarse clastic beds. Integration of geologic map and fault data with detailed sedimentology and stratigraphic analysis provides evidence for syn-basinal tilting in two orthogonal directions during deposition of the Boleo Formation and Plio-Quaternary Tirabuzón, Infierno, and Santa Rosalia formations. Pronounced tilting toward the SE is revealed by southeastward thickening and coarsening of deposits in the Boleo Formation, and was synchronous with northeastward tilting and thickening due to slip on a network of NW-striking oblique normal faults. We hypothesize that the basin formed, subsided, and deformed as a pull-apart basin in a releasing step-over between two propagating transform faults that opened the late Miocene Gulf of California. The neotectonic evolution and uplift history of the SRB is documented through mapping of

  16. Tectonic Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    defined by Semper as a constructive precondition, a theory for developing a novel tectonic relation between home and system opens up. As a research result the paper suggests a practical spatial exploitation of the actual prefab construction, defining interiority not solely as a visual occupation......’ is an example of this sensuous interior transformation of a house into a home, a level of detailing which is, however, seldom represented in the prefabricated house. Consequently, this paper investigates whether interiority can be developed as a tectonic theory and design principle for uniting home and system......Since the first optimistic originally Modernist prefab visions were formulated there has been, and are still, challenges to be overcome in order to fulfill the increasing need for fast, precise and economically produced homes. The tectonic need to transform a home, into a system of joints...

  17. Transcultural Tectonic Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an understanding of Jørn Utzon, as one of the most profound exponents of a transcultural and tectonic approach to modern architecture in the late twentieth century. The paper will examine the sources of inspiration, intersections and connections in Utzon’s architecture; which...... of cloud formations over a Hawaiian beach, when Utzon was teaching at the University of Hawai’i at Manoa. It is this ability to make connections and translate ideas from one context to another with poetic architectural vision and tectonic integrity, that is at the heart of Utzon’s architecture Together...... with such original unrealised projects as the subterranean Silkeborg Art Museum, Utzon’s work embodies a visionary approach to architecture that is site specific and poetic, tectonic and humane; informed by a profound appreciation of nature and diversity of human cultures, as sources of inspiration and analogy...

  18. Comment on ;Evolution of high-pressure mafic granulites and pelitic gneisses from NE Madagascar: Tectonic implications;. Tectonophysics, 662, 219-242 (2015) by Ishwar-Kumar et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Brandt, Sönke; Nicollet, Christian; Tucker, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Determining the possible tectonic regimes active during the Neoproterozoic is crucial for the knowledge of the evolution of the super-continent Gondwana. In Madagascar, that occupies a key position in Gondwana, there is an on-going debate regarding the location of possible suture zones and the implications in terms of paleo-geography. Recognizing high-pressure to ultra-high pressure conditions in mafic rocks is commonly viewed as a strong argument for paleo-subduction zones. Ishwar-Kumar et al. (2015) report unusual high pressure conditions (24 kbar) in Neoproterozoic to Cambrian rocks from North-Central Madagascar (Andriamena Complex). They propose a geodynamic model in which exhumation of the high pressure terranes from up to 80 km to 40 km occurred via vertical extrusion during the collision of various crustal blocks after subduction and closure of an oceanic domain during the formation of Gondwana in the late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian. We question this model and in particular the (ultra-)high pressure conditions reported, because their estimation is based on a misinterpretation of the petrography and inaccurate thermodynamic modeling for the crucial metabasite sample. The authors suggest that garnet-quartz coronas around orthopyroxene and ilmenite coexist with clinopyroxene. The postulated garnet-clinopyroxene-quartz assemblage is interpreted to document an eclogite facies overprint. However, the presence of abundant plagioclase in the sample and the lack of high jadeite content in clinopyroxene clearly refute the postulated eclogite facies conditions. According to the presented photographs clinopyroxene is part of the rock matrix. We therefore suggest that the sample represents a common two-pyroxene granulite, formed at mid- to low-pressure granulite facies conditions of > 700 °C and Madagascar, this interpretation is not justified by the data presented by Ishwar-Kumar et al. (2015).

  19. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1999-01-01

    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...

  20. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  1. Cretacic tectonics in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about Cretacic tectonics in Uruguay, this formation is characterized by high level cortex because the basament is cratonized since Middle Devonian. There were formed two main grabens such as Santa Lucia and Mirim-Pelotas which are filled with basalt and sediments.

  2. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1999-01-01

    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kah...

  3. Tectonic design strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2000-01-01

    The tectonic realm of architecture concerns elements such as intentions and meaning - the process of translating visions into physical constructions - as well as the actual realization of building structures. This field of architectural making has been characterized by Kenneth Frampton as the poe...

  4. Tectonics of montage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    in architecture. The Italian architectural theorist, Marco Frascari describes the concepts 'construction' and 'construing' as inherent dimensions of tectonics, and according to him both dimensions have to be present in meaningful architecture. This close link between the creation of concrete solutions...

  5. The Ghomarides Nappes, Rif Coastal Range, Morocco: A Variscan chip in the Alpine Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouan, Ahmed; Michard, André

    1990-12-01

    The Ghomarides nappes are the uppermost basement nappes in the Rifan Alpine belt. Paleozoic rocks constitute the prominent part of these nappes, together with Triassic and younger cover sediments. Four nappes are distinguished, each one with a distinct stratigraphical sequence, especially for the Devonian and Carboniferous periods. Sedimentological and structural arguments plead for an initial location on the northern margin of the African continent. The main folding and metamorphic events are shown to be Eo-Variscan (late Acadian). Tectonic vergence was to the north (present coordinates). Late Variscan (Hercynian) shortening gave upright, NW-SE trending folds. Alpine ductile overprints are scarce except at the base of the lowest nappe where K/Ar phengite ages are about 25 Ma. The Ghomarides nappes correlate with the Malaguides nappes (Betic Cordilleras, southern Spain), the Kabylian (northern Algeria) and Calabrian (southern Italy) Paleozoic nappes, the Tuscan-South-Alpine basement and the Upper Austro-Alpine nappes. The proposed correlations allow us to restaure the southern margin of the Hercynian belt along northwestern Africa.

  6. The Tectonic Evolution of Caribbean Ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, G.

    2001-12-01

    Ophiolitic rocks (associated basalts, gabbros and ultramafic rocks) occur in many areas in the circum-Caribbean and Central America. These ophiolites are derived principally from two oceanic provinces: (1) the Atlantic realm, proto-Caribbean sea that formed when North America separated from South America during the opening of the North Atlantic during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. These ophiolites were emplaced during a series of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary arc-continent collisions as the east facing Antilles arc migrated into the Caribbean realm. These occurrences include Guatamala, northern Cuba, northern Hispaniola, and northern Venezuela. (2) the Pacific realm, late Cretaceous Caribbean-Colombian plateau that now occupies the central Caribbean, but outcrops on land in Costa Rica, SW Hispaniola, the Netherlands Antilles and western Colombia. Accretion, emplacement and uplift was aided by their buoyancy and took place at various times during the Caribbean plateau's insertion into the middle American continental gap. A third set of occurrences are more uncertain in origin. The central Hispaniola and SE Puerto Rico ophiolites seem to be Jurassic age oceanic plateau rocks that were emplaced in mid-Cretaceous time during an, subduction polarity reversal episode. The emplacement of the metamorphosed ophiolitic rocks of eastern Jamaica may also be associated with this event, but the adjacent, upper Cretaceous, Bath-Dunrobin complex seems to be more related to the Campanian Yucatan-Antillean arc collision. The ultramafic rocks of Tobago are not oceanic, but represent Alaksan-type, assemblages.

  7. Magnetic fabric overprints in multi-deformed polymetamorphic rocks of the Gemeric Unit (Western Carpathians) and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrouda, František; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2017-10-01

    In the Gemeric Unit of the Central West Carpathians, the magnetic fabric was investigated in Early Palaeozoic metasediments and metavolcanics, Permian to Early Triassic granites, and Late Palaeozoic (molasse) metasediments. In addition to Variscan greenschist facies metamorphism in the Early Palaeozoic basement, all rocks underwent Cretaceous (Alpine) low-grade metamorphism, which significantly modified their mineral composition and fabric; original magnetic minerals were destroyed at least partially and new, mostly paramagnetic, minerals were created. In the Early Palaeozoic metasediments, the magnetic fabric is entirely metamorphic/deformational in origin. In metavolcanics, the magnetic foliations are partly parallel to the Alpine metamorphic foliations developed in relatively incompetent lithologies such as tuffs and tuffites and partly to disjunctive foliations developed in competent rhyolites and its subvolcanic members. Their magnetic fabrics probably represent gradual transition from Variscan to Alpine fabrics. In the Permian granites, the magnetic foliations are near the Alpine mesoscopic disjunctive foliations crosscutting metamorphic schistosity in contact aureoles of granite. In the Late Palaeozoic (molasse) metasediments, the magnetic foliations are near the Alpine metamorphic foliations that are mostly parallel to the original bedding. On regional scale, the magnetic fabrics show curved pattern indicating complex interactions between the Gemeric and underlain Veporic units in the final stages of intendation and collision. The magnetic fabric pattern in the Gemeric Unit roughly resembles that in the Veporic Unit. This results from similar tectonic movements operating at least during Cretaceous collision in both the units. This tectonic process occurred subsequent to the closure of the Meliata ocean and was responsible for creation of the final structure of the Central Western Carpathians. Nevertheless, in contrast to the Veporic unit, where dominantly

  8. Genèse des séquences sédimentaires du Crétacé supérieur des Aurès (Algérie). Rôle de l'eustatisme, de la tectonique, de la subsidence: une mise au pointSedimentary sequences in the Upper Cretaceous of Aures Mountains (Algerie). Eustatsy, tectonics and subsidence: a development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkat, Missoum; Delfaud, Jean

    2000-06-01

    The Upper Cretaceous of Aurès has been studied using a sedimentological approach to characterize the sequential organisation and deposits distribution in the basin. The sequential chain which was observed has been correlated to eustatic cycles defined on a global scale. Palaeogeographic reconstruction shows a basin with its south margin corresponding to a proximal platform domain with essentially carbonate deposits and toward the northeast, marly sedimentation of pelagic nature. The influence of NW-SE to WNW-ESE accidents on sedimentation control has been found preponderant. Therefore a system of tilted blocks toward the south characterizes a large part of the basin. The subsidence evolution through Upper Cretaceous is marked by a recovery of a tectonic distension during some phases (Late Albian and Lower Turonian) and an essentially thermic subsidence during the other periods. Finally some precocious tectonic phases appeared as early as the Santonian-Campanian transition. The evolution of the basin was thus controlled by the drift of the African plate during the expansion of the Atlantic ocean and also the tectonic influence which began to appear in north Alpine domain.

  9. Towards a Tectonic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mortensen, Sophie Bondgaard

    2015-01-01

    with these demands. As the largest potential for energy savings lies in re-insulation of the building envelope, specifically by adding an additional insulation layer, this transformation will dramatically affect the everyday experience of the built environment. Articulating the architectural consequences...... and potentials of this transformation is an urgent matter if it is not to be realized solely as a monotonous technical cladding. In this matter, that of conceiving such extra insulation layer simultaneously as a technical ‘principle’ and as a spatial ‘gesture’ revealing an aesthetic architectural potential...... through this transformation is inevitably a tectonic question. By analyzing three historical examples, Adolf Loos’ Villa Moller, Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation, and Frank Lloyd Wright’s Johnson Wax Administration Building, chosen for their tectonic ability to exploit the technical ‘principle’ defining...

  10. Tectonics wins AAP Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGU's newest journal, Tectonics, won the 1983 award for excellence in journal design and production given by the Association of American Publishers, Inc. (AAP), in the eighth annual professional and scholarly publishing awards competition. Edited by John F. Dewey, the bimonthly journal is a joint publication of AGU and the European Geophysical Society. Paul E. Tapponnier is the European editor and B.C. Burchfiel is the North American editor. The journal is now in its third year of publication.

  11. Climate change and alpine stream biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotaling, Scott; Finn, Debra S.; Joseph Giersch, J.

    2017-01-01

    In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources......, and threatening the very existence of some habitats and biota. Alpine streams harbour substantial species and genetic diversity due to significant habitat insularity and environmental heterogeneity. Climate change is expected to affect alpine stream biodiversity across many levels of biological resolution from...... micro- to macroscopic organisms and genes to communities. Herein, we describe the current state of alpine stream biology from an organism-focused perspective. We begin by reviewing seven standard and emerging approaches that combine to form the current state of the discipline. We follow with a call...

  12. Boninites: Characteristics and tectonic constraints, northeastern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Jacobi, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Boninites are high Mg andesites that are thought to form in suprasubduction zone tectonic environments as primary melts from refractory mantle. Boninites provide a potential constraint on tectonic models for ancient terranes that contain boninites because the only unequivocal tectonic setting in which "modern" boninites have been recognized is a fore-arc setting. Tectonic models for "modern" boninite genesis include subduction initiation ("infant arc"), fore-arc spreading, and the forearc side of intra-arc rifting (spreading). These models can be differentiated by the relative age of the boninites and to a lesser degree, geochemistry. The distinctive geochemistry of boninites promotes their recognition in ancient terranes. As detailed in this report, several mafic terranes in the northeastern Appalachians contain boninites; these terranes were situated on both sides of Iapetus. The characteristics of these boninites can be used to constrain tectonic models of the evolution of the northeastern Appalachians. On the Laurentian side of Iapetus, "infant arc" boninites were not produced ubiquitously during the Cambrian subduction initiation, unless sampling problems or minimum age dates obscure a more widespread boninite "infant arc". The Cambrian subduction initiation on the Laurentian side was probably characterized by both "infant arc" boninitic arc construction (perhaps the >496 Ma Hawley Formation and the >488 Ma Betts Cove Ophiolite) and "normal" arc construction (Mt. Orford). This duality is consistent with the suggestion that the pre-collisional geometry of the Laurentian margin was complex. The Bay of Islands Complex and Thetford Mines ophiolite boninites are likely associated with forearc/intra-arc spreading during the protracted evolution of the Cambrian arc system. The relatively young boninites in the Bronson Hill Arc suggest that the Taconic continuous eastward subduction tectonic model is less tenable than other models. On the Gondwana side of Iapetus, the

  13. LOWLID FORMATION AND PLATE TECTONICS ON EXOPLANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    The last years of astronomical observation have opened the doors to a universe filled with extrasolar planets. Detection techniques still only offer the possibility to detect mainly Super-Earths above five Earth masses. But detection techniques do steadily improve and are offering the possibility to detect even smaller planets. The observations show that planets seem to exist in many possible sizes just as the planets and moons of our own solar system do. It is only a natural question to ask if planetary mass has an influence on some key habitability factors such as on plate tectonics, allowing us to test which exoplanets might be more likely habitable than others, and allowing us to understand if plate tectonics on Earth is a stable or a critical, instable process that could easily be perturbed. Here we present results derived from 1D parameterized thermal evolution and 2D/3D computer models, showing how planetary mass influences the propensity of plate tectonics for planets with masses ranging from 0.1 to 10 Earth masses. Lately [2, 3] studied the effect of planetary mass on the ability to break plates and hence initiate plate tectonics - but both derived results contradictory to the other. We think that one of the reasons why both studies [2, 3] are not acceptable in their current form is partly due to an oversimplification. Both treated viscosity only temperature-dependent but neglected the effect pressure has on enlarging the viscosity in the deep mantle. More massive planets have therefore a stronger pressure-viscosity-coupling making convection at high pressures sluggish or even impossible. For planets larger than two Earth masses we observe that a conductive lid (termed low-lid) forms above the core-mantle boundary and thus reduces the effective convective part of the mantle when including a pressure-dependent term into the viscosity laws as shown in [1]. Moreover [2, 3] use time independent steady state models neglecting the fact that plate tectonics is a

  14. The tectonometamorphic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania): Geodynamic constraints for the evolution of the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaride system of orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Martin; Schuster, Ralf; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    New structural, thermobarometric and geochronological data allow integrating kinematics, timing and intensity of tectonic phases into a geodynamic model of the Apuseni Mountain, which provides new constraints for the evolution of the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaride system of orogens. Strong differences in terms of deformation directions between Early and Late Cretaceous events provide new constraints on the regional geodynamic evolution during the Cretaceous. Geochronological and structural data evidence a Late Jurassic emplacement of the South Apuseni Ophiolites on top of the Biharia Nappe System (Dacia Mega-Unit), situated in an external position at the European margin. Following the emplacement of the ophiolites, three compressive deformation phases affected the Apuseni Mountains during Alpine orogeny: a) NE-directed in-sequence nappe stacking and regional metamorphic overprinting under amphibolite-facies conditions during the Early Cretaceous ("Austrian Phase"), b) NW-directed thrusting and folding, associated with greenschist-facies overprinting, during the early Late Cretaceous ("Turonian Phase") and c) E-W internal folding together with brittle thrusting during the latest Cretaceous ("Laramian Phase"). Major tectonic unroofing and exhumation at the transition from Early to Late Cretaceous times is documented through new Sm-Nd Grt, Ar-Ar Ms and Rb-Sr Bt ages from the study area and resulted in a complex thermal structure with strong lateral and vertical thermal gradients. Nappe stacking and medium-grade metamorphic overprinting during the Early Cretaceous exhibits striking parallels between the evolution of the Tisza-Dacia Mega-Units and the Austroalpine Nappes (ALCAPA Mega-Unit) and evidences a close connection. However, Late Cretaceous tectonic events in the study area exhibit strong similarities with the Dinarides. Thus, the Apuseni Mountains represent the "missing link" between the Early Cretaceous Meliata subduction (associated with obduction of ophiolites

  15. Changes in the Alpine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schoeneich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution de l’environnement alpin au XXIe siècle sera conditionnée par le changement climatique. Celui-ci pourrait conduire à des climats inconnus à ce jour dans les Alpes, avec comme conséquence une crise environnementale majeure et durable. Face à ces défis, les financements de recherche restent insuffisants pour la recherche appliquée aux milieux de montagne. Les financements nationaux privilégient souvent la recherche polaire au détriment des hautes altitudes, alors que les financements de type Interreg prennent insuffisamment en compte les besoins de recherche fondamentale, préalable nécessaire à l’élaboration de scénarios. Une évolution se dessine depuis deux ou trois ans vers des projets en réseau à l’échelle alpine. Le présent article fait le point sur les principaux enjeux qui attendent la recherche environnementale alpine et sur la capacité des programmes de recherche à répondre aux besoins. La première partie sur les changements climatiques est fondée sur les rapports récents : rapport de synthèse IPCC 2007 (IPCC 2007, rapport IPCC sur l’Europe (Alcamo et al. 2007, rapport de synthèse du programme ClimChAlp (Prudent-Richard et al., 2008. On y trouvera des bibliographies complètes et circonstanciées. La deuxième partie se base sur une analyse des appels d’offres récents ou en cours, et des projets soumis et financés.The way the Alpine environment will evolve in the 21st century depends upon climate change. This could lead to climates never before seen in the Alps, resulting in a major and lasting environmental crisis. In the face of these challenges, funding is still insufficient for specialised research on mountain environments. State funding often prioritises polar research at the expense of high altitude areas, whereas funding schemes from bodies such as Interreg do not sufficiently address the need for fundamental research, which is nevertheless a necessary first step prior to

  16. Tectonic Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    and assembly processes, seems a paradoxical challenge which has left prefabricated houses raw constructions rather than inhabitable homes. Based on the hypothesis that home is determined spatially via sensuous impressions of interiority at the threshold of furniture: The bath in Le Corbusier’s ‘Villa Savoye......’ is an example of this sensuous interior transformation of a house into a home, a level of detailing which is, however, seldom represented in the prefabricated house. Consequently, this paper investigates whether interiority can be developed as a tectonic theory and design principle for uniting home and system...

  17. Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the late Miocene-Pleistocene Dali Basin in the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau : Evidences from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and rock magnetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shihu; Deng, Chenglong; Paterson, Greig A.; Yao, Haitao; Huang, Sheng; Liu, Chengying; He, Huaiyu; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2014-01-01

    The Cenozoic Dali Basin, located at the northeast of Diancang Shan and south of the first bend of Yangtze River, is tectonically controlled by the Dali fault system in the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The basin is filled with late Miocene to Pleistocene fluviolacustrine sediments, which

  18. Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic settings of the mafic dikes and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we summarize the petrological, geochemical and tectonic processes involved in the evolution of the Proterozoic intracratonic Cuddapah basin. We use new and available ages of Cuddapah igneous rocks, together with field, stratigraphic, geophysical and other criteria, to arrive at a plausible model for the ...

  19. A Tectonic Implication Of The Eruption Of Pyroclastics In Uturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposures of pyroclastics within flatland in Uturu, east of Okigwe, were studied with a view to determining the implication of the eruption that emplaced the pyroclastics on the tectonic evolution of the Lower Benue Trough. Field expressions show that the pyroclastics erupted parallel to the axial plane of the Abakiliki ...

  20. Gravity anomalies, crustal structure and rift tectonics at the Konkan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trolled by the mode of extension and thinning of continental lithosphere during its formation. Stud- ies on the evolution of passive margins therefore facilitate to understand the genetic link between tectonics, geomorphology and sedimentation. The. Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI) has evolved through rifting and ...

  1. MACMA: a Virtual Lab for Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigne, C.; Combes, M.; Tisseau, C.

    2013-12-01

    MACMA (Multi-Agent Convective MAntle) is a tool developed to simulate evolutive plate tectonics and mantle convection in a 2-D cylindrical geometry (Combes et al., 2012). The model relies mainly on a force balance to compute the velocity of each plate, and on empirical rules to determine how plate boundaries move and evolve. It includes first-order features of plate tectonics: (a) all plates on Earth do not have the same size, (b) subduction zones are asymmetric, (c) plates driven by subducting slabs and upper plates do not exhibit the same velocities, and (d) plate boundaries are mobile, can collide, merge and disappear, and new plate boundaries can be created. The MACMA interface was designed to be user-friendly and a simple use of the simulator can be achieved without any prerequisite knowledge in fluid dynamics, mantle rheology, nor in numerical methods. As a preliminary study, the simulator was used by a few students from bachelor's degree to master's degree levels. An initial configuration for plate tectonics has to be created before starting a simulation: the number and types of plate boundaries (ridge, subduction, passive margins) has to be defined and seafloor ages must be given. A simple but interesting exercise consists in letting students build such an initial configuration: they must analyze a map of tectonic plates, choose a 2-D section and examine carefully a map of seafloor ages. Students mentioned that the exercise made them realize that the 3-D spherical structure of plate tectonics does not translate directly in a simple 2-D section, as opposed to what is usually shown in books. Physical parameters: e.g. mantle viscosity, number of layers to consider in the mantle (upper and lower mantle, possible asthenosphere), initial time and mantle temperature, have to be chosen, and students can use this virtual lab to see how different scenarios emerge when parameters are varied. Very importantly, the direct visualization of the mobility of plate

  2. Combining sediment fingerprinting and a conceptual model for erosion and sediment transfer to explore sediment sources in an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A.; Stutenbecker, L.; Anghileri, D.; Bakker, M.; Lane, S. N.; Molnar, P.; Schlunegger, F.

    2017-12-01

    In Alpine basins, sediment production and transfer is increasingly affected by climate change and human activities, specifically hydropower exploitation. Changes in sediment sources and pathways significantly influence basin management, biodiversity and landscape evolution. We explore the dynamics of sediment sources in a partially glaciated and highly regulated Alpine basin, the Borgne basin, by combining geochemical fingerprinting with the modelling of erosion and sediment transfer. The Borgne basin in southwest Switzerland is composed of three main litho-tectonic units, which we characterised following a tributary-sampling approach from lithologically characteristic sub-basins. We analysed bulk geochemistry using lithium borate fusion coupled with ICP-ES, and we used it to discriminate the three lithologic sources using statistical methods. Finally, we applied a mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of the three sources to the sediment sampled at the outlet. We combine results of the sediment fingerprinting with simulations of a spatially distributed conceptual model for erosion and transport of fine sediment. The model expresses sediment erosion by differentiating the contributions of erosional processes driven by erosive rainfall, snowmelt, and icemelt. Soil erodibility is accounted for as function of land-use and sediment fluxes are linearly convoluted to the outlet by sediment transfer rates for hillslope and river cells, which are a function of sediment connectivity. Sediment connectivity is estimated on the basis of topographic-hydraulic connectivity, flow duration associated with hydropower flow abstraction and permanent storage in hydropower reservoirs. Sediment fingerprinting at the outlet of the Borgne shows a consistent dominance (68-89%) of material derived from the uppermost, highly glaciated reaches, while contributions of the lower part (10-25%) and middle part (1-16%), where rainfall erosion is predominant, are minor. This result is

  3. End Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the end Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin by interpreting stress-response structures (dykes, folds, faults with slickenside and conjugate joints. The direction of the maximum principal stress axes is interpreted to be NW–SE (about 325°, and the accommodated motion among plates is assigned as the driving force of this tectonic stress field. The average value of the stress index R′ is about 2.09, which indicates a variation from strike-slip to compressive tectonic stress regime in the study area during the end Late Paleozoic period. The reconstruction of the tectonic field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin provides insights into the tectonic deformation processes around the southern Junggar Basin and contributes to the further understanding of basin evolution and tectonic settings during the culmination of the Paleozoic.

  4. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  5. A molecular phylogeny of Alpine subterranean Trechini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Alpine region harbours one of the most diverse subterranean faunas in the world, with many species showing extreme morphological modifications. The ground beetles of tribe Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are among the best studied and widespread groups with abundance of troglobionts, but their origin and evolution is largely unknown. Results We sequenced 3.4 Kb of mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL, trnL, nad1) and nuclear (SSU, LSU) genes of 207 specimens of 173 mostly Alpine species, including examples of all subterranean genera but two plus a representation of epigean taxa. We applied Bayesian methods and maximum likelihood to reconstruct the topology and to estimate divergence times using a priori rates obtained for a related ground beetle genus. We found three main clades of late Eocene-early Oligocene origin: (1) the genus Doderotrechus and relatives; (2) the genus Trechus sensu lato, with most anisotopic subterranean genera, including the Pyrenean lineage and taxa from the Dinaric Alps; and (3) the genus Duvalius sensu lato, diversifying during the late Miocene and including all subterranean isotopic taxa. Most of the subterranean genera had an independent origin and were related to epigean taxa of the same geographical area, but there were three large monophyletic clades of exclusively subterranean species: the Pyrenean lineage, a lineage including subterranean taxa from the eastern Alps and the Dinarides, and the genus Anophthalmus from the northeastern Alps. Many lineages have developed similar phenotypes independently, showing extensive morphological convergence or parallelism. Conclusions The Alpine Trechini do not form a homogeneous fauna, in contrast with the Pyrenees, and show a complex scenario of multiple colonisations of the subterranean environment at different geological periods and through different processes. Examples go from populations of an epigean widespread species going underground with little morphological modifications to

  6. Transient thermal effects in Alpine permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noetzli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In high mountain areas, permafrost is important because it influences the occurrence of natural hazards, because it has to be considered in construction practices, and because it is sensitive to climate change. The assessment of its distribution and evolution is challenging because of highly variable conditions at and below the surface, steep topography and varying climatic conditions. This paper presents a systematic investigation of effects of topography and climate variability that are important for subsurface temperatures in Alpine bedrock permafrost. We studied the effects of both, past and projected future ground surface temperature variations on the basis of numerical experimentation with simplified mountain topography in order to demonstrate the principal effects. The modeling approach applied combines a distributed surface energy balance model and a three-dimensional subsurface heat conduction scheme. Results show that the past climate variations that essentially influence present-day permafrost temperatures at depth of the idealized mountains are the last glacial period and the major fluctuations in the past millennium. Transient effects from projected future warming, however, are likely larger than those from past climate conditions because larger temperature changes at the surface occur in shorter time periods. We further demonstrate the accelerating influence of multi-lateral warming in steep and complex topography for a temperature signal entering the subsurface as compared to the situation in flat areas. The effects of varying and uncertain material properties (i.e., thermal properties, porosity, and freezing characteristics on the subsurface temperature field were examined in sensitivity studies. A considerable influence of latent heat due to water in low-porosity bedrock was only shown for simulations over time periods of decades to centuries. At the end, the model was applied to the topographic setting of the Matterhorn

  7. Frost resistance of alpine woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert eNeuner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report provides a brief review of key findings related to frost resistance in alpine woody plant species, summarizes data on their frost resistance, highlights the importance of freeze avoidance mechanisms, and indicates areas of future research.Freezing temperatures are possible throughout the whole growing period in the alpine life zone. Frost severity, comprised of both intensity and duration, becomes greater with increasing elevation and, there is also a greater probability, that small statured woody plants, may be insulated by snow cover.Several frost survival mechanisms have evolved in woody alpine plants in response to these environmental conditions. Examples of tolerance to extracellular freezing and freeze dehydration, life cycles that allow species to escape frost, and freeze avoidance mechanisms can all be found. Despite their specific adaption to the alpine environment, frost damage can occur in spring, while all alpine woody plants have a low risk of frost damage in winter. Experimental evidence indicates that premature deacclimation in Pinus cembra in the spring, and a limited ability of many species of alpine woody shrubs to rapidly reacclimate when they lose snow cover, resulting in reduced levels of frost resistance in the spring, may be particularly critical under the projected changes in climate.In this review, frost resistance and specific frost survival mechanisms of different organs (leaves, stems, vegetative and reproductive over-wintering buds, flowers and fruits and tissues are compared. The seasonal dynamics of frost resistance of leaves of trees, as opposed to woody shrubs, is also discussed. The ability of some tissues and organs to avoid freezing by supercooling, as visualized by high resolution infrared thermography, are also provided. Collectively, the report provides a review of the complex and diverse ways that woody plants survive in the frost dominated environment of the alpine life zone.

  8. Frost resistance in alpine woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of key findings related to frost resistance in alpine woody plant species, summarizes data on their frost resistance, highlights the importance of freeze avoidance mechanisms, and indicates areas of future research. Freezing temperatures are possible throughout the whole growing period in the alpine life zone. Frost severity, comprised of both intensity and duration, becomes greater with increasing elevation and, there is also a greater probability, that small statured woody plants, may be insulated by snow cover. Several frost survival mechanisms have evolved in woody alpine plants in response to these environmental conditions. Examples of tolerance to extracellular freezing and freeze dehydration, life cycles that allow species to escape frost, and freeze avoidance mechanisms can all be found. Despite their specific adaption to the alpine environment, frost damage can occur in spring, while all alpine woody plants have a low risk of frost damage in winter. Experimental evidence indicates that premature deacclimation in Pinus cembra in the spring, and a limited ability of many species of alpine woody shrubs to rapidly reacclimate when they lose snow cover, resulting in reduced levels of frost resistance in the spring, may be particularly critical under the projected changes in climate. In this review, frost resistance and specific frost survival mechanisms of different organs (leaves, stems, vegetative and reproductive over-wintering buds, flowers, and fruits) and tissues are compared. The seasonal dynamics of frost resistance of leaves of trees, as opposed to woody shrubs, is also discussed. The ability of some tissues and organs to avoid freezing by supercooling, as visualized by high resolution infrared thermography, are also provided. Collectively, the report provides a review of the complex and diverse ways that woody plants survive in the frost dominated environment of the alpine life zone.

  9. Tectonic predictions with mantle convection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Shephard, Grace E.

    2018-04-01

    Over the past 15 yr, numerical models of convection in Earth's mantle have made a leap forward: they can now produce self-consistent plate-like behaviour at the surface together with deep mantle circulation. These digital tools provide a new window into the intimate connections between plate tectonics and mantle dynamics, and can therefore be used for tectonic predictions, in principle. This contribution explores this assumption. First, initial conditions at 30, 20, 10 and 0 Ma are generated by driving a convective flow with imposed plate velocities at the surface. We then compute instantaneous mantle flows in response to the guessed temperature fields without imposing any boundary conditions. Plate boundaries self-consistently emerge at correct locations with respect to reconstructions, except for small plates close to subduction zones. As already observed for other types of instantaneous flow calculations, the structure of the top boundary layer and upper-mantle slab is the dominant character that leads to accurate predictions of surface velocities. Perturbations of the rheological parameters have little impact on the resulting surface velocities. We then compute fully dynamic model evolution from 30 and 10 to 0 Ma, without imposing plate boundaries or plate velocities. Contrary to instantaneous calculations, errors in kinematic predictions are substantial, although the plate layout and kinematics in several areas remain consistent with the expectations for the Earth. For these calculations, varying the rheological parameters makes a difference for plate boundary evolution. Also, identified errors in initial conditions contribute to first-order kinematic errors. This experiment shows that the tectonic predictions of dynamic models over 10 My are highly sensitive to uncertainties of rheological parameters and initial temperature field in comparison to instantaneous flow calculations. Indeed, the initial conditions and the rheological parameters can be good enough

  10. The pre-Cenozoic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) in the light of new (thermo)geochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Martin; Schuster, Ralf; Spikings, Richard; Tropper, Peter; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    , although a possible minor influence of later normal faulting on the age distribution cannot be fully excluded and needs further evaluation. In contrast, fission track data show only minor differences between these two units (see Kounov and Schmid, 2012) and point to their mutual evolution since the late Upper Cretaceous. The known and exclusively brittle Cenozoic tectonic evolution did not substantially modify the pre-Cenozoic age (and thermal) pattern of the Tisza and Dacia units. References: Dallmeyer, R.D., Paná, D.I., Neubauer, F., & Erdmer, P. (1999): Tectonothermal Evolution of the Apuseni Mountains, Romania: Resolution of Variscan versus Alpine Events with 40Ar/39Ar Ages. Journal of Geology, 107: 329-352. Kounov, A and Schmid, S.M. (2012): Fission-track constraints on the thermal and tectonic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania). International Journal of Earth Sciences, DOI: 10.1007/s00531-012-0800-5. Schmid, S. M., D. Bernoulli, B. Fügenschuh, L. Matenco, S. Schaefer, R. Schuster, M. Tischler and K. Ustaszewski (2008): The Alps-Carpathians-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units. Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 101, 139-18.

  11. Background and triggered microseismicity in the Alpine Fault zone, central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Smith, E. G.; Townend, J.; Henderson, M.

    2010-12-01

    ) and the SAMBA station network (red triangles) and place names mentioned in the text. Inset: Tectonic setting of the Alpine Fault in the central South Island, New Zealand

  12. The Alpine nappe stack in western Austria: A crustal-scale cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomella, Hannah; Bertrand, Audrey; Ortner, Hugo; Zerlauth, Michael; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    A N-S oriented crustal-scale cross-section was constructed east of the Rhine valley in Vorarlberg, western Austria addressing the central Alps-eastern Alps boundary. The construction was based on published data, surface geology, drillings, as well as on reinterpreted seismic lines. The general architecture of the examined area can be described as a typical foreland fold-and-thrust belt, comprising the tectonic units of the Subalpine Molasse, (Ultra-)Helvetic, Penninic, and Austroalpine nappes. These units overthrusted the autochthonous Molasse along the south-dipping listric Alpine basal thrust. The thermotectonic evolution of this nappe stack is adressed by Bertrand et al. (this session). The Subalpine Molasse is multiply stacked, forming a triangle-zone (Müller et al. 1984). The shortening within the Subalpine Molasse in the cross section has been calculated using the Lower Marine Molasse as a reference and amounts to approx. 46 km, (~70%). Towards east the shortening within the Subalpine Molasse decreases dramatically as shown by Ortner et al. (this session). A well-defined seismic feature in the research area is the European basement together with its autochthonous cover, with a moderate southward dip from about 3500m BSL to approx. 6500m BSL along the ca. 50km long section. Several seismic sections show fault structures offsetting the top of the European basement as well as autochthonous cover. Another discontinuous double reflector that can be identified in several seismic sections is interpreted as the base of the Helvetic nappe complex (approx. at 5000m BSL in the southernmost parts). The internal structure of the Helvetic nappe stack could hardly be resolved. The assumed hinterland dipping duplex-structure of the Helvetic nappes results from surface and borehole-data. However, there are at least two Helvetic nappes needed to fill the available space. The deeper one, termed "Hohenemse nappe" (Wyssling, 1985), is overlain by the superficially exposed

  13. Interplay between tectonics and topography: Topographic stress controls on bedrock fractures and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Martel, S. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; St Clair, J. T.; Singha, K.

    2016-12-01

    The interaction of tectonics, topography, and surface processes influences the evolution of landscapes in tectonically active regions. Though tectonic controls on topography have been extensively studied, the influence of topography on tectonics has been examined less. Theoretical studies have suggested that topography can perturb the tectonic and gravitational stress fields in landscapes, which can influence bedrock fracture patterns and in turn influence erosion. This hypothesis implies that there could be a feedback between topographic stress and landscape evolution such that topographically induced bedrock fractures influence and are influenced by surface processes in evolving topography. In this work, we explore the predictions of a three-dimensional topographic stress model and illustrate how different topographic forms and tectonic settings could influence bedrock fracture patterns. We show that the stress field is most sensitive to topographic perturbations if the most compressive horizontal tectonic stress is oriented perpendicular to the long axis of elongated landforms such as ridges and valleys, and that topographic stress perturbations are most pronounced beneath landforms with higher mean curvatures, such as channel junctions and ridge crests. The shape of a predicted fracture-rich zone in the subsurface depends mainly on the orientation of landforms relative to the most compressive horizontal tectonic stress direction and a dimensionless ratio that expresses the relative magnitudes of topographic stresses associated with tectonics and topographic relief. Variations in this dimensionless ratio can also change the predicted orientations of potential opening-mode fracture planes beneath ridges and valleys. We use these model results to illustrate how topographic perturbations of three-dimensional tectonic and gravitational stresses could influence landscape evolution by altering the rates and spatial heterogeneity of surface processes such as

  14. Larch dwarf mistletoe not found on alpine larch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Mathiasen; Brian W. Geils; Clinton E. Carlson; Frank G. Hawksworth

    1995-01-01

    Reports of larch dwarf mistletoe parasitizing alpine larch are based on two collections of this host/parasite combination made by J.R. Weir in Montana during the early 1900s. Examination of host material from these collections indicates that the host is western larch, not alpine larch as previously reported. Attempts to locate larch dwarf mistletoe on alpine larch were...

  15. Assessment of relative active tectonics, south central Alborz (north Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, R.; Ghorashi, M.; Arian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper present a method for evaluating relative active tectonics based on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. Indices used include: stream length-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to highest tectonic activity. The study area along the south flank of the central Alborz mountain range in north Iran is an ideal location to test the concept of an index to predict relative tectonic activity on a basis of area rather than a single valley or mountain front. The recent investigations show that neotectonism has played a key role in the geomorphic evolution of this part of the Alborz mountain range. Geomorphic indices indicate the presence of differential uplifting in the geological past. The area surrounding the Amirkabir lake shows very high relative tectonic activity.

  16. Discontinuities and sequences in the Tarat formation (Upper Visean) and the Arlit Unit (Namurian-Westphalian) at Arlit (Niger). Sedimentary climatic and tectonic evolution of the area during Carboniferous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sempere, T.; Beaudoin, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Tarat Formation is composed at Arlit of three sequences consisting of sandstones and black mudstones rich in organic matter of continental origin. The three of them are interpreted as estuarine sediments deposited in different tectonic frameworks. The Arlit Unit consists of motley argillaceous sandstones deposited in a very flat lacustrine or alluvial environment and under an arid climate. These formations are separated by a fundamental discontinuity linked to the structuration of the Tim Mersoi Trough. At regional scale, the sediments lying below this discontinuity are grouped in tectono-sedimentary supersequences, which are interpreted as biorhexistasic rhythms; their deposition was horizontally directed by complex evolving synsedimentary tectonics controlled by the N-S In Azawa Lineament, and was influenced by the permanent proximity of a northern sea. The sediments lying above the fundamental discontinuity belong to the ''Continental Intercalaire'' Supergroup; their deposition was influenced by the Tim Mersoi Trough. The whole Carboniferous sedimentation took place in a climatic context which evolved from cold (Lower Visean) to warm and arid (Upper Carboniferous) through temperate climates [fr

  17. Quantifying the role of mantle forcing, crustal shortening and exogenic forcing on exhumation of the North Alpine Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hagke, C.; Luijendijk, E.; Hindle, D.

    2017-12-01

    In contrast to the internal zones of orogens, where the stacking of thrust sheets can overwhelm more subtle signals, foreland basins can record long-wavelength subsidence or uplift signals caused by mantle processes. We use a new and extensive compilation of geological and thermochronology data from the North Alpine Foreland Basin to understand the dynamics of foreland basins and their interaction with surface and geodynamic processes. We quantify cooling and exhumation rates in the basin by combining published and new vitrinite reflectance, apatite fission track and U-Th/He data with a new inverse burial and thermal history model, pybasin. No correlation is obvious between inferred cooling and exhumation rates and elevation, relief or tectonics. Uncertainty analysis shows that thermochronometers can be explained by cooling starting as early as the Miocene or as late as the Pleistocene. We compare derived temperature histories to exhumation estimates based on the retro-deformation of Molasse basin and the Jura mountains, and to exhumation caused by drainage reorganization and incision. Drainage reorganization can explain at most 25% of the observed cooling rates in the basin. Tectonic transport of the basin's sediments over the inclined basement of the alpine foreland as the Jura mountains shortened can explain part of the cooling signal in the western part of the basin. However, overall a substantial amount of cooling and exhumation remains unexplained by known tectonic and surface processes. Our results document basin wide exhumation that may be related to slab roll-back or other lithospheric processes. We suggest that new (U-Th)/He data from key areas close to the Alpine front may provide better constraints on the timing of exhumation.

  18. Snow, ice and water in alpine regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, H.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how climate change will have a deep impact on alpine regions. The findings discussed at a conference organised by the Swiss Hydrologic Commission are presented and discussed. Flooding incidents that occurred 'once in a century' are now becoming more frequent and were considered at the conference as being an indicator of climate change. Changing hydrological factors are also discussed and the influence of climate factors in alpine regions on the water quantities in the rivers are looked at. Also, the spontaneous emptying of glacial lakes as has already happened in Switzerland and the consequences to be drawn from such incidences are discussed.

  19. Plate tectonic reconstruction of the Carpathian-Pannonian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, L.; Vörös, A.

    2003-04-01

    Plate tectonics of the Carpathian area is controlled by microcontinents between the European and African margins and the relative movements of these margins. Beside the generally accepted Apulian (Austroalpine, West Carpathian, Dinaric) microcontinents two others: the Bihor-Getic (Tisza) and Drina-Ivanjica are introduced. The first was attached to the European margin, the second to the Apulian microcontinent. During Permian a major ocean was obliquely subducted south of the Apulian microcontinents. Drina-Ivanjica rifted off the Apulian microcontinent in the Late Permian-Middle Triassic, as a consequence of back-arc rifting. Short-lived oceans subducted by the end of Jurassic, causing Drina-Ivanjica to collide with the internal Dinaric-West Carpathian and Bihor-Getic margins. An external Penninic-Váhic ocean tract began opening in the Early Jurassic, separating the East Alpine-West Carpathian microcontinent (and its fauna) from the European shelf. Further south, the Severin-Ceahlau-Magura also began opening in the Early Jurassic, but final separation of the Bihor-Getic (and its fauna) from the European shelf did not take place until the Middle-Late Jurassic. Two oroclinal bends: the Alcapa on the Dinaric margin and the Tisza-Dacia on the South Carpathian-Getic margin are essential elements of these reconstructions. Their bending (Aptian and Albian-Maastrichtian, respectively) are suggested by paleomagnetic and tectonic transport data. The two oroclinal bends are finally opposed and pushed into the Carpathian embayment by the Paleogene. In Miocene a back-arc basin develops on older tectonic elements. Differential rotations affect the wealded microcontinents.

  20. Correction of two Upper Paleozoic stratigraphic units in the Tianshan Mountains region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and implications on the Late Paleozoic evolution of Tianshan tectonic complex, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Qiang Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses two tectonostratigraphic concerns on the Late Paleozoic Tianshan tectonic complex (TTC, Xinjiang, Northwest (NW China: (1 stratigraphic succession and age constraint of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange, eastern Tianshan Mountains and (2 timing of closure of the southern Tianshan ocean and accretion of the Siberian craton recorded in the Aiweiergou (AWEG area, eastern Tianshan Mountains by integrating stratigraphy, palaeontology, tectonopalaeogeography and palaeobiogeography. In the Bayingou area, the detailed palaeontological survey denies the presence of brachiopod Gigantoproductus fauna, typical of the Early Carboniferous faunas in central–south Tianshan complex, in the Anjihai Formation. In contrast, the Anjihai brachiopod assemblage, as a whole, appears to have a high affinity with the Late Devonian faunas of the eastern Junggar Basin, northern Xinjiang, suggesting a Late Devonian age for the Anjihai Formation. The overlying Shadawang Formation yields the Early Carboniferous radiolarians. These two units form the main part of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange, which therefore is likely Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous in age. The Bayingou area has been likely part of the northern Tianshan-Junggar block since the Late Devonian, although it may have been part of the Central Tianshan tectonostratigraphic province prior to the Late Devonian. The topmost strata of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange are characterized by alternation of volcanics, conglomerate and mudstone, and are better re-assigned to the Taoxigou Group rather than the Keguqingshan Formation. The Bayingou ophiolite mélange comprises the Late Devonian Anjihai Formation, the Carboniferous Bayingou and Shadawang Formations, and the Early Permian Taoxigou Group. In the AWEG area, the Permian and Triassic rocks were previously misinterpreted as the Late Permian turbidites and Late Triassic red beds, respectively. In fact, the Permian successions in AWEG

  1. Late cenozoic landscape development and its tectonic implications for the guadalhorce valley near alora (southern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Landscape evolution is the result of a variety of geomorphological processes and their controls in time. In southern Spain tectonics, climate and sea-level fluctuations have been some of the main variables controlling long-term (Late Cenozoic) landscape evolution. In the Guadalhorce valley, Malaga,

  2. Advanced Seismic Imaging Techniques Characterize the Alpine Fault at Whataroa (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, V.; Buske, S.; Lukács, A.; Gorman, A. R.; Bannister, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The plate-bounding Alpine Fault in New Zealand is a large transpressive continental fault zone that is late in its earthquake cycle. The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) aims to deliver insight into the geological structure of this fault zone and its evolution by drilling and sampling the Alpine Fault at depth. We have acquired and processed reflection seismic data to image the subsurface around the drill site. The resulting velocity models and seismic images of the upper 5 km show complex subsurface structures around the Alpine Fault zone. The most prominent feature is a strong reflector at depths of 1.2-2.2 km with a dip of ~40° to the southeast below the DFDP-2 borehole, which we assume to be the main trace of the Alpine Fault. The reflector exhibits varying lateral reflectivity along its extent. Additionally, subparallel reflectors are imaged that we interpret as secondary branches of the main fault zone. The derived P-wave velocity models reveal a 400-600 m thick sedimentary layer with velocities of ~2.3 km/s above a schist basement with velocities of 4.5-5.5 km/s. A pronounced low-velocity layer with velocities of approximately 3.5 km/s can be observed within the basement at 0.8-2 km depth. Small-scale low-velocity anomalies appear at the top of the basement and can be correlated to the fault zone. The results provide a reliable basis for a seismic site characterization at the DFDP-2 drill site that can be used for further structural and geological investigations of the architecture of the Alpine Fault in this area.

  3. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi......Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  4. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary techniques for concrete casting in an architectural context are challenged by demands of increased individualization in our built environment, reductions in the use of resources and waste generation. In recent years, new production technologies and strategies that break...... of geometric forms in concrete. The former was referred to as mould tectonics, the latter concrete tectonics. A study of the concepts of ‘New Production Philosophy’, ‘Mass-customization’, and Digital Tectonics is presented as a basis for investigating their use in concrete casting. Digital modelling...... plastic in which precision is maintained. The ability to reuse the PETG moulds makes the technique a zero waste production. In general it was concluded that problems with existing techniques relate to production time, surface quality and precision and are caused by the use of mould fabrication technique...

  5. Alpine Fault, New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Alpine fault runs parallel to, and just inland of, much of the west coast of New Zealand's South Island. This view was created from the near-global digital elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and is almost 500 kilometers (just over 300 miles) wide. Northwest is toward the top. The fault is extremely distinct in the topographic pattern, nearly slicing this scene in half lengthwise. In a regional context, the Alpine fault is part of a system of faults that connects a west dipping subduction zone to the northeast with an east dipping subduction zone to the southwest, both of which occur along the juncture of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates. Thus, the fault itself constitutes the major surface manifestation of the plate boundary here. Offsets of streams and ridges evident in the field, and in this view of SRTM data, indicate right-lateral fault motion. But convergence also occurs across the fault, and this causes the continued uplift of the Southern Alps, New Zealand's largest mountain range, along the southeast side of the fault. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast (image top to bottom) direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  6. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    -processed, mostly the ISC-bulletin data (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990). Calculated relative travel-time residuals have been assigned to source clusters and filtered relative to the residual mean of each cluster of events. We expect that future 3D studies of the mantle velocities and mantle fabrics with the use of body-wave anisotropic parameters from the AlpArray data will shed a new light on tectonic development of the complex Alpine region and its surroundings.

  7. Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, João Batista Sena; Léa Bemerguy, Ruth; Hasui, Yociteru; da Silva Borges, Maurício

    2001-09-01

    The main structural and geomorphological features along the Amazon River are closely associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events. The Mesozoic tectonic setting is characterised by the Amazonas and Marajó Basins, two distinct extensional segments. The Amazonas Basin is formed by NNE-SSW normal faults, which control the emplacement of dolerite dykes and deposition of the sedimentary pile. In the more intense tectonic phase (mid-Late Cretaceous), the depocentres were filled with fluvial sequences associated with axial drainage systems, which diverge from the Lower Tapajós Arch. During the next subsidence phase, probably in the Early Tertiary, and under low rate extension, much of the drainage systems reversed, directing the paleo-Amazon River to flow eastwards. The Marajó Basin encompasses NW-SE normal faults and NE-SW strike-slip faults, with the latter running almost parallel to the extensional axes. The normal faults controlled the deposition of thick rift and post-rift sequences and the emplacement of dolerite dykes. During the evolution of the basin, the shoulder (Gurupá Arch) became distinct, having been modelled by drainage systems strongly controlled by the trend of the strike-slip faults. The Arari Lineament, which marks the northwest boundary of the Marajó Basin, has been working as a linkage corridor between the paleo and modern Amazon River with the Atlantic Ocean. The neotectonic evolution since the Miocene comprises two sets of structural and geomorphological features. The older set (Miocene-Pliocene) encompasses two NE-trending transpressive domains and one NW-trending transtensive domain, which are linked to E-W and NE-SW right-lateral strike-slip systems. The transpressive domains display aligned hills controlled by reverse faults and folds, and are separated by large plains associated with pull-apart basins along clockwise strike-slip systems (e.g. Tupinambarana Lineament). Many changes were introduced in the landscape by the

  8. Active tectonics of NE Gujarat (India) by morphometric and morphostructural studies of Vatrak River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Rachna

    2012-05-01

    Landscape owes its shape to the combination of tectonic and climatic forces. Differential displacement of land by tectonic processes changes the elevation of earth's surface locally and in turn affects the rate of geomorphic processes which are altitude dependent. The tectonic and geomorphic processes are very tightly coupled and their results are intertwined. To extract the tectonic signal, the numerical modelling of the landscape of the Vatrak River basin, part of which falls in the northern part of the Gujarat Alluvial Plains of western India, has been undertaken applying morphometric and morphostructural approach. The study helped in understanding the role of tectonic elements in the evolution of the basin. Demarcation of geomorphic indicators of active tectonics (which include the analyses of asymmetry factor, valley floor ratio, gradient, basin elongation ratio, long profile and related parameters, pseudo hypsometric integral, drainage basin asymmetry), drainage pattern analysis and azimuthal distribution of stream channels have been performed for each drainage network and associated basin. The morphological field evidence of tectonics combined with the results of morphometric analysis has been used to obtain information about the orientation of tectonic elements and the possible reconstruction of their activity in recent times. The analyses indicate eastward tilting of the drainage systems, strong asymmetry in some reaches, pronounced elongation of certain tributaries, long profiles indicating base level lowering, poor organisation of the hydrographic network, and close alignment between lower order streams and active faults. All these analyses point towards the active tectonism in the area. Data obtained through the statistical analysis of preferred stream orientations confirm that the old tectonic directions markedly influenced the drainage network development of the older order streams, whereas, streams of lower order which preferentially follow the N

  9. New Evidence For A Late Miocene Onset Of The Amazon River Following Andean Tectonics And Quaternary Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, M. C.; Bogota-Angel, G.; Romero-Baez, M.; Lammertsma, E.; Flantua, S. G. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Dino, R.; do Carmo, D.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon River influenced biotic evolution on land and at sea, but its onset and development are still debated. Terrestrial sedimentary records are sparse, far apart, and do not present a continuous stratigraphy and thus greatly complicate the reconstruction of the history of this river system. At sea the stratigraphic record is better known thanks to hydrocarbon exploration efforts, but these data are not in the public domain. Renewed exploration in the Amazon submarine fan (Brazilian Equatorial Margin) has provided novel data and materials from wells drilled along the slope of the Amazon submarine fan, that are now partially available for scientific research. Here we report on the results of a geochemical and palynological study of `Well 2' based on which we determined the age and provenance of early Miocene to Pleistocene sediments. The palynological data were also used to reconstruct past biomes on land, which ranged from mangrove and lowland forest to alpine vegetation. A distinct change in provenance was observed between 9.4 Ma and 9 Ma, which represented a change from Amazonian to Andean sediment source. This signal is replicated in the palynological record, which shows a shift from lowland to high-mountain taxa. Furthermore, we observed a very large increase of grass pollen from the Pliocene onwards with a further rise in the Pleistocene. These changes coincide with a rise in sedimentation rates. We interpret these results as following: a) the arrival of Andean sediments is related to the onset of the transcontinental river, b) the two-step rise of grass pollen and manifold increase in sediment discharge are related to Quaternary climatic change. These results agree with earlier and recent findings on the Ceara Rise and firmly place the birth of this river in the late Miocene. This study exemplifies the continental scale of tectonic changes on fluvial environments and biota across a W-E transect of South America. The study of this well is continued and we

  10. The role of the memory inherited by the system from the Cretaceous-Tertiary evolution of convergent margins into the build-up of the Source area (Apuseni Mountains, Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Martin; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Schuster, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    The Apuseni mountains in Romania take a central position in the Alpine Carpathian Dinaride system and separate the Pannonian basin in the west from the Transsylvanian basin in the east. The Cretaceous age nappe stack involves from bottom to top Tisza- (Bihor and Codru) and Dacia-derived units (Biharia, according to Schmid et al., 2008) overlain by the South Apuseni and Transylvanian ophiolite belt. This study tries to provide new and additional information on the structural and metamorphic evolution of these units from the Jurassic obduction to neotectonic activity. This also comprises information on their interaction with the neighbouring basins. The objective is to show the impact of large scale (plate) tectonics (f.i. in terms of its thermal configuration and strengths profile) and the impact of early-formed tectonic features for the further evolution, specifically the formation of the surrounding basins together with its feedback with topography. This approach includes investigation of kinematics along first order contacts during distinct events together with the thermotectonic characterization of the involved units. While the early "high-grade" evolution will be geochronologically addressed by Sm/Nd, Rb/Sr and Ar/Ar dating, fission track analysis on zircon and apatite will be used to constrain the low-temperature part of the story. Already available data by Sanders (1998), Schuller (2004), Merten (in preparation) and Kounov (in preparation) together with new own data will be used to provide a 4D model for the late-stage thermal evolution of the Apuseni mountains. Thermal modelling will be compared and integrated with numerical modelling of the landscape evolution. The hereby generated data and information on erosion and exhumation will be further used in associated partner projects of the Source to Sink research network which addresses the evolution of the Danube system from the hinterland to the Black Sea. References: Sanders, C. A. E. (1998), Tectonics and

  11. Signatures of Late Pleistocene fluvial incision in an Alpine landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matthew; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2018-02-01

    Uncertainty regarding the relative efficacy of fluvial and glacial erosion has hindered attempts to quantitatively analyse the Pleistocene evolution of alpine landscapes. Here we show that the morphology of major tributaries of the Rhone River, Switzerland, is consistent with that predicted for a landscape shaped primarily by multiple phases of fluvial incision following a period of intense glacial erosion after the mid-Pleistocene transition (∼0.7 Ma). This is despite major ice sheets reoccupying the region during cold intervals since the mid-Pleistocene. We use high-resolution LiDAR data to identify a series of convex reaches within the long-profiles of 18 tributary channels. We propose these reaches represent knickpoints, which developed as regional uplift raised tributary bedrock channels above the local fluvial baselevel during glacial intervals, and migrated upstream as the fluvial system was re-established during interglacial periods. Using a combination of integral long-profile analysis and stream-power modelling, we find that the locations of ∼80% of knickpoints in our study region are consistent with that predicted for a fluvial origin, while the mean residual error over ∼100 km of modelled channels is just 26.3 m. Breaks in cross-valley profiles project toward the elevation of former end-of-interglacial channel elevations, supporting our model results. Calculated long-term uplift rates are within ∼15% of present-day measurements, while modelled rates of bedrock incision range from ∼1 mm/yr for low gradient reaches between knickpoints to ∼6-10 mm/yr close to retreating knickpoints, typical of observed rates in alpine settings. Together, our results reveal approximately 800 m of regional uplift, river incision, and hillslope erosion in the lower half of each tributary catchment since 0.7 Ma.

  12. Mesozoic evolution of the Tisza Mega-unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, János; Péró, Csaba

    The south-eastern part of the basement of the Pannonian Basin is made up of Variscan crystalline complexes and early Mesozoic formations showing striking affinity with the corresponding formations in the southern margin of the European Plate. This large composite structural unit, which is actually an exotic terrane of European Plate origin, has been named the Tisza Mega-unit. Based upon relevant data of the pre-Tertiary basement of southern Hungary the reconstruction of the position of the Tisza Terrane in the early Alpine evolutionary stages, the process of its separation and break-off from the European Plate, and results of its Eo-Alpine deformations are summarised in the present paper. In the Variscan and early Alpine evolutionary stages the area of the later Tisza Mega-unit was located at the margin of the European Plate. During Variscan orogeny terrane accretion led to intensive deformation and metamorphism in this belt. This was followed by transpressional tectonics and the development of molasse basins in the late and post-Variscan stages, and passive margin evolution after the Neotethys opening in the Middle Triassic. The separation of the Tisza Mega-unit began with incipient continental rifting along the axis of the later Ligurian-Penninic-Vahic oceanic branch in the Late Triassic. The end of terrigenous material deposition in the most external zones, and a coeval change in fossil assemblage, point to the separation of the Tisza Block from the European Plate in the Early Bathonian. Significant rotation of the Tisza Mega-unit and coeval paroxysm of alkaline rift-type basalt volcanism took place in the Early Cretaceous. In the mid-Cretaceous, due to the northward motion of the Adria Block and the related closure of the westernmost Neotethys basin, the extensional regime changed to a compressional one, leading to onset of the nappe stacking and low-grade regional metamorphism within the Tisza microplate. In the foreland of the nappe systems flexural basins

  13. Geologic map of Mészáros revisited: Pioneering tectonic mapping of the Transdanubian Range in the early 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámolyi, A.; Horváth, F.; Kovács, G.; Timár, G.; Székely, B.

    2009-04-01

    Rocks, even in tectonically active areas are very solid compared to the changes within the scientific theories that occured especially in Eastern Europe as the political landscape changed and the separation into socialist and capitalist countries started to fade. While in Western Europe, Wegener's mobilistic approach gained widespread acceptance in the 1960-ies, in the countries of Eastern Europe (partly due to political reasons) fixistic ideas were supported. Despite the fact that most important early concepts in Hungarian tectonics were born about a century ago as a results of exploration of the Lake Balaton and its surroundings conducted by Lajos Lóczy, initiatives to integrate various geodynamic observations were rare exceptions in the second half of the 20th century. The high priority of economic geologic prospection in order to find raw materials resulted in an enormous amount of observations. In the central Transdanubian Range (TR), hosting bauxite, coal and manganese deposits, extensive surveying was carried out according to fixistic tectonic concepts. Although the recognition of faults was of vital importance in mining, mapped faults were rarely integrated into a global geodynamic model. A pioneering approach was presented by Mészáros (1983), who compiled a 1: 100 000 scale structural and economic-geologic map of large parts of TR. The map focuses on the Bakony hills that are of key importance for the geodynamic understanding of the formation of PB. TR forms inselbergs with well preserved outcrops, which is rare in PB, thus allowing for direct measurements of fault striations and fault plane orientations. Prinz (1926) maintained the theory that the TR is a rigid block and named it Tisia block. An alternative to this approach was the monograph of Uhlig (1907) proposing mobilistic concepts. Csontos et al (1991) reviewed the evolution of neogene stress-fields in the Carpatho-Pannonian region observing microtectonic faults in TR. The authors conclude that

  14. Geothermal appearances in connection with the neo-tectonics and magmatism at the territory of the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsovski, Milan; Stojanov, Risto

    1995-01-01

    The region of the Republic of Macedonia, as a part of the Alpine orogenic zone in late Alpine period was included by intensive neotectonic destructive movements, which is reflected on the high seismic activity in all the geo tectonic units: Serbo Macedonian massif. the Vardar zone, the Pelagonian massif and the West Macedonian zone, but of different intensity. The thermal and hydrothermal springs in Macedonia are connected to the activations of lineal neo tectonic fault structure with the Vardar immeridional direction of extension, as well as with the recently formed dislocations with vertical extension (in a form of orthogonal system) in the marginal parts of the depressions with positive morpho structures. According to the recent studies of the tectonic-magmatic factors, as well as the known thermal and thermo mineral springs in Macedonia, the most potential areas are the east boundary pails of the Vardar zone with the S. M. massif (the Rodopian mass) and the inner parts of the Vardar zone, particularly the marginal parts of the depressions, in the West Macedonia, the marginal parts of the Polog valley and the area of Debar. (Original)

  15. Evolution: from cosmogenesis to biogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, Sz.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.

    1990-11-01

    The volume contains the material of an interdisciplinary evolution symposium. The purpose was to shed some light on possible connections between steps of evolution of matter on different levels of organisation. The topics involved are as follow: cosmogenesis; galactic and stellar evolution; formation and evolution of the solar system; global atmospheric and tectonic changes of Earth; viral evolution; phylogeny and evolution of terrestrial life; evolution of neural system; hominization. The material also includes some discussions of the underlying phenomena and laws of nature. (author)

  16. Pleistocene colonization of afro-alpine 'sky islands' by the arctic-alpine Arabis alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, A; Ehrich, D; Taberlet, P; Nemomissa, S; Brochmann, C

    2007-08-01

    The afro-alpine region comprises the high mountains of Ethiopia and tropical East Africa, which represent biological 'sky islands' with high level of endemism. However, some primarily arctic-alpine plants also occur in the afro-alpine mountains. It has been suggested that these plants are Tertiary relicts, but a recent worldwide study of Arabis alpina suggests that this species colonized the region twice during the Pleistocene. Here we investigate the detailed colonization history of A. alpina in the afro-alpine region based on chloroplast DNA sequences from 11 mountain systems. The results confirm the twice-into-Africa scenario. The Asian lineage is confined to the mountains closest to the Arabian Peninsula, on opposite sides of the Rift Valley (Simen Mts and Gara Muleta in Ethiopia), suggesting long-distance dispersal of this lineage. The African lineage is divided into two phylogeographic groups with distinct geographic distribution. The observed pattern is consistent with isolation of the African lineage in at least two interglacial refugia, located on separated highlands, followed by range expansion in cooler period(s), when the afro-alpine habitat extended further down the mountains. Several long-distance dispersal events, also across the Rift Valley, are suggested by single haplotypes observed outside the area occupied by the phylogeographic groups they belonged to.

  17. Brittle deformation during Alpine basal accretion and the origin of seismicity nests above the subduction interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, Armel; Angiboust, Samuel; Monié, Patrick; Oncken, Onno; Guigner, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-01

    Geophysical observations on active subduction zones have evidenced high seismicity clusters at 20-40 km depth in the fore-arc region whose origin remains controversial. We report here field observations of pervasive pseudotachylyte networks (interpreted as evidence for paleo-seismicity) in the now-exhumed Valpelline continental unit (Dent Blanche complex, NW. Alps, Italy), a tectonic sliver accreted to the upper plate at c. 30 km depth during the Paleocene Alpine subduction. Pre-alpine granulite-facies paragneiss from the core of the Valpelline unit are crosscut by widespread, mm to cm-thick pseudotachylyte veins. Co-seismic heating and subsequent cooling led to the formation of Ti-rich garnet rims, ilmenite needles, Ca-rich plagioclase, biotite microliths and hercynite micro-crystals. 39Ar-40Ar dating yields a 51-54 Ma age range for these veins, thus suggesting that frictional melting events occurred near peak burial conditions while the Valpelline unit was already inserted inside the duplex structure. In contrast, the base of the Valpelline unit underwent synchronous ductile and brittle, seismic deformation under water-bearing conditions followed by a re-equilibration at c. 40 Ma (39Ar-40Ar on retrograded pseudotachylyte veins) during exhumation-related deformation. Calculated rheological profiles suggest that pseudotachylyte veins from the dry core of the granulite unit record upper plate micro-seismicity (Mw 2-3) formed under very high differential stresses (>500 MPa) while the sheared base of the unit underwent repeated brittle-ductile deformation at much lower differential stresses (<40 MPa) in a fluid-saturated environment. These results demonstrate that some of the seismicity clusters nested along and above the plate interface may reflect the presence of stiff tectonic slivers rheologically analogous to the Valpelline unit acting as repeatedly breaking asperities in the basal accretion region of active subduction zones.

  18. Application of Phase-Weighted Stacking to Low-Frequency Earthquakes near the Alpine Fault, Central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratin, L. M.; Townend, J.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Savage, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Characterising seismicity in the vicinity of the Alpine Fault, a major transform boundary late in its typical earthquake cycle, may provide constraints on the state of stress preceding a large earthquake. Here, we use recently detected tremor and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) to examine how slow tectonic deformation is loading the Alpine Fault toward an anticipated major rupture. We work with a continuous seismic dataset collected between 2009 and 2012 from a network of short-period seismometers, the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA). Fourteen primary LFE templates have been used to scan the dataset using a matched-filter technique based on an iterative cross-correlation routine. This method allows the detection of similar signals and establishes LFE families with common hypocenter locations. The detections are then combined for each LFE family using phase-weighted stacking (Thurber et al., 2014) to produce a signal with the highest possible signal to noise ratio. We find this method to be successful in increasing the number of LFE detections by roughly 10% in comparison with linear stacking. Our next step is to manually pick polarities on first arrivals of the phase-weighted stacked signals and compute preliminary locations. We are working to estimate LFE focal mechanism parameters and refine the focal mechanism solutions using an amplitude ratio technique applied to the linear stacks. LFE focal mechanisms should provide new insight into the geometry and rheology of the Alpine Fault and the stress field prevailing in the central Southern Alps.

  19. Radiolarian biochronology of upper Anisian to upper Ladinian (Middle Triassic) blocks and tectonic slices of volcano-sedimentary successions in the Mersin Mélange, southern Turkey: New insights for the evolution of Neotethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, U. Kagan; Bedi, Yavuz; Okuyucu, Cengiz; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal; Sayit, Kaan

    2016-12-01

    The Mersin Ophiolitic Complex located in southern Turkey comprises two main structural units; the Mersin Mélange, and a well-developed ophiolite succession with its metamorphic sole. The Mersin Mélange is a sedimentary complex including blocks and tectonic slices of oceanic litosphere and continental crust in different sizes. Based on different fossil groups (Radiolaria, Conodonta, Foraminifera and Ammonoidea), the age of these blocks ranges from Early Carboniferous to early Late Cretaceous. Detailed fieldwork in the central part of the Mersin Mélange resulted in identification of a number of peculiar blocks of thick basaltic pillow-and massive lava sequences alternating with pelagic-clastic sediments and radiolarian cherts. The oldest ages obtained from the radiolarian assemblages from the pelagic sediments transitional to the volcano-sedimentary succession in some blocks are middle to late Late Anisian. These pelagic sediments are overlain by thick sandstones of latest Anisian to middle Early Ladinian age. In some blocks, sandstones are overlain by clastic and pelagic sediments with lower Upper to middle Upper Ladinian radiolarian fauna. Considering the litho- and biostratigraphical data from Middle Triassic successions in several blocks in the Mersin Mélange, it is concluded that they correspond mainly to the blocks/slices of the Beysehir-Hoyran Nappes, which were originated from the southern margin of the Neotethyan Izmir-Ankara Ocean. As the pre-Upper Anisian basic volcanics are geochemically evaluated as back-arc basalts, this new age finding suggest that a segment of the Izmir-Ankara branch of the Neotethys was already open prior to Middle Triassic and was the site of intraoceanic subduction.

  20. Contexts for change in alpine tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Rose, Jonathan P.; Schroeder, P. Jason; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Because alpine tundra is responding to climate change, a need exists to understand the meaning of observed changes. To provide context for such interpretation, the relevance of niche and neutral theories of biogeography and the continuum and classification approaches to biogeographic description are assessed. Two extensive studies of alpine tundra, from the Indian Peaks area, Colorado and Glacier National Park, Montana, are combined. The data are ordinated to describe relations. The pattern that emerges is one of a continuum of vegetation, but with the distinctions one might expect from distant sites. The relationships of the similarity of vegetation on all possible pairs of sites to the environmental differences and geographic distances are analyzed using Mantel correlations. Because distance and environmental differences in climate between the two sites are correlated, partial correlations are weak but still significant. More advanced analyses are suggested for this environment prior to interpretation of monitoring efforts such as GLORIA.

  1. Depositional history and tectonic regimes within and in the margins of the Fennoscandian shield during the last 1300 million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Kuivamaeki, A.

    2006-05-01

    , Rodinia. At ca. 620 - 600 Ma, this supercontinent started to break-up. By Late Cambrian times, the plate convergence started again, leading to the Caledonian orogeny at the NW margin of the Fennoscandian Shield, the main phase of which occurred in Silurian, at ca. 425 Ma. The tectonics related to the late phase of the central European Variscan orogeny resulted in strike-slip faulting along the NW-SE trending Tornquist Zone in the south-western margin of the Fennoscandian Shield. The faulting was associated with volcanic activity and intrusion of dyke swarms, dated at 300 - 240 Ma. The Permian rifting and volcanism is demonstrated by ca. 400 km long Oslo Rift. During the Mesozoic rifting, the Tornquist Zone was repeatedly reactivated. In the Tertiary, the opening of the North Atlantic, the initiation of sea-floor spreading in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and onset of the Alpine continent-continent collision dominated the evolution of north-western Europe. Mainly the margins of the Fennoscandian Shield were affected by the uplift of western Scandinavia. The ridge push forces from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge seem to be the major stress-generating mechanism in Fennoscandia today, but the current stress field is likely a combination of plate boundary forces with local sources (e.g. glacial rebound and local geology). Large postglacial faults with a length varying from a few kilometres to tens of kilometres and a scarp height from a few metres to tens of metres occur in northern Finland and elsewhere in northern Fennoscandia. Small post-glacial faults (scarp height 0-20 cm) located in ice polished bedrock outcrops have been found in southern Finland, but so far larger postglacial faults have not been recognised. Investigations on postglacial bedrock movements have revealed that the postglacial faults studied so far are situated in old, reactivated fracture zones. (orig.)

  2. Dispersal and microsite limitation of a rare alpine plant

    OpenAIRE

    Frei, Eva S.; Scheepens, J. F.; Stöcklin, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge on the limitation of plant species’ distributions is important for preserving alpine biodiversity, particularly when the loss of alpine habitats because of global warming or land use changes is faster than colonization of new habitats. We investigated the potential of the rare alpine plant Campanula thyrsoides L. to colonize grassland sites of different suitability on a small mountain plateau in the Swiss Alps. A total of 15 experimental sites were selected according to their differ...

  3. Phosphate sorption characteristics of European alpine soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, Jiří; Kopáček, Jiří; Camarero, L.; Garcia-Pausas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2011), s. 862-870 ISSN 0361-5995 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/09/0567; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960907 Grant - others:EU EMERGE(CZ) EVK1-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : phosphate sorption * alpine soils * acidification Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.979, year: 2011

  4. The Aegean: A natural laboratory for tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchfiel, B C

    2008-01-01

    The Aegean, a young and active tectonic region, is a natural laboratory for analyzing many tectonic processes that occur in backarc extensional regimes, and the correlation of these processes from landscape development to deeper mantle dynamics. Cenozoic development of the Aegean region was dominated by subduction beneath Europe and coeval upper plate extension modified by westward extrusion of Anatolia. Intraorogenic and backarc extension began during early Cenozoic time within the Balkans and NW Turkey during closure of the Vardar ocean. Extension was manifested by core complex formation and a change in volcanism caused by the evolution of the lithosphere and mantle wedge. Following a short period of local (?) shortening in ∼ early Miocene time, regional extension began and continued to the present. Within the Hellenides, E-W extension and the subduction zone migrated westward as thick and thin crustal units were progressively accreted and were complexly rotated up to 40 0 CW. Within the eastern Balkans and NW Turkey, N-S extension migrated westward and southward, and in the Aegean the volcanic arc and subduction zone migrated southward. Turkish crustal elements rotated complexly CCW, which in concert with the CW rotation in the Hellenides increased the curvature of the subduction zone and lengthened the orogen causing greater subsidence and extension in the Aegean Sea. Westward extrusion of Anatolia from the Arabian collision zone was enhanced by slab roll back in west moving Aegean crust more rapidly westward. Abundant evidence supports slab rollback at different velocities along the subduction zone. In Pliocene time, the North Anatolian fault crossed the Hellenides in a complex transtensional zone and a diffuse zone of left-lateral shear crossed western Turkey at present isolating a relatively undeforming Aegean plate. Major tectonic questions include: What is the geometry and fate of subducted slabs?, How much crust is accreted during subduction of thick

  5. Seismicity, structure and tectonics in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Arctic” region, where the North Pole occupies the center of the Arctic Ocean, has been affecting the environmental variation of the Earth from geological time to the present. However, the seismic activities in the area are not adequately monitored. Therefore, by conducting long term monitoring of seismic phenomenon as sustainable parameters, our understanding of both the tectonic evolution of the Earth and the dynamic interaction between the cryosphere and geosphere in surface layers of the Earth will increase. In this paper, the association of the seismicity and structure of the Arctic region, particularly focused on Eurasian continent and surrounding oceans, and its relationship with regional evolution during the Earth's history is studied. The target areas cover representative tectonic provinces in the Eurasian Arctic, such as the wide area of Siberia, Baikal Rift Zone, Far East Russia, Arctic Ocean together with Greenland and Northern Canada. Based on discussion including characteristics of seismicity, heterogeneous structure of the crust and upper mantle, tectonic history and recent dynamic features of the Earth's surface in the Arctic are summarized.

  6. Puzzling features of western Mediterranean tectonics explained by slab dragging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spakman, Wim; Chertova, Maria V.; van den Berg, Arie.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2018-02-01

    The recent tectonic evolution of the western Mediterranean region is enigmatic. The causes for the closure of the Moroccan marine gateway prior to the Messinian salinity crisis, for the ongoing shortening of the Moroccan Rif and for the origin of the seismogenic Trans-Alboran shear zone and eastern Betics extension are unclear. These puzzling tectonic features cannot be fully explained by subduction of the east-dipping Gibraltar slab in the context of the regional relative plate motion frame. Here we use a combination of geological and geodetic data, as well as three-dimensional numerical modelling of subduction, to show that these unusual tectonic features could be the consequence of slab dragging—the north to north-eastward dragging of the Gibraltar slab by the absolute motion of the African Plate. Comparison of our model results to patterns of deformation in the western Mediterranean constrained by geological and geodetic data confirm that slab dragging provides a plausible mechanism for the observed deformation. Our results imply that the impact of absolute plate motion on subduction is identifiable from crustal observations. Identifying such signatures elsewhere may improve the mantle reference frame and provide insights on subduction evolution and associated crustal deformation.

  7. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestroy, O.

    2009-04-01

    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  8. Glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in older alpine skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, F; Niederseer, David; Patsch, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Alpine skiing and ski training involves elements of static and dynamic training, and may therefore improve insulin sensitivity. Healthy men and women who where beginners/intermediate level of alpine skiing, were studied before (Pre) and immediately after (Post) 12 weeks of alpine ski training...... a continued decrease was seen in IG (Ret vs Post, Ptraining in IG, while no effect was seen in CG. HOMA2 index for insulin resistance decreased (P..., and did not change. Alpine ski training improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in healthy, elderly individuals....

  9. Global tectonics and space geodesy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R G; Stein, S

    1992-04-17

    Much of the success of plate tectonics can be attributed to the near rigidity of tectonic plates and the availability of data that describe the rates and directions of motion across narrow plate boundaries \\m=~\\1 to 60 kilometers wide. Nonetheless, many plate boundaries in both continental and oceanic lithosphere are not narrow but are hundreds to thousands of kilometers wide. Wide plate boundary zones cover \\m=~\\15 percent of Earth's surface area. Space geodesy, which includes very long baseline radio interferometry, satellite laser ranging, and the global positioning system, is providing the accurate long-distance measurements needed to estimate the present motion across and within wide plate boundary zones. Space geodetic data show that plate velocities averaged over years are remarkably similar to velocities averaged over millions of years.

  10. Pargo Chasma and its relationship to global tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Pargo Chasma was first identified on Pioneer Venus data as a 10,000 km long lineation extending from Atla Regio in the north terminating in the plains south of Phoebe Regio. More recent Magellan data have revealed this feature to be one of the longest chains of coronae so far identified on the planet. Stofan et al have identified 60 coronae and 2 related features associated with this chain; other estimates differ according to the classification scheme adopted, for example Head et al. identify only 29 coronae but 43 arachnoids in the same region. This highlights one of the major problems associated with the preliminary mapping of the Magellan data: there has been an emphasis on identifying particular features on Venus without a universally accepted scheme to classify those features. Nevertheless, Pargo Chasma is clearly identified as a major tectonic belt of global significance. Together with the Artemis-Atla-Beta tectonic zone and the Beta-Phoebe rift belt, Pargo Chasma defines a region on Venus with an unusually high concentration of tectonic and volcanic features. Thus, an understanding of the processes involved in the formation of Pargo Chasma may lend significant insight into the evolution of the region and the planet as a whole. I have produced a detailed 1 to 10 million scale map of Pargo Chasma and the surrounding area from preliminary USGS controlled mosaiced image maps of Venus constructed from Magellan data. In view of the problems highlighted above in relation the efforts already made at identifying a particular set of features I have mapped the region purely on the basis of the geomorphology visible in the magellan data without any attempt at identifying a particular set or class of features. Thus, the map produced distinguishes between areas of different brightness and texture. This has the advantage of highlighting the tectonic fabric of Pargo Chasma and clearly illustrates the close inter-relationship between individual coronae and the surrounding

  11. Global evaluation of erosion rates in relation to tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Hagar; Oguchi, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and controlling factors of erosion rates is essential in order to sufficiently comprehend bigger processes such as landscape evolution. For decades, scientists have been researching erosion rates where one of the main objectives was to find the controlling factors. A variety of parameters have been suggested ranging from climate-related, basin morphometry and the tectonic setting of an area. This study focuses on the latter. We use previously published erosion rate data obtained mainly using 10Be and sediment yield and sediment yield data published by the United States Geological Survey. We correlate these data to tectonic-related factors, i.e., distance to tectonic plate boundary, peak ground acceleration ( PGA), and fault distribution. We also examine the relationship between erosion rate and mean basin slope and find significant correlations of erosion rates with distance to tectonic plate boundary, PGA, and slope. The data are binned into high, medium, and low values of each of these parameters and grouped in all combinations. We find that groups with a combination of high PGA (> 0.2.86 g) and long distance (> 1118.69 km) or low PGA (erosion rates include long distance and/or low PGA, and groups with high erosion rates include neither of these. These observations indicate that tectonics plays a major role in determining erosion rates, which is partly ascribable to steeper slopes produced by active crustal movements. However, our results show no apparent correlation of slope with erosion rates, pointing to problems with using mean basin-wide slope as a slope indicator because it does not represent the complex slope distribution within a basin.

  12. Thermotectonic evolution of the Apuseni mountains (Romania) based on structural and geothermochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, M. K.; Fügenschuh, B.; Schuster, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Apuseni Mountains in Romania take a central position in the Alpine Carpathian Dinaride system between the Pannonian basin in the West and the Transylvanian basin in the East. Following the final Mid-Cretaceous obduction of the East Vardar ophiolite a NW-vergent nappe stack formed, which involves from bottom to top: Tisza- (Bihor and Codru) and Dacia-derived (Biharia) units, overlain by the South Apuseni or Transylvanian ophiolite belt (see Schmid et al, 2008). This study tries to provide new and additional information on the complex structural and metamorphic evolution of these units, from the onset of obduction during Jurassic times, to the (final?) exhumation processes observed during the Eocene (according to Merten, 2011). Based on observed stretching lineations, kinematic indicators such as porphyroclasts, shearbands etc. were analyzed to establish a relative chronological order of deformation and tectonic transport. Microstructural studies provided additional data on the relative succession of events and the relevant synkinematic temperatures. A thermochronological study, based on the integration of newly aquired Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Ar-Ar and fission track ages with existing data allowed the construction of a time-temperature deformation path. Our data indicate three major events, a Late Jurassic-Earliest Cretaceous exhumation event, which cannot be directly constrained by structural data so far. Yet the position of the Transsylvanian ophiolites tectonically overlying the Biharia unit as well as distinct thermochronological data are self-explaining. The second event ("Austrian Phase" in local nomenclature), documented by structural and thermochronological data, is related to the top to the NE thrusting (i.e. in present-day coordinates) of Tisza over Dacia during the Mid-Cretaceous. This penetrative event in the Biharia unit is overprinted at the contact between nappes by a third, top to the NW event during the Turonian, which relates to the NW directed

  13. Tectonics and volcanism on Mars: a compared remote sensing analysis with earthly geostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Paolo; Ancona, M. A.; Callegari, I.; Pinori, S.; Vercellone, S.

    1999-12-01

    The recent knowledge on Mars' lithosphere evolution does not find yet sufficient analogies with the Earth's tectonic models. The Viking image analysis seems to be even now frequently, rather fragmentary, and do not permits to express any coherent relationships among the different detected phenomena. Therefore, today it is impossible to support any reliable kinematic hypothesis. The Remote-Sensing interpretation is addressed to a Viking image mosaic of the known Tharsis Montes region and particularly focused on the Arsia Mons volcano. Several previously unknown lineaments, not directly linked to volcano-tectonics, were detected. Their mutual relationships recall transcurrent kinematics that could be related to similar geostructural models known in the Earth plate tectonic dynamics. Several concordant relationships between the Arsia Mons volcano and the brittle extensive tectonic features of earthly Etnean district (Sicily, South Italy), interpreted on Landsat TM images, were pointed out. These analogies coupled with the recently confirmed strato- volcano topology of Tharsis Montes (Head and Wilson), the layout distribution of the effusive centers (Arsia, Pavonis and Ascraeus Montes), the new tectonic lineaments and the morphological features, suggest the hypothesis of a plate tectonic volcanic region. The frame could be an example in agreement with the most recent interpretation of Mars (Sleep). A buried circular body, previously incorrectly interpreted as a great landslide event from the western slope of Arsia Mons volcano, seems really to be a more ancient volcanic structure (Arsia Mons Senilis), which location is in evident relation with the interpreted new transcurrent tectonic system.

  14. Tectonic characteristics and distribution of Putaohua oil Reservoir in Changchang area of Songliao basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Liu, Dameng

    2018-01-01

    Since the Late Jurassic in the Songliao Basin, the tectonic movement of Yanshan and Heshan has experienced a lot of tectonic movement. The tectonic activity has a clearer display on the seismic profile. The tectonic deformation is generally weak in the east, Features. The regional structure of the Chaochang area is located on the Chaoyangou terrace and Changchunling anticline belt in the central depression of the northern part of the Songliao Basin, and across the two tectonic units of the Chaoyanggou terrace and Changchunling anticline. The study area is characterized by a low tectonic pattern in the southwest and northwest. The highest point is located near the Chang72 well in the Changchunling anticline. The elevation is about -100 m, and the lowest point is the Zhou50 Well near the depth of about - 1750 m. Based on the technical means such as splicing, closed difference correction, horizon calibration, seismic interpretation and attribute extraction of 9 seismic blocks in the study area, the seismic interpretation of the top of the Putaohua reservoir is completed, and the next step Style, tectonic evolution characteristics, oil and gas accumulation law and other research work to lay the foundation.

  15. Within-season variability of fighting behaviour in an Australian alpine grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschett, Giselle; Umbers, Kate D L; Herberstein, Marie E

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the breeding season, changing environmental and biological conditions can lead to variation in the reproductive landscape of many species. In alpine environments temperature is a key driver of behaviour for small ectotherms such as insects, but variable biotic factors such as mate quality and availability can also influence behaviour. Kosicuscola tristis is a small semelparous grasshopper of the Australian alpine region. In a rare behaviour among grasshoppers, K. tristis males engage in vigorous fights over access to females, involving mandible displays, kicking, biting and grappling. In this study we describe the variation in fighting behaviour of K. tristis throughout the breeding season and test several hypotheses related to temperature, body size, mating behaviour, and female quality. We show that K. tristis males are more aggressive toward each other at the end of the breeding season than at the beginning. This increased aggression is associated with decreased daily average temperatures (from ~20°C to ~9°C), decreased mating activity, increased female fecundity, and an unexpected trend toward an increase in female-to-male aggression. These results suggest that K. tristis is likely under increased selective pressure to time key life cycle events with favourable biological and climatic conditions. The stochastic nature of alpine environments combined with a relatively short life span and breeding season, as well as limited mating opportunities toward the end of the season may have contributed to the evolution of this extraordinary mating system.

  16. Within-season variability of fighting behaviour in an Australian alpine grasshopper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Muschett

    Full Text Available Throughout the breeding season, changing environmental and biological conditions can lead to variation in the reproductive landscape of many species. In alpine environments temperature is a key driver of behaviour for small ectotherms such as insects, but variable biotic factors such as mate quality and availability can also influence behaviour. Kosicuscola tristis is a small semelparous grasshopper of the Australian alpine region. In a rare behaviour among grasshoppers, K. tristis males engage in vigorous fights over access to females, involving mandible displays, kicking, biting and grappling. In this study we describe the variation in fighting behaviour of K. tristis throughout the breeding season and test several hypotheses related to temperature, body size, mating behaviour, and female quality. We show that K. tristis males are more aggressive toward each other at the end of the breeding season than at the beginning. This increased aggression is associated with decreased daily average temperatures (from ~20°C to ~9°C, decreased mating activity, increased female fecundity, and an unexpected trend toward an increase in female-to-male aggression. These results suggest that K. tristis is likely under increased selective pressure to time key life cycle events with favourable biological and climatic conditions. The stochastic nature of alpine environments combined with a relatively short life span and breeding season, as well as limited mating opportunities toward the end of the season may have contributed to the evolution of this extraordinary mating system.

  17. Fracture network and distribution of elementary tectonic fracturing bodies. Investigation of tectonic control of uranium mineralization in the Peny Sector (La Crouzille, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraipont, P. de; Horrenberg, J.Cl.; Ruhland, M.; Marquaire, Ch.; Sierak, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of fracturing tectonics on the various granite materials in the Limousin region can be seen in the arrangement and spatial distribution of the fracture networks. However, a detailed analysis of the shape and arrangement of the various elementary tectonic bodies intersected by the fracture network is necessary in order to deduce the spatial, geometric and kinematic relations and to find the key tectonic elements which led to the formation and evolution of the mineralized vein system. After a brief summary of the elementary tectonic fracturing bodies identified at Peny, the existing relations between fracturing and mineralization are discussed. From the position in the deposit of the tectonic bodies (slices or scales, shearing lozenges, rolls and rotation-curve structures), it is possible to divide the deposit up into rough sections measuring 100-150m across and to highlight the areas of tectonic mobility where various types of fracturing are superimposed, corresponding to the sectors of uranium mineralization. Lastly, from the way in which the fracturing occurs and then evolves in successive stages, hypotheses concerning the location and distribution of the radiometric indications are drawn up with a view to searching for new deposits. (author)

  18. Geological evolution of the southwestern part of the Veporic Unit (Western Carpathians) : Based on fission track and morphotectonic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vojtko, Rastislav; Králiková, Silvia; Andriessen, Paul; Prokešová, Roberta; Minár, Jozef; Jeřábek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Zircon and apatite fission track (FT) and morphotectonic analyses were applied in order to infer quantitative constraints on the Alpine morphotectonic evolution of the western part of the Southern Veporic Unit which is related to: (1) Eo-Alpine Cretaceous nappe stacking and metamorphism of the

  19. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland.

  20. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Liu

    Full Text Available The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1 Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2 Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg was soil organic carbon. (3 Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland.

  1. Fission track dating of mesozoic sandstones and its tectonic significance in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chuanbo; Mei Lianfu; Xu Sihuang

    2009-01-01

    To establish the tectonic evolution of the eastern Sichuan basin, apatite fission track dating and time-temperature thermal history modeling were carried to analyze on 11 samples collected from Jurassic sandstones. The results indicate that the cooling and exhumation process of the eastern Sichuan basin can be divided into three stages since Cretaceous, (1) a rapid cooling phase between ∼100 and ∼70 Ma, (2) following by a period of relative thermal stability phase between ∼70 and ∼15 Ma, (3) and then a new rapid cooling stage after ∼15 Ma. Two rapid cooling events imply that the eastern Sichuan basin once underwent two tectonic movements since Cretaceous. The first rapid cooling is associated with Mesozoic tectonic reactivation beginning at 100 Ma, which result in folds and faults of the eastern Sichuan basin. The second tectonic movement occurred at 15 Ma, which is related to denudation by compression resulting from the eastward growth of Tibetan plateau uplift.

  2. Tectonized Terrains of Enceladus: The Same but Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Crow-Willard, E.

    2010-12-01

    detail suggest variations on the theme, such that the detailed evolution of each tectonized terrain has been different. Their differences might be explained by different combinations of local uplift, collapse, satellite reorientation, and/or subsurface melting in the formation of the tectonized terrains.

  3. Exhumation of the North Alpine Foreland Basin- Quantitative insights from structural analysis, thermochronology and a new thermal history model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijendijk, Elco; von Hagke, Christoph; Hindle, David

    2016-04-01

    Due to a wealth of geological and thermochronology data the northern foreland basin of the European Alps is an ideal natural laboratory for understanding the dynamics of foreland basins and their interaction with surface and geodynamic processes. We present an unprecedented compilation of thermochronological data from the basin and quantify cooling and exhumation rates in the basin by combining published and new vitrinite reflectance, apatite fission track and U-Th/He data with a new inverse burial and thermal history model. No correlation is obvious between inferred cooling and exhumation rates and elevation, relief or tectonics. We compare derived temperature histories to exhumation estimates based on the retro-deformation of Molasse basin and the Jura mountains, and to exhumation caused by drainage reorganization and incision. Drainage reorganization can explain at most 25% of the observed cooling rates in the basin. Tectonic transport of the basin's sediments over the inclined basement of the alpine foreland as the Jura mountains shortened can explain part of the cooling signal in the western part of the basin. However, overall a substantial amount of cooling and exhumation remains unexplained by known tectonic and surface processes. Our results document basin wide exhumation that may be related to slab roll-back or other lithospheric processes. Uncertainty analysis shows that thermochronometers can be explained by cooling and exhumation starting as early as the Miocene or as late as the Pleistocene. New (U-Th)/He data from key areas close to the Alpine front may provide better constraints on the timing of exhumation.

  4. Geochemistry and geochronology Rb-Sr, K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar of the Pan-African granitic complexes of the Tamanrasset area (Algeria): relationships with the associated Sn-W mineralizations and tectonic evolution of Central Hoggar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.M.; Zimmermann, J.L.; Dautel, D.; Boullier, A.M.; Bouabsa, L.; Farrar, E.; Archibald, D.A.; Moulahoum, O.

    1992-01-01

    New field mapping, petrographic and mineralogic, geochemical and geochronological data allow us to distinguish two successive magmatic suites with contrasting geochemistry: (1) granites with subalkaline affinity between 615 Ma (Anfeg) and 576 Ma (Tifferkit); (2) peraluminous magmatism and Li-F specialized leucogranites with associated Sn-W mineralization between 539 and 525 Ma. Such a magmatic evolution is interpreted as resulting from thickening of the continental crust during the Pan-African collision. Earliest magmas show mantle contribution and were formed close to the crust-mantle boundary where synchronous crustal stacking developed in amphibolite facies conditions. Latest peraluminous magmatism of crustal derivation and albite-topaz leucogranites appear to be controlled by localized extensional structures, 80 Ma after the main tectono-metamorphic event

  5. Earth's glacial record and its tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, N.

    1993-09-01

    clearly established glacial parentage. The same remarks apply to many successions of laminated and thin-bedded facies interpreted as "varvites". Despite suggestions of much lower values of solar luminosity (the weak young sun hypothesis), the stratigraphic record of Archean glaciations is not extensive and may be the result of non-preservation. However, the effects of very different Archean global tectonic regimes and much higher geothermal heat flows, combined with a Venus-like atmosphere warmed by elevated levels of CO 2, cannot be ruled out. The oldest unambiguous glacial succession in Earth history appears to be the Early Proterozoic Gowganda Formation of the Huronian Supergroup in Ontario; the age of this event is not well-constrained but glaciation coincided with regional rifting, and may be causally related to, oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere just after 2300 Ma. New evidence that oxygenation is tectonically, not biologically driven, stresses the intimate relationship between plate tectonics, evolution of the atmosphere and glaciation. Global geochemical controls, such as elevated atmospheric CO 2 levels, may be responsible for a long mid-Proterozoic non-glacial interval after 2000 Ma that was terminated by the Late Proterozoic glaciations just after 800 Ma. A persistent theme in both Late Proterozoic and Phanerozoic glaciations is the adiabatic effect of tectonic uplift, either along collisional margins or as a result of passive margin uplifts in areas of extended crust, as the trigger for glaciation; the process is reinforced by global geochemical feedback, principally the drawdown of atmospheric CO 2 and Milankovitch "astronomical" forcing but these are unlikely, by themselves, to inititiate glaciation. The same remarks apply to late Cenozoic glaciations. Late Proterozoic glacially-influenced strata occur on all seven continents and fall into two tectonostratigraphic types. In the first category are thick sucessions of turbidites and mass flows deposited along

  6. Modelling atmospheric circulations for the study of Alpine valleys pollution; Modelisation des circulations atmospheriques pour l'etude de la pollution des vallees alpines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulfert, G.

    2004-11-15

    Local weather phenomena observed in alpine valleys frequently lead to the accumulation of emitted anthropogenic airborne species in the low layers of the atmosphere. The development of a numerical model allows reproducing the chemical evolution of air mass during POVA intensive period of observations. In Chamonix and Maurienne valley, computations of photochemical indicators (NO{sub y}, O{sub 3}/NO{sub z}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}) prove the ozone regime to be control by volatile organic compounds. Moreover simulation highlighted that the major part of this secondary pollutant is regionally produced. The development of an indicator who localised ozone production sites can help to define abatement scenarios. The chemical mechanism RACM allows describing the evolution of many species. It is possible to conclude that in winter road traffic and heating are the main sources of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  7. Explaining plant-soil diversity in Alpine ecosystems: more than just time since ecosystem succession started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stuart; Baetz, Nico; Borgeaud, Laure; Verrecchia, Eric; Vittoz, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Ecosystem succession in Alpine environments has been a focus of research for many decades. Following from the classic ideas of Jenny (1941, 1961), following perturbation, an ecosystem (flora, fauna and soil) should evolve as a function of time at a rate conditioned by external variables (relief, climate, geology). More recently, biogeomorphologists have focused upon the notion of co-evolution of geomorphic processes with ecosystems over very short through to very long (evolutionary) time-scales. Alpine environments have been a particular focus of models of co-evolution, as a means of understanding the rate of plant colonization of previously glaciated terrain. However, work in this field has tended to adopt an over simplified view of the relationship between perturbation and succession, including: how the landform and ecosystem itself conditions the impact of a perturbation to create a complex spatial impact; and how perturbations are not simply ecosystem destroyers but can be a significant source of ecosystem resources. What this means is that at the within landform scale, there may well be a complex and dynamic topographic and sedimentological template that co-evolves with the development of soil, flora and fauna. In this paper, we present and test conceptual models for such co-evolution for an Alpine alluvial fan and an Alpine piedmont braided river. We combine detailed floristic inventory with soil inventory, survey of edaphic variables above and below ground (e.g. vertical and lateral sedimentological structure, using electrical resistance tomography) and the analysis of historical aerial imagery. The floristic inventory shows the existence of a suite of distinct plant communities within each landform. Time since last perturbation is not a useful explanatory variable of the spatial distribution of these communities because: (1) perturbation impacts are spatially variable, as conditioned by the extent distribution of topographic, edaphic and ecological

  8. The biodiversity and stability of alpine meadow plant communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodiversity and stability of alpine meadow plant communities in relation to altitude gradient in three headwater resource regions. ... with the help of the degree of stability. Key words: Alpine meadow, Yangtze, Yellow and Yalu Tsangpo river source region, altitude gradient, species diversity, membership functions.

  9. Framework for Tectonic Thinking, a Conceptual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garritzmann, Udo

    2017-01-01

    This research paper is a contribution to the field of architectural design theory in the area of tectonics. From the designer’s point of view, it will develop an overarching conceptual framework for tectonic thinking (FTT), which will serve as a tool for the comparative analysis and interpretation...... of a wide range of tectonic motifs and design positions. The understanding of tectonics will be broadened and differentiated. The conceptual framework will be developed in writing and in hand-drawn mappings. This comparative method assumes not one single, supposedly right, meaning of tectonics, but several...... a value judgement beforehand about any of these positions. Also a-tectonic design positions will be regarded as valid positions within this framework....

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury...... and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases...... were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers) were found to be at high risk for knee injuries...

  11. Navigating Towards Digital Tectonic Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    The computer holds a great potential to break down the barriers between architecture and the technical aspects relating to architecture, thus supporting innovative architecture with an inner correspondence between form and technique. While the differing values in architecture and technique can seem...... a tectonic tool should encompass. Secondly the ability and validity of the model are shown by applying it to a case study of Jørn Utzon’s work on Minor Hall in Sydney Opera House - for the sake of exemplification the technical field focused on in this paper is room acoustics. Thirdly the relationship between...

  12. Evolution of the late Paleozoic accretionary complex and overlying forearc-magmatic arc, south central Chile (38°-41°S): Constraints for the tectonic setting along the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mark W.; Kato, Terence T.; Rodriguez, Carolina; Godoy, Estanislao; Duhart, Paul; McDonough, Michael; Campos, Alberto

    1999-08-01

    Stratigraphic, structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic studies of basement rocks in the Andean foothills and Coast Ranges of south central Chile (39°-41°S) suggest a protracted late Paleozoic to middle Mesozoic deformational and metamorphic history that imposes important constraints on the tectonic development of the southwestern Gondwana margin. In the study area the late Paleozoic paired metamorphic belt, coeval magmatic arc, and overlying Triassic sedimentary units preserve a record of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian subduction and arc magmatism, subsequent deep exhumation of the Western Series subduction complex, and diminished uplift and erosion of the Eastern Series arc-forearc region by the Late Triassic. Late Paleozoic structural elements and metamorphic assemblages formed during early subduction and arc magmatism, collectively referred to as Dl, are largely erased in the Western Series by the dominant D2 schistosity and lower greenschist grade metamorphism. D1 structural features, as well as original sedimentary textures, are relatively well preserved in the less penetratively deformed Eastern Series. The regional distribution of late Paleozoic arc magmatism suggests that the late Paleozoic convergent margin deviated from a N-S trend north of this area to a NW-SE trend near this latitude and faced an open marine environment to the southwest. A transition from F2 isoclinal folding to more open, larger-scale F3 folds, interpreted as change in ductility during differential uplift of the Western Series, is not apparent in the Eastern Series. Despite a lesser degree of uplift during the main exhumational D2 event, delineation of unconformities and U-Pb dating of detrital zircons and intrusions into the Eastern Series allow tighter constraints to be placed on timing of uplift and denudation of the Eastern Series than on that in the Western Series. A regional unconformity exposed in the Lake District that separates more highly deformed Eastern Series

  13. Tectonic evolution of the La González pull-apart basin in the Mérida Andes: combination of geological data and satellite radar interferometry (InSAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Hamid Reza; Dehghani, Maryam; Foroutan, Mohammad; Naeimi, Amir; Roustaei, Mahasa; Saidi, Abdollah; Urbina, Josef Angel

    2016-07-01

    The 500-km-long Boconó strike-slip fault runs as a major active fault along the backbone of the Mérida Andes fold-and-thrust belt. The recent right-lateral motion on the fault led to formation of numerous structures such as pull-apart basins which have formed in releasing bends and/or right-step offsets along the fault strands. The La González pull-apart is the biggest basin generated as an extensional strike-slip duplex in the central part of the fault. This duplex is made up of two strands of the Boconó fault as master/first-order faults, while normal right-lateral faults which formed during evolution of the basin are second-order faults. The extension of the basin is associated with seismic activities and surface offsets along the Boconó fault. InSAR investigations over a 31-month period also support active deformation within the basin. These data indicate that the La González basin is continuously being extended as a result of motion along the Boconó fault and formation of subsequent normal faults. In addition, the basin is being transversely shortened in NW-SE direction due to regional shortening across the Mérida Andes range followed by convergence between the Maracaibo microplate and the Guyana shield.

  14. U-Pb Dating and Lu-Hf Isotopes of Detrital Zircons From the Southern Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt, Russian Far East: Tectonic Implications for the Early Cretaceous Evolution of the Northwest Pacific Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jinjiang; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Shiran; Guo, Feng; Kasatkin, Sergey A.; Golozoubov, Vladimir V.; Ge, Maohui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jiamin

    2017-11-01

    The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt in Russian Far East is comprised of several N-S trending belts, including the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms and turbidite basin which are now separated by thrusts and strike-slip faults. The origin and collage of the belts have been studied for decades. However, the provenance of the belts remains unclear. Six sandstone samples were collected along a 200 km long east-west traverse across the major belts in the southern Sikhote-Alin for U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotope analysis to constrain the provenance and evaluate the evolution of the northwest Pacific margin at this time. The result reveals that the sediments from the main Samarka belt was mainly from the adjacent Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka Block (BJKB); the eastern Samarka belt and the Zhuravlevka turbidite basin were supplied by detritus from both the North China Craton (NCC) and the BJKB; the Taukha belt was mainly fed by sediments from the NCC; whereas the data from the Sergeevka nappes are insufficient to resolve their provenance. In the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, collision and subduction was important in the initial collage of most belts in Sikhote-Alin. However, merely E-W trending collage cannot explain the increasing importance of the NCC provenance from west to east. It is proposed that the main Samarka belt was located adjacent to the BJKB when deposited, whereas the other belts were farther south to accept the materials from the NCC. Sinistral strike-slip faulting transported the eastern belts northward after their initial collage by thrusting.

  15. A low-angle normal fault and basement structures within the Enping Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin: Insights into late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Mei, Lianfu; Shi, Hesheng; Shu, Yu; Camanni, Giovanni; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The basement structure of the Cenozoic Enping Sag, within the Pearl River Mouth Basin on the northern margin of South China Sea, is revealed by borehole-constrained high-quality 3D seismic reflection data. Such data suggest that the Enping Sag is bounded in the north by a low-angle normal fault. We interpret this low-angle normal fault to have developed as the result of the reactivation of a pre-existing thrust fault part of a pre-Cenozoic thrust system. This is demonstrated by the selective reactivation of the pre-existing thrust and by diffuse contractional deformation recognized from the accurate analysis of basement reflections. Another significant result of this study is the finding of some residual rift basins within the basement of the Enping Sag. Both the thrust system and the residual basins are interpreted to have developed after the emplacement of continental margin arc-related granitoids (J3-K1) that define the basement within the study area. Furthermore, seismic sections show that the pre-existing residual rift basins are offset by the main thrust fault and they are both truncated by the Tg unconformity. These structural relationships, interpreted in the frame of previous studies, help us to reconstruct a six-event structural evolution model for the Enping Sag from the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. In particular, we interpret the residual rift basins to have formed as the result of back-arc extension due to the slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction in the early K2. The thrust system has recorded a compressional event in the late K2 that followed the back-arc extension in the SCS area. The mechanism of this compressional event is still to be clarified, and might be related to continuous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate or to the continent-continent collision between a micro-continental block and the South China margin.

  16. The Latemar: A Middle Triassic polygonal fault-block platform controlled by synsedimentary tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preto, Nereo; Franceschi, Marco; Gattolin, Giovanni; Massironi, Matteo; Riva, Alberto; Gramigna, Pierparide; Bertoldi, Luca; Nardon, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    Detailed field mapping of a Middle Triassic carbonate buildup, the Latemar in the western Dolomites, northern Italy, has been carried out. The Latemar is an isolated carbonate buildup that nucleates on a fault-bounded structural high (horst) cut into the underlying late Anisian carbonate bank of the Contrin Fm. This study demonstrates that extensional synsedimentary tectonics is the main factor controlling its geometry and provides an age for this tectonic phase. In an early phase, slopes were mostly composed of well bedded, clinostratified grainstones and rudstones. In a later stage, the deposition of grainstones was accompanied by the emplacement of clinostratified megabreccias. The upper portion of slopes is a microbial boundstone with abundant Tubiphytes and patches or lenses of grainstone. Boundstones may occasionally expand into the platform interior and downward to the base of the slope. The depositional profile was that of a mounded platform. The buildup is dissected by a dense framework of high angle fractures and faults, and by magmatic and sedimentary dikes, exhibiting two principal directions trending NNW-SSE and ENE-WSW. Faults trending WNW-ESE were also observed. Magmatic dikes are related to the emplacement of the nearby Predazzo intrusion and are thus upper Ladinian. Kinematic indicators of strike-slip activity were observed on fault planes trending NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE, that can be attributed to Cenozoic Alpine tectonics. Faults, magmatic dikes and sedimentary dikes show systematic cross-cutting relationships, with strike-slip faults cutting magmatic dikes, and magmatic dikes cutting sedimentary (neptunian) dikes. ENE-WSW and WNW-ESE faults are cut by all other structures, and record the oldest tectonic activity in the region. Structural analysis attributes this tectonic phase to an extensional stress field, with a direction of maximum extension oriented ca. N-S. Several lines of evidence, including sealed faults and growth wedge geometries allow us

  17. Focal mechanisms and inter-event times of low-frequency earthquakes reveal quasi-continuous deformation and triggered slow slip on the deep Alpine Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratin, Laura-May; Chamberlain, Calum J.; Townend, John; Savage, Martha K.

    2018-02-01

    Characterising the seismicity associated with slow deformation in the vicinity of the Alpine Fault may provide constraints on the stresses acting on a major transpressive margin prior to an anticipated great (≥M8) earthquake. Here, we use recently detected tremor and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) to examine how slow tectonic deformation is loading the Alpine Fault late in its typical ∼300-yr seismic cycle. We analyse a continuous seismic dataset recorded between 2009 and 2016 using a network of 10-13 short-period seismometers, the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array. Fourteen primary LFE templates are used in an iterative matched-filter and stacking routine, allowing the detection of similar signals corresponding to LFE families sharing common locations. This yields an 8-yr catalogue containing 10,000 LFEs that are combined for each of the 14 LFE families using phase-weighted stacking to produce signals with the highest possible signal-to-noise ratios. We show that LFEs occur almost continuously during the 8-yr study period and highlight two types of LFE distributions: (1) discrete behaviour with an inter-event time exceeding 2 min; (2) burst-like behaviour with an inter-event time below 2 min. We interpret the discrete events as small-scale frequent deformation on the deep extent of the Alpine Fault and LFE bursts (corresponding in most cases to known episodes of tremor or large regional earthquakes) as brief periods of increased slip activity indicative of slow slip. We compute improved non-linear earthquake locations using a 3-D velocity model. LFEs occur below the seismogenic zone at depths of 17-42 km, on or near the hypothesised deep extent of the Alpine Fault. The first estimates of LFE focal mechanisms associated with continental faulting, in conjunction with recurrence intervals, are consistent with quasi-continuous shear faulting on the deep extent of the Alpine Fault.

  18. Glacial and periglacial "dynamic" geodiversity in a high altitude alpine basin (Hohsand Basin, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicola; Fratianni, Simona; Giardino, Marco

    2014-05-01

    On high altitudes climate changes interact with glacial processes and dynamics causing important modifications on the alpine morphology. These transformations lead to a gradual evolution of the geosphere and cryosphere. Growing concern of warming-induced permafrost degradation and modifications of geomorphological characteristics of alpine landscapes increases importance of researches on high mountain dynamic geodiversity. Within this framework, work field studies have been carried out in the Hohsand Basin of the Formazza Valley (Lepontine Alps, NW-Italy). This high alpine catchment is characterised by the major alpine glaciated area (even if in strong regression) of the Piemonte Region and by one of the largest hydroelectric reservoir of this area. Climatological studies have been carried out to analyse the local climate, to identify the trends of the main climatic parameters, to verify the existence of climatic conditions for the development of cryotic processes and to investigate the morpho-climatic evolution of the basin since the 1950s. The geomorphological analysis has been conducted in order to describe the landform geodiversity of the basin and to understand the evolution of the recently deglaciated areas with related glacial landforms. The data, derived from photographic interpretation (aerial images of the years 1955, 1977, 1983, 1989, 1999, 2001 and digital orthoimages of the years 1988-1989, 1994-1998, 2000, 2007, 2009, 2010) and field surveys carried out in summer 2012, have been digitized in open source GIS environment. Through these data and methods, morphometric elaborations have been carried out, geomorphological maps (scale 1:10000 and details at 1:3000) and a glacial deposits map (scale 1:25000) of the basin have been also realised. Periglacial micromorphological forms (e.g. patterned ground) have been investigated during detailed field surveys. Periglacial and permafrost landforms have been used for tracing changes in the permafrost distribution

  19. 137Cs in alpine tundra habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment is reported that was carried out to determine the relative importance of physical habitat factors such as snow cover, wind, soil contamination and moisture, and certain plant characteristics (gross morphology and specialized morphology) in the contamination of alpine perennial, tundra vegetation by 137 Cs from worldwide fallout. The accumulations of 137 Cs and 40 K found among species of plants and soil samples in major ecological habitats of alpine tundra in Rocky Mountain National Park are shown tabulated. From this study it would appear that the 'scrubbing-out' action of precipitation and moisture in general may have enhanced direct deposition from the air and influenced foliar absorption rate. However, morphology, physiology, longevity, plant-soil interface distance, and species differences seem to play a more dominant role in radionuclide accumulation. It is difficult to accurately predict fallout behavior by monitoring vegetation 137 Cs levels. The soil (habitat) is seemingly a better indicator of 137 Cs fallout accumulation than plant species, especially when 'spot-check' sampling is employed. (U.K.)

  20. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena K. Mittermeier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-targeted 1H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic an