WorldWideScience

Sample records for alpine life zone

  1. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

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    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  2. The Alpine loop of the tethys zone

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    Bemmelen, R.W. van

    1969-01-01

    The Alpine loop in Europe results from semi-autochthonous crustal movements which are restricted to the mobile Tethys zone. Its evolution cannot be explained by a uniform northward drift and push of the African continent; it has to be sought, in the first place, in geodynamic processes occurring in

  3. Forecasting temperate alpine glacier survival from accumulation zone observations

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    M. S. Pelto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperate alpine glacier survival is dependent on the consistent presence of an accumulation zone. Frequent low accumulation area ratio values, below 30%, indicate the lack of a consistent accumulation zone, which leads to substantial thinning of the glacier in the accumulation zone. This thinning is often evident from substantial marginal recession, emergence of new rock outcrops and surface elevation decline in the accumulation zone. In the North Cascades 9 of the 12 examined glaciers exhibit characteristics of substantial accumulation zone thinning; marginal recession or emergent bedrock areas in the accumulation zone. The longitudinal profile thinning factor, f, which is a measure of the ratio of thinning in the accumulation zone to that at the terminus, is above 0.6 for all glaciers exhibiting accumulation zone thinning characteristics. The ratio of accumulation zone thinning to cumulative mass balance is above 0.5 for glacier experiencing substantial accumulation zone thinning. Without a consistent accumulation zone these glaciers are forecast not to survive the current climate or future additional warming. The results vary considerably with adjacent glaciers having a different survival forecast. This emphasizes the danger of extrapolating survival from one glacier to the next.

  4. Forecasting temperate alpine glacier survival from accumulation zone observations

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    M. S. Pelto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available For temperate alpine glaciers survival is dependent on the consistent presence of an accumulation zone. The lack of a consistent and persistent accumulation zone leads to substantial thinning of the glacier in the accumulation zone. Accumulation zone thinning is evident in satellite imagery or field observation based the emergence of new rock outcrops or the recession of the margin of the glacier in the accumulation zone along a substantial portion of its perimeter. In either case the accumulation zone is no longer functioning as an accumulation zone and survival is unlikely. In both the North Cascades and Wind River Range nine of the fifteen glaciers examined are forecast not to survive the current climate or future additional warming. The results vary considerably with adjacent glaciers having a different survival forecast. This emphasizes the danger of extrapolating survival from one glacier to the next. This trait also emphasizes the value of a simple forecasting tool that can be applied to all glaciers. The automated remote sensing based glacier classification schemes developed offer the potential for automating this process based on the changes in the glacier outline.

  5. Alpine crustal shear zones and pre-Alpine basement terranes in the Romanian Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains

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    Panã, Dinu; Erdmer, Phillippe

    1994-09-01

    The Carpathian orocline formed by complex suturing of small continental fragments to the East European (and Moesian) plate. Remnants of continental fragments belong to three pre-Alpine lithotectonic assemblages: a "greenstone-granite" association and two gneissic assem blages. During Alpine collision, pieces of crust were repeatedly fragmented and welded to accommodate heterogeneous strain along the irregular East European plate boundary. Shallow structural levels of Alpine tectonic discontinuities in which the locus of most intense strain migrated over time are now exposed as wide retrograde greenschist grade belts. Repeated, mainly transpressive deformation resulted in early ductile fabrics being overprinted by local brittle shear strain. Igneous intrusion accompanied different phases of tectonic activity. The age of shearing initiation is probably late Paleozoic, and the configuration of the zones and their Alpine internal structures are consistent with the geometry of the Carpathian arc.

  6. Age of amphibolites associated with alpine peridotites in the Dinaride ophiolite zone, Yugoslavia

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    Lanphere, M.A.; Coleman, R.G.; Karamata, S.; Pamic, J.

    1975-01-01

    Amphibolites associated with alpine peridotites in the Central Ophiolite zone in Yugoslavia have K-Ar ages of 160-170 m.y. These amphibolites and associated peridotites underwent deep-seated metamorphism prior to tectonic emplacement into the sedimentary-volcanic assemblage of the Dinarides. The alpine peridotites and associated local rocks of the ophiolite suite are interpreted as Jurassic oceanic crust and upper mantle. ?? 1975.

  7. Holdridge life zone physical inconsistency

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    Martínez, A., Sr.; Ochoa, A.

    2015-12-01

    Life zones is a very used classification system, developed by L.R. Holdridge in 1967, used to discern why plants have different adaptation mechanism to their surrounding environment. In this paper, the relation between potential evapotranspiration rate (ETr ), anual precipitation (P ) and biotemperature (Tb ) in the Holdridge triangle, is parametrized (P = (500/9)*ETr) to evaluate if the rain process is conserved in Colombia. Further, an adiabatic ascent of air with diurnal and interannual variability, and cluster analysis is view as a classification example of the advantage of using physical process to evaluate the plants adaptation mechanisms . The most inconsistency life zones are situated in the rainiest places of Colombian pacific costs in tropical latitudinal region, are non-exist places in holdridge triangle with annual biotemperature higher than 26◦ C, annual precipitation about 10.000mm and annual potential evapotranspiration rate about 0.1. The difference between Holdridge predicted precipitation and the precipitation measured with TRMM are about 5.000mm in these places. Classification systems based on an annual average, do not stablish adaptation as a function of diurnal variability, for example, the difference between valley sides vegetation could not being determined. This kind of limitations, added to a validation procces and the auscence of a physic procces in the variable interaction, make the Holdridge Life Zones a very useful tool, but physically inconsistent for caracterice vegetation as a function of precipitation. The rain process is very complex, depend of mass and energy exchanges and is still a controversial topic in atmospheric modeling, as a biotic pump.

  8. Hydrology controls dissolved organic matter export and composition in an Alpine stream and its hyporheic zone.

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    Fasching, Christina; Ulseth, Amber J; Schelker, Jakob; Steniczka, Gertraud; Battin, Tom J

    2016-03-01

    Streams and rivers transport dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the terrestrial environment to downstream ecosystems. In light of climate and global change it is crucial to understand the temporal dynamics of DOM concentration and composition, and its export fluxes from headwaters to larger downstream ecosystems. We monitored DOM concentration and composition based on a diurnal sampling design for 3 years in an Alpine headwater stream. We found hydrologic variability to control DOM composition and the coupling of DOM dynamics in the streamwater and the hyporheic zone. High-flow events increased DOM inputs from terrestrial sources (as indicated by the contributions of humic- and fulvic-like fluorescence), while summer baseflow enhanced the autochthonous imprint of DOM. Diurnal and seasonal patterns of DOM composition were likely induced by biological processes linked to temperature and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Floods frequently interrupted diurnal and seasonal patterns of DOM, which led to a decoupling of streamwater and hyporheic water DOM composition and delivery of aromatic and humic-like DOM to the streamwater. Accordingly, DOM export fluxes were largely of terrigenous origin as indicated by optical properties. Our study highlights the relevance of hydrologic and seasonal dynamics for the origin, composition and fluxes of DOM in an Alpine headwater stream.

  9. Seismic micro-zoning in the alpine valleys and local application in urban planning regulations

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    Stéphane Cartier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Confrontées au risque sismique, les vallées sédimentaires alpines testent différentes solutions politiques pour transcrire en règles d’urbanisme les connaissances apportées par les micro-zonages. France, Italie, Slovénie et Suisse composent avec leur tradition politique et l’adoption de codes européens pour améliorer la sécurité selon la vulnérabilité et la géologie locales.Management of earthquake risks in the sedimentary valleys of the Alps depends on the ability to transcribe scientific knowledge obtained from micro-zoning into urban planning regulations. France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland are working with new European codes, and within their respective political contexts, to improve earthquake safety on the basis of enhanced input on local geological conditions and vulnerability levels.

  10. UV Habitable Zones Further Constrain Possible Life

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    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Where should we search for life in the universe? Habitable zones are traditionallydetermined based on the possibility of liquid water existing on a planet but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also plays a key role.The UV Habitable ZoneSchematic showing how the traditional habitable zones location and width changes around different types of stars. The UV habitable zone also hasdifferent locations and widths depending on the mass and metallicity of the star. [NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]Besides the presence of liquid water, there are other things life may need to persist. For life as we know it, one important elementis moderate UV radiation: if a planet receives too little UV flux, many biological compounds cant be synthesized. If it receives too much, however, then terrestrial biological systems (e.g. DNA) can be damaged.To determinethe most likely place to findpersistent life, we should therefore look for the region where a stars traditional habitable zone, within which liquid water is possible, overlaps with its UV habitable zone, within which the UV flux is at the right level to support life.Relationship between the stellar mass and location of the boundaries of the traditional and UV habitable zones for a solar-metallicity star. din and dout denote inner and outer boundaries, respectively. ZAMS and TMS denote when the star joins and leaves the main sequence, respectively. The traditional and UV habitable zones overlap only for stars of 11.5 solar masses. [Adapted from Oishi and Kamaya 2016]Looking for OverlapIn a recent study, two scientists from the National Defense Academy of Japan, Midori Oishi and Hideyuki Kamaya, explored howthe location of this UV habitable zone and that of its overlap with the traditional habitable zone might be affected by a stars mass and metallicity.Oishi and Kamaya developed a simple evolutional model of the UV habitable zone in stars in the mass range of 0.084 solar masses with metallicities of roughly solar metallicity (Z=0.02), a

  11. Damaged beyond repair? Characterising the damage zone of a fault late in its interseismic cycle, the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

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    Williams, Jack N.; Toy, Virginia G.; Massiot, Cécile; McNamara, David D.; Wang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of drill-core, recovered from the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) through New Zealand's Alpine Fault, provide an excellent opportunity to study the damage zone of a plate-bounding continental scale fault, late in its interseismic cycle. Documentation of the intermediate-macro scale damage zone structures observed in the CT images show that there is no increase in the density of these structures towards the fault's principal slip zones (PSZs), at least within the interval sampled, which is 30 m above and below the PSZs. This is in agreement with independent analysis using borehole televiewer data. Instead, we conclude the density of damage zone structures to correspond to lithology. We find that 72% of fractures are fully healed, by a combination of clays, calcite and quartz, with an additional 24% partially healed. This fracture healing is consistent with the Alpine Fault's late interseismic state, and the fact that the interval of damage zone sampled coincides with an alteration zone, an interval of extensive fluid-rock interaction. These fractures do not impose a reduction of P-wave velocity, as measured by wireline methods. Outside the alteration zone there is indirect evidence of less extensive fracture healing.

  12. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

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    Karolína Bílá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo, which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts. were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities.

  13. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains.

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    Bílá, Karolína; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities.

  14. Time-lapse ERT and DTS for seasonal and short-term monitoring of an alpine river hyporheic zone

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    Boaga, Jacopo; Laura, Busato; Mariateresa, Perri; Giorgio, Cassiani

    2016-04-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is the area located beneath and adjacent to rivers and streams, where the interactions between surface water and groundwater take place. This complex physical domain allows the transport of several substances from a stream to the unconfined aquifer below, and vice versa, thus playing a fundamental role in the river ecosystem. The importance of the hyporheic zone makes its characterization a goal shared by several disciplines, which range from applied geophysics to biogeochemistry, from hydraulics to ecology. The frontier field of HZ characterization stays in applied non-invasive methodologies as Electrical Resistivity Tomography - ERT - and Distributed Temperature Sensing - DTS. ERT is commonly applied in cross-well configuration or with a superficial electrodes deployment while DTS is used in hydro-geophysics in the last decade, revealing a wide applicability to the typical issues of this field of study. DTS for hydro-geophysics studies is based on Raman scattering and employs heat as tracer and uses a fiber-optic cable to acquire temperature values. We applied both techniques for an alpine river case studies located in Val di Sole, TN, Italy. The collected measurements allow high-resolution characterization of the hyporheic zone, overcoming the critical problem of invasive measurements under riverbeds. In this work, we present the preliminary results regarding the characterization of the hyporheic zone of the alpine river obtained combining ERT and DTS time-lapse measurements. The data collection benefits from an innovative instrumentation deployment, which consists of both an ERT multicore cable and a DTS fiber-optic located in two separated boreholes drilled 5m under the watercourse and perpendicular to it. In particular we present the first year monitoring results and a short time-lapse monitoring experiment conducted during summer 2015. The site and the results here described are part of the EU FP7 CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the

  15. Are quartz LPOs predictably oriented with respect to the shear zone boundary?: A test from the Alpine Fault mylonites, New Zealand

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    Little, Timothy A.; Prior, David J.; Toy, Virginia G.

    2016-03-01

    The Alpine fault self-exhumes its own ductile shear zone roots and has a known slip kinematics. Within ˜1 km of the fault, the mylonitic foliation is subparallel to the boundary of the amphibolite-facies ductile shear zone in which it formed. Using EBSD, we analyzed quartz Lattice Preferred Orientations [LPOs) of mylonites along a central part of the Alpine Fault. All LPOs feature a strongest girdle of [c]-axes that is forward-inclined ˜28 ± 4° away from the pole to the fault. A maximum of axes is inclined at the same angle relative the fault. The [c]-axis girdle is perpendicular to extensional (C') shear bands and the maximum is parallel to their slip direction. [c]-axis girdles do not form perpendicular to the SZB. Schmid factor analysis suggests that σ1 was arranged at 60-80° to the Alpine Fault. These observations indicate ductile transpression in the shear zone. The inclined arrangement of [c]-axis girdles, axes, and C' planes relative to the fault can be explained by their alignment relative to planes of maximum shear-strain-rate in a general shear zone, a significant new insight regarding shear zones and how LPO fabrics may generally develop within them. For the Alpine mylonite zone, our data imply a kinematic vorticity number (Wk) of ˜0.7 to ˜0.85. Inversions of seismic focal mechanisms in the brittle crust of the Southern Alps indicate that σ1 is oriented ˜60° to the Alpine Fault; that shear bands form at ˜30° to this direction, and that σ2 and σ3 flip positions between the brittle and ductile parts of the crust.

  16. Preservation of Permian allanite within an Alpine eclogite facies shear zone at Mt Mucrone, Italy: Mechanical and chemical behaviour of allanite during mylonitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cenki-Tok, Benedicte; Oliot, E.; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the mechanical and cehmical behavior of allanite during shear zone formation under high-pressure metamorphism. Understanding physico-chemical processes related to the retention or resetting of Pb isotopes in allanite during geological processes is essential for robust...... petrochronology. Dating of allanite in meta-granodiorite showing variable amounts of strain (from an undeformed protolith to mylonite) at Monte Mucrone (Sesia Zone, NW Italy) gave surprising results. Based on structural and petrographic observations the shear zones at Mt Mucrone are Alpine, yet allanite located......, and they were thus chemically and mechanically shielded during Alpine mylonitization. In undeformed samples (8a and 8b), two populations of epidote group minerals were found. Allanite forms either coronas around Permianmonazite or individual grains with patchy zoning. Both types yield Permian ages (208Pb/232Th...

  17. Frost resistance in alpine woody plants.

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    Neuner, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of key findings related to frost resistance in alpine woody plant species, summarizes data on their frost resistance, highlights the importance of freeze avoidance mechanisms, and indicates areas of future research. Freezing temperatures are possible throughout the whole growing period in the alpine life zone. Frost severity, comprised of both intensity and duration, becomes greater with increasing elevation and, there is also a greater probability, that small statured woody plants, may be insulated by snow cover. Several frost survival mechanisms have evolved in woody alpine plants in response to these environmental conditions. Examples of tolerance to extracellular freezing and freeze dehydration, life cycles that allow species to escape frost, and freeze avoidance mechanisms can all be found. Despite their specific adaption to the alpine environment, frost damage can occur in spring, while all alpine woody plants have a low risk of frost damage in winter. Experimental evidence indicates that premature deacclimation in Pinus cembra in the spring, and a limited ability of many species of alpine woody shrubs to rapidly reacclimate when they lose snow cover, resulting in reduced levels of frost resistance in the spring, may be particularly critical under the projected changes in climate. In this review, frost resistance and specific frost survival mechanisms of different organs (leaves, stems, vegetative and reproductive over-wintering buds, flowers, and fruits) and tissues are compared. The seasonal dynamics of frost resistance of leaves of trees, as opposed to woody shrubs, is also discussed. The ability of some tissues and organs to avoid freezing by supercooling, as visualized by high resolution infrared thermography, are also provided. Collectively, the report provides a review of the complex and diverse ways that woody plants survive in the frost dominated environment of the alpine life zone.

  18. Plants in alpine environments

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    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  19. Cooccurrence patterns of plants and soil bacteria in the high-alpine subnival zone track environmental harshness

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    Andrew J. King

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants and soil microorganisms interact to play a central role in ecosystem functioning. To determine the potential importance of biotic interactions in shaping the distributions of these organisms in a high-alpine subnival landscape, we examine cooccurrence patterns between plant species and bulk-soil bacteria abundances. In this context, a cooccurrence relationship reflects a combination of several assembly processes: that both parties can disperse to the site, that they can survive the abiotic environmental conditions, and that interactions between the biota either facilitate survival or allow for coexistence. Across the entire landscape, 31% of the bacterial sequences in this dataset were significantly correlated to the abundance distribution of one or more plant species. These sequences fell into 14 clades, 6 of which are related to bacteria that are known to form symbioses with plants in other systems. Abundant plant species were more likely to have significant as well as stronger correlations with bacteria and these patterns were more prevalent in lower altitude sites. Conversely, correlations between plant species abundances and bacterial relative abundances were less frequent in sites near the snowline. Thus, plant-bacteria associations became more common as environmental conditions became less harsh and plants became more abundant. This pattern in cooccurrence strength and frequency across the subnival landscape suggests that plant-bacteria interactions are important for the success of life, both below- and above-ground, in an extreme environment.

  20. 40Ar-39Ar laser dating of ductile shear zones from central Corsica (France): Evidence of Alpine (middle to late Eocene) syn-burial shearing in Variscan granitoids

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    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Grande, Antonietta; Prosser, Giacomo; Cavazza, William; DeCelles, Peter G.

    2016-10-01

    The island of Corsica (France) plays a central role in any reconstruction of Western Mediterranean geodynamics and paleogeography but several key aspects of its geological evolution are still uncertain. The most debated topics include the interpretation of the Corsican orogen as the result of an east- or west-directed subduction, and the actual involvement of the Variscan basement of Corsica in the Alpine orogenic cycle. This study integrates 40Ar-39Ar laserprobe, mesostructural, microtextural, and microchemical analyses and places relevant constraints on the style, P-T conditions, and timing of Alpine-age, pervasive ductile shear zones which affected the Variscan basement complex of central Corsica, a few kilometers to the west of the present-day front of the Alpine nappes. Shear zones strike ~ NNE-SSW, dip at a high angle, and are characterized by a dominant sinistral strike-slip component. Two of the three investigated shear zones contain two texturally and chemically resolvable generations of white mica, recording a prograde (burial) evolution: (1) deformed celadonite-poor relicts are finely overgrown by (2) a celadonite-rich white mica aligned along the main foliation. White mica from a third sample of another shear zone, characterized by a significantly lower porphyroclast/matrix ratio, exhibits a nearly uniform high-celadonite content, compositionally matching the texturally younger phengite from the nearby shear zones. Mineral-textural analysis, electron microprobe data, and pseudosection modeling constrain P-T conditions attained during shearing at ~ 300 °C and minimum pressures of ~ 0.6 GPa. In-situ 40Ar-39Ar analyses of coexisting low- and high-celadonite white micas from both shear zones yielded a relatively wide range of ages, ~ 45-36 Ma. Laser step-heating experiments gave sigmoidal-shaped age profiles, with step ages in line with in-situ spot dates. By contrast, the apparently chemically homogenous high-celadonite white mica yielded concordant in

  1. Ecology and life history affect different aspects of the population structure of 27 high-alpine plants.

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    Meirmans, Patrick G; Goudet, Jerome; Gaggiotti, Oscar E

    2011-08-01

    A plant species' genetic population structure is the result of a complex combination of its life history, ecological preferences, position in the ecosystem and historical factors. As a result, many different statistical methods exist that measure different aspects of species' genetic structure. However, little is known about how these methods are interrelated and how they are related to a species' ecology and life history. In this study, we used the IntraBioDiv amplified fragment length polymorphisms data set from 27 high-alpine species to calculate eight genetic summary statistics that we jointly correlate to a set of six ecological and life-history traits. We found that there is a large amount of redundancy among the calculated summary statistics and that there is a significant association with the matrix of species traits. In a multivariate analysis, two main aspects of population structure were visible among the 27 species. The first aspect is related to the species' dispersal capacities and the second is most likely related to the species' postglacial recolonization of the Alps. Furthermore, we found that some summary statistics, most importantly Mantel's r and Jost's D, show different behaviour than expected based on theory. We therefore advise caution in drawing too strong conclusions from these statistics.

  2. Semenic Mountains’ alpine skiing area

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    Petru BANIAȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents, after a short history of alpine skiing which describes apparition, necessity, utility and universality of skiing during time, a comparative study referring to the alpine skiing domain in the Semenic Mountains area. In the paper are also presented general notions about alpine skiing methodology together with an ample description of the plateau area form Semenic Mountains, describing localization and touristic potential. Based on the SWOT analysis made for each slope, was realized a complex analysis of the entire skiing domain, an analysis which includes technical, financial, climatic and environmental aspects, along with an analysis of the marketing policy applied for the specific zone.

  3. Seismogenic Coupling at Convergent Margins - Geophysical Observations from the South American Subduction Zone and the Alpine Rock Record

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    Oncken, O.

    2008-12-01

    Convergent continental margins are the Earth's principal locus of important earthquake hazards with nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes (M>8) in the seismogenic coupling zone between the converging plates. Despite the key importance of this zone, the processes that shape it are poorly understood. This is underscored by a number of novel observations attributed to processes in the interface zone that are attracting increasing attention: silent slip events, non-volcanic tremors, afterslip, locked patches embedded in a creeping environment, etc. We here compare the rock record from a field study with recent results from two major geophysical experiments (ANCORP and TIPTEQ) that have imaged the South Chilean subduction zone at the site of the largest historically recorded earthquake (Valdivia, 1969; Mw = 9.5) and the plate boundary in Northern Chile, where a major seismic event is expected in the near future (Iquique segment). The reflection seismic data exhibit well defined changes of reflectivity and Vp/Vs ratio along the plate interface that can be correlated with different parts of the coupling zone as well as with changes during the seismic cycle. Observations suggest an important role of the hydraulic system. The rock record from the exhumed Early Tertiary seismogenic coupling zone of the European Alps provides indications for the mechanisms and processes responsible for the geophysical images. Fabric formation and metamorphism in a largely preserved subduction channel chiefly record the deformation conditions of the pre-collisional setting along the plate interface. We identify an unstable slip domain from pseudotachylytes occurring in the temperature range between 200-300°C. This zone coincides with a domain of intense veining in the subduction mélange with mineral growth into open cavities, indicating fast, possibly seismic, rupture. Evidence for transient near-lithostatic fluid pressure as well as brittle fractures competing with mylonitic shear

  4. Plants assemble species specific bacterial communities from common core taxa in three arcto-alpine climate zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Manoj; Brader, Guenter; Sessitsch, Angela; Maki, Anita; van Elsas, Jan D.; Nissinen, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for the pivotal role of plant-associated bacteria to plant health and productivity has accumulated rapidly in the last years. However, key questions related to what drives plant bacteriomes remain unanswered, among which is the impact of climate zones on plant-associated microbiota. This is

  5. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Bílá, Karolína; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butt...

  6. An assessment of The Effects of Elevation and Aspect on Deposition of Airborne Pollution and Water Quality in an Alpine Critical Zone: San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Marcantonio, F.

    2015-12-01

    The alpine critical zone is affected by various inputs, storages, pathways, and outputs. Unfortunately, many of these processes distribute the pollutants beyond the immediate area and into the surrounding biological and anthropogenic communities. Years of mining and improper disposal of the tailings and acid-mine drainage have degraded the quality of surface water within the San Juan Mountains. However, mining may not be the only factor significantly affecting the surface water quality in this high-elevation environment. As a high elevation system, this area is a fragile ecosystem with inputs ranging from local mining to atmospheric transport and deposition. Studies from around the world have shown atmospheric transport and deposition affect high-elevation systems. Thus, a significant question arises: does elevation or aspect affect the volume and rate of atmospheric deposition of pollutants? We assume atmospheric deposition occurs on the slopes in addition to in streams, lakes, and ponds. Deposition on slopes can be transported to nearby surface waters and increase the impact of the atmospheric pollutants along with residence time. Atmospheric deposition data were collected for aluminum, iron, manganese, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate. Water chemistry data were collected for the same constituents as the atmospheric deposition with the addition of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance. Deposition samples were collected on a five-day sampling regime during two summers. Water quality samples were collected in-stream adjacent to the deposition-ample collectors. Collection sites were located on opposite sides of Red Mountain at five equal elevations providing two different aspects. The north side is drained by Red Mountain Creek and the south side is drained by Mineral Creek. Differences in atmospheric deposition and water quality at different elevations and aspects suggest there is a relationship between aspect and elevation on atmospheric

  7. Alpine fold-and-thrust structures revealed: A 3D model from the Helvetic Zone (Säntis area, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Paola; Pfiffner, Adrian; Frehner, Marcel

    2013-04-01

    :25.000, Erläuterungen 78 Kempf, T.A., 1966: Geologie des westlichen Säntisgebirges. Beiträge geologische Karte der Schweiz N.F. 128. Pfiffner, O.A., 2011: Structural Map of the Helvetic Zone of the Swiss Alps. Geological Special Map no.128. Explanatory notes. Schlatter, L., 1941: Neue geologische Untersuchungen im mittleren Säntisgebirge. Bericht (Jahrbuch) der St. Gallischen Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft, Bd. 70.

  8. Spatial patterns of rockfall in recently deglaciated high-alpine rock faces: Analysing rockfall release zones and volumes based on a multiannual LiDAR time series, Kitzsteinhorn, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmeyer, Ingo; Keuschnig, Markus; Delleske, Robert; Wichmann, Volker; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-04-01

    Rock instabilities in high-alpine areas represent a considerable risk factor for man and infrastructure. In the Alps numerous, mainly visual, observations suggest an increasing occurrence of rockfall events potentially associated to climate warming. However, unbiased high-precision information on the location of rockfall release zones and the size of event volumes is scarce. Thus, frequency/magnitude patterns of high-alpine rockfall often remain elusive. The presented study addresses the need for systematically acquired, objective field data by presenting an extensive, multiannual LiDAR time series from a high-alpine (peri)glacial environment. The study area is located in the summit region of the Kitzsteinhorn (3.203 m), Hohe Tauern Range, Austria. The beginning of the terrestrial laserscanning (TLS) monitoring campaign dates back to July 2011. Since then six rock faces have been scanned repeatedly at an interval of 1-2 months during the snow-free summer season (June to October). The investigated rock faces predominantly consist of calcareous mica-schist and differ in terms of height, slope, aspect, and discontinuity orientation. The rock faces are partially underlain by permafrost, their combined surface area is approx. 1.3 km². They are located directly adjacent to the Schmiedingerkees cirque glacier, which has retreated and thinned significantly in recent decades (downwasting rate ~1.5 m/a). TLS data acquisition was performed using a Riegl LMS-Z620i. During data acquisition no permanently fixed installations and no artificial reflective markers were used. This is in line with the requirement to develop a quick, flexible methodology that can be applied not only at the Kitzsteinhorn, but also in other, similar environments. For data post-processing a new analysis procedure has been developed which allows (i) point cloud alignment by surface geometry matching, (ii) objective, automated discrimination between measurement errors und real surface changes, and (iii

  9. Recognition of hyper-extended rifted margin remnants in the internal zone of the Alpine belt: A tribute to Marco Beltrando

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Geoffroy; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2016-04-01

    Marco Beltrando was part of the young generation of Alpine geologists who challenged the interpretation of the Western Alps by combining a classical field approach and modern techniques (e.g. 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology). His work provides the foundation to re-interpret some of the classical sections through the Alpine belt and may impact the way of thinking about the nature and structure of internal parts of collisional orogens. This contribution will present the main outcomes of the work of Marco Beltrando and their implications for the understanding of Alpine type orogens. Since his PhD, Marco Beltrando focused most of his work on the study of the internal parts of the Western Alps. He investigated in great details the complex, multiphase structural and metamorphic evolution of the Penninic units in the Western Alps. He concluded that these units went through several cycles of shortening and extension during the Alpine orogeny, with major implications for the Alps but also other orogenic belts. After his PhD, he focused his research on the pre-orogenic evolution of the Alpine belt. He first worked on the Petit St. Bernard area, where he identified relics of the former hyper-extended Tethyan rifted margin. Thanks to his work and his amazing knowledge of the Western Alps, he understood the potential importance of rift-inheritance in controlling the architecture and evolution of the Alpine belt. In parallel to the study of the orogenic evolution, he developed a new methodology to recognize rift-related lithostratigraphic units in highly deformed and metamorphosed parts of the Alps. His innovative work allowed a re-assessment of several areas in the Western Alps and demonstrates the importance of rift inheritance. Recently, he started a new research project on the evolution of the Southern Alps highlighting the importance of heating and cooling cycles resulting from complex successions of rifting events. In spite of his young age, Marco Beltrando was at

  10. Alpine dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marnezy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  11. Influence of life history strategies on sensitivity, population growth and response to climate for sympatric alpine birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Scott

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The life history strategy of a species can influence how populations of that species respond to environmental variation. In this study, we used a matrix modeling approach to examine how life history differences among sympatric rock and white-tailed ptarmigan affect the influence of demographic rates on population growth (λ and the potential response to a changing climate. Rock ptarmigan have a slower life history strategy than white-tailed ptarmigan in the study region with lower annual reproductive effort but higher adult survival. Results Based on data from a 5-year field study, deterministic estimates of λ indicated that populations were stable for rock ptarmigan (λ = 1.01, but declining for white-tailed ptarmigan (λ = 0.96. The demographic rates with the highest elasticity for rock ptarmigan were the survival of after-second year females, followed by juvenile survival and success of the first nest. For white-tailed ptarmigan, juvenile survival had the highest elasticity followed by success of the first nest and survival of second-year females. Incorporating stochasticity into the demographic rates led to a 2 and 4% drop in λ for rock and white-tailed ptarmigan respectively. Using data from the first three years we also found that population growth rates of both species were depressed following an increased frequency of severe years, but less so for rock ptarmigan which showed greater resilience under these conditions. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that populations of closely related species can vary in their response to environmental change as a consequence of life history differences. Rock ptarmigan, with a slower life history, are more responsive to demographic rates that influence survival and older life stages but this response is tempered by the extent of variability in each of the rates. Thus, predictions need to consider both aspects in modeling population response to a varying climate

  12. Visualizing Life Zone Boundary Sensitivities Across Climate Models and Temporal Spans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisneros, Roberto R [ORNL; Huang, Jian [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ostrouchov, George [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Life zones are a convenient and quantifiable method for delineating areas with similar plant and animal communities based on bioclimatic conditions. Such ecoregionalization techniques have proved useful for defining habitats and for studying how these habitats may shift due to environmental change. The ecological impacts of climate change are of particular interest. Here we show that visualizations of the geographic projection of life zones may be applied to the investigation of potential ecological impacts of climate change using the results of global climate model simulations. Using a multi-factor classification scheme, we show how life zones change over time based on quantitative model results into the next century. Using two straightforward metrics, we identify regions of high sensitivity to climate changes from two global climate simulations under two different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Finally, we identify how preferred human habitats may shift under these scenarios. We apply visualization methods developed for the purpose of displaying multivariate relationships within data, especially for situations that involve a large number of concurrent relationships. Our method is based on the concept of multivariate classification, and is implemented directly in VisIt, a production quality visualization package.

  13. Application of Holdridge life-zone model based on the terrain factor in Xinjiang Automous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Yong-ming; OUYANG Zhi-yun; WANG Xiao-ke

    2005-01-01

    This study improved the application of the Holdridge life-zone model to simulate the distribution of desert vegetation in China which gives statistics to support eco-recovery and ecosystem reconstruction in desert area. This study classified the desert vegetation into four types: (1) LAD: little arbor desert; (2) SD: shrub desert; (3) HLHSD: half-shrub, little half-shrub desert; (4) LHSCD: little halfshrub cushion desert. Based on the classification of Xinjiang desert vegetation, the classical Holdridge life-zone model was used to simulate Xinjiang desert vegetation's distribution and compare the Kappa coefficient result of the model with table of accuracy represented by Kappa values. The Kappa value of the model was only 0.19, it means the simulation result was poor. To improve the life-zone model application to Xinjiang desert vegetation type, a set of plot standards for terrain factors was developed by using the plot standard as the reclassification criterion to climate sub-regime. Then the desert vegetation in Xinjiang was simulated. The average Kappa value of the second simulation to the respective climate regime was 0.45. The Kappa value of final modeling result was 0.64, which is the better value.The modification of the model made it in more application region. In the end, the model' s ecological relevance to the Xinjiang desert vegetation types was studied.

  14. The climate of Carpathian Region in the 20th century based on the original and modified Holdridge life zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Sümegi, Pál

    2014-09-01

    The Holdridge life zone system has already been used a number of times for analysing the effects of climate change on vegetation. But a criticism against the method was formulated that it cannot interpret the ecotones (e.g. forest steppe). Thus, in this paper transitional life zones were also determined in the model. Then, both the original and modified life zone systems were applied for the climatic fields of database CRU TS 1.2. Life zone maps were defined in the Carpathian Region (43.5-50.5° N, 15.5-28° E) for each of five 20-year periods between 1901 and 2000. We estimated correctness of the result maps with another vegetation map using Cohen's Kappa statistic. Finally, temporal changes in horizontal and vertical distribution of life zones were investigated. The coverage of boreal region decreased with 59.46% during the last century, while the warm temperate region became almost two and a half larger (257.36%). The mean centres of those life zones, which were not related to mountains, shifted northward during the investigation period. In case of the most abundant life zone types, the average distribution elevation increased. Using the modified model, the potential distribution of forest steppe could be also identified.

  15. The Galactic Habitable Zone and the Age Distribution of Complex Life in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Lineweaver, C H; Gibson, B K; Lineweaver, Charles H.; Fenner, Yeshe; Gibson, Brad K.

    2004-01-01

    We modeled the evolution of the Milky Way to trace the distribution in space and time of four prerequisites for complex life: the presence of a host star, enough heavy elements to form terrestrial planets, sufficient time for biological evolution and an environment free of life-extinguishing supernovae. We identified the Galactic habitable zone (GHZ) as an annular region between 7 and 9 kiloparsecs from the Galactic center that widens with time and is composed of stars that formed between 8 and 4 billion years ago. This GHZ yields an age distribution for the complex life that may inhabit our Galaxy. We found that 75% of the stars in the GHZ are older than the Sun.

  16. Guided Waves within the Alpine Fault, central Westland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, J. D.; Gulley, A. K.; Boese, C. M.; Malin, P.; Townend, J.; Sutherland, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fault Zone Guided waves (FZGWs), seismic energy trapped within the low-velocity ';damage zone', have been observed for the first time within the Alpine Fault of New Zealand. This major transpressional fault accommodates up to 75% of relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. Two three-component, 2 Hz, borehole seismometers were installed as part of the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) which drilled two shallow (101 m and 151 m) boreholes into the central Alpine Fault principal slip zone at Gaunt Creek, central Westland. These seismometers, part of the DFDP-1 borehole observatory, were installed within the mylonitic cataclasites of the hanging wall and the granitic cataclasite sequence of the footwall, within 20 m of what are thought to be the principal slip surfaces. Seismic data quality is high, revealing high rates of local microseismic activity with approximately fifty proximal events (P-S times array also reveals the strong structural control on incident seismic energy. Recent deployments of borehole and surface seismic networks to observe microseismic activity show somewhat diffuse patterns of seismicity and retain ambiguity as to the location and character of the Alpine Fault principal slip zone at depth. The locations of the events that generated FZGWs indicate the location and connectivity of the main Alpine Fault zone, which is segmented at a catchment scale at the surface. Initial modelling of the FZGWs also gives an estimate of fault zone properties at depth. Paleoseismic evidence indicates the Alpine Fault, capable of producing Mw > 8, is late in its seismic cycle and, despite previously appearing relatively aseismic on timescales of instrumentation, the observation of Fault Zone Guided Waves confirms that episodic, low magnitude seismic activity actually occurs on the main Alpine Fault zone (or strongly linked faults) both as single events and microseismic swarms.

  17. Effective stellar flux calculations for limits of life-supporting zones of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, W.; Eggl, S.; Neubauer, D.; Leitner, J.; Firneis, M. G.; Hitzenberger, R.

    2016-06-01

    Habitable zones (HZ) are key concepts in the quest for finding extrasolar planets that may host life as we know it. HZs encompass regions around a star that would allow for liquid water to be present on the surface of a rocky planet. However, water may not be the only solvent capable of producing and sustaining biospheres, so the concept of life-supporting zones (LSZs) was introduced as a generalization of the classical HZ for a broader range of solvents. The aim of this work is to offer a straightforward means of calculating LSZs similar to those presented by Kopparapu et al. for the HZ. We used a 1D radiative convective model to determine LSZ limits for water/ammonia mixtures and sulphuric acid. A simplified cloud model was used for offline sulphuric acid cloud simulation. Water clouds were accounted for by variations of surface albedo values. Compared to recently updated results by Kopparapu et al., our results lie well within the uncertainty range of the Toon algorithm for flux calculations. We found an inner limit of the LSZ closer and an outer limit further away from the star than the limits for the HZ would be. Recently discovered exoplanets (like Kepler 452-b) are shown to be positioned very well in the LSZ. The concept of LSZs adds additional perspectives to an exoplanet's ability to maintain life on its surface.

  18. Aquatic beetles of the alpine lakes: diversity, ecology and small-scale population genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čiamporová-Zaovičová Z.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we summarize water beetle fauna of the alpine lakes and ponds of the Tatra Mountains. The literature and recent data were used to assess species diversity. Out of around 95 studied alpine water bodies, beetles were found in 61. Altogether, 54 taxa from six families were identified. The different altitudinal zones and lake areas were compared with species richness and species incidence concerning the sites sampled. Besides faunistics, some ecological notes on Agabus bipustulatus are provided. The seasonal dynamics of this species is influenced by its life cycle. The larvae and adults comprised a regular part of the samples during the whole period of the study with a decrease in density from June to the late fall. During the summer and the early fall, fast growth of the larvae was observed. The adults reached their abundance peak in September–October. For the first time, analysis is provided of the genetic diversity of the macroinvertebrate species of the alpine lakes. We used a 345bp fragment of cytochrome b in two dytiscids, Agabus bipustulatus and A. guttatus. Seven and eight haplotypes were identified, respectively, with slightly different distribution patterns of genetic diversity across the study area in both species. A high proportion of the lakes was characterized by a single haplotype and the majority of the haplotypes were restricted to only one of the sampled valleys.

  19. Radiative Convective Transfer Calculations for Effective Stellar Fluxes of Habitable and Life Supporting Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Wolfgang; Eggl, Siegfried; Neubauer, David; Leitner, Johannes; Firneis, Maria; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2014-05-01

    Recent fields of interest in exoplanetary research include studies of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars outside of our Solar System. Habitable Zones (HZs) are currently defined by calculating the inner and the outer limits of the mean distance between exoplanets and their central stars based on effective solar fluxes that allow for maintaining liquid water on the planet's surface. Kasting et al. (1993), Selsis et al. (2007), and recently Kopparapu et al. (2013) provided stellar flux limits for such scenarios. We compute effective solar fluxes for Earth-like planets using Earth-like and other atmospheric scenarios including atmospheres with high level and low level clouds. Furthermore we provide habitability limits for solvents other than water, i.e. limits for the so called Life Supporting Zone, introduced by Leitner et al. (2010). The Life Supporting Zone (LSZ) encompasses many habitable zones based on a variety of liquid solvents. Solvents like ammonia and sulfuric acid have been identified for instance by Leitner et al (2012) as possibly life supporting. Assuming planets on circular orbits, the extent of the individual HZ is then calculated via the following equation, d(i,o) = [L/Lsun*1/S(i,o)]**0.5 au, where L is the star's luminosity, and d(i,o) and S(i,o) are the distances to the central star for the inner and the outer edge and effective insolation for inner and the outer edge of the HZ, respectively. After generating S(i,o) values for a selection of solvents, we provide the means to determine LSZ boundaries for main sequence stars. Effective flux calculations are done using a one dimensional radiative convective model (Neubauer et al. 2011) based on a modified version of the open source radiative transfer software Streamer (Key and Schweiger, 1998). Modifications include convective adjustments, additional gases for absorption and the use of an offline cloud model, which allow us to observe the influence of clouds on effective stellar fluxes

  20. Water in the critical zone: soil, water and life from profile to planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth is unique in the combination of abundant liquid water, plate tectonics and life, providing the broad context within which the critical zone exists, as the surface skin of the land. Global differences in the availability of water provide a major control on the balance of processes operating in the soil, allowing the development of environments as diverse as those dominated by organic soils, by salty deserts or by deeply weathered lateritic profiles. Within the critical zone, despite the importance of water, the complexity of its relationships with the soil material continue to provide many fundamental barriers to our improved understanding, at the scales of pore, hillslope and landscape. Water is also a vital resource for the survival of increasing human populations. Intensive agriculture first developed in semi-arid areas where the availability of solar energy could be combined with irrigation water from more humid areas, minimising the problems of weed control with primitive tillage techniques. Today the challenge to feed the world requires improved, and perhaps novel, ways to optimise the combination of solar energy and water at a sustainable economic and environmental cost.

  1. Zones of life in the subsurface of hydrothermal vents: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, B. I.; Houghton, J.; Meile, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    Subsurface microbial communities in Mid-ocean Ridge (MOR) hydrothermal systems host a wide array of unique metabolic strategies, but the spatial distribution of biogeochemical transformations is poorly constrained. Here we present an approach that reexamines chemical measurements from diffuse fluids with models of convective transport to delineate likely reaction zones. Chemical data have been compiled from bare basalt surfaces at a wide array of mid-ocean ridge systems, including 9°N, East Pacific Rise, Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca, and Lucky Strike, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Co-sampled end-member fluid from Ty (EPR) was used to constrain reaction path models that define diffuse fluid compositions as a function of temperature. The degree of mixing between hot vent fluid (350 deg. C) and seawater (2 deg. C) governs fluid temperature, Fe-oxide mineral precipitation is suppressed, and aqueous redox reactions are prevented from equilibrating, consistent with sluggish kinetics. Quartz and pyrite are predicted to precipitate, consistent with field observations. Most reported samples of diffuse fluids from EPR and Axial Seamount fall along the same predicted mixing line only when pyrite precipitation is suppressed, but Lucky Strike fluids do not follow the same trend. The predicted fluid composition as a function of temperature is then used to calculate the free energy available to autotrophic microorganisms for a variety of catabolic strategies in the subsurface. Finally, the relationships between temperature and free energy is combined with modeled temperature fields (Lowell et al., 2007 Geochem. Geophys., Geosys.) over a 500 m x 500 m region extending downward from the seafloor and outward from the high temperature focused hydrothermal flow to define areas that are energetically most favorable for a given metabolic process as well as below the upper temperature limit for life (~120 deg. C). In this way, we can expand the relevance of geochemical model predictions of

  2. 'Hearing' alpine plants growing after snowmelt: ultrasonic snow sensors provide long-term series of alpine plant phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Rebetez, Martine; Filippa, Gianluca; Cremonese, Edoardo; Klein, Geoffrey; Rixen, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In alpine environments, the growing season is severely constrained by low temperature and snow. Here, we aim at determining the climatic factors that best explain the interannual variation in spring growth onset of alpine plants, and at examining whether photoperiod might limit their phenological response during exceptionally warm springs and early snowmelts. We analysed 17 years of data (1998-2014) from 35 automatic weather stations located in subalpine and alpine zones ranging from 1560 to 2450 m asl in the Swiss Alps. These stations are equipped with ultrasonic sensors for snow depth measurements that are also able to detect plant growth in spring and summer, giving a unique opportunity to analyse snow and climate effects on alpine plant phenology. Our analysis showed high phenological variation among years, with one exceptionally early and late spring, namely 2011 and 2013. Overall, the timing of snowmelt and the beginning of plant growth were tightly linked irrespective of the elevation of the station. Snowmelt date was the best predictor of plant growth onset with air temperature after snowmelt modulating the plants' development rate. This multiple series of alpine plant phenology suggests that currently alpine plants are directly tracking climate change with no major photoperiod limitation.

  3. `Hearing' alpine plants growing after snowmelt: ultrasonic snow sensors provide long-term series of alpine plant phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Rebetez, Martine; Filippa, Gianluca; Cremonese, Edoardo; Klein, Geoffrey; Rixen, Christian

    2016-08-01

    In alpine environments, the growing season is severely constrained by low temperature and snow. Here, we aim at determining the climatic factors that best explain the interannual variation in spring growth onset of alpine plants, and at examining whether photoperiod might limit their phenological response during exceptionally warm springs and early snowmelts. We analysed 17 years of data (1998-2014) from 35 automatic weather stations located in subalpine and alpine zones ranging from 1560 to 2450 m asl in the Swiss Alps. These stations are equipped with ultrasonic sensors for snow depth measurements that are also able to detect plant growth in spring and summer, giving a unique opportunity to analyse snow and climate effects on alpine plant phenology. Our analysis showed high phenological variation among years, with one exceptionally early and late spring, namely 2011 and 2013. Overall, the timing of snowmelt and the beginning of plant growth were tightly linked irrespective of the elevation of the station. Snowmelt date was the best predictor of plant growth onset with air temperature after snowmelt modulating the plants' development rate. This multiple series of alpine plant phenology suggests that currently alpine plants are directly tracking climate change with no major photoperiod limitation.

  4. `Hearing' alpine plants growing after snowmelt: ultrasonic snow sensors provide long-term series of alpine plant phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Rebetez, Martine; Filippa, Gianluca; Cremonese, Edoardo; Klein, Geoffrey; Rixen, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In alpine environments, the growing season is severely constrained by low temperature and snow. Here, we aim at determining the climatic factors that best explain the interannual variation in spring growth onset of alpine plants, and at examining whether photoperiod might limit their phenological response during exceptionally warm springs and early snowmelts. We analysed 17 years of data (1998-2014) from 35 automatic weather stations located in subalpine and alpine zones ranging from 1560 to 2450 m asl in the Swiss Alps. These stations are equipped with ultrasonic sensors for snow depth measurements that are also able to detect plant growth in spring and summer, giving a unique opportunity to analyse snow and climate effects on alpine plant phenology. Our analysis showed high phenological variation among years, with one exceptionally early and late spring, namely 2011 and 2013. Overall, the timing of snowmelt and the beginning of plant growth were tightly linked irrespective of the elevation of the station. Snowmelt date was the best predictor of plant growth onset with air temperature after snowmelt modulating the plants' development rate. This multiple series of alpine plant phenology suggests that currently alpine plants are directly tracking climate change with no major photoperiod limitation.

  5. Assessment of projected climate change in the Carpathian Region using the Holdridge life zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Kis, Anna; Pongrácz, Rita; Sümegi, Pál

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, expected changes in the spatial and altitudinal distribution patterns of Holdridge life zone (HLZ) types are analysed to assess the possible ecological impacts of future climate change for the Carpathian Region, by using 11 bias-corrected regional climate model simulations of temperature and precipitation. The distribution patterns of HLZ types are characterized by the relative extent, the mean centre and the altitudinal range. According to the applied projections, the following conclusions can be drawn: (a) the altitudinal ranges are likely to expand in the future, (b) the lower and upper altitudinal limits as well as the altitudinal midpoints may move to higher altitudes, (c) a northward shift is expected for most HLZ types and (d) the magnitudes of these shifts can even be multiples of those observed in the last century. Related to the northward shifts, the HLZ types warm temperate thorn steppe and subtropical dry forest can also appear in the southern segment of the target area. However, a large uncertainty in the estimated changes of precipitation patterns was indicated by the following: (a) the expected change in the coverage of the HLZ type cool temperate steppe is extremely uncertain because there is no consensus among the projections even in terms of the sign of the change (high inter-model variability) and (b) a significant trend in the westward/eastward shift is simulated just for some HLZ types (high temporal variability). Finally, it is important to emphasize that the uncertainty of our results is further enhanced by the fact that some important aspects (e.g. seasonality of climate variables, direct CO2 effect, etc.) cannot be considered in the estimating process.

  6. Simulating the Effect of Climate Change on Vegetation Zone Distribution on the Loess Plateau, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment of vegetation zone responses to climate change was conducted using the classical Holdridge life zone model on the Loess Plateau of Northwest China. The results show that there are currently ten vegetation zones occurring on the Loess Plateau (1950–2000, including alvar desert, alpine wet tundra, alpine rain tundra, boreal moist forest, boreal wet forest, cool temperate desert, cool temperate desert scrub, cool temperate steppe, cool temperate moist forest, warm temperate desert scrub, warm temperate thorn steppe, and warm temperate dry forest. Seventy years later (2070S, the alvar desert, the alpine wet tundra and the cool temperate desert will disappear, while warm temperate desert scrub and warm temperate thorn steppe will emerge. The area proportion of warm temperate dry forest will expand from 12.2% to 22.8%–37.2%, while that of cool temperate moist forest will decrease from 18.5% to 6.9%–9.5%. The area proportion of cool temperate steppe will decrease from 51.8% to 34.5%–51.6%. Our results suggest that future climate change will be conducive to the growth and expansion of forest zones on the Loess Plateau, which can provide valuable reference information for regional vegetation restoration planning and adaptive strategies in this region.

  7. Geobiology of the Critical Zone: the Hierarchies of Process, Form and Life provide an Integrated Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    complementary biotic indicators of the palaeoenviroments in which they evolved. This strategy extends into the critical zone, to track evolutionary tenures and turnovers of endemics "ecological prisoners" in vadosic and phreatic landforms. Moreover, geoecodynamics of the Critical Zone can logically exploit endemic biota at the microscale in regolith, and also extremophiles to extreme depths; all such populations hold fascinating potential as biotic indicators of otherwise encrypted events in Earth history. Geoecodynamics is an exciting area emerging in geobiology. It opens up with new lines of attack on challenges at the core of geomorphology and palaeoecology. In its abilities to quantify mesoscale phenomena, geoecodynamics injects new life into evolutionary geomorphology. Moreover, the means to quantify mesoscale process and form enables quantification of thresholds and tenures of landform dynamics; we can now scrutinize obscurities, including the scale-dependency of landscape events invoked to have shaped palimpsests (Brunsden D 1996 Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie NF, 40, 273- 288). Analogously, where accumulated packages of evidence survive, we should be able to map out key signals in the tempo and mode of the genomic record through the Critical Zone, and so scrutinize otherwise encrypted events that shaped the inherent emptiness of the Rock Record (Ager D 1993. The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record; Miall AD 2015. Strata and Time: Probing the Gaps in Our Understanding. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 404, http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP404.4). Compared to, and notwithstanding, the episodic turnovers of sediments (and all allied events) that shaped evolving landscapes, the history of Life has been distinctly different; descent with modification links all clades and lineages of the Tree of Life with the present - even at deep nodes - though an unbroken chain of genomic connectivity. The complexity of niche space we see in landscapes reflects the diverse

  8. 'Life?': modernism and liminality in Douglas Livingstone’s A littoral zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Terblanche

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find his place within nature in South Africa and in a global modern context, Douglas Livingstone returns strongly to modernist poetry in his 1991 volume A littoral zone. In contrast to his predecessors like Wallace Stevens in “The glass of water” and T.S. Eliot in The waste land, this volume at critical moments gets stuck in a liminal stage. Images and poems, and eventually the volume as a whole, despite the highlights they present, say that it no longer seems so possible to end up also within the postliminal stage, so as to complete a rite of passage. Yet modernist poems such as Stevens’s “The glass of water” have the ability to end up in postliminal affirmation through and beyond the liminal stage of the overall process. Here light becomes a thirsty lion that comes down to drink from the glass, with a resultant transcendence of the dualistic between-ness that characterises the liminal stage in the modernist poetic mode, while this further results in the incorporation of a deeper and refreshing, dynamic unity. Even more remarkable is that this poetic rite is not of a closing nature, but open, especially in the sense that it affirms all that is possible and greater than the individual ego or subject, this, while getting stuck within a liminal stage just short of the postliminal stage can be in the nature of closure, as Livingstone shows, for example, when he says in “Low tide at Station 20” that humanity is trapped in its inability to see the original power of unity with and within nature in order to live within it; and while humanity remains an ugly outgrowth on the gigantic spine of evolution. In provisional conclusion this article finds that it will be better to view Victor Turner’s 1979 celebration of what he terms the “liminoid” in the place of a “true liminality” critically. Although it is impossible to return to a collective catharsis in watching a play, one cannot feel too comfortable about

  9. Les barrages alpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marnezy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  10. Design of alpine skis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Alison Audrey

    Models were developed to calculate the mechanical properties and the turning characteristics of alpine skis. The skis considered are constructed of layers of materials which may include wood, foam, metal, plastics, and fiber reinforced composites. The ski may be manufactured with or without camber and sidecut. The first model, and the corresponding SKI-MECH computer code, yields the mass, the bending and torsional stiffness distributions along the length, the flex, the twist, the natural frequencies, and the pressure distribution along the base of the ski. The second model, and the corresponding SKI-TURN code, simulates the motion of a skier of given height, weight, and skill level going down a smooth slope while executing a constant radius turn. The computer code provides the time it requires the skier to complete the turn. Both the SKI-MECH and SKI-TURN codes were verified by comparing the outputs of these codes to laboratory data and to data generated by skiers executing turns on a hill. The results of the model and the data are in good agreement lending confidence to the models and the computer codes. Numerical results are also presented which illustrate the usefulness of the computer codes for assessing the performance of skis and shed light on the role sidecut plays in affecting an efficient turn.

  11. Responses of alpine biodiversity to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Liu; Jian Zhang; Wanqin Yang

    2009-01-01

    The alpine belt is the temperature-driven treeless region between the timberline and the snowline. Alpine belts are ideal sites for monitoring climate change because species in mountain habitats are especially sensitive to climate change. Global warming is shifting the distribution of alpine biodiversity and is leading to glacial retreat, implying that alterations in alpine biodiversity are indicators of climate change. Therefore, more attention has been given to changes in species compositio...

  12. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  13. "Grandeur in this view of life": N-body simulation models of the Galactic habitable zone

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotić, B; Martinez-Aviles, G; Ćirković, M M; Micic, M; Schindler, S

    2016-01-01

    We present an isolated Milky Way-like simulation in GADGET2 N-body SPH code. The Galactic disk star formation rate (SFR) surface densities and stellar mass indicative of Solar neighbourhood are used as thresholds to model the distribution of stellar mass in life friendly environments. SFR and stellar component density are calculated averaging the GADGET2 particle properties on a 2D grid mapped on the Galactic plane. The peak values for possibly habitable stellar mass surface density move from $10$ to $15$ kpc cylindrical galactocentric distance in $10$ Gyr simulated time span. At $10$ Gyr the simulation results imply the following. Stellar particles which have spent almost all of their life time in habitable friendly conditions reside typically at $\\sim16$ kpc from Galactic centre and are $\\sim 3$ Gyr old. Stellar particles that have spent $\\ge 90 \\%$ of their $4-5$ Gyr long life time in habitable friendly conditions, are also predominantly found in the outskirts of the Galactic disk. Less then $1 \\%$ of thes...

  14. La recherche alpine aujourd’hui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Brun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine research benefits from several international coordination networks, only one of which – ISCAR (the International Scientific Committee on Research in the Alps – works solely in the Alpine arc. The creation of ISCAR is a consequence of the input and involvement of various Alpine partners around the Alpine Convention. Alpine research now aims to promote an integrated vision of Alpine territories focusing on creating and maintaining spatial and temporal networks of sustainable relationships between humans and the other components of the ecosphere. It combines resource usage with conservation of the biological and cultural diversity that makes up the Alpine identity. This article aims to show: (1 how international Alpine research coordination is organised; (2 the role played by the Alpine Convention as a framework of reference for specifically Alpine research; and (3 the role that the ISCAR international commit-tee and the Interreg “Alpine Space” programmes play in uniting research around territorial challenges relating to biodiversity conservation and territorial development.La recherche sur les Alpes bénéficie de plusieurs réseaux de coordination internationaux dont un seul, le comité international recherche alpine (ISCAR, se consacre exclusivement à l’arc alpin. La création de l’ISCAR est une retombée de la mobilisation des divers partenaires alpins autour de la mise en place de la Convention alpine. Aujourd’hui, la recherche alpine vise à promouvoir une vision intégrée des territoires centrée sur la création et le maintien d’un réseau spatial et temporel de relations durables entre les hommes et les autres composantes de l’écosphère. Elle associe étroitement la mise en valeur des ressources et la conservation des diversités biologiques et culturelles qui constituent l’identité alpine. Cet article a pour ambition de montrer : (1 comment s’organise la coordination internationale des recherches sur les

  15. Remaining useful life estimation for deteriorating systems with time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi; Gao Zhanbao; Tang Diyin; Li Baoan

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic time-varying operational conditions pose great challenge to the estimation of system remaining useful life (RUL) for the deteriorating systems. This paper presents a method based on probabilistic and stochastic approaches to estimate system RUL for periodically moni-tored degradation processes with dynamic time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones. The method assumes that the degradation rate is influenced by specific oper-ational condition and moreover, the transition between different operational conditions plays the most important role in affecting the degradation process. These operational conditions are assumed to evolve as a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC). The failure thresholds are also determined by specific operational conditions and described as different failure zones. The 2008 PHM Conference Challenge Data is utilized to illustrate our method, which contains mass sensory signals related to the degradation process of a commercial turbofan engine. The RUL estimation method using the sensor measurements of a single sensor was first developed, and then multiple vital sensors were selected through a particular optimization procedure in order to increase the prediction accuracy. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are presented in a comparison with exist-ing methods for the same dataset.

  16. Remaining useful life estimation for deteriorating systems with time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic time-varying operational conditions pose great challenge to the estimation of system remaining useful life (RUL for the deteriorating systems. This paper presents a method based on probabilistic and stochastic approaches to estimate system RUL for periodically monitored degradation processes with dynamic time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones. The method assumes that the degradation rate is influenced by specific operational condition and moreover, the transition between different operational conditions plays the most important role in affecting the degradation process. These operational conditions are assumed to evolve as a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC. The failure thresholds are also determined by specific operational conditions and described as different failure zones. The 2008 PHM Conference Challenge Data is utilized to illustrate our method, which contains mass sensory signals related to the degradation process of a commercial turbofan engine. The RUL estimation method using the sensor measurements of a single sensor was first developed, and then multiple vital sensors were selected through a particular optimization procedure in order to increase the prediction accuracy. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are presented in a comparison with existing methods for the same dataset.

  17. Alpine Skiing in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Gimenez, Antonio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Many students settle indoors in the winter. However, this does not mean that winter should be a period of time with no physical activity. Several snow activities could be practiced during those months, such as ice-skating, ice-hockey, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, or snowboarding. In order to counteract the tendency for…

  18. Life in the Hive: Supporting Inquiry into Complexity Within the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Joshua A.; Peppler, Kylie; Phelps, David; Washington, Dianna

    2011-10-01

    Research into students' understanding of complex systems typically ignores young children because of misinterpretations of young children's competencies. Furthermore, studies that do recognize young children's competencies tend to focus on what children can do in isolation. As an alternative, we propose an approach to designing for young children that is grounded in the notion of the Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky 1978) and leverages Activity Theory to design learning environments. In order to highlight the benefits of this approach, we describe our process for using Activity Theory to inform the design of new software and curricula in a way that is productive for young children to learn concepts that we might have previously considered to be "developmentally inappropriate". As an illuminative example, we then present a discussion of the design of the BeeSign simulation software and accompanying curriculum which specifically designed from an Activity Theory perspective to engage young children in learning about complex systems (Danish 2009a, b). Furthermore, to illustrate the benefits of this approach, we will present findings from a new study where 40 first- and second-grade students participated in the BeeSign curriculum to learn about how honeybees collect nectar from a complex systems perspective. We conclude with some practical suggestions for how such an approach to using Activity Theory for research and design might be adopted by other science educators and designers.

  19. SAS-4 Protein in Trypanosoma brucei Controls Life Cycle Transitions by Modulating the Length of the Flagellum Attachment Zone Filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-12-18

    The evolutionarily conserved centriole/basal body protein SAS-4 regulates centriole duplication in metazoa and basal body duplication in flagellated and ciliated organisms. Here, we report that the SAS-4 homolog in the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, TbSAS-4, plays an unusual role in controlling life cycle transitions by regulating the length of the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) filament, a specialized cytoskeletal structure required for flagellum adhesion and cell morphogenesis. TbSAS-4 is concentrated at the distal tip of the FAZ filament, and depletion of TbSAS-4 in the trypomastigote form disrupts the elongation of the new FAZ filament, generating cells with a shorter FAZ associated with a longer unattached flagellum and repositioned kinetoplast and basal body, reminiscent of epimastigote-like morphology. Further, we show that TbSAS-4 associates with six additional FAZ tip proteins, and depletion of TbSAS-4 disrupts the enrichment of these FAZ tip proteins at the new FAZ tip, suggesting a role of TbSAS-4 in maintaining the integrity of this FAZ tip protein complex. Together, these results uncover a novel function of TbSAS-4 in regulating the length of the FAZ filament to control basal body positioning and life cycle transitions in T. brucei.

  20. `Grandeur in this view of life': N-body simulation models of the Galactic habitable zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukotić, B.; Steinhauser, D.; Martinez-Aviles, G.; Ćirković, M. M.; Micic, M.; Schindler, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present an isolated Milky-Way-like simulation in the GADGET2 N-body smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The Galactic disc star formation rate (SFR) surface densities and a stellar mass indicative of the Solar neighbourhood are used as thresholds to model the distribution of stellar mass in life-friendly environments. SFR and stellar component density are calculated by averaging the GADGET2 particle properties on a 2D grid mapped on the Galactic plane. The peak values for possibly habitable stellar mass surface density move from 10 to 15 kpc cylindrical galactocentric distance in a 10-Gyr simulated time span. At 10 Gyr, the simulation results imply the following. Stellar particles that have spent almost all of their lifetime in habitable-friendly conditions typically reside at ˜16 kpc from the Galactic Centre and are ˜3 Gyr old. Stellar particles that have spent ≥90 per cent of their 4-5 Gyr long lifetime in habitable-friendly conditions are also predominantly found in the outskirts of the Galactic disc. Fewer than 1 per cent of these particles can be found at a typical Solar system galactocentric distance of 8-10 kpc. Our results imply that the evolution of an isolated spiral galaxy is likely to result in galactic civilizations emerging at the outskirts of the galactic disc around stellar hosts younger than the Sun.

  1. Remote Life Detection Criteria, Habitable Zone Boundaries, and the Frequency of Earthlike Planets around M and Late-K Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kasting, James F; Ramirez, Ramses R; Harman, Chester

    2013-01-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. Historically, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, 'Dune' planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future spa...

  2. Soil warming increases plant species richness but decreases germination from the alpine soil seed bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Gemma L; Venn, Susanna E; Steadman, Kathryn J; Good, Roger B; McAuliffe, Edward J; Williams, Emlyn R; Nicotra, Adrienne B

    2013-05-01

    Global warming is occurring more rapidly above the treeline than at lower elevations and alpine areas are predicted to experience above average warming in the future. Temperature is a primary factor in stimulating seed germination and regulating changes in seed dormancy status. Thus, plant regeneration from seed will be crucial to the persistence, migration and post disturbance recruitment of alpine plants in future climates. Here, we present the first assessment of the impact of soil warming on germination from the persistent alpine soil seed bank. Contrary to expectations, soil warming lead to reduced overall germination from the soil seed bank. However, germination response to soil temperature was species specific such that total species richness actually increased by nine with soil warming. We further explored the system by assessing the prevalence of seed dormancy and germination response to soil disturbance, the frequency of which is predicted to increase under climate change. Seeds of a significant proportion of species demonstrated physiological dormancy mechanisms and germination of several species appeared to be intrinsically linked to soil disturbance. In addition, we found no evidence of subalpine species and little evidence of exotic weed species in the soil, suggesting that the soil seed bank will not facilitate their invasion of the alpine zone. In conclusion, changes in recruitment via the alpine soil seed bank can be expected under climate change, as a result of altered dormancy alleviation and germination cues. Furthermore, the alpine soil seed bank, and the species richness therein, has the potential to help maintain local species diversity, support species range shift and moderate species dominance. Implications for alpine management and areas for further study are also discussed.

  3. Physiological and behavioural correlates of life-history variation : a comparison between tropical and temperate zone House Wrens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, BI; Lasky, [No Value; Mauck, RA; Visser, GH; Williams, JB; Lasky, J.R.; Kozłowski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    1. We studied physiological, behavioural and demographic traits of House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) in tropical Panama and temperate zone Ohio to explore the hypothesis that tropical birds with higher adult survival rates invest less in annual reproduction than their temperate zone counterparts. 2. C

  4. A key to the adult Costa Rican “helicopter” damselflies (Odonata: Pseudostigmatidae) with notes on their phenology and life zone preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hedström, Ingemar; Sahlén, Göran

    2015-01-01

    We present a key to the Costa Rican species of Pseudostigmatidae, comprising three genera with the following species: Megaloprepus caerulatus, Mecistogaster linearis, M. modesta, M. ornata and Pseudostigma aberrans. Pseudostigma accedens, which may occur in the region, is also included. For each species we give a brief account of morphology, phenology and life zone preferences, including distributional maps based on more than 270 records. These are not all of the known specimens from the area...

  5. Changes in the Alpine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schoeneich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution de l’environnement alpin au XXIe siècle sera conditionnée par le changement climatique. Celui-ci pourrait conduire à des climats inconnus à ce jour dans les Alpes, avec comme conséquence une crise environnementale majeure et durable. Face à ces défis, les financements de recherche restent insuffisants pour la recherche appliquée aux milieux de montagne. Les financements nationaux privilégient souvent la recherche polaire au détriment des hautes altitudes, alors que les financements de type Interreg prennent insuffisamment en compte les besoins de recherche fondamentale, préalable nécessaire à l’élaboration de scénarios. Une évolution se dessine depuis deux ou trois ans vers des projets en réseau à l’échelle alpine. Le présent article fait le point sur les principaux enjeux qui attendent la recherche environnementale alpine et sur la capacité des programmes de recherche à répondre aux besoins. La première partie sur les changements climatiques est fondée sur les rapports récents : rapport de synthèse IPCC 2007 (IPCC 2007, rapport IPCC sur l’Europe (Alcamo et al. 2007, rapport de synthèse du programme ClimChAlp (Prudent-Richard et al., 2008. On y trouvera des bibliographies complètes et circonstanciées. La deuxième partie se base sur une analyse des appels d’offres récents ou en cours, et des projets soumis et financés.The way the Alpine environment will evolve in the 21st century depends upon climate change. This could lead to climates never before seen in the Alps, resulting in a major and lasting environmental crisis. In the face of these challenges, funding is still insufficient for specialised research on mountain environments. State funding often prioritises polar research at the expense of high altitude areas, whereas funding schemes from bodies such as Interreg do not sufficiently address the need for fundamental research, which is nevertheless a necessary first step prior to

  6. The fluid budget of a continental plate boundary fault: Quantification from the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Catriona D.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Niedermann, Samuel; Cox, Simon C.; Craw, Dave; Zimmer, Martin; Cooper, Matthew J.; Erzinger, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    Fluids play a key role in modifying the chemical and physical properties of fault zones, which may prime them for repeated rupture by the generation of high pore fluid pressures and precipitation of commonly weak, secondary minerals. Fluid flow paths, sources and fluxes, and the permeability evolution of fault zones throughout their seismic cycles remain poorly constrained, despite their importance to understanding fault zone behaviour. Here we use geochemical tracers of fluid-rock exchange to determine budgets for meteoric, metamorphic and mantle fluids on a major compressional tectonic plate boundary. The Alpine Fault marks the transpressional Pacific-Australian plate boundary through South Island, New Zealand and appears to fail in regular (329 ± 68 yrs) large earthquakes (Mw ∼ 8) with the most recent event in 1717 AD. Significant convergent motion has formed the Southern Alps and elevated geothermal gradients in the hangingwall, which drive crustal fluid flow. Along the Alpine Fault the Alpine Schist of the Pacific Plate is thrust over radiogenic metasedimentary rocks on the Australian plate. The absence of highly radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr > 0.7200) strontium isotope ratios of hangingwall hot springs and hydrothermal minerals formed at a range of depths in the Alpine Fault damage zone indicates that the fluid flow is restricted to the hangingwall by a cross-fault fluid flow barrier throughout the seismogenic crust. Helium isotope ratios measured in hot springs near to the Alpine Fault (0.15-0.81 RA) indicate the fault is a crustal-scale feature that acts as a conduit for fluids from the mantle. Rock-exchanged oxygen, but meteoric water-like hydrogen isotope signatures of hydrothermal veins indicate that partially rock-exchanged meteoric fluids dominate down to the top of the brittle to ductile transition zone at ∼6 km. Geochemical tracer transport modelling suggests only ∼0.02 to 0.05% of total rainfall west of the Main Divide penetrates to depth, yet this

  7. A Simple Evolutional Model of the UV Habitable Zone and the Possibility of the Persistent Life Existence: The Effects of Mass and Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Midori; Kamaya, Hideyuki

    2016-12-01

    In addition to the habitable zone (HZ), the UV habitable zone (UV-HZ) is important when considering the existence of persistent life in the universe. The UV-HZ is defined as the area where the UV radiation field from a host star is moderate for persistent life existence. This is because UV is necessary for the synthesis of biochemical compounds. The UV-HZ must overlap the HZ when life appears and evolves. In this paper, following our previous study of the HZ, we examine the UV-HZ in cases with a stellar mass range from 0.08 to 4.00 M ⊙ with various metallicities during the main sequence phase. This mass range was chosen because we are interested in an environment similar to that of Earth. The effect of metallicity is reflected in the spectrum of the host stars, and we reexamine it in the context of the UV-HZ. The present work shows the effect of metallicity when that in the UV-HZ is less than that in the HZ. Furthermore, we find that the chance of persistent life existence declines as the metallicity decreases, as long as the UV radiation is not protected and/or boosted by any mechanisms. This is because the overlapped region of a persistent HZ and UV-HZ decreases. We find that the most appropriate stellar mass for the persistence of life existence is from 1.0 to 1.5 M ⊙ with metallicity Z = 0.02, and only about 1.2 M ⊙ with Z = 0.002. When Z = 0.0002, the chance of persistent life existence is very low, assuming that the ocean does not protect the life from UV radiation.

  8. Erosion by an Alpine glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Frédéric; Beyssac, Olivier; Brughelli, Mattia; Lane, Stuart N; Leprince, Sébastien; Adatte, Thierry; Lin, Jiao Y Y; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Cox, Simon C

    2015-10-09

    Assessing the impact of glaciation on Earth's surface requires understanding glacial erosion processes. Developing erosion theories is challenging because of the complex nature of the erosion processes and the difficulty of examining the ice/bedrock interface of contemporary glaciers. We demonstrate that the glacial erosion rate is proportional to the ice-sliding velocity squared, by quantifying spatial variations in ice-sliding velocity and the erosion rate of a fast-flowing Alpine glacier. The nonlinear behavior implies a high erosion sensitivity to small variations in topographic slope and precipitation. A nonlinear rate law suggests that abrasion may dominate over other erosion processes in fast-flowing glaciers. It may also explain the wide range of observed glacial erosion rates and, in part, the impact of glaciation on mountainous landscapes during the past few million years.

  9. In Review (Geology): Alpine Landscape Evolution Dominated by Cirque Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Despite the abundance in alpine terrain of glacially dissected landscapes, the magnitude and geometry of glacial erosion can rarely be defined. In the eastern Kyrgyz Range, a widespread unconformity exhumed as a geomorphic surface provides a regional datum with which to calibrate erosion. As tectonically driven surface uplift has progressively pushed this surface into the zone of ice accumulation, glacial erosion has overprinted the landscape. With as little as 500 m of incision into rocks underlying the unconformity, distinctive glacial valleys display their deepest incision adjacent to cirque headwalls. The expansion of north-facing glacial cirques at the expense of south-facing valleys has driven the drainage divide southwards at rates up to 2 to 3 times the rate of valley incision. Existing ice-flux-based glacial erosion rules incompletely model expansion of glacial valleys via cirque retreat into the low-gradient unconformity remnants. Local processes that either directly sap cirque headwalls or inhibit erosion down-glacier appear to control, at least initially, alpine landscape evolution.

  10. Can We Model the Scenic Beauty of an Alpine Landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Tasser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, agriculture has lost its importance in many European mountain regions and tourism, which benefits from attractive landscapes, has become a major source of income. Changes in landscape patterns and elements might affect scenic beauty and therefore the socio-economic welfare of a region. Our study aimed at modeling scenic beauty by quantifying the influence of landscape elements and patterns in relationship to distance. Focusing on Alpine landscapes in South and North Tyrol, we used a photographic questionnaire showing different landscape compositions. As mountain landscapes offer long vistas, we related scenic beauty to different distance zones. Our results indicate that the near zone contributes by 64% to the valuation of scenic beauty, the middle zone by 22%, and the far zone by 14%. In contrast to artificial elements, naturalness and diversity increased scenic beauty. Significant differences between different social groups (origin, age, gender, cultural background occurred only between the local population and tourists regarding great landscape changes. Changes towards more homogenous landscapes were perceived negatively, thus political decision makers should support the conservation of the cultural landscape.

  11. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  12. Long-term macroinvertebrate response to flow abstraction at Alpine water intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbud, Chrystelle; Savioz, Amélie; Lane, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    capacity is reduced, and to determine if the above trends are accelerated, maintained or reversed, we revisited the study of Petts and Bickerton (1994) by repeating transects of interest for both the river and the tributaries during summer 2015. Based on macroinvertebrate sampling, determinations and statistics, preliminary results show that these trends have been maintained, with macroinvertebrate presence restricted to zones immediately downstream of unregulated tributaries. Despite the river having been protected as an alluvial zone of national importance since the 1990s, there is no evidence of life in the river except in isolated tributary-fed hotspots. The data suggest that restoring this kind of system will need new approaches to manage sediment, ones that environmental flows alone are unlikely to be able to address. Reference Petts GE, Bickerton MA (1994). Influence of water abstraction on the macroinvertebrate community gradient within a glacial stream system: La Borgne d'Arolla, Valais, Switzerland. Freshwater Biology, 32:375-386.

  13. Plant radiation history affects community assembly: evidence from the New Zealand alpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William G; Tanentzap, Andrew J; Heenan, Peter B

    2012-08-23

    The hypothesis that early plant radiations on islands dampen diversification and reduce habitat occupancy of later radiations via niche pre-emption has never, to our knowledge, been tested. We investigated clade-level dynamics in plant radiations in the alpine zone, New Zealand. Our aim was to determine whether radiations from older colonizations influenced diversification and community dominance of species from later colonizations within a common bioclimatic zone over the past ca 10 Myr. We used stem ages derived from the phylogenies of 17 genera represented in alpine plant communities in the Murchison Mountains, Fiordland, and assessed their presence and cover in 262 (5 × 5 m) vegetation plots. Our results show clear age-related community assembly effects, whereby congenerics from older colonizing genera co-occur more frequently and with greater cover per unit area than those from younger colonizing genera. However, we find no evidence of increased species richness with age of colonization in the alpine zone. The data support priority effects via niche pre-emption among plant radiations influencing community assembly.

  14. Alpine Groundwater - Pristine Aquifers Under Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; Lange, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier and permafrost retreat are prominent climate change indicators. However, the characteristics of climate and hydrology in mountain areas remain poorly understood relative to lowland areas. Specifically, not much is known about alpine groundwater, its recharge and water quality variations, as these remote reservoirs are rarely monitored. As global temperatures rise, glaciers and permafrost will continue to retreat forming new sediment deposits and changing infiltration conditions in high alpine terrain. Climate change impacts the hydro-chemical composition of alpine waters, accelerates weathering processes, and potentially triggers mobilization of pollutants. Accordingly, we monitored groundwater quantity and quality parameters of an alpine porous aquifer near the Tiefenbach glacier in the Gotthard Massif in Switzerland. The goal of this research was to assess quality and seasonal storage dynamics of groundwater above the timberline (2000 m). To translate hydrological science into an ecosystem service context, we focused on four attributes: Water quantity: observations of groundwater level fluctuations combined with analysis of contributing water sources based on stable isotope analysis to give a quantitative understanding of origin and amount of water, Water quality: groundwater level, groundwater temperature and electrical conductivity were used as proxies for sampling of hydro-chemical parameters with automated water samplers during primary groundwater recharge periods (snowmelt and rainfall events), Location: Alpine terrain above the timberline, especially recharge into/out of an alpine porous aquifer at a pro-glacial floodplain and Date of annual melt (albedo effect) and timing of flow (snow- and icemelt from May to September) and groundwater recharge during the growing season. The study found that the summer groundwater temperatures depend on the date of annual melt and are more sensitive to climate forcing than lowland groundwater temperatures

  15. Microbial biodiversity in Alpine Permo-Triassic rock salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radax, C.; Wieland, H.; Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Leuko, S.; Rittmann, S.; Weidler, G.; Gruber, C.; Stan-Lotter, H.

    2003-04-01

    Alpine Permo-Triassic rock salt (age 200-250 million years) was shown several times to contain living extremely halophilic Archaea. These organisms might stem from ancient populations that became entrapped and persisted in the rock salt since then. For this reason, rock salt is considered a promising model system for the search for bacterial extraterrestrial life. In our studies on biodiversity in Alpine rock salt, we employed both culture-dependent and culture-independent, PCR-based methods. The latter approach indicated the presence of at least 12 distinct sequence types (phylotypes) in our samples, all of which belonged to the extremely halophilic Archaea. None of the recovered sequences was identical to sequences from databases, suggesting the avoidance of contaminants during experimental procedures. Two phylotypes could be assigned to taxonomically described members of this family; the remaining ten phylotypes appeared only remotely related to known genera of the extremely halophilic Archaea. In contrast, attempts to isolate organisms from the same sample on 15 different growth media so far yielded only two groups of isolates that could be differentiated based on their 16S rRNA genes. One group was very similar to Halococcus strains that we frequently isolated from Alpine rock salt; the other group was closely correlated to one of our novel phylotypes. Analyses of whole cell protein patterns allowed to further differentiate the latter group into two different subgroups that could not be distinguished at the molecular level. These results show that both culture-dependent and culture-independent strategies have to be applied in order to obtain a more complete view of microbial biodiversity in Permo-Triassic rock salt: culture-independent methods yield information on the gross microbial diversity in rock salt, whereas subtle differences can currently only be registered between cultivated strains.

  16. Alien Roadside Species More Easily Invade Alpine than Lowland Plant Communities in a Subarctic Mountain Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembrechts, Jonas J.; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment. PMID:24586947

  17. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  18. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the valley, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling in POVA should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter.

    Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain.

    This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.

    The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing.

    Using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale.

    Validation of campaign days allows to study chemistry indicators in the valley. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  19. Alpine Ecosystems of Northwest Yunnan, China: an Initial Assessment for Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Implementing conservation actions on-the-ground is not a straightforward process,especially when faced with high scientific uncertainty due to limited available information. This is especially acute in regions of the world that harbor many unique species that have not been well studied, such as the alpine zone of the Hengduan Mountains of Northwest Yunnan (NWY), a global biodiversity hotspot and site of The Nature Conservancy's Yunnan Great Rivers Project. We conducted a quantitative, but rapid regional-level assessment of the alpine flora across NWY to provide a broad-based understanding of local and regional patterns of the alpine flora, the first large-scale analysis of alpine biodiversity patterns in this region. Multivariate analyses were used to classify the major plant community types and link community patterns to habitat variables. Our analysis indicated that most species had small distributions and/or small population sizes. Strong patterns emerged with higher diversity in the more northern mountains, but beta diversity was high, averaging only 10% among sites. The ordinations indicated that elevation and geographic location were the dominant environmental gradients underlying the differences in the species composition among communities. The high beta diversity across the alpine of these mountains implies that conservation strategies ultimately will require the protection of large numbers of species over a large geographical area. However, prioritization should be given to areas where potential payoffs are greatest. Sites with high species richness also have a greater number of endemic species, and, by focusing efforts on these sites, conservation investments would be maximized by protecting the greatest number of unique species.

  20. Evaluating the Contributions of Atmospheric Deposition of Carbon and Other Nutrients to Nitrification in Alpine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, K. M.; Mladenov, N.; Williams, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range of the Rocky Mountains contains undeveloped, barren soils, yet in this environment there is strong evidence for a microbial role in increased nitrogen (N) export. Barren soils in alpine environments are severely carbon-limited, which is the main energy source for microbial activity and sustenance of life. It has been shown that atmospheric deposition can contain high amounts of organic carbon (C). Atmospheric pollutants, dust events, and biological aerosols, such as bacteria, may be important contributors to the atmospheric organic C load. In this stage of the research we evaluated seasonal trends in the chemical composition and optical spectroscopic (fluorescence and UV-vis absorbance) signatures of snow, wet deposition, and dry deposition in an alpine environment at Niwot Ridge in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to obtain a better understanding of the sources and chemical character of atmospheric deposition. Our results reveal a positive trend between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and calcium, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in wet and dry deposition, which may be derived from such sources as dust and urban air pollution. We also observed the presence of seasonally-variable fluorescent components that may be attributed to fluorescent pigments in bacteria. These results are relevant because atmospheric inputs of carbon and other nutrients may influence nitrification in barren, alpine soils and, ultimately, the export of nitrate to alpine watersheds.

  1. Glacial refugia, recolonization patterns and diversification forces in Alpine-endemic Megabunus harvestmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Gregor A; Papadopoulou, Anna; Muster, Christoph; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Knowles, L Lacey; Steiner, Florian M; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C

    2016-06-01

    The Pleistocene climatic fluctuations had a huge impact on all life forms, and various hypotheses regarding the survival of organisms during glacial periods have been postulated. In the European Alps, evidence has been found in support of refugia outside the ice shield (massifs de refuge) acting as sources for postglacial recolonization of inner-Alpine areas. In contrast, evidence for survival on nunataks, ice-free areas above the glacier, remains scarce. Here, we combine multivariate genetic analyses with ecological niche models (ENMs) through multiple timescales to elucidate the history of Alpine Megabunus harvestmen throughout the ice ages, a genus that comprises eight high-altitude endemics. ENMs suggest two types of refugia throughout the last glacial maximum, inner-Alpine survival on nunataks for four species and peripheral refugia for further four species. In some geographic regions, the patterns of genetic variation are consistent with long-distance dispersal out of massifs de refuge, repeatedly coupled with geographic parthenogenesis. In other regions, long-term persistence in nunataks may dominate the patterns of genetic divergence. Overall, our results suggest that glacial cycles contributed to allopatric diversification in Alpine Megabunus, both within and at the margins of the ice shield. These findings exemplify the power of ENM projections coupled with genetic analyses to identify hypotheses about the position and the number of glacial refugia and thus to evaluate the role of Pleistocene glaciations in driving species-specific responses of recolonization or persistence that may have contributed to observed patterns of biodiversity.

  2. Monitoring Alpine Transportation Infrastructures Using Space Techniues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Wegmuller, Urs; Brandstaetter, Michael; Kuhtreiber, Norbert

    2013-12-01

    Integration of satellite SAR interferometry, terrestrial radar interferometry and GPS is considered for the monitoring of ground motion along Alpine transportation infrastructures. We present results related to large-scale surveys in Switzerland along the Gotthard railway with satellite SAR interferometry and to a local monitoring of an active rockfall above the Pyhrn motorway in Austria using terrestrial radar interferometry and GPS.

  3. Climate regulation, energy provisioning and water purification: Quantifying ecosystem service delivery of bioenergy willow grown on riparian buffer zones using life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, David; Börjesson, Pål; D'Hertefeldt, Tina; Birkhofer, Klaus; Dauber, Jens; Adams, Paul; Patil, Sopan; Pagella, Tim; Pettersson, Lars B; Peck, Philip; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Rosenqvist, Håkan

    2016-12-01

    Whilst life cycle assessment (LCA) boundaries are expanded to account for negative indirect consequences of bioenergy such as indirect land use change (ILUC), ecosystem services such as water purification sometimes delivered by perennial bioenergy crops are typically neglected in LCA studies. Consequential LCA was applied to evaluate the significance of nutrient interception and retention on the environmental balance of unfertilised energy willow planted on 50-m riparian buffer strips and drainage filtration zones in the Skåne region of Sweden. Excluding possible ILUC effects and considering oil heat substitution, strategically planted filter willow can achieve net global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP) savings of up to 11.9 Mg CO2e and 47 kg PO4e ha(-1) year(-1), respectively, compared with a GWP saving of 14.8 Mg CO2e ha(-1) year(-1) and an EP increase of 7 kg PO4e ha(-1) year(-1) for fertilised willow. Planting willow on appropriate buffer and filter zones throughout Skåne could avoid 626 Mg year(-1) PO4e nutrient loading to waters.

  4. The Use of a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Technology for Monitoring Land Use and Soil Carbon Change in the Subtropical Dry Forest Life Zone of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Rodriguez, Linda L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Aerial photography, one of the first form of remote sensing technology, has long been an invaluable means to monitor activities and conditions at the Earth's surface. Geographic Information Systems or GIS is the use of computers in showing and manipulating spatial data. This report will present the use of geographic information systems and remote sensing technology for monitoring land use and soil carbon change in the subtropical dry forest life zone of Puerto Rico. This research included the south of Puerto Rico that belongs to the subtropical dry forest life zone. The Guanica Commonwealth Forest Biosphere Reserve and the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve are studied in detail, because of their location in the subtropical dry forest life zone. Aerial photography, digital multispectral imagery, soil samples, soil survey maps, field inspections, and differential global positioning system (DGPS) observations were used.

  5. Environmental controls on the thermal structure of alpine glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water entrapped in glacier accumulation zones represents a significant latent heat contribution to the development of thermal structure. It also provides a direct link between glacier environments and thermal regimes. We apply a two-dimensional mechanically-coupled model of heat flow to synthetic glacier geometries in order to explore the environmental controls on flowband thermal structure. We use this model to test the sensitivity of thermal structure to physical and environmental variables and to explore glacier response to potential environmental changes. In different conditions consistent with a warming climate, mean glacier temperature and the volume of temperate ice may either increase or decrease, depending on the competing effects of elevated meltwater production, reduced accumulation zone extent, and thinning firn. For two model reference states that exhibit commonly-observed thermal structures, the volume of temperate ice is shown to decline with warming air temperatures. Mass balance sensitivity plays an important role in determining how the englacial thermal regimes of alpine glaciers will adjust in the future.

  6. Environmental controls on the thermal structure of alpine glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water entrapped in glacier accumulation zones represents a significant latent heat contribution to the development of thermal structure. It also provides a direct link between glacier environments and thermal regimes. We apply a two-dimensional mechanically-coupled model of heat flow to synthetic glacier geometries in order to explore the environmental controls on flowband thermal structure. We use this model to test the sensitivity of thermal structure to physical and environmental variables and to explore glacier thermal response to environmental changes. In different conditions consistent with a warming climate, mean glacier temperature and the volume of temperate ice may either increase or decrease, depending on the competing effects of elevated meltwater production, reduced accumulation zone extent and thinning firn. For two model reference states that exhibit commonly-observed thermal structures, the fraction of temperate ice is shown to decline with warming air temperatures. Mass balance and aquifer sensitivities play an important role in determining how the englacial thermal regimes of alpine glaciers will adjust in the future.

  7. PTSD and trauma in Austria's elderly: influence of wartime experiences, postwar zone of occupation, and life time traumatization on today's mental health status—an interdisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias M. Glück

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: While in recent years epidemiological studies on World War (WW II-related traumatization and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in elderly persons have been conducted for various European countries, for Austria, these numbers are unknown. Objective: The focus of this epidemiologic study was to picture the current mental health status and prevalence of PTSD and lifetime traumatic events in Austria's elderly with respect to WWII and subsequent occupation. Method: In an interdisciplinary approach of psychologists and historians, 316 elderly Austrians (born before 1946 were interviewed for symptoms of PTSD and lifetime traumatization (Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, current mental health (Brief Symptom Inventory, wartime-related trauma, and traumatic experiences with occupational forces. These factors were also compared regarding the zone of occupation (Allied vs. Soviet. Data were collected between March and September 2010. Results: 97.5% of the sample reported at least one lifetime trauma. War-related traumata were reported by 92.7% and non-war-related traumata by 82.3%; 40.2% experienced traumatic events with occupational forces. PTSD was present in 1.9% of the sample and up to 13.9% taking subthreshold PTSD into account. Both, the presence of symptoms indicative of PTSD and subthreshold PTSD implied weaker current mental health (regarding General Distress: odds ratios up to 25.51; 95% CI = 9.82 to 66.27. Independent of PTSD diagnosis persons from the Soviet occupied zone showed higher levels of Interpersonal Sensitivity, Global Distress, and Phobic Anxiety. Prevalence of PTSD was independent of gender. Conclusions: Our results corroborate findings from other European countries that PTSD is a common disorder in the elderly due to WWII experience and that PTSD and trauma affect mental health even across long periods of time. Postwar distressing conditions also pose a further risk

  8. Speciation in arctic and alpine diploid plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, A Lovisa S

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to study patterns and processes of plant speciation in arctic and alpine diploid plants. Cryptic species are here referred to as morphologically similar individuals belonging to the same taxonomic species but that are unable to produce fertile offspring (i.e. 'sibling' species). The arctic flora is considered as one of the most species-poor floras of the world, and the latitudinal gradient with decreasing diversity from low to high latitudes is likely...

  9. Nitrogen transformation in alpine soils of the Northern Caucasus: effect of nitrogen source and low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Mikhail; Ermak, Anton; Malysheva, Tatiana; Mulyukova, Olga

    2010-05-01

    The alpine landscape supports a variety of plant communities whose distribution corresponds to their topographic position. Topography controls snow accumulation and hence soil winter temperature, length of growing season and soil water availability. The research was conducted at the Teberda Biosphere Reserve (Northern Caucasus, Russia). The study sites were located at Mt. Malaya Khatipara (43°27'N, 41°42'E) between 2700 and 2750 m a.s.l. The investigated toposequence was representative of the soil and plant community associations in the alpine zone of the Teberda Reserve: the wind-exposed ridges and upper slopes are covered by low-productive alpine lichen heaths; intermediate topographic positions are occupied by the most productive grasslands and meadows; the slope bottom is occupied by low-productive snowbed community. Under intensive snow cover accumulation typical for many alpine ecosystems, the temperature of soil within winter makes nearby 0 °C, while in case of absence or thin snow cover, characteristic for a lichen heath, the temperature can fall to -10 °C. The influence of nitrogen source, low temperatures and soil drying on processes of nitrogen mineralization, nitrification and plant/microbial immobilization was studied in the field and laboratory incubation experiments. 15N labeled ammonium, nitrate, glycine and aspartic acid were injected in situ before growth of aboveground biomass into the soil of lichen heath to investigate how the different nitrogen sources was subsequently utilized and cycled in the ecosystem. We analyzed the distribution of 15N between plants, soil microorganisms and different soil nitrogen compounds during all growing season in order to reveal differences for separate nitrogen sources. We concluded that the soil microorganisms were more efficient than plants in nitrogen uptake (especially amino acids) under natural conditions. In the laboratory, fresh and dry-rewetted soils of different alpine ecosystems were incubated at

  10. Climate change and probabilistic scenario of streamflow extremes in an alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Zhongbo; Krysanova, Valentina; Chen, Xi; Schwartz, Franklin W.; Sudicky, Edward A.

    2014-07-01

    Future projections of streamflow extremes are of paramount significance in assessing the climate impacts on social and natural systems, particularly for the Himalayan alpine region in the Tibetan Plateau known as the Asian water tower. This study strives to quantify the uncertainties from different sources in simulating future extreme flows and seeks to construct reliable scenarios of future extreme flows for the headwater catchment of the Yellow River Basin in the 21st century. The results can be formulated as follows: (1) The revised snow model based on a daily active temperature method is superior to the commonly used degree-day method in simulating snowmelt processes. (2) In general, hydrological models contribute more uncertainties than the downscaling methods in high flow and low flow over the cryospheric alpine regions characterized by the snow-rainfall-induced runoff processes under most scenarios. Meanwhile, impacts to uncertainty vary with time. (3) The ultimate probability of high flow exhibits a downward trend in future by using an unconditional method, whereas positive changes in the probability of low flow are projected. The method in the work includes a variety of influence from different contributing factors (e.g., downscaling models, hydrological models, model parameters, and their simulation skills) on streamflow projection, therefore can offer more information (i.e., different percentiles of flow and uncertainty ranges) for future water resource planning compared with the purely deterministic approaches. Hence, the results are beneficial to boost our current methodologies of climate impact research in the Himalayan alpine zone.

  11. Climate change and probabilistic scenario of streamflow extremes in a cryospheric alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Gao, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Future projections of streamflow extremes are of paramount significance in assessing the climate impacts on social and natural systems, particularly for the Himalayan alpine region in the Tibetan Plateau known as the Asian Water Tower. This study strives to quantify the uncertainties from different sources in simulating future extreme flows and seeks to construct reliable scenarios of future extreme flows for the headwater catchment of the Yellow River Basin in the 21st century. The results can be formulated as follows: (1) The revised snow model based on a daily active temperature method is superior to the commonly used degree-day method in simulating snowmelt processes. (2) In general, hydrological models contribute more uncertainties than the downscaling methods in high flow and low flow over the cryospheric alpine regions characterized by the snow-rainfall induced runoff processes under most scenarios. Meanwhile, impacts to uncertainty vary with time. (3) The ultimate probability of high-flow exhibits a downward trend in future by using an unconditional method, whereas positive changes in probability of low-flow are projected. The method in the work includes a variety of influence from different contributing factors (e.g. downscaling models, hydrological models, model parameters, and their simulation skills) on streamflow projection, therefore can offer more information (i.e. different percentiles of flow and uncertainty ranges) for future water resources planning compared with the purely deterministic approaches. Hence, the results are beneficial to boost our current methodologies of climate impact research in the Himalayan alpine zone.

  12. ALPINE VEGETATION ECOTONE DYNAMICS IN GANGOTRI CATCHMENT USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the satellite imagery reveals two different perspectives of the vegetation ecotone dynamics in Gangotri catchment. On one hand, there is evidence of upward shift in the alpine tree and vegetation ecotone over three decades. On the other hand, there has been densification happening at the past treeline. The time series fAPAR data of two decades from NOAA-AVHRR confirms the greening trend in the area. The density of trees in Chirbasa has gone up whereas in Bhojbasa there is no significant change in NDVI but the number of groves has increased. Near Gaumukh the vegetal activity has not shown any significant change. We found that the treeline extracted from satellite imagery has moved up about 327±80m and other vegetation line has moved up about 401±77m in three decades. The vertical rate of treeline shift is found to be 11m/yr with reference to 1976 treeline; however, this can be 5m/yr if past toposheet records (1924 – 45 are considered as reliable reference. However, the future IPCC scenario based bioclimatic fundamental niche modelling of the Betula utilis (a surrogate to alpine treeline suggests that treeline could be moving upward with an average rate of 3m/yr. This study not only confirms that there is an upward shift of vegetation in the alpine zone of Himalayas, but also indicate that old vegetation ecotones have grown denser

  13. Coherent features of the Alpine mantle slabs imaged by recent seismic tomography studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckl, E.; Brueckl, J.; Keller, G. R.; Dando, B.

    2012-04-01

    The bifurcation of the East Alpine mountain range into branches extending northeastward to the Carpathians and southeastward to the Dinarides represents a triple junction between the European platform (EU), the Adriatic micro-plate (AD), and the Pannonian fragment (PA). During the last decade, controlled source and passive source seismic data have provided a variety of detailed images of the lithosphere and upper mantle in this area. However, the geodynamic interpretation of lithospheric slabs under the Alpine - Adriatic collision zone is still under debate. So far, arguments have been based mainly on images provided by individual seismic tomography studies. In order to enhance robust features of the upper mantle structure, we have averaged four tomographic models, weighted according to their coverage by seismic stations and boundaries of high resolution. We achieved an image of the Alpine slab of unprecedented clarity. It extends coherently from the border between the Western Alps and the Apennines to the EU-AD-PA triple junction, dipping southeastward in the west and nearly vertically in the east. The whole slab can be connected to European mantle lithosphere and a flip of subduction polarity must not be induced. The geometry of the slab infers also additional constraints on the development of the triple junction during the post-collision phase of the Eastern Alps.

  14. Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to temperature change, Sayan Mountains, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.; Jon, R.; Im, S.

    2007-12-01

    Models of climate change predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation change on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these changes occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive temperature (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer temperatures and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for temperature increase.

  15. Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to temperature change,Sayan Mountains, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, K Jon; Kharuk, Vyetcheslav I.

    2007-01-01

    Models of climate change predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation change on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these changes occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive temperature (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer temperatures and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for temperature increase.

  16. Stability of alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huakun; ZHOU Li; ZHAO Xinquan; LIU Wei; LI Yingnian; GU Song; ZHOU Xinmin

    2006-01-01

    The meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is considered to be sensitive to climate change. An understanding of the alpine meadow ecosystem is therefore important for predicting the response of ecosystems to climate change. In this study, we use the coefficients of variation (Cv) and stability (E) obtained from the Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station to characterize the ecosystem stability. The results suggest that the net primary production of the alpine meadow ecosystem was more stable (Cv = 13.18%) than annual precipitation (Cv = 16.55%) and annual mean air temperature (Cv = 28.82%). The net primary production was insensitive to either the precipitation (E = 0.0782) or air temperature (E = 0.1113). In summary, the alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau is much stable. Comparison of alpine meadow ecosystem stability with other five natural grassland ecosystems in Israel and southern African indicates that the alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the most stable ecosystem. The alpine meadow ecosystem with relatively simple structure has high stability, which indicates that community stability is not only correlated with biodiversity and community complicity but also with environmental stability. An average oscillation cycles of 3―4 years existed in annual precipitation, annual mean air temperature, net primary production and the population size of consumers at the Haibei natural ecosystem. The high stability of the alpine meadow ecosystem may be resulting also from the adaptation of the ecosystem to the alpine environment.

  17. Metamorphism, argon depletion, heat flow and stress on the Alpine fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, C. H.; Beavan, J.; Hanks, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Alpine fault of New Zealand is a major continental transform fault which was uplifted on its southeast side 4 to 11 km within the last 5 m.y. This uplift has exposed the Haast schists, which were metamorphosed from the adjacent Torlesse graywackes. The Haast schists increase in metamorphic grade from prehnite-pumpellyite facies 9-12 km from the fault through the chlorite and biotite zones of the greenschist facies to the garnet-oligoclase zone amphibolite facies within 4 km of the fault. These metamorphic zone boundaries are subparallel to the fault for 350 km along the strike. The K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages of the schists increase with distance from the fault: from 4 m.y. within 3 km of the fault to approximately 110 m.y. 20 km from the fault. Field relations show that the source of heat that produced the argon depletion aureole was the fault itself.

  18. Soil Fauna Affects Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen in Foliar Litter in Alpine Forest and Alpine Meadow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Liao

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN are generally considered important active biogeochemical pools of total carbon and nitrogen. Many studies have documented the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition, but the effects of the soil fauna on labile substances (i.e., DOC and TDN in litter during early decomposition are not completely clear. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was carried out from 13th November 2013 to 23rd October 2014 in an alpine forest and an alpine meadow located on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Litterbags with different mesh sizes were used to provide access to or prohibit the access of the soil fauna, and the concentrations of DOC and TDN in the foliar litter were measured during the winter (the onset of freezing, deep freezing and thawing stage and the growing season (early and late. After one year of field incubation, the concentration of DOC in the litter significantly decreased, whereas the TDN concentration in the litter increased. Similar dynamic patterns were detected under the effects of the soil fauna on both DOC and TDN in the litter between the alpine forest and the alpine meadow. The soil fauna showed greater positive effects on decreasing DOC concentration in the litter in the winter than in the growing season. In contrast, the dynamics of TND in the litter were related to seasonal changes in environmental factors, rather than the soil fauna. In addition, the soil fauna promoted a decrease in litter DOC/TDN ratio in both the alpine forest and the alpine meadow throughout the first year of decomposition, except for in the late growing season. These results suggest that the soil fauna can promote decreases in DOC and TDN concentrations in litter, contributing to early litter decomposition in these cold biomes.

  19. The Moving Tendency of Holdridge Life Zone with Its Dry and Wet Climate Changes of Gannan Meadow in Recent 40 Years%近40年甘南草原生命地带偏移趋势及干湿变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建兵

    2012-01-01

    . Most of the meadows in Gannan Plateau are distributed in Hezuo, Xiahe, Luqu and Maqu, so 4 places are selected as representative area to study the moving tendency of Holdridge life zone and dry and wet climate changes of Gannan meadow. Based on the meteorological data, the method of Holdridge life zone is used to analyze the moving tendency of Holdridge life zone and the dry and wet climate changes of Gannan meadow during 1971-2010. The results show that life zone of Gannan meadow still belongs to the subal-pine meadow of Tibet Plateau alpine vegetation system. But impacted by the global climate change, the temperature of Gannan meadow increases obviously with the tendency ratio of 0. 44-0. 46℃every decade, meanwhile the bio-temperature has increased by 0. 23-0. 27℃ every decade, too. The variety of precipitation shows a different trend between the northern and southern in Gannan meadow, the moving tendency of Holdridge life zone is diverging from the mean center, and the stability of the Gannan meadow ecosystem is attenuating. The Holdridge REp of Gannan meadow shows an obvious ascending tendency in the rate of 0. 02-0. 03 per decade. After the 1990s, the climate of Gannan meadow shows a warm-drying trend, which is more obvious in the southern of Gannan meadow. The humidity degree of Luqu has changed to humid from the perhumid, and Maqu is in the same transition, too. The most important climatic factor for the Holdridge -REP increasing is the temperature, and then is the precipitation and the air humidity. The temperature rising plays a very important role in the warm-drying trend of Gannan meadow. Considering the complexity of the environment and the fragility of the ecology system in the border area of Tibet Plateau, the impact of this change on ecology and environment of Gannan meadow still needs further study.

  20. Life histories, salinity zones, and sublethal contributions of contaminants to pelagic fish declines illustrated with a case study of San Francisco Estuary, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Marjorie L.; Fleishman, Erica; Brown, Larry R.; Lehman, Peggy W.; Werner, Inge; Scholz, Nathaniel; Michelmore, Carys; Loworn, James R.; Johnson, Michael L.; Schlenk, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Human effects on estuaries are often associated with major decreases in abundance of aquatic species. However, remediation priorities are difficult to identify when declines result from multiple stressors with interacting sublethal effects. The San Francisco Estuary offers a useful case study of the potential role of contaminants in declines of organisms because the waters of its delta chronically violate legal water quality standards; however, direct effects of contaminants on fish species are rarely observed. Lack of direct lethality in the field has prevented consensus that contaminants may be one of the major drivers of coincident but unexplained declines of fishes with differing life histories and habitats (anadromous, brackish, and freshwater). Our review of available evidence indicates that examining the effects of contaminants and other stressors on specific life stages in different seasons and salinity zones of the estuary is critical to identifying how several interacting stressors could contribute to a general syndrome of declines. Moreover, warming water temperatures of the magnitude projected by climate models increase metabolic rates of ectotherms, and can hasten elimination of some contaminants. However, for other pollutants, concurrent increases in respiratory rate or food intake result in higher doses per unit time without changes in the contaminant concentrations in the water. Food limitation and energetic costs of osmoregulating under altered salinities further limit the amount of energy available to fish; this energy must be redirected from growth and reproduction toward pollutant avoidance, enzymatic detoxification, or elimination. Because all of these processes require energy, bioenergetics methods are promising for evaluating effects of sublethal contaminants in the presence of other stressors, and for informing remediation. Predictive models that evaluate the direct and indirect effects of contaminants will be possible when data become

  1. Biodiversity of Klebsormidium (streptophyta) from alpine biological soil crusts (alps, tyrol, Austria, and Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Glaser, Karin; Holzinger, Andreas; Karsten, Ulf

    2015-08-01

    Forty Klebsormidium strains isolated from soil crusts of mountain regions (Alps, 600–3,000 m elevation) were analyzed. The molecular phylogeny (internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences) showed that these strains belong to clades B/C, D, E, and F. Seven main (K. flaccidum, K. elegans, K. crenulatum, K. dissectum, K. nitens, K. subtile, and K. fluitans) and four transitional morphotypes (K. cf. flaccidum, K. cf. nitens, K. cf. subtile, and K. cf. fluitans) were identified. Most strains belong to clade E, which includes isolates that prefer humid conditions. One representative of the xerophytic lineage (clade F) as well as few isolates characteristic of temperate conditions (clades B/C, D) were found. Most strains of clade E were isolated from low/middle elevations (<1,800 m above sea level; a.s.l.) in the pine-forest zone. Strains of clades B/C, D, and F occurred sporadically at higher elevations (1,548–2,843 m a.s.l.), mostly under xerophytic conditions of alpine meadows. Comparison of the alpine Klebsormidium assemblage with data from other biogeographic regions indicated similarity with soil crusts/biofilms from terrestrial habitats in mixed forest in Western Europe, North America, and Asia, as well as walls of buildings in Western European cities. The alpine assemblage differed substantially from crusts from granite outcrops and sand dunes in Eastern Europe (Ukraine), and fundamentally from soil crusts in South African drylands. Epitypification of the known species K. flaccidum, K. crenulatum, K. subtile, K. nitens, K. dissectum, K. fluitans, K. mucosum, and K. elegans is proposed to establish taxonomic names and type material as an aid for practical studies on these algae, as well as for unambiguous identification of alpine strains. New combination Klebsormidium subtile (Kützing) Mikhailyuk, Glaser, Holzinger et Karsten comb. nov. is made.

  2. [Ecological distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alpine grasslands of Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-bu; Peng, Yue-lin; Gai, Jing-ping

    2010-10-01

    Seventy soil samples with the roots of 37 dominant or common plant species on the grasslands in south and north Tibet Plateau were collected to study the ecological distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the investigation area. A total of 35 AM fungi species belonging to 5 genera were isolated, among which, 18 species belonged to Glomus, 9 species belonged to Acaulospora, 6 species belonged to Scutellospora, 1 species belonged to Entrophospora, and 1 species belonged to Paraglomus. There were 23 AM fungi species belonging to 4 genera isolated from south Tibet, and 22 species belonging to 4 genera from north Tibet. The Shannon diversity index of AM fungi in south and north Tibet Plateau was 2.31 and 2.75, respectively, and the spore density and species richness were significantly higher in north Tibet than in south Tibet. In different ecological zones, lesser AM fungi common species were found, species distribution was more site-specific, and different dominant species were observed. In alpine grassland, mountain meadow, and alpine meadow, the Shannon index of AM fungi was 1.91, 1.83, and 1.80, respectively; while in severely degraded temperate grassland, this index was only 1.64. The highest species richness of AM fungi occurred at the altitude of 4000-4600 m, but the highest Shannon index and species evenness occurred at the altitude of 4600-5220 m, with the values being 2.42 and 0.79, respectively. At all altitudes, Glomus was the dominant genus, and its relative abundance was higher when the altitude was below 4000 m. Acaulospora was mainly observed at the altitudes higher than 4000 m, Scutellospora was mainly distributed at the altitude 3500-5220 m, Paraglomus mainly occurred in the north alpine meadow with an altitude of 4000-5220 m and occasionally in the alpine steppe, whereas Entrophospora was only found in the south temperate grassland with an altitude of 3500-3700 m.

  3. Effect of Snow-cover Duration on Plant Species Diversity of Alpine Meadows on the Eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Although snow cover plays an important role in structuring plant diversity in the alpine zone, there are few studies on the relationship between snow cover and species diversity of alpine meadows on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To assess the effect of snow cover on plant species diversity of alpine meadows, we used ten parallel transects of 60 m × 1 m for this study and described the changes in species diversity and composition associated with snow depth. With the division of snow depth into six classes, the highest species richness (S) and species diversity (H') occurred with an intermediate snow depth, i.e., class Ⅲ and class Ⅳ, showing a unimodal curve with the increase in snow depth. The relationship between snow depth and plant diversity (both richness and Shannon index) could be depicted by quadratic equations. There was no evident relationship between diversity (both S and H') and soil water content, which implied that other more important factors influenced species diversity. The patterns of diversity found in our study were largely attributed to freeze-thaw alteration, length of growing season and disturbances of livestock grazing. Furthermore, snow depth affected species composition, as evaluated by the Sorensen's index of similarity. In addition, almost all species limited to one snow depth class were found only in class Ⅲ and class Ⅳ, indicating that intermediate snow depth was suitable for the survival and growth of many alpine species.

  4. Characterizing streamflow generation in Alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Cano Paoli, Karina; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Developing effective hydrological models for streamflow generation in Alpine catchments is challenging due to the inherent complexity of the intertwined processes controlling water transfer from hillslopes to streams and along the river network. With water discharge as the sole observational variable it is impossible to differentiate between different streamflow sources, and modelling activity is often limited to simplified phenomenological rainfall-runoff models. This study focuses on quantifying streamflow sources at different temporal scales and the associated uncertainty by using natural tracer data (electrical conductivity, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes ratios) as observational variables supplementing streamflow measurements. We determine the spatial and temporal hydrological behavior and the mean residence time of water in the Vermigliana catchment, North-Eastern Italy and we separate contributions to streamflow originating from Presena and Presanella glaciers, both exerting a strong control on the hydrologic budget of the study site. Furthermore, we identify a seasonal control on the effect of storm events. The catchment responded rapidly to precipitation events in early autumn, it was unaffected by precipitation events in early spring, while runoff generation was enhanced by snow melting in late autumn. Air temperature is identified as the main controlling parameter, in addition to precipitation. Two-component mixing analysis showed that the relative contribution of new water, which can contribute up to 75% of total streamflow, is very rapid. Only two hours time-lag was observed between the beginning of the precipitation event and the emergence of a significant contribution of new water. These results evidence the relevance of mixing between pre-event and event water in the Vermigliana catchment, and in similar high elevation Alpine catchments. This study provides new insights on the dynamics of streamflow generation in Alpine catchments and a

  5. 3D cartography of the Alpine Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, N.; Sue, C.; Champagnac, J. D.; Calcagno, P.

    2012-04-01

    We present a 3D cartography of the alpine arc, a highly non-cylindrical mountain belt, built using the 3D GeoModeller of the BRGM (French geological survey). The model allows to handle the large-scale 3D structure of seventeen major crustal units of the belt (from the lower crust to the sedimentary cover nappes), and two main discontinuities (the Insubric line and the Crustal Penninic Front). It provides a unique document to better understand their structural relationships and to produce new sections. The study area comprises the western alpine arc, from the Jura to the Northwest, up to the Bergell granite intrusion and the Lepontine Dome to the East, and is limited to the South by the Ligurian basin. The model is limited vertically 10 km above sea level at the top, and the moho interface at the bottom. We discarded the structural relationships between the Alps sensus stricto and the surrounding geodynamic systems such as the Rhine graben or the connection with the Apennines. The 3D-model is based on the global integration of various data such as the DEM of the Alps, the moho isobaths, the simplified geological and tectonic maps of the belt, the crustal cross-sections ECORS-CROP and NFP-20, and complementary cross-sections specifically built to precise local complexities. The database has first been integrated in a GIS-project to prepare their implementation in the GeoModeller, by homogenizing the different spatial referencing systems. The global model is finally interpolated from all these data, using the potential field method. The final document is a new tri-dimentional cartography that would be used as input for further alpine studies.

  6. The Balearic Islands in the Alpine Orogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrouilh, R.

    2016-10-01

    The place of the Balearic Islands in the Alpine orogeny is examined using detailed sedimentology studies, stratigraphical studies from the Lower Devonian (Lochkovian) to modern times and a careful tectonic review of sedimentary formations from the Western Mediterranean. Despite being considered as the ultimate end of the north-eastern termination of the Betic Cordillera, the history of the Balearic archipelago seems to be closer to the tectonic opening of the Gulf of Valencia and to the Corsica-Sardinia rotation, and thus to the tectonic history of the Western Mediterranean Sea, than to the tectonics of the Betic Cordillera which appear as its symmetrical image with respect to this opening. (Author)

  7. Structural and metamorphic evolution of serpentinites and rodingites recycled in the Alpine subduction wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, D.; Rebay, G.; Spalla, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    Hydration-dehydration of mantle rocks affects the viscosity of the mantle wedge and plays a prominent role in subduction zone tectonics, facilitating marble cake-type instead of large-slice dynamics. An accurate structural and petrologic investigation of serpentinites from orogenic belts, supported by their long-lived structural memory, can help to recognize pressure-sensitive mineral assemblages for deciphering their P-prograde and -retrograde tectonic trajectories. The European Alps preserve large volumes of the hydrated upper part of the oceanic lithosphere that represents the main water carrier into the Alpine subduction zone. Therefore, it is important to understand what happens during subduction when these rocks reach P-T conditions proximal to those that trigger the break-down of serpentine, formed during oceanic metamorphism, to produce olivine and clinopyroxene. Rodingites associated with serpentinites are usually derived from metasomatic ocean floor processes but rodingitization can also happen in subduction environments. Multiscale structural and petrologic analyses of serpentinites and enclosed rodingites have been combined to define the HP mineral assemblages in the Zermatt-Saas ophiolites. They record 3 syn-metamorphic stages of ductile deformation during the Alpine cycle, following the ocean floor history that is testified by structural and metamorphic relics in both rock types. D1 and D2 developed under HP to UHP conditions and D3 under lower P conditions. Syn-D2 assemblages in serpentinites and rodingites indicate conditions of 2.5 ± 0.3 GPa and 600 ± 20°C. This interdisciplinary approach shows that the dominant structural and metamorphic imprint of the Zermatt-Saas eclogitized serpentinites and rodingites developed during the Alpine subduction and that subduction-related serpentinite de-hydration occurred exclusively at Pmax conditions, during D2 deformation. In contrast, in the favourable rodingite bulk composition (Ca-rich), hydrated minerals

  8. Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M; Harman, Chester E

    2014-09-02

    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, "Dune" planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, S(eff), the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus--1.78; runaway greenhouse--1.04; moist greenhouse--1.01; maximum greenhouse--0.35; and early Mars--0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4-0.5.

  9. Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Harman, Chester E.

    2014-09-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, "Dune" planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, Seff, the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus-1.78; runaway greenhouse-1.04; moist greenhouse-1.01; maximum greenhouse-0.35; and early Mars-0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4-0.5.

  10. Lateral groundwater inflows into alluvial aquifers of main alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In alpine regions the topography is mainly characterised by deep incised valleys, mountain slopes and ridges. Usually the main valleys contain aquifers in alluvial soft rock. Lateral these aquifers are confined by mountainous hard rock slopes covered by heterogeneous sediments with different thickness. The slopes can be incised by lateral valleys. Numerical models for the main alluvial aquifers ask for lateral hydrogeological boundaries. Usually no flow boundaries or Constant head Boundaries are used, even if the lateral inflows to the main aquifers are rarely known. In this example a data set for a detailed investigated and monitored area is studied to give an answer on the location and the quantification of these lateral subsurface inflows. The study area is a typical main alpine valley with a thick alluvial aquifer (appr. 120m thick), lateral confined by granite, covered at the base of the steep slopes by quaternary sediments (Burger at al. 2012). The study consists of several steps 1.) Analytical calculation of the inflows on the base of investigated and monitored 2d profiles along fault zones (Perello et al 2013) which pinch out in the main valley 2.) Analytical models along typical W-dipping slopes with monitored slope springs 3.) Evaluating temperature and electrical conductivity profiles measured in approx. 30 groundwater wells in the alluvial aquifers and along the slopes to locate main lateral subsurface inflows 4.) Output of a regional model used for the hydrogeological back analyses of the excavation of a tunnel (Baietto et al. 2014) 5.) Output of a local numerical model calibrated with a monitoring dataset and results of a pumping test of big scale (450l/s for 10days) Results of these analyses are shown to locate and quantify the lateral groundwater inflows in the main alluvial aquifer. References Baietto A., Burger U., Perello P. (2014): Hydrogeological modelling applications in tunnel excavations: examples from tunnel excavations in granitic rocks

  11. Low below-ground organic carbon storage in a subarctic Alpine permafrost environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M.; Kuhry, P.; Hugelius, G.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in Tarfala Valley, northern Sweden. Field inventories, upscaled based on land cover, show that this alpine permafrost environment does not store large amounts of SOC, with an estimate mean of 0.9 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 for the upper meter of soil. This is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than what has been reported for lowland permafrost terrain. The SOC storage varies for different land cover classes and ranges from 0.05 kg C m-2 for stone-dominated to 8.4 kg C m-2 for grass-dominated areas. No signs of organic matter burial through cryoturbation or slope processes were found, and radiocarbon-dated SOC is generally of recent origin (distribution in Tarfala Valley, based on the bottom temperature of snow measurements and a logistic regression model, showed that at an altitude where permafrost is probable the SOC storage is very low. In the high-altitude permafrost zones (above 1500 m), soils store only ca. 0.1 kg C m-2. Under future climate warming, an upward shift of vegetation zones may lead to a net ecosystem C uptake from increased biomass and soil development. As a consequence, alpine permafrost environments could act as a net carbon sink in the future, as there is no loss of older or deeper SOC from thawing permafrost.

  12. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermeier, Verena K; Schmitt, Nicola; Volk, Lukas P M; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Beck, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Non-targeted ¹H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA) were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.

  13. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena K. Mittermeier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-targeted 1H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.

  14. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics.

  15. Role of the Western Anatolia Shear Zone (WASZ) in Neotectonics Evolution of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrain, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemen, I.; Gogus, O. H.; Hancer, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Neotectonics period in western Anatolia Extended Terrain, Turkey (WAET) may have initiated in late Oligocene following the Eocene Alpine collision which produced the Izmir-Ankara suture zone. The Western Anatolia Shear Zone (WASZ) bounds the WAET to the east. The shear zone contains mostly normal faults in the vicinity of the Gulf of Gokova. However, its movement is mostly oblique slip from the vicinity of Tavas towards the Lake of Acigol where it makes a northward bend and possibly joins the Eskisehir fault zone to the north of the town of Afyon. The shear zone forms the southern and eastern margins of the Kale-Tavas, Denizli and Acigol basins. The shear zone is similar in its structural/tectonics setting to the Eastern California Shear zone (ECSZ) of the Basins and Ranges of North America Extended terrain which is also composed of many normal to oblique-slip faults and separates two extended terrains with different rates of extension. Western Anatolia experienced many devastating earthquakes within the last 2000 years. Many of the ancient Greek/Roman city states, including Ephesus, Troy, and Hierapolis were destroyed by large historical earthquakes. During the second half of the 20th century, the region experienced two major large earthquake giving normal fault focal mechanism solutions. They are the 1969, M=6.9 Alasehir and the 1970, M=7.1 Gediz earthquakes. These earthquakes had caused substantial damage and loss of life in the region. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the kinematics of the Cenozoic extensional tectonics and earthquake potential of the WASZ in the region, is very important, especially since the fault zone is very close to the major towns in eastern part of western Turkey, such as Mugla, Denizli, Sandikli, Dinar and Afyon.

  16. Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome in Grey Alpine Cattle: Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, L V; Benazzi, C; Dittmer, K E; Thompson, K G; Murgiano, L; Drögemüller, C; Avallone, G; Gentile, A; Edwards, J F; Piffer, C; Bolcato, M; Brunetti, B

    2015-09-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a human autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in either the EVC or EVC2 gene, and presents with short limbs, polydactyly, and ectodermal and heart defects. The aim of this study was to understand the pathologic basis by which deletions in the EVC2 gene lead to chondrodysplastic dwarfism and to describe the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular hallmarks of EvC syndrome in cattle. Five Grey Alpine calves, with a known mutation in the EVC2 gene, were autopsied. Immunohistochemistry was performed on bone using antibodies to collagen II, collagen X, sonic hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor 2, and Ki67. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze EVC1 and EVC2 gene expression. Autopsy revealed long bones that were severely reduced in length, as well as genital and heart defects. Collagen II was detected in control calves in the resting, proliferative, and hypertrophic zones and in the primary and secondary spongiosa, with a loss of labeling in the resting zone of 2 dwarfs. Collagen X was expressed in hypertrophic zone in the controls but was absent in the EvC cases. In affected calves and controls, sonic hedgehog labeled hypertrophic chondrocytes and primary and secondary spongiosa similarly. FGF2 was expressed in chondrocytes of all growth plate zones in the control calves but was lost in most EvC cases. The Ki67 index was lower in cases compared with controls. EVC and EVC2 transcripts were detected. Our data suggest that EvC syndrome of Grey Alpine cattle is a disorder of chondrocyte differentiation, with accelerated differentiation and premature hypertrophy of chondrocytes, and could be a spontaneous model for the equivalent human disease.

  17. Cross-correlation-based detection and characterisation of microseismicity adjacent to the locked, late-interseismic Alpine Fault, South Westland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Calum J.; Boese, Carolin M.; Townend, John

    2017-01-01

    The Alpine Fault is inferred on paleoseismological grounds to produce magnitude 8 earthquakes approximately every 330 yrs and to have last ruptured almost 300 yrs ago in 1717 AD. Despite approximately 90% of its typical interseismic period having elapsed since the last major earthquake, the Alpine Fault exhibits little present-day microseismicity and no geodetic evidence for shallow creep. Determining the mechanical state of the fault ahead of a future earthquake is a key objective of several studies, including the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP). Here we use a network of borehole seismometers installed in conjunction with DFDP to detect and characterise low-magnitude seismicity adjacent to the central section of the Alpine Fault. We employ matched-filter detection techniques, automated cross-correlation phase picking, and singular value decomposition-derived magnitude estimation to construct a high-precision catalogue of 283 earthquakes within 5 km of the fault trace in an otherwise seismically quiet zone. The newly recognised seismicity occurs in non-repeating, spatially and temporally limited sequences, similar to sequences previously documented using standard methods but at significantly lower magnitudes of ML < 1.8. These earthquakes are not clustered on a single distinctive structure, and we infer that they are distributed throughout a highly fractured zone surrounding the Alpine Fault. Focal mechanisms computed for 13 earthquakes using manual polarity picks exhibit predominantly strike-slip faulting, consistent with focal mechanisms observed further from the fault. We conclude that the Alpine Fault is locked and accumulating strain throughout the seismogenic zone at this location.

  18. Three dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure along the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Thurber, C. H.; Roecker, S. W.; Townend, J.; Rawles, C.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Boese, C. M.; Bannister, S.; Feenstra, J.; Eccles, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) on the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, has motivated a broad range of geophysical and geological studies intended to characterize the fault system in the locality of the drill site at various scales. In order to better understand the structural features of the central Alpine Fault, we have developed three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (VP and VS) models of the region by double-difference tomography using datasets from multiple seismic networks. In previous work, the quality of the S-wave model has been poor due to the small number of available S-wave picks. We have utilized a new high-accuracy automatic S-wave picker to increase the number of usable S-wave arrivals by more than a factor of two, thereby substantially improving the VS model. Compared to previous studies, our new higher-resolution VP model based on more observations shows a clear VP contrast (higher VP on the southeast hanging wall side) at depths of 5 - 10 km near the DFDP drill sites. With our better resolved VS model, in the same region, we detect a sharply defined high VS body (VS > 3.7 km/s) within the hanging wall. Our earthquake relocations reveal the presence of clusters within and around low-velocity zones in the hanging wall southeast of the Alpine Fault. Together with the improved earthquake locations, the P- and S-wave tomography results reveal the Alpine Fault to be marked by a velocity contrast throughout most of the study region. The fault dips southeastward at about 50^circ from 5 to 15 km depth, as inferred from the velocity structure, seismicity, and observations of fault zone guided waves.

  19. Roadheading tests in rock using an Alpine AM-75 miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, G.; Claveria, R.

    1988-02-01

    ENDESA, the National Electricity Company, concluded an agreement with Voest-Alpine to test, over a period of six months, an AM-75 Alpine miner for roadheading work, in rock, at Oportuna colliery in Andorra, Teruel. ENDESA received assistance from OCICARBON in carrying out this project and Geocontrol was the company responsible for monitoring the progress of the project. This article describes the features of the Voest-Alpine machine, the nature of the ground being excavated and operation monitoring. It then analyses the results obtained in the trials.

  20. Microbial diversity in European alpine permafrost and active layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Beat; Rime, Thomas; Phillips, Marcia; Stierli, Beat; Hajdas, Irka; Widmer, Franco; Hartmann, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Permafrost represents a largely understudied genetic resource. Thawing of permafrost with global warming will not only promote microbial carbon turnover with direct feedback on greenhouse gases, but also unlock an unknown microbial diversity. Pioneering metagenomic efforts have shed light on the permafrost microbiome in polar regions, but temperate mountain permafrost is largely understudied. We applied a unique experimental design coupled to high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal markers to characterize the microbiota at the long-term alpine permafrost study site 'Muot-da-Barba-Peider' in eastern Switzerland with an approximate radiocarbon age of 12 000 years. Compared to the active layers, the permafrost community was more diverse and enriched with members of the superphylum Patescibacteria (OD1, TM7, GN02 and OP11). These understudied phyla with no cultured representatives proposedly feature small streamlined genomes with reduced metabolic capabilities, adaptations to anaerobic fermentative metabolisms and potential ectosymbiotic lifestyles. The permafrost microbiota was also enriched with yeasts and lichenized fungi known to harbour various structural and functional adaptation mechanisms to survive under extreme sub-zero conditions. These data yield an unprecedented view on microbial life in temperate mountain permafrost, which is increasingly important for understanding the biological dynamics of permafrost in order to anticipate potential ecological trajectories in a warming world.

  1. Increasing alpine transit traffic through Switzerland will considerably enhance high altitude alpine pollutant levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, A.S.H.; Dommen, J.; Furger, M.; Graber, W.K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Within the EU-Project VOTALP (Vertical Ozone Transports in the Alps), we have shown that deep alpine valleys like the Mesolcina Valley very efficiently transport air out of the polluted valley up to altitudes between 2000 and near 4000 m asl (above sea level). Pollutants emitted in these valleys are very efficiently transported up to high altitudes. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  2. Encounters between Alpine ibex, Alpine chamois and domestic sheep in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information regarding spatio-temporal relationships and encounters of sympatric domestic sheep, Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra in the Swiss Alps were systematically registered to evaluate the possibility of an interspecific transmission of infectious agents on pastures. Observations were performed in alpine regions of four Swiss cantons during the 1997 and 1998 mountain summer grazing season. In the main study area, Val Chamuera (canton of Grisons, a consistent reduction in the number of ibexes was observed after the arrival of sheep on the pasture. Some ibexes remained for a longer time in the area, but in general, ibexes and sheep did not use the same compartments of the area simultaneously. However, a salt lick for sheep attracted the ibexes, and several encounters were recorded in the compartments close to this salt lick. Several encounters registered in other areas of the Swiss Alps also occurred in the neighbourhood of a salt lick; however, in other cases different species were attracted by rich pastures. The study indicates that encounters (0-50 m between free-ranging individuals of different Caprinae species, domestic and wild, are not uncommon events in the Alps. Therefore, encounters can be considered to be a predisposing factor for interspecific transmission of infectious agents such as Mycoplasma conjunctivae, causing keratoconjunctivitis in chamois, ibex, domestic sheep and goats.

  3. Comparison of subsurface connectivity in Alpine headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuecco, Giulia; Rinderer, Michael; van Meerveld, Ilja; Penna, Daniele; Borga, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Saturation at the soil-bedrock interface or the rise of shallow groundwater into more permeable soil layers results in subsurface stormflow and can lead to hillslope-stream connectivity. Despite the importance of subsurface connectivity for streamflow and streamwater chemistry, the factors controlling its spatial and temporal variability are still poorly understood. This study takes advantage of networks of spatially-distributed piezometers in five small (stream when shallow groundwater was observed in the piezometer and it was connected by the edges to the stream. Weights were given to each piezometer based on Thiessen polygons to determine the area of the catchment that was connected to the stream. For the Swiss pre-alpine catchments the duration that nodes were connected to the stream was significantly correlated to the local and upslope site characteristics, such as the topographic wetness index, local slope and curvature. For the dolomitic catchment with the largest riparian zone, the time that nodes were connected to the stream was correlated with downslope site characteristics, such as the vertical distance to the nearest stream. The temporal changes in the area of the catchment that was connected to the stream reflected the streamflow dynamics for all catchments. Subsurface connectivity increased during rainfall events but there was a short delay compared to streamflow, suggesting that other processes (e.g. direct channel precipitation, runoff from near stream saturated areas) contributed to streamflow at the beginning of the event. Groundwater levels declined later and slower than streamflow, resulting in complex but mainly anti-clockwise hysteretic relations between streamflow and the area that was connected to the stream. Threshold-like relations between maximum connectivity and total stormflow and between maximum connectivity and the sum of total rainfall plus antecedent rainfall were more evident for the dolomitic catchments, where the riparian zone is

  4. Sustainable use of alpine and pre-alpine grassland soils in a changing climate (SUSALPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zistl-Schlingmann, Marcus; Beck, Robert; Brandhuber, Robert; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Garcia Franco, Noelia; von Gillhaußen, Phillip; Jentsch, Anke; Kiese, Ralf; Krämer, Alexander; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Köllner, Thomas; Poppenborg, Patrick; Schloter, Michael; Schulz, Stefanie; Wiesmeier, Martin; Wolf, Benjamin; Dannenmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The development of ecologically as well as economically sustainable management options for the carbon- and nitrogen rich alpine and pre-alpine grassland soils in a changing climate poses a grand scientific and socio- economical challenge. The transdisciplinary SUSALPS project starting in 2016 aims to essentially improve the knowledge on the functionality of alpine and pre-alpine grassland soils using both natural-scientific/ technical and socio economical approaches. The project is building on existing infrastructure of German grassland-ecosystem-research like the pre-alpine TERENO (Terrestrial ecosystem observation network observatory) observatory sites, the EVENT and SIGNAL sites as well as long term LfL (Bayerische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft) sites, plus a new additional high elevation (1400m a.s.l) site in the Bavarian Alps. The site setup along the elevational gradient on the edge of the Alps (1400 m to 300 m) is used for space-for-time climate change experiments which are combined with extensive and intensive management treatments. A key focus of SUSALPS will be the characterization of combined climate change/management effects on carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry. Hence, we will evaluate the influence of different management options and current and future climate changes on the soil microbiome and associated biogeochemical processes in the plant-soil-system, on nitrogen use efficiency, on biosphere-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases as well as on leaching of environmentally relevant compounds. For this purpose, we simulate the predicted climate change in the region by translocation of large lysimeters (1m2, 1.4m depth; TERENO lysimeters, translocated in 2011) for measurements of biosphere-atmosphere hydrosphere exchange of environmentally relevant C and N compounds as well as by newly transferred smaller plant-soil-mesocosms used for destructive biogeochemical process studies. By closely linking this experimental work with biogeochemical and

  5. Graphitic carbon formation through calcite reduction in blueschist metasediments from Alpine Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, M.; Beyssac, O.; Martinez, I.; Benzerara, K.; Malvoisin, B.

    2012-04-01

    The geochemistry of reduced carbon in subduction zones is strongly affected by mineral equilibria. We study here the geochemistry of carbon in siliceous-marbles at the direct contact with serpentinites in the Alpine eclogitic meta-ophiolithic units of northern Corsica (France). We have combined petrology, Raman spectroscopy and carbon isotopy to provide a description of both the organic and carbonate components of the rocks across a reaction front where the reaction CaCO3+SiO2+2H2=CaSiO3+C+2H2O is evidenced. The continuous reaction zone is composed by a centimeter thick pale nephrite layer at the contact with the serpentinites, followed by a thin wollastonite layer and a 5 to 20 cm thick dark zone composed of wollastonite, carbonaceous material (CM), quartz but no carbonates. There is a sharp transition to the overlying original metasediment composed of calcite+quartz which is significantly less rich in CM. Raman spectroscopy shows that CM is much more graphitic in the reaction zone than in the original sediment. Significant isotopic differences are observed apart the reaction front with δ13C (CM) and δ13C (calcite) around -15‰ and 1.3‰ respectively in the original rock far from the reaction zone, whereas δ13C (CM) is around -1‰ in the reaction zone. We interpret the graphitic CM in the reaction zone as formed from the destabilization and reduction of calcite due to the diffusion of reducing fluids from the underlying serpentinite unit. Mass balance calculations support this hypothesis and show that a complete reduction of carbonates might have occurred. The timing of this abiotic macromolecular and graphitic C formation is discussed. We show that the combined study of isotopic geochemistry and structure of inorganic and organic carbon in metamorphic rocks might be suited to reveal with great fidelity redox gradients in subduction zones.

  6. The relationship between soil physical properties and alpine plant diversity on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through a large-scale research, we examined the heterogeneity of soil properties and plant diversity, as well as their relationships across alpine grassland types on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The soil pH and EC value increased with the constant deepening of the soil in all the three alpine grassland types which in order of absolute value in every soil layer were alpine desert steppe, alpine steppe and alpine meadow. Among the three grassland types, the alpine meadow possessed the highest SM but the lowest SBD. For plant diversity, alpine meadow was the highest, alpine desert steppe ranked the second and alpine steppe was the last. SM and SBD were the highest influential soil physical properties to species richness, but with opposite effects.

  7. The onset of alpine pastoral systems in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Festi, Daniela; Putzer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of the Neolithic glacier mummy "Ötzi" in the nival belt of the main Alpine ridge, the onset of alpine pasture is matter of a highly controversial debate both in archaeology and in palaeo-ecology of the Eastern Alps. The implication is that his sojourn in the high-altitudes of the Alps is considered to be connected with pastoral nomadism. Regrettably any archaeological evidence for the existence of such Neolithic alpine pastoral systems is missing up to now and the assumption is based on palynological data only. However, also the palynological record is ambiguous, because pasture indicators in the alpine regions react positive on grazing as well as on fertilization induced by a higher runoff of precipitation. Thus alpine pasture indicators reflect both grazing pressure and climatic change. Anyhow, alpine pastoral systems are a common practice in Alpine animal husbandry, but from an economic point of view such a seasonal vertical transhumance is costly. There are three main reasons for its practice: i) climatic, ii) economic (mainly in connection with population pressure or mining activities), and iii) cultural ideology. In this study we tested the above mentioned reasons in an interdisciplinary study on the beginning of pastoral activities in high altitudes in the central part of the Eastern Alps. This is conducted by palynological analyses of peat deposits situated in the vicinity of the timberline (1600 - 2400 m a.s.l.) combined with archaeological surveys. The investigated sites are located in traditional Alpine transhumance regions and aligned on a transect through the central part of the Eastern Alps. The studies reveal that grazing pressure is reflected since the Bronze Age, which is corroborated by archaeological findings in the vicinity of the investigated sites.

  8. 中国沿海大都市出口加工区生命周期研究——以上海金桥出口加工区为例%The Life Cycle of Export Processing Zones in the Coastal Metropolitan in China A Case Study of Jinqiao Export Processing Zone, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程进; 曾刚; 张云伟

    2012-01-01

    以产品生命周期理论和企业生命周期理论等为基础,对上海市金桥出口加工区生命周期演化进行了分析。出口加工区生命周期的分析应结合不同时期产品结构和企业结构的表现特征,根据产品结构和企业结构的演变特征,金桥出口加工区的生命周期历经了加工导向期、制造导向期和创新导向期3个时期。金桥出口加工区生命周期演化的本质是产品的更新换代和企业动态的集聚与消亡过程,是两大类因素共同作用的结果:生产成本上升、投资门槛增高等内部投资环境产生的推力因素;国际直接投资向高科技化和服务化转变、中西部出口加工区竞争力增强、本地开发区的产业联动等外部投资环境产生的拉力因素。反映出金桥出口加工区生命周期是投资主导型的演化过程。%Export processing zones are special areas established by developing countries or regions to promote economic development by providing favorable measures and barrier-free environment to attract foreign invest- ment and develop export-oriented industries. With the regional economic development, the internal and exter- nal development environment of the export processing zone has changed, and the function and nature of the ex- port processing zones have an unceasing evolution and change, and thus to explore the life cycle evolution law of the export processing zones has very important significance~ This paper builds an analysis framework of life cycle evolution and industrial evolution of export processing zones based on Product life cycle theory and the corporate life cycle theory, and then analyzes the evolution characteristics and mechanisms of Jinqiao Export Processing Zone life-cycle in Shanghai, which located in the eastern coastal areas of China. The results show that, according to the evolution characteristics of the.product structures and enterprise structures, the life cycle of the

  9. Low soil organic carbon storage in a subarctic alpine permafrost environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fuchs

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in Tarfala Valley, Northern Sweden. Field inventories upscaled based on land cover show that this alpine permafrost environment does not store large amounts of SOC, with an estimate mean of 0.9 ± 0.2 kg C m−2 for the upper meter of soil. This is one to two orders of magnitude lower than what has been reported for lowland permafrost terrain. The SOC storage varies for different land cover classes and ranges from 0.05 kg C m−2 for stone-dominated to 8.4 kg C m−2 for grass-dominated areas. No signs of organic matter burial through cryoturbation or slope processes were found and radiocarbon dated SOC is generally of recent origin (−2. Under future climate warming an upward shift of vegetation zones may lead to a net ecosystem C uptake from increased biomass and soil development. As a consequence, alpine permafrost environments could act as a net carbon sink in the future, as there is no loss of older or deeper SOC from thawing permafrost.

  10. Assessing the application of a laser rangefinder for determining snow depth in inaccessible alpine terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow is a major contributor to stream flow in alpine watersheds and quantifying snow depth and distribution is important for hydrological research. However, direct measurement of snow in rugged alpine terrain is often impossible due to avalanche and rock fall hazard. A laser rangefinder was used to determine the depth of snow in inaccessible areas. Laser rangefinders use ground based light detection and ranging technology but are more cost effective than airborne surveys or terrestrial laser scanning systems and are highly portable. Data was collected within the Opabin watershed in the Canadian Rockies. Surveys were conducted on one accessible slope for validation purposes and two inaccessible talus slopes. Laser distance data was used to generate surface models of slopes when snow covered and snow-free and snow depth distribution was quantified by differencing the two surfaces. The results were compared with manually probed snow depths on the accessible slope. The accuracy of the laser rangefinder method as compared to probed depths was 0.21 m or 12% of average snow depth. Results from the two inaccessible talus slopes showed regions near the top of the slopes with 6–9 m of snow accumulation. These deep snow accumulation zones result from re-distribution of snow by avalanches and are hydrologically significant as they persist until late summer.

  11. Assessing the application of a laser rangefinder for determining snow depth in inaccessible alpine terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hood

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow is a major contributor to stream flow in alpine watersheds and quantifying snow depth and distribution is important for hydrological research. However, direct measurement of snow in rugged alpine terrain is often impossible due to avalanche and rock fall hazard. A laser rangefinder was used to determine the depth of snow in inaccessible areas. Laser rangefinders use ground based light detection and ranging technology but are more cost effective than airborne surveys or terrestrial laser scanning systems and are highly portable. Data were collected within the Opabin watershed in the Canadian Rockies. Surveys were conducted on one accessible slope for validation purposes and two inaccessible talus slopes. Laser distance data was used to generate surface models of slopes when snow covered and snow-free and snow depth distribution was quantified by differencing the two surfaces. The results were compared with manually probed snow depths on the accessible slope. The accuracy of the laser rangefinder method as compared to probed depths was 0.21 m or 12% of average snow depth. Results from the two inaccessible talus slopes showed regions near the top of the slopes with 6–9 m of snow accumulation. These deep snow accumulation zones result from re-distribution of snow by avalanches and are hydrologically significant as they persist until late summer.

  12. The superposed orogenesis of the alpine-mediterranean edifice; Las orogenesis superpuestas del edificio alpino-mediterraneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyriadis, I.

    2016-10-01

    The circum-Mediterranean chains must be considered as the result of two distinct orogenies. The apparent unity of the present structure is of formal order, due to the latest deformations. Since the Hercynian time there have been two periods of paroxysmal deformation; the younger fits the definition of the alpine orogeny; the older occured during the Cretaceous and may correspond to the first great convergent relative drift of the Eurasiatic and African blocks. The Cretaceous or Mesogean orogeny is independent from the Alpine orogeny stricto sensu (Oligo-Miocene) and cannot be considered as its prefiguration. Being independent in time, it is independent in space as well. Even if this Mesogean orogeny can appear locally restricted to the internal parts of the Alpine chains (Central Mediterranean area, Carpathes, Dinarides) this cannot be taken as a rule: towards the west, the Cretaceous deformations cross the axis of the western Alps and extend (new investigations) over Provence to the Betic chains and the Pyrenean area. Towards the east, the deformations of this period cross the Hellenides (new observations) and spread over the external area in a spectacular way, interesting areas which have never been tectonised again (Cyprus, south-eastern Anatolia, northern Syria, Oman). As a whole, this large Cretaceous orogenic zone is part of a wider domain which extends over central Iran towards the Himalayas and eastern Asia, and has its equivalent on the western side of the Atlantic Ocean, in the Caribbean islands, Mexico and the Americas. (Author)

  13. Estimating Forest Carbon Stock in Alpine and Arctic Ecotones of the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Usoltsev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on measured carbon stocks in the forests of two tree line ecotones of the Ural region where climate change might improve growing conditions. The first is an alpine ecotone that is represented by an altitudinal gradient of the spruce-dominated forests on the Western slope of the Tylaiskii Kamen Mountain (Western part of the Konzhakovskii-Tylaiskii-Serebryanskii Mountain system, 59°30′N, 59°00′E, at the alpine timber line that has risen from 864 to 960 m above sea level in the course of the last 100 years. The second is an arctic ecotone in larch-dominated forests at the lower course of the Pur river (67°N, 78°E, at the transition zone between closed floodplain forests and open or island-like communities of upland forests on tundra permafrost. According to our results, there are large differences in the carbon of the aboveground biomass of both ecotones across environmental gradients. In the alpine tree line ecotone, a 19-fold drop of the carbon stocks was detected between the lower and higher altitudinal levels. In the arctic ecotone the aboveground biomass carbon stock of forests of similar densities (1300 to 1700 trees per ha was 7 times as much in the river flood bed, and 5 times as much in mature, dense forests as the low density forests at higher elevations. Twelve regression equations describing dependencies of the aboveground tree biomass (stems, branches, foliage, total aboveground part upon stem diameter of the tree are proposed, which can be used to estimating the biological productivity (carbon of spruce and larch forests on Tylaiskii Kamen Mountain and the lower Pur river and on surrounding areas on the base of traditional forest mensuration have been proposed. In order to reduce the labor intensity of a coming determination of forest biomass the average values of density and dry matter content in the biomass fractions are given that were obtained by taking our sample trees.The results can be useful in

  14. The changing microstructural arrangement of graphite during deformation and hydrothermal alteration of amphibolite-facies mylonite, Alpine Fault, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, M.; Toy, V.; Timms, N.; Craw, D.; Little, T. A.; Halfpenny, A.; Beyssac, O.

    2015-12-01

    Graphitisation in a convergent plate boundary setting, such as the Alpine Fault, New Zealand, is associated both with fault weakening and orogenic gold mineralisation. Previously, these processes have been investigated in rocks that experienced mineralisation at maximum of greenschist-facies conditions. However, metals are most mobile at upper greenschist- to amphibolite-facies. We examine the microstructural record of mobilisation of graphite at these conditions due to dislocation and diffusion creep in the Alpine Fault zone and as a function of varying shear strain magnitude. We have mapped graphite distribution across a strain gradient in samples, recovered from Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) boreholes, by using reflected light and scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectrometry was used to determine the degree of maturity of the carbonaceous material. In the schists and protomylonites, graphite occurs as very fine (1-5μm), dusty grains, dispersed as inclusions in the main mineral phases (quartz, anorthite, muscovite, biotite). Further into the mylonite zone, the modal proportion of graphite increases and it forms clusters and trains, aligned with the foliation. In the brittlely-deformed rocks (cataclasites and gouges on or near the fault principal slip zone) graphite is most abundant (Schleicher et al., in press. N.Z.J.Geol&Geophys). We thus infer hydrothermal enrichment caused graphite remobilization, re-deposition, and enrichment in structurally controlled microstructural sites. We will discuss implications of these microstructural and mineralogical changes for strain localisation and deformation-induced permeability.

  15. Ecological networks in the Alpine Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Scheurer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In response to decreasing biodiversity and new phenomena such as climate change, the number of initiatives aimed at creating ecological networks is increasing. Research and activities based on the theme of ecological connectivity are generating a completely new perception of methods of protecting the natural environment: there is a shift from a conservationist approach to natural systems to one that is more functional. The place and role of protected areas within their regions are being redefined. Such areas are now situated in a wider territorial context and new cooperative arrangements are encouraged with local actors. The alpine approach adopted in establishing a transalpine ecological network, illustrated by several examples, underlines the importance of both an international framework for such activities and the need to extend them to include not only the classic actors in the protection of the natural environment, but also other sectors that until now have seldom been involved.Face au constat d’une perte accrue de biodiversité et de phénomènes nouveaux, tels le changement climatique, les initiatives de mise en place de réseaux écologiques se multiplient. Les réflexions et les actions conduites autour de la thématique de la connectivité écologique font naître une perception complètement nouvelle des pratiques de la protection de la nature : un changement d’une conception patrimoniale conservatrice vers une approche plus fonctionnelle des systèmes naturels. La place et le rôle des espaces protégés au sein de leur région sont redéfinis, les situant  dans un contexte territorial plus large et engendrant de nouvelles collaborations entre acteurs locaux. L’approche alpine pour la réalisation d’un réseau écologique transalpin, illustrée par différents exemples, souligne l’importance d’un cadre international pour ces démarches et d’une ouverture sur l’ensemble du territoire impliquant en plus des acteurs

  16. 3D Geometry of Active Shortening, Uplift and Subsidence West of the Alpine Fault (South Island, New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisetti, F.; Sibson, R. H.; Hamling, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is the principal component of the transform boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates across the South Island of New Zealand, linking the opposite dipping Hikurangi and Puysegur subduction zones. In the northern South Island, the transition from the subducted W-dipping Pacific slab of the Hikurangi margin to the intra-continental transform margin is defined by earthquake foci from 350 to 100 km deep. West of the Alpine Fault the Australian crust above the slab has been incorporated into the collisional plate boundary and uplifted in a compressional belt up to 100 km wide. Retro-deformation and back-stripping of 10 regional transects utilising surface geology, seismic reflection lines and exploration wells define the progressive deformation of the Australian crust since 35 Ma along the collisional margin. The reconstructed geometry of faulted basement blocks is tied to localisation and evolution of overlying sedimentary basins, coeval with displacement on the Alpine Fault. Amounts of shortening, uplift and subsidence and fault activity are heterogeneous in space and time across the margin, and are controlled by compressional reactivation of inherited high-angle, N-S Paleogene normal faults oblique to the margin. However, significant differences also occur along the strike of the collisional margin, with major contrasts in uplift and subsidence north and south of lat. 41°.7, i.e. the region overlying the southern termination of the Hikurangi slab. These differences are highlighted by present day hydrographic anomalies in the Buller region, and by the pattern of filtered topography at > 75 km wavelength. Our data show that the 3D geometry of the Australian plate cannot be entirely attributed to inherited crustal heterogeneity of a flexured "retro-foreland" domain in the footwall of the Alpine Fault, and suggest the need of deeper dynamic interaction between the Pacific and Australian lithosphere along the subduction-collision margin.

  17. Environmental controls on alpine cirque size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Magali; Gunnell, Yanni; Calvet, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Pleistocene alpine cirques are emblematic landforms of mountain scenery, yet their deceptively simple template conceals complex controlling variables. This comparative study presents a new database of 1071 cirques, the largest of its kind, located in the French eastern Pyrenees. It is embedded in a review of previous work on cirque morphometry and thus provides a perspective on a global scale. First-order cirque attributes of length, width, and amplitude were measured; and their power as predictors of climatic and lithological variables and as proxies for the duration of glacier activity was tested using ANOVA, simple and multiple linear regression, and their various post-hoc tests. Conventional variables such as cirque aspect, floor elevation, and exposure with respect to regional precipitation-bearing weather systems are shown to present some consistency in spatial patterns determined by solar radiation, the morning-afternoon effect, and wind-blown snow accumulation in the lee of ridgetops. This confirms in greater detail the previously encountered links between landforms and climate. A special focus on the influence of bedrock lithology, a previously neglected nonclimatic variable, highlights the potential for spurious relations in the use of cirque size as a proxy of past environmental conditions. Cirques are showcased as complex landforms resulting from the combination of many climatic and nonclimatic variables that remain difficult to rank by order of importance. Apart from a few statistically weak trends, several combinations of different factors in different proportions are shown to produce similar morphometric outcomes, suggesting a case of equifinality in landform development.

  18. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coleine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  19. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  20. Immune responses to Mycoplasma conjunctivae in alpine ibex, alpine chamois, and domestic sheep in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgis, M P; Abdo, E M; Nicolet, J; Frey, J; Mayer, D; Giacometti, M

    2000-04-01

    The humoral immune response of three alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra), two alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) and three domestic sheep naturally affected with infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC), and four ibex and two sheep experimentally infected with Mycoplasma conjunctivae was analysed. In addition, the local immune response to M. conjunctivae was analysed using conjunctival washes from chamois and sheep. Immunoblot analysis of sera using whole cell antigens of M. conjunctivae revealed the major immunogenic proteins which had molecular masses of 175, 83, 68, 60, 50, 42, 36, and 33 kDa. Major antigens were found at 83, 68, 60, and 42 kDa in both sera and conjunctival washes from naturally infected animals of all three Caprinae species. In experimentally infected animals, antibodies to the 68 and 60 kDa antigens were dominant. Naturally infected animals showed much stronger immune reactions than those experimentally infected, and specific antibodies appeared 2 to 4 wk after experimental infection. To evaluate possible cross-reactions, whole cell antigen of M. conjunctivae was analysed by immunoblot against hyperimmune sera of closely related Mycoplasma spp. Antibodies to the 175, 73, 68, 60, and 33 kDa antigens appeared to be specific to M. conjunctivae. Cross-reactions mainly with 83, 50, and 42 kDa antigens were detected, in particular with M. ovipneumoniae and M. bovoculi hyperimmune sera, but also with antisera against M. capricolum capricolum and M. putrefaciens.

  1. The Residue of Lithospheric Convergence in the Alpine-Pannonian-Carpathian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, G. A.; Stuart, G. W.; Hetenyi, G.; Lorinczi, P.; Dando, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The continuing collision of the Adriatic block with European continental lithosphere has its clearest expression now in the Alpine collision zone. In the Early Miocene the collision zone extended further east and included probably all of the regions within the Carpathian Mountain Range. In the Mid-Miocene between about 17 and 12 Ma, however, the Pannonian lithosphere extended rapidly and subsequently subsided, while convergence persisted in the Alps and the Carpathian arc. The change from convergence to extension in the Pannonian domain is associated with either rapid subduction roll-back or gravitational instability in which the lower part of the lithosphere was removed and replaced by hot asthenosphere. Throughout this time however, convergence has continued in the Alpine orogeny further west. It is surprising therefore to see similarities in the mantle transition zone beneath these two neighbouring regions whose lithospheres have, in the last 17 Myr at least, evolved in such different modes. New seismic images from beneath the Pannonian Basin (Hetenyi et al., GRL, in press) and from beneath the Alps (Lombardi et al., EPSL, 2009) show that both regions have a depressed 660 km discontinuity beneath a relatively normal-depth 410 km discontinuity. An important factor in both regions evidently is that relatively dense material derived from the mid-Miocene collision sits stagnant on top of the 660 km discontinuity, where further descent is obstructed by the negative Clapeyron slope of the spinel-to-perovskite phase transition and the high viscosity of the lower mantle. While the depression of the 660 km discontinuity beneath the Alps is directly associated with ongoing convergence, that beneath the Pannonian appears to be decoupled from the upper mantle circulation that accompanied the Miocene Pannonian extension. If the cold material at the base of the Pannonian upper mantle is the residue of lithospheric subduction, delamination, or gravitational instability, the

  2. Landslide-induced iron mobilisation shapes benthic accumulation of nutrients, trace metals and REE fractionation in an oligotrophic alpine stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Scott G.; Rose, Andrew L.; Burton, Edward D.; Webster-Brown, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Large alpine landslides that entrain substantial organic material below the water table and create suspended floodplains may have long-term consequences for the mobilisation of redox sensitive elements, such as Fe, into streamwaters. In turn, the cycling of iron in aquatic systems can influence the fate of nutrients, alter primary productivity, enhance accumulation of trace metals and induce fractionation of rare earth elements (REE). In this study we examine a reach of a pristine oligotrophic alpine stream bracketing a 30 year-old landslide and explore the consequences of landslide-induced Fe mobilisation for aqueous geochemistry and the composition of benthic stream cobble biofilm. Elevated Fe2+ and Mn in landslide zone stream waters reflect inputs of circumneutral groundwater from the landslide debris-zone floodplain. Geochemical characteristics are consistent with reductive dissolution being a primary mechanism of Fe2+ and Mn mobilisation. Stream cobble biofilm in the landslide zone is significantly (P extractable; Fe(III)Ab). While the landslide zone accounts for less than ∼9% of the total stream length, we estimate it is responsible for approximately 60-80% of the stream's benthic biofilm load of poorly crystalline Fe(III) and Mn. Biofilm Fe(III) precipitates are comprised mainly of ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and an organic-Fe species, while precipitate samples collected proximal to hyporheic seeps contain abundant sheath structures characteristic of the neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidising bacteria Leptothrix spp. Stream-cobble Fe(III)-rich biofilm is accumulating PO43- (∼3-30 times background) and behaving as a preferential substrate for photosynthetic periphyton, with benthic PO43-, chlorophyll a, organic carbonHCl and total N all significantly positively correlated with Fe(III)Ab and significantly elevated within the landslide zone (P transformed basis. Stream cobble biofilm also exhibits distinct REE fractionation along the flow path, with light REE (La

  3. How the Extension-Rate of Rifting Influences an Alpine-Type Orogens: insights from 3D analog models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Y.; Storti, F.; Cavozzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Alpine-type orogens are interpreted as result from the collision of former rifted margins. Recent studies showed that the rift-architecture inheritance could play a critical role in controlling the 4D evolution of Alpine-type orogens. In this framework, differences of inversion modes between the internal and external zones of the Western Alps can be related to the pre-orogenic rift-related domains. The external zone is affected by mild reactivation of the former proximal margin domain. On the other hand, the internal zone results from the reactivation of the former distal margin domain. This caused the stacking of a complex pile of pre- and syn-rift sequences against the 'necking zone', that is the locus where the lithosphere dramatically thins. The 'necking zone' separates the proximal and distal domains and acts as a buttress for shortening. Indeed, both rift architecture and shape of necking play a fundamental role in the building up of an Alpine-type orogen. In this study, we use analog modeling to investigate the role of extension-rate in rift-architecture. We simulated an ideal 4-layer lithosphere where brittle and ductile crustal layers rest on top of brittle and ductile mantle layers. The entire experimental lithosphere floats over a fluid analogue of the asthenosphere. Models were deformed pulling apart a mobile wall of the sandbox that confined the experimental lithosphere. We investigated three different extensional velocities, spanning one-order of magnitude. At the end of deformation, rift architectures show severe differences as a function of extension-rates, at both crustal and lithospheric scales. In particular, at lithospheric scales, localized necking occurred at low extension-rates, while a more distributed deformation happened with increasing the extensional velocity. At crustal scale, well-developed and localized necking zones formed for low and intermediate extension-rates, while tapering occurred over a wide cross-sectional length in high

  4. [Identification and conservation assessment of suitable habitats for Tibetan antelope in the alpine desert, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Li, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Xiang; Gao, Feng; Xu, Dong-hua

    2014-12-01

    As a flagship and one of most endangered ungulates in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the habitat conservation of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is vital to sustain its long-term population existence. In consideration of key habitat factors of the Tibetan antelope (i.e., food, topography and water source) as well as human interference factors like roads and settlements, the habitat suitability was modeled, and potential and valid suitable habitats were identified for Tibetan antelope in the alpine desert, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Furthermore, the conservation proportion index and conservation efficacy index were developed to facilitate the conservation assessment of three national reserves (i.e., Altun Mountain, Kekexili and Qiangtang) and their associated functional zones in the study area. The results showed that potential and valid area of suitable habitat across overall study area were 2.84 x 10(5) and 2.08 x 10(5) km2 respectively, with 16.1% of suitable habitat loss by human disturbance. At reserve level, the potential suitable habitats of Altun Mountain, Kekexili and Qiangtang were 2.01 x 10(4), 3.13 x 104 and 1.26 x 10(5) km2, which however decreased by 12.9%, 10.2% and 21.1% human disturbance respectively, indicating a prominent habitat fragmentation especially in Qiangtang National Nature Reserve (NNR). Although three NNRs had captured nearly 2/3 of the potential/valid suitable habitats with favorable conservation efficacy, there were still obvious conservation gaps outside the existing reserve network. At the functional zone level, buffer and experimental zones also showed significant conservation proportion and efficacy besides the core zone. Our research highlighted the necessity to optimize the existing re serve system by filling the conservation gaps, restructuring the functional zones and safeguarding the potential refuge habitats for those endangered ungulates in face of climate change.

  5. Assessing the effects of abiotic stress and livestock grazing disturbance on an alpine grassland with CSR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Peng; Mou, Chengxiang; Yang, Hao; Mo, Li; Luo, Chuan; Kattge, Jens

    2016-04-01

    How the abiotic factors represented by cold environment and biotic factors represented by livestock grazing will affect the vegetation structure of alpine grassland is a core issue in understanding the cause of biodiversity change on Tibetan Plateau. Past studies on changes of floristic composition, growth forms did not adequately answer question. Given the fact that the response of plant to environment change depend on its life strategy, a synthetical method that based on plant life strategy may deepen our understanding of the mechanism. Using Grime's concept of CSR plant classification, we carried out a vegetation survey along a gradient (three levels) of graze intensity on the south-east of Tibet Plateau, in order to evaluate the role and mechanism of abiotic stress and grazing disturbance in driving plant diversity change, by analyzing the plant life strategy compositions in each of the community and by comparing the characteristic of the strategy compositions along the graze gradient. When the graze intensity was relative low, the dominant plant life strategy gathered in the stress tolerance corner, which conformed the theory of environmental filter, indicating that the ideal top plant community may be dominated by the species with stress tolerant strategy. We also found that the response of strategy dominance to graze intensity increase is positively correlated with the competitive capacity (R 2=0.671; PCSR plant strategy be a useful tool to evaluate the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on plant community assembly of alpine grassland, which may contribute to predict the impacts of climate change and human activity on alpine grassland plant diversity and ecosystem service function related.

  6. Transient thermal effects in Alpine permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noetzli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In high mountain areas, permafrost is important because it influences the occurrence of natural hazards, because it has to be considered in construction practices, and because it is sensitive to climate change. The assessment of its distribution and evolution is challenging because of highly variable conditions at and below the surface, steep topography and varying climatic conditions. This paper presents a systematic investigation of effects of topography and climate variability that are important for subsurface temperatures in Alpine bedrock permafrost. We studied the effects of both, past and projected future ground surface temperature variations on the basis of numerical experimentation with simplified mountain topography in order to demonstrate the principal effects. The modeling approach applied combines a distributed surface energy balance model and a three-dimensional subsurface heat conduction scheme. Results show that the past climate variations that essentially influence present-day permafrost temperatures at depth of the idealized mountains are the last glacial period and the major fluctuations in the past millennium. Transient effects from projected future warming, however, are likely larger than those from past climate conditions because larger temperature changes at the surface occur in shorter time periods. We further demonstrate the accelerating influence of multi-lateral warming in steep and complex topography for a temperature signal entering the subsurface as compared to the situation in flat areas. The effects of varying and uncertain material properties (i.e., thermal properties, porosity, and freezing characteristics on the subsurface temperature field were examined in sensitivity studies. A considerable influence of latent heat due to water in low-porosity bedrock was only shown for simulations over time periods of decades to centuries. At the end, the model was applied to the topographic setting of the Matterhorn

  7. A process-based hierarchical framework for monitoring glaciated alpine headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, Anne A.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Montgomery, David R.; Woodward, Andrea; Bolton, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the geomorphic complexity and wide range of hydrologic regimes found in alpine headwater channels that provide complex habitats for aquatic taxa. These geohydrologic elements are fundamental to better understand patterns in species assemblages and indicator taxa and are necessary to aquatic monitoring protocols that aim to track changes in physical conditions. Complex physical variables shape many biological and ecological traits, including life history strategies, but these mechanisms can only be understood if critical physical variables are adequately represented within the sampling framework. To better align sampling design protocols with current geohydrologic knowledge, we present a conceptual framework that incorporates regional-scale conditions, basin-scale longitudinal profiles, valley-scale glacial macroform structure, valley segment-scale (i.e., colluvial, alluvial, and bedrock), and reach-scale channel types. At the valley segment- and reach-scales, these hierarchical levels are associated with differences in streamflow and sediment regime, water source contribution and water temperature. Examples of linked physical-ecological hypotheses placed in a landscape context and a case study using the proposed framework are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this approach for monitoring complex temporal and spatial patterns and processes in glaciated basins. This approach is meant to aid in comparisons between mountain regions on a global scale and to improve management of potentially endangered alpine species affected by climate change and other stressors.

  8. Ecophysiological variation in two provenances of Pinus flexilis seedlings across an elevation gradient from forest to alpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Keith; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2011-06-01

    Climate change is predicted to cause upward shifts in forest tree distributions, which will require seedling recruitment beyond current forest boundaries. However, predicting the likelihood of successful plant establishment beyond current species' ranges under changing climate is complicated by the interaction of genetic and environmental controls on seedling establishment. To determine how genetics and climate may interact to affect seedling establishment, we transplanted recently germinated seedlings from high- and low-elevation provenances (HI and LO, respectively) of Pinus flexilis in common gardens arrayed along an elevation and canopy gradient from subalpine forest into the alpine zone and examined differences in physiology and morphology between provenances and among sites. Plant dry mass, projected leaf area and shoot:root ratios were 12-40% greater in LO compared with HI seedlings at each elevation. There were no significant changes in these variables among sites except for decreased dry mass of LO seedlings in the alpine site. Photosynthesis, carbon balance (photosynthesis/respiration) and conductance increased >2× with elevation for both provenances, and were 35-77% greater in LO seedlings compared with HI seedlings. There were no differences in dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) among sites or between provenances. Our results suggest that for P. flexilis seedlings, provenances selected for above-ground growth may outperform those selected for stress resistance in the absence of harsh climatic conditions, even well above the species' range limits in the alpine zone. This indicates that forest genetics may be important to understanding and managing species' range adjustments due to climate change.

  9. Photochemistry and aerosol in alpine region: mixing and transport; Photochimie et aerosol en region alpine: melange et transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaxel, E

    2006-11-15

    The Alpine arc deeply interacts with general circulation of atmosphere. By studying configurations in summer and winter over various Alpine areas, this work explains how mixing and transport of airborne pollutants happen, both gaseous and particulate matter, from their emission sources to free troposphere. Using observational results and a comprehensive Eulerian modelling system, one focuses on mechanisms of pollution by ozone in summer and by particulate matter and benzene in winter. After having validated the modelling system using datasets from field experiments POVA, GRENOPHOT and ESCOMPTE, it is applied on two periods with principal interest in the Grenoble area: one is the heat-wave August 2003 and the other is a long episode of thermal inversion in February 2005. Uncertainties are also calculated. One finishes by applying the modelling chain to understand how a stratospheric intrusion following a tropopause fold affected the Alpine region in July 2004. (author)

  10. The 'Alpine Windharvest' project - Overview; Projekt Alpine Windharvest - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Kunz, S. [Suisse Eole, Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This short introduction forms part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) that presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole' and the meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis and formed part of a European wind-energy project that investigated the technical, legal and socio-economical aspects of the use of wind energy. The work-package 7 included the identification of wind-energy areas using comparative Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. An overview is provided of the wind-energy potential in the whole of the alpine region and five areas in which measurements are to be made, including GIS analyses, are defined.

  11. Approaches to prediction of impact of Qinghai-Tibet Railway construction on alpine ecosystems alongside and its recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Weishou; ZHANG Hui; ZOU Changxin; CAO Xuezhang; TANG Xiaoyan

    2004-01-01

    With the aid of the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, the ecosystem pattern and fragility distribution maps of the 50-km-wide zone along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway were compiled and by using the superimposition method, range, area and indexes of the impact of various engineering activities on the ecosystems alongside the railway were studied. By making reference to the ecosystem recovery process of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway, mechanisms of recovery of the alpine ecosystems alongside the Qinghai-Tibet Railway were studied and extents and rates of the recovery were predicted. The results indicate that the impact of the railway engineering on the Alpine ecosystem depends mainly on how much the original surface soil in the zone has been disturbed and how fragile of the ecosystem per se. Restoration of vegetation coverage and species abundance shows a significantly reverse relationship with disturbance of the original surface soil but an extremely positive one with the length of the restoration period and mean annual precipitation and annual mean relative humidity in the period and no obvious bearings with altitude and temperature. In sections with an annual precipitation over 200 mm, as long as a certain percentage of original soil is left in situ, it takes only 30 years or so for biodiversity to get basically restored to the original level after the construction is completed but at least 45-60 years or more for vegetation coverage.

  12. Floristic and community diversity of sub-alpine and alpine grasslands and grazed dwarf-shrub heaths in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coldea, Gheorghe

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity at community level and community diversity at landscape level are presented for the main grassland and dwarf-shrub communities in the sub-alpine and alpine zones in five mountain ranges of the Romanian Carpathians. The 30 plant communities studied had their floristic composition and distribution determined by geological substratum and pedo-climatic factors. The most diverse grasslands (Oxytropido-Elynetum, Seslerio haynaldianae-Caricetun were on calcareous substratum and on the mountain slopes (Festucetum pictae, whilst the lowest diversity was in the oligo-mesotrophic sub-alpine grasslands (Scorzonero- Festucetum nigricantis, Alchemillo-Poetum alpinae, Violo-Nardetum. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index for the communities increased almost linearly with the number of species per community, whilst community diversity in the five mountain ranges was a function of the number of communities per mountain range.

    [fr] Nous présentons dans ce travail la diversité floristique au niveau de la communauté et la diversité de communautés au niveau du paysage pour les principaux types de pâturages et de communautés à petits arbustes des étages subalpin et alpin de cinq chaînes montagneuses des Carpathes en Roumanie. Aussi bien la composition floristique que la distribution des 30 communautés étudiées dépendent de la nature géologique du terrain et des facteurs édapho-climatiques. Les pâturages les plus riches en diversité (Oxytropido-Elynetum, Seslerio haynaldianae- Caricetun se développent sur substrat calcaire et sur les versants des montagnes (Testucetum pictae; par contre la plus faible diversité a été rencontrée dans les pâturages oligo-mesotrophes subalpins (Scorzonero-Festucetum nigricantis, Alchemillo-Poetum alpinae, Violo-Nardetum. L'index de diversité de Shannon- Weaver augmente quasi linéairement avec le nombre d'espèces de chaque communauté, tandis que

  13. Permafrost aggradation in recently deglaciated alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Matthias; Dusik, Jana; Stocker-Waldhuber, Martin; Völkel, Jörg; Becht, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost degradation is of major interest in the present discussion about alpine climate change and natural hazard prevention. Glacial retreat since the Little Ice Age (LIA) is followed by destabilisation of the surrounding mountains due to melting permafrost in bedrock and sediments. Glacial retreat also exposes huge areas of lateral and ground moraines. Areas of formerly temperate glaciers experience colder temperatures only since their ice cover has melted and basal meltwater no longer heats the ground. With a huge pore volume in the sediment body, water supply during the melt season and large daily temperature variations in high mountains, distinct freeze and thaw processes start and generate periglacial forms like patterned ground in the direct glacier forefield. Those geomorphic features are precursors for possible permafrost aggradation in proglacial areas. The work presented is part of the joint project PROSA (High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps) that aims in the quantification of a sediment budget for the upper Kaunertal valley, Austrian Central Alps. In this sense and to find out about erosion causing prerequisites and processes, permafrost and ground ice occurrence, as well as sediment thickness is measured by i.a. application of geophysical measurements, multitemporal airborne and terrestrial LiDAR, as well as aerial photographs. In this case study we examine the spatial and temporal settings for permafrost aggradation in a recently deglaciated cirque, belonging to the catchment area of the Gepatschferner glacier using electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and basal temperature of the winterly snowcover (BTS) measurements to detect the state of the permafrost, multitemporal aerial photographs dating back to 1953 to reproduce recent deglaciation of the cirque and multitemporal airborne LiDAR data to gain information about surface elevation changes. The northeast facing cirque is situated in

  14. Inverse distributed hydrological modelling of alpine catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kunstmann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Even in physically based distributed hydrological models, various remaining parameters must be estimated for each sub-catchment. This can involve tremendous effort, especially when the number of sub-catchments is large and the applied hydrological model is computationally expensive. Automatic parameter estimation tools can significantly facilitate the calibration process. Hence, we combined the nonlinear parameter estimation tool PEST with the distributed hydrological model WaSiM. PEST is based on the Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg method, a gradient-based nonlinear parameter estimation algorithm. WaSiM is a fully distributed hydrological model using physically based algorithms for most of the process descriptions.

    WaSiM was applied to the alpine/prealpine Ammer River catchment (southern Germany, 710 km2 in a 100×100 m2 horizontal resolution. The catchment is heterogeneous in terms of geology, pedology and land use and shows a complex orography (the difference of elevation is around 1600 m. Using the developed PEST-WaSiM interface, the hydrological model was calibrated by comparing simulated and observed runoff at eight gauges for the hydrologic year 1997 and validated for the hydrologic year 1993. For each sub-catchment four parameters had to be calibrated: the recession constants of direct runoff and interflow, the drainage density, and the hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost aquifer. Additionally, five snowmelt specific parameters were adjusted for the entire catchment. Altogether, 37 parameters had to be calibrated. Additional a priori information (e.g. from flood hydrograph analysis narrowed the parameter space of the solutions and improved the non-uniqueness of the fitted values. A reasonable quality of fit was achieved. Discrepancies between modelled and observed runoff were also due to the small number of meteorological stations and corresponding interpolation artefacts in the orographically complex

  15. Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Porter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition By Deidre Slattery. Clayton South, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2015. xvii + 302 pp. AU$ 45.00, US$ 35.95. ISBN 978-1-486-30171-3.

  16. Hydrological significance of soil frost for pre-alpine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähli, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    Soil frost can have a substantial impact on water flows at the soil surface and-potentially-alter the dynamics of catchment runoff. While these findings are mainly based on studies from alpine and Northern-latitude areas (including permafrost areas), little is known about the significance of soil frost for hydrology in pre-alpine areas, i.e. the region at the transition from central European lowlands to high-alpine areas. Here I synthesize soil temperature data and soil frost observations from ten sites in Switzerland to assess the occurrence of soil frost and to determine its impact on catchment runoff. In addition, a well-established numerical model was used to reconstruct the presence of soil frost in two first-order catchments for single runoff events and winters. The data clearly demonstrates that shallow soil frost has formed regularly in this altitudinal range over the past decade. The presence of a frozen soil surface was found to be highly variable among the sites under study and did not significantly correlate with altitude or forest density. For the first-order catchments, it was not possible to relate important flood peaks or increased runoff coefficients to winter situations with substantial soil frost. Thus, the present analysis suggests that although soil frost is widespread and regularly occurring at this altitudinal range, it has no significant impact on winter runoff in pre-alpine watersheds.

  17. Vegetation structure and temperature regimes of tropical alpine treelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, M.; Rietkerk, M.; Bregt, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Alpine treeline ecotones can be gradual transitions, abrupt boundaries, or patchy mosaics, and these different patterns may indicate important processes and dynamic properties. We present observed spatial patterns of a wide range of tropical treelines and try to explain these patterns. Treelines wer

  18. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Dan E; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community.

  19. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Pötzelsberger, B.; Scheiber, P.;

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of alpine skiing for 12 weeks on skeletal muscle characteristics and biomarkers of glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-three patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were studied 2.9 ± 0.9 years (mean ± SD) after the operation. Fourteen...

  20. Alpine tectonics and rotation pole evolution of Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Koen

    1990-12-01

    The geological evolution of the Betic Cordilleras and Pyrenees reflects the Cretaceous and Tertiary rotation pole and kinematic evolution of the Iberian and African plates. New constraints on the Alpine tectonic evolution of the Iberian plate are provided by P- T- t data and regionally consistent stretching lineations from the metamorphic parts of the Betic Cordilleras. High-pressure low-temperature metamorphism in the Betic Cordilleras resulted from continent-continent collision which caused subduction to a maximum depth of 37 km. A preliminary 116 ± 10 Ma radiometric age for this event corresponds to the initiation of seafloor spreading to the west of Iberia which lasted until about 80 Ma. Intracontinental thrusting in the Betics between 99 Ma and 83 Ma took place after subduction ended. E-W to ESE-WNW trending stretching lineations indicate the direction of thrusting, which resulted in extensional strains of 200-600%. The timing of thrusting in the Betics coincides with a 95-80 Ma tectonic phase in northern Africa, during which E-W stretching lineations were formed. The stretching lineations are coincident with the 110-80 Ma motion vector of Africa-Iberia with respect to Eurasia. Thrusting in the Betics and deformation in northern Africa was driven by convergence of Africa-Iberia and Eurasia. Cretaceous deformation is further recorded by terrigeneous sedimentation in the Mauritanian Flysch and by the tectosedimentary evolution of the Malaguide Complex. Crustal thinning, magmatism and metamorphism in the Pyrenees during the 110-85 Ma period is governed by a left-lateral strike-slip of Africa-Iberia with respect to Eurasia around the same rotation pole as thrusting in the Betics. During the 80-54 Ma period the rotation pole was situated west of Gibraltar, near the previous active collision zone. This inhibited large-scale overthrusting and related penetrative deformation in northern Africa and the Betic Cordilleras. Deformation was instead transferred to the

  1. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  2. 基于全生命周期的广西北部湾经济区协同物流分析%Whole Life- cycle -based Collaborative Logistics of Guangxi Beibuwan Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林兴志

    2011-01-01

    根据广西北部湾经济区全生命周期协同物流的发展需求,对区域优势、物流环境和协同物流发展趋势进行分析.指出全生命周期协同物流发展的目标与思路、体系结构、评估模块的实现技术与方法,提出运用迭代因子生命周期分析算法和区域物流的优化组合,构建商业联盟式的、服务于中国-东盟自由贸易区的全生命周期协同物流体系,给物流供应链管理带来管理模式的变革,从单纯的价值链向协同一体化敏捷柔性的以客户为导向的管理模式转变.%According to the needs of whole life - cycle - based collaborative logistics of Guangxi Beibuwan economic zone,based on the analysis on regional advantages, logistics environment and development trend of collaborative logistics, the paper proposes goals and ideas, architecture, evaluation modules, implementation techniques and methods of whole life - cycle- based collaborative logistics. The whole life- cycle- based collaborative logistics system is developed by the optimal combination of life - cycle analysis algorithm of iterative factor and regional logistics. The system carries the feature of business coalition and works for China - ASEAN Free Trade Area. The system also brings management changes to logistics supply chain management, which shifts from one simple value chain to a collaborative integration of lean and agile customeroriented management paradigm.

  3. Ecosystem impacts of Alpine water intakes for hydropower: the challenge of sediment management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbud, Chrystelle; Lane, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Natural Alpine flow regimes are strongly modified by anthropogenic activities, notably water abstraction or impoundment for hydroelectric power production, which impacts upon both river discharge and sediment transfer systems, and in turn upon flora and fauna downstream. These kinds of impacts are well studied where rivers are regulated by dams, with sediment retained in the associated reservoirs although occasional flushing may be required (a frequency typically of many years). Such impacts may be managed by environmental flows or e-flows, whose restoration value has been shown in a number of research publications. However, there has been less attention in relation to the e-flows needed at water intakes which in Alpine environments may be associated with serious sediment-related problems. Water intakes have a very smaller sediment storage capacity than dams and thus may need to be flushed of accumulated sediment more regularly. In an Alpine setting, because rates of erosion are naturally higher, sediment is flushed in 'purges' with a frequency that may even be sub-daily at certain times of the year. Purges feed the river with solid material, but as the means of transporting it, the water, is being abstracted, sediment transport capacity is reduced. In theory, this does not eliminate sediment connectivity, but rather reduces it: the sediment is still delivered, but it can only be transported for a reduced duration; and the results may be profound hydrogeomorphic and ecosystem impacts, including downstream aggradation. In this study, we present results from a combined study of fluvial geomorphology, hydrology and ecosystem impacts of flow abstraction at water intakes. Using hydrodynamic modelling, we show that because the duration of remobilisation of purges and the peak discharge are much shorter than under natural flows, this causes the formation of a zone of sediment aggradation that moves progressively downstream as a sediment wave, leading to sedimentation

  4. Habitat Range of two Alpine Medicinal Plants in a Trans-Himalayan Dry Valley, Central Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharat Babu SHRESTHA; Pramod Kumar JHA

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the habitat range of threatened Himalayan medicinal plants which are declining in their abundance due to high anthropogenic disturbances is essential for developing conservation strategies and agro-technologies for cultivation. In this communication, we have discussed the habitat range of two alpine medicinal plants, Aconitum naviculare (Briihl) Stapf and Neopierorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennel) Hong in a trans-Himalayan dry valley of central Nepal, Manang district. They are the most prioritized medicinal plants of the study area in terms of ethnomedicinal uses. A. naviculare occurs on warm and dry south facing slopes between 4090-4650 m asl along with sclerophyllous and thorny alpine scrubs, while N. serophulariiflora is exclusively found on cool and moist north facing slope between 4o0o and 4400 m asl where adequate water is available from snow melt to create a suitable habitat for this wetland dependent species. The soil in rooting zone of the two plants differs significantly in organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N) and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Due to cool and moist condition of N. scrophulariiflora habitat, accumulation of soil OC is higher, but soil N content is lower probably due to slow release from litter, higher leaching loss and greater retention in perennial live biomass of the plant. The C/N ratio of soil is more suitable in A. navuculare habitat than that of N scrophulariiflora for N supply. Warm and sunny site with N rich soft can be suitable for cultivation of A. naviculare, while moist and cool site with organic soil for N. scrophulariiflora. The populations of both the plants are fragmented and small. Due to collection by human and trampling damage by livestock, the population of A. naviculare was found absent in open areas in five of the six sampling sites and it was confined only within the bushes of alpine scrubs. For N. serophulariiflora, high probability of complete receding of small glaciers may

  5. Mountain Rivers and Climate Change: Analysis of hazardous events in torrents of small alpine watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzmann, Silke; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Torrential processes like flooding, heavy bedload transport or debris flows in steep mountain channels emerge during intense, highly localized rainfall events. They pose a serious risk on the densely populated Alpine region. Hydrogeomorphic hazards are profoundly nonlinear, threshold mediated phenomena frequently causing costly damage to infrastructure and people. Thus, in the context of climate change, there is an ever rising interest in whether sediment cascades of small alpine catchments react to changing precipitation patterns and how the climate signal is propagated through the fluvial system. We intend to answer the following research questions: (i) What are critical meteorological characteristics triggering torrential events in the Eastern Alps of Austria? (ii) The effect of external triggers is strongly mediated by the internal disposition of catchments to respond. Which factors control the internal susceptibility? (iii) Do torrential processes show an increase in magnitude and frequency or a shift in seasonality in the recent past? (iv) Which future changes can be expected under different climate scenarios? Quantifications of bedload transport in small alpine catchments are rare and often associated with high uncertainties. Detailed knowledge though exists for the Schöttlbach catchment, a 71 km2 study area in Styria in the Eastern Alps. The torrent is monitored since a heavy precipitation event resulted in a disastrous flood in July 2011. Sediment mobilisation from slopes as well as within-channel storage and fluxes are regularly measured by photogrammetric methods and sediment impact sensors (SIS). The associated hydro-meteorological conditions are known from a dense station network. Changing states of connectivity can thus be related to precipitation and internal dynamics (sediment availability, cut-and-fill cycles). The site-specific insights are then conceptualized for application to a broader scale. Therefore, a Styria wide database of torrential

  6. Multi-stage origin of the Coast Range ophiolite, California: Implications for the life cycle of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J.W.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Renne, P.; Hanan, B.B.; Murchey, B.; Snow, C.A.; Zoglman, Schuman M.M.; Beaman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Coast Range ophiolite of California is one of the most extensive ophiolite terranes in North America, extending over 700 km from the northernmost Sacramento Valley to the southern Transverse Ranges in central California. This ophiolite, and other ophiolite remnants with similar mid-Jurassic ages, represent a major but short-lived episode of oceanic crust formation that affected much of western North America. The history of this ophiolite is important for models of the tectonic evolution of western North America during the Mesozoic, and a range of conflicting interpretations have arisen. Current petrologic, geochemical, stratigraphic, and radiometric age data all favor the interpretation that the Coast Range ophiolite formed to a large extent by rapid extension in the forearc region of a nascent subduction zone. Closer inspection of these data, however, along with detailed studies of field relationships at several locales, show that formation of the ophiolite was more complex, and requires several stages of formation. Our work shows that exposures of the Coast Range ophiolite preserve evidence for four stages of magmatic development. The first three stages represent formation of the ophiolite above a nascent subduction zone. Rocks associated with the first stage include ophiolite layered gabbros, a sheeted complex, and volcanic rocks vith arc tholeiitic or (roore rarely) low-K calc-alkaline affinities. The second stage is characterized by intrusive wehrlite-clinopyroxenite complexes, intrusive gabbros, Cr-rich diorites, and volcanic rocks with high-Ca boninitic or tholeiitic ankaramite affinities. The third stage includes diorite and quartz diorite plutons, felsic dike and sill complexes, and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. The first three stages of ophiolite formation were terminated by the intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt dikes, and the eruption of mid-ocean ridge basalt or ocean-island basalt volcanic suites. We interpret this final magmatic event (MORB

  7. Social exclusion and quality of life related to health in people from 25 to 60 years old living in the northeast zone, Medellín, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Sepúlveda H

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the perception of social exclusion andits demographic, economic, and sociopolitical participationdimensions as well as its association with the Health-RelatedQuality of Life (HRQOL of people aged 25 to 60 living in thenortheastern area of Medellin - Colombia, 2009. Methodology:a cross-sectional study of association was conducted. Thesample size was calculated with a confidence level of 95%,an error of 4.5%, and a ratio of 0.28 derived from a study onsocial exclusion conducted in Medellín in 2008. The study wasconducted with a total of 404 subjects. The sample was obtainedthrough a probability, cluster, and multistage sampling thatwas proportional by sex and had no replacement. The data wasanalyzed using the spss v.15.0 and Stata 10 software. Results:22.8% of the population was perceived to be in a situation ofsocial exclusion. The assessment of the Health-Related Qualityof Life (hrqol showed high scores in all the domains of the SF-36 questionnaire. Significant differences were observed inrole physical (p = 0.000, role emotional (p = 0.000, and MentalHealth (p = 0.023 scores. Non-excluded individuals showedhigher scores in these domains. Conclusions: the results suggestthat the perception of social exclusion affects HRQOL andindividual health conditions may affect the perception of socialexclusion. This may be due to the fact that health (disease initself generates social exclusion or that the healthcare services inthe Colombian health system cause sick people to feel excluded.

  8. THE DICHOTOMY OF ACTUAL TORRENT CATCHMENTS:IS THERE AN ALPINE DISEASE?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter ERGENZINGER; Carmen de JONG

    2001-01-01

    Mountain torrents comprise zones of sediment erosion, transport and accumulation and constitute one of the most common geomorphological units of the Alpine region. During the second half of the 19th century the dynamics of these torrent basins were modified: the dichotomy created by new approaches of environmental engineering. The rise of 'Wildbachverbauung' (torrent engineering) led to the concept of storing as much sediment as possible in prior zones of erosion and transport. After less than one century, the former geomorphological setting was replaced by engineered torrent systems. In contrast to natural systems a zone of reduced erosion is followed by a step-like sequence of small dams and storage basins and led to an eroded fan area, which is protected from further erosion by an additional series of small dams and protective measures.Mountain torrent engineering was based on the claim that zones of erosion are "ill" developed parts of torrent basins which have to be "cured" in order to create "healthy" nature. These arguments oppose historic approaches. Flood and sediment problems in the Lainbach basin in Upper Bavaria south of Munich were treated by the administration of the monastery in Benediktbeuem with more rational and closer co-operation to nature and far less bolstered budgets than nowadays. Nobody wrote about "diseases" of mountain torrents. Instead, hazards and danger were taken for granted and damages were mitigated in the cheapest ways possible. Limited by actual financial constraints, these historic approaches are of high interest for future development of cheaper and more sustainable strategies of sediment and flood control in mountain torrents.

  9. Des broussailles dans les prairies alpines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Camacho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape closing due to the decline in agricultural activity is considered to be a major problem in the Alps. Abondance Valley provides a good example of this phenomenon and is also representative of a paradox commonly found in the Northern French Alps: the mountainsides and alpine pastures are still used, whereas they are becoming increasingly afforested. Environmental conditions play a major role in the localisation of agricultural land uses, but they are not sufficient to explain why pastures still in use are being invaded by shrub. Even if cutting makes it possible to effectively control the encroachment by woody species, this is not true for uncut pastures where grazing is not able to keep up with grass production. This situation is repeated every year and is the likely cause of the colonisation by woody species. To ensure their forage system and to simplify their work, farmers tend to establish grazing units that are oversized in relation to the needs of their animals. They implement compensatory practices that consist of mechanical maintenance as a complement to grazing to limit the dynamics of woody species. These labour-intensive practices are not used on all of the pastures. The analysis of farmers’ practices by agronomists is therefore a useful complement to studies of physical and socio-economic environments, at the level of the grazed field as well as at that of the valley as a whole.La dégradation des paysages par suite du recul de l’activité agricole est considérée comme un enjeu majeur dans les Alpes. La vallée d’Abondance illustre bien ce phénomène de fermeture de l’espace mais elle est en outre représentative d’un paradoxe assez répandu dans les Alpes du nord françaises : les versants et les alpages sont encore exploités et pourtant ils se boisent progressivement. Les conditions de milieux jouent un rôle majeur sur la localisation des usages agricoles de l'espace, mais elles ne peuvent pas suffire pour

  10. Foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Changhui; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Chuan; Huang, Chunping; Tan, Yu; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-10-01

    Litter decomposition is a biological process fundamental to element cycling and a main nutrient source within forest meta-ecosystems, but few studies have looked into this process simultaneously in individual ecosystems, where environmental factors can vary substantially. A two-year field study conducted in an alpine forest meta-ecosystem with four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana) that varied widely in chemical traits showed that both litter species and ecosystem type (i.e., forest floor, stream and riparian zone) are important factors affecting litter decomposition, and their effects can be moderated by local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability. Litter decomposed fastest in the streams followed by the riparian zone and forest floor regardless of species. For a given litter species, both the k value and limit value varied significantly among ecosystems, indicating that the litter decomposition rate and extent (i.e., reaching a limit value) can be substantially affected by ecosystem type and the local-scale environmental factors. Apart from litter initial acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) concentration and its ratio to nitrogen concentration (i.e., AUR/N ratio), the initial nutrient concentrations of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were also important litter traits that affected decomposition depending on the ecosystem type.

  11. Theoretical design and field deployment of a dense strong motion instrument network for the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, C.; Berril, J.; Pettinga, J.

    2003-04-01

    A dense network of strong motion seismometers is being developed in order to investigate the complexities of the upper crustal rupture process and propagation of major seismogenic sources such as the Alpine Fault and strands of the Marlborough Fault System defining the South Island sector of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone. The proposed network is designed as a dense array of approximately 20 accelerographs using the University of Canterbury 12-bit CUSP instrument, now nearing development completion. It will be deployed straddling the Alpine Fault in the central West Coast region of the South Island, and coverage will extend across the region at the Alpine-Hope Fault junction also. The array layout is being designed utilizing the frequency-analysis MUSIC method (Multiple Signal Characterization) developed by Goldstein and Archuleta (1991a&b). Synthetic strong-motion records were computed using an empirical Green's function synthetic seismogram program EMPSYN (Hutchings, 1987). The process of finding an optimal network configuration is dependent on the geometry of the array (study of the frequency analysis performance of the modelled earthquake data for various proposed array configurations), and on the instrument site conditions (geology, communications, accessibility, isolation etc). References Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991a). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; data analysis." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6187-6198. Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991b). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; theory and methods." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6173-6185. Hutchings, L. J. (1987). "Modelling strong earthquake ground motion with empirical Green's function", Ph.D. thesis, Department of

  12. Innovation in the plural of the alpine cre-actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective – thus organisational – dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to change the ecological, political, social and cultural relationships engaging the actors in these territories. This change affects as much the object territory as the subject actor of the territory. This is why innovating in the Alps means also innovating the Alps and the alpine actors (Cosalp, 2008. Based on a research about local people’s participation in the management of alpine communal forests, the article shows the importance of local interactions involving actors of diverse occupation, gender, age and origins1.La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations

  13. MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES OF CATTLE BREEDS REARED IN ALPINE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Visentin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to apply mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction models developed for milk coagulation properties (MCP to a spectral dataset of 123,240 records collected over a 2-year period in the Alpine area, and to investigate sources of variation of the predicted MCP. Mixed linear models included fixed effects of breed, month and year of sampling, days in milk, parity, and the interactions between the main effects. Random effects were herd nested within breed, cow nested within breed, and the residual. All fixed effects were significant (P<0.05 in explaining the variation of MCP. In particular, milk clotting characteristics varied significantly among breeds, and local Alpine Grey breed exhibited the most favourable processing characteristics. Milk coagulation properties varied across lactation and were at their worst after the peak.

  14. Use of remote sensing for hydrological parameterisation of Alpine catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bach

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically-based water balance models require a realistic parameterisation of land surface characteristics of a catchment. Alpine areas are very complex with strong topographically-induced gradients of environmental conditions, which makes the hydrological parameterisation of Alpine catchments difficult. Within a few kilometres the water balance of a region (mountain peak or valley can differ completely. Hence, remote sensing is invaluable for retrieving hydrologically relevant land surface parameters. The assimilation of the retrieved information into the water balance model PROMET is demonstrated for the Toce basin in Piemonte/Northern Italy. In addition to land use, albedos and leaf area indices were derived from LANDSAT-TM imagery. Runoff, modelled by a water balance approach, agreed well with observations without calibration of the hydrological model. Keywords: PROMET, fuzzy logic based land use classification, albedo, leaf area index

  15. Impact of climatic change on alpine ecosystems: inference and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel G. Yoccoz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine ecosystems will be greatly impacted by climatic change, but other factors, such as land use and invasive species, are likely to play an important role too. Climate can influence ecosystems at several levels. We describe some of them, stressing methodological approaches and available data. Climate can modify species phenology, such as flowering date of plants and hatching date in insects. It can also change directly population demography (survival, reproduction, dispersal, and therefore species distribution. Finally it can effect interactions among species – snow cover for example can affect the success of some predators. One characteristic of alpine ecosystems is the presence of snow cover, but surprisingly the role played by snow is relatively poorly known, mainly for logistical reasons. Even if we have made important progress regarding the development of predictive models, particularly so for distribution of alpine plants, we still need to set up observational and experimental networks which properly take into account the variability of alpine ecosystems and of their interactions with climate.Les écosystèmes alpins vont être grandement influencés par les changements climatiques à venir, mais d’autres facteurs, tels que l’utilisation des terres ou les espèces invasives, pourront aussi jouer un rôle important. Le climat peut influencer les écosystèmes à différents niveaux, et nous en décrivons certains, en mettant l’accent sur les méthodes utilisées et les données disponibles. Le climat peut d’abord modifier la phénologie des espèces, comme la date de floraison des plantes ou la date d’éclosion des insectes. Il peut ensuite affecter directement la démographie des espèces (survie, reproduction, dispersion et donc à terme leur répartition. Il peut enfin agir sur les interactions entre espèces – le couvert neigeux par exemple modifie le succès de certains prédateurs. Une caractéristique des

  16. Hydrologic response to valley-scale structure in alpine headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, Anne A.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Montgomery, David R.; Woodward, Andrea; Bolton, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Few systematic studies of valley-scale geomorphic drivers of streamflow regimes in complex alpine headwaters have compared response between catchments. As a result, little guidance is available for regional-scale hydrological research and monitoring efforts that include assessments of ecosystem function. Physical parameters such as slope, elevation range, drainage area and bedrock geology are often used to stratify differences in streamflow response between sampling sites within an ecoregion. However, these metrics do not take into account geomorphic controls on streamflow specific to glaciated mountain headwaters. The coarse-grained nature of depositional features in alpine catchments suggests that these landforms have little water storage capacity because hillslope runoff moves rapidly just beneath the rock mantle before emerging in fluvial networks. However, recent studies show that a range of depositional features, including talus slopes, protalus ramparts and 'rock-ice' features may have more storage capacity than previously thought.

  17. Ameloblastic fibroma in an alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, F E; Iussich, S; Grande, D; Carpignano, M; Chiappino, L; Sereno, A; Ferroglio, E; Bollo, E

    2015-04-01

    Spontaneous odontogenic tumors are neoplasms characterized by a mixed odontogenic ectomesenchymal and odontogenic epithelial origin; they are rare in both humans and animals. A 3-year-old male Alpine Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) was found dead in north-west Italy, and was referred for the necropsy to the Department of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Turin (Italy). At the external examination a 10 × 8 cm, exophytic, red-pink, smooth, firm and ulcerated mass was observed on the inferior lip. Histologically the tumor was characterized by spindle shaped cells arranged in bundles in an abundant hyaline matrix. Multifocal and rare chords of odontogenic epithelium mixed with rare melanocytes that penetrate the neoplasia were visible. Immunohistochemistry showed a clear cytokeratin positivity of epithelial clusters. Macroscopical, histological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with a diagnosis of locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of this tumor in a wild ungulate and in Alpine Chamois.

  18. Deep Fault Drilling Project—Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Sutherland

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, constitutes a globally significant natural laboratory for research into how active plate-bounding continental faults work and, in particular, how rocks exposed at the surface today relate to deep-seated processes of tectonic deformation, seismogenesis, and mineralization. The along-strike homogeneity of the hanging wall, rapid rate of dextral-reverse slip on an inclined fault plane, and relatively shallow depths to mechanical and chemical transitions make the Alpine Fault and the broader South Island plate boundary an important international site for multi-disciplinary research and a realistic target for an ambitious long-term program of scientific drilling investigations.

  19. Alpine treeline and timberline dynamics during the Holocene in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    High altitude environments (treeline and alpine communities) are particularly sensitive to climate changes, disturbances and land-use changes due to their limited tolerance and adaptability range, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. The current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree- and timberlines upwards thus affecting alpine plant communities and causing land-cover change and fragmentation of alpine habitats. An upslope movement of some trees, shrubs and co...

  20. Alpine Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Passive Seismic Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Brückl, Ewald; Hausmann, Helmut; Behm, Michael; Lippitsch, Regina; Mitterbauer, Ulrike; Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics Vienna University of Technology (Hrsg.)

    2008-01-01

    The project ALPASS is a passive seismic monitoring project aiming to reveal upper mantle, lower lithosphere, and asthenosphere beneath the wider Eastern Alpine region, including the Bohemian Massive, the Carpathians, the Pannonian Basin, and the Dinarides. A 3D seismic model which will provide crustal corrections to the seismic travel times has been generated in this area down to the Moho and the uppermost mantle from data of former projects CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002. ALPASS will yield in...

  1. On a possible mechanism of Alpine debris flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. SCHEIDEGGER

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenology and previous mechanical theories of Alpine debris flows are reviewed. A new model for the mechanics of such debris flows is proposed which is based on the notion of dispersive pressure occurring in shear flows introduced by Bagnold. It is shown that the values of the dynamical variables required by this model are of the order of magnitude of those observed in nature.

  2. Detecting Code-Switching in a Multilingual Alpine Heritage Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Martin; Clematide, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes experiments in detecting and annotating code-switching in a large multilingual diachronic corpus of Swiss Alpine texts. The texts are in English, French, German, Italian, Romansh and Swiss German. Because of the multilingual authors (mountaineers, scientists) and the assumed multilingual readers, the texts contain numerous code-switching elements. When building and annotating the corpus, we faced issues of language identification on the sentence and sub-sentential level. ...

  3. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

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    Dan E. Chamberlain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds. For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community.

  4. Contrasting water use pattern of introduced and native plants in an alpine desert ecosystem, Northeast Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huawu, E-mail: wuhuawu416@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Xiao-Yan, E-mail: xyli@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Jiang, Zhiyun; Chen, Huiying; Zhang, Cicheng; Xiao, Xiong [College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Plant water use patterns reflect the complex interactions between different functional types and environmental conditions in water-limited ecosystems. However, the mechanisms underlying the water use patterns of plants in the alpine desert of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau remain poorly understood. This study investigated seasonal variations in the water sources of herbs (Carex moorcroftii, Astragalus adsurgens) and shrubs (Artemisia oxycephala, Hippophae rhamnoides) using stable oxygen-18 isotope methods. The results indicated that the native herbs (C. moorcroftii, A. adsurgens) and one of the shrubs (A. oxycephala) mainly relied on water from the shallow layer (0–30 cm) throughout the growing season, while the introduced shrub (H. rhamnoides) showed plasticity in switching between water from shallow and deep soil layers depending on soil water availability. All studied plants primarily depended on water from shallow soil layers early in the season. The differences of water use patterns between the introduced and native plants are closely linked with the range of active root zones when competing for water. Our findings will facilitate the mechanistic understanding of plant–soil–water relations in alpine desert ecosystems and provide information for screening introduced species for sand fixation. - Highlights: • Stable oxygen-18 in soil water experienced great evaporation enrichment. • H. rhamnoides experiences a flexible plasticity to switch between shallow and deep soil water. • Native plants mostly relied on shallow and middle soil water. • Water-use patterns by introduced-native plants are controlled by root characteristics.

  5. Contrasting water use pattern of introduced and native plants in an alpine desert ecosystem, Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huawu; Li, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Zhiyun; Chen, Huiying; Zhang, Cicheng; Xiao, Xiong

    2016-01-15

    Plant water use patterns reflect the complex interactions between different functional types and environmental conditions in water-limited ecosystems. However, the mechanisms underlying the water use patterns of plants in the alpine desert of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau remain poorly understood. This study investigated seasonal variations in the water sources of herbs (Carex moorcroftii, Astragalus adsurgens) and shrubs (Artemisia oxycephala, Hippophae rhamnoides) using stable oxygen-18 isotope methods. The results indicated that the native herbs (C. moorcroftii, A. adsurgens) and one of the shrubs (A. oxycephala) mainly relied on water from the shallow layer (0-30 cm) throughout the growing season, while the introduced shrub (H. rhamnoides) showed plasticity in switching between water from shallow and deep soil layers depending on soil water availability. All studied plants primarily depended on water from shallow soil layers early in the season. The differences of water use patterns between the introduced and native plants are closely linked with the range of active root zones when competing for water. Our findings will facilitate the mechanistic understanding of plant-soil-water relations in alpine desert ecosystems and provide information for screening introduced species for sand fixation.

  6. Elevational sensitivity in an Asian ‘hotspot’: moth diversity across elevational gradients in tropical, sub-tropical and sub-alpine China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, L. A.; Nakamura, A.; Burwell, C. J.; Tang, Y.; Cao, M.; Whitaker, T.; Sun, Z.; Huang, H.; Kitching, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    South-western China is widely acknowledged as a biodiversity ‘hotspot’: there are high levels of diversity and endemism, and many environments are under significant anthropogenic threats not least climate warming. Here, we explore diversity and compare response patterns of moth assemblages among three elevational gradients established within different climatic bioregions - tropical rain forest, sub-tropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and sub-alpine coniferous forest in Yunnan Province, China. We hypothesised that tropical assemblages would be more elevationally stratified than temperate assemblages, and tropical species would be more elevationally restricted than those in the temperate zone. Contrary to our hypothesis, the moth fauna was more sensitive to elevational differences within the temperate transect, followed by sub-tropical and tropical transects. Moths in the cooler and more seasonal temperate sub-alpine gradient showed stronger elevation-decay beta diversity patterns, and more species were restricted to particular elevational ranges. Our study suggests that moth assemblages are under threat from future climate change and sub-alpine rather than tropical faunas may be the most sensitive to climate change. These results improve our understanding of China’s biodiversity and can be used to monitor future changes to herbivore assemblages in a ‘hotspot’ of biodiversity. PMID:27211989

  7. Changes in alpine plant growth under future climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rammig

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine shrub- and grasslands are shaped by extreme climatic conditions such as a long-lasting snow cover and a short vegetation period. Such ecosystems are expected to be highly sensitive to global environmental change. Prolonged growing seasons and shifts in temperature and precipitation are likely to affect plant phenology and growth. In a unique experiment, climatology and plant growth was monitored for almost a decade at 17 snow meteorological stations in different alpine regions along the Swiss Alps. Regression analyses revealed highly significant correlations between mean air temperature in May/June and snow melt out, onset of plant growth, and plant height. These correlations were used to project plant growth phenology for future climate conditions based on the gridded output of a set of regional climate models runs. Melt out and onset of growth were projected to occur on average 17 days earlier by the end of the century than in the control period from 1971–2000 under the future climate conditions of the low resolution climate model ensemble. Plant height and biomass production were expected to increase by 77% and 45%, respectively. The earlier melt out and onset of growth will probably cause a considerable shift towards higher growing plants and thus increased biomass. Our results represent the first quantitative and spatially explicit estimates of climate change impacts on future growing season length and the respective productivity of alpine plant communities in the Swiss Alps.

  8. Numerical simulation of a turning alpine ski during recreational skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Y; Tada, N

    1996-09-01

    While downhill snow skiing, recreational alpine skiers enjoy making turning motions with their skis. These motions are mainly induced by skidding, while turning by alpine ski racers is made by carving a trace in the snow. In the present study we treat the turning motions by recreational alpine skiers. This "skidding" turning motion is made possible by centripetal forces acting on the ski and skier dynamic motion systems, with these forces arising due to the skier placing the ski's longitudinal axis at an angle that is inclined away from the velocity vector and edging the ski into the snow. When snow is soft, the edged ski creates a snow impacting force, whereas a snow cutting force occurs when it is hard. Here, we calculate the former force using a three-dimensional water jet analogy, while the latter one using conventional metal cutting theory, after which the corresponding equations of motion for each system are derived and numerically solved. This methodology enables simulating the curvilinear and rotational motion of the ski and skier systems. Resultant simulations quantitatively show for the first time that the resultant radius of curvature of a ski track while downhill skiing is strongly dependent on the location of the ski boot on the ski's longitudinal axis and also on its side-cut (midlength taper).

  9. Effects of eccentric cycle ergometry in alpine skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M; Lüthy, F; Kroell, J; Müller, E; Hoppeler, H; Vogt, M

    2010-08-01

    Eccentric cycling, where the goal is to resist the pedals, which are driven by a motor, increases muscle strength and size in untrained subjects. We hypothesized that it could also be beneficial for athletes, particularly in alpine skiing, which involves predominantly eccentric contractions at longer muscle lengths. We investigated the effects of replacing part of regular weight training with eccentric cycling in junior male alpine skiers using a matched-pair design. Control subjects ( N=7) executed 1-h weight sessions 3 times per week, which included 4-5 sets of 4 leg exercises. The eccentric group ( N=8) performed only 3 sets, followed by continuous sessions on the eccentric ergometer for the remaining 20 min. After 6 weeks, lean thigh mass increased significantly only in the eccentric group. There was a groupxtime effect on squat-jump height favouring the eccentric group, which also experienced a 6.5% improvement in countermovement-jump height. The ability to finely modulate muscle force during variable eccentric cycling improved 50% (p=0.004) only in the eccentric group. Although eccentric cycling did not significantly enhance isometric leg strength, we believe it is beneficial for alpine skiers because it provides an efficient means for hypertrophy while closely mimicking the type of muscle actions encountered while skiing.

  10. Comparison modeling for alpine vegetation distribution in an arid area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jihua; Lai, Liming; Guan, Tianyu; Cai, Wetao; Gao, Nannan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dawen; Cong, Zhentao; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2016-07-01

    Mapping and modeling vegetation distribution are fundamental topics in vegetation ecology. With the rise of powerful new statistical techniques and GIS tools, the development of predictive vegetation distribution models has increased rapidly. However, modeling alpine vegetation with high accuracy in arid areas is still a challenge because of the complexity and heterogeneity of the environment. Here, we used a set of 70 variables from ASTER GDEM, WorldClim, and Landsat-8 OLI (land surface albedo and spectral vegetation indices) data with decision tree (DT), maximum likelihood classification (MLC), and random forest (RF) models to discriminate the eight vegetation groups and 19 vegetation formations in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin in the Qilian Mountains, northwest China. The combination of variables clearly discriminated vegetation groups but failed to discriminate vegetation formations. Different variable combinations performed differently in each type of model, but the most consistently important parameter in alpine vegetation modeling was elevation. The best RF model was more accurate for vegetation modeling compared with the DT and MLC models for this alpine region, with an overall accuracy of 75 % and a kappa coefficient of 0.64 verified against field point data and an overall accuracy of 65 % and a kappa of 0.52 verified against vegetation map data. The accuracy of regional vegetation modeling differed depending on the variable combinations and models, resulting in different classifications for specific vegetation groups.

  11. Abiotic and biotic controls of spatial pattern at alpine treeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Xiao, Ningchuan; Alftine, K.J.; Bekker, Mathew; Butler, David R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Cairns, David M.; Fagre, Daniel; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    At alpine treeline, trees and krummholz forms affect the environment in ways that increase their growth and reproduction. We assess the way in which these positive feedbacks combine in spatial patterns to alter the environment in the neighborhood of existing plants. The research is significant because areas of alpine tundra are susceptible to encroachment by woody species as climate changes. Moreover, understanding the general processes of plant invasion is important. The importance of spatial pattern has been recognized, but the spatial pattern of positive feedbacks per se has not been explored in depth. We present a linked set of models of vegetation change at an alpine forest-tundra ecotone. Our aim is to create models that are as simple as possible in order to test specific hypotheses. We present results from a model of the resource averaging hypothesis and the positive feedback switch hypothesis of treelines. We compare the patterns generated by the models to patterns observed in fine scale remotely sensed data.

  12. Tourism and Water: Themes of the Alpine Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, R.

    2012-04-01

    1) The contribution reflects the personal opinion of the author and does not necessarily reflect the point of view of the Permanent Secretariat. The Alpine Convention is a multilateral framework treaty signed in 1991 by the eight states of the Alpine bow as well as the European Community. Its main objectives are the sustainable development of the Alpine territory and the safeguarding of the interests of the people living within it, embracing the environmental, social and economic dimensions in the broadest sense. In order to achieve its objectives, over the years the Framework Convention has been equipped with a large number of thematic protocols, e.g. on tourism. The overall objective of the Protocol on Tourism, which first came into force in 2002, is to contribute to sustainable development in the Alpine region within the existing institutional framework, by encouraging environmentally-friendly tourism through specific measures and recommendations which take the interests of both the local population and tourists into account. The provisions of the Protocol on Tourism primarily concern tourism management and controlling tourist flows, structural developments such as ski lifts and ski slopes, accommodation and the balanced development of economically weak areas. Guidelines, development plans, sectoral plans have to be adopted at the appropriate territorial level in order to enable to assess the impact of tourism development on, inter alia, water. This extends also to ski slopes developments. For example the production of artificial snow production may be authorized only if the location's hydrological, climatic and ecological conditions allow. Water is listed among the twelve themes in relation to which the Contracting Parties are supposed to take measures and coordinate their policies (Article 2 of the Framework Convention). The Alpine Convention aims to preserve and re-establish healthy water systems, especially keeping waters clean and protecting the natural

  13. Alpine biodiversity and assisted migration: The case of the American pika (Ochotona princeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Jennifer L.; Ray, Chris; Ramsay, Nathan G.; Klingler, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Alpine mammals are predicted to be among the species most threatened by climate change, due to the projected loss and further fragmentation of alpine habitats. As temperature or precipitation regimes change, alpine mammals may also be faced with insurmountable barriers to dispersal. The slow rate or inability to adjust to rapidly shifting environmental conditions may cause isolated alpine species to become locally extirpated, resulting in reduced biodiversity. One proposed method for mitigating the impacts of alpine species loss is assisted migration. This method, which involves translocating a species to an area with more favourable climate and habitat characteristics, has become the subject of debate and controversy in the conservation community. The uncertainty associated with climate change projections, coupled with the thermal sensitivity of many alpine mammals, makes it difficult to a priori assess the efficacy of this technique as a conservation management tool. Here we present the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as a case study. American pikas inhabit rocky areas throughout the western US, and populations in some mountainous areas have become locally extirpated in recent years. We review known climatic and habitat requirements for this species, and also propose protocols designed to reliably identify favourable relocation areas. We present data related to the physiological constraints of this species and outline specific requirements which must be addressed for translocation of viable populations, including wildlife disease and genetic considerations. Finally, we discuss potential impacts on other alpine species and alpine communities, and overall implications for conserving alpine biodiversity in a changing climate.

  14. Rainfall intensity–duration thresholds for bedload transport initiation in small Alpine watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Badoux

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although channel discharge represents one of the primary controls of bedload transport rates in mountain streams, it is rarely measured in small, steep catchments. Thus, it is often impossible to use it as a predictor of hazardous bedload events. In this study, the characteristics of rainfall events leading to bedload transport were investigated in five small Alpine catchments located in different geographical and morphological regions of Switzerland, Italy and France. Using rainfall data at high temporal resolution, a total of 370 rainfall events were identified that led to abundant sediment transport in the different catchments, and corresponding threshold lines were defined using a power law in intensity–duration space. Even though considerable differences in the distribution of the rainfall data were identified between catchments located in various regions, the determined threshold lines show rather similar characteristics.

    Such threshold lines indicate critical conditions for bedload transport initiation, but rainfall events that do not cause transport activity (so called no-bedload events can still plot above them. With 0.67 overall in the Erlenbach (Swiss Prealps and 0.90 for long-duration, low-intensity rainfall, the false alarm rate is considerable. However, for short-duration, high-intensity events, it is substantially smaller (0.33 and comparable to values determined in previous studies on the triggering of Alpine debris flows. Our results support the applicability of a traditional, generalized threshold for prediction or warning purposes during high-intensity rainfall. Such (often convective rainfall events are unfortunately (i difficult to measure, even by dense rain gauge networks, and (ii difficult to accurately predict, both due to their small spatial and temporal scales. Still, for the protection of human life (e.g. along transportation infrastructure such as roads and railway automated alerts based on power law

  15. The Caucasian-Arabian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan collisional belt: Geology, volcanism and neotectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasian-Arabian belt is part of the huge late Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt formed by collision of continental plates. The belt consists of two domains: the Caucasian-Arabian Syntaxis (CAS in the south and the EW-striking Greater Caucasus in the north. The CAS marks a zone of the indentation of the Arabian plate into the southern East European Craton. The Greater Caucasus Range is located in the south of the Eurasian plate; it was tectonically uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (MCF, which is, in turn, a part of a megafault extended over a great distance from the Kopetdag Mts. to the Tornquist-Teisseyre Trans-European Suture Zone. The Caucasus Mts. are bounded by the Black Sea from the west and by the Caspian Sea from the east. The SN-striking CAS is characterized by a large geophysical isostatic anomaly suggesting presence of mantle plume head. A 500 km long belt of late Cenozoic volcanism in the CAS extends from the eastern Anatolia to the Lesser and Greater Caucasus ranges. This belt hosts two different types of volcanic rocks: (1 plume-type intraplate basaltic plateaus and (2 suprasubduction-type calc-alkaline and shoshonite-latite volcanic rocks. As the CAS lacks signatures of subduction zones and is characterized by relatively shallow earthquakes (50–60 km, we suggest that the “suprasubduction-type” magmas were derived by interaction between mantle plume head and crustal material. Those hybrid melts were originated under conditions of collision-related deformation. During the late Cenozoic, the width of the CAS reduced to ca. 400 km due to tectonic “diffluence” of crustal material provided by the continuing Arabia-Eurasia collision.

  16. From rifting to passive margin: the examples of the Red Sea, Central Atlantic and Alpine Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, P.; Stampfli, G. M.

    1992-12-01

    Evolution of the Red Sea/Gulf of Suez and the Central Atlantic rift systems shows that an initial, transtensive rifting phase, affecting a broad area around the future zone of crustal separation, was followed by a pre-oceanic rifting phase during which extensional strain was concentrated on the axial rift zone. This caused lateral graben systems to become inactive and they evolved into rift-rim basins. The transtensive phase of diffuse crustal extension is recognized in many intra-continental rifts. If controlling stress systems relax, these rifts abort and develop into palaeorifts. If controlling stress systems persist, transtensive rift systems can enter the pre-oceanic rifting stage, during which the rift zone narrows and becomes asymmetric as a consequence of simple-shear deformation at shallow crustal levels and pure shear deformation at lower crustal and mantle-lithospheric levels. Preceding crustal separation, extensional denudation of the lithospheric mantle is possible. Progressive lithospheric attenuation entails updoming of the asthenosphere and thermal doming of the rift shoulders. Their uplift provides a major clastic source for the rift basins and the lateral rift-rim basins. Their stratigraphic record provides a sensitive tool for dating the rift shoulder uplift. Asymmetric rifting leads to the formation of asymmetric continental margins, corresponding in a simple-shear model to an upper plate and a conjugate lower plate margin, as seen in the Central Atlantic passive margins of the United States and Morocco. This rifting model can be successfully applied to the analysis of the Alpine Tethys palaeo-margins (such as Rif and the Western Alps).

  17. Cellulose Dynamics during Foliar Litter Decomposition in an Alpine Forest Meta-Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamics and relative drivers of cellulose degradation during litter decomposition, a field experiment was conducted in three individual ecosystems (i.e., forest floor, stream, and riparian zone of an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana that had varying initial litter chemical traits were placed separately in litterbags and then incubated on the soil surface of forest floor plots or in the water of the stream and riparian zone plots. Litterbags were retrieved five times each year during the two-year experiment, with nine replicates each time for each treatment. The results suggested that foliar litter lost 32.2%–89.2% of the initial dry mass depending on litter species and ecosystem type after two-year’s incubation. The cellulose lost 60.1%–96.8% of the initial mass with degradation rate in the order of stream > riparian zone > forest floor. Substantial cellulose degradation occurred at the very beginning (i.e., in the first pre-freezing period of litter decomposition. Litter initial concentrations of phosphorus (P and lignin were found to be the dominant chemical traits controlling cellulose degradation regardless of ecosystems type. The local-scale environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability were important moderators of cellulose degradation rate. Although the effects of common litter chemical traits (e.g., P and lignin concentrations on cellulose degradation across different individual ecosystems were identified, local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability were found to be of great importance for cellulose degradation. These results indicated that local-scale environmental factors should be considered apart from litter quality for generating a reliable predictive framework for the drivers

  18. The 'Guetsch' Alpine wind power test site; Alpine Test Site Guetsch. Handbuch und Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, R.

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of icing-up on the operation of wind turbines in mountainous areas. Within the Swiss research project 'Alpine Test Site Guetsch', extensive icing studies were carried out at the Guetsch site near Andermatt, Switzerland. This document deals with the following subjects: Information about ice formation on structures, in particular with respect to wind turbines, standards and international research activities, wind measurements under icing-up conditions, estimation of the frequency of icing-up conditions, effects of icing-up on wind turbines, ice detection, measures available for de-icing and anti-icing as well as ice throw. A list of factors to be taken into account by the planners and operators of wind turbines in alpine environments is presented.

  19. Study on quality of life and influencing factors of urban residents in Huaihai economic zone%淮海经济区城市居民生命质量与健康影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄水平; 黄晓静; 覃朝晖; 赵秋妮; 朱帅; 宋尧; 陈加玉; 刘会中

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the factors that affect the quality of life of urban residents in the Huaihai economic zone,and to improve the health level of the local urban residents. Methods World Health Organization on Quality of Life Brief Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) was adopted for investigation among 1 000 residents from 2 cities with better economic level (Xuzhou and Huai'an) and 3 cities with poorer economic level(Lianyungang,Suqian and Zaozhuang) in Huaihai economic zone,200 resi-dents were randomly selected from each city. Results Among different economic levels of the cities,the difference of residents on quality of life score was not statistically significant(P>0.05);factors affecting the quality of life of the residents mainly includ-ed the academic qnalification,marriage,chronic disease or not,smoking,drinking and sports. In the area of physiology,psycholo-gy,social relations and enviroment,physiology was the most influential factors. Conclusion Sports are the most important way to promote health,academic qaulification and marriage are the important protective factors for health,however,behaviors such as smoking and drinking can affect physical health.%目的:了解淮海经济区城市居民生命质量状况受到哪些因素的影响,以期提高该地区城市居民健康水平。方法采用世界卫生组织编写的生存质量测定简表(即WHOQOL-BREF)为主要内容的调查问卷对淮海经济区经济水平较好的2个城市(徐州和淮安)和经济水平较差的3个城市(连云港、宿迁和枣庄)1000名居民(每城市随机调查200名居民)进行调查。结果不同经济水平城市的居民生命质量得分比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);对居民生命质量产生影响的因素主要为学历、婚姻、有无慢性病、吸烟、饮酒和体育运动。在生理、心理、社会关系、环境领域中生理领域受到最广泛的因素影响。结论体育运动是最重要的促进健康的手

  20. Photosynthetic benefits of ultraviolet-A to Pimelea ligustrina, a woody shrub of sub-alpine Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Tarryn L; Barlow, Alexandra M; Adams, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    The definition of photosynthetically active radiation (Q) as the visible waveband (λ 400-700 nm) is a core assumption of much of modern plant biology and global models of carbon and water fluxes. On the other hand, much research has focused on potential mutation and damage to leaves caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation (280-400 nm), and anatomical and physiological adaptations that help avoid such damage. Even so, plant responses to UV-A are poorly described and, until now, photosynthetic utilization of UV-A has not been elucidated under full light conditions in the field. We found that the UV-A content of sunlight increased photosynthetic rates in situ by 12% in Pimelea ligustrina Labill., a common and indigenous woody shrub of alpine ecosystems of the Southern Hemisphere. Compared to companion shrubs, UV-A-induced photosynthesis in P. ligustrina resulted from reduced physical and chemical capacities to screen UV-A at the leaf surface (illustrated by a lack of cuticle and reduced phenol index) and the resulting ability of UV-A to excite chlorophyll (Chl) a directly, and via energy provided by the carotenoid lutein. A screening of 55 additional sub-alpine species showed that 47% of the plant taxa also display Chl a fluorescence under UV-A. If Chl a fluorescence indicates potential for photosynthetic gain, continued exclusion of UV-A from definitions of Q in this ecosystem could result in underestimates of measured and modeled rates of photosynthesis and miscalculation of potential for carbon sequestration. We suggest that carbon gain for alpine environs across the globe could be similarly underestimated given that UV-A radiation increases with altitude and that the frequently dominant herb and grass life-forms often transmit UV-A through the epidermis.

  1. Methane cycling in alpine wetlands - an interplay of microbial communities and vascular plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Ruth; Cheema, Simrita; Zeyer, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Wetland environments play an important role for the global climate, as they represent a major terrestrial carbon store. These environments are potential sinks for atmospheric carbon due to reduced decomposition rates of plant material in the waterlogged, anoxic subsurface. In contrast, wetlands are also a major source of the highly potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4), which is produced in the anoxic zones through methanogenic archaea (methanogens) degrading organic matter. The CH4 emitted into the pore water diffuses upwards towards the surface, and is partially oxidized in the oxic zones by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (methanotrophs) before reaching the atmosphere. Nonetheless, global emissions of atmospheric CH4 from natural wetlands are estimated to range from 100 to 230 Tg a-1. Natural wetlands can be found around the globe, and are also common in temperate-cold climates in the Northern hemisphere. Methane release from these environments is influenced by many factors (e.g., vegetation, water table, temperature, pH) and shows high seasonal and spatial variability. To comprehend these variations and further predict potential responses to climate change, the biotic and abiotic processes involved in CH4 turnover need to be understood in detail. Many research projects focus on (sub-)arctic wetland areas, while studies on CH4 emissions from alpine wetlands are scarce, despite similar processes occurring in these different regions. Recently, we conducted a survey of 14 wetlands (i.e., fens vegetated with vascular plants) located in the Swiss Alps, showing CH4 emissions between 74 ± 43 and 711 ± 212 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (Franchini et al., in press). A detailed study of one fen also revealed that CH4 emission was highest immediately after snowmelt, followed by a decrease in CH4 emission throughout the snow-free period (Liebner et al., 2012). Even though the CH4 cycle is largely driven by microbially mediated processes, vascular plants also play a crucial role in CH4

  2. Impacts of permafrost changes on alpine ecosystem in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Genxu; LI; Yuanshou

    2006-01-01

    Alpine cold ecosystem with permafrost environment is quite sensitive to climatic changes and the changes in permafrost can significantly affect the alpine ecosystem. The vegetation coverage,grassland biomass and soil nutrient and texture are selected to indicate the regime of alpine cold ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The interactions between alpine ecosystem and permafrost were investigated with the depth of active layer, permafrost thickness and mean annual ground temperature (MAGTs). Based on the statistics model of GPTR for MAGTs and annual air temperatures, an analysis method was developed to analyze the impacts of permafrost changes on the alpine ecosystems. Under the climate change and human engineering activities, the permafrost change and its impacts on alpine ecosystems in the permafrost region between the Kunlun Mountains and the Tanggula Range of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are studied in this paper. The results showed that the permafrost changes have a different influence on different alpine ecosystems. With the increase in the thickness of active layer, the vegetation cover and biomass of the alpine cold meadow exhibit a significant conic reduction, the soil organic matter content of the alpine cold meadow ecosystem shows an exponential decrease, and the surface soil materials become coarse and gravelly. The alpine cold steppe ecosystem, however, seems to have a relatively weak relation to the permafrost environment.Those relationships resulted in the fact that the distribution area of alpine cold meadow decreased by 7.98% and alpine cold swamp decreased by 28.11% under the permafrost environment degradation during recent 15 years. In the future 50 years the alpine cold meadow ecosystems in different geomorphologic units may have different responses to the changes of the permafrost under different climate warming conditions, among them the alpine cold meadow and swamp ecosystem located in the Iow mountain and plateau area will have a relatively

  3. Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

  4. Early recruitment equals long-term relative abundance in an alpine saxicolous lichen guild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestmark, Geir; Skogesal, Olav; Skullerud, Øystein

    2007-01-01

    The relative abundance within a guild of six species of the lichen-forming fungal genus Umbilicaria was studied during primary colonization of rock surfaces in a chronosequence of ca. 245 y in an alpine glacier foreland in southern Norway. Although the density of the guild grew from zero to more than 1000 thalli/m2 and the species differ substantially in life history traits such as initial growth rate, maximal size, maturation rate and propagule types, the relative abundance among the species remained almost unchanged through those years. The relative abundance of species is correlated with their life history parameters, such as initial growth rate and size-related maturation. The pattern of relative abundance was also similar in the saxicolous communities outside the foreland, which are potentially several thousand years old. Outside the foreland however the density of the guild is only 1/10 of that in the oldest parts of the foreland, due to soil formation and vegetation growth that have covered many of the low profile rock habitats. Thus the areas affected by the disturbance of glacier expansions and retreats provide temporary opportunities for large increases in the population sizes of the members of the saxicolous community. The observations support the view that pre-emption of habitat rather than competitive exclusion is common in saxicolous lichen communities and that "succession" consists in the addition but rarely the loss of species.

  5. Isolated fracture of the fibular shaft due to alpine skiing; a specific injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Atıl Atilla, Ozkan Kose, Ferhat Guler, H

    2013-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal injuries of lower leg due to alpine skiing is well known and widely reported, an acute isolated fibula fracture as a specific ski injury has not been reported in the relevant literature. Herein, we present a case of isolated fibula fracture which is missed at initial admission, and discuss the mechanism of injury and relationship with alpine skiing equipment.

  6. A simple spatial model exploring positive feedbacks at tropical alpine treelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, M.; Rietkerk, M.; Bregt, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change could cause alpine treelines to shift in altitude or to change their spatial pattern, but little is known about the drivers of treeline dynamics and patterning. The position and patterns of tropical alpine treelines are generally attributed to land use, especially burning. Species int

  7. Investigating groundwater flow components in an Alpine relict rock glacier (Austria) using a numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Wagner, Thomas; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2016-11-01

    Relict rock glaciers are complex hydrogeological systems that might act as relevant groundwater storages; therefore, the discharge behavior of these alpine landforms needs to be better understood. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations at a relict rock glacier in the Niedere Tauern Range (Austria) reveal a slow and fast flow component that appear to be related to the heterogeneous structure of the aquifer. A numerical groundwater flow model was used to indicate the influence of important internal structures such as layering, preferential flow paths and aquifer-base topography. Discharge dynamics can be reproduced reasonably by both introducing layers of strongly different hydraulic conductivities or by a network of highly conductive channels within a low-conductivity zone. Moreover, the topography of the aquifer base influences the discharge dynamics, which can be observed particularly in simply structured aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity differences of three orders of magnitude are required to account for the observed discharge behavior: a highly conductive layer and/or channel network controlling the fast and flashy spring responses to recharge events, as opposed to less conductive sediment accumulations sustaining the long-term base flow. The results show that the hydraulic behavior of this relict rock glacier and likely that of others can be adequately represented by two aquifer components. However, the attempt to characterize the two components by inverse modeling results in ambiguity of internal structures when solely discharge data are available.

  8. Correlation of the seasonal isotopic amplitude of precipitation with annual evaporation and altitude in alpine regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jódar, J., E-mail: jjb.aquageo@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering and Environment, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Custodio, E., E-mail: emilio.custodio@upc.edu [Department of Civil Engineering and Environment, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Liotta, M., E-mail: marcello.liotta@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Lambán, L.J., E-mail: javier.lamban@igme.es [Geological Institute of Spain (IGME) (Spain); Herrera, C., E-mail: cherrera@ucn.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Católica del Norte UCN, Antofagasta (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de Tecnologías de Explotación Sustentable de Recursos Hídricos en Zonas Áridas (CEITSAZA), Antofagasta (Chile); Martos-Rosillo, S., E-mail: s.martos@igme.es [Geological Institute of Spain (IGME) (Spain); Sapriza, G., E-mail: gsapriza@gmail.com [Departamento del Agua, Centro Universitario Región Litoral Norte, Universidad de la República del Uruguay, Salto (Uruguay); Rigo, T., E-mail: tomeur@meteo.cat [Meteorological Service of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    The time series of stable water isotope composition relative to IAEA-GNIP meteorological stations located in alpine zones are analyzed in order to study how the amplitude of the seasonal isotopic composition of precipitation (A{sub δ}) varies along a vertical transect. A clear relationship between A{sub δ} and local evaporation is obtained, with slopes of − 0.87 ‰/100 mm/yr and − 7.3 ‰/100 mm/yr for A{sub δ{sup 1}{sup 8}O} and A{sub δ{sup 2}H}, respectively. When all sampling points of the vertical transect receive the same moisture sources, then a linear relationship between A{sub δ} and elevation is obtained, with vertical gradients of 0.16 ‰/100 mm/yr and 1.46 ‰/100 mm/yr for A{sub δ{sup 1}{sup 8}O} and A{sub δ{sup 2}H}, respectively. - Highlights: • Amplitude of seasonal isotopic composition of rainfall depends on local evaporation. • Isotopic amplitude depends on elevation if the air moisture sources are common. • Local evaporation is controlled by atmospheric local and synoptic conditions.

  9. Investigating groundwater flow components in an Alpine relict rock glacier (Austria) using a numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Wagner, Thomas; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    Relict rock glaciers are complex hydrogeological systems that might act as relevant groundwater storages; therefore, the discharge behavior of these alpine landforms needs to be better understood. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations at a relict rock glacier in the Niedere Tauern Range (Austria) reveal a slow and fast flow component that appear to be related to the heterogeneous structure of the aquifer. A numerical groundwater flow model was used to indicate the influence of important internal structures such as layering, preferential flow paths and aquifer-base topography. Discharge dynamics can be reproduced reasonably by both introducing layers of strongly different hydraulic conductivities or by a network of highly conductive channels within a low-conductivity zone. Moreover, the topography of the aquifer base influences the discharge dynamics, which can be observed particularly in simply structured aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity differences of three orders of magnitude are required to account for the observed discharge behavior: a highly conductive layer and/or channel network controlling the fast and flashy spring responses to recharge events, as opposed to less conductive sediment accumulations sustaining the long-term base flow. The results show that the hydraulic behavior of this relict rock glacier and likely that of others can be adequately represented by two aquifer components. However, the attempt to characterize the two components by inverse modeling results in ambiguity of internal structures when solely discharge data are available.

  10. The carbon accumulation and dissipation features of sub—alpine woodland in Mt.Gongga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGGenwei

    2003-01-01

    Based on biomass investigations,soil respiration and plant photosynthesis measurement of dominant trees in Hailuogou valley of Mt.Gongga,Southwest China,the carbon(C) storage,absorption and release for several typical woodlands in sub-alpine zones have been discussed.For Abies fahri forest of 3,000 m above sea level,the Cstorage amount is 177.4t/ha for above-ground biomass and 143.2 t/ha for soil below-ground biomass. The annual gross C fixed by vegetation photosynthesis is 20-24 t/ha. The C release by canopy respiration is 3.0-5.5 t/ha for arbors and 10-19 t/ha for surface soil and roots.The annual net C fixed of forest ecosystem is about 6.0-7.1 t/ha.At lower elevations,the amount of C released by woodlands is higher than that of woods at higher elevations.The C fixed capacity of renewed forest with middle-aged trees is higher than that of mature forest.Before becoming over-matured forest,woodland is an important sink of C whereas bareland in woods is the source of atmospheric C.

  11. Crustal structure and composition to the S of the Spanish Central System: Effect of Alpine reactivation in an internal Variscan domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, Puy; Carbonell, Ramón; Ehsan, Siddique; Martí, David; Palomeras, Immaculada; Martínez Poyatos, David

    2016-04-01

    The ALCUDIA Project has acquired vertical incidence and wide-angle reflection seismic data in the Variscan Central Iberian Zone of Spain. The NE-SW, ~300 km long profiles sample an area going from the suture between the Variscan Central Iberian and the Ossa-Morena Zones in the S to the boundary between the former and the Alpine Central System to the N. Although crustal thickness appears to be fairly constant along most of the Central Iberian Zone, a gradual increase of 3-5 km in the northern half of the profile is clearly imaged by the wide-angle data. This increase in the Moho depth is accompanied by a decrease in the thickness of the layered lower crust from the Toledo Anatectic Complex to the N. Right in this area, the amount of Variscan metasediments diminish and the surface geology is characterized by granites, migmatites and by the Madrid Basin, a foreland basin of the Alpine Central System that is part of the bigger Tagus Basin. The increase in crustal thickness identified in the neighborhood of the Central System is also accompanied by a slight increase in the Poisson ratio values, which even though still below 0.25, they are higher than those observed in the southern part of the profile, far from the influence of the late Variscan melting episode and of that of the Alpine tectonics. Two scenarios are considered to take part in the Moho deepening near the Central System: Firstly, the Alpine reactivation causing this mountain belt has increased the crustal load giving rise to a foreland basin and a moderate crustal thickening. Also, a gradual change in crustal composition to the N, incorporating denser and more basic rocks, might also play a role in the average crustal density and contribute to Moho deepening by isostatic readjustment. The importance of each of these process is, as yet, unknown. However, the next acquisition of the CIMDEF project wide-angle reflection dataset across the central part of the Iberian Peninsula, crossing the Central System, will

  12. Protection of large alpine infrastructures against natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Scheikl, Manfred; Hergarten, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Large infrastructures in alpine domains are threatened by a variety of natural hazards like debris flows, rock falls and snow avalanches. Especially linear infrastructure including roads, railway lines, pipe lines and power lines passes through the entire mountain range and the impact of natural hazards can be expected along a distance over hundreds of kilometers. New infrastructure projects like storage power plants or ski resorts including access roads are often located in remote alpine domains without any historical record of hazardous events. Mitigation strategies against natural hazards require a detailed analysis on the exposure of the infrastructure to natural hazards. Following conventional concepts extensive mapping and documentation of surface processes over hundreds to several thousand km² of steep alpine domain is essential but can be hardly performed. We present a case study from the Austrian Alps to demonstrate the ability of a multi-level concept to describe the impact of natural hazards on infrastructure by an iterative process. This includes new state of the art numerical models, modern field work and GIS-analysis with an increasing level of refinement at each stage. A set of new numerical models for rock falls, debris flows and snow avalanches was designed to operate with information from field in different qualities and spatial resolutions. Our analysis starts with simple and fast cellular automata for rockfalls and debrisflows to show the exposure of the infrastructure to natural hazards in huge domains and detects "high risk areas" that are investigated in more detail in field in the next refinement level. Finally, sophisticated 2D- depth averaged fluid dynamic models for all kinds of rapid mass movements are applied to support the development of protection structures.

  13. 3D cartographic modeling of the Alpine arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, Naomi; Sue, Christian; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Calcagno, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    We built a 3D cartography of the Alpine arc, a highly non-cylindrical mountain belt, using the 3D GeoModeller of the BRGM (French geological survey). The model allows to handle the large-scale 3D structure of seventeen major crustal units of the belt (from the lower crust to the sedimentary cover nappes), and two main discontinuities (the Insubric Line and the Crustal Penninic Front). It provides a unique document to better understand their structural relationships and to produce new sections. The study area comprises the western Alpine arc, from the Jura to the Northwest, up to the Bergell granite intrusion and the Lepontine Dome to the East, and is limited to the South by the Ligurian basin. The model is limited vertically 10 km above sea level at the top, and the moho interface at the bottom. We discarded the structural relationships between the Alps sensus stricto and the surrounding geodynamic systems such as the Rhine graben or the connection with the Apennines. The 3D-model is based on the global integration of various data such as the DEM of the Alps, the moho isobaths, the simplified geological and tectonic maps of the belt, the crustal cross-sections ECORS-CROP and NFP-20, and complementary cross-sections specifically built to precise local complexities. The database has first been integrated in a GIS-project to prepare their implementation in the GeoModeller, by homogenizing the different spatial referencing systems. The global model is finally interpolated from all these data, using the potential field method. The final document is a new tri-dimensional cartography that would be used as input for further alpine studies.

  14. Dynamics and structure of the Alpine Fold Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, H. G.

    1985-01-01

    The structure and present-day dynamics of the Alps interms of geodesy and gravimetry are discusssed. A strong correlation of precise leveling and isostatic gravity along the central Alpine chain, especially in Canton Graubunden, East Switzerland are shown. It is assumed that the uplift is partly controlled by isostatic rebound effects. Field observations indicate that these phenomena are still active in the Alps. The study of the uplift processes by applying a number of geodetic and gravimetric measuring techniques, such as the determination of nonperiodic secular variations of gravity, of the deflections of the vertical and tilt changes monitored by hydrostatic leveling is proposed.

  15. Alpine glacial topography and the rate of rock column uplift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Vivi Kathrine; Egholm, D.L.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of alpine glacial erosion on the morphology and relief distribution of mountain regions associated with varying rock column uplift rates. We take a global approach and analyse the surface area distribution of all mountain regions affected by glacial....... On the basis of this decay, the analysed mountain regions fall within three distinct groupsprimarily reflecting variations in average values of rock columnuplift rates.Mountain ranges affected by rapid rock column uplift display high above-snowline relief and large decay lengths, whereas inactive orogens have...

  16. Protective equipment for emergency rescue in alpine-cold region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Tian; Feng Xinxing; Wang Qizhi; Hao Limin

    2013-01-01

    Alpine-cold regions are characterized as hypoxia,strong wind,heavy rain,cold climate,huge temperature difference between day and night,and vertical climate.All these make it difficult for an emergency rescue when a natural disaster such as earthquake happens.Based on the characteristics of emergency rescue in alpinecold region,several multifunctional protective equipments have been developed by the Quartermaster Equipment Institute of General Logistics Department (GLD) of the Chinese People' s Liberation Army (CPLA).These equipments are lightweight,durable and environment adaptable.

  17. MIDDLE TRIASSIC SPIRIFEROID MENTZELIIDS (BRACHIOPODA FROM ALPINE AND MEDITERRANEAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURIZIO GAETANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten species of mentzelioid spiriferids from several Middle Triassic localities of Alpine and Mediterranean areas are analysed both for external and internal characters. The genera Mentzelia, Paramentzelia, Koeveskallina, and the new genus Dagyssia are referred to the subfamily Mentzeliinae, whilst Tethyspira and the new genus Ptychomentzelia are referred to the subfamily Tethyspirinae. In addition, a new species (Ptychomentzelia ritensis is described. The superfamily Mentzelioidea Dagys, 1974 is retained as a viable container of the whole group here discussed, previously split in the second edition of the Treatise in two different superfamilies.

  18. A new crustal model of the western Alpine region derived by combining controlled-source seismology and local earthquake tomography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Kissling, E.; Husen, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present a newly developed approach of combining controlled-source seismology (CSS) and local earthquake tomography (LET) data to obtain a new 3D crustal model in the western Alpine region. Our approach takes into account the strengths of each seismic method and the quality of each individual seismic information. Therefore, our western Alpine 3D model includes a well-defined Moho, constrained by CSS and LET data, as well as smooth lateral variations in seismic velocities. The consistent combination of results from two different seismic methods is feasible due to the definition of LET Moho elements and their uncertainty estimates. Identification of LET Moho elements is based on a characteristic P-wave velocity (7.25 km/s); uncertainty estimates are derived from the diagonal element of the resolution matrix (RDE), absolute P-wave velocities that are typical for crust and mantle, and a specific velocity gradient around Moho depth. We validate our approach by comparing highest quality Moho elements from both methods coinciding in 353 localities. We find only four Moho elements for which the difference in Moho depth is greater than the error sum of the uncertainty estimates and these four Moho elements are all located close to plate boundaries, where 3D migration of CSS reflector elements is poorly constrained. Our model clearly shows three Moho surfaces, being Europe, Adria, and Liguria, as well as major tectonic structures like suture zones and the high-velocity Ivrea body. Compared to previous studies, our model allows for a more accurate definition of plate boundaries at Moho level. We attribute this to the larger number of available Moho elements derived from LET data. Therefore, the new model allows better insights in the deep crustal structure of the Alpine collision zone.

  19. Combining controlled-source seismology and local earthquake tomography to derive a 3-D crustal model of the western Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael; Kissling, Edi; Husen, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    We present a newly developed approach of combining controlled-source seismology (CSS) and local earthquake tomography (LET) data to obtain a new 3-D crustal model of the western Alpine region. Our approach combines either data by taking into account the strengths of the individual seismic methods. Our western Alpine 3-D model is primarily based on a well-defined Moho, constrained by CSS and LET data, and includes smooth lateral variations in seismic velocities mainly constrained by LET data, but locally also by CSS data. The consistent combination of results from the two different seismic methods is feasible due to LET Moho elements, as defined by characteristic P-wave velocities and their uncertainty estimates. These uncertainty estimates are based on values of the diagonal element of the resolution matrix, absolute P-wave velocities that are typical for crust and mantle and a specific velocity gradient across the Moho discontinuity. Finally, our definition of LET Moho elements and their uncertainties is validated by comparisons of highest quality Moho results from both methods coinciding in 353 localities. Our model clearly shows three Moho surfaces, being Europe, Adria and Liguria as well as major tectonic structures like suture zones and the high-velocity Ivrea body. In general, it is in a good agreement with previous studies. The biggest differences occur along plate boundaries, where the strong lateral velocity variations are best resolved by LET. Due to the larger number of available Moho reflector elements a more accurate definition of plate boundaries at Moho level is possible and, therefore, new insights in deep lithosphere structures of the Alpine collision zone can be expected. Furthermore, our new 3-D crustal model directly includes a 3-D migrated image of the Ivrea body.

  20. Along-Strike Variation in Dip-Slip Rate on the Alpine Fault is a Consequence of Lithologic Variation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, V. G.; Reid Lindroos, Z.; Norris, R. J.; Cooper, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    New Zealand's dextral reverse Alpine Fault is the primary structure forming the Pacific-Australian plate boundary for a strike distance of >300 km. The oblique relative plate motion vector varies little along strike of the fault, and strike-slip rates are also generally uniform. However, dip slip rates determined from offset geomorphic and Quaternary features are significantly larger over 200 km in the centre of the fault (6 -12 mm/yr; as opposed to 2-3 mm/yr elsewhere). Little et al. (2005) also found hangingwall rock has been most rapidly uplifted from temperatures exceeding the closure temperature of Ar in hornblende (~500°C) during modern convergence over 20 km of strike length between the Karangarua and Wanganui Rivers in this central section. The hangingwall lithology is not uniform, comprising psammitic, pelitic, and metabasic layers, from a variety of different lithostratigraphic terranes (e.g. Torlesse Terrane, Aspiring Lithologic Subdivision, Caples Terrane). These lithologies have been exhumed by dextral reverse fault slip in sections along the fault. In the central Alpine Fault zone, psammite-derived lithologies are most common in such outcrops north of the Waikukupa River, while to the south aluminous metapelitic protoliths dominate. Further south, in a section extending 40 km along fault strike from Havelock Creek, metabasite (amphibolite) comprises ~40% of the mylonite sequence. Simple crustal strength models, comparing a pure quartz rheology, a polyphase quartz-feldspar-mica rheology, and a mixed amphibolite rheology indicate only minor variation in behaviour between psammite and pelite, but at least a doubling of peak strength and deepening of the brittle-ductile transition in sections of the fault zone containing amphibolite. Consequently, the rheological behaviour of the mylonitic fault rocks varies along strike, coincident with the lithological variations. Furthermore, both amphibolites and quartz veins or layers that they host display

  1. Analytical solutions for recession analyses of sloping aquifers - applicability on relict rock glaciers in alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Birk, Steffen; Hergarten, Stefan; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Winkler, Gerfried

    2014-05-01

    Rock glaciers as aquifer systems in alpine catchments may strongly influence the hydrological characteristics of these catchments. Thus, they have a high impact on the ecosystem and potential natural hazards such as for example debris flow. Therefore, knowledge of the hydrodynamic processes, internal structure and properties of these aquifers is important for resource management and risk assessment. The investigation of such aquifers often turns out to be expensive and technically complicated because of their strongly limited accessibility. Analytical solutions of discharge recession provide a quick and easy way to estimate aquifer parameters. However, due to simplifying assumptions the validity of the interpretation is often questionable. In this study we compared results of an analytical solution of discharge recessions with results based on a numerical model. This was done in order to analyse the range of uncertainties and the applicability of the analytical method in alpine catchment areas. The research area is a 0.76 km² large catchment in the Seckauer Tauern Range, Austria. The dominant aquifer in this catchment is a rock glacier, namely the Schöneben Rock Glacier. This relict rock glacier (i.e. containing no permafrost at present) covers an area of 0.11 km² and is drained by one spring at the rock glacier front. The rock glacier consists predominantly of gneissic sediments (mainly coarse-grained, blocky at the surface) and extends from 1720 to 1905 m a.s.l.. Discharge of the rock glacier spring is automatically measured since 2002. Electric conductivity and water temperature is monitored since 2008. An automatic weather station was installed in 2011 in the central part of the catchment. Additionally data of geophysical surveys (refraction seismic and ground penetrating radar) have been used to analyse the base slope and inner structure of the rock glacier. The measured data are incorporated into a numerical model implemented in MODFLOW. The numerical

  2. Short term soil erosion dynamics in alpine grasslands - Results from a Fallout Radionuclide repeated-sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Improper land management and climate change has resulted in accelerated soil erosion rates in Alpine grasslands. To efficiently mitigate and control soil erosion and reduce its environmental impact in Alpine grasslands, reliable and validated methods for comprehensive data generation on its magnitude and spatial extent are mandatory. The use of conventional techniques (e.g. sediment traps, erosion pins or rainfall simulations) may be hindered by the extreme topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. However, the application of the Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers has already showed promising results in these specific agro-ecosystems. Once deposited on the ground, FRNs strongly bind to fine particles at the surface soil and move across the landscape primarily through physical processes. As such, they provide an effective track of soil and sediment redistribution. So far, applications of FRN in the Alps include 137Cs (half-life: 30.2 years) and 239+240Pu (239Pu [half-life = 24110 years] and 240Pu [half-life = 6561 years]). To investigate short term (4-5 years) erosion dynamics in the Swiss Alps, the authors applied a FRNs repeated sampling approach. Two study areas in the central Swiss Alps have been investigated: the Urseren Valley (Canton Uri), where significant land use changes occurred in the last centuries, and the Piora Valley (Canton Ticino), where land use change plays a minor role. Soil samples have been collected at potentially erosive sites along the valleys over a period of 4-5 years and measured for 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity. The inventory change between the sampling years indicates high erosion and deposition dynamics at both valleys. High spatial variability of 137Cs activities at all sites has been observed, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986. Finally, a new modelling technique to convert the inventory changes to quantitative estimates of soil erosion has

  3. Modification of life history and morphometric traits of montane species as an expression of adaptive abilities to different climatic conditions – a case study of Petasites kablikianus Tausch ex Bercht. (the Babia Góra Mt, Western Carpathians, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Katarzyna Uziębło

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed data on the response of plants to different climatic conditions could gain insight into the early impacts of climate change upon functioning ecosystems especially alpine ones, the most specialized. Petasites kablikianus (Asteraceae is a species with montane and disjunctive distribution range, and it is one of the best objects to such investigations. In Polish high mountains, it is represented the best on the northern slopes of the Babia Góra massif (the Babiogórski National Park and it occurs in two, independent zones: subalpine (landslides, rock rubbles and lower montane zone (gravels on stream banks. The climatic differences between these two zones result in a morphological differentiation of specimens but mainly in differences in the dynamics of the life history of both populations. Detailed phenological observations and biometrical measurements were made on five plots on both gynodynamic and androdynamic shoots in their natural environment and after transplantation. The most important result is a fact that the subalpine population is completely phenologically isolated. Moreover the differences in the dates of beginning vegetation and in the duration and dynamics of particular stages of development and in morphological structure of individuals between the upper and lower populations were also stated. The results show that the adaptability of the species present a great potential to respond to the possible effects of global warming by modifying the life history and extending of distribution range for low-lying areas.

  4. Estimation of Alpine Skier Posture Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Nemec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS measurements are becoming more and more popular in alpine skiing due to the relatively undemanding setup and excellent performance. However, GNSS provides only single-point measurements that are defined with the antenna placed typically behind the skier’s neck. A key issue is how to estimate other more relevant parameters of the skier’s body, like the center of mass (COM and ski trajectories. Previously, these parameters were estimated by modeling the skier’s body with an inverted-pendulum model that oversimplified the skier’s body. In this study, we propose two machine learning methods that overcome this shortcoming and estimate COM and skis trajectories based on a more faithful approximation of the skier’s body with nine degrees-of-freedom. The first method utilizes a well-established approach of artificial neural networks, while the second method is based on a state-of-the-art statistical generalization method. Both methods were evaluated using the reference measurements obtained on a typical giant slalom course and compared with the inverted-pendulum method. Our results outperform the results of commonly used inverted-pendulum methods and demonstrate the applicability of machine learning techniques in biomechanical measurements of alpine skiing.

  5. Treeline proximity alters an alpine plant-herbivore interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illerbrun, Kurt; Roland, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Rising treeline threatens the size and contiguity of alpine meadows worldwide. As trees encroach into previously open habitat, the movement and population dynamics of above-treeline alpine species may be disrupted. This process is well documented in studies of the Rocky Mountain apollo butterfly (Parnassius smintheus). However, subtler consequences of treeline rise remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine whether treeline proximity affects feeding behaviour of P. smintheus larvae, due to altered habitat affecting the distribution and availability of their host plant, lance-leaved stonecrop (Sedum lanceolatum). Understanding differential larval exploitation of food resources in relation to the treeline is an important step in predicting the consequences of continued treeline rise. Parnassius smintheus larvae feed more intensively on S. lanceolatum away from the treeline despite the relative paucity of hosts in these areas, and despite higher fitness penalties associated with the plant's herbivory-induced chemical defenses. Sedum lanceolatum growing near the treeline is less attractive, and therefore represents a less significant resource for P. smintheus larvae than its abundance might imply. If treeline rise continues, we suggest that this pattern of altered resource exploitation may represent a mechanism by which larvae are adversely affected even while adult movement among and within meadows appears sufficient for maintaining population health, and total host availability seems ample.

  6. Recent Relationships of Tree Establishment and Climate in Alpine Treelines of the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, M. J.; Graumlich, L. J.; Maher, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    Changes in the forest structure of alpine-forest or treeline boundaries may be a significant climate response of mountainous regions in the near future. A particularly important point of climate sensitivity for treelines is the initial survival and establishment of tree seedlings - a demographic bottleneck that may be particularly suited to early detection of treeline responses to climate change. However, concise information on climate sensitivity of seedling establishment has come primarily from direct observations of seedlings over short time periods encompassing a few years. Dendrochronological approaches have revealed tree establishment patterns at more extensive time scales of decades to millenia, but at coarser temporal resolutions. Climate variations that most directly affect initial tree seedling establishment occur at annual or smaller time scales, and climate for seedlings is modulated by landscape factors such as neighboring plant cover. Our objective was to assess climate sensitivity of tree establishment at treeline at these finer temporal and spatial scales, with consideration of treeline features that alter the climate for seedlings. Our approach combined direct observations of seedling emergence and survival with dendrochronology of older seedlings and saplings that were still small and young enough (less than 25 years and 20 cm height) to allow detecting the year of establishment and associated factors. Surveys for subject seedlings and saplings were performed for 2 years across the gradient from forest into treeline alpine in the Beartooth, Teton, and Medicine Bow mountains of Wyoming USA. No seedlings or saplings were detected above the highest elevation adult trees or krummholz, but there were up to 0.3 seedlings per square meter in subalpine meadows close to forest (within the timberline zone) where changes in tree abundance appear possible in future decades. Correlations of establishment and summer temperature ranged from weak in whitebark

  7. Project SHARE Sustainable Hydropower in Alpine Rivers Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoliti Mochet, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    SHARE - Sustainable Hydropower in Alpine Rivers Ecosystems is a running project early approved and co funded by the European regional development fund in the context of the European Territorial Cooperation Alpine Space programme 2007 - 2013: the project is formally ongoing from August 2009 and it will end July 2012. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for electricity production in alpine areas: it has advantages for the global CO2 balance but creates serious environmental impacts. RES-e Directives require renewable electricity enhance but, at the same time, the Water Framework Directive obliges member States to reach or maintain a water bodies "good" ecological status, intrinsically limiting the hydropower exploitation. Administrators daily face an increasing demand of water abstraction but lack reliable tools to rigorously evaluate their effects on mountain rivers and the social and economical outputs on longer time scale. The project intends to develop, test and promote a decision support system to merge on an unprejudiced base, river ecosystems and hydropower requirements. This approach will be led using existing scientific tools, adjustable to transnational, national and local normative and carried on by permanent panel of administrators and stakeholders. Scientific knowledge related to HP & river management will be "translated" by the communication tools and spent as a concrete added value to build a decision support system. In particular, the Multicriteria Analysis (MCA) will be applied to assess different management alternatives where a single-criterion approach (such as cost-benefit analysis) falls short, especially where environmental, technical, economic and social criteria can't be quantified by monetary values. All the existing monitoring databases will be used and harmonized with new information collected during the Pilot case studies. At the same time, all information collected will be available to end users and actors of related

  8. Évolution de l’environnement alpin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schoeneich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution de l’environnement alpin au XXIe siècle sera conditionnée par le changement climatique. Celui-ci pourrait conduire à des climats inconnus à ce jour dans les Alpes, avec comme conséquence une crise environnementale majeure et durable. Face à ces défis, les financements de recherche restent insuffisants pour la recherche appliquée aux milieux de montagne. Les financements nationaux privilégient souvent la recherche polaire au détriment des hautes altitudes, alors que les financements de type Interreg prennent insuffisamment en compte les besoins de recherche fondamentale, préalable nécessaire à l’élaboration de scénarios. Une évolution se dessine depuis deux ou trois ans vers des projets en réseau à l’échelle alpine. Le présent article fait le point sur les principaux enjeux qui attendent la recherche environnementale alpine et sur la capacité des programmes de recherche à répondre aux besoins. La première partie sur les changements climatiques est fondée sur les rapports récents : rapport de synthèse IPCC 2007 (IPCC 2007, rapport IPCC sur l’Europe (Alcamo et al. 2007, rapport de synthèse du programme ClimChAlp (Prudent-Richard et al., 2008. On y trouvera des bibliographies complètes et circonstanciées. La deuxième partie se base sur une analyse des appels d’offres récents ou en cours, et des projets soumis et financés.The way the Alpine environment will evolve in the 21st century depends upon climate change. This could lead to climates never before seen in the Alps, resulting in a major and lasting environmental crisis. In the face of these challenges, funding is still insufficient for specialised research on mountain environments. State funding often prioritises polar research at the expense of high altitude areas, whereas funding schemes from bodies such as Interreg do not sufficiently address the need for fundamental research, which is nevertheless a necessary first step prior to

  9. Frictional, Hydraulic, and Acoustic Properties of Alpine Fault DFDP-1 Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, B. M.; Ikari, M.; Kitajima, H.; Kopf, A.; Marone, C.; Saffer, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Alpine Fault, a transpressional plate-boundary fault transecting the South Island of New Zealand, is the current focus of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP), a major fault zone drilling initiative. Phase 1 of this project included 2 boreholes that penetrated the active fault at depths of ˜100 m and ˜150 m, and provided a suite of core samples crossing the fault. Here, we report on laboratory measurements of frictional strength and constitutive behavior, permeability, and ultrasonic velocities for a suite of the recovered core samples We conducted friction experiments on powdered samples in a double-direct shear configuration at room temperature and humidity. Our results show that over a range of effective normal stresses from 10-100 MPa, friction coefficients are ~0.60-0.70, and are similar for all of the materials we tested. Rate-stepping tests document velocity-weakening behavior in the majority of wall rock samples, whereas the principal slip surface (PSS) and an adjacent clay-rich cataclasite exhibit velocity-strengthening behavior. We observe significant rates of frictional healing in all of our samples, indicating that that the fault easily regains its strength during interseismic periods. Our results indicate that seismic slip is not likely to nucleate in the clay-rich PSS at shallow depths, but might nucleate and propagate on the gouge/wall rock interface. We measured permeability using a constant head technique, on vertically oriented cylindrical mini-cores (i.e. ˜45 degrees to the plane of the Alpine Fault). We conducted these tests in a triaxial configuration, under isotropic stress conditions and effective confining pressures from ~2.5 - 63.5 MPa. We conducted ultrasonic wavespeed measurements concurrently with the permeability measurements to determine P- and S-wave velocities from time-of-flight. The permeability of all samples decreases systematically with increasing effective stress. The clay-rich cataclasite (1.37 x 10-19 m2) and PSS (1

  10. Differences in Sensation Seeking Between Alpine Skiers, Snowboarders and Ski Tourers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kopp, Mirjam Wolf, Gerhard Ruedl, Martin Burtscher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite different injury rates and injury patterns previous personality related research in the field of downhill winter sports did not subdivide between different alpine slope users. In this study, we tried to find out whether the personality trait sensation seeking differs between skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. In a cross-sectional survey 1185 persons (726 alpine skiers, 321 snowboarders and 138 ski tourers comparable in age and sex were electronically questioned with the sensation seeking scale (SSS-V comprising the four factors thrill and adventure seeking, experiences seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Kruskal-Wallis Tests revealed a significantly higher total score of the SSS-V for snowboarders in comparison to alpine skiers and ski tourers (H(2 = 41.5, p < 0.001. Ski tourers and snowboarders scored significantly higher in the dimensions “thrill- and adventure-seeking” and “experience-seeking” than alpine skiers. Furthermore, snowboarders showed higher scores in “disinhibition” related to alpine skiers and ski tourers and “boredom susceptibility” compared to alpine skiers. Data show differences in the personality trait sensation seeking in people practising different winter sports. As snowboarders showed higher SS-scores compared to alpine skiers and ski tourers prevention and information programs might benefit from a selective approach focusing on special characteristics of the respective group.

  11. Application of agriculture-developed demographic analysis for the conservation of the Hawaiian alpine wekiu bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiben, Jesse; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Insects that should be considered for conservation attention are often overlooked because of a lack of data. The detailed information necessary to assess population growth, decline, and maximum range is particularly difficult to acquire for rare and cryptic species. Many of these difficulties can be overcome with the use of life table analyses and heat energy accumulation models common in agriculture. The wekiu bug (Nysius wekiuicola), endemic to the summit of one volcanic mountain in Hawaii, is a rare insect living in an environmentally sensitive alpine stone desert, where field-based population assessments would be inefficient or potentially detrimental to natural and cultural resources. We conducted laboratory experiments with the insects by manipulating rearing temperatures of laboratory colonies and made detailed observations of habitat conditions to develop life tables representing population growth parameters and environmental models for wekiu bug phenology and demographic change. Wekiu bugs developed at temperatures only found in its environment on sunny days and required the thermal buffer found on cinder cones for growth and population increase. Wekiu bugs required approximately 3.5 months to complete one generation. The bug developed optimally from 26 to 30 °C, temperatures that are much higher than the air temperature attains in its elevational range. The developmental temperature range of the species confirmed a physiological reason why the wekiu bug is only found on cinder cones. This physiology information can help guide population monitoring and inform habitat restoration and conservation. The wekiu bug was a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and the developmental parameters we quantified were used to determine the species would not be listed as endangered or threatened. The use of developmental threshold experiments, life table analyses, and degree day modeling can directly inform otherwise unobservable habitat needs and

  12. Alpine ice cores and ground penetrating radar: combined investigations for glaciological and climatic interpretations of a cold Alpine ice body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisen, Olaf; Nixdorf, Uwe [Alfred-Wegener-Inst. fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Keck, Lothar; Wagenbach, Dietmar [Univ. Heidelberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    2003-11-01

    Accurate interpretation of ice cores as climate archives requires detailed knowledge of their past and present geophysical environment. Different techniques facilitate the determination and reconstruction of glaciological settings surrounding the drilling location. During the ALPCLIM1 project, two ice cores containing long-term climate information were retrieved from Colle Gnifetti, Swiss-Italian Alps. Here, we investigate the potential of ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys, in conjunction with ice core data, to obtain information about the internal structure of the cold Alpine ice body to improve climatic interpretations. Three drill sites are connected by GPR profiles, running parallel and perpendicular to the flow line, thus yielding a three-dimensional picture of the subsurface and enabling the tracking of internal reflection horizons between the locations. As the observed reflections are of isochronic origin, they permit the transfer of age-depth relations between the ice cores. The accuracy of the GPR results is estimated by comparison of transferred timescales with original core datings, independent information from an older ice core, and, based on glaciological surface data, findings from flow modeling. Our study demonstrates that GPR is a mandatory tool for Alpine ice core studies, as it permits mapping of major transitions in physical-chemical properties, transfer of age-depth relations between sites, correlate signals in core records for interpretation, and establish a detailed picture of the flow regime surrounding the climate archive.

  13. Vertical distribution of the alpine lepidoptera in the Carpathians and in the Balkan peninsula in relation to the zonation of the vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga, Z. S.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of arctic-alpine, alpine and Balkanic oreal species is discussed in connection with the vertical zonation of the vegetation, climatic conditions, substrate, type of alpine vegetation and co-occurrences of related species. Arctic-alpine species have mostly a Eurasian distribution and occur in the Arctic and in the alpine and subnival zones of the Central and Southern European high mountains with expressed glacial morphology and alpine vegetation. Alpine species are mostly European species and they are connected to the alpine and subnival zones of Central and South European high mountains. Balkanic oreal species are mostly southeast European species which in some cases occur locally in the southern parts of the Alps and Carpathians. Balkanic oreal species are most numerous at the timberline, preferred habitats being grasslands in the upper subalpine belts. The more diverse habitats of limestone mountains are usually home to a higher number of alpine (s. l. species than that of the mountains consisting of acidic rocks. The apparent petrophily of several alpine and tundro-alpine species correlates with their sheltering behaviour. The vertical distribution of butterflies is probably influenced also by the competition of closely related species. Closely related species often show some types of habitat partitioning. Data on species numbers and vertical distribution of species are presented in the tables 1-4.

    [de]
    Die vertikale Verbreitung der arktisch-alpinen, alpinen und balkanischen Orealarten wird hier im Zusammenhang mit den vertikalen Stufenfolgen der Vegetation, den klimatischen Verhdltnissen, den geologischen und geomorphologischen Bedingungen, den Vegetationstypen und dem Vorkommen der verwandten Arten behandelt. Die arktisch-alpinen Arten haben meist eine eurasiatische Verbreitung, und sie kommen sowohl in derArktis und in den alpinen-subnivalen Stufen der mittel- und südeuropaischen Hochgebirge vor. Die

  14. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  15. Vegetation pattern related tc grazing pressure in alpine meadows of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Rai, J P N

    2004-07-01

    The present study aims to analyze the interaction of prevailing biotic pressure on plant species diversity in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) which lies in northern part of Uttaranchal hills between 79 degrees 40'E to 80 degrees 05'E longitude and 30 degrees 17' N to 30 degrees 41'N latitude and covers an area of 2236.7 km2. A total of 75 species has been found which included the herbaceous plants viz., grasses, sedges and forbs. Generally, the plants have a short life span of 3-4 months. However, few species persist throughout the growth period i.e. May-October. Phytosociological study performed in plots of varying slope and grazing pressure intensity revealed that the dominant grasses were Danthonia cachemyriana and Poa annua and dominant forbs were Trachydium roylei and Geum elatum in all the plots. Grasses were abundant on west facing slopes while forbs preferred the even topography of east facing meadows. The grasses and sedges together had optimum density during July and August. In general, short lived species exhibited more diversity for one or two months whilst the long lived species exhibited optimum diversity althrough the snow free period. The species diversity is maximum (100%) in moderately grazed bughiyals i.e. Pacchu and minimum in intensively grazed bughiyals i.e. Martoli. The species distribution among the plots was 60-90% contagious and 11.2-38.0% randomirrespective of grazing pressure, thus highlighting the significance of grazing pressure in management of alpine meadows.

  16. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - Alpine Space wind map - Modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Remund, J. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents describes the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report discusses two modelling approaches investigated for use in the definition of a wind map for the alpine area. The method chosen and its application are discussed. The various sources of information for input to the model are listed and discussed.

  17. Crossing thresholds: Analysis of hazardous tipping points in alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzmann, Silke; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Steep mountain channels or torrents in small alpine catchments are characterized by high geomorphic activity with sediment dynamics being inherently nonlinear and threshold-mediated. Localized, high intensity rainstorms can drive torrential systems past a tipping point resulting in a sudden onset of hazardous events like (flash-) flooding, heavy bedload transport or debris flows. Such responses exhibit an abrupt switch in the fluvial system's mode (e.g. transport / supply limited). Changes in functional connectivity may persist beyond the tipping point. Torrential hazards cause costly damage in the densely populated Alpine Region. Thus, there is a rising interest in potential effects of climate change on torrential sediment dynamics. Understanding critical conditions close to tipping points is important to reduce uncertainty in predicting sediment fluxes. In this study we aim at (i) establishing threshold precipitation characteristics for the Eastern Alps of Austria. Precipitation is hypothesized to be the main forcing factor of torrential events. (ii) How do thresholds vary in space and time? (iii) The effect of external triggers is strongly mediated by the internal disposition of catchments to respond. Which internal conditions are critical for susceptibility? (iv) Is there a change in magnitude or frequency in the recent past and what can be expected for the future? The 71 km2 catchment of the river Schöttlbach in the East Alpine Region of Styria (Austria) is monitored since a heavy precipitation event resulted in a catastrophic flood in July 2011. Sediment mobilization from slopes as well as within-channel storage and bedload transport are regularly measured using photogrammetric methods and sediment impact sensors. Thus, detailed knowledge exists on magnitude and spatial propagation of sediment waves through the catchment. The associated hydro-meteorological (pre-) conditions can be inferred from a dense station network. Changing bedload transport rates and

  18. Geomorphometric mapping of spatio-temporal changes in Plio-Quaternary uplift in the NW European Alpine foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Alain; Bourdon, Hadrien

    2016-04-01

    A way to explore the causes of Plio-Quaternary uplift in NW Europe consists in identifying the distribution of uplifted areas and evaluating relative uplift ages. Here we use the composite metric R of fluvial landscapes, which involves three different hypsometric integrals (catchment, drainage network, and trunk stream), in order to get time information (Demoulin, 2011). Main controls on R are catchment size A and uplift age. To isolate the latter information, we use the derived SR index, which is the slope of the linear fit between R and ln(A). We calculate R for more than 7000 basins larger than 15 km2 and determine SR values for 60-km-wide regions in five N- to NW-trending zones of alternating Paleozoic massifs (Massif central-Brittany; Rhenish shield; Bohemian massif) and Meso-Cenozoic basins (Paris basin; Franconian basin) covering the whole NW European platform in front of the alpine arc. The resulting 350- to 750-km-long SR profiles seem to provide the most meaningful time information, better than that obtained with noisier higher-resolution SR maps. Preliminary results of the study especially evidence a systematic increase in SR from south to north across the Paris basin and Rhenish shield zones that suggests northward propagation of an uplift wave that started from ~200 km north of the alpine collision front in Pliocene times and travelled across this part of the European platform. The Bohemian Massif and the Massif central-Brittany zone show more complex SR patterns that might be linked to interferences between the uplift wave and more local phenomena (related, e.g., to WNW-oriented compression in front of the Carpathian arc). Surprisingly, the Franconian basin displays fairly uniform low to moderate SR values suggesting that no tectonic perturbation occurred there since at least the late Early Pleistocene. In conclusion, this new geomorphometric approach of uplift chronology provides a wealth of data, whose careful analysis will help get fresh insight

  19. South Scandinavian joints and Alpine/Atlantic-ridge tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Field observations and studies of the joints and dykes in an area shed light on its younger tectonic development; thus, joint orientations measured in Southern Sweden and in Norway have been statistically studied and compared regarding their tectonic significance with studies from Europe and the mid-Atlantic ridge. The present investigation indicates that the surface joint systems in Sweden agree with those in Europe; they are the result of the intracratonic stress field and the mechanical response associated with the Alpine orogeny. The stress systems in Southern Norway, on the other hand, are the result of the ongoing extensional or wrench-fault tectonism in the Atlantic crust associated with the stresses near the mid-Atlantic ridge, which act normally to the contiguous coastlines from Scandinavia to France, Portugal and North Africa.

  20. Goats on alpine grazing: study on metabolic and hematologic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gaviraghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summering on alpine pastures from June to October has long been the traditional management of goat flocks in the mountain areas of Lombardy. At present most of the 50.000 goats farmed in Lombardy are still summered, even though only a few thousands - belonging to local breed - are regularly milked. For these goats summering appears to be fundamental not only to allow milk production but also to restore body reserves. The increasing interest in commercial goat milk production in Lombardy involves mainly intensive farming with zero or minimum grazing. However, semi-extensive goat milk production, including summering, could respond to social and environmental goals (Citterio et al., 2002 being able to exploit some economic opportunities...

  1. Agriculture causes nitrate fertilization of remote alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundey, E. J.; Russell, S. D.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Moser, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    Humans have altered Earth's nitrogen cycle so dramatically that reactive nitrogen (Nr) has doubled. This has increased Nr in aquatic ecosystems, which can lead to reduced water quality and ecosystem health. Apportioning sources of Nr to specific ecosystems, however, continues to be challenging, despite this knowledge being critical for mitigation and protection of water resources. Here we use Δ17O, δ18O and δ15N from Uinta Mountain (Utah, USA) snow, inflow and lake nitrate in combination with a Bayesian-based stable isotope mixing model, to show that at least 70% of nitrates in aquatic systems are anthropogenic and arrive via the atmosphere. Moreover, agricultural activities, specifically nitrate- and ammonium-based fertilizer use, are contributing most (~60%) Nr, and data from other North American alpine lakes suggest this is a widespread phenomenon. Our findings offer a pathway towards more effective mitigation, but point to challenges in balancing food production with protection of important water resources.

  2. Decadal changes of weather types in the alpine region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanicki, G.; Talkner, P.; Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The annual occurrence of different weather types of Schuepp`s synoptic classification in the Alpine region has changed since the beginning of its recording 1945. The annual frequency (number of days) of convective types has increased and that of advective types has decreased. In parallel the number of long-lasting convective episodes rose and the number of long-lasting advective episodes lessened. Most of the change took place in winter. The frequencies of different weather types and the annual mean of certain meteorological parameters are significantly correlated. Moreover, there is a strong interdependence between the subclass of high pressure types and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  3. Genetic effects of space hadrons on bacteriophage under Alpine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, S S; Belkin, V S; Leont'eva, G A; Knjaseva, I N; Mozgovoy, E G; Kuzin, A M; Akoev, I G

    1980-01-01

    A dried film culture of bacteriophage T4Br + was kept in a lead bioblock for 366 days under Alpine conditions at an altitude of 6100 m above sea level to study the genetic effect of space hadrons. In the gelatin-like film under study we discovered some film plots with markedly reduced bacteriophage survival. In such plots, the mutation frequency exceeded the spontaneous background mutation rate 60-100 times. The spectrum of r mutations as classified into standard groups rI, rII and rIII differed from that found for other model radiation systems such as gamma-ray radiation in buffer or nutrient broth, and hadron and HZE particle radiation under space flight conditions. Reversion analysis of 159 rII mutants showed that 54.4% had small and elongated deletions, 23.16% had point mutations, and 22.5% of all the mutants had both small deletion and point mutations.

  4. Afro-alpine forest cover change on Mt. Guna (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Adugnaw; Frankl, Amaury; Jacob, Miro; Lanckriet, Sil; Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    High mountain forests, such as the afro-alpine Erica arborea L. forests in Ethiopia, are very important for the livelihood of local communities, in relation to their impacts on the water balance of mountain ecosystems and surrounding agricultural areas. On volcanoes, the dominance of volcanic tuffs on the slopes, as well as that of gelifracts near the top further enhances infiltration, making it recharge areas. Earlier forest cover change studies in the Ethiopian highlands mainly deal with the lower vegetation belts. In this study, 3.37 km² on the western slopes of Mount Guna (one of the dozens of Miocene shield volcanoes that exist on top of the Ethiopian plateau) was mapped. The slope has an elevation between 3200 at its base and 4113 m a.s.l. at the peak. The present forest cover was recorded from high-resolution georeferenced satellite imagery from Google Maps and field data (2015), while historical forest cover was studied from georeferenced aerial photographs of 1982. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted to identify the trend of forest cover change and management practices. Whereas burning of the Erica forest for sake of land clearance (a typical practice on all Ethiopian mountains until the 1980s) most strikingly took place for three consecutive days in 1975, large-scale deforestation resulting from agricultural expansion and livestock pressure continued thereafter. However, between 2000 and 2014, due to active involvement of local and governmental institutions there was a slight regeneration of the vegetation and the Erica forest. Protection and regeneration of the forest was particularly efficient after it was given into custody of an orthodox church established in 1999 at the lower side of the forest. Overall, the study revealed that human and livestock pressures are the strongest drivers of deforestation. Furthermore, the study indicated that integrating the actions of local and governmental institutions is key for the protection of the

  5. Mapping Alpine Vegetation Location Properties by Dense Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederheiser, Robert; Rutzinger, Martin; Lamprecht, Andrea; Steinbauer, Klaus; Winkler, Manuela; Pauli, Harald

    2016-06-01

    Highly accurate 3D micro topographic mapping in mountain research demands for light equipment and low cost solutions. Recent developments in structure from motion and dense matching techniques provide promising tools for such applications. In the following, the feasibility of terrestrial photogrammetry for mapping topographic location properties of sparsely vegetated areas in selected European mountain regions is investigated. Changes in species composition at alpine vegetation locations are indicators of climate change consequences, such as the pronounced rise of average temperatures in mountains compared to the global average. Better understanding of climate change effects on plants demand for investigations on a micro-topographic scale. We use professional and consumer grade digital single-lens reflex cameras mapping 288 plots each 3 x 3 m on 18 summits in the Alps and Mediterranean Mountains within the GLORIA (GLobal Observation Research Initiative in Alpine environments) network. Image matching tests result in accuracies that are in the order of millimetres in the XY-plane and below 0.5 mm in Z-direction at the second image pyramid level. Reconstructing vegetation proves to be a challenge due to its fine and small structured architecture and its permanent movement by wind during image acquisition, which is omnipresent on mountain summits. The produced 3D point clouds are gridded to 6 mm resolution from which topographic parameters such as slope, aspect and roughness are derived. At a later project stage these parameters will be statistically linked to botanical reference data in order to conclude on relations between specific location properties and species compositions.

  6. Mass balance investigation of alpine glaciers through LANDSAT TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayr, Klaus J.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees in the Austrian Alps was undertaken and compared with meteorological data of nearby weather stations. Alpine or valley glaciers can be used to study regional and worldwide climate changes. Alpine glaciers respond relatively fast to a warming or cooling trend in temperature through an advance or a retreat of the terminus. In addition, the mass balance of the glacier is being affected. Last year two TM scenes of the Pasterze Glacier of Aug. 1984 and Aug. 1986 were used to study the difference in reflectance. This year, in addition to the scenes from last year, one MSS scene of Aug. 1976 and a TM scene from 1988 were examined for both the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees. During the overpass of the LANDSAT on 6 Aug. 1988 ground truthing on the Pasterze Glacier was undertaken. The results indicate that there was considerable more reflectance in 1976 and 1984 than in 1986 and 1988. The climatological data of the weather stations Sonnblick and Rudolfshuette were examined and compared with the results found through the LANDSAT data. There were relations between the meteorological and LANDSAT data: the average temperature over the last 100 years showed an increase of .4 C, the snowfall was declining during the same time period but the overall precipitation did not reveal any significant change over the same period. With the use of an interactive image analysis computer, the LANDSAT scenes were studied. The terminus of the Pasterze Glacier retreated 348 m and the terminus of the Kleines Fleisskees 121 m since 1965. This approach using LANDSAT MSS and TM digital data in conjunction with meteorological data can be effectively used to monitor regional and worldwide climate changes.

  7. Statistical Downscaling Of Local Climate In The Alpine Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Severin; Philipp, Andreas; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on the alpine region was disproportional strong in the past decades compared to the surrounding areas, which becomes manifest in a higher increase in surface air temperature. Beside the thermal changes also implications for the hydrological cycle may be expected, acting as a very important factor not only for the ecosystem but also for mankind, in the form of water security or considering economical aspects like winter tourism etc. Therefore, in climate impact studies, it is necessary to focus on variables with high influence on the hydrological cycle, for example temperature, precipitation, wind, humidity and radiation. The aim of this study is to build statistical downscaling models which are able to reproduce temperature and precipitation at the mountainous alpine weather stations Zugspitze and Sonnblick and to further project these models into the future to identify possible changes in the behavior of these climate variables and with that in the hydrological cycle. Beside facing a in general very complex terrain in this high elevated regions, we have the advantage of a more direct atmospheric influence on the meteorology of the exposed weather stations from the large scale circulation. Two nonlinear statistical methods are developed to model the station-data series on a daily basis: On the one hand a conditional classification approach was used and on the other hand a model based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) was built. The latter is in focus of this presentation. One of the important steps of developing a new model approach is to find a reliable predictor setup with e.g. informative predictor variables or adequate location and size of the spatial domain. The question is: Can we include synoptic background knowledge to identify an optimal domain for an ANN approach? The yet developed ANN setups and configurations show promising results in downscaling both, temperature (up to 80 % of explained variance) and precipitation (up

  8. Is snow sublimation important in the alpine water balance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Strasser

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In alpine terrain, snow sublimation as a component of the winter moisture budget represents a proportion of precipitation which does not contribute to melt. To quantify its amount we analyze the spatial pattern of snow sublimation at the ground, from a canopy and from turbulent suspension during wind-induced snow transport for a high alpine area in the Berchtesgaden National Park (Germany, and we discuss the efficiency of these processes with respect to seasonal snowfall. Therefore, we utilized hourly meteorological recordings from a network of automatic stations, and a distributed simulation framework comprising validated, physically based models. Meteorological data records were spatially distributed over the simulation domain by means of a quasi-physically based interpolation scheme that accounts for topographic influences on the distributed fields. The applied simulation tools were: a detailed model for shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, a mass and energy balance model for the ground snow cover, a model for the microclimatic conditions within a forest canopy and related snow-vegetation interactions including snow sublimation from the surface of the trees, and a model for the simulation of wind-induced snow transport and related sublimation from suspended snow particles. For each of the sublimation processes, mass rates were quantified and aggregated over an entire winter season. Sublimation from the ground and from most canopy types are spatially relatively homogeneous and sum up to about 100 mm of snow water equivalent (SWE over the winter period. Accumulated seasonal sublimation due to turbulent suspension is small in the valley areas, but can locally, at very wind-exposed mountain ridges, add up to more than 1000 mm of SWE. The fraction of these sublimation losses of winter snowfall is between 10 and 90%.

  9. Micrometeorological processes driving snow ablation in an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mott

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mountain snow covers typically become patchy over the course of a melting season. The snow pattern during melt is mainly governed by the end of winter snow depth distribution and the local energy balance. The objective of this study is to investigate micrometeorological processes driving snow ablation in an Alpine catchment. For this purpose we combine a meteorological model (ARPS with a fully distributed energy balance model (Alpine3D. Turbulent fluxes above melting snow are further investigated by using data from eddy-correlation systems. We compare modelled snow ablation to measured ablation rates as obtained from a series of Terrestrial Laser Scanning campaigns covering a complete ablation season. The measured ablation rates indicate that the advection of sensible heat causes locally increased ablation rates at the upwind edges of the snow patches. The effect, however, appears to be active over rather short distances except for very strong wind conditions. Neglecting this effect, the model is able to capture the mean ablation rates for early ablation periods but strongly overestimates snow ablation once the fraction of snow coverage is below a critical value. While radiation dominates snow ablation early in the season, the turbulent flux contribution becomes important late in the season. Simulation results indicate that the air temperatures appear to overestimate the local air temperature above snow patches once the snow coverage is below a critical value. Measured turbulent fluxes support these findings by suggesting a stable internal boundary layer close to the snow surface causing a strong decrease of the sensible heat flux towards the snow cover. Thus, the existence of a stable internal boundary layer above a patchy snow cover exerts a dominant control on the timing and magnitude of snow ablation for patchy snow covers.

  10. Close-Range Sensing Techniques in Alpine Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutzinger, M.; Höfle, B.; Lindenbergh, R.; Oude Elberink, S.; Pirotti, F.; Sailer, R.; Scaioni, M.; Stötter, J.; Wujanz, D.

    2016-06-01

    Early career researchers such as PhD students are a main driving force of scientific research and are for a large part responsible for research innovation. They work on specialized topics within focused research groups that have a limited number of members, but might also have limited capacity in terms of lab equipment. This poses a serious challenge for educating such students as it is difficult to group a sufficient number of them to enable efficient knowledge transfer. To overcome this problem, the Innsbruck Summer School of Alpine Research 2015 on close-range sensing techniques in Alpine terrain was organized in Obergurgl, Austria, by an international team from several universities and research centres. Of the applicants a group of 40 early career researchers were selected with interest in about ten types of specialized surveying tools, i.e. laser scanners, a remotely piloted aircraft system, a thermal camera, a backpack mobile mapping system and different grade photogrammetric equipment. During the one-week summer school, students were grouped according to their personal preference to work with one such type of equipment under guidance of an expert lecturer. All students were required to capture and process field data on a mountain-related theme like landslides or rock glaciers. The work on the assignments lasted the whole week but was interspersed with lectures on selected topics by invited experts. The final task of the summer school participants was to present and defend their results to their peers, lecturers and other colleagues in a symposium-like setting. Here we present the framework and content of this summer school which brought together scientists from close-range sensing and environmental and geosciences.

  11. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 isolated from a hunted wild alpine ibex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, S; Sarno, E; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Cernela, N; Stephan, R

    2013-03-01

    Occurrence of Yersinia spp. in wild ruminants was studied and the strains were characterized to get more information on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic Yersinia in the wildlife. In total, faecal samples of 77 red deer, 60 chamois, 55 roe deer and 27 alpine ibex were collected during 3 months of the hunting season in 2011. The most frequently identified species was Y. enterocolitica found in 13%, 10%, 4% and 2% of roe deer, red deer, alpine ibex and chamois, respectively. Interestingly, one Y. enterocolitica O:3 strain, isolated from an alpine ibex, carried the important virulence genes located on the virulence plasmid (yadA and virF) and in the chromosome (ail, hreP, myfA and ystA). Most of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotype 1A of which 14 were ystB positive. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of alpine ibex as a reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica.

  12. Mortality rates of the Alpine Chamois : the influence of snow-meteorological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, T.; Geiger, F.; Jenny, H.

    2008-01-01

    Especially for animals inhabiting alpine areas, winter environmental conditions can be limiting. Cold temperatures, hampered food availability and natural perils are just three of many potential threats that mountain ungulates face in winter. Understanding their sensitivity to climate variability is

  13. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR 3D MODELLING OF HIGH-ALPINE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Legat

    2016-03-01

    Based on the very promising results, some general recommendations for aerial photogrammetry processing in high-alpine areas are made to achieve best possible accuracy of the final 3D-, 2.5D- and 2D products.

  14. Alpine treeline and timberline dynamics during the Holocene in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GEANTĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High altitude environments (treeline and alpine communities are particularly sensitive to climate changes, disturbances and land-use changes due to their limited tolerance and adaptability range, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. The current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree- and timberlines upwards thus affecting alpine plant communities and causing land-cover change and fragmentation of alpine habitats. An upslope movement of some trees, shrubs and cold adapted alpine herbs as a response to the current climate warming has already been noted in many montane and subalpine regions.Four Holocene peat and lacustrine sediment sequences located between 1670 and 1918 m a.s.l. (Fig.1, in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romania, Eastern Carpathians are used with the aim to determine: i the sensitivity of high mountain habitats to climate, fire and land use changes; ii tree- and timberline shifts: and iii the influence of landscape topography on trees and shrubs.

  15. Alpine skiing: Effects of mental training program of junior representatives of the Czech republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Hřebíčková; Hana Válková; Sigmund Martin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Qualitative evaluation case study deals with the implementation of mental skills training program conducted with the Czech national junior alpine skiing team over a period of an annual training cycle and evaluation of its effects by one of the members of the team. The concept of the study is based on current findings of sport psychology in the field of mental training in alpine skiing and other sports. The theoretical framework of the study is the socio-cognitive psychologic...

  16. Dynamics of Chytridiomycosis during the Breeding Season in an Australian Alpine Amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannelly, Laura A; Hunter, David A; Lenger, Daniel; Scheele, Ben C; Skerratt, Lee F; Berger, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disease dynamics during the breeding season of declining amphibian species will improve our understanding of how remnant populations persist with endemic infection, and will assist the development of management techniques to protect disease-threatened species from extinction. We monitored the endangered Litoria verreauxii alpina (alpine treefrog) during the breeding season through capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies in which we investigated the dynamics of chytridiomycosis in relation to population size in two populations. We found that infection prevalence and intensity increased throughout the breeding season in both populations, but infection prevalence and intensity was higher (3.49 and 2.02 times higher prevalence and intensity, respectively) at the site that had a 90-fold higher population density. This suggests that Bd transmission is density-dependent. Weekly survival probability was related to disease state, with heavily infected animals having the lowest survival. There was low recovery from infection, especially when animals were heavily infected with Bd. Sympatric amphibian species are likely to be reservoir hosts for the disease and can play an important role in the disease ecology of Bd. Although we found 0% prevalence in crayfish (Cherax destructor), we found that a sympatric amphibian (Crinia signifera) maintained 100% infection prevalence at a high intensity throughout the season. Our results demonstrate the importance of including infection intensity into CMR disease analysis in order to fully understand the implications of disease on the amphibian community. We recommend a combined management approach to promote lower population densities and ensure consistent progeny survival. The most effective management strategy to safeguard the persistence of this susceptible species might be to increase habitat area while maintaining a similar sized suitable breeding zone and to increase water flow and area to reduce drought.

  17. Dynamics of Chytridiomycosis during the Breeding Season in an Australian Alpine Amphibian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Brannelly

    Full Text Available Understanding disease dynamics during the breeding season of declining amphibian species will improve our understanding of how remnant populations persist with endemic infection, and will assist the development of management techniques to protect disease-threatened species from extinction. We monitored the endangered Litoria verreauxii alpina (alpine treefrog during the breeding season through capture-mark-recapture (CMR studies in which we investigated the dynamics of chytridiomycosis in relation to population size in two populations. We found that infection prevalence and intensity increased throughout the breeding season in both populations, but infection prevalence and intensity was higher (3.49 and 2.02 times higher prevalence and intensity, respectively at the site that had a 90-fold higher population density. This suggests that Bd transmission is density-dependent. Weekly survival probability was related to disease state, with heavily infected animals having the lowest survival. There was low recovery from infection, especially when animals were heavily infected with Bd. Sympatric amphibian species are likely to be reservoir hosts for the disease and can play an important role in the disease ecology of Bd. Although we found 0% prevalence in crayfish (Cherax destructor, we found that a sympatric amphibian (Crinia signifera maintained 100% infection prevalence at a high intensity throughout the season. Our results demonstrate the importance of including infection intensity into CMR disease analysis in order to fully understand the implications of disease on the amphibian community. We recommend a combined management approach to promote lower population densities and ensure consistent progeny survival. The most effective management strategy to safeguard the persistence of this susceptible species might be to increase habitat area while maintaining a similar sized suitable breeding zone and to increase water flow and area to reduce drought.

  18. Alpine thermal events in the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (southeastern Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Wetzel, Andreas; Peytcheva, Irena; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a crystalline belt situated between the two diverging branches of the Eastern Mediterranean Alpine orogenic system, the northeast-vergent Carpatho-Balkanides and the southwest-vergent Dinarides and the Hellenides. We have applied fission-track analysis on apatites and zircons, coupled with structural field observations in order to reveal the low-temperature evolution of the SMM. Additionally, the age and geochemistry of the Palaeogene igneous rocks (i.e. Surdulica granodiorite and dacitic volcanic rocks) were determined by the LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology of zircons and geochemical analysis of main and trace elements in whole-rock samples. Three major cooling stages have been distinguished from the late Early Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The first stage represents rapid cooling through the partial annealing zones of zircon and apatite (300-60 °C) during the late Early to early Late Cretaceous (ca. 110-ca. 90 Ma). It is related to a post-orogenic extension following the regional nappe-stacking event in the Early Cretaceous. Middle to late Eocene (ca. 48-ca. 39 Ma) cooling is related to the formation of the Crnook-Osogovo-Lisets extensional dome and its exhumation along low-angle normal faults. The third event is related to regional cooling following the late Eocene magmatic pulse. During this pulse, the areas surrounding the Surdulica granodiorite (36 ± 1 Ma) and the slightly younger volcanic bodies (ca. 35 Ma) have reached temperatures higher than the apatite closure temperature (120 °C) but lower than ca. 250 °C. The geochemistry of the igneous samples reveals late- to post-orogenic tectonic setting during magma generation.

  19. Is grazing exclusion effective in restoring vegetation in degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Lu, Xuyang

    2015-01-01

    Overgrazing is considered one of the key disturbance factors that results in alpine grassland degradation in Tibet. Grazing exclusion by fencing has been widely used as an approach to restore degraded grasslands in Tibet since 2004. Is the grazing exclusion management strategy effective for the vegetation restoration of degraded alpine grasslands? Three alpine grassland types were selected in Tibet to investigate the effect of grazing exclusion on plant community structure and biomass. Our results showed that species biodiversity indicators, including the Pielou evenness index, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and the Simpson dominance index, did not significantly change under grazing exclusion conditions. In contrast, the total vegetation cover, the mean vegetation height of the community, and the aboveground biomass were significantly higher in the grazing exclusion grasslands than in the free grazed grasslands. These results indicated that grazing exclusion is an effective measure for maintaining community stability and improving aboveground vegetation growth in alpine grasslands. However, the statistical analysis showed that the growing season precipitation (GSP) plays a more important role than grazing exclusion in which influence on vegetation in alpine grasslands. In addition, because the results of the present study come from short term (6-8 years) grazing exclusion, it is still uncertain whether these improvements will be continuable if grazing exclusion is continuously implemented. Therefore, the assessments of the ecological effects of the grazing exclusion management strategy on degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet still need long term continued research.

  20. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Resulting From Tourism Travel in an Alpine Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Unger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism—with its social, economic, and ecological dimensions—can be an important driver of sustainable development of alpine communities. Tourism is essential for local people's incomes and livelihoods, but it can also have a major impact on the local environment, landscape aesthetics, and (mainly through tourist transport global climate change. A project currently underway is developing the Austrian mountain municipality of Alpbach into a role model for competitive and sustainable year-round alpine tourism using an integrated and spatially explicit approach that considers energy demand and supply related to housing, infrastructure, and traffic in the settlement and the skiing area. As the first outcome of the project, this article focuses on the development of the Model of Alpine Tourism and Transportation, a geographic information system–based tool for calculating, in detail, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from travel to a single alpine holiday destination. Analysis results show that it is crucial to incorporate both direct and indirect energy use and emissions as each contributes significantly to the climate impact of travel. The study fills a research gap in carbon impact appraisal studies of tourism transport in the context of alpine tourism at the destination level. Our findings will serve as a baseline for the development of comprehensive policies and agendas promoting the transformation toward sustainable alpine tourism.

  1. Is grazing exclusion effective in restoring vegetation in degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Overgrazing is considered one of the key disturbance factors that results in alpine grassland degradation in Tibet. Grazing exclusion by fencing has been widely used as an approach to restore degraded grasslands in Tibet since 2004. Is the grazing exclusion management strategy effective for the vegetation restoration of degraded alpine grasslands? Three alpine grassland types were selected in Tibet to investigate the effect of grazing exclusion on plant community structure and biomass. Our results showed that species biodiversity indicators, including the Pielou evenness index, the Shannon–Wiener diversity index, and the Simpson dominance index, did not significantly change under grazing exclusion conditions. In contrast, the total vegetation cover, the mean vegetation height of the community, and the aboveground biomass were significantly higher in the grazing exclusion grasslands than in the free grazed grasslands. These results indicated that grazing exclusion is an effective measure for maintaining community stability and improving aboveground vegetation growth in alpine grasslands. However, the statistical analysis showed that the growing season precipitation (GSP plays a more important role than grazing exclusion in which influence on vegetation in alpine grasslands. In addition, because the results of the present study come from short term (6–8 years grazing exclusion, it is still uncertain whether these improvements will be continuable if grazing exclusion is continuously implemented. Therefore, the assessments of the ecological effects of the grazing exclusion management strategy on degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet still need long term continued research.

  2. Species specific and environment induced variation of δ13C and δ15N in alpine plants

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    Yang eYang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signals in plant tissues integrate plant-environment interactions over long periods. In this study, we hypothesized that humid alpine life conditions are narrowing the scope for significant deviations from common carbon, water and nitrogen relations as captured by stable isotope signals. We explored the variation in δ13C and δ15N in 32 plant species from tissue type to ecosystem scale across a suite of locations at c. 2500 m elevation in the Swiss Alps. Foliar δ13C and δ15N varied among species by about 3-4 ‰ and 7-8 ‰ respectively. However, there was no overall difference in means of δ13C and δ15N for species sampled in different plant communities or when bulk plant dry matter harvests of different plant communities were compared. δ13C was found to be highly species specific, so that the ranking among species was mostly maintained across 11 habitats. However, δ15N varied significantly from place to place in all species (a range of 2.7 ‰ except in Fabaceae (Trifolium alpinum and Juncaceae (Luzula lutea. There was also a substantial variation among individuals of the same species collected next to each other. No difference was found in foliar δ15N of non-legumes, which were either collected next to or away from the most common legume, T. alpinum. δ15N data place Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, just like Fabaceae, in a low discrimination category, well separated from other families. Soil δ15N was higher than in plants and increased with soil depth. The results indicate a high functional diversity in alpine plants that is similar to that reported for low elevation plants. We conclude that the surprisingly high variation in δ13C and δ15N signals in the studied high elevation plants is largely species specific (genetic and insensitive to obvious environmental cues.

  3. Knee injuries and Alpine skiing. Treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, G A; Warren, R F

    1994-06-01

    Alpine skiing is an increasingly popular recreational sport worldwide. While the overall injury rate has declined and the pattern of injury changed over the years, the incidence of knee injuries has not changed substantially and accounts for 20 to 30% of all alpine skiing injuries. Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries are the most common in skiing, accounting for 15 to 20% of all skiing injuries and 60% of knee injuries in skiers. Tears are commonly isolated, but may occur in association with other ligamentous injuries. Associated meniscal pathology is rare. Isolated MCL injuries are treated nonoperatively with a programme of initial immobilisation, early range-of-motion, and isometric quadriceps strengthening exercises. When full range of motion is achieved, a programme of progressive resistance exercises, isokinetic and closed chain exercises, and functional rehabilitation is instituted. Good results with return to skiing can be expected in most cases. Isolated lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injuries are rare in skiers. There is usually associated cruciate or arcuate ligament complex. Careful physical examination is essential to rule out associated ligament injuries and more complex instability patterns. In the rare case of isolated LCL injury, a similar approach to isolated MCL injury should be instituted. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have become increasingly common in skiers. This may reflect a true increase in the incidence or an improved awareness and ability to diagnose ACL injury. Physical examination and arthrometric analysis are important in assessing the integrity of the ACL. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation may be helpful in assessing associated meniscal pathology. Treatment of the ACL-deficient knee is usually surgical. However, prior to reconstruction, a programme aimed at reducing effusion and regaining a full, pain-free range of motion is recommended. Surgical reconstruction is usually with the

  4. Drones application on snow and ice surveys in alpine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Leonardo; Bonetti, Luigi; Fioletti, Matteo; Peretti, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    First results from Climate change are now clear in Europe, and in Italy in particular, with the natural disasters that damaged irreparably the territory and the habitat due to extreme meteorological events. The Directive 2007/60/EC highlight that an "effective natural hazards prevention and mitigation that requires coordination between Member States above all on natural hazards prevention" is necessary. A climate change adaptation strategy is identified on the basis of the guidelines of the European Community program 2007-2013. Following the directives provided in the financial instrument for civil protection "Union Civil Protection Mechanism" under Decision No. 1313/2013 / EU of the European Parliament and Council, a cross-cutting approach that takes into account a large number of implementation tools of EU policies is proposed as climate change adaptation strategy. In last 7 years a network of trans-Alpine area's authorities was created between Italy and Switzerland to define an adaptive strategy on climate change effects on natural enviroment based on non structural remedies. The Interreg IT - CH STRADA Project (STRategie di ADAttamento al cambiamento climatico) was born to join all the non structural remedies to climate change effects caused by snow and avalanches, on mountain sources, extreme hydrological events and to manage all transnational hydrological resources, involving all stakeholders from Italy and Switzerland. The STRADA project involved all civil protection authorities and all research centers in charge of snow, hydrology end civil protection. The Snow - meteorological center of the Regional Agency for Environment Protection (CNM of ARPA Lombardia) and the Civil Protection of Lombardy Region created a research team to develop tools for avalanche prediction and to observe and predict snow cover on Alpine area. With this aim a lot of aerial photo using Drone as been performed in unusual landscape. Results of all surveys were really interesting on a

  5. Micrometeorological processes driving snow ablation in an Alpine catchment

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    R. Mott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain snow covers typically become patchy over the course of a melting season. The snow pattern during melt is mainly governed by the end of winter snow depth distribution and the local energy balance. The objective of this study is to investigate micro-meteorological processes driving snow ablation in an Alpine catchment. For this purpose we combine a meteorological boundary-layer model (Advanced Regional Prediction System with a fully distributed energy balance model (Alpine3D. Turbulent fluxes above melting snow are further investigated by using data from eddy-correlation systems. We compare modeled snow ablation to measured ablation rates as obtained from a series of Terrestrial Laser Scanning campaigns covering a complete ablation season. The measured ablation rates indicate that the advection of sensible heat causes locally increased ablation rates at the upwind edges of the snow patches. The effect, however, appears to be active over rather short distances of about 4–6 m. Measurements suggest that mean wind velocities of about 5 m s−1 are required for advective heat transport to increase snow ablation over a long fetch distance of about 20 m. Neglecting this effect, the model is able to capture the mean ablation rates for early ablation periods but strongly overestimates snow ablation once the fraction of snow coverage is below a critical value of approximately 0.6. While radiation dominates snow ablation early in the season, the turbulent flux contribution becomes important late in the season. Simulation results indicate that the air temperatures appear to overestimate the local air temperature above snow patches once the snow coverage is low. Measured turbulent fluxes support these findings by suggesting a stable internal boundary layer close to the snow surface causing a strong decrease of the sensible heat flux towards the snow cover. Thus, the existence of a stable internal boundary layer above a patchy snow cover

  6. Differences in Sensation Seeking Between Alpine Skiers, Snowboarders and Ski Tourers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Martin; Wolf, Mirjam; Ruedl, Gerhard; Burtscher, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Despite different injury rates and injury patterns previous personality related research in the field of downhill winter sports did not subdivide between different alpine slope users. In this study, we tried to find out whether the personality trait sensation seeking differs between skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. In a cross-sectional survey 1185 persons (726 alpine skiers, 321 snowboarders and 138 ski tourers comparable in age and sex) were electronically questioned with the sensation seeking scale (SSS-V) comprising the four factors thrill and adventure seeking, experiences seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Kruskal-Wallis Tests revealed a significantly higher total score of the SSS-V for snowboarders in comparison to alpine skiers and ski tourers (H(2) = 41.5, p Ski tourers and snowboarders scored significantly higher in the dimensions "thrill- and adventure-seeking" and "experience-seeking" than alpine skiers. Furthermore, snowboarders showed higher scores in "disinhibition" related to alpine skiers and ski tourers and "boredom susceptibility" compared to alpine skiers. Data show differences in the personality trait sensation seeking in people practising different winter sports. As snowboarders showed higher SS-scores compared to alpine skiers and ski tourers prevention and information programs might benefit from a selective approach focusing on special characteristics of the respective group. Key pointsIt is the very first research trying to identify differences between different types of winter sport slope usersObtained results show higher sensation seeking scores in snowboardersThese results might stimulate new approaches in educational campaigns to reduce accident rates in winter sports.

  7. Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of Alpine ibex.

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    Christine Grossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex. At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2, Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8% to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection.

  8. [Life-saving air supported avalanche mission at night in high alpine terrain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenberg, J; Brugger, H; Esslinger, A; Albrecht, R

    2012-10-01

    This is a case report about a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) operation during the night in response to an avalanche accident with two completely buried victims. One of the victims was rescued alive after 9.2 h presenting with a patent airway and an air pocket and was successfully rewarmed with forced air from 23°C core temperature without any neurological deficits. After the rescue the patient developed lung edema which resolved spontaneously within 2 days. The second victim was found dead presenting with an air pocket but solid frozen thorax. The special circumstances of the rescue operation and treatment are presented and discussed. The impact of a frozen chest on resuscitation decisions is presented and discussed with an emphasis on the triage of multiple victims.

  9. Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea in perch (Perca fluviatilis in three sub-alpine lakes: influence of biotic and abiotic factors on prevalence

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    Orlando PETRINI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, human diphyllobothriosis has staged a comeback in Swiss, French and Italian sub-alpine regions. The main putative infective source of the causative agent (the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum in these areas is perch (Perca fluviatilis. Therefore, the occurrence of D. latum in this fish species was investigated between 2005 and 2008 in the sub-alpine lakes Maggiore, Lugano and Geneva. Prevalence in fish of Lake Maggiore was 14% (n = 880. In Lake Geneva, 5.1% fillets (n = 532 were infected, whereas perch from Lake Lugano were free from the parasite. These results are discussed in relation to previous studies. Data on fish size and weight indicate that infection of perch by D. latum is independent of age and sex. Abiotic factors considered critical for D. latum life cycle (water temperature and oxygen concentration characterize the three basins and were related to their infestation frequencies. The presence of this parasite was most likely favoured by warmer, well oxygenated waters. Previous studies indicate that the lake’s trophic state (i.e. content of total phosphorus influenced the availability of the first intermediate hosts (copepods of some pseudophyllideans. In our study, no correlation was observed between the amount of phosphorus and the number of copepods in populations of zooplankton. Nevertheless, the trophic states of the three lakes seemed to affect the degree of infection in fish. In conclusion, at least in sub-alpine lakes, abiotic factors such as water temperature, oxygenation and trophic state seem to have an influence on maintaining or preventing perch infection with D. latum.

  10. Representation of the Alpine snowpack in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzago, Silvia; Palazzi, Elisa; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Global Climate Models (GCMs) still have too coarse spatial resolution to adequately reproduce the small-scale variability of precipitation and snowpack in orographically complex areas but increasingly higher resolutions are currently being introduced for the next generation of models. As a preliminary step a comparative assessment of the performances of the current, state-of-art GCMs in the representation of the snowpack characteristics is needed. Our study investigates how the GCMs participating in the Coupled Models Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) represent the snow water equivalent and snow depth climatology over the Greater Alpine Region (4-19°E, 43-49°N) during the historical period 1980-2005. We compare the CMIP5 model outputs to the available satellite and reanalysis products, including Global Monthly EASE-Grid Snow Water Equivalent Climatology, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, Modern Era-Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, ERA-Interim/Land and 20th Century reanalyses, highlighting common features and discrepancies. We also explore the models spread in the representation of the snow seasonal cycle and its projected changes for the XXI century in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, discussing the results in the frame of the latest literature studies. The present analysis aims at providing a comprehensive picture of the current uncertainties in the representation of snowpack by the major gridded snow datasets derived from remote sensing, reanalyses and model simulations, in condition of complex orography.

  11. Legacy and emerging contaminants in meltwater of three Alpine glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Claudia; Finizio, Antonio; Villa, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Meltwater samples collected in early and late summer from three Alpine glaciers were analysed to determine the occurrence of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants: DDTs, HCHs and PCBs) and emerging contaminants (current used pesticides and polycyclic musk fragrances). For legacy POPs, we reconstructed a concentration time series using data from previous surveys in the same areas (starting from 2000). The results suggest a declining tendency of these compounds, probably related to the introduction of international regulations, which has led the strong use reduction and ban of these compounds. Among the analysed current used pesticides the terbuthylazine and chlorpyrifos were found in all the analysed samples. The experimental results were in line with the prediction of the OECD tool screening model, which was applied to estimate the potential of these substances to undergo regional-scale atmospheric transport processes. Temporal and spatial differences in concentrations for these compounds were related to the timing of applications, weather conditions and crop distribution along the adjacent Po River Plain. Despite model predictions, the herbicide pendimethalin was never detected, probably due to the lower use of this compound in the agricultural practices. Conversely, concentrations of polycyclic musk fragrances galaxolide and tonalide were more homogeneous both temporally and spatially, in agreement with their continuous release from emission sources.

  12. Water quality of two glacial alpine Italian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelano, Vincenzo; Zambrotta, Maria; Defilippi, Albino; Torazzo, Annamaria

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize, in a period of one year, two glacial lakes, Alice and Meugliano, located in an alpine reservoir on the basis of physical and chemical features. The two lakes show two periods of mixing: one in the spring and one in the autumn, so can be classified as dimictic lakes. They are characterized by pH, alkalinity, low conductivity and and quite dilute ionic concentrations. With regard to nutrients, most nitrogen occurred in the nitric form in the superficial layers. During the period of thermal stratification, in the anoxic layer NO3- decreases and NH4+ increases, confirming the activity of the anaerobic denitrificant bacteria. Total and soluble phosphorus levels show homogeneity during the cold period at different depths, while with stratification concentrations increase in the hypolimnium and metalimnium. In both lakes there is an inverse correlation between transparency and chlorophyll a. To evaluate the trophic state the conventional criteria of Nurnberg 2 and four lake trophic indices (TSIs) are used. Both evaluations suggest that the two lakes are eutrophic, with worse conditions in Alice. Deviations of the trophic states, based on the relation between TSIs, indicate that factors other than phosphorous limit the algal biomass, and that non-algal particles influence light attenuation

  13. Optimization of the thermal performances of the Alpine Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhan; Di Ciaccio, Lucia

    The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) detector is the largest detector of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One of the most important goals of ATLAS was to search for the missing piece of the Standard Model, the Higgs boson that had been found in 2012. In order to keep looking for the unknowns, it is planned to upgrade the LHC. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is a novel configuration of the accelerator, aiming at increasing the luminosity by a factor five or more above the nominal LHC design. In parallel with the accelerator upgrade also the ATLAS will be upgraded to cope with detector aging and to achieve the same or better performance under increased event rate and radiation dose expected at the HL-LHC. This thesis discusses a novel design for the ATLAS Pixel Detector called the "Alpine" layout for the HL-LHC. To support this design, a local support structure is proposed, optimized and tested with an advanced CO2 evaporative cooling system. A numerical program called “CoBra” simulating the twophase heat ...

  14. Karst morphology and groundwater vulnerability of high alpine karst plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Lukas; Decker, Kurt; Faber, Robert; Wagreich, Michael; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    High alpine karst plateaus are recharge areas for major drinking water resources in the Alps and many other regions. Well-established methods for the vulnerability mapping of groundwater to contamination have not been applied to such areas yet. The paper characterises this karst type and shows that two common vulnerability assessment methods (COP and PI) classify most of the areas with high vulnerability classes. In the test site on the Hochschwab plateau (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), overlying layers are mostly absent, not protective or even enhance point recharge, where they have aquiclude character. The COP method classifies 82% of the area as highly or extremely vulnerable. The resulting maps are reasonable, but do not differentiate vulnerabilities to the extent that the results can be used for protective measures. An extension for the upper end of the vulnerability scale is presented that allows identifying ultra vulnerable areas. The proposed enhancement of the conventional approach points out that infiltration conditions are of key importance for vulnerability. The method accounts for karst genetical and hydrologic processes using qualitative and quantitative properties of karst depressions and sinking streams including parameters calculated from digital elevations models. The method is tested on the Hochschwab plateau where 1.7% of the area is delineated as ultra vulnerable. This differentiation could not be reached by the COP and PI methods. The resulting vulnerability map highlights spots of maximum vulnerability and the combination with a hazard map enables protective measures for a manageable area and number of sites.

  15. CHANGES IN QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING SUSTAINED RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

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    Josef Kröll

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing and the last two (POSTskiing runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL and rectus femoris (RF using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs

  16. Seasonal dynamics and micro-climatic preference of two Alpine endemic hypogean beetles

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    Stefano Mammola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypogean beetles generally live in stable environments, characterized by constant temperature and high relative humidity. Changes in the underground microclimatic conditions generally induce local migrations of the beetles through the hypogean environment in search of suitable microhabitats. We studied the seasonal dynamics and the micro-climatic preference of two Alpine endemic hypogean beetles - Sphodropsis ghilianii (Coleoptera, Carabidae and Dellabeffaella roccae (Coleoptera, Cholevidae - in the hypogean complex of Pugnetto (Graian Alps, Italy. We surveyed the two species for one year, using baited pitfall traps and measuring temperature and humidity along the two main caves. We used logistic regression mixed models (GLMMs to relate the presence of the two species to several variables, namely microclimate (seasonality, temperature, and humidity, subjacency and cave length. In addition, we tested the attractive power of the bait on the two species. The thermic optimum for S. ghilianii was found to be around 7°C, with an increasing probability of finding the species in the vicinity of the cave entrance during summer, autumn and spring. The species migrates inside the cave in winter, in response to the drop in the mean daily temperature and in the relative humidity occurring in the outer parts of the cave. On the contrary, D. roccae showed a significant preference for the deeper sections of the cave, characterized by an almost constant temperature of 9°C in air saturated with water vapour. Males and females individuals of both species were found to be equally affected by the environmental variables included in the analysis. We also provided information on the life history of the two species and methodological insights about the use of the bait in the traps

  17. Europe's battery: The making of the Alpine energy landscape, 1870-1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Marc D., II

    This study examines the environmental history of hydropower development in the Alps from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries. Analyzing government archival files, associational journals, conference proceedings, and published contemporary material from several Alpine countries, it seeks to determine how and why Europeans modified the Alpine landscape to generate hydropower, and to explore the consequences of these decisions. I argue that during this time period, Europeans thoroughly transformed the Alpine environment, creating what I call "Europe's Battery": a gigantic system for storing hydropower and distributing it on a continental scale. This study shows how nineteenth-century innovations in energy technology contributed to a dramatic shift in the perception of the Alps as a landscape of "white coal." It demonstrates how at the outset of electrification, Europeans modified Alpine waterways on an unprecedented scale in order to tap into the power of flowing Alpine water. I show how after the turn of the twentieth century, Europeans took advantage of the unique mountain environment to store water, first by converting existing lakes into reservoirs. The practice countered what was perceived to be the greatest disadvantage of white coal: its climate-influenced inconstancy. This study shows the importance of war, and especially the First World War, in the forging of the new Alpine landscape. Finally, this study illustrates how from the interwar period to the aftermath of the Second World War, Europeans put the finishing touches on the new Alpine energy landscape by creating large reservoirs behind dams and feeding Alpine hydroelectricity into a burgeoning European electricity grid. By 1955 the Alps had become one of the most important energy landscapes in Europe. This history of the Alpine energy landscape contributes to a number of historiographical fields. It represents an important chapter in the environmental history of one of the world's most

  18. Microzonages sismiques dans les vallées alpines et déclinaison locale des règles d’urbanisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Cartier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Confrontées au risque sismique, les vallées sédimentaires alpines testent différentes solutions politiques pour transcrire en règles d’urbanisme les connaissances apportées par les micro-zonages. France, Italie, Slovénie et Suisse composent avec leur tradition politique et l’adoption de codes européens pour améliorer la sécurité selon la vulnérabilité et la géologie locales.Management of earthquake risks in the sedimentary valleys of the Alps depends on the ability to transcribe scientific knowledge obtained from micro-zoning into urban planning regulations. France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland are working with new European codes, and within their respective political contexts, to improve earthquake safety on the basis of enhanced input on local geological conditions and vulnerability levels.

  19. Methane-cycling microorganisms in soils of a high-alpine altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Katrin; Pauli, Harald; Praeg, Nadine; Wagner, Andreas O; Illmer, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Methanogens and methanotrophs play unique roles as producers and consumers of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in soils, respectively. Here, we aimed to reveal whether and to which extent methane-cyclers occur in high-alpine soils, and to assess their spatial distribution along an altitudinal gradient (2700-3500 m) in the Austrian Alps at sites located within the alpine (2700-2900 m), the alpine-nival (3000-3100 m) and the nival belts (3200-3500 m). Methanococcales and Methanocella spp. were most abundant among all quantified methanogenic guilds, whereas Methanosarcinales were not detected in the studied soil. The detected methanogens seem to be capable of persisting despite a highly oxic low-temperature environment. Methanogenic and methanotrophic activities and abundances of methanotrophs, Methanococcales and Methanocella spp. declined with altitude. Methanogenic and methanotrophic abundances were best explained by mean annual soil temperature and dissolved organic carbon, respectively. Alpine belt soils harbored significantly more methane-cyclers than those of the nival belt, indicating some influence of plant cover. Our results show that methanogens are capable of persisting in high-alpine cold soils and might help to understand future changes of these environments caused by climate warming.

  20. Changes in chloroplast ultrastructure in some high-alpine plants: adaptation to metabolic demands and climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz, C; Engel, L

    2007-01-01

    The cytology of leaf cells from five different high-alpine plants was studied and compared with structures in chloroplasts from the typical high-alpine plant Ranunculus glacialis previously described as having frequent envelope plus stroma protrusions. The plants under investigation ranged from subalpine/alpine Geum montanum through alpine Geum reptans, Poa alpina var. vivipara, and Oxyria digyna to nival Cerastium uniflorum and R. glacialis. The general leaf structure (by light microscopy) and leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure (by transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) did not show any specialized structures unique to these mountain species. However, chloroplast protrusion formation could be found in G. reptans and, to a greater extent, in O. digyna. The other species exhibited only a low percentage of such chloroplast structural changes. Occurrence of protrusions in samples of G. montanum and O. digyna growing in a mild climate at about 50 m above sea level was drastically reduced. Serial TEM sections of O. digyna cells showed that the protrusions can appear as rather broad and long appendices of plastids, often forming pocketlike structures where mitochondria and microbodies are in close vicinity to the plastid and to each other. It is suggested that some high-alpine plants may form such protrusions to facilitate fast exchange of molecules between cytoplasm and plastid as an adaptation to the short, often unfavorable vegetation period in the Alps, while other species may have developed different types of adaptation that are not expressed in ultrastructural changes of the plastids.

  1. Ungulate herbivory on alpine willow in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Schoenecker, K.A.; Amburg, L.K.V.

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the Rocky Mountains, elk (Cervus elaphus) migrate from low-elevation mountain valleys during spring to high-elevation subalpine and alpine areas for the summer. Research has focused on the impacts of elk herbivory on winter-range plant communities, particularly on woody species such as willow and aspen; however, little information is available on the effects of elk herbivory on alpine willows. In the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south central Colorado, select alpine areas appear to receive high levels of summer elk herbivory, while other areas are nearly unbrowsed. In 2005 and 2008, we measured willow height, cover, and utilization on sites that appeared to be used heavily by elk, as well as on sites that appeared to be used lightly, to determine differences between these communities over time. We found less willow cover and shorter willows at sites that received higher levels of browsing compared to those that had lower levels of browsing. Human recreational use was greater at lightly browsed sites than at highly browsed sites. From 2005 to 2008, willow utilization declined, and willow cover and height increased at sites with heavy browsing, likely owing to ownership change of adjacent valley land which led to (1) removal of grazing competition from, cattle at valley locations and (2) increased human use in alpine areas, which displaced elk. We discuss the implications of increased human use and climate change on elk use of these alpine habitats. ?? 2011.

  2. Preliminary Observations of Water and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes Across an Alpine Treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, P. D.; Williams, M.; Monson, R.; Burns, S.; Chowanski, K.; Ackerman, T.; Knowles, J.; Bailey, A.

    2007-12-01

    Several studies have shown that alpine treeline (timberline) is especially sensitive to environmental changes, and is therefore a strong "early-warning" indicator of regional climate change. Many of these changes may be induced by factors including local land use changes, and understanding the difference and dynamics of water and carbon dioxide fluxes across the alpine treeline is important to help understand and assess regional climate change. Preliminary observations of water and carbon dioxide fluxes from a recently installed eddy covariance tower situated over alpine tundra are compared to fluxes measured over adjacent subalpine forest. During June-July 2007, the carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat half-hour fluxes over the tundra were 69%, 50%, and 44% less than over the forest, respectively. The evaporative fraction, however, was similar for both sites, and the cumulative carbon uptake was only 40% less at the tundra site compared to the forest site. Describing the differences and dynamics of fluxes across the alpine treeline is the first step towards understanding how changes in land use are/will affect the alpine environment.

  3. Hydraulic and Acoustic Properties of Alpine Fault DFDP1a Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, B.; Kitajima, H.; Saffer, D.

    2012-04-01

    The permeability structure of fault zones and surrounding wall rock is an important control on the hydrologic behavior of fault zones and on poro-elastic deformation processes that affect fault mechanics. Several recent fault zone drilling projects have aimed to sample and conduct in situ measurements across active, major plate boundary faults in order to better understand fault mechanics, hydrogeology, and earthquake processes. The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) aims to sample the active Alpine Fault (AF), on the South Island of New Zealand. The early phase of this project included 2 boreholes that penetrated the active AF at depths of ~100 m and ~150 m (DFDP-1A and 1B), and provided a suite of core samples transecting the fault from hanging wall mylonite, across cataclastically deformed fault rocks, and into Quaternary footwall gravels. Here, we report on laboratory experiments designed to measure permeability and ultrasonic velocities of core samples of fault and wall rock over a range of effective stresses. We performed steady-state, constant head permeability tests in a standard triaxial vessel under isotropic stress conditions, with effective confining stress ranging from 2.5 MPa to 63.5 MPa. In tandem with the permeability measurements, we conducted ultrasonic wavespeed measurements to determine P- and S- wavespeeds from time-of-flight. Most of our tests were performed on subsamples of DFDP 1A core, 25 mm in diameter and with lengths ranging from 17-36 mm. Additional tests were performed on samples of fault gouge from the nearby DFDP 1B hole, and on fault gouge obtained from a nearby trench excavation. Subsamples from the core were taken in a core parallel orientation, at an orientation of ~45 degrees to the Alpine Fault. We find that the permeability for wall rock mylonite and cataclasite samples decreases from 9.8 x 10-15 m2 to 2.5 x 10-18 m2 and 1.0 x 10-15 m2 to 1.4 x 10-19 m2, respectively, with effective stress from 2.5 - 63.5 MPa. We also observe

  4. Precipitation observation using microwave backhaul links in the alpine and pre-alpine region of Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chwala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave links in the alpine region of Southern Germany. Received signal level (RSL data is recorded minutely with small data loggers at the towers and then sent to a database server via GSM. Due to the large RSL fluctuations in periods without rain, the determination of attenuation caused by precipitation is not straightforward. To be able to continuously process the RSL data from July 2010 to October 2010, we introduce a new method to detect wet and dry periods using spectral time series analysis. We show the performance and limitations of the method and analyse the derived rain rates compared to rain gauge and weather radar measurements. The resulting correlations differ for different links and reach values of R2 = 0.80 for the link-gauge comparison and R2 = 0.84 for the link-radar comparison.

  5. Precipitation observation using microwave backhaul links in the alpine and pre-alpine region of Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chwala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties, because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave links in the alpine region of Southern Germany. Received signal level (RSL data are recorded minutely with small data loggers at the towers and then sent to a database server via GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications. Due to the large RSL fluctuations in periods without rain, the determination of attenuation caused by precipitation is not straightforward. To be able to continuously process the RSL data from July 2010 to October 2010, we introduce a new method to detect wet and dry periods using spectral time series analysis. Its performance and limitations are presented, showing that the mean detection error rates of wet and dry periods can be reduced to 10% for all five links. After, the wet/dry classification rain rates are derived from the RSL and compared to rain gauge and weather radar measurements. The resulting correlations differ for different links and reach values of R2 = 0.81 for the link-gauge comparison and R2 = 0.85 for the link-radar comparison.

  6. Fishery-induced selection on an Alpine whitefish: quantifying genetic and environmental effects on individual growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslé, Sébastien; Bornand, Christophe N; Wedekind, Claus

    2009-05-01

    Size-selective fishing, environmental changes and reproductive strategies are expected to affect life-history traits such as the individual growth rate. The relative contribution of these factors is not clear, particularly whether size-selective fishing can have a substantial impact on the genetics and hence on the evolution of individual growth rates in wild populations. We analysed a 25-year monitoring survey of an isolated population of the Alpine whitefish Coregonus palaea. We determined the selection differentials on growth rate, the actual change of growth rate over time and indicators of reproductive strategies that may potentially change over time. The selection differential can be reliably estimated in our study population because almost all the fish are harvested within their first years of life, i.e. few fish escape fishing mortality. We found a marked decline in average adult growth rate over the 25 years and a significant selection differential for adult growth, but no evidence for any linear change in reproductive strategies over time. Assuming that the heritability of growth in this whitefish corresponds to what was found in other salmonids, about a third of the observed decline in growth rate would be linked to fishery-induced evolution. Size-selective fishing seems to affect substantially the genetics of individual growth in our study population.

  7. Gas accumulations in Oligocene-Miocene reservoirs in the Alpine Foreland Basin (Austria): evidence for gas mixing and gas degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytlak, L.; Gross, D.; Sachsenhofer, R. F.; Bechtel, A.; Linzer, H.-G.

    2016-11-01

    Two petroleum systems are present in the eastern (Austrian) sector of the Alpine Foreland Basin. Whereas oil and thermogenic gas in Mesozoic and Eocene reservoir rocks have been generated beneath the Alps in Lower Oligocene source rocks, relative dry gas in Oligocene-Miocene clastic rocks deposited in the deep marine basin-axial channel system (Puchkirchen Channel) is interpreted as microbial in origin. Detailed investigations of the molecular and isotope composition of 87 gas samples from 86 wells, representing all producing fields with Oligocene and Miocene reservoir rocks, suggest that the presence of pure microbial gas is rare and limited mainly to the northern basin flank (e.g., KK field). All other fields contain varying amounts of thermogenic gas, which has been generated from a source rock with oil-window maturity. A relation with the underlying thermogenic petroleum system is obvious. Upward migration occurred along discrete fault zones (e.g., H field) or through low-permeability caprocks. Local erosion of Lower Oligocene sediments, the principal seal for the thermogenic petroleum system, as well as a high percentage of permeable rocks within the Puchkirchen Channel favored upward migration and mixing of thermogenic and microbial gas. All gas samples in Oligocene-Miocene reservoirs are biodegraded. Biodegradation and the formation of secondary microbial gas resulted in gas drying. Therefore, the gas samples analyzed in this study are relative dry, despite significant contributions of thermogenic hydrocarbons. Biodegradation probably continues at present time. The degree of biodegradation, however, decreases with depth.

  8. Origin, mobility, and temporal evolution of arsenic from a low-contamination catchment in Alpine crystalline rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pili, Eric; Tisserand, Delphine; Bureau, Sarah

    2013-11-15

    The reduction to 10 μg/l of the limit for arsenic in drinking water led many resource managers to deal with expensive treatments. In the very common case of arsenic levels close to the recommended maximum concentration, knowing the origin and temporal evolution of As has become of great importance. Here we present a case study from an alpine basin. Arsenic speciation, isotopic compositions of pyrite, sulfate and water, and concentrations of major and trace elements demonstrate a geogenic source for arsenic linked to the dissolution of pyrite. We provide new tools to further study As at low concentrations where many processes may be masked. The observed negative correlation between δ(34)SSO4 and [As] is interpreted as a Rayleigh-type sulfur-isotope fractionation during increasing pyrite dissolution. The observed positive correlation between δ(18)OSO4 and As(V)/As(III) could help to retrieve initial redox conditions. A 3-year long monitoring at high-resolution demonstrated that drought conditions enhance pyrite dissolution whose degradation products are scavenged by recharge water. An increase in As in groundwater may result from droughts due to enhanced oxygen entry in the unsaturated zone. The 2003 European heatwave had a major effect.

  9. Time budgets of Tibetan eared pheasants during the non-breeding season in an alpine scrub habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LU; Guangmei ZHENG

    2009-01-01

    Time allocations of the group-living Tibetan eared pheasants Crossoptilon harmani with and without supplementary food were investigated by full-day sampling from winter through spring in an alpine scrub zone, south Tibet. At a flock scale, both the different food-supply flocks displayed similar daily patterns of activity, foraging in the morning and evening, and resting around midday. In terms of individual activity, either foraging or resting was highly synchronous with the flock's. Non-provisioned birds spent more time feeding and less resting in midwinter than in late autumn. In early spring as climates became wanner and day longer, however, non-provisioned birds did not decrease their feeding efforts significantly but the provisioned birds did. Across the non-breeding seasons, the provisioned birds (relying on nutrition-rich artificial food) devoted less time to feeding and more to resting than did the non-previsioned ones (relying on nutrition-poor plant roots). Multivariate analysis showed increased food supply and ambient temperature resulted in a reduced foraging effort. However, the fact that the non-provisioned birds can save daily time for resting even in the cold short-day length mid-winter indicated that they faced no energetic constraint. Thus, protecting shelter vegetation rather than providing extra food is suggested to be important for long-term survival of the endangered galliform birds.

  10. The lithospheric-scale 3D structural configuration of the North Alpine Foreland Basin constrained by gravity modelling and the calculation of the 3D load distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schneider, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The North Alpine Foreland Basin is situated in the northern front of the European Alps and extends over parts of France, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. It formed as a wedge shaped depression since the Tertiary in consequence of the Euro - Adriatic continental collision and the Alpine orogeny. The basin is filled with clastic sediments, the Molasse, originating from erosional processes of the Alps and underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary successions and a Paleozoic crystalline crust. For our study we have focused on the German part of the basin. To investigate the deep structure, the isostatic state and the load distribution of this region we have constructed a 3D structural model of the basin and the Alpine area using available depth and thickness maps, regional scale 3D structural models as well as seismic and well data for the sedimentary part. The crust (from the top Paleozoic down to the Moho (Grad et al. 2008)) has been considered as two-parted with a lighter upper crust and a denser lower crust; the partition has been calculated following the approach of isostatic equilibrium of Pratt (1855). By implementing a seismic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere-Boundary (LAB) (Tesauro 2009) the crustal scale model has been extended to the lithospheric-scale. The layer geometry and the assigned bulk densities of this starting model have been constrained by means of 3D gravity modelling (BGI, 2012). Afterwards the 3D load distribution has been calculated using a 3D finite element method. Our results show that the North Alpine Foreland Basin is not isostatically balanced and that the configuration of the crystalline crust strongly controls the gravity field in this area. Furthermore, our results show that the basin area is influenced by varying lateral load differences down to a depth of more than 150 km what allows a first order statement of the required compensating horizontal stress needed to prevent gravitational collapse of the system. BGI (2012). The International

  11. The ubiquity of alpine plant radiations: from the Andes to the Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Colin E; Atchison, Guy W

    2015-07-01

    Alpine plant radiations are compared across the world's major mountain ranges and shown to be overwhelmingly young and fast, largely confined to the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and some of them apparently in the early explosive phase of radiation. Accelerated diversification triggered by island-like ecological opportunities following the final phases of mountain uplift, and in many cases enabled by the key adaptation of perennial habit, provides a general model for alpine plant radiations. Accelerated growth form evolution facilitated by perenniality provides compelling evidence of ecological release and suggests striking parallels between island-like alpine, and especially tropicalpine radiations, and island radiations more generally. These parallels suggest that the world's mountains offer an excellent comparative system for explaining evolutionary radiation.

  12. Dust inputs and bacteria influence dissolved organic matter in clear alpine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, N; Sommaruga, R; Morales-Baquero, R; Laurion, I; Camarero, L; Diéguez, M C; Camacho, A; Delgado, A; Torres, O; Chen, Z; Felip, M; Reche, I

    2011-01-01

    Remote lakes are usually unaffected by direct human influence, yet they receive inputs of atmospheric pollutants, dust, and other aerosols, both inorganic and organic. In remote, alpine lakes, these atmospheric inputs may influence the pool of dissolved organic matter, a critical constituent for the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Here, to assess this influence, we evaluate factors related to aerosol deposition, climate, catchment properties, and microbial constituents in a global dataset of 86 alpine and polar lakes. We show significant latitudinal trends in dissolved organic matter quantity and quality, and uncover new evidence that this geographic pattern is influenced by dust deposition, flux of incident ultraviolet radiation, and bacterial processing. Our results suggest that changes in land use and climate that result in increasing dust flux, ultraviolet radiation, and air temperature may act to shift the optical quality of dissolved organic matter in clear, alpine lakes.

  13. Alpine meteorology: translations of classic contributions by A. Wagner, E. Ekhart, and F. Defant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Dreiseitl, E. (eds.)

    1984-06-01

    The English translations of four classic research papers in Alpine meteorology, originally published in German and French in the 1930s and 1940s are presented in this report. The papers include: A. Wagner's 1938 paper entitled Theory and Observation of Periodic Mountain Winds; E. Ekhart's 1944 paper entitled Contributions to Alpine Meteorology; E. Ekhart's 1948 paper entitled On the Thermal Structure of the Mountain Atmosphere; and F. Defant's 1949 paper entitled A Theory of Slope Winds, Along with Remarks on the Theory of Mountain Winds and Valley Winds. A short introduction to these translations summarizes four recent Alpine meteorology field experients, emphasizing ongoing research that extends the research of Wagner, Ekhart, and Defant. The four experiments include the Innsbruck Slope Wind Experiment of 1978, the MESOKLIP Experiment of 1979, the DISKUS Experiment of 1980, and the ALPEX/MERKUR Experiment of 1982.

  14. Moisture and temperature controls on nitrification differ among ammonia oxidizer communities from three alpine soil habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brooke B.; Baron, Jill S.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2016-03-01

    Climate change is altering the timing and magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes in many highelevation ecosystems. The consequent changes in alpine nitrification rates have the potential to influence ecosystem scale responses. In order to better understand how changing temperature and moisture conditions may influence ammonia oxidizers and nitrification activity, we conducted laboratory incubations on soils collected in a Colorado watershed from three alpine habitats (glacial outwash, talus, and meadow). We found that bacteria, not archaea, dominated all ammonia oxidizer communities. Nitrification increased with moisture in all soils and under all temperature treatments. However, temperature was not correlated with nitrification rates in all soils. Site-specific temperature trends suggest the development of generalist ammonia oxidzer communities in soils with greater in situ temperature fluctuations and specialists in soils with more steady temperature regimes. Rapidly increasing temperatures and changing soil moisture conditions could explain recent observations of increased nitrate production in some alpine soils.

  15. Inspection of Alpine glaciers with cosmic-ray muon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo

    2016-04-01

    Radiography using cosmic-ray muons represents a challenging method for probing the bedrock topography beneath Alpine glaciers. We present the current status of our feasibility study at Eiger glacier, situated on the western flank of the Eiger in the Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps. The muon radiography is a technique that has been recently developed to investigate the internal density profiles of geoscientific targets. It is based on the measurement of the absorption of the cosmic-ray muons inside a material. Because the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray muons and the energy dependence of muon range have been studied well during the past years, the attenuation of the muon flux can be used to derive the column density, i.e. the density integrated along the muon trajectories, of geoscientific targets. This technique has recently been applied for non-invasive inspection of volcanoes, nuclear reactors, seismic faults, caves and etc. The greatest advantage of the method in the field of glacier studies is that it yields a unique solution of the density underneath a glacier without any assumption of physical properties inside the target. Large density contrasts, as expected between glacier ice (˜ 1.0g/cm3) and bedrock (˜ 2.5g/cm3), would allow us to elucidate the shape of the bedrock in high resolution. Accordingly, this technology will provide for the first time information on the bedrock surface beneath a steep and non-accessible Alpine glacier, in a complementary way with respect to other exploration methods (drilling, ground penetrating radar, seismic survey, gravity explorations and etc.). Our first aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of the method through a case study at the Eiger glacier, situated in the Central Swiss Alps. The Eiger glacier straddles the western flank of the Eiger between 3700 and 2300 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The glacier has shortened by about 150 m during the past 30 years in response to the ongoing global warming, causing a concern for

  16. Spatial distribution of stable water isotopes in alpine snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dietermann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse and predict the mean stable water isotopic composition of the snow cover at specific geographic locations and altitudes. In addition, the dependence of the isotopic composition of the entire snow cover on altitude was analysed. Snow in four Swiss catchments was sampled at the end of the accumulation period in April 2010 and a second time during snowmelt in May 2010 and analysed for stable isotope composition of 2H and 18O. The sampling was conducted at both south-facing and north-facing slopes at elevation differences of 100 m, for a total altitude difference of approximately 1000 m. The observed variability of isotopic composition of the snow cover was analysed with stepwise multiple linear regression models. The analysis indicated that there is only a limited altitude effect on the isotopic composition when considering all samples. This is due to the high variability of the isotopic composition of the precipitation during the winter months and, in particular in the case of south-facing slopes, an enrichment of heavy isotopes due to intermittent melting processes. This enrichment effect could clearly be observed in the samples which were taken later in the year. A small altitudinal gradient of the isotopic composition could only be observed at some north-facing slopes. However, the dependence of snow depth and the day of the year were significant predictor variables in all models. This study indicates the necessity to further study the variability of water isotopes in the snow cover to increase prediction for isotopic composition of snowmelt and hence increase model performance of residence time models for alpine areas in order to better understand the accumulation processes and the sources of water in the snow cover of high mountains.

  17. A Proposal submitted to Biological Systems Science Division of DOE requesting Participant Support Costs for the Fifth International Conference on Polar and Alpine Microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priscu, John [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The 5th International Conference on Polar and Alpine Microbiology (PAM5) was held in Big Sky, Montana (USA) from 8-12 September 2013. This meeting is a continuation of the highly successful meetings previously held in Rovaniemi, Finland (2004), Innsbruck, Austria (2006), Banff, Canada (2008) and Ljubljana, Slovenia (2011), which brought together leading international researchers and students in this field. The objectives of the Big Sky meeting were to bring together scientists, students and professionals to discuss all aspects of cold-adapted microorganisms and the roles they play in polar and alpine environments, to understand the role of these organisms in our search for life on other icy worlds, to address recent developments, and to exchange ideas and experiences on an international scale. The conference provided a multi-disciplinary forum to explore emerging areas in the field and as always, will have a wealth of opportunities for the exchange of ideas and building of collaborations. Funds were requested to help defray registration fees and travel costs of 13 early career scientists. Distribution of the funds were based on the quality of the abstracts submitted.

  18. Seasonal variation of allochthonous and autochthonous energy inputs in an alpine stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Fenoglio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous importance of alpine streams, information about many aspects of their ecology is still insufficient. Alpine lotic systems differ in many environmental characteristics from those lower down, for example because above tree line streams drain catchments where terrestrial vegetation is scarce and allochthonous organic input is expected to be small. The main objectives of this study were to examine seasonal variation of autochthonous and allochthonous energetic inputs and their relationship with macroinvertebrate communities in the Po river, an alpine non-glacial stream (NW Italy. For one year, samplings were monthly performed in a homogeneous 100 m stream reach for discharge, autochthonous energy input (benthic chlorophyll a, allochthonous energy input (coarse particulate organic matter, abundance and structure of benthic macroinvertebrate community. Chlorophyll a concentrations were in the range of what reported for other alpine streams, but presented a time-lag with respect to what has been reported for glacial-fed mountain rivers. CPOM amounts were lower than those in lowland, forested streams of the same area but exhibited an intriguing, different seasonal variability, probably reported for the first time, with a maximum in spring and a minimum in winter. We collected 29,950 macroinvertebrates belonging to 13 families and 10 orders. Benthic communities were essentially dominated by Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Diptera. Scrapers was the most important FFG, but also Shredders were well represented. Relationships between chlorophyll a concentrations, CPOM availability and macroinvertebrate community characteristics were analysed and discussed considering the existence of different top-down or bottom-up regulation mechanisms. This study confirms that benthic algae constitute an essential resource for macroinvertebrates in alpine streams above the tree line but also underlines the importance of terrestrial organic input, a

  19. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between banana plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.

  20. Constraints on Alpine hydrothermal activity and deformation from U-Th-Pb dating of cleft monazite and xenotime (Western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand'Homme, Alexis; Janots, Emilie; Bosse, Valerie; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; De Ascencao, Roger

    2016-04-01

    In this large-scale regional study, age of hydrothermal monazite (and xenotime) precipitation has been investigated through in-situ U-Th-Pb dating of crystals collected in 11 clefts (veins) taken in the internal and external massifs (Western Alps). The investigated clefts are composed of quartz, chlorite (± epidote), albite and millimetric accessory minerals (monazite, apatite, xenotime, anatase, rutile). Prior to dating, cleft monazite composition was thoroughly studied to reveal potential zoning. In-situ dating through different compositional domains of single monazite crystal yields well-resolved Th-Pb ages (typically with 0.1-0.3 Ma resolution) indicating for growth episodes with short duration. Comparison of U-Pb and Th-Pb dating indicates that the U-Pb systematics appears successful to date cleft monazite with low Th/U ratio (typically hand, monazite dating in the Argentera (20.6 ± 0.3 Ma) confirms for the regional diachronism observed from South to the North of the ECM in the Western Alps. First ages were here obtained for the hydrothermal activity of the internal massifs of the Western Alps. As expected from other (thermo)chronometers, hydrothermal activity in the Internal Alpine domains (Briançonnais) is older than in the ECM. In the Briançonnais zone, monazite age at 32.1 ± 0.2 Ma coincides with the exhumation along the penninic front. In the second cleft, monazite age at 23.3 ± 0.2 Ma is more complex to attribute to a specific deformation stage.

  1. Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer: sex-specific behavior comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LU; Peishi YAN; Xiuxiang MENG; Jinchao FENG; Hongfa XU; Qisen YANG; Zuojian FENG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the behavior of captive alpine musk deer and to determine if daily behavior patterns varied between females and males. From August 2002 to January 2003, focal sampling was used to observe 32 adult captive alpine musk deer (13 female and 19 male) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province. Results indicated similar behavior patterns for males and females, with only two out of 12 recorded behaviors showing significant sex differences. In comparison to females, males rested for a longer duration and exhibited tail pasting more frequently. This study also provided the first recording of tail pasting by female musk deer.

  2. Effect of Wet Settlement on Mercury in Alpine Soil in Mercury Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJIN-LIN; TANHONG

    1995-01-01

    There is abundance of Mercury mine resurces in the Fanjinshan Mountain,Mining mercury has a long history there,The concentration of geseous Hg produced in smelting He reaches 20-50mg/m3 in the tail gas.Because mercury element is an easily transferring microelement,the paper talks about the effect of mercury in Hg mining in Guizhou Province on alpine soil,analyses Hg content in alpine soil at 2000 m of relative elevation in the Hg mining area,and explores for causes of the Hg pollution.

  3. Winter streamflow analysis in frozen, alpine catchments to quantify groundwater contribution and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelzle, Michael; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Alpine catchments are often considered as quickly responding systems where streamflow contributions from subsurface storages (groundwater) are mostly negligible due to the steep topography, low permeable bedrock and the absence of well-developed soils. Many studies in high altitude catchments have hence focused on water stored in snowpack and glaciers or on rainfall-runoff processes as the dominant streamflow contributions. Interestingly less effort has been devoted to winter streamflow analysis when melt- or rainfall-driven contributions are switched off due to the frozen state of the catchment. Considering projected changes in the alpine cryosphere (e.g. snow, glacier, permafrost) quantification of groundwater storage and contribution to streamflow is crucial to assess the social and ecological implications for downstream areas (e.g. water temperature, drought propagation). In this study we hypothesize that groundwater is the main streamflow contribution during winter and thus being responsible for the perennial regime of many alpine catchments. The hypothesis is investigated with well-known methods based on recession and breakpoint analysis of the streamflow regimes and temperature data to determine frozen periods. Analyzing nine catchments in Switzerland with mean elevation between 1000 and 2400 m asl, we found that above a mean elevation of 1800 m asl winter recessions are sufficient long and persistent enough to quantify groundwater contribution to streamflow and to characterize the properties of subsurface storage. The results show that groundwater in alpine catchment is the dominant streamflow contribution for nearly half a year and accountable for several hundred millimeter of annual streamflow. In sub-alpine catchments, driven by a mix of snowmelt and rainfall, a clear quantification of groundwater contributions is rather challenging due to discontinuous frozen periods in winter. We found that the inter-annual variability of different streamflow

  4. Distribution and diversity of Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vukojicic, Snezana; Sinzar-Sekulic, Jasmina;

    2009-01-01

    The distributions of 77 Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans are mapped and the centers of their richness and diversity presented. Within the Dinaric Alps these are Mts Vranica, Durmitor, and Prokletije; in the Scardo-Pindhic mountains, Šarplanina-Rudoka-Korab form a continuous chain; in the Rhod......The distributions of 77 Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans are mapped and the centers of their richness and diversity presented. Within the Dinaric Alps these are Mts Vranica, Durmitor, and Prokletije; in the Scardo-Pindhic mountains, Šarplanina-Rudoka-Korab form a continuous chain...

  5. Les Nouvelles Traversées Alpines : la “cité-Europe” à l’épreuve de l’acceptabilité alpine ? The New alpine crossings : The “city-Europe” faces up to the alpine acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Sutton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La pensée des traversées alpines est indissociable de celle des réseaux urbains alpins et, au-delà, européens. La nouvelle phase de percée des tunnels de base le réaffirme : les “Nouvelles Traversées Alpines” se retrouvent au coeur de l’enjeu de connexion des réseaux ferroviaires européens à grande vitesse. L’invention de la “cité-Europe” passe ainsi par la réinvention d’un pacte alpin autour du dessein de franchissement entre les villes de piedmonts et les communautés montagnardes traversées. Ces dernières ont, en effet, la capacité de bloquer un projet par leur refus. L’exemple du projet Lyon-Turin l’illustre, en contre-point de la réussite du tunnel de base du Lötschberg. La réussite suisse semble tenir à la capacité de conjuguer les inventions technique et sociale du tunnel, ne niant pas la dimension territoriale de cet objet réticulaire.It is impossible to think about the alpine crossings without thinking about the alpine and European urban nets. The construction of the basis tunnels recalls it: the “New Alpine Crossings” are the kernel of the connection issue between the European high-speed railways nets. The invention of a “city-Europe” needs a reinvented pact, between the cities of the plains and the alpine communities, based on the reaffirmation of a common crossing destiny. The alpine communities can thwart the project by refusing it, as the example of the Lyon-Turin project shows, in contrast to the successful Lötschberg basis tunnel. The Swiss success seems to come from the capacity to mix technical and social inventions, replacing the territorial dimension in the reticular fundament.

  6. Microsatellite Markers for the Chameleon Grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis (Orthoptera: Acrididae, an Australian Alpine Specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D. L. Umbers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A set of polymorphic loci was characterised using an enrichment library for the Australian alpine specialist, the chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis, an atypical grasshopper known for its remarkable temperature-controlled colour change. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 20 and observed heterozygosity from 0.16 to 0.76. These are the first microsatellite markers for a non-endangered Australian alpine animal and will inform questions of gene flow across the sky islands of this unique and threatened region.

  7. Microsatellite markers for the Chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), an Australian Alpine Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D L; Dennison, Siobhan; Manahan, Czarina A; Blondin, Laurence; Pagés, Christine; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    A set of polymorphic loci was characterised using an enrichment library for the Australian alpine specialist, the chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis), an atypical grasshopper known for its remarkable temperature-controlled colour change. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 20 and observed heterozygosity from 0.16 to 0.76. These are the first microsatellite markers for a non-endangered Australian alpine animal and will inform questions of gene flow across the sky islands of this unique and threatened region.

  8. The Salzach Valley overdeeping: A most precise bedrock model of a major alpine glacial basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Johannes; Salcher, Bernhard; Eichkitz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Overdeepenings are impressive phenomena related to the erosion in the ablation zone of major glaciers. They are common features in glaciated and deglaciated regions worldwide and their sedimentary fillings may act as important archives for regional environmental change and glaciation history. Sedimentary fillings are also important targets of geotechnical exploration and construction including groundwater resource management, shallow geothermal exploitation, tunneling and the foundation of buildings. This is especially true in densely populated areas such as the European Alps and their foreland areas, regions which have been multiply glaciated during the last million years. However, due depths often exceeding some hundreds of meters, the overall knowledge on their geometry, formation and sedimentary content is still poor and commonly tied to some local spots. Here we present a bedrock model of the overall lower Salzach Valley, one of the largest glacial overdeepings in the European Alps. We utilized seismic sections from hydrocarbon exploration surveys and deep drillings together with topographic and modelling data to construct a 3D bedrock model. Through the existence of seismic inline and crossline valley sections, multiple drillings reaching the bedrock surface, log and abundant outcrop data we were, as far to our knowledge, able to create the most accurate digital bedrock topography of an alpine major overdeepening. We furthermore analyzed the sedimentary content of the valley as recorded by driller's lithologic logs. Our results suggest that the valley is far from being a regular U-shaped trough with constant depth, rather highlighting highs and lows of different magnitude and underground valley widths of variable extent. Data also indicates that the largest overdeepening of bedrock, reaching around 450 m below the alluvial fill, is not situated after a major glacial confluence following a prominent bedrock gorge but shifted several km down the valley. The

  9. Hydrological response of an Alpine catchment to rainfall and snowmelt events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, D.; van Meerveld, H. J.; Zuecco, G.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Borga, M.

    2016-06-01

    Alpine catchments are important sources of fresh water but compared to lower altitude catchments our understanding of the hydrological functioning of these catchments during rainfall and snowmelt events is still limited. The objectives of this study were i) to identify the dominant runoff generation mechanisms in the 0.14-km2 Bridge Creek Catchment in the Italian Dolomites during nine rainfall-runoff events and six snowmelt-runoff events in spring, summer and autumn of 2010-2012; and ii) to assess the effect of the selection of the pre-event water sample on the isotope hydrograph separation results. The isotopic composition of the pre-event water was determined by either a stream water sample taken prior to the event or the average of 19 stream water samples taken during baseflow conditions. The hydrograph separation results for the two methods were very similar for the rainfall events but differed for the snowmelt events. Average event water contributions ranged between 4% and 19% or 2% and 20% of the total runoff during rainfall events, and between 7% and 25% or 9% and 38% during snowmelt events, depending on the method used to determine the isotopic composition of pre-event water. Event water contributions were important during large rainfall events, intense rainfall events and late in the snowmelt season, with maximum event water contributions up to 37% and 46%, depending on the method used for determining the pre-event water composition. The electrical conductivity of stream water tended to first decrease and reach a minimum before peak streamflow and then to increase above pre-event values. The results of this study suggest that during dry conditions, direct channel precipitation and overland flow from the permanently saturated part of the riparian zone dominated the runoff response, with limited contributions of riparian or hillslope groundwater. During wet or very wet conditions (large rainfall events or peak snowmelt), saturation overland flow increased

  10. The geometry of a deformed carbonate slope-basin transition: The Ventoux-Lure fault zone, SE France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mary; Stahel, U.

    1995-12-01

    The Ventoux-Lure fault zone (VLFZ) is a 70 km-long, E-W trending triangle zone of folds and thrusts in the Alpine foreland of SE France. The VLFZ corresponds to the site of a Lower Cretaceous carbonate slope-basin transition and it provides a good example of a deformed basin margin where, (1) compression was at a high angle to the basin margin; (2) deformation was mainly controlled by the mechanical stratigraphy and not by fault reactivation; and (3) inversion was a gradual process (from Middle Cretaceous) with deformation concentrated mainly in the basin to the north (as evidenced by growth strata) until the last (post-Burdigalian) stages when the slope carbonates to the south were thrust northward on the Ventoux-Lure Thrust (VLT). Within the eastern half of this zone structural geometries become increasingly complex from east to west, showing a progression from triangle zone to tectonic wedging geometries in which erosion of the emergent thrust sheets played an important role. This lateral variation was due to the obliquity of the eastern VLT to the Vocontian folds and the increase in displacement westward from a tip point south of Sisteron. The western sector of the VLFZ shows less N-S shortening and evidence of strike slip. On a regional scale, Late Cretaceous N-S shortening, contemporaneous with reactivation of NE-SW faults, may have been caused by the eastward migration of the Iberian-Briançonnais plate to the south of the European plate. The post-Burdigalian displacement of the VLT is correlated with the late Alpine SW emplacement on the Digne Thrust to the east. Within the French Alpine foreland the dextral NE-SW Durance Fault separated a zone where SW directed displacement was accommodated principally on the Digne Thrust from an area to the west, including the VLFZ, of more diffuse SW-NE shortening.

  11. Differences in dissolved organic matter lability between alpine glaciers and alpine rock glaciers of the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E.; Fegel, T. S., II; Baron, J.; Boot, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    While alpine glaciers in montane regions represent the largest flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from global ice melt no research has examined the bioavailability of DOM melted out of glacial ice in the western continental United States. Furthermore, rock glaciers are an order of magnitude more abundant than ice glaciers in U.S., yet are not included in budgets for perennial ice carbon stores. Our research aims to understand differences in the bioavailability of carbon from ice glaciers and rock glaciers along the Central Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Identical microbial communities were fed standardized amounts of DOM from four different ice glacier-rock glaciers pairs. Using laboratory incubations, paired with mass spectrometry based metabolomics and 16S gene sequencing; we were able to examine functional definitions of DOM lability in glacial ice. We hypothesized that even though DOM quantities are similar in the outputs of both glacial types in our study area, ice glacial DOM would be more bioavailable than DOM from rock glaciers due to higher proportions of byproducts from microbial metabolism than rock glacier DOM, which has higher amounts of "recalcitrant" plant material. Our results show that DOM from ice glaciers is more labile than DOM from geologically and geographically similar paired rock glaciers. Ice glacier DOM represents an important pool of labile carbon to headwater ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains. Metabolomic analysis shows numerous compounds from varying metabolite pathways, including byproducts of nitrification before and after incubation, meaning that, similar to large maritime glaciers in Alaska and Europe, subglacial environments in the mountain ranges of the United States are hotspots for biological activity and processing of organic carbon.

  12. 77 FR 24838 - Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... safety of life, property and the environment. This safety zone restricts the movement of vessels...). The crowds of persons on recreational vessels or other water craft create large lines of rafted boats... Sillery Bay, Maryland. The zone is needed to control movement within a waterway that is expected to...

  13. 78 FR 57570 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago... will enforce the temporary safety zone for motion picture filming in Calumet Harbor, Chicago, IL from 9... intended to ensure safety of life on navigable waters during nighttime filming of a motion picture...

  14. Assessing and comparing climatic control on distribution and reproduction of alpine and lowland species in the subalpine habitat of western Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meineri, Eric

    2012-02-15

    Aims and background: Species range shift is among the most well-documented responses to climate change. As a result, a growing number of studies model species climatic niches to predict how species ranges may displace in space and time (SDM studies). These studies are criticised because they do not include reproduction in their predictions. Other studies use empirical data to assess climatic control on reproductive life-stages. However, the climatic niche of reproductive life-stages may not determine the climatic niche of species, limiting the ability of both types of studies to assess the effect of climate change. In this synthesis, I compare the results of a SDM study (Paper I) with the results of two empirical studies focussing on flowering performance (Paper II) and seedling emergence (Paper III). The research focuses on the leading and rear altitudinal edges of lowland and alpine species ranges, respectively, as those are the two delimiting fronts that are expected to be specifically vulnerable to climate change. Reproduction response to climate is a complex process because it involves several sub-stages that can be affected by climate in several ways. Therefore, the results included in this synthesis integrate several direct and size-dependent climatic effects on flowering performance and report on the importance of both the climate conditions occurring at the recruitment sites and those experienced by the source populations for seedling emergence. Study area and species: This thesis makes use of the sub-alpine and alpine landscapes of western Norway to investigate climatic control on species occurrence and reproduction. This study area was chosen because it includes the leading altitudinal edge of lowland species ranges and the rear altitudinal edge of alpine species ranges. The research uses Viola biflora (alpine), Viola palustris (lowland), Veronica alpina (alpine), and Veronica officinalis (lowland) as study cases because these species are common in the

  15. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  16. Molecular phylogeography of the Andean alpine plant, Gunnera magellanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Fujii, N.; Ito, M.; Asakawa, T.; Nishida, H.; Suyama, C.; Ueda, K.

    2015-12-01

    To clarify the evolutionary history of Gunnera magellanica (Gunneraceae), an alpine plant of the Andes mountains, we performed molecular phylogeographic analyses based on the sequences of an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and four non-coding regions (trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF, atpB-rbcL, rpl16 intron) of chloroplast DNA. We investigated 3, 4, 4 and 11 populations in, Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile, respectively, and detected six ITS genotypes (Types A-F) in G. magellanica. Five genotypes (Types A-E) were observed in the northern Andes population (Ecuador and Bolivia); only one ITS genotype (Type F) was observed in the southern Andes population (Chile and Argentina). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the ITS genotypes of the northern and southern Andes populations form different clades with high bootstrap probability. Furthermore, network analysis, analysis of molecular variance, and spatial analysis of molecular variance showed that there were two major clusters (the northern and southern Andes populations) in this species. Furthermore, in chloroplast DNA analysis, three major clades (northern Andes, Chillan, and southern Andes) were inferred from phylogenetic analyses using four non-coding regions, a finding that was supported by the above three types of analysis. The Chillan clade is the northernmost population in the southern Andes populations. With the exception of the Chillan clade (Chillan population), results of nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA analyses were consistent. Both markers showed that the northern and southern Andes populations of G. magellanica were genetically different from each other. This type of clear phylogeographical structure was supported by PERMUT analysis according to Pons & Petit (1995, 1996). Moreover, based on our preliminary estimation that is based on the ITS sequences, the northern and southern Andes clades diverged ~0.63-3 million years ago, during a period of upheaval in the Andes. This suggests

  17. Personal UV exposure in high albedo alpine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Siani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountain sites experience enhanced UV radiation levels due to the concurrent effects of shorter radiation path-length, low aerosol load and high reflectivity of the snow surfaces. This study was encouraged by the possibility to collect original data of personal dose on a specific anatomical site (erythemally effective UV dose on the forehead of two groups of volunteers (ski instructors and skiers in the mountainous areas of Italy (the Alpine site of La Thuile-Les Suches in Valle d'Aosta region. Personal doses were assessed using polysulphone dosimetry. Exposure Ratio (ER, defined as the ratio between the personal dose and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface during the same exposure period was taken into account. In addition measuring skin colours as biological markers of individual response to UV exposure, was also carried out on the forearm and cheek of each volunteer before and after exposure.

    The median ER, taking into account the whole sample, is 0.60 in winter, with a range of 0.29 to 1.46, and 1.02 in spring, ranging from 0.46 to 1.72. No differences in ERs were found between skiers and instructors in spring while in winter skiers experienced lower values.

    Regarding skin colorimetric parameters the main result was that both skiers and instructors had on average significantly lower values of luminance after exposure i.e.~they became darker. It was found that the use of sunscreen and individual skin photo-type did not produce significant variations in ER across instructor/skier group by day and by seasons (p>0.05. It seems that sunscreen use only at the beginning of the exposure or in a few cases a couple of times during exposure (at difference with the specific instructions sheets, was not sufficient to change significantly skin colorimetric parameters across participants.

    In conclusion UV personal doses on the ski-fields are often

  18. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  19. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  20. Effects of warming on chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate accumulation of Alpine herbaceous species during plant senescence on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changguang Shi

    Full Text Available Plant senescence is a critical life history process accompanied by chlorophyll degradation and has large implications for nutrient resorption and carbohydrate storage. Although photoperiod governs much of seasonal leaf senescence in many plant species, temperature has also been shown to modulate this process. Therefore, we hypothesized that climate warming would significantly impact the length of the plant growing season and ultimate productivity. To test this assumption, we measured the effects of simulated autumn climate warming paradigms on four native herbaceous species that represent distinct life forms of alpine meadow plants on the Tibetan Plateau. Conditions were simulated in open-top chambers (OTCs and the effects on the degradation of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N concentration in leaves and culms, total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC in roots, growth and phenology were assessed during one year following treatment. The results showed that climate warming in autumn changed the senescence process only for perennials by slowing chlorophyll degradation at the beginning of senescence and accelerating it in the following phases. Warming also increased root TNC storage as a result of higher N concentrations retained in leaves; however, this effect was species dependent and did not alter the growing and flowering phenology in the following seasons. Our results indicated that autumn warming increases carbohydrate accumulation, not only by enhancing activities of photosynthetic enzymes (a mechanism proposed in previous studies, but also by affecting chlorophyll degradation and preferential allocation of resources to different plant compartments. The different responses to warming can be explained by inherently different growth and phenology patterns observed among the studied species. The results implied that warming leads to changes in the competitive balance among life forms, an effect that can subsequently shift vegetation distribution and

  1. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  2. The effects of long-term fertilization on the temporal stability of alpine meadow communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Ruijven, van J.; Du, G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how plant species’ composition, soil parameters and nutrient concentrations in plant biomass differ between fertilized and control plots 62 years after the last fertilizer application on a sub-alpine grassland. A piece of land called the Grass Garden (GG), fer

  3. Phylogenetic conservatism and climate factors shape flowering phenology in alpine meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanping; Li, Zhikuo; Cadotte, Marc W; Jia, Peng; Chen, Guanguang; Jin, Lanna S; Du, Guozhen

    2016-10-01

    The study of phylogenetic conservatism in alpine plant phenology is critical for predicting climate change impacts; currently we have a poor understanding of how phylogeny and climate factors interactively influence plant phenology. Therefore, we explored the influence of phylogeny and climate factors on flowering phenology in alpine meadows. For two different types of alpine plant communities, we recorded phenological data, including flowering peak, first flower budding, first flowering, first fruiting and the flowering end for 62 species over the course of 5 years (2008-2012). From sequences in two plastid regions, we constructed phylogenetic trees. We used Blomberg's K and Pagel's lambda to assess the phylogenetic signal in phenological traits and species' phenological responses to climate factors. We found a significant phylogenetic signal in the date of all reproductive phenological events and in species' phenological responses to weekly day length and temperature. The number of species in flower was strongly associated with the weekly day lengths and followed by the weekly temperature prior to phenological activity. Based on phylogenetic eigenvector regression (PVR) analysis, we found a highly shared influence of phylogeny and climate factors on alpine species flowering phenology. Our results suggest the phylogenetic conservatism in both flowering and fruiting phenology may depend on the similarity of responses to external environmental cues among close relatives.

  4. Microbial diversity in alpine tundra soils correlates with snow cover dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinger, Lucie; Shahnavaz, Bahar; Baptist, Florence; Geremia, Roberto A; Choler, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    The temporal and spatial snow cover dynamics is the primary factor controlling the plant communities' composition and biogeochemical cycles in arctic and alpine tundra. However, the relationships between the distribution of snow and the diversity of soil microbial communities remain largely unexplored. Over a period of 2 years, we monitored soil microbial communities at three sites, including contiguous alpine meadows of late and early snowmelt locations (LSM and ESM, respectively). Bacterial and fungal communities were characterized by using molecular fingerprinting and cloning/sequencing of microbial ribosomal DNA extracted from the soil. Herein, we show that the spatial and temporal distribution of snow strongly correlates with microbial community composition. High seasonal contrast in ESM is associated with marked seasonal shifts for bacterial communities; whereas less contrasted seasons because of long-lasting snowpack in LSM is associated with increased fungal diversity. Finally, our results indicate that, similar to plant communities, microbial communities exhibit important shifts in composition at two extremes of the snow cover gradient. However, winter conditions lead to the convergence of microbial communities independently of snow cover presence. This study provides new insights into the distribution of microbial communities in alpine tundra in relation to snow cover dynamics, and may be helpful in predicting the future of microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles in arctic and alpine tundra in the context of a warmer climate.

  5. Mercury in Tadpoles Collected from Remote Alpine Sites in the Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians in alpine wetlands of the Sierra Nevada mountains comprise key components of an aquatic-terrestrial food chain, and mercury contamination is a concern because concentrations in fish from this regin exceed thresholds of risk to piscivorous wildlife. Total mercury conc...

  6. Dynamics of natural prokaryotes, viruses and heterotrophic nanoflagellates in alpine karstic groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.C. Wilhartilz; A.K.T Krischner; C.P.D. Brussaard; U.R. Fisher; C. Wieltschnig; H. Stadler; A.H. Farnleitner

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of naturally occurring prokaryotes, viruses, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates in two hydro-geologically contrasting alpine karst springs were monitored over three annual cycles. To our knowledge, this study is the first to shed light on the occurrence and possible interrelationshi

  7. Assessment of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Analyzing the Impact of Human Trampling on Alpine Swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Kycko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourist traffic has been observed to cause changes in vegetation cover, particularly in alpine areas. These changes can be monitored using remote-sensing methods. This paper presents an analysis of the condition of the dominant sward species surrounding the most frequented alpine tourist trails in the Tatra National Park, one of the most visited natural mountain parks in Poland and a UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserve. Hyperspectral measurements of interactions between the electromagnetic spectrum and the morphology and physiology of plants were presented. The spectral properties of plants and remote-sensing vegetation indices could be used at a later date for monitoring, for example from the air. The results identified the species' sensitivity and resistance to trampling and allowed an assessment of their physiological condition. Differences were observed in the conditions of trampled and control plants. The alpine swards in the Tatra National Park were assessed as being in good condition, with only small areas located close to the most popular trails showing damage. The proposed method for analyzing the condition of alpine swards could be a useful tool for the future management of protected areas.

  8. Generic Regional Development Strategies from Local Stakeholders' Scenarios - an Alpine Village Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Walz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the participatory elaboration of strategies for sustainable regional development in an Alpine tourist region in Austria to cope with global change effects evolving locally, considering climate change, economic change as well as (local societal change. Local stakeholders in an Alpine village in the Montafon region contributed in workshops to achieve the final results: participant teams conducted system analyses of the regional system to explore key elements of the region. Narrative scenarios described possible positive and negative development trends and indicated the critical issues controlling future development; 3D-images of landscape transition simulations show the consequences of certain development directions. Alternative development directions supported the local stakeholders to elaborate regional development strategies. In the end, the scientist team derived generic strategies for Alpine regions based on the locally developed strategy bundle. The article presents the intention, progress and outcome of the participatory approach and elaborates the potential to derive generic strategies from local ones and discusses the possibly occurring conflicts regarding cross-scale transfers of these local strategies. Overall, tourism was seen as a key element for future regional development, which can on the one hand derogate Alpine regions and is on the other hand threatened by climate change and diminution of landscape attractiveness. The suggested development strategies will help to cope with global change issues mitigating the negative consequences on the local society and environment.

  9. Relationship between alpine tourism demand and hot summer air temperatures associated with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebetez, M.; Serquet, G.

    2010-09-01

    We quantified the impacts of hot summer air temperatures on tourism in the Swiss Alps by analyzing the relationship between temperature and overnight stays in 40 Alpine resorts. Several temperature and insolation thresholds were tested to detect their relationship to summer tourism. Our results reveal significant correlations between the number of nights spent in mountain resorts and hot temperatures at lower elevations. Alpine resorts nearest to cities are most sensitive to hot temperatures. This is probably because reactions to hot episodes take place on a short-term basis as heat waves remain relatively rare. The correlation in June is stronger compared to the other months, probably because school holidays and the peak domestic tourist demand in summer usually takes place in July and August. Our results suggest that alpine tourist resorts could benefit from hotter temperatures at lower elevations under future climates. Tourists already react on a short-term basis to hot days and spend more nights in hotels in mountain resorts. If heat waves become more regular, it seems likely that tourists choose to stay at alpine resorts more frequently and for longer periods.

  10. Hydrogeology of an alpine rockfall aquifer system and its role in flood attenuation and maintaining baseflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lauber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and intensity of extreme hydrological events in alpine regions is projected to increase with climate change. The goal of this study was to better understand the functioning of aquifers composed of complex alluvial and rockfall deposits in alpine valleys and to quantify the role of these natural storage spaces in flood attenuation and baseflow maintenance. Geomorphological and hydrogeological mapping, tracer tests, and continuous flow measurements were conducted in the Reintal valley (German Alps, where runoff from a karst spring infiltrates into a series of postglacial alluvial/rockfall aquifers. During high-flow conditions, groundwater velocities of 30 m h−1 were determined along 500 m; hydrograph analyses revealed short lag times (5 h between discharge peaks upstream and downstream from the aquifer series; the maximum discharge ratio downstream (22 and the peak recession coefficient (0.196 d−1 are low compared with other alpine catchments. During low-flow conditions, the underground flow path length increased to 2 km and groundwater velocities decreased to 13 m h−1. Downstream hydrographs revealed a delayed discharge response after 101 h and peaks dampened by a factor of 1.5. These results indicate that alluvial/rockfall aquifers might play an important role in the flow regime and attenuation of floods in alpine regions.

  11. The subalpine and alpine flora of Mount Jaya (New Guinea): status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utteridge, T.M.A.; Edwards, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The highest mountains in South-East Asia are in the Sudirman range of Indonesian New Guinea; the highest is Mt Jaya which rises to 4 884 m and is still partly glaciated. The geological history of the region has left it rich in mineral deposits and the alpine area is currently being mined for copper.

  12. Alpins and thibos vectorial astigmatism analyses: proposal of a linear regression model between methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine linear regression models between Alpins descriptive indices and Thibos astigmatic power vectors (APV, assessing the validity and strength of such correlations. METHODS: This case series prospectively assessed 62 eyes of 31 consecutive cataract patients with preoperative corneal astigmatism between 0.75 and 2.50 diopters in both eyes. Patients were randomly assorted among two phacoemulsification groups: one assigned to receive AcrySof®Toric intraocular lens (IOL in both eyes and another assigned to have AcrySof Natural IOL associated with limbal relaxing incisions, also in both eyes. All patients were reevaluated postoperatively at 6 months, when refractive astigmatism analysis was performed using both Alpins and Thibos methods. The ratio between Thibos postoperative APV and preoperative APV (APVratio and its linear regression to Alpins percentage of success of astigmatic surgery, percentage of astigmatism corrected and percentage of astigmatism reduction at the intended axis were assessed. RESULTS: Significant negative correlation between the ratio of post- and preoperative Thibos APVratio and Alpins percentage of success (%Success was found (Spearman's ρ=-0.93; linear regression is given by the following equation: %Success = (-APVratio + 1.00x100. CONCLUSION: The linear regression we found between APVratio and %Success permits a validated mathematical inference concerning the overall success of astigmatic surgery.

  13. Water, Weeds and Autumn Leaves: Learning to Be Drier in the Alpine Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Annette; Grace, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    Our paper explores how and what adults living and working in the Alpine region of Victoria understand and are learning about the changes to water availability, in a time when the response to water availability is subject to extensive debate and policy attention. Interviews for this study were conducted in the towns of Bright and Mount Beauty, with…

  14. Biomass and diversity of dry alpine plant communities along altitudinal gradients in the Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Rawat, G.S.; Mishra, C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    A non-linear relationship between phytodiversity and altitude has widely been reported, but the relationship between phytomass and altitude remains little understood.We examined the phytomass and diversity of vascular plants along altitudinal gradients on the dry alpine rangelands of Ladakh, western

  15. Nitrogen Critical Loads for an Alpine Meadow Ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ning; Shi, Peili; Song, Minghua; Zhang, Xianzhou; Jiang, Jing; Chai, Xi

    2016-03-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has the potential to alter plant diversity and thus the function and stability of terrestrial ecosystems. N-limited alpine ecosystems are expected to be particularly susceptible to increasing N deposition. However, little is known about the critical loads and saturation thresholds of ecosystem responses to increasing N deposition on the Tibetan Plateau, despite its importance to ecosystem management. To evaluate the N critical loads and N saturation thresholds in an alpine ecosystem, in 2010, we treated an alpine meadow with five levels of N addition (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha-1 year-1) and characterized plant and soil responses. The results showed that plant species richness and diversity index did not statistically vary with N addition treatments, but they both changed with years. N addition affected plant cover and aboveground productivity, especially for grasses, and soil chemical features. The N critical loads and saturation thresholds, in terms of plant cover and biomass change at the community level, were 8.8-12.7 and 50 kg N ha-1 year-1 (including the ambient N deposition rate), respectively. However, pronounced changes in soil inorganic N and net N mineralization occurred under the 20 and 40 kg N ha-1 year-1 treatments. Our results indicate that plant community cover and biomass are more sensitive than soil to increasing N inputs. The plant community composition in alpine ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau may change under increasing N deposition in the future.

  16. A deposition record of inorganic ions from a high-alpine glacier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, T. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Bruetsch, S.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Schotterer, U.; Schwikowski, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The lowest five metres of an ice core from a high-alpine glacier (Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa massif, 4450m a.s.l., Switzerland) were analysed for ammonium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, nitrate, potassium, sodium, and sulphate by ion chromatography. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  17. Differences in Motor Imagery Time when Predicting Task Duration in Alpine Skiers and Equestrian Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Magali; Collet, Christian; Champely, Stephane; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    Athletes' ability to use motor imagery (MI) to predict the speed at which they could perform a motor sequence has received little attention. In this study, 21 alpine skiers and 16 equestrian riders performed MI based on a prediction of actual performance time (a) after the course inspection, (b) before the start, and (c) after the actual…

  18. The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Treier, U.A.; Müller-Schärer, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether nitrogen (N) and carbohydrates reserves allow Veratrum album, an alpine forb, to start spring growth earlier than the neighbouring vegetation and to survive unpredictable disturbances resulting in loss of above-ground biomass. Seasonal dynamics of plant reserves, soil N availabil

  19. 75 FR 18235 - Paiute Cutthroat Trout Restoration Project, Alpine County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG, California Environmental Quality Act lead agency) (collectively... Fish and Wildlife Service Paiute Cutthroat Trout Restoration Project, Alpine County, CA AGENCY: Fish... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)/ Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for public review. We, the Fish...

  20. [Microbial community structure of the alpine meadow under different grazing styles in Naqu prefecture of Tibet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lei; Liu, Ying-hui; Li, Yue; Ouyang, Sheng-nan

    2015-08-01

    To clarify the effects of grazing styles on the soil microbial community in the alpine meadow, we explored the changes of soil microbial community structure in the alpine meadow located in Naqu district of Tibet Autonomous Region by analyzing the soil chemical properties and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). The results showed that the contents of soil total organic carbon, total phosphate and nitrate nitrogen under the different grazing styles followed the trend of 7-year rest grazing > free grazing > grazing prohibition. Except for the ratio of fungal PLFAs/bacterial PLFAs, total PLFAs, the bacterial PLFAs, the fungal PLFAs, the gram negative bacterial and the gram positive bacterial PLFAs over the different grazing types were in the order of 7-year rest grazing > 5-year grazing prohibition > 7-year and 9-year grazing prohibition. The principal component analysis (PCA) presented that the first principal component (PC1 = 74.6%) was mainly composed of monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and branched fatty acids, and the second principal component (PC2 = 13.2%) was mainly composed of saturated fatty acids and some monounsaturated fatty acids. Total PLFAs content was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass carbon content. Compared with grazing prohibition, fallow grazing was best for the alpine meadow in Naqu district, and free grazing with light intensity was good for the alpine meadow.

  1. Carbon cycling of alpine tundra ecosystems on Changbai Mountain and its comparison with arctic tundra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Limin(代力民); WU; Gang(吴钢); ZHAO; Jingzhu(赵景柱); KONG; Hongmei(孔红梅); SHAO; Guofan(邵国凡); DENG; Hongbing(邓红兵)

    2002-01-01

    The alpine tundra on Changbai Mountain was formed as a left-over ‘island' in higher elevations after the glacier retrieved from the mid-latitude of Northern Hemisphere to the Arctic during the fourth ice age. The alpine tundra on Changbai Mountain also represents the best-reserved tundra ecosystems and the highest biodiversity in northeast Eurasia. This paper examines the quantity of carbon assimilation, litters, respiration rate of soil, and storage of organic carbon within the alpine tundra ecosystems on Changbai Mountain. The annual net storage of organic carbon was 2092 t/a, the total storage of organic carbon was 33457 t, the annual net storage of organic carbon in soil was 1054 t/a, the total organic carbon storage was 316203 t, and the annual respiration rate of soil was 92.9% and was 0.52 times more than that of the Arctic. The tundra-soil ecosystems in alpine Changbai Mountain had 456081 t of carbon storage, of which, organic carbon accounted for 76.7% whereas the mineral carbon accounted for 23.3%.

  2. 高山植物对全球气候变暖的响应研究进展%Advances in the Studies of Responses of Alpine Plants to Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建国; 杨扬; 孙航

    2011-01-01

    As one of the most sensitive regions to climatic changes, the face of alpine habitats is experiencing great changes during the past decades. In terms of alpine plant species, global warming would lead to their changes in many different aspects. This paper reviewed the studies of the responses of alpine and subalpine plants to global warming. In face of global warming, changes in plant individuals' physiology and morphology would firstly emerge, which further give rise to the changes in interactions among plant species. Progressively affected by cascade effects the whole ecosystem would change greatly in structure, vegetation distribution pattern, biomass productivity, plant biodiversity and so on. Following the increasing of air temperature, the positions of tieeline in both high latitudes and high elevations were commonly observed to advance. The general facilitations among alpine plant species would diminish as the ameliorating of environmental conditions in the past decades due to climate changes and human activities. Overall, the responses of alpine plant species were reflected in all aspects of survival, production and reproduction of plant life. On the other hand, the responses of plant assemblages such as species diversity in different regions were idiosyncratic which was dependent on abiotic and biotic factors in different plant communities. All those studies provided evidences that the impact of anthropogenically induced climate changes on alpine plant species would finally result in the changes in the structure and function of alpine ecosystem. In combination with domestic studies, at last several schemes of the studies in the field of alpine plants' responses to global warming are listed for the future work. Ref 147%高山地区被认为是对全球气候变化最敏感的区域之一,气候变暖导致高山生境内生物与非生物环境因子发生不同程度的改变,从而引起高山植物从不同层面作出不同的变化

  3. Continent-scale strike-slip on a low-angle fault beneath New Zealand's Southern Alps: Implications for crustal thickening in oblique collision zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Simon; Smith, Euan; Stern, Tim; Warren-Smith, Emily

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand's Southern Alps lie adjacent to the continent-scale dextral strike-slip Alpine Fault, on the boundary between the Pacific and Australian plates. We show with a simple 2-D model of crustal balancing that the observed crustal root and erosion (expressed as equivalent crustal shortening) is up to twice that predicted by the orthogonal plate convergence since ˜11 Ma, and even since ˜23 Ma when the Alpine Fault formed. We consider two explanations for this, involving a strong component of motion along the length of the plate-boundary zone. Geophysical data indicate that the Alpine Fault has a listric geometry, flattening at mid crustal levels, and has accommodated sideways underthrusting of Australian plate crust beneath Pacific plate crust. The geometry of the crustal root, together with plate reconstructions, requires the underthrust crust to be the hyperextended part of an asymmetric rift system which formed over 500 km farther south during the Eocene—the narrow remnant part today forms the western margin of the Campbell Plateau. At ˜10 Ma, the hyperextended margin underwent shallow subduction in the Puysegur subduction zone, and then was dragged over 300 km along the length of the Southern Alps beneath a low-angle (plate boundary zone, providing a mechanism for clockwise rotation of the Hikurangi margin.

  4. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo; Poveda, German

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited planets (hereafter InHZ), defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ) depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for ...

  5. Changes in species composition in alpine snowbeds with climate change inferred from small-scale spatial patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schöb

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpine snowbeds are characterised by a very short growing season. However, the length of the snow-free period is increasingly prolonged due to climate change, so that snowbeds become susceptible to invasions from neighbouring alpine meadow communities. We hypothesised that spatial distribution of species generated by plant interactions may indicate whether snowbed species will coexist with or will be out-competed by invading alpine species – spatial aggregation or segregation will point to coexistence or competitive exclusion, respectively. We tested this hypothesis in snowbeds of the Swiss Alps using the variance ratio statistics. We focused on the relationships between dominant snowbed species, subordinate snowbed species, and potentially invading alpine grassland species. Subordinate snowbed species were generally spatially aggregated with each other, but were segregated from alpine grassland species.

    Competition between alpine grassland and subordinate snowbed species may have caused this segregation. Segregation between these species groups increased with earlier snowmelt, suggesting an increasing importance of competition with climate change. Further, a dominant snowbed species (Alchemilla pentaphyllea was spatially aggregated with subordinate snowbed species, while two other dominants (Gnaphalium supinum and Salix herbacea showed aggregated patterns with alpine grassland species. These dominant species are known to show distinct microhabitat preferences suggesting the existence of hidden microhabitats with different susceptibility to invaders.

    These results allow us to suggest that alpine snowbed areas are likely to be reduced as a consequence of climate change and that invading species from nearby alpine grasslands could outcompete subordinate snowbed species. On the other hand, microhabitats dominated by Gnaphalium or Salix seem to be particularly prone to invasions by non

  6. The use of invertebrates as indicators of environmental change in alpine rivers and lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamis, K.; Hannah, D.M. [School of Geography Earth and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Brown, L.E. [School of Geography/water@leeds, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Tiberti, R. [DSTA, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e dell' Ambiente, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 9, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Alpine Wildlife Research Centre, Gran Paradiso National Park, Degioz 11, I-1101 Valsavarenche, Aosta (Italy); Milner, A.M., E-mail: a.m.milner@bham.ac.uk [School of Geography Earth and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In alpine regions climatic change will alter the balance between water sources (rainfall, ice-melt, snowmelt, and groundwater) for aquatic systems, particularly modifying the relative contributions of meltwater, groundwater and rain to both rivers and lakes. While these changes are expected to have implications for alpine aquatic ecosystems, little is known about potential ecological tipping points and associated indicator taxa. We examined changes in biotic communities along a gradient of glacier influence for two study systems: (1) a stream network in the French Pyrénées; and (2) a network of lakes in the Italian Alps, with the aim of identifying potential indicator taxa (macroinvertebrates and zooplankton) of glacier retreat in these environments. To assess parallels in biotic responses across streams and lakes, both primary data and findings from other publications were synthesised. Using TITAN (Threshold Indicator Taxa ANalysis) changes in community composition of river taxa were identified at thresholds of < 5.1% glacier cover and < 66.6% meltwater contribution. Below these thresholds the loss of cold stenothermic benthic invertebrate taxa, Diamesa spp. and the Pyrenean endemic Rhyacophila angelieri was apparent. Some generalist taxa including Protonemura sp., Perla grandis, Baetis alpinus, Rhithrogena loyolaea and Microspectra sp. increased when glacier cover was < 2.7% and < 52% meltwater. Patterns were not as distinct for the alpine lakes, due to fewer sampling sites; however, Daphnia longispina grp. and the benthic invertebrate groups Plectopera and Planaria were identified as potential indicator taxa. While further work is required to assess potential indicator taxa for alpine lake systems, findings from alpine river systems were consistent between methods for assessing glacier influence (meltwater contribution/glacier cover). Hence, it is clear that TITAN could become a useful management tool, enabling: (i) the identification of taxa particularly

  7. Exploring the Potential of Aerial Photogrammetry for 3d Modelling of High-Alpine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legat, K.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Bollmannb, E.

    2016-03-01

    High-alpine areas are subject to rapid topographic changes, mainly caused by natural processes like glacial retreat and other geomorphological processes, and also due to anthropogenic interventions like construction of slopes and infrastructure in skiing resorts. Consequently, the demand for highly accurate digital terrain models (DTMs) in alpine environments has arisen. Public administrations often have dedicated resources for the regular monitoring of glaciers and natural hazard processes. In case of glaciers, traditional monitoring encompasses in-situ measurements of area and length and the estimation of volume and mass changes. Next to field measurements, data for such monitoring programs can be derived from DTMs and digital ortho photos (DOPs). Skiing resorts, on the other hand, require DTMs as input for planning and - more recently - for RTK-GNSS supported ski-slope grooming. Although different in scope, the demand of both user groups is similar: high-quality and up-to-date terrain data for extended areas often characterised by difficult accessibility and large elevation ranges. Over the last two decades, airborne laser scanning (ALS) has replaced photogrammetric approaches as state-of-the-art technology for the acquisition of high-resolution DTMs also in alpine environments. Reasons include the higher productivity compared to (manual) stereo-photogrammetric measurements, canopy-penetration capability, and limitations of photo measurements on sparsely textured surfaces like snow or ice. Nevertheless, the last few years have shown strong technological advances in the field of aerial camera technology, image processing and photogrammetric software which led to new possibilities for image-based DTM generation even in alpine terrain. At Vermessung AVT, an Austrian-based surveying company, and its subsidiary Terra Messflug, very promising results have been achieved for various projects in high-alpine environments, using images acquired by large-format digital

  8. Life Is Elsewhere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Ecological migration is helping hundred of thousands enjoy a better life in Ningxia A decade has slid away since Hongsipu Development Zone was first built to accommodate migrants from the poverty-stricken areas of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The average yearly income of migrants soared nearly five fold to 2,300 yuan ($336) last year from a mere 500 yuan ($73) when they lived deep in the mountains.

  9. Deposition of Sulphate and Nitrogen in Alpine Precipitation of the Southern Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiuta, V. L.; Lafreniere, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) are the main contributors to acid precipitation which causes regionally persistent ecological problems. Enhanced deposition of reactive N, mainly as nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+), also contributes to major ecological problems associated with ecosystem N saturation. Alpine ecosystems, which are generally nutrient poor and exist under extreme climatic conditions, are sensitive to environmental and climatic stressors. Studies in the USA Rocky Mountains and European Alps have shown alpine ecosystems have a particularly sensitivity to enhanced deposition of reactive N and can show ecologically destructive responses at relatively low levels of N deposition. However, evaluation of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen deposition in mid latitude alpine Western Canada has been initiated only very recently and at only a few locations. There is little comprehension of current atmospheric flux to high altitudes or the importance of contributions from major emission sources This work quantifies the atmospheric deposition of SO42- NH4+ and NO3- to a remote alpine site in the Southern Canadian Rocky Mountains by characterizing alpine precipitation. The effect of elevation and aspect on deposition are assessed using sampling sites along elevational transects in the adjacent Haig and Robertson Valleys. Seasonal variations in deposition of SO42- NH4+ and NO3- are evaluated using the autumn, winter, and spring precipitation accumulated in the seasonal snowpack at glacial and fore glacial locations, along with collected bulk summer precipitation. Preliminary results show lower precipitation volumes, which are associated with higher SO42- and NH4+ loads, in the north west facing Robertson Valley than the south east facing Haig Glacier. However trends in deposition of SO42- NH4+ and NO3- with elevation and aspect are inconsistent over the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 snow accumulation seasons, and 2010 bulk summer precipitation seasons that were

  10. Snowmelt runoff from northern alpine tundra hillslopes: major processes and methods of simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Quinton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In northern alpine tundra, large slope gradients, late-lying snow drifts and shallow soils overlying impermeable substrates all contribute to large hillslope runoff volumes during the spring freshet. Understanding the processes and pathways of hillslope runoff in this environment is, therefore, critical to understanding the water cycle within northern alpine tundra ecosystems. This study: (a presents the results of a field study on runoff from a sub-alpine tundra hillslope with a large snow drift during the spring melt period; (b identifies the major runoff processes that must be represented in simulations of snowmelt runoff from sub-alpine tundra hillslopes; (c describes how these processes can be represented in a numerical simulation model; and d compares field measurements with modelled output to validate or refute the conceptual understanding of runoff generation embodied in the process simulations. The study was conducted at Granger Creek catchment, 15 km south of Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada, on a north-facing slope below a late-lying snow drift. For the freshet period, the major processes to be represented in a runoff model include the rate of meltwater release from the late-lying snowdrift, the elevation and thickness of the saturated layer, the magnitude of the soil permeability and its variation with depth. The daily cycle of net all-wave radiation was observed to drive the diurnal pulses of melt water from the drift; this, in turn, was found to control the daily pulses of flow through the hillslope subsurface and in the stream channel. The computed rate of frost table lowering fell within the observed values; however, there was wide variation among the measured frost table depths. Spatial variability in frost table depth would result in spatial variabilities in saturated layer depth and thickness, which would, in turn, produce variations in subsurface flow rates over the slope, including preferential flowpaths. Keywords

  11. Influence of land cover changes on the physical and chemical properties of alpine meadow soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Taking the alpine cold meadow grassland in the southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau as an example, this research deals with the characteristics of alpine meadow soil property changes, including soil nutrients, soil physical properties and soil moisture content under different land coverage conditions. With the degradation of grassland vegetation and the decline of vegetation coverage, soil compactness reduces, gravel content increases and bulk density increases. The originally dense root-system layer is gradually denuded, making the soil coarse and gravel. The change of the organic matter contents with the vegetation coverage change in the surface soil layer (0-20 cm) has shown an obvious cubic polynomial curve process. The organic matter contents increase rapidly when land coverage is above 60%, contrarily decreases on a large scale when land coverage is below 30%. Between 30%-60% of land coverage the organic matter contents remain stable. The total N and organic matter contents in soil have shown quite similar change regularity. Following this the mathematic equations are derived to describe such change processes. Moisture content in soil changes sharply with the vegetation coverage change. Soil moisture content change with the vegetation coverage change has shown a quadratic parabola process. Results have shown that organic matter content and the total N content of the alpine meadow soil decrease by 14890 kg/hm2 and 5505 kg/hm2 respectively as the vegetation coverage reduces from 90% to less than 30%. The heavy changes of soil physical and chemical properties with grassland degradation have made the recovery of alpine meadow ecological system impossible. The protection of alpine meadow vegetation is of vital importance to the maintenance of the regional soil environment and the regional ecological system.

  12. Experimental study on soil CO2 emission in the alpine grassland ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xianzhou; SHI Peili; LIU Yunfen; OUYANG Hua

    2005-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, the Roof of the World, is the highest plateau with a mean elevation of 4000 m. It is characterized by high levels of solar radiation, low air temperature and low air pressure compared to other regions around the world. The alpine grassland, a typical ecosystem in the Tibetan Plateau, is distributed across regions over the elevation of 4500 m. Few studies for carbon flux in alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau were conducted due to rigorous natural conditions. A study of soil respiration under alpine grassland ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau from October 1999 to October 2001 was conducted at Pangkog County, Tibetan Plateau (31.23°N, 90.01°E, elevation 4800 m). The measurements were taken using a static closed chamber technique, usually every two weeks during the summer and at other times at monthly intervals. The obvious diurnal variation of CO2 emissions from soil with higher emission during daytime and lower emission during nighttime was discovered. Diurnal CO2 flux fluctuated from minimum at 05:00 to maximum at 14:00 in local time. Seasonal CO2 fluxes increased in summer and decreased in winter, representing a great variation of seasonal soil respiration. The mean soil CO2 fluxes in the alpine grassland ecosystem were 21.39 mgCO2 · m-2 · h-1, with an average annual amount of soil respiration of 187.46 gCO2 · m-2 · a-1. Net ecosystem productivity is also estimated, which indicated that the alpine grassland ecosystem is a carbon sink.

  13. How human practices have affected vector-borne diseases in the past: a study of malaria transmission in Alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemperière Guy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria was endemic in the Rhône-Alpes area of eastern France in the 19th century and life expectancy was particularly shortened in Alpine valleys. This study was designed to determine how the disease affected people in the area and to identify the factors influencing malaria transmission. Methods Demographic data of the 19th century were collected from death registers of eight villages of the flood-plain of the river Isère. Correlations were performed between these demographic data and reconstructed meteorological data. Archive documents from medical practitioners gave information on symptoms of ill people. Engineer reports provided information on the hydraulic project developments in the Isère valley. Results Description of fevers was highly suggestive of endemic malaria transmission in the parishes neighbouring the river Isère. The current status of anopheline mosquitoes in the area supports this hypothesis. Mean temperature and precipitation were poorly correlated with demographic data, whereas the chronology of hydrological events correlated with fluctuations in death rates in the parishes. Conclusion Nowadays, most of the river development projects involve the creation of wet areas, enabling controlled flooding events. Flood-flow risk and the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases would probably be influenced by the climate change. The message is not to forget that human disturbance of any functioning hydrosystem has often been linked to malaria transmission in the past.

  14. The climate change and alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau%青藏高原气候变化与高寒草地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The paper systematically summarized the tendency of climate change and its potential effects on alpine grassland of Tibetan Plateau nearly past 50 years.The data showed that the magnitude of temperature increase on the Tibetan plateau was significantly greater than the average level of China even the world.Although the annual total precipitation tended to increase,the spatial and temporal variations were high from Southern to Northern and from Western to Eastern of the plateau.The climate changes significantly affected the alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plat-eau.The results from observations and simulations indicated that:(1)The climate zones and vegetation zones of Ti-bet Plateau could move to northward and westward,whereas the variation tendency of different vegetation areas de-pended on the different scenarios simulated by different models;(2)Rising temperatures advanced green-up and de-layed yellow period from observations which prolonged growing seasons,but remote sensing data showed opposite re-sults since the end of 1990s;(3)Species richness decreased and species composition changed;(4)the vegetation cov-erage and NPP enhanced from simulated scenarios,but opposite results were found from OTC experiments in the re-gion;(5)Although prolong growing season may improve plant production,the risk of natural disasters could also in-crease for forages and crops;(6)The future climate change may has a little effect on soil carbon source/sink through simulated different scenarios.Based on the review,we found that generally there were inconsistent results about the climate change and its potential effects on alpine grassland so far on the Tibetan plateau.Therefore,it is necessary for us to research how observed temperature increase to affect structures and functions of the alpine system,and how to bring the generated changes into global change models or evaluation systems,in order to accurately evaluate the long-term effects of climate change in the region.%综述了

  15. Impacts of changes in vegetation cover on soil water heat coupling in an alpine meadow of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Genxu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpine meadow is one of the most widespread grassland types in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the transmission of coupled soil water heat is one of the most crucial processes influencing cyclic variations in the hydrology of frozen soil regions, especially under different vegetation covers. The present study assesses the impact of changes in vegetation cover on the coupling of soil water and heat in a permafrost region. Soil moisture (θv, soil temperature (Ts, soil heat content, and differences in θvTs coupling were monitored on a seasonal and daily basis under three different vegetation covers (30, 65, and 93% on both thawed and frozen soils. Regression analysis of θv vs. Ts plots under different levels of vegetation cover indicates that soil freeze-thaw processes were significantly affected by the changes in vegetation cover. The decrease in vegetation cover of an alpine meadow reduced the difference between air temperature and ground temperature (ΔTa−s, and it also resulted in a decrease in Ts at which soil froze, and an increase in the temperature at which it thawed. This was reflected in a greater response of soil temperature to changes in air temperature (Ta. For ΔTa−s outside the range of −0.1 to 1.0°C, root zone soil-water temperatures showed a significant increase with increasing ΔTa−s; however, the magnitude of this relationship was dampened with increasing vegetation cover. At the time of maximum water content in the thawing season, the soil temperature decreased with increasing vegetation. Changes in vegetation cover also led to variations in θvTs coupling. With the increase in vegetation cover, the surface heat flux decreased. Soil heat storage at 20 cm in

  16. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  17. A first attempt to derive soil erosion rates from 137Cs airborne gamma measurements in two Alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bucher, Benno; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers is currently one of the most promising and effective approach for evaluating soil erosion magnitudes in mountainous grasslands. Conventional assessment or measurement methods are laborious and constrained by the topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. The 137Cs (half-life = 30.2 years) is the most frequently used FRN to study soil redistribution. However the application of 137Cs in alpine grasslands is compromised by the high heterogeneity of the fallout due to the origin of 137Cs fallout in the Alps, which is linked to single rain events occurring just after the Chernobyl accident when most of the Alpine soils were still covered by snow. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the 137Cs distribution in two study areas in the Central Swiss Alps: the Ursern valley (Canton Uri), and the Piora valley (Canton Ticino). In June 2015, a helicopter equipped with a NaI gamma detector flew over the two study sites and screened the 137Cs activity of the top soil. The use of airborne gamma measurements is particularly efficient in case of higher 137Cs concentration in the soil. Due to their high altitude and high precipitation rates, the Swiss Alps are expected to be more contaminated by 137Cs fallout than other parts of Switzerland. The airborne gamma measurements have been related to several key parameters which characterize the areas, such as soil properties, slopes, expositions and land uses. The ground truthing of the airborne measurements (i.e. the 137Cs laboratory measurements of the soil samples collected at the same points) returned a good fit. The obtained results offer an overview of the 137Cs concentration in the study areas, which allowed us to identify suitable reference sites, and to analyse the relationship between the 137Cs distribution and the above cited parameters. The authors also derived a preliminary qualitative and a quantitative assessment of soil redistribution

  18. Airborne geophysical survey of the catastrophic landslide at Stože, Log pod Mangrtom, as a test of an innovative approach for landslide mapping in steep alpine terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Baroň

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne geophysics is a promising method for investigating landslides. Here we present a case study of multisensor airborne geophysical survey at the catastrophic landslide Stože near Log pod Mangrtom in Slovenia, which was conducted in the framework of the European FP7th Project "SafeLand". Based on the survey itself and achieved results, we discuss applicability, limits, and benefits and costs of the method for investigating landslides in steep alpine terrains. Despite of several operational constraints, the airborne electromagnetic survey of the area well presented the lithological pattern and water saturation. The high resistivity regions mostly indicated drained slope scree and landslide mass, drained and loosened material of the moraine deposit in the tension zone of the landslide with present cracks and cavities. The minima of the resistivity pattern were attributed to the outcrop of marls rich in clay, to water-saturated moraine deposit above impermeable marls in the tension zone, and to water-saturated porous alluvial gravel and landslide scree along the Koritnica River. The magnetic survey proved to be inapplicable for such a small and rough area. The Potassium and Thorium maps, on the other hand, both well identified the regions of tension inside the landslide zone, outcrops of marls and dolomite, clay-rich colluvium, weathered zones along a regional tectonic fault, and alluvial deposits and deposits of debris flows, and the minima of the 137Cs clearly revealed the zones of material removal due to recent mass movements.

  19. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  20. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Tracer-based investigations of water exchanges between soil and trees in natural forested catchments are receiving relevant attention in modern ecohydrology. However, the interactions between tree water use and the hydrological cycle in agricultural environments are still poorly understood. In this work, we use stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O) and electric conductivity as tracers to improve our understanding of the functional interrelations between water generating surface runoff and recharging groundwater, and water taken up by apple trees (Malus domestica, cv. 'Pinova') in an Alpine valley in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. From April to October 2015 we monitored two orchards approximately of the same size (roughly 400 m2) and soil texture (silt loam) located in a flat area at different distance from the Adige/Etsch River (50 m vs. 450 m). We have addressed the following questions: i) at which soil depth do apple trees take up water? ii) do apple trees take up water from shallow groundwater? iii) are there differences in the isotopic composition of the water fluxes between the two sites? Samples for isotopic analysis were taken approximately fortnightly from the river, two groundwater wells close to each field, mobile soil water (from suction cups at 25 cm and 50 cm), open area precipitation, throughfall, irrigation and sap (through a portable pressure bomb). Tightly-bound soil water was also cryogenically extracted from samples taken every 10 cm from 60 cm-long soil cores taken at three locations for each field on one occasion in mid-summer. Ancillary measurements were electrical conductivity of all water sources except for sap. In addition to meteorological and discharge data, soil moisture was continuously measured at 10 cm and 50 cm in three locations, and sap flow on three trees, for each field. Preliminary results show that two water pools with distinct isotopic signature exist: i) river water, groundwater and irrigation water show values relatively

  1. Predictive Analysis of Geochemical Controls in an Alpine Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochems, A. P.; Sherson, L. R.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.

    2010-12-01

    Alpine watersheds are increasingly relied upon for use in the American West, necessitating a more complete understanding of annual hydrologic patterns and geologic influences on water chemistry. The Jemez River is a fifth order stream in central New Mexico that flows from its source in the Jemez Mountains to its confluence with the Rio Grande north of the town of Bernalillo. Designated uses of the Jemez River include domestic water supply, recreation, and agriculture. Geothermal uses are currently being considered as well. The river recharges shallow aquifer waters used by several communities, including tribal lands of the Jemez Pueblo. The hydrogeology of the Jemez system is characterized by geothermal inputs from the Baca hydrothermal system associated with the 1.2Ma Valles caldera, as well as groundwater and surface water interactions. Freshwater input from the Rio Guadalupe and several ephemeral tributaries also influences the water chemistry of the Jemez system. Fifteen sites along a 35 km reach of the river were sampled between 2006 and 2010. Discharge of the Jemez River ranged from 10-876 cfs over the study period. The annual hydrograph is affected by annual snowmelt in the Jemez Mountains as well as surges due to monsoonal rains in July and August. Geochemical data collected over this period include temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), major ions, trace elements, and stable isotopes. Continuous records of temperature, conductivity, pH, D.O. and turbidity data were collected from a water quality sonde installed in March 2010. Geochemical modeling and time series analysis were performed using PHREEQC, Geochemist’s Workbench, and MATLAB. Empirical data collected during this study gave rise to several models describing the hydrology and geochemistry of the Jemez system. Our data suggest that springs are the primary contributors to dissolved load, and that solute loading from geothermal inputs is intensified by low flows observed on

  2. The role of permafrost and soil water in distribution of alpine grassland and its NDVI dynamics on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Yi, Shuhua; Wu, Qingbai; Yang, Kun; Ding, Yongjian

    2016-12-01

    Soil temperature and soil water are two important factors controlling vegetation growth. Climate warming and associated permafrost degradation might change these soil conditions and affect alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, our current understanding of the role of soil temperature and water at the plateau scale is inadequate. In this study, we used plateau scale soil water content, frozen soil type, vegetation index and land surface temperature datasets to investigate the spatial distribution, limiting factors of vegetation growth and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) changing trends in two major alpine grasslands, alpine meadow and alpine steppe, in relation to soil temperature and soil water conditions. Our results showed that: 1) alpine meadow is mainly distributed in seasonal frozen soil areas (55.90% of alpine meadow) with a soil water content between 0.15 and 0.25 m3/m3 and alpine steppe is mainly found in seasonal frozen and sub-stable permafrost areas (69.38% of alpine steppe) with a soil water content between 0.05 and 0.20 m3/m3; 2) at the plateau scale, there were 35.6% (more in colder regions) of alpine meadow pixels and 33.6% (more in wetter regions) of alpine steppe pixels having increase NDVI changing trends during 1982-2012, respectively; and the values having decrease NDVI changing trends are 7.3% and 9.7%, respectively; and 3) the vegetation growth of alpine meadow is mainly limited by soil temperature, while that of alpine steppe is limited by both soil temperature and soil water. We also find the limiting factors of temperature or water can only explain models to consider other factors, such as grazing, erosion and soil texture, among others, in addition to soil temperature and water to make proper projections when simulating the responses of vegetation growth to climate warming in alpine grasslands with different hydro-thermal conditions.

  3. Effect of dietary alpine butter rich in conjugated linoleic acid on milk fat composition of lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Collomb, Marius; Bee, Giuseppe; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Multiparous sows (n 17) were included in a controlled cross-over-study in order to investigate the influence of a natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (alpine butter) on the milk fatty acid composition of lactating sows (as an animal model for lactating women) and on the growth performance of their progeny. The usual fat source of a standard lactation diet was replaced by either CLA-rich alpine butter or margarine (control diet). Compared with the margarine diet, feeding the alpine butter-supplemented diet increased (P 0.05) affected. Growth performance of the progeny was similar for both dietary treatments. In summary, the findings show that adding alpine butter to the diet does not provoke a milk fat depression and does not alter the composition of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA in sow milk but increases its CLA concentration.

  4. Variation of terpenes in milk and cultured cream from Norwegian alpine rangeland-fed and in-door fed cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Grethe Iren A; Sandberg, Ellen; Øyaas, Jorun; Abrahamsen, Roger K

    2016-05-15

    The terpene content of milk and cream made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors, and by early or late grazing, in alpine rangeland farms in Norway, were analysed for three consecutive years. The main terpenes identified and semi-quantified were the monoterpenes β-pinene, α-pinene, α-thujene, camphene, sabinene, δ-3-carene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, camphor, β-citronellene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. The average total terpene content increased five times during the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes α-thujene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and β-citronellene were only detected in milk and cultured cream from the alpine rangeland feeding period and not in samples from the indoors feeding period. These four terpenes could be used, as indicators, to show that milk and cultured cream originate from the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes did not influence the sensorial quality of the milk or the cultured cream.

  5. Phylogeographic patterns in Leccinum sect. Scabra and the status of the arctic/alpine species L. rotundifoliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated inter- and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships in the ectomycorrhizal fungal genus Leccinum section Scabra. Species of this section are exclusively associated with Betula and occur throughout the Northern Hemisphere. We compared the phylogenetic relationships of arctic, alpine,

  6. Metamorphic history and geodynamic significance of the Early Cretaceous Sabzevar granulites (Sabzevar structural zone, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrabady

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian ophiolites are part of the vast orogenic suture zones that mark the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone. Few petrological and geochronological data are available from these ophiolitic domains, hampering a full assessment of the timing and regimes of subduction zone metamorphism and orogenic construction in the region. This paper describes texture, geochemistry and the pressure-temperature path of the Early Cretaceous granulites that occur within the Tertiary Sabzevar suture zone of NE Iran. The geochemical data set document that the granulites are remnants of a MORB-type oceanic crust and thus of a (Early Cretaceous ? back-arc basin formed in the upper plate of the Neotethyan subduction and thus interpreted as portions of a dismembered dynamothermal sole formed during oceanic subduction. The metamorphic history of the granulites suggests an anticlockwise pressure-temperature loop, compatible with burial in a hot subduction zone followed by cooling during exhumation. This is interpreted as the evidence of a nascent subduction zone formed at the expenses of hot and hence young oceanic lithosphere. These data point to diachronous and independent tectonic evolutions of the different ophiolitic domains of central Iran, for which a growing heterogeneity in the timing of metamorphic equilibration and of pressure-temperature paths can be expected with further investigations.

  7. The critical factors that affected the distribution of aboveground biomass in the alpine steppe and meadow, Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan Plateau – the third pole of the world, with its extremly harsh and fragile ecological environment, is so sensitive to global change that it attracts many scientists' attention. Alpine grassland here is an important component of the global carbon cycle. Many studies have examined links between environmental factors and distribution of biomass, but little showed the critical environmental factors affecting the distribution of biomass. To document the general relationships between the habitat factors and aboveground biomass (AGB in Tibetan Plateau, and to identify the critical factors for the distribution of AGB in the alpine steppe and meadow, the data of AGB and habitat factors from 110 field sites across the widely distributed alpine steppe and meadow of the plateau were compiled and analyzed with the classification and regression tree (CART model, and the generalized additive model (GAM. The results showed that (1 the spatial pattern of AGB in alpine steppe was determined by six major environmental factors: soil organic carbon density of soil 0–30 cm depth (SOC1, longitude, mean annual precipitation (MAP, latitude, clay and soil moisture. As to the alpine meadow, the major factors were altitude, soil moisture, nitrogen, MAP and mean annual temperature (MAT. (2 As to the alpine steppe, increased SOC1, MAP and latitude were associated with increased AGB abundance, but increased longitude resulted in lower abundance of AGB. As to the alpine meadow, the distribution of AGB had strong negative relationships with altitude and soil moisture, but a positive correlation with soil nitrogen content across sites. The results suggested that the combined effects of meteorological factors, topographic factors, and soil factors were more significant for the spatial pattern of AGB in Tibetan Plateau. In addition, our work highlights the importance of further studies to seek effects of slope and aspect in alpine grassland.

  8. Exploring Panarchy in Alpine Grasslands: an Application of Adaptive Cycle Concepts to the Conservation of a Cultural Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Soane, Ian D.; Rocco Scolozzi; Alessandro Gretter; Klaus Hubacek

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores approaches of applying the panarchy perspective to a case study of natural resource management in the cultural landscape of upland alpine pastures in northern Italy. The close interaction within the cultural landscape between alpine pasture ecology and the management regimes offers a strong fit with the concept of social-ecological systems and provides insights to appropriate and adaptive management of sites of conservation interest. We examine the limited literature avail...

  9. Developing a panarchy model of landscape conservation and management of alpine-mountain grassland in Northern Italy.

    OpenAIRE

    Ian David Soane; Rocco Scolozzi; Beatrice Marelli; Cristina Orsatti; Klaus Hubacek; Alessandro Gretter

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores methods of applying resilience theory to a case study of natural resource management and the cultural landscape of upland and alpine pasture in northern Italy. We identify that the close interaction between alpine pastures and its managers offers a strong fit with the concept of a social-ecological system that maintains the cultural landscape. We first considered a descriptive approach looking historically at socio-economic development in the study area. We explored whethe...

  10. Seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in an alpine wetland meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alpine wetland meadow could functions as a carbon sink due to it high soil organic content and low decomposition. However, the magnitude and dynamics of carbon stock in alpine wetland ecosystems are not well quantified. Therefore, understanding how environmental variables affect the processes that regulate carbon fluxes in alpine wetland meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is critical. To address this issue, Gross Primary Production (GPP, Ecosystem Respiration (Reco, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE were examined in an alpine wetland meadow using the eddy covariance method from October 2003 to December 2006 at the Haibei Research Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Seasonal patterns of GPP and Reco were closely associated with leaf area index (LAI. The Reco showed a positive exponential to soil temperature and relatively low Reco occurred during the non-growing season after a rain event. This result is inconsistent with the result observed in alpine shrubland meadow. In total, annual GPP were estimated at 575.7, 682.9, and 630.97 g C m−2 in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. Meanwhile, the Reco were equal to 676.8, 726.4, 808.2 g C m−2, and thus the NEE were 101.1, 44.0 and 173.2 g C m−2. These results indicated that the alpine wetland meadow was a moderately source of carbon dioxide (CO2. The observed carbon dioxide fluxes in the alpine wetland meadow were higher than other alpine meadow such as Kobresia humilis meadow and shrubland meadow.

  11. Uncertainty in alpine snow mass balance simulations due to snow model parameterisation and windflow representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, K. N.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Essery, R.; Leroux, N.

    2013-12-01

    Despite advances in alpine snow modelling there remain two fundamental areas of divergent scientific thought in estimating alpine snow mass balances: i) blowing snow sublimation losses, and ii) wind flow representation. Sublimation calculations have poorly understood humidity feedbacks that vary considerably and mathematical representations of alpine windflow vary in complexity - these differences introduce uncertainty. To better estimate and restrain this uncertainty, a variety of physically based, spatially distributed snowmelt models that consider the physics of wind redistribution and sublimation of blowing snow were evaluated for their ability to simulate seasonal snow distribution and melt patterns in a windy alpine environment in the Canadian Rockies. The primary difference in the snow models was their calculation of blowing snow sublimation losses which ranged from large to small estimates. To examine the uncertainty introduced by windflow calculations on the snow model simulations, each model was forced with output from windflow models of varying computational complexity and physical realism from a terrain-based empirical interpolation of station observations to a simple turbulence model to a computational fluid dynamics model that solves for the Navier-Stokes equations. The high-resolution snow simulations were run over a 1 km2 spatial extent centred on a ridgetop meteorological station within the Marmot Creek Research basin, Alberta, Canada. The three windflow simulations all produced reasonable results compared to wind speeds measured on two opposing slopes (bias better than ×0.3 m s-1; RMSE errors were greatest when forced with output from the empirical wind model and smallest using output from either of the two turbulence models. Simulations with higher blowing snow sublimation rates tended to better match measured SWE at multiple scales, confirming that alpine blowing snow sublimation is an important component of the snow mass balance in this region

  12. L’innovation au pluriel des cré-acteurs alpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations écologique, politique, sociale et culturelle, qui engagent les acteurs du territoire. Ce changement affecte tant l’objet territoire que le sujet acteur du territoire. C’est pourquoi, innover dans les Alpes revient aussi à innover les Alpes et les acteurs alpins(Cosalp, 2008. Sur la base d’une recherche sur la participation des populations locales dans la gestion de forêts communales alpines, l’article relève l’importance des interactions locales impliquant les acteurs d’occupations, genres, âges et origines divers1.The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective - thus organisational - dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to

  13. The relative age effect and the influence on performance in youth alpine ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan MJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Jordan,1 Per Aagaard,2 Walter Herzog1 1Human Performance Laboratory, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Muscle Research Cluster (SMRC, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark Abstract: The purpose of the present review was to: 1 provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury in alpine ski racing; and 2 provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers were found to be at high risk for knee injuries, and ACL tears were the most frequent diagnosis. Three primary ACL injury mechanism were identified that involved tibial internal rotation and anteriorly directed shear forces from ski equipment and the environment. While trunk muscle strength imbalance and genetics were found to be predictive of ACL injuries in development-level skiers, there was limited scientific data on ACL injury risk factors among elite skiers. Based on expert opinion, research on injury risk factors should focus on equipment design, course settings/speed, and athlete factors (eg, fitness. While skiers seem to make a successful recovery following ACL injury, there may be persistent neuromuscular deficits. Future research efforts should be directed toward prospective studies on ACL injury/reinjury prevention in both

  15. Distribution characteristics and influencing factors of soil organic carbon in alpine ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau transect, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiang TIAN; Hua OUYANG; Minghua SONG; Haishan NIU; Qiwu HU

    2008-01-01

    The undisturbed regions along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway crossing the natural zones of montane desert, alpine meadow-steppe, and montane shrub-conifer-ous forest were chosen as the study areas. Soil samples were collected at 23 sites and the relations between the influ-encing factors and distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) content were studied. The results indicated that the order of SOC content for the whole soil profile with differ-ent vegetations and in the horizontal direction was shown as below: forest > shrub > meadow > steppe > desert. All the SOC contents of the top 10 cm soil layers of forest, shrub and meadow vegetations, as well as that of the top 20 cm soil layers in steppe, in the vertical direction, were higher than those of corresponding lower soil layers. However, the SOC content in the desert soil was in accord-ance. The grey correlative analysis between the climatic factors and SOC content in the top soil show that precip-itation was the dominant climatic factor affecting the dis-tribution of SOC in the Tibetan Plateau transect. The influence of precipitation on the horizontal distribution of SOC decreased with the increase of precipitation in the horizontal direction. The vertical distribution of SOC along the soil profile was greatly affected by precipitation or the soil clay content in top soil layers, and was clearly influ-enced by soil silt content or sand content in lower soil layers, as well. The influences of both soil bulk density and soil pH on the vertical distribution of SOC along the soil profile gradually declined. The plant biomass was the most import-ant biotic factors affecting the distribution of the SOC.

  16. Preliminary geophysical, geohazard, and geomorphic mapping of the Alpine Fault Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP), Gaunt Creek, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pascale, G. P.; Davies, T.; Nobes, D. C.; Quigley, M.; Sutherland, R.; Toy, V. G.; Norris, R. J.; Langridge, R. M.; Stahl, T.; Klahn, A.; Townend, J.

    2010-12-01

    In central South Island, the dextral-reverse Alpine Fault Zone (AFZ) forms the major plate boundary structure between the Pacific and Australian plates. The AFZ is thought to fail in large earthquakes (~ Mw 7-8) approximately every 200 to 400 years, to have last ruptured in 1717 and is associated with high rates of strain release and exhumation. The AFZ is the target of a multidisciplinary proposal called the Deep Fault Drilling Project or DFDP which proposes to drill, retrieve core, and test subsurface conditions of the AFZ from a shallow, Vegetation colonization (reflecting recent flooding) and presence of boulders and landslide debris were used to select sites. Over 600 m of ground penetrating radar (GPR) transects using a 50 MHz antenna, and 400 m of electrical resistivity data, were collected along the Late-Holocene alluvial fans to map subsurface stratigraphy. Preliminary GPR results show fluvial stratigraphy, bedrock contacts and faults in bedrock and sediments between 0 and 25 m below ground surface at Gaunt Creek. Electrical resistivity data imaged to 10 m. Geomorphic mapping (including fault trace mapping, terrace mapping, and surficial geological mapping) was integrated with geophysical data, LiDAR, and previous research at the site to determine optimum sites for DFDP drilling in early 2011. Ages of faulted deposits, and thus of fault offsets, will be obtained by radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology and/or OSL ages to better characterise recent earthquakes at Gaunt Creek. Though preliminary, this research is significant because it provides critical input parameters to the DFDP, helps define the most recent dynamics of the fault, and possibly refine slip-rates and recurrence estimates of the AFZ.

  17. Coseismic landsliding estimates for an Alpine Fault earthquake and the consequences for erosion of the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. R.; Davies, T. R. H.; Wilson, T. M.; Orchiston, C.

    2016-06-01

    Landsliding resulting from large earthquakes in mountainous terrain presents a substantial hazard and plays an important role in the evolution of mountain ranges. However estimating the scale and effect of landsliding from an individual earthquake prior to its occurrence is difficult. This study presents first order estimates of the scale and effects of coseismic landsliding resulting from a plate boundary earthquake in the South Island of New Zealand. We model an Mw 8.0 earthquake on the Alpine Fault, which has produced large (M 7.8-8.2) earthquakes every 329 ± 68 years over the last 8 ka, with the last earthquake ~ 300 years ago. We suggest that such an earthquake could produce ~ 50,000 ± 20,000 landslides at average densities of 2-9 landslides km- 2 in the area of most intense landsliding. Between 50% and 90% are expected to occur in a 7000 km2 zone between the fault and the main divide of the Southern Alps. Total landslide volume is estimated to be 0.81 + 0.87/- 0.55 km3. In major northern and southern river catchments, total landslide volume is equivalent to up to a century of present-day aseismic denudation measured from suspended sediment yields. This suggests that earthquakes occurring at century-timescales are a major driver of erosion in these regions. In the central Southern Alps, coseismic denudation is equivalent to less than a decade of aseismic denudation, suggesting precipitation and uplift dominate denudation processes. Nevertheless, the estimated scale of coseismic landsliding is considered to be a substantial hazard throughout the entire Southern Alps and is likely to present a substantial issue for post-earthquake response and recovery.

  18. Sustainable trophy hunting and the conservation of alpine ungulates in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshald, M.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpine ungulates are ubiquitous in Northern Pakistan but have declined in numbers in recent decades, possibly because of poaching and habitat degradation by livestock. Experience suggests that the most pragmatic way of achieving sustainable management of wild Caprinae is through a community-based trophy hunting programme. Since the early 1990s, the Bar Valley has been the focus of a project designed to conserve its ibex population using high-priced trophy hunting to generate funds for local development. In 2000, an audit of the project was undertaken to determine its effects on ibex and benefits for local people. Ibex survey data were retrospectively analyzed to determine density and productivity indices for each year. A survey of Bar Valley households was also conducted to obtain both historical and contemporary views on the project's function and effectiveness. The survey was repeated in the adjacent Naltar Valley, where there has been no similar project. The Bar Valley ibex population has remained relatively stable over the past decade, whilst that of Naltar and other valleys has all but disappeared.

    [fr]
    Au nord du Pakistan, les ongulés alpins se distribuent dans des habitats diversifiés mais leur nombre a diminué ces dernières décades, peut-être du fait du braconnage et de la dégradation de l'habitat par les troupeaux domestiques. Si Von veut mettre en place une gestion soutenable des Caprinae sauvages, l'expérience montre qu'une solution pragmatique est l'établissement d'un programme de chasse au trophée géré par la population locale. Ainsi, depuis les années 1990 s'est développé dans la vallée Bar un projet de conservation de la population de bouquetins basé sur des trophés de chasse à prix élevés pouvant générer des revenus pour le développement local. En 2000, une révision a été faite pour connaître les effets de ce programme sur le bouquetin et ses bénéfices pour les habitants de la zone. La

  19. Species diversity and life-form patterns in steppe vegetation along a 3000 m altitudinal gradient in the Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdavi, Parastoo; Akhani, Hossein; Van der Maarel, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity pattern and life-form spectra were studied along a 3,000 m altitudinal gradient from a semi-desert area to the alpine peak of Tochal Mountain. The gradient is located on the southern slopes of Central Alborz with a Mediterranean continental climate. DCA ordination was applied to 1,069 r

  20. Species Diversity and Life-Form Patterns in Steppe Vegetation along a 3000 m Altitudinal Gradient in the Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdavi, Parastoo; Akhani, Hossein; Van der Maarel, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity pattern and life-form spectra were studied along a 3,000 m altitudinal gradient from a semi-desert area to the alpine peak of Tochal Mountain. The gradient is located on the southern slopes of Central Alborz with a Mediterranean continental climate. DCA ordination was applied to 1,069 r

  1. An integrated geographic information system approach for modeling the suitability of conifer habitat in an alpine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Alpine periglacial environments within the forest-alpine tundra ecotone (FATE) may be among the first to reflect changes in habitat characteristics as a consequence of climatic change. Previous FATE studies used Integrated Geographic Information System (IGIS) techniques to collect and model biophysical data but lacked the necessary detail to model the micro-scale patterns and compositions of habitat within alpine periglacial environments. This paper describes several promising data collection, integration, and cartographic modeling techniques used in an IGIS approach to model alpine periglacial environments in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. High-resolution (I X I m) multi-spectral remote sensing data and differentially corrected Global Positioning System (DGPS) data were integrated with other biophysical data using a raster-based IGIS approach. Biophysical factors, hypothesized to influence the pattern and composition of the FATE and the alpine tundra ecosystem, were derived from the high-resolution remote sensing data, in-situ GPS data, high-resolution models of digital elevation, and other thematic data using image processing techniques and cartographic modeling. Suitability models of conifer habitat were created using indices generated from the IGIS database. This IGIS approach identified suitable conifer habitat within the FATE and permitted the modeling of micro-scale periglacial features and alpine tundra communities that are absent from traditional approaches of landscape-scale (30 X 30 m) modeling.

  2. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  3. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  4. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  5. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  6. A more holistic understanding of soil organic matter pools of alpine and pre-alpine grassland soils in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Franco, Noelia; Wiesmeier, Martin; Kiese, Ralf; Dannenmann, Michael; Wolf, Benjamin; Brandhuber, Robert; Beck, Robert; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    In southern Germany, the alpine and pre-alpine grassland systems (> 1 Mio ha) provide an important economic value via fodder used for milk and meat production and grassland soils support environmental key functions (C and N storage, water retention, erosion control and biodiversity hot spot). In addition, these grassland soils constitute important regions for tourism and recreation. However, the different land use and management practices in this area introduce changes which are likely to accelerate due to climate change. The newly launched SUPSALPS project within the BonaRes Initiative of the German Ministry for Education and Research is focused on the development and evaluation of innovative grassland management strategies under climate change with an emphasis on soil functions, which are on the one hand environmental sustainable and on the other hand economically viable. Several field experiments of the project will be initialized in order to evaluate grassland soil functioning for a range of current and climate adapted management practices. A multi-factorial design combines ongoing and new plant-soil meso-/macrocosm and field studies at a multitude of existing long-term research sites along an elevation gradient in Bavaria. One of the specific objectives of the project is to improve our knowledge on the sensitivity of specific soil organic matter (SOM) fractions to climate change. Moreover, the project aims to determine the processes and mechanisms involved in the build-up and stabilization of C and N pools under different management practices. In order to derive sensitive SOM pools, a promising physical fractionation method was developed that enables the separation of five different SOM fractions by density, ultrasonication and sieving separation: fine particulate organic matter (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM>20μm and oPOM 20 μm; medium + fine silt and clay, < 20 μm). Methods to further characterize SOM (NMR, 13C and 15N stable isotopes

  7. UV habitable zones around M stars

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P; Mauas, Pablo J D

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, there was a paradigm-shift in order to consider terrestrial planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars, as suitable places for the emergence and evolution of life. Here we analyze the influence of UV boundary conditions to three planetary systems around dM (HIP 74995, HIP 109388 and HIP 113020). We apply our model of UV habitable zone (UV-HZ) (Buccino et al. 2006) to these cases and show that during the quiescent UV output there would not be enough UV radiation within the LW-HZ in order to trigger biogenic processes. We also analyze the cases of two other M flare stars and show that the flares of moderate intensity could provide the necessary energy to trigger those biogenic processes, while the strong flares not necessary rule-out the possibility of life-bearing planets.

  8. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  9. Garnet cannibalism provides clues to extensive hydration of lower crustal fragments in a subduction channel (Sesia Zone, Northwestern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which granulites are transformed to eclogites is thought to impose critical limits on the subduction of continental lower crust. Although it is seldom possible to document such densification processes in detail, the transformation is believed to depend on fluid access and deformation. Remarkably complex garnet porphyroblasts are widespread in eclogite facies micaschists in central parts of the Sesia Zone (Western Italian Alps). They occur in polydeformed samples in assemblages involving phengite+quartz+rutile ±paragonite, Na-amphibole, Na-pyroxene, chloritoid. Detailed study of textural and compositional types reveals a rich inventory of growth and partial resorption zones in garnet. These reflect several stages of the polycyclic metamorphic evolution. A most critical observation is that the relict garnet cores indicate growth at 900 °C and 0.9 GPa. This part of the Eclogitic Micaschist Complex thus derived from granulite facies metapelites of Permian age. These dry rocks must have been extensively hydrated during Cretaceous subduction, and garnet records the conditions of these processes. Garnet from micaschist containing rutile, epidote, paragonite and phengite were investigated in detail. Two types of garnet crystals are found in many thin sections: mm-size porphyroclasts and smaller atoll garnets, some 100 µm in diameter. X-ray maps of the porphyroclasts show complex zoning in garnet: a late Paleozoic HT-LP porphyroclastic core is overgrown by several layers of HP-LT Alpine garnet, these show evidence of growth at the expense of earlier garnet generations. Textures indicate 1-2 stages of resorption, with garnet cores that were fractured and then sealed by garnet veins, rimmed by multiple Alpine overgrowth rims with lobate edges. Garnet rim 1 forms peninsula and embayment structures at the expense of the core. Rim 2 surrounds rim 1, both internally and externally, and seems to have grown mainly at the expense of the core. Rim 3 grew mainly at

  10. Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Branislav

    2010-01-01

    We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record. With Fermi's paradox as a main boundary condition the resulting histories of astrobiological landscape are discussed.

  11. Integrating RapidEye and ancillary data to map alpine habitats in South Tyrol, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronaki, Anastasia; Spindler, Nadine; Schmidt, Alexander; Stoinschek, Barbara; Zebisch, Marc; Renner, Kathrin; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Notarnicola, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage method for mapping habitats using Earth observation (EO) data in three Alpine sites in South Tyrol, Italy. The first stage of the method was the classification of land cover types using multi-temporal RapidEye images and support vector machines (SVMs). The second stage involved reclassification of the land cover types to habitat types following a rule-based spatial kernel. The highest accuracies in land cover classification were 95.1% overall accuracy, 0.94 kappa coefficient and 4.9% overall disagreement. These accuracies were obtained when the combination of images with topographic parameters and homogeneity texture was used. The habitat classification accuracies were rather moderate due to the broadly defined rules and possible inaccuracies in the reference map. Overall, our proposed methodology could be implemented to map cost-effectively alpine habitats over large areas and could be easily adapted to map other types of habitats.

  12. Point d’arrivée de l’Alpine Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Del Biaggio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Le Bischling (1834 m., à Werfenweng (Autriche, a accueilli la dernière étape du Alpine Crossing 2009. Sur cette cime il y avait une géographe, (moi, collectant des informations pour une thèse sur les réseaux pan-alpins, il y avait les responsables du réseau d’acteurs locaux Perles des Alpes, les organisateurs de l’événement, mais surtout un nombre considérable de journalistes qui avaient accepté de se livrer à un exercice particulier : montrer qu’il est possible de traverser les Alpes en m...

  13. INTERACT Management planning for arctic and northern alpine stations - Examples of good practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT research stations are often located in very remote areas of the Arctic and often managed with limited ressources. This means that station managers have to develop cost effective management practises and come up with innovative (and cheap) solutions to often complicated problems. One...... and northern alpine research stations. In this book station managers share their knowledge and experience gained frommanaging a set of very diverse research stations in very different environmental and climatic settings. The book covers issues like management planning, policies, permit issues, handling...... of visitors, outreach, science plans, data management and education. The target audience for the book is mainly managers of research stations in arctic and alpine areas, but it is our hope that it will also be a useful tool for others being involved in science coordination and logistics....

  14. Influence of climate change on the water resources in an alpine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toffol, S; Engelhard, C; Rauch, W

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the global warming will impact on water resources. This study investigates the possible influence of climate change on the water resources in an alpine region. A description of the actual situation with emphasis on the water resources from the one side and on the water consuming factors, here called stressors, is given. The probable effects of climate change in the region and their influence on its water resources are then described. The main outcome is that in the analysed region the climate change will rather have positive influence on the water balance by inducing higher precipitations during the rivers' natural low flow period (winter). This outcome contradicts many common predictions, however, this due to the specifics induced by the alpine nature of the catchment.

  15. PM10 source apportionment in a Swiss Alpine valley impacted by highway traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Thimmaiah, Devraj; Künzli, Nino; Hopke, Philip K; Phuleria, Harish C

    2013-09-01

    Although trans-Alpine highway traffic exhaust is one of the major sources of air pollution along the highway valleys of the Alpine regions, little is known about its contribution to residential exposure and impact on respiratory health. In this paper, source-specific contributions to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter traffic-related: traffic exhaust, road dust, tire and brake wear, and road salt contributing 16 %, 8 %, 1 %, and 2 % to annual PM10 concentrations, respectively. They showed a clear dependence with distance to highway. Additional contributions were identified from secondary particles (27 %), biomass burning (18 %), railway (11 %), and mineral dust including a local construction site (13 %). Comparing these source contributions with known source-specific biomarkers (e.g., levoglucosan, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) showed high agreement with biomass burning, moderate with secondary particles (in winter), and lowest agreement with traffic exhaust.

  16. Shape and origin of the East-Alpine slab constrained by the ALPASS teleseismic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterbauer, Ulrike; Behm, Michael; Brückl, Ewald; Lippitsch, Regina; Guterch, Alexander; Keller, G. Randy; Koslovskaya, Elena; Rumpfhuber, Eva-Maria; Šumanovac, Franjo

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades teleseismic studies yielded valuable information on the structure of the upper mantle below the Alpine-Mediterranean area. Subducted oceanic lithosphere forms a broad anomaly resting on but not penetrating the 670 km discontinuity. More shallow slabs imaged below the Alpine arc are interpreted as subducted continental lower lithosphere. Substantial advances in our understanding of past and active tectonic processes have been achieved due to these results. However, important issues like the polarity of subduction under the Eastern Alps and the slab geometry at the transition to the Pannonian realm are still under debate. The ALPASS teleseismic experiment was designed to address these open questions. Teleseismic waveforms from 80 earthquakes recorded at 75 temporary and 79 permanent stations were collected during 2005 and 2006. From these data, a tomographic image of the upper mantle was generated between 60 km and 500 km depth. Crustal corrections, additional station terms, and ray bending caused by the velocity perturbations were considered. A steeply to vertically dipping "shallow slab" below the Eastern Alps is clearly resolved down to a depth of ~ 250 km. It is interpreted as European lower lithosphere detached from the crust and subducted during post-collision convergence between Adria and Europe. Below the Pannonian realm low velocities or high mantle temperatures prevail down to ~ 300 km depth, consistent with the concept of a Pannonian lithospheric fragment, which underwent strike-slip deformation relative to the European plate and extension during the post-collision phase of the Alpine orogeny. Between 350 km and 400 km depth, a "deep slab" extends from below the central Eastern Alps to under the Pannonian realm. It is interpreted as subducted lithosphere of the Alpine Tethys. At greater depth, there is a continuous transition to the high velocity anomaly above the 670 km discontinuity.

  17. Upper mantle structure beneath the Alpine orogen from high-resolution teleseismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitsch, Regina; Kissling, Edi; Ansorge, JöRg

    2003-08-01

    To understand the evolution of the Alpine orogen, knowledge of the actual structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system is important. We perform high-resolution teleseismic tomography with manually picked P wave arrival times from seismograms recorded in the greater Alpine region. The resulting data set consists of 4199 relative P wave arrivals and 499 absolute P wave arrivals from 76 teleseismic events, corrected for the contribution of the Alpine crust to the travel times. The three-dimensional (3-D) crustal model established from controlled-source seismology data for that purpose represents the large-scale Alpine crustal structure. Absolute P wave arrival times are used to compute an initial reference model for the inversion. Tests with synthetic data document that the combination of nonlinear inversion, high-quality teleseismic data, and usage of an a priori 3-D crustal model allows a reliable resolution of cells at 50 km × 50 km × 30 km. Hence structures as small as two cells can be resolved in the upper mantle. Our tomographic images illuminate the structure of the uppermost mantle to depth of 400 km. Along strike of the Alps, the inversion reveals a high-velocity structure that dips toward the SE beneath the Adriatic microplate in the western and central Alps. In the eastern Alps we observe a northeastward dipping feature, subducting beneath the European plate. We interpret this feature in the western and central Alps as subducted, mainly continental European lower lithosphere. For the east, we propose that parts of the Vardar oceanic basin were subducted toward the NE, forcing continental Adriatic lower lithosphere to subduct northeastward beneath the European plate.

  18. Regional climate models downscaling in the Alpine area with Multimodel SuperEnsemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cane

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The climatic scenarios show a strong signal of warming in the Alpine area already for the mid XXI century. The climate simulations, however, even when obtained with Regional Climate Models (RCMs, are affected by strong errors where compared with observations, due to their difficulties in representing the complex orography of the Alps and limitations in their physical parametrization.

    Therefore the aim of this work is reducing these model biases using a specific post processing statistic technique to obtain a more suitable projection of climate change scenarios in the Alpine area.

    For our purposes we use a selection of RCMs runs from the ENSEMBLES project, carefully chosen in order to maximise the variety of leading Global Climate Models and of the RCMs themselves, calculated on the SRES scenario A1B. The reference observation for the Greater Alpine Area are extracted from the European dataset E-OBS produced by the project ENSEMBLES with an available resolution of 25 km. For the study area of Piedmont daily temperature and precipitation observations (1957–present were carefully gridded on a 14-km grid over Piedmont Region with an Optimal Interpolation technique.

    Hence, we applied the Multimodel SuperEnsemble technique to temperature fields, reducing the high biases of RCMs temperature field compared to observations in the control period.

    We propose also the first application to RCMS of a brand new probabilistic Multimodel SuperEnsemble Dressing technique to estimate precipitation fields, already applied successfully to weather forecast models, with careful description of precipitation Probability Density Functions conditioned to the model outputs. This technique reduces the strong precipitation overestimation by RCMs over the alpine chain and reproduces well the monthly behaviour of precipitation in the control period.

  19. Regional climate models downscaling in the Alpine area with multimodel superensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cane

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The climatic scenarios show a strong signal of warming in the Alpine area already for the mid-XXI century. The climate simulations, however, even when obtained with regional climate models (RCMs, are affected by strong errors when compared with observations, due both to their difficulties in representing the complex orography of the Alps and to limitations in their physical parametrization. Therefore, the aim of this work is to reduce these model biases by using a specific post processing statistic technique, in order to obtain a more suitable projection of climate change scenarios in the Alpine area. For our purposes we used a selection of regional climate models (RCMs runs which were developed in the framework of the ENSEMBLES project. They were carefully chosen with the aim to maximise the variety of leading global climate models and of the RCMs themselves, calculated on the SRES scenario A1B. The reference observations for the greater Alpine area were extracted from the European dataset E-OBS (produced by the ENSEMBLES project, which have an available resolution of 25 km. For the study area of Piedmont daily temperature and precipitation observations (covering the period from 1957 to the present were carefully gridded on a 14 km grid over Piedmont region through the use of an optimal interpolation technique. Hence, we applied the multimodel superensemble technique to temperature fields, reducing the high biases of RCMs temperature field compared to observations in the control period. We also proposed the application of a brand new probabilistic multimodel superensemble dressing technique, already applied to weather forecast models successfully, to RCMS: the aim was to estimate precipitation fields, with careful description of precipitation probability density functions conditioned to the model outputs. This technique allowed for reducing the strong precipitation overestimation, arising from the use of RCMs, over the Alpine chain and to

  20. Infrared Radiant Temperatures in the Alpine/Periglacial Environment as Related to Thermal Remote Sensing,

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing in the alpine/periglacial environment. Techniques of ground truth observations were tested by which a researcher might determine the usefulness of infrared scanning to his study without the financial investment of airborne remote sensing on a trial-and-error basis. Also, an attempt was made to determine the environmental controls upon radiant temperature by monitoring changing patterns of radiant temperature relative to changing meteorologic conditions. Observations of both actual and thermal infrared radiant temperatures were made

  1. Dynamics of natural prokaryotes, viruses, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates in alpine karstic groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhartilz, I.C.; Krischner, A.K.T; C. P. D. Brussaard; Fisher, U.R.; Wieltschnig, C.; Stadler, H; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal dynamics of naturally occurring prokaryotes, viruses, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates in two hydro-geologically contrasting alpine karst springs were monitored over three annual cycles. To our knowledge, this study is the first to shed light on the occurrence and possible interrelationships between these three groups in karstic groundwater. Hydrological and microbiological standard indicators were recovered simultaneously in order to estimate surface influence, especially ...

  2. Using multi-objective optimisation to integrate alpine regions in groundwater flow models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rojanschi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the research project GLOWA Danube, a groundwater flow model was developed for the Upper Danube basin. This paper reports on a preliminary study to include the alpine part of the catchment in the model. A conceptual model structure was implemented and tested using multi-objective optimisation analysis. The performance of the model and the identifiability of the parameters were studied. A possible over-parameterisation of the model was also tested using principal component analysis.

  3. Biomass distributions in dwarf tree, krummholz, and tundra vegetation in the alpine treeline ecotone

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Alpine treeline ecotones are expected to respond to climate change with shifts in biomass patterns and carbon dynamics; however, the nature of these shifts and the current structure of carbon storage at treeline remain poorly understood. Biomass at treeline sites in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana was measured in different aboveground carbon pools. Notably large proportions of biomass were recorded in compartments of dead material (~64% in upright tree cover, ~82% in krummholz). The stor...

  4. Soil organic carbon storage and soil CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sampling,measurements of organic carbon contents and 14C signatures of selected four soil profiles in the Haibei Station situated on the northeast Tibetan Plateau,and application of 14C tracing technology were conducted in an attempt to investigate the turnover times of soil organic car-bon and the soil-CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem. The results show that the organic carbon stored in the soils varies from 22.12×104 kg C hm-2 to 30.75×104 kg C hm-2 in the alpine meadow eco-systems,with an average of 26.86×104 kg C hm-2. Turnover times of organic carbon pools increase with depth from 45 a to 73 a in the surface soil horizon to hundreds of years or millennia or even longer at the deep soil horizons in the alpine meadow ecosystems. The soil-CO2 flux ranges from 103.24 g C m-2 a-1 to 254.93 gC m-2 a-1,with an average of 191.23 g C m-2 a-1. The CO2 efflux produced from microbial decomposition of organic matter varies from 73.3 g C m-2 a-1 to 181 g C m-2 a-1. More than 30% of total soil organic carbon resides in the active carbon pool and 72.8%―81.23% of total CO2 emitted from or-ganic matter decomposition results from the topsoil horizon (from 0 cm to 10 cm) for the Kobresia meadow. Responding to global warming,the storage,volume of flow and fate of the soil organic carbon in the alpine meadow ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau will be changed,which needs further research.

  5. Soil organic carbon storage and soil CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Zhen; SHEN ChengDe; GAO QuanZhou; SUN YanMin; YI WeiXi; LI YingNian

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sampling, measurements of organic carbon contents and 14C signatures of selected four soil profiles in the Haibei Station situated on the northeast Tibetan Plateau, and application of 14C tracing technology were conducted in an attempt to investigate the turnover times of soil organic carbon and the soil-CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem. The results show that the organic carbon stored in the soils varies from 22.12(104 kg C hm-2 to 30.75(104 kg C hm-2 in the alpine meadow ecosystems, with an average of 26.86(104 kg C hm-2. Turnover times of organic carbon pools increase with depth from 45 a to 73 a in the surface soil horizon to hundreds of years or millennia or even longer at the deep soil horizons in the alpine meadow ecosystems. The soil-CO2 flux ranges from 103.24 g C m-2 a-1 to 254.93 gC m-2 a-1, with an average of 191.23 g C m-2 a-1. The CO2 efflux produced from microbial decomposition of organic matter varies from 73.3 g C m-2 a-1 to 181 g C m-2 a-1. More than 30% of total soil organic carbon resides in the active carbon pool and 72.8%-81.23% of total CO2 emitted from organic matter decomposition results from the topsoil horizon (from 0 cm to 10 cm) for the Kobresia meadow. Responding to global warming, the storage, volume of flow and fate of the soil organic carbon in the alpine meadow ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau will be changed, which needs further research.

  6. Leaf and floral heating in cold climates: do sub-Antarctic megaherbs resemble tropical alpine giants?

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Lorna; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Müller, Eike; Katharine J M Dickinson; Janice M. Lord

    2016-01-01

    High latitude and altitude floras are characterized by low-statured, small, wind-pollinated plants, which mainly reproduce by self-pollination or asexual reproduction. However, at odds with this are some sub-Antarctic islands that have plant species with giant growth forms and large, brightly coloured flowers which require insect visitation for pollination. The size, colour and shape of the inflorescences and leaves of these megaherbs suggest thermal benefits similar to giant tropical alpine ...

  7. Assessment of Romanian alpine habitats spatial shifts based on climate change prediction scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    CONSTANTINESCU Adrian; Hanganu, Jenica; Lehmann, Anthony; Ray, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in the ecosystems distribution as the result of climate change are of interest for decision-makers in biodiversity conservation at local and European level. This paper presents the use of modeling technique, Maxent (Maximum entropy modeling) and BIOCLIM (environmental envelope model), to estimate the impact of climate change on the Alpine bioregion of Continental Europe for improving the management policy in support of stopping biodiversity loss. The European Union priority habitat 623...

  8. ′Fire of Life′ analysis of heart rate variability during alpine skiing in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Skiing is a very popular sport in Austria. Nevertheless, there is little information concerning online monitoring of bio-signals during alpine skiing in the mountains. Within the last years innovative scientific monitoring tools for evaluating features of neurocardial fitness have been developed. Aims : The goal of this study was to demonstrate the new ′Fire of Life′ heart rate variability analysis for the first time during alpine skiing. Volunteers and Methods : Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring over a period of 12 hours was performed simultaneously in two healthy volunteers using the same type of equipment (medilog AR12 systems. Two healthy volunteers (female, 20 years, and male, 51 years, both hobby skiers, were monitored simultaneously and continuously during two resting periods before and after active sport and also during alpine skiing. Altogether each participant covered 9,084 meters altitude difference within a time period of 6:14 hours. Total length of the downhill skiing was 45 kilometers. Results : Data acquisition was performed without any technical problems in both subjects. Poincaré plots of sequential R-R intervals (beat to beat variability show two ellipses of different shape and magnitude. During resting periods respiratory sinus arrhythmia and blood pressure effects can be clearly seen in the young female. The same effects, however markedly reduced, are obvious in the older volunteer. Conclusions : The present investigations during alpine skiing highlight the potential value of the ′Fire of Life′ heart rate variability monitoring even under difficult environmental conditions. The innovative kind of analysis helps to show how well the human body reacts to sport, stress and recovery.

  9. ‘Fire of Life’ analysis of heart rate variability during alpine skiing in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skiing is a very popular sport in Austria. Nevertheless, there is little information concerning online monitoring of bio-signals during alpine skiing in the mountains. Within the last years innovative scientific monitoring tools for evaluating features of neurocardial fitness have been developed. Aims: The goal of this study was to demonstrate the new ‘Fire of Life’ heart rate variability analysis for the first time during alpine skiing. Volunteers and Methods: Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring over a period of 12 hours was performed simultaneously in two healthy volunteers using the same type of equipment (medilog AR12 systems. Two healthy volunteers (female, 20 years, and male, 51 years, both hobby skiers, were monitored simultaneously and continuously during two resting periods before and after active sport and also during alpine skiing. Altogether each participant covered 9,084 meters altitude difference within a time period of 6:14 hours. Total length of the downhill skiing was 45 kilometers. Results: Data acquisition was performed without any technical problems in both subjects. Poincaré plots of sequential R-R intervals (beat to beat variability show two ellipses of different shape and magnitude. During resting periods respiratory sinus arrhythmia and blood pressure effects can be clearly seen in the young female. The same effects, however markedly reduced, are obvious in the older volunteer. Conclusions: The present investigations during alpine skiing highlight the potential value of the ‘Fire of Life’ heart rate variability monitoring even under difficult environmental conditions. The innovative kind of analysis helps to show how well the human body reacts to sport, stress and recovery.

  10. Seedling Regeneration in the Alpine Treeline Ecotone: Comparison of Wood Microsites and Adjacent Soil Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Chapman Johnson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although climate warming is generally expected to facilitate upward advance of forests, conifer seedling regeneration and survival may be hindered by low substrate moisture, high radiation, and both low and high snow accumulation. To better understand substrate-related factors promoting regeneration in the alpine treeline ecotone, this study compared 2 substrates supporting conifer seedlings: rotten downed wood and adjacent soil. Study locations, each with 3 levels of incoming radiation, were randomly selected at forest line–alpine meadow borders in Pacific Northwest wilderness areas extending along an east–west precipitation gradient. Associations among substrate type, seedling density, radiation, site moisture, site temperature, plant water potential, and plant stomatal conductance were assessed. Wood microsites, flush with the ground and supporting Abies spp conifer seedlings, extended up to 20 m into alpine meadows from the forest line. Although wood microsites thawed later in the spring and froze earlier in the fall, they had warmer summer temperatures, greater volumetric water content, and more growing degree hours, and seedlings growing on wood had higher water potentials than seedlings growing on adjacent soil. At drier eastern sites, there was a positive relationship between seedling density and volumetric water content. Further, there was a positive relationship between seedling stomatal conductance and volumetric water content. Our study indicates that in the Pacific Northwest. and likely elsewhere, seedlings benefit from wood microsites, which provide greater water content. Given predictions of increased summer drought in some locations globally, wood microsites at forest line–alpine meadows and forest line–grasslands borders may become increasingly important for successful conifer regeneration.

  11. Maternal dietary Alpine butter intake affects human milk: fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Isabelle; Collomb, Marius; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd; von Mandach, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of CLA by lactating women affects the composition of their milk, but the pattern of the different CLA isomers is still unknown. We determined the effects of short maternal supplementation with CLA-rich Alpine butter on the occurrence of FA and CLA isomers in human milk. In an open randomized controlled study with a two-period cross-over design, milk FA and CLA isomer concentrations were measured on postpartum days > or = 20 in two parallel groups of lactating women before, during, and after consumption of defined quantities of Alpine butter or margarine with comparable fat content (10 d of butter followed by 10 d of margarine for one group, and vice versa in the other). In the 16 women who completed the study (8/group), Alpine butter supplementation increased the C16 and C18 FA, the sum of saturated FA, the 18:1 trans FA, and the trans FA with CLA. The CLA isomer 18:2 c9,t11 increased by 49.7%. Significant increases were also found for the isomers t9,t11, t7,c9, t11,c13, and t8,c10 18:2. The remaining nine of the total 14 detectable isomers showed no changes, and concentrations were <5 mg/100 g fat. A breastfeeding mother can therefore modulate the FA/CLA supply of her child by consuming Alpine butter. Further studies will show whether human milk containing this FA and CLA isomer pattern acts as a functional food for newborns.

  12. How alpine heathlands response to the snow cover change on the ski slope? Long-lasting ski slope impact case study from the Hrubý Jeseník Mts (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Zeidler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and duration of snow cover are important variables that affect ecosystem processes in the alpine zone. The establishment of ski resorts dramatically change their surrounding environment and ski slopes represent significant anthropogenic impact in the mountains. We assessed the changes in environmental factors, phenology, growth, and reproductive performance of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus, a dominant species of alpine heathlands, caused by a “nature-friendly” managed ski slope (i.e., without artificial snow and machine grading at permanent plots established on the ski slope under operations (inside the ski slope and on an unaffected control area (outside the ski slope. A lower mean temperature and a shorter time of great temperature fluctuation during snow melting, a longer time span of snow cover, and a higher snow water equivalent were observed inside the ski slope compared to outside it. Due to changed environmental conditions, the beginning of growth was postponed, and a delay in phenological development was observed in the bilberry at the ski slope. However, bilberry ripened both inside and outside the ski slope in a similar period and showed similar cover and even higher flower and fruit densities inside the ski slope compared with natural surroundings. The persistence of bilberry was not deteriorated and its performance was even better inside the ski slope. On the ski slope, managed snow cover can reduce the potential vegetation shifts due to expected impact of the climate warming. That should be taken into account in conservation and management planning.

  13. An extended climate archive from the Eastern Alpine ice coring site of Mt Ortles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreossi, Giuliano; Carturan, Luca; De Blasi, Fabrizio; Paolo, Gabrielli; Spolaor, Andrea; Jacopo, Gabrieli; Barbante, Carlo; Seppi, Roberto; Dinale, Roberto; Zanoner, Thomas; Stenni, Barbara; Fontana Giancarlo, Dalla; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope content of ice cores has been extensively used for temperature reconstruction. The most elevated glaciers of the Alpine area have been utilized for ice coring for more than four decades, but the scarcity of drilling projects in the Eastern Alps and of isotopic records covering a long time period for the entire Alpine region suggest that the paleoclimatic potential of this mountain area is still largely unexploited. In autumn 2011 four deep cores were drilled on Mt Ortles, South Tyrol, Italy, at 3859 m a.s.l. An extensive reconstructed temperature record for the Ortles summit, based on the surrounding meteorological station data, is available for the last 150 years, while an automatic weather station had been operating from 2011 to 2015 in proximity of the drilling site. A preliminary age scale has been utilized for dating the two cores for which the isotopic record is available (core #1 and #2), creating an Ortles stacked record and comparing the Ortles data to temperatures and to other Alpine isotope records. The comparison among different ice core locations shows some similarities in the observed fluctuations, despite the considerable distance between the sites and the substantial geographical variability of temperature, precipitation and moisture source patterns characterizing the Alps.

  14. Timing and extent of early marine oxygen isotope stage 2 alpine glaciation in Skagit Valley, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Jon L.; Clague, John J.; Ward, Brent C.

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-two new radiocarbon ages from Skagit valley provide a detailed chronology of alpine glaciation during the Evans Creek stade of the Fraser Glaciation (early marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2) in the Cascade Range, Washington State. Sediments at sites near Concrete, Washington, record two advances of the Baker valley glacier between ca. 30.3 and 19.5 cal ka BP, with an intervening period of glacier recession about 24.9 cal ka BP. The Baker valley glacier dammed lower Skagit valley, creating glacial Lake Concrete, which discharged around the ice dam along Finney Creek, or south into the Sauk valley. Sediments along the shores of Ross Lake in upper Skagit valley accumulated in glacial Lake Skymo after ca. 28.7 cal ka BP behind a glacier flowing out of Big Beaver valley. Horizontally laminated silt and bedded sand and gravel up to 20 m thick record as much as 8000 yr of deposition in these glacially dammed lakes. The data indicate that alpine glaciers in Skagit valley were far less extensive than previously thought. Alpine glaciers remained in advanced positions for much of the Evans Creek stade, which may have ended as early as 20.8 cal ka BP.

  15. Characterization of the shallow groundwater system in an alpine watershed: Handcart Gulch, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, K.G.; Ge, S.; Caine, J.S.; Manning, A.

    2008-01-01

    Water-table elevation measurements and aquifer parameter estimates are rare in alpine settings because few wells exist in these environments. Alpine groundwater systems may be a primary source of recharge to regional groundwater flow systems. Handcart Gulch is an alpine watershed in Colorado, USA comprised of highly fractured Proterozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks with wells completed to various depths. Primary study objectives include determining hydrologic properties of shallow bedrock and surficial materials, developing a watershed water budget, and testing the consistency of measured hydrologic properties and water budget by constructing a simple model incorporating groundwater and surface water for water year 2005. Water enters the study area as precipitation and exits as discharge in the trunk stream or potential recharge for the deeper aquifer. Surficial infiltration rates ranged from 0.1-6.2??0-5 m/s. Discharge was estimated at 1.28??10-3 km3. Numerical modeling analysis of single-well aquifer tests predicted lower specific storage in crystalline bedrock than in ferricrete and colluvial material (6.7??10-5-2.10??0-3 l/m). Hydraulic conductivity in crystalline bedrock was significantly lower than in colluvial and alluvial material (4.3??10-9 -2.0??10-4 m/s). Water budget results suggest that during normal precipitation and temperatures water is available to recharge the deeper groundwater flow system. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  16. Photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron flow in the alpine evergreen species Quercus guyavifolia in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap, stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm, CO2 assimilation rate (An, and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap, the diurnal values of gs, gm, An and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures.

  17. Photosynthesis and Photosynthetic Electron Flow in the Alpine Evergreen Species Quercus guyavifolia in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap), stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm), CO2 assimilation rate (An), and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII) at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap), the diurnal values of gs, gm, An, and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures. PMID:27812359

  18. Seismic signature of the Alpine indentation, evidence from the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, I.; Bokelmann, G.

    2014-12-01

    The type of collision between the European and the Adriatic plates in the easternmost Alps is one of the most interesting questions regarding the Alpine evolution. Tectonic processes such as compression, escape and uplift are interconnected and shape this area. We can understand these ongoing processes better, if we look for signs of the deformation within the Earth's deep crust of the region. By collecting records from permanent and temporary seismic networks, we assemble a receiver function dataset, and analyze it with the aim of giving new insights on the structure of the lower crust and of the shallow portion of the upper mantle, which are inaccessible to direct observation. Imaging is accomplished by performing common conversion depth stacks along three profiles that crosscut the Eastern Alpine orogen, and allow isolating features consistently persistent in the area. The study shows a moderately flat Moho underlying a seismically anisotropic middle-lower crust from the Southern Alps to the Austroalpine nappes. The spatial progression of anisotropic axes reflects the orientation of the relative motion and of the stress field detected at the surface. These observations suggest that distributed deformation is due to the effect of the Alpine indentation. In the shallow upper mantle right below the Moho interface, a further anisotropic layer is recognized, extended from the Bohemian Massif to the Northern Calcareous Alps.

  19. Bridging the divide: a model-data approach to Polar and Alpine microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, James A; Anesio, Alexandre M; Arndt, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Advances in microbial ecology in the cryosphere continue to be driven by empirical approaches including field sampling and laboratory-based analyses. Although mathematical models are commonly used to investigate the physical dynamics of Polar and Alpine regions, they are rarely applied in microbial studies. Yet integrating modelling approaches with ongoing observational and laboratory-based work is ideally suited to Polar and Alpine microbial ecosystems given their harsh environmental and biogeochemical characteristics, simple trophic structures, distinct seasonality, often difficult accessibility, geographical expansiveness and susceptibility to accelerated climate changes. In this opinion paper, we explain how mathematical modelling ideally complements field and laboratory-based analyses. We thus argue that mathematical modelling is a powerful tool for the investigation of these extreme environments and that fully integrated, interdisciplinary model-data approaches could help the Polar and Alpine microbiology community address some of the great research challenges of the 21st century (e.g. assessing global significance and response to climate change). However, a better integration of field and laboratory work with model design and calibration/validation, as well as a stronger focus on quantitative information is required to advance models that can be used to make predictions and upscale processes and fluxes beyond what can be captured by observations alone.

  20. Relations of alpine plant communities across environmental gradients: Multilevel versus multiscale analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Zimmerman, Dale L.; Kinney, Mitch; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    Alpine plant communities vary, and their environmental covariates could influence their response to climate change. A single multilevel model of how alpine plant community composition is determined by hierarchical relations is compared to a separate examination of those relations at different scales. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of species cover for plots in four regions across the Rocky Mountains created dependent variables. Climate variables are derived for the four regions from interpolated data. Plot environmental variables are measured directly and the presence of thirty-seven site characteristics is recorded and used to create additional independent variables. Multilevel and best subsets regressions are used to determine the strength of the hypothesized relations. The ordinations indicate structure in the assembly of plant communities. The multilevel analyses, although revealing significant relations, provide little explanation; of the site variables, those related to site microclimate are most important. In multiscale analyses (whole and separate regions), different variables are better explanations within the different regions. This result indicates weak environmental niche control of community composition. The weak relations of the structure in the patterns of species association to the environment indicates that either alpine vegetation represents a case of the neutral theory of biogeography being a valid explanation or that it represents disequilibrium conditions. The implications of neutral theory and disequilibrium explanations are similar: Response to climate change will be difficult to quantify above equilibrium background turnover.

  1. Moisture and temperature controls on nitrification differ among ammonia oxidizer communities from three alpine soil habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brooke B.OSBORNE; Jill S.BARON; Matthew D.WALLENSTEIN

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing and magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes in many high-elevation ecosystems.The consequent changes in alpine nitrification rates have the potential to influence ecosystem scale responses.In order to better understand how changing temperature and moisture conditions may influence ammonia oxidizers and nitrification activity,we conducted laboratory incubations on soils collected in a Colorado watershed from three alpine habitats (glacial outwash,talus,and meadow).We found that bacteria,not archaea,dominated all ammonia oxidizer communities.Nitrification increased with moisture in all soils and under all temperature treatments.However,temperature was not correlated with nitrification rates in all soils.Site-specific temperature trends suggest the development of generalist ammonia oxidzer communities in soils with greater in situ temperature fluctuations and specialists in soils with more steady temperature regimes.Rapidly increasing temperatures and changing soil moisture conditions could explain recent observations of increased nitrate production in some alpine soils.

  2. Wet meadow ecosystems contribute the majority of overwinter soil respiration from snow-scoured alpine tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, John F.; Blanken, Peter D.; Williams, Mark W.

    2016-04-01

    We measured soil respiration across a soil moisture gradient ranging from dry to wet snow-scoured alpine tundra soils throughout three winters and two summers. In the absence of snow accumulation, soil moisture variability was principally determined by the combination of mesotopographical hydrological focusing and shallow subsurface permeability, which resulted in a patchwork of comingled ecosystem types along a single alpine ridge. To constrain the subsequent carbon cycling variability, we compared three measures of effective diffusivity and three methods to calculate gradient method soil respiration from four typical vegetation communities. Overwinter soil respiration was primarily restricted to wet meadow locations, and a conservative estimate of the rate of overwinter soil respiration from snow-scoured wet meadow tundra was 69-90% of the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) respired by seasonally snow-covered soils within this same catchment. This was attributed to higher overwinter soil temperatures at wet meadow locations relative to fellfield, dry meadow, and moist meadow communities, which supported liquid water and heterotrophic respiration throughout the winter. These results were corroborated by eddy covariance-based measurements that demonstrated an average of 272 g C m-2 overwinter carbon loss during the study period. As a result, we updated a conceptual model of soil respiration versus snow cover to express the potential for soil respiration variability from snow-scoured alpine tundra.

  3. The diversity of soil culturable fungi in the three alpine shrub grasslands of Eastern Qilian Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junzhong ZHANG; Baiying MAN; Benzhong FU; Li LIU; Changzhi HAN

    2013-01-01

    To understand the diversity of culturable fungi in soil at alpine sites,Rhododendron fruticosa shrubland,Salix cupularis fruticosa shrubland,and Dasiphoru fruticosa shrubland of the Eastern Qilian Mountains were selected to investigate.Three methods,including traditional culturing,rDNA intemal transcribed spacer (ITS)sequence analysis,and economical efficiency analysis,were carried out to estimate the diversity of soil culturable fungi of these three alpine shrublands.A total of 35 strains of culturable fungi were cultured by dilution plate technique and were analyzed by rDNA ITS sequence.The diversity indices such as species abundance (S),Shannon-Wiener index (H),Simpson dominance index (D),and Pielou evenness index (J) of Rhododendron fruticosa shrubland,Salix cupularis fruticosa shrubland,and Dasiphoru fruticosa shrubland were ranged between 16 and 17,2.66-2.71,0.92,0.95-0.97 respectively.The results showed that the diversity of soil fungi were abundant in these three types of alpine shrub grasslands,while further study should be done to explore their potential value.

  4. Melting Alpine glaciers enrich high-elevation lakes with reactive nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saros, Jasmine E; Rose, Kevin C; Clow, David W; Stephens, Verlin C; Nurse, Andrea B; Arnett, Heather A; Stone, Jeffery R; Williamson, Craig E; Wolfe, Alexander P

    2010-07-01

    Alpine glaciers have receded substantially over the last century in many regions of the world. Resulting changes in glacial runoff not only affect the hydrological cycle, but can also alter the physical (i.e., turbidity from glacial flour) and biogeochemical properties of downstream ecosystems. Here we compare nutrient concentrations, transparency gradients, algal biomass, and fossil diatom species richness in two sets of high-elevation lakes: those fed by snowpack melt alone (SF lakes) and those fed by both glacial and snowpack meltwaters (GSF lakes). We found that nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations in the GSF lakes were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in SF lakes. Although nitrogen (N) limitation is common in alpine lakes, algal biomass was lower in highly N-enriched GSF lakes than in the N-poor SF lakes. Contrary to expectations, GSF lakes were more transparent than SF lakes to ultraviolet and equally transparent to photosynthetically active radiation. Sediment diatom assemblages had lower taxonomic richness in the GSF lakes, a feature that has persisted over the last century. Our results demonstrate that the presence of glaciers on alpine watersheds more strongly influences NO(3)(-)concentrations in high-elevation lake ecosystems than any other geomorphic or biogeographic characteristic.

  5. RANAVIRUS CAUSES MASS DIE-OFFS OF ALPINE AMPHIBIANS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN ALPS, FRANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaud, Claude; Pozet, Françoise; Gaudin, Nadine Curt Grand; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Labrut, Sophie

    2016-04-28

    Pathogenic fungi and viruses cause mortality outbreaks in wild amphibians worldwide. In the summer of 2012, dead tadpoles and adults of the European common frog Rana temporaria were reported in alpine lakes in the southwestern Alps (Mercantour National Park, France). A preliminary investigation using molecular diagnostic techniques identified a Ranavirus as the potential pathogenic agent. Three mortality events were recorded in the park, and samples were collected. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was not detected in any of the dead adult and juvenile frogs sampled (n=16) whereas all specimens were positive for a Ranavirus. The genome sequence of this Ranavirus was identical to previously published sequences of the common midwife toad virus (CMTV), a Ranavirus that has been associated with amphibian mortalities throughout Europe. We cultured virus from the organs of the dead common frogs and infecting adult male common frogs collected in another alpine region where no frog mortality had been observed. The experimentally infected frogs suffered 100% mortality (n=10). The alpine die-off is the first CMTV outbreak associated with mass mortality in wild amphibians in France. We describe the lesions observed and summarize amphibian populations affected by Ranaviruses in Europe. In addition, we discuss the ecologic specificities of mountain amphibians that may contribute to increasing their risk of exposure to and transmission of Ranaviruses.

  6. Impact of climate change on snow melt driven runoff timing over the Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Erika; Raffaele, Francesca; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the climate change impact on snowmelt-driven runoff (SDR) over the Alpine region using the output from two Med-CORDEX and two EURO-CORDEX regional climate model projections (RCP8.5 scenario) at two resolutions (12, 50 km) driven by a sub-set of the CMIP5 GCMs. Comparison with the European Water Archive observed runoff dataset (242 stations) over the Alps shows a good performance by the higher resolution models in representing present day SDR, with the lower resolution simulations being less accurate in capturing the SDR timing. In the future projections all the models show a temperature increase of up to 4° by the end of the 21st century throughout the Alps and this leads to an anticipation of SDR timing throughout the year that can span from 1 to 3 months depending on the model horizontal resolution. These timing changes are associated with changes in snow cover modulated by the complex Alpine topography. In fact, model resolution plays a critical role in regulating the magnitude, timing and spatial distribution of the response of snow cover and SDR to warming. We find that the accurate simulation of changes in runoff timing requires a high resolution representation of the Alpine topography, and can be important for water storage regulations concerning energy production, agriculture and domestic use.

  7. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management – a regional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rauch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  8. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  9. [Effects of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilization on community structure and productivity of degraded alpine meadows in northern Tibet, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ning; Shi, Pei-li; Niu, Ben; Jiang, Jing; Song, Ming-hua; Zhang, Xian-zhou; He, Yong-tao

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: Fertilization is an effective management measure for recovery of degraded grasslands. To better understand the effects of fertilization on community structure and productivity of lightly and severely degraded alpine meadows, we conducted a fertilization experiment in northern Tibet since 2008. The treatments were addition of nitrogen (N) alone (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1), LN; 100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1), HN) or addition of both phosphorus (P) and N (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1) +50 kg P x hm(-2) x a(-1), LN+P; 100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1) +50 kg P x hm(-2) x a(-1), HN+P) in each of the two types of degraded alpine meadows. N addition alone significantly affected plant community coverage or productivity in neither the slightly nor the severely degraded alpine meadow, while addition of both N and P significantly increased plant community coverage, aboveground and below- ground biomass of the alpine meadows. This suggested that productivity of this alpine meadow is co-limited by N and P. HN and HN+P significantly decreased species richness and evenness in the lightly degraded grassland, indicating that HN was not beneficial for the lightly degraded grassland to maintain species diversity and community stability. N addition significantly reduced the root to shoot ratio in the severely degraded meadow. In the lightly degraded meadow, N addition alone, especially with a high amount (HN) , enhanced the importance values (IV) and biomass of grasses, while fertilization with both N and P increased those of sedges. In the severely degraded meadow, fertilization had little effect on IV of grasses or sedges, but improved biomass of forbs. The results suggested that LN+P could be employed in recovery of lightly degraded alpine meadows, but other management measures such as fencing and reseeding may be needed for recovery of severely degraded alpine meadows.

  10. Metamorphic history and geodynamic significance of the Early Cretaceous Sabzevar granulites (Sabzevar structural zone, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrabady

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian ophiolites are part of the vast orogenic suture zones that mark the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone. Few petrological and geochronological data are available from these ophiolitic domains, hampering a full assessment of the timing and regimes of subduction zone metamorphism and orogenic construction in the region. This paper describes texture, geochemistry, and the pressure-temperature path of the Early Cretaceous mafic granulites that occur within the Tertiary Sabzevar ophiolitic suture zone of NE Iran. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the Sabzevar granulites are likely derived from a MORB-type precursor. They are thus considered as remnants of a dismembered dynamo-thermal sole formed during subduction of a back-arc basin (proto-Sabzevar Ocean formed in the upper-plate of the Neotethyan slab. The metamorphic history of the granulites suggests an anticlockwise pressure-temperature loop compatible with burial in a hot subduction zone, followed by cooling during exhumation. Transition from a nascent to a mature stage of oceanic subduction is the geodynamic scenario proposed to accomplish for the reconstructed thermobaric evolution. When framed with the regional scenario, results of this study point to diachronous and independent tectonic evolutions of the different ophiolitic domains of central Iran, for which a growing disparity in the timing of metamorphic equilibration and of pressure-temperature paths can be expected to emerge with further investigations.

  11. Biodiversity conservation in Costa Rica: a correspondence analysis between identified biodiversity hotspots (Araceae, Arecaceae, Bromeliaceae, and Scarabaeinae and conservation priority life zones Conservación de la biodiversidad en Costa Rica: análisis de la correspondencia entre áreas identificadas clave por su biodiversidad (Araceae, Arecaceae, Bromeliaceae y Scarabaeinae y zonas de vida prioritarias para la conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Kohlmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertook an analysis of the distribution of high species richness and areas of endemism based on plants (Araceae, Arecaceae, and Bromeliaceae and dung beetles (Scarabaeinae inhabiting the different Holdridge Life Zones of Costa Rica. Using a geographic information system (GIS we analyzed biogeographic provinces, in terms of their representativity in sampling areas, life zones, and protected areas. Species richness and endemism maps served as a base for conducting a gap analysis and defining 6 different levels of high priority conservation areas. What percentages of these priority areas are under some type of protection or conservation scheme and which of these areas should be enlarged were also investigated. The degree of feasibility that these areas under protection have for enlargement is indicated. A list is included of all the aforementioned registered species for Costa Rica, as well as their presence in the different Holdridge Life Zones and their endemism status. Four areas with the highest species richness were identified, and 3 new areas of endemism are proposed. The most important conservation priority areas are the tropical wet forests on the northeastern lowlands, the Osa Peninsula region, and the premontane wet forest along the Guanacaste, Tilarán and Central mountain ranges. This study clearly demonstrates the need to include and compare different groups of organisms in biodiversity-endemism studies, in order to obtain more robust and finer-grained studies.El presente estudio analiza la distribución de áreas de alta riqueza específica y endemismos basado en plantas (Araceae, Arecaceae, y Bromeliaceae y escarabajos del estiércol (Scarabaeinae, que habitan las diferentes Zonas de Vida de Holdridge en Costa Rica. Mediante el uso de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG analizamos provincias biogeográficas, en relación a la representatividad de las áreas de muestreo, las zonas de vida y las áreas protegidas

  12. Inversion tectonics in the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    During Permian times the Pyrenees were characterized by extensional tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries. The Anayet Permian basin crops out in the western Spanish Axial Zone between the Aragon and Tena valleys. It is WNW-trending and it is filled by a continental Permian succession that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area. Permian deposits rest discordantly over Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. In the Anayet basin, Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, mainly composed of sandstones and conglomerates, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987). Due to the lithological characteristics of the Permian rocks in this region, there are almost no accurate age constraints for these units. A detailed structural study of the area, including mapping and balanced cross-sections, shows increasingly older rocks to the west of the Anayet basin. Moreover, it can be deduced a mean slope of around 11 % to the west for the basin. These data confirm that the basin depocenter was located to the west and that the Anayet basin was partitioned by N10 °E-trending normal faults. Although the contacts between the Permian and the Devono-Carboniferous rocks are covered by quaternary deposits in most of its extent, a fault contact can also be recognized. The fault contact is a 3 m thick shear zone oriented N120 ° E and dipping 60° to the North. It develops breccias, fault gouges and sigmoidal S-C tectonites indicating a reverse motion. The contact places Permian slates and sandstones over Carboniferous limestones and is almost parallel to the alpine cleavage deforming Permian rocks. The slope of the contact together with the presence of younger rocks in the hangingwall of the reverse fault points out that the original contact was a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the

  13. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Zuluaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited Planets (hereafter InHZ, defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for the development of InHZ models incorporating consistently life-environment interactions. Although previous authors have explored the effects of life on habitability there is a gap in research developing the reasons why life should be systematically included at determining the HZ limits. We do not provide here definitive limits to the InHZ but we show through simple numerical models (as a parable of an inhabited planet how the limits of the AHZ could be modified by including plausible interactions between biota and its environment. These examples aim also at posing the question that if limits of the HZ could be modified by the presence of life in those simple dynamical systems how will those limits change if life is included in established models of the AHZ.

  14. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, J. I.; Salazar, J. F.; Cuartas-Restrepo, P.; Poveda, G.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited Planets (hereafter InHZ), defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ) depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for the development of InHZ models incorporating consistently life-environment interactions. Although previous authors have explored the effects of life on habitability there is a gap in research developing the reasons why life should be systematically included at determining the HZ limits. We do not provide here definitive limits to the InHZ but we show through simple numerical models (as a parable of an inhabited planet) how the limits of the AHZ could be modified by including plausible interactions between biota and its environment. These examples aim also at posing the question that if limits of the HZ could be modified by the presence of life in those simple dynamical systems how will those limits change if life is included in established models of the AHZ.

  15. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  16. Architecture of small-scale fault zones in the context of the Leinetalgraben Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Dorothea; Philipp, Sonja L.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding fault zone properties in different geological settings is important to better assess the development and propagation of faults. In addition this allows better evaluation and permeability estimates of potential fault-related geothermal reservoirs. The Leinetalgraben fault system provides an outcrop analogue for many fault zones in the subsurface of the North German Basin. The Leinetalgraben is a N-S-trending graben structure, initiated in the Jurassic, in the south of Lower Saxony and as such part of the North German Basin. The fault system was reactivated and inverted during Alpine compression in the Tertiary. This complex geological situation was further affected by halotectonics. Therefore we can find different types of fault zones, that is normal, reverse, strike-slip an oblique-slip faults, surrounding the major Leinetalgraben boundary faults. Here we present first results of structural geological field studies on the geometry and architecture of fault zones in the Leinetalgraben Fault System in outcrop-scale. We measured the orientations and displacements of 17 m-scale fault zones in limestone (Muschelkalk) outcrops, the thicknesses of their fault cores and damage zones, as well as the fracture densities and geometric parameters of the fracture systems therein. We also analysed the effects of rock heterogeneities, particularly stiffness variations between layers (mechanical layering) on the propagation of natural fractures and fault zones. The analysed fault zones predominantly show similar orientations as the major fault zones they surround. Other faults are conjugate or perpendicular to the major fault zones. The direction of predominant joint strike corresponds to the orientation of the fault zones in the majority of cases. The mechanical layering of the limestone and marlstone stratification obviously has great effects on fracture propagation. Already thin layers (mm- to cm-scale) of low stiffness - here marl - seem to suffice to change the

  17. Geologic and mineralogic controls on acid and metal-rich rock drainage in an alpine watershed, Handcart Gulch, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Dana J.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The surface and subsurface geology, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralogy of the Handcart Gulch area was studied using map and drill core data as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understand the hydrology and affects of geology on acid-rock drainage in a mineralized alpine watershed. Handcart Gulch was the locus of intense hydrothermal alteration that affected an area of nearly 3 square kilometers. Hydrothermal alteration and accompanied weak mineralization are spatially and genetically associated with small dacite to low-silica rhyolite stocks and plugs emplaced about 37-36 Ma. Felsic lithologies are commonly altered to a quartz-sericite-pyrite mineral assemblage at the surface, but alteration is more variable in the subsurface, ranging from quartz-sericite-pyrite-dominant in upper core sections to a propylitic variant that is more typical in deeper drill core intervals. Late-stage, hydrothermal argillic alteration [kaolinite and(or) smectite] was superimposed over earlier-formed alteration assemblages in the felsic rocks. Smectite in this late stage assemblage is mostly neoformed resulting from dissolution of chlorite, plagioclase, and minor illite in more weakly altered rocks. Hydrothermally altered amphibolites are characterized by biotitic alteration of amphibole, and subsequent alteration of both primary and secondary biotite to chlorite. Whereas pyrite is present both as disseminations and in small veinlets in the felsic lithologies, it is mostly restricted to small veinlets in the amphibolites. Base-metal sulfides including molybdenite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena are present in minor to trace amounts in the altered rocks. However, geologic data in conjunction with water geochemical studies indicate that copper mineralization may be present in unknown abundance in two distinct areas. The altered rocks contain an average of 8 weight percent fine pyrite that is largely devoid of metals in the crystal structure, which can be a significant

  18. Intraspecific competition and light effect on reproduction of Ligularia virgaurea, an invasive native alpine grassland clonal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tian-Peng; Zhang, Ge-Fei; Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Du, Guo-Zhen; He, Gui-Yong

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between sexual reproduction and clonal growth in clonal plants often shows up at the ramet level. However, only a few studies focus on the relationship at the genet level, which could finally account for evolution. The sexual reproduction and clonal growth of Ligularia virgaurea, a perennial herb widely distributed in the alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China, were studied under different competition intensities and light conditions at the genet level through a potted experiment. The results showed that: (1) sexual reproduction did not depend on density or light, and increasing clonal growth with decreasing density and increasing light intensity indicated that intraspecific competition and light intensity may affect the clonal life history of L. virgaurea; (2) both sexual reproduction and clonal growth show a positive linear relationship with genet size under different densities and light conditions; (3) a threshold size is required for sexual reproduction and no evidence of a threshold size for clonal growth under different densities and light conditions; (4) light level affected the allocation of total biomass to clonal and sexual structures, with less allocation to clonal structures and more allocation to sexual structures in full sunlight than in shade; (5) light determined the onset of sexual reproduction, and the genets in the shade required a smaller threshold size for sexual reproduction to occur than the plants in full sunlight; and (6) no evidence was found of trade-offs between clonal growth and sexual reproduction under different densities and light conditions at the genet level, and the positive correlation between two reproductive modes indicated that these are two integrated processes. Clonal growth in this species may be viewed as a growth strategy that tends to maximize genet fitness.

  19. Geophysical characterisation of a rockslide in an alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godio, A.; de Bacco, G.; Strobbia, C.

    2003-04-01

    suspected faults. The Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) permitted to evaluate the thickness of the detritical overburden and the in situ P-wave velocity of the bedrock. Several lines of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) allowed to estimate with good accuracy the thickness of the overburden along the whole profile of the slope and the presence of shallow saturated zones. The reliability of this information is enhanced by the joint interpretation of SRT and ERT, and by the calibration provided by the boreholes. An other goal of the ERT was to detect vertical fractures and faults in the bedrock: this is an essential information for the design of the tunnel, and of the assessment of the scale of an eventual slide involving the rock mass. A preliminary numerical modelling of the theoretical response of the ER allowed to verify the possibility to detect fractures filled with electrically conductive materials, such as mylonite. This target is resolvable by the method only under favourable conditions, that is reduced thickness of the overburden and low noise in data; the dipole-dipole electrode array was confirmed to be the most effective in solving this task. The high noise level in experimental data, due to shallow heterogeneities in the detritical overburden, reduced the reliability of the tomographic interpretation in detecting faults in the bedrock. The P and S wave velocity of the bedrock has been estimated from the surface by P-wave refraction and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, and in boreholes using hydrophone horizontal seismic profiling and P-S ultrasonic logging. In the horizonatal boreholes the data acquisition involved the Horizontal Seismic Profiling, with hydrophones in the borehole and several shot points on the surface of the slope. This acquisition scheme permitted the tomographic processing of the traveltimes of the direct P-wavefield for the reconstruction of the P-wave velocity in the investigated section: a quite homogeneous distribution above

  20. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Jack S; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. We illustrate this idea using the object WISE J085510.83-0714442.5, which is a cool, free-floating brown dwarf. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Ba...

  1. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  2. DNS zones revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, van Ward; Pras, Aiko; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Recent research [Pap04b] suggests DNS reliability and performance is not up to the levels it should be due to misconfigurations. This paper checks the configuration of nameserver zones against additional requirements, recommendations and best-practices. It shows that almost one in four domains fails

  3. The effects of grassland degradation on plant diversity, primary productivity, and soil fertility in the alpine region of Asia's headwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuexia; Dong, Shikui; Yang, Bing; Li, Yuanyuan; Su, Xukun

    2014-10-01

    A 3-year survey was conducted to explore the relationships among plant composition, productivity, and soil fertility characterizing four different degradation stages of an alpine meadow in the source region of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, China. Results showed that plant species diversity, productivity, and soil fertility of the top 30-cm soil layer significantly declined with degradation stages of alpine meadow over the study period. The productivity of forbs significantly increased with degradation stages, and the soil potassium stock was not affected by grassland degradation. The vegetation composition gradually shifted from perennial graminoids (grasses and sedges) to annual forbs along the degradation gradient. The abrupt change of response in plant diversity, plant productivity, and soil nutrients was demonstrated after heavy grassland degradation. Moreover, degradation can indicate plant species diversity and productivity through changing soil fertility. However, the clear relationships are difficult to establish. In conclusion, degradation influenced ecosystem function and services, such as plant species diversity, productivity, and soil carbon and nitrogen stocks. Additionally, both plant species diversity and soil nutrients were important predictors in different degradation stages of alpine meadows. To this end, heavy degradation grade was shown to cause shift of plant community in alpine meadow, which provided an important basis for sustaining ecosystem function, manipulating the vegetation composition of the area and restoring the degraded alpine grassland.

  4. Rapid response of alpine timberline vegetation to the Younger Dryas climate oscillation in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Mel A.; Jodry, Margret A.

    2000-01-01

    Paleobotanical records from two high-altitude (>3300 m) sites in Colorado show a clear and immediate response to the Younger Dryas climate oscillation. The Black Mountain Lake and Sky Pond records indicate that alpine timberline migrated upslope to near-modern elevations during the late Bølling-Allerød (13.6 12.9 ka). Subsequent declines in arboreal pollen percentages and accumulation rates during the Younger Dryas interval (12.9 11.7 ka) reflect a downslope displacement of the alpine timberline ecotone of 60 120 m in elevation. This change translates to a cooling of summer temperature by ˜0.4 0.9 °C and is consistent with proposed Younger Dryas advances of alpine glaciers in the Rocky Mountains to positions close to Little Ice Age maxima. Alpine timberline readvanced upslope to elevations above both sites between 11.7 and 11.4 ka. The concomitant response of temperature-sensitive alpine timberline vegetation in Colorado and late-glacial changes in North Atlantic thermohaline circulation implicates a rapid, widespread atmospheric transmission of the Younger Dryas climate oscillation.

  5. Fluorscence signatures of dissolved organic material in an alpine lake ecosystem: responses to interannual climate variation and nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Diane; Olivier, Matt; Hell, Katherina

    2016-04-01

    During snowmelt alpine lakes receive lower concentrations of dissolved organic material (DOM) that originates from the surrounding watershed than sub-alpine and montane lakes at lower elevations. Alpine lakes also have a shorter ice-free period that constrains the summer season of phytoplankton growth. Nonetheless, previous study of the reactive transport and production of DOM in an alpine lake in the Colorado Front Range during snowmelt and the summer ice-free season has shown that changes in DOM sources and the influence of biogeochemical processes can be resolved using fluorescence spectroscopy. Here we examine inter-annual variations in DOM fluorescence signatures during the snowmelt and summer periods in comparison to records of climate, residence time and primary production in the lake during the summer. Our analysis shows that variation in chlorophyll a concentration is a driver for variations in the fluorescence index (FI), as well as for specific ultra-violet absorbance. This result supports the predictions from the previous reactive transport modeling. We also conducted mesocosm experiments with nutrient enrichment to explore the role of nitrogen and phosphorus availability in influencing the fluorescence signature of DOM in summer. These results suggest that monitoring of simple spectroscopic properties of DOM can provide a means to track the biogeochemical consequences for alpine lakes of "too much" summer as climate continues to change.

  6. Soil bacterial and fungal diversity differently correlated with soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems in response to environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Dong, Shikui; Gao, Qingzhu; Liu, Shiliang; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wang, Xuexia; Su, Xukun; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    To understand effects of soil microbes on soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems under environmental changes, we explored relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, available nitrogen and phosphorus, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in alpine meadow, alpine steppe and cultivated grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau under three-year warming, enhanced precipitation and yak overgrazing. Soil total nitrogen, organic carbon and NH4-N were little affected by overgrazing, warming or enhanced precipitation in three types of alpine grasslands. Soil microbial biomass carbon and phosphorus along with the sucrase and phosphatase activities were generally stable under different treatments. Soil NO3-N, available phosphorus, urease activity and microbial biomass nitrogen were increased by overgrazing in the cultivated grassland. Soil bacterial diversity was positively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity negatively with soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities. Soil bacterial diversity was negatively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity positively with soil available nutrients. Our findings indicated soil bacteria and fungi played different roles in affecting soil nutrients and microbiological activities that might provide an important implication to understand why soil biochemistry was generally stable under environmental changes in alpine grassland ecosystems. PMID:28262753

  7. Soil bacterial and fungal diversity differently correlated with soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems in response to environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Dong, Shikui; Gao, Qingzhu; Liu, Shiliang; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wang, Xuexia; Su, Xukun; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-01

    To understand effects of soil microbes on soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems under environmental changes, we explored relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, available nitrogen and phosphorus, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in alpine meadow, alpine steppe and cultivated grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau under three-year warming, enhanced precipitation and yak overgrazing. Soil total nitrogen, organic carbon and NH4-N were little affected by overgrazing, warming or enhanced precipitation in three types of alpine grasslands. Soil microbial biomass carbon and phosphorus along with the sucrase and phosphatase activities were generally stable under different treatments. Soil NO3-N, available phosphorus, urease activity and microbial biomass nitrogen were increased by overgrazing in the cultivated grassland. Soil bacterial diversity was positively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity negatively with soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities. Soil bacterial diversity was negatively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity positively with soil available nutrients. Our findings indicated soil bacteria and fungi played different roles in affecting soil nutrients and microbiological activities that might provide an important implication to understand why soil biochemistry was generally stable under environmental changes in alpine grassland ecosystems.

  8. Response of rhizosphere soil microbial to Deyeuxia angustifolia encroaching in two different vegetation communities in alpine tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Xing, Ming; Lv, Jiangwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Xia

    2017-02-01

    Deyeuxia angustifolia (Komarov) Y. L Chang is an herb species originating from the birch forests in the Changbai Mountain. Recently, this species has been found encroaching into large areas in the western slopes of the alpine tundra in the Changbai Mountain, threatening the tundra ecosystem. In this study, we systematically assessed the response of the rhizosphere soil microbial to D. angustifolia encroaching in alpine tundra by conducting experiments for two vegetation types (shrubs and herbs) by real-time PCR and Illumina Miseq sequencing methods. The treatments consisted of D. angustifolia sites (DA), native sites (NS, NH) and encroaching sites (ES, EH). Our results show that (1) Rhizosphere soil properties of the alpine tundra were significantly impacted by D. angustifolia encroaching; microbial nutrient cycling and soil bacterial communities were shaped to be suitable for D. angustifolia growth; (2) The two vegetation community rhizosphere soils responded differently to D. angustifolia encroaching; (3) By encroaching into both vegetation communities, D. angustifolia could effectively replace the native species by establishing positive plant-soil feedback. The strong adaptation and assimilative capacity contributed to D. angustifolia encroaching in the alpine tundra. Our research indicates that D. angustifolia significantly impacts the rhizosphere soil microbial of the alpine tundra.

  9. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - Digital relief analysis - Abstract of work package 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Cattin, R. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents an abstract of the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report presents an abstract of the work done as part of the Work Package 7 of the Alpine Windharvest project.

  10. Picturing Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cover art of the summer 2013 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy provided by Jonathan Darnall reflects his unique life perspective, current roles, and values. An exploration of Jon’s life experience reveals how creative arts, including photography, have positively influenced his life and inform OT practitioners about the benefits of photography as an intervention and an occupation.

  11. Modelling atmospheric circulations for the study of Alpine valleys pollution; Modelisation des circulations atmospheriques pour l'etude de la pollution des vallees alpines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulfert, G.

    2004-11-15

    Local weather phenomena observed in alpine valleys frequently lead to the accumulation of emitted anthropogenic airborne species in the low layers of the atmosphere. The development of a numerical model allows reproducing the chemical evolution of air mass during POVA intensive period of observations. In Chamonix and Maurienne valley, computations of photochemical indicators (NO{sub y}, O{sub 3}/NO{sub z}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}) prove the ozone regime to be control by volatile organic compounds. Moreover simulation highlighted that the major part of this secondary pollutant is regionally produced. The development of an indicator who localised ozone production sites can help to define abatement scenarios. The chemical mechanism RACM allows describing the evolution of many species. It is possible to conclude that in winter road traffic and heating are the main sources of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  12. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  13. Modelling Facilitates Silvicultural Decision-Making for Improving the Mitigating Effect of Beech (Fagus Sylvatica L. Dominated Alpine Forest against Rockfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kajdiž

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In southeast Europe, silvicultural measures for improving forest protective effects against rockfall are often based on unsystematic observation and experience. We compared formalised expert assessment of forest protective effects and silvicultural decision-making with an approach supported by modelling (Rockyfor3D, Rockfor.NET, shadow angle method. The case study was conducted in Fagus sylvatica dominated Alpine forests above the regional road leading to the Ljubelj pass, in Slovenia. We analysed rock sources, silent witnesses, forest structure and regeneration. Expert assessment indicated acceptable protection effects of the forest and their decline in the future. Modelling revealed several road sections endangered by rockfalls. It also indicated subtle differences between silvicultural alternatives: current forest, current forest with cable crane lines, selection forest and non-forested slope. This outcome may be due to short transition zones, small rock sizes, low rock source heights and low resolution of the digital elevation model. Modelling requires more initial input than formalised expert assessment but gives spatially explicit results that enable comparison of silvicultural alternatives, coordination of silviculture and forest operations, and delineation of protection forests. Modelling also supported prioritising of silvicultural measures, where the necessity of silvicultural measures increases with increasing rockfall susceptibility and decreasing long-term stability of stands.

  14. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three...... contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from...... be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects...

  15. Post 5Ma thrusting in the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin - insights from structural geology and new (U-Th)/He and Fission Track data

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hagke, Christoph; Cederbom, Charlotte; Lindow, Julia; Oncken, Onno; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    Several hypotheses for the driving mechanism(s) behind late Neogene erosion in the Alpine region have been argued for in the past, in particular climate, tectonic and geodynamic forcing. The aim of this study, which is part of the ThermoEurope initiative, is to investigate the significance of Pliocene tectonic forcing on the thrusted part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB). We apply thermochronology and structural geology to constrain the timing, location and magnitude of tectonic reactivation and erosion in the thrusted part of the basin and the adjacent units. Kilometre-scale erosion and thrust reactivation in the NAFB during the Pliocene is argued for based on apatite fission-track (AFT) data from the Swiss part of the basin (Cederbom. et al., 2004; Cederbom et al., submitted). A pilot (U/Th)-He study, that was carried out in the Rigi area, in the thrusted part of the Molasse Basin partly confirms the AFT results (Lindow et al, 2009). Based on these studies several suitable horizontal and complementary vertical profiles, transecting the Swiss, Austrian and German part of the basin have been chosen for further investigations. Dense sampling for (U-Th)/He and FT dating has been combined with structural investigations. Additional to the first data set, so far 47 FT ages and 75 single grain (U-Th)/He ages have been produced. Here we present data from the Entlebuch and the Rigi profiles, which are the two westernmost horizontal transects. Both are crossing the triangle zone between the thrusted Subalpine Molasse and the flat-lying Plateau Molasse. Most of the ages are considerably younger than their depositional age. Samples located south of the triangle zone have been deposited between 35 and 25 Ma but have cooling ages between 3 and 15 Ma. The ages of the samples in the Plateau Molasse in contrast have been deposited between 25 and 17 Ma and show ages between 21 and 5 Ma. In the triangle zone itself a jump to older ages can be observed. First, the data set

  16. First LiDAR images of the Alpine Fault, central South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, R. M.; Toy, V. G.; Barth, N.; de Pascale, G. P.; Sutherland, R.; Farrier, T.

    2010-12-01

    In central South Island, New Zealand, the dextral-reverse Alpine fault forms the principal component of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. The fault typically accommodates slip rates of the order of ~27-29 mm/yr (dextral) and up to 6-11 mm/yr (reverse), mostly uplifting Pacific plate rocks that form the Southern Alps. However, the associated high relief, rapid uplift and erosion and high rainfall and accompanying dense temperate rainforest along the western side of the island has typically hampered geological efforts to better understand the neotectonics of the Alpine fault. LiDAR data have been acquired over a 34 km stretch of the fault between Whataroa in the northeast and Franz Josef in the southwest to test the viability of this technique under dense vegetation and in steep, dissected terrain. LiDAR has been collected from a fixed wing base (1300m above ground level) at a frequency of 70k Hz, with 33.5 Hz scan frequency and a 39° field of view. We employed a strategy of flying a dense pattern of 6 flight lines across a swath width of 1.3 km. This creates areas of both single and double overlap coverage that have allowed for accurate landscape models to be created. Results show that this strategy has provided an optimum level of forest penetration and ground returns. Initial results show remarkable level of detail in DEM’s of the landscape along the Alpine fault. Examples of results presented here include: Franz Josef, where the fault traverses the township; and Gaunt Creek, where a Deep Fault Drilling Project will be sited in early 2011.

  17. Ecological dynamics of two remote alpine lakes during ice-free season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied hydrochemistry and plankton dynamics in two remote alpine lakes: lake Nivolet superiore (2530 m asl and lake Trebecchi superiore (2729 m asl in the Gran Paradiso National Park (Western Italian Alps in summer 2009. The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of natural ecological dynamics in the pelagic habitat of alpine lakes by enlarging the number of biotic and abiotic variables usually considered to this end and by increasing the frequency of samplings, generally low in remote lakes. During the eight samplings performed in 2009, chemical and physical variables were measured both in situ and in the laboratory. We also followed the dynamics of all the compartments of the naturally simplified trophic chain of the two lakes from pico-prokaryotes to phytoplankton and zooplankton. Our results confirm the oligotrophic, close-to-pristine state of lake Nivolet and lake Trebecchi as they are not affected by hydromorphological alterations, they are naturally fishless and are not sensitive to acidification risk and acidity pulses. On the other hand, the two lakes have distinct abiotic conditions due to their glacial origin and to the lithological composition of their watersheds. We found some differences in the spatial variation of pico-prokaryotes, phytoplankton and zooplankton due to the different mixing regimes and maximum depth of the two lakes. Conversely, temporal patterns were similar in both lakes, related to ecological interactions and to changes in the abiotic conditions. The rapid succession of events in extreme ecosystems, such as the alpine lakes studied here, confirm the predominant role of external environmental factors (e.g. the duration of the ice-free season and of ecological interactions among different trophic compartments. This research underlines the importance of seasonal niche partitioning among organisms with different size.

  18. Effects of Seasonal Weather on Breeding Phenology and Reproductive Success of Alpine Ptarmigan in Colorado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory T Wann

    Full Text Available Animal populations occurring at high elevations are often assumed to be in peril of extinctions or local extirpations due to elevational-dispersal limitations and thermoregulatory constraints as habitats change and warm. However, long-term monitoring of high-elevation populations is uncommon relative to those occurring at lower elevations, and evidence supporting this assumption is limited. We analyzed 45 years of reproductive data for two Colorado populations of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura, an alpine-endemic species with restricted distribution in western North America. Seasonal temperatures measured by the number of growing degree days warmed significantly at our study sites for pre-nesting, nesting, and brood-rearing seasonal periods (mean advance of 8 growing degree days per decade, and both populations advanced their reproductive phenology over the study period based on median hatch dates (median advance of 3.7 and 1.9 days per decade for the northern and southern sites, respectively. Reproductive performance measured by the number of chicks per hen declined significantly at one study site but not the other, and differences between sites may have been due to habitat degradation at one study area. Annual variability in chicks per hen was large at both sites but only weakly related to seasonal weather. An index of precipitation and temperature during the brood-rearing period was the best predictor for reproductive success with warm and dry conditions relating positively to number of chicks per hen. Our results provide evidence for two alpine ptarmigan populations that are remarkably invariant to fluctuations in seasonal weather with respect to reproductive success as measured by number of chicks per hen in the breeding population. These results are surprising given the general perception of alpine animal populations as being highly sensitive to warming temperatures.

  19. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age dis